roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

and their uses and relations in the sentence. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). as compared with Latin or Greek. as. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. Few inflections. Authority as a basis. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. and thus incite his observation. rightly considered. but this is bad English now. with its enormous vocabulary. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. if rightly presented. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Surely our noble language. however. its peculiar and abundant idioms. An æsthetic benefit. Coming back. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. A broader view. from the question. Making rules is risky. then. . their forms. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. assist the classification of kindred expressions. there is still much for the grammarian to do. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. Mental training.The province of English grammar is. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. so that a small grammar will hold them all.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. is worthy of serious study. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. The work it will cover." What grammar is. Literary English. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. to those who have studied the language historically. If." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties." and "Syntax. it will at the same time. This will take in the usual divisions. It is also evident. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. "Analysis.

too. then. reference will be made to vulgar English. In the more simple state of the Arabs. from the eighteenth century on. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. and the word nation stands for a whole group. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. NOUNS.²GIBBON. Vulgar English. 1. and will are evidently names of a different kind. by which is meant the free. the nation is free. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. Part III.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Analysis of Sentences. which belongs to a people. The Parts of Speech. Such words are called nouns. PART I. . the words sons and master name objects. besides this one. Part II. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. Spoken English. The Uses of Words. or Syntax. but. The following pages will cover. or standard. and may belong to any of those objects. and Inflections. that is. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. not objects. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. submission.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. The plainest name is Arabs. The words state. three divisions:² Part I. as they stand for ideas. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. Occasionally.

It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. a committee. animals. the man here. and things separately. (b) Common. whether person. because each group is considered as a unit. animals. as here used. or idea. Name for a group or collection of objects. This does not imply. MATERIAL. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. . etc. ATTRIBUTE.Definition. 5. or a congress. Thus. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. we may think of them in groups. representing directly to the mind an object. or a mob. substance. Individual. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. Common. is from a Latin word which means general. We may say. or things. Abstract. belonging to one. place. or a council. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. 3. Thus. Besides considering persons. or thing. but Chicago names one city. For instance. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. or the man in front of you. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. They properly belong under common nouns. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. Proper. and appropriate names to the groups. (a) 4. reducing it to a narrow application. A noun is a name word. Collective. possessed by all. 2. men in groups may be called a crowd. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Name for any individual of a class. Classes of nouns. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. the name of each is an individual or proper name. however.

Abstract nouns are names of qualities. sugar. rubber." "Learning is hard to acquire. Words naturally of limited application not proper. "Painting is a fine art. etc." "a man of understanding. proof means the act of proving. we may say. expressing state. wheat. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). Again. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. or apart from their natural connection. tea. gold. earth. . (4) Natural phenomena: rain. paint. or that which shows a thing has been proved. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. and so on. rain. not things. etc. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. etc. dew. we speak of the wisdom of the man. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. but in the words sun. earth. celluloid. or actions. etc. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person.. 7. and fasten a special name to the object considered. It may. mist." 9. iron.Names for things thought of in mass. such as sun. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. however. expressing attributes or qualities. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. cloud. NOTE. The quality is still there as much as before. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. condition. wheat. etc. etc. potash. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. . They remain common class names. Such are glass. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. (3) Geological bodies: mud. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. instead of to each individual or separate object. platinum. snow. but it is taken merely as a name. When we speak of a wise man.²There are some nouns. granite. etc. clay. frost. moon. frost. soap. stone. considered abstractly. conditions. etc. 6. The reason is. rock. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. sugar. world. as in calling a city Cincinnati. sand. there is no such intention. Names of ideas. rice. or action. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. wine. but which are not called proper names.

day. etc. 1. stupidity from stupid. They are only the husks of verbs. etc. there is time for such reasonings. (2) peerage from peer. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. . as in the expressions. 272. ease. the main bearings of this matter. theft from thieve. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. Thus. in the beginning of his life. etc. her longing for their favor. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. the rude drawings of the book. a wedding or a festival. 10. The verb. They cannot govern a word. height from high. (1) prudence from prudent. those opinions and feelings.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. Verbal abstract nouns. kingship from king. hopeful²hope. thunder. To avoid difficulty. by altering its function. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb." "a brisk walk. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. and they cannot express action. joy. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. the teachings of the High Spirit. hope. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. II. the great Puritan awakening.Attribute abstract nouns. five proper. action from act. Caution. redness from red. the moon caused fearful forebodings. as glad²joy. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. "a long run" "a bold move. 273). Underived abstract nouns. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. winter. etc. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify.. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. night. speech from speak. childhood from child. Such are beauty. service from serve. summer. as their name implies. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. is used as a noun. five abstract. energy. mastery from master. 12. Exercises. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. but are merely names of actions. lightning. NOTE. shadow. he spread his blessings over the land. the well-being of her subjects.

Using a dictionary. as pneumonia. typhus. mathematics? 3. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. as physics.2. geology. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . pleurisy. diphtheria. (b) branches of knowledge. catarrh. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. algebra.

Material nouns may be used as class names." referring to flat- . etc. a Lavoisier. Nouns change by use. for example. and lo! a new system. from Corinth. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. levant and morocco (leather). Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. from China. Guillotin. from Oporto. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. 119). Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. from Damascus. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Sodom was famous for wickedness. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. from the name of Dr. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. above. thus. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. a Locke. who was its inventor. it imposes its classification on other men.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. We know a number of objects made of iron. or to go over to it entirely. Proper names transferred to common use. as a davy. arras. from Calicut. 14. 15. the word port. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. from a town in France. 13. a Hutton. but most of them are in the following groups. currants. "The cook made the irons hot. the guillotine. but we may say. port (wine).²EMERSON. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. Others of similar character are calico. in Portugal. a Fourier. a Bentham. damask. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p.

the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. 16. on fire. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. are abroad. or. or used as class nouns. clouds. Death. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. nor are they common class nouns. that is. mists. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. and only Vice and Misery.²RUSKIN. and say teas. smiled. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. not material things. oils. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. clays. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this.²BYRON. This is a poetic usage. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. When it is said that art differs from science. Next Anger rushed. candies. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. or the arts and sciences. a steel to whet a knife on. but on dispositions which require to be created. but differ in strength. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. tobaccos. a rubber for erasing marks. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. Personification of abstract ideas. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. purity. etc. Test this in the following sentences:² . A halfway class of words. which are made plural. 17. These are the same in material. The words preceded by the article a.²COLLINS. paints. Class nouns in use. (3) By poetical use. that disposition is the thing to be created. For example. though not confined to verse. his eyes. abstract in meaning. tins. coals. etc. From all around²Earth and her waters.irons. that the power of art is founded on fact. papers.In lightnings owned his secret stings. Traffic has lain down to rest. are still names of abstract ideas.²BRYANT. or made plural. slates.²PERCIVAL. to prowl or to moan like night birds. be spoken of. and so on. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into.²HAYNE. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. They are not then pure abstract nouns. as stones. the abstract idea is partly lost. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. but in case an art or a science.²CARLYLE.

Adverbs. They are more like the possessive noun.²BURNS. the wealthy. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. loves." "a morning walk. And still. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. "a family quarrel. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. fear thy blow. but is still a noun.²SHAKESPEARE. sir!"²MACAULAY .²If the descriptive word be a material noun. if we must have great actions.² BURNS. or from any expression. meaning a walk in the morning. But ah! those pleasures. When I was young? Ah." "the State Bank Tax bill.²IRVING." "a New York bank. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. NOTE. All these. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. make our own so. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question.²EMERSON. for example. Nouns used as descriptive terms. they do not express quality. Every why hath a wherefore." which contains a pure adjective. sir?" and the "No. 18.The Solitary can despise. which belongs to another word. a bill as to tax on the banks. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. Conjunctions. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech.² GOLDSMITH. etc. they cannot be compared. a bank in New York. By ellipses.Let us. or describe it. as descriptive adjectives are.²SHAKESPEARE. were mere terrors of the night. But it is better to consider them as nouns. as each repeated pleasure tired. Then comes the "Why. however. Adjectives. nouns used to modify. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. sir!" and the "What then. 19. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS.

are spoken of as if pure nouns.Nor iron bars a cage. It is to be remembered. Now. When. too. The it. but have an adjectival meaning. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. the terms the great. Power laid his rod aside. etc. in speaking of the principal of a school. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. 2. to such words as become pure nouns by use. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another.. are used. is the word "just. is ambiguous. and tell to which class each belongs. at the beginning. or a faithful domestic. Exercise. in a sentence above. 1. . or a state secret. When. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. Stone walls do not a prison make. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods.²These remarks do not apply." finally to stand?²RUSKIN.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. without reference to its function in the sentence. that cobweb of the brain.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. so. 6. of course." or "legal. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. 8. but as a figure of speech. why and wherefore." and another of Dr. In the other sentences. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. Learning. however. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. or a criminal. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. the wealthy. 3. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. 5.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. NOTE. FRANKLIN. and Then. of words rather than of their meaning."²B. Caution. 7. There are many of these. 20. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. whether it mean the sun or the cold. 4.

It is founded on sex. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. and names of females are usually feminine. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. A fool speaks all his mind. In Latin. A little weeping would ease my heart. Male beings are. 10. The fleet. 12. and many other languages. 22. 18.You seize the flower. 16. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. the silver moon is gone. 14. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. And see. 11. 19. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. . INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. always feminine. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. But pleasures are like poppies spread. but not so in English. 21. What gender means in English. in English grammar. its bloom is shed. Greek. 13. he cried. The hours glide by. 15. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 21. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. 20. for every dropHinders needle and thread.Fair guests. shattered and disabled. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. returned to Spain. that waits you here.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. There are exceptions even to this general statement. always masculine. 24. 17. 23. the welcome. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. GENDER. German.9. female.

²LAMB. the name of it is masculine. in English. the word child is neuter in the sentence. Hence: Definition. if of the female sex.. No "common gender. then. All nouns. Neuter nouns. 22. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. those which do not distinguish sex.² I have seenA curious child . or names of things without life. and consequently without sex. in other languages gender follows the form. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. hortus (garden) is masculine." . if there were any signs of life in it." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. corpus (body) is neuter. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. He next stooped down to feel the pig. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.When. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. with its gizzard under its wing. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock.²IRVING. Gender nouns. clapping his burnished wings.²gender nouns. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. For instance: in Latin. came to a stand just by the bridge. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. der Tisch (table) is masculine.² IRVING. The great difference is.. or which arouse his interest most. that is.²masculine and feminine. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. in German. according to use. Of animals.. 23. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. according to their use. mensa (table) is feminine. however. the sex being of no consequence. are named by gender nouns. inanimate things are spoken of. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. or additions to words. those with which man comes in contact often. that pattern of a husband. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. 24.. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. and neuter nouns. das Messer (knife) is neuter. must be divided into two principal classes. Gunpowder . Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex.. the name of it is feminine. "A little child shall lead them. . but are spoken of as neuter.. those distinguishing the sex of the object. Thus.

only to masculine and feminine nouns. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. relative. According to the definition. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. These remain in vixen and spinster. and for the older word fat they said vat. (3) By using a different word for each gender. as he-goat²she-goat.. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. from the masculine fox.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. or the lack of it. of course. 29. though both words have lost their original meanings. Native suffixes. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. puts a prefix before the masculine man. Male nouns beings.25. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. 27. servant. he-bear²she-bear. as in wine vat. the division of words according to sex. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. II. but spinster has now no connection with it. Gender shown by Suffixes. . For fox they said vox. 26. If such words as parent. I. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. is. Gender shown by Prefixes. etc. teacher. generally to a masculine word. 28. for from they said vram. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. cousin. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. domestic. Hence vixen is for fyxen. One feminine. ruler.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. woman. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. The inflections for gender belong. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. they are neuter words. (2) By adding a suffix. Very few of class I. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. Put in convenient form. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. do not show the sex to which the persons belong.

as seam-stress. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. executrix. 30. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. as.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. trickster.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). -ess (French esse. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. and are never used for words recognized as English. as. song-str-ess. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. Low Latin issa).² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. Unaltered and little used. donna. punster. it has none now in the words huckster. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. Slightly changed and widely used. as czarina. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. but in most cases it has not. Ending of masculine not changed. gamester. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. señorita. These are attached to foreign words. the one most used.

from the Old French maistre²maistresse. Instead of saying doctress. as in the fourteenth century. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Thus. 32. fosteress. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). or servauntesse. In some of these pairs. from Latin imperatricem. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. the ending -ess. as. 31. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. wagoness. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. as was said in the sixteenth century. teacher or lady teacher. NOTE." III. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. we use the feminine. others have in their origin the same root. Gender shown by Different Words. from the French -esse. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. to represent persons of either sex.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. frendesse.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. editor. We frequently use such words as author. as. neighboresse. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. etc. we use the masculine termination. teacheresse. chairman. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. Some of them have an interesting history. neighbor (masculine and feminine).

Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. for example. The masculine was formed by adding -a. Witch is the Old English wicce. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). This gansa was modified into gan-ra. or lauerd in Middle English. as in many other words. finally gander. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). gand-ra. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Widower. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning).² . though both are ultimately from the same root. Three letters of ened have fallen away.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. leaving our word drake.). Danish gaas. 34. from Latin mea domina. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. became identical. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. 33. Icelandic gás. Besides gander and drake. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). written loverd. Two masculines from feminines. the old sign of the masculine. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Personification. probably meaning house dweller). Mare. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). in Old English mere. had the masculine mearh (horse). Husband and wife are not connected in origin. not immediately connected with witch. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. among others) to be from the same root word. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. 16). The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. It is not connected historically with our word duck. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). widuwa²widuwe. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. but this has long been obsolete. The older forms. Madam is the French ma dame. lhauerd. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. etc.

No towers along the steep. 39. Definition. in Old English. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. In nouns. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. that is. Britannia needs no bulwarks. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective.Her march is o'er the mountain waves.²KEATS. But other words were inflected afterwards."Now. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. (2) By changing the root vowel. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. eyen (eyes). In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. I. together with the third. and not by the form of the noun. the plural. The -en inflection. 38. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. The first two methods prevailed. we make its plural by adding -s or -es.Her home is on the deep.²CAMPBELL. Our language has two numbers. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. etc."²BYRON. treen (trees). (3) By adding -s (or -es). in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. This is not exclusively a poetic use.²COLERIDGE. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. 37. Effect of personification. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. . and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. 36. NUMBER.²singular and plural. shoon (shoes). The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. more than one. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. 35. for instance. whenever we adopt a new word. the engineer speaks so of his engine.

etc.²MACAULAY. that have the singular and plural alike.The horse are thousands ten. brace.²THOREAU. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. by. sail. etc. Brethren has passed through three stages. borough²formerly had the same inflection. 41. after numerals (if not after numerals. they add -s): also trout. into Frederick town. lens. turf. originally neuter. as. ditch. salmon. Instead of -s. dozen. The old plural was brothru. 40. after all.-En inflection imitated by other words. folk. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. but has now no singular. wight. The words horse and foot. Lee marched over the mountain wall. Other words following the same usage are. people.Horse and foot. such as deer. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. Plurals formed by Vowel Change.²Over the mountains winding down. 42. heathen. or if preceded by the prepositions in. cross. III. glass. swine.²WHITTIER. etc. Such are box. sheep. II. and get settled. pair. and is still found in dialects. retain the same form for plural meaning. Akin to this class are some words. quartz. but they now add the ending -s. cannon. The weakening of inflections led to this addition."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. Children has passed through the same history. finally brethren. . head. as.² The foot are fourscore thousand.² "God bless me! so then. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. Kine is another double plural.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. then brothre or brethre. when they mean soldiery. Examples of this inflection are.

may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . though this sound combines readily with -s. is both the science and the art of government. they lose their identity.²BRYANT. Formerly. means: as. e.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. When such words take a plural ending. house²houses. e. 15 and 17). niche²niches. etc. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. however.²PROF. also news. etc.g. physics. fairies. volcano² volcanoes. and go over to other classes (Secs. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. Examples of these are.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. Some words are usually singular. fancies. knife²knives. So live. The lilie on hir stalke grene. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. DANA. and some -es. 43. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. etc. summons. negro²negroes. though they are plural in form. race²races. and the real ending is therefore -s. the Washingtons. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. means and politics. allies. in its widest extent. optics.. these words ended in -ie.² Politics. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. quoth then that ladie milde. some adding -s. Proper nouns are regularly singular. It served simply as a means of sight. 44. 45.-Es added in certain cases. etc. economics. prize²prizes. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. molasses. and many branches of learning. Special Lists.g. chaise²chaises. Words in -ies. politics. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. shelf²shelves. half²halves. the Americas. pains (care). mathematics. a new syllable is made.. Means plural. daisies. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. that when thy summons comes. as. hero²heroes. Two words.

² MACAULAY. . By these means. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. Sometimes. it is furnished with a forceps. W.²IRVING. CURTIS. L. by strongly conveying the passions. Some words have no corresponding singular.²GOLDSMITH. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. if I recollect right. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.²G. LAUGHLIN. 46.Words. Besides this. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.²GOLDSMITH.²MOTLEY. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. by those means which we have already mentioned. Politics plural. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.²BURKE.²J. A relic which. I say. he pronounced to have been a tongs. With great dexterity these means were now applied.²GOLDSMITH. however. riches will accumulate. Now I read all the politics that come out.

eaves. riches. pea²peas (separately). Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. or work in a bellows?²PROF. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. 50. sixpence. or epistles. (2) abilities. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. clothes (garments). index²indexes (to books).²one corresponding to the singular. of a periodical. Numbers also means issues. dice (for gaming). fishes (individuals or kinds). (2) poetry. DANA. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning.² I lisped in numbers. for the numbers came. carry off chaff.²POPE. indices (signs in algebra). making a double plural. as two sixpences. brethren (of a society or church). twopence. trouble. penny²pennies (separately). the other unlike it.²LONGFELLOW. Tell me not. two meanings. These make the last part plural. two plurals.. Three words were originally singular.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. number²numbers: (1) figures. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. (2) care. Two classes of compound words. One plural.²was it subdued when. in mournful numbers. die²dies (stamps for coins.The air. may add -s. faculties. pence (collectively).. genii (spirits). In Early Modern English thank is found. (2) revenue duties. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). shots (number of times fired). etc. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. 49. 48. fish²fish (collectively). genius²geniuses (men of genius). as in the lines. . the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. or copies. shot²shot (collective balls). part²parts: (1) divisions. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth).. In speaking of coins. (2) literature. etc. pease (collectively).). ways.

firman. . as man singer. such as talisman. Two methods in use for names with titles. Norman. As to plurals of names with titles. the Misses Rich. 51. Briggs. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. then Silas Peckham. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. Allen. woman singer. Ottoman. for example. HOLMES. German. as the Messrs. there is some disagreement among English writers. and Mrs. Mussulman. the Drs. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. woman servant. but add -s.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. though the latter is often found.² Then came Mr. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. 52.²DR. Brahman. Brown. The chief member adds -s in the plural. The title may be plural. or the name may be pluralized. manservant.

The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Du Maurier. Exercise. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. The Messrs. y y analysis antithesis . and retain their foreign plurals. or Anglicized. They are then said to be naturalized. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. Domesticated words. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh.²GOLDSMITH. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. FROM THE LATIN. These are said to be domesticated. or Englished. 53.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.²GIBBON. Others have been adopted. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. FROM THE GREEK.²DICKENS.²THE CRITIC.

" "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). 56. etc. In the general wearing-away of inflections. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. figures. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. Definition. as. and expresses a relation akin to possession." CASE. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). without reference to their meaning." the word felon's modifies cell.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. When the foreign words are fully naturalized." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). helping to express the idea of place with the word in. figures. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. cell has another relation. they form their plurals in the regular way.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. 55. also add -s or 's. In the sentence. as.. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. 54. . Words quoted merely as words. Letters. Only two case forms. etc.

excessive grief. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. may be said to have three cases. I. Human experience is the great test of truth. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. Excuses are clothes which." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. whether inflected or not. 57. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. the objective. then. Uses of the Nominative. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. completing a verb. 1.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. and experience." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. and the possessive. Nouns.²nature. 5. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. 58. must be understood for purposes of analysis. three things characterize man. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. fate." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. and merit. they returned to their homes. . learning. 2. the enemy of the living. Three properties belong to wisdom. 4. 3.²the nominative.²one for the nominative and objective." (2) As a predicate noun. when asked unawares. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers.²person. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words.

naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. save. thy wrath can send. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. They charged. a patriarch of the village. taking the object storm.6. Set a high price on your leisure moments. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. 59." (3) Adverbially. (5) As the object of a preposition. 9. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. wounded lies. sword in hand and visor down." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. etc. measure. and tell which use each has:² 1. 68. But the flood came howling one day. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. good Heaven. as will be seen in Sec. (in the older stages of the language. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. and landlord of the inn. Conscience. oh save me from the candid friend! 7." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. reconciles. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse." (4) As the second object. . 4. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. how have I frighted thee? II. 3. Uses of the Objective. completing the verb. the word toward which the preposition points. 8. distance." Exercise.Save. taking the object enemies. 2. her first law broken. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. and meaning calmest. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. But of all plagues. they are sands of precious gold. and being equivalent to one verb." "Thou makest the storm a calm. and makest a calm.

. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. 9. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. from day to day. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.Does his Creator's power display. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. tempests that . and in the bay [of] Baiæ. or in writing yesterday's elegy. and forfeits paid. as. 61. 8.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. The noblest mind the best contentment has. The possessive case always modifies another word. 60. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.²ADDISON. Uses of the Possessive. And whirling plate.² The unwearied sun. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. the most common of all. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.His winter task a pastime made.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder.5. 6.And gave the leper to eat and drink. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.²HAWTHORNE. as in these expressions. expressed or understood. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. Possession in some sense is the most common. 7. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. as shown in the sentences. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. It is a poetic expression.²SHELLEY.²BYRON. (3) Subjective possessive. III. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. (2) Objective possessive. 10.e. the Great Stone Face.

In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s." "mannes herte [heart]. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. How the possessive is formed. as schoolboys sometimes write. "From every schires ende. Poss. "George Jones his book. and Obj. A false theory. . child NOTE. 62. As said before (Sec. lady Poss. Nom.e." etc. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. One is the simple form of a word. 64. 62. Declension or inflection of nouns. in Chaucer. 63. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses).e. PLURAL. Nom. Case Inflection.." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. expressing the relations of nominative and objective." "at his beddes syde. 1. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2.winter is likely to have). To form the possessive plural. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. 56). the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s..²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. the panther which the forest hides). A suggestion. however. there are only two case forms." Use of the apostrophe. The use of the apostrophe. growth which several days had developed). making the possessive singular. and Obj. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i.

Possessive and no noun limited. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. In compound expressions.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. I remember him in his cradle at St.²THACKERAY. the possessive sign is usually last. Kate saw that.²SWIFT. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. as. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost." Possessive with compound expressions. . etc. though instances are found with both appositional words marked." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. and from a desire to have distinct forms. in the name of the emperor their master.²HOLMES. containing words in apposition. In other cases the s is seldom omitted.. as. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. know the amount of my income. for goodness' sake.²DE QUINCEY. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. instead of the emperor their master's name. church.²RUSKIN. etc. Captain Scrapegrace's. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. and she walked off from the don's. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular."²DE QUINCEY. dwelling. Peter's. some such word as house. stands up for God's truth one man. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive.. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. my neighbors. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike." "A postscript is added. store. being understood with it: for example.Though this opinion was untrue. as by the countess's command. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. 66.²CARLYLE. 65. 67. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. but to the ear all may be alike.² LOWELL. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. James's. a word with a phrase. the items of my son's. Cervantes' satirical work. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St.

(2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. the statement clearly means only one thing.The double possessive.²FROUDE. In most cases. ill-lighted except where she stands. (1) When a word is modified by a. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. corresponding to 's. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. especially when used with this or that. that. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. Emphasis. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. a double possessive. in such a sentence as. however. any. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. 68. as one modifier. (b) Rewrite the sentence. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. objective. Clearness.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. Both of these are now used side by side. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony.²E. we use the phrase of Atterbury. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . the. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. no. making a double possessive. each.²the introduction which Atterbury made. and at the same time by a possessive noun. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. If. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. and tell whether each is appositional.. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. (3) It prevents ambiguity. etc. every. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. 1. 2. E. 87. HALE. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. sometimes they are used together.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. this.²CARLYLE. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. Blair). Exercises. or subjective. the sentence might be understood as just explained. For example. (See also Sec. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. A peculiar form. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr.

15. Jove laughs. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 4. 5. 10. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 69.² . and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. some idioms²the double possessive. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. At lovers' perjuries.Comes dancing from the East. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 9.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 14. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. in parsing a noun. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. Nature herself.They say.3. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. Friend. 8. we state. 11. Hence. therefore. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. let him seasonably water the one. 6.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 12. 70. and destroy the other. There Shakespeare's self. 7. 13. with every garland crowned. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Now the bright morning star. In parsing. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. day's harbinger. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. it seemed. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow.

Exercise. 2. a fresh tapster. determining its case. and therefore nominative case. and relations. it denotes only one person. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. 71. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. Thief is a common class noun. The correct method. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. names one thing. subject of the verb is understood. is a common class noun. as to case. hence it is a gender noun. hence objective case. therefore singular number. inflections. and number. it expresses time. it is the name of a male being. therefore neuter. singular number. proper. therefore singular number. Neckcloth. hence it is a common noun. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. a withered serving man. masculine. (4) Its office in the sentence. and to have it found out by accident. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. and limits neckcloth. like miller's. therefore possessive case. the connection shows a male is meant. gender. That in the captain's but a choleric word.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. (3) Whether singular or plural number. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. Throat is neuter. has no governing word. if the latter. 4. it expresses possession or ownership. NOTE. 68). hence it is objective case. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. object of the verb takes. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. which gender. . MODEL FOR PARSING. In parsing any word.²common. therefore masculine gender. etc. it is the object of the preposition by.(1) The class to which it belongs. it has no sex.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. but is the adverbial objective. 3.

but by a question we say. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. standing for a name. and prison. or for a group of persons or things. were natives of Geneva. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. 11. Classes of pronouns. Time makes the worst enemies friends. He giveth his beloved sleep. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. all in one. Mrs. . The need of pronouns. 72.²palace. financial minister to Louis XVI. sleep! 6. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. Jarley's back being towards him. blessings light on him that first invented . which are used to ask questions about persons or things. 9. and representative words. from a necessity for short. 76). Necker.. and his daughter. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. For instance. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. Now.5. where the Rhone enters the lake... or for a person or thing. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. 10. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. definite. PRONOUNS. (2) Interrogative pronouns. instead of saying.And hated her for her pride. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. Definition." Again. 7." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. 8. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. 73. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. castle. A few miles from this point. Madame de Staël. A pronoun is a reference word.

74. that is. I Poss. (3) Third person. Person in grammar. which cannot be used as adjectives. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated.(3) Relative pronouns. they are said to have person by agreement. which relate or refer to a noun. From analogy to pronouns. 75. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. the person or thing spoken to. mine. representing the person speaking. they must represent the person talking. which have forms for person. pronoun. primarily adjectives. or other word or expression. This gives rise to a new term. representing a person or thing spoken to. "the distinction of person. 77. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. Three persons of pronouns. (4) Adjective pronouns.. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. as nouns have the same form." Person of nouns. and the person or thing talked about. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. my Plural. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. (5) Indefinite pronouns. words. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. even if it had a special form. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Nom. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. ours . 76. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. (2) Second person. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. we our. Singular. standing for a person or thing spoken of. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON.

thou thee ye you you your. . she her. Old forms. of all Three. Nom. Singular. a separate form for each gender. Obj. by personification. But the third person has. neuter hit. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. First and second persons without gender. your. Poss. so also with the person or thing spoken to.Obj. he his him Fem. hers her Plur. neuter. thine. Nom. feminine h o. yours you THIRD PERSON. SECOND PERSON. masculine h . Nom. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. they their.. it its it Poss. 78. in the singular. Old Form Common Form. Masc. yours you Plural. The speaker may be either male or female. namely. and also for the neuter. Poss. you your. Obj. thy Remarks on These Forms. Obj. Obj. me us Singular. theirs them Neut. Nom. Third person singular has gender. yours Poss. or.

. 80. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. their. especially in poetry. as in prayers. (2) In addressing the Deity. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. thou Shepherd of Israel. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. for example. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety.² Oh. In spoken English. 82. which is a neuter noun. it. The plurals were h . heora. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children." As shown above. which was often sounded with the h silent. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. heom.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. 79. There are. just as we now say. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. 81. The consequence is. We use it with a plural verb always. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. in Old English. . etc.²SHELLEY.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. thee.:² (1) In elevated style.²BEECHER. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. the forms they. Thou. and sometimes its. even when referring to a single object. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. two modern uses of thou. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). Two uses of the old singulars. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. that didst comfort thy people of old. them. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels.Thou lovest.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. as possessive of it. however. The form its. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. etc. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them.. as. Second person always plural in ordinary English.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. thy. This is of comparatively recent growth. etc. to thy care we commit the helpless. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.

The forms my. however. your. when they occur in the predicate position. The words I. and not make more classes. sometimes his and its. they have a nominative form.Use of the pronouns in personification. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. me. Nominative forms. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. thou. And since thou own'st that praise. some say. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. him. for. she. 58). her. her. II. his. them. hers. we. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. "I am sure it was him. her. and has been slave to thousands. they. Old use of mine and thine. though those named in Sec. them." the literary language would require he after was. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. 84 are always subjects.²LANDOR. Absolute personal pronouns. ²SHAKESPEARE. thy. The Possessive. theirs. have a peculiar use. our. . or. he. 84. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. us. its.²COWPER. note the following:² 'Twas mine. 34). and follow the usage of literary English. and sometimes in ordinary speech. him. besides a nominative use. Yet careful speakers avoid this. ye.²BULWER. In spoken English. Not a separate class. The forms mine. 83. thine. us. their. 'tis his. in such a sentence as. Additional nominatives in spoken English. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. I spare thee mine. That is. yours. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. though ye is occasionally used as objective. 85. 86. I The Nominative. to personify objects (Sec.

Double and triple possessives. it tells of good old times. (2) To bring emphasis. in that old Edinburgh house of his. If thine eye offend thee.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE." said Henry Woodstall. thus. thine. "Hold thy peace. for example. commenting upon a letter of mine. ²HOLMES. and with mine. anger. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.²J. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. theirs. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink.²THACKERAY. or satire. hers.²ID. ours. his. Like the noun possessives.² CARLYLE.²CARLYLE.²J. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. Besides this. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. 87. FIELDS.²SWIFT. . Give every man thine ear. we find. sometimes its. pluck it out. This usage is still preserved in poetry. T.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. yours. we have. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. ours. F. but few thy voice. thus. This ancient silver bowl of mine. Their uses. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. (3) To express contempt. theirs.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.²BIBLE. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives."²SCOTT. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. COOPER. yours. Long Allen.²THACKERAY. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. The forms hers.²ID. are really double possessives. as in nouns.

according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. but nominative or objective in use.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition." "None but the brave deserves the fair. Besides this use of the objective. was marked by a separate case." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. "The good alone are great.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. but expresses for whom. III. In their function. for whose benefit. 86: mine stands for my property. or use in a sentence. 90. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. 88. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. But the first two have a nominative use.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. 20. Curse me this people. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. In such sentences as. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. as it is called. as shown in Sec. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine.²BIBLE. The old dative case. but not in form. They all handled it. The Objective.²ID. 89. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. . and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. in the first sentence. mine stands for my praise in the second. this dative use. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. and mine in the second has an objective use." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. Both joined in making him a present. Now the objective. but the form is the same as the objective. In pronouns. the thing is done. his for his property.

thus. has not made its progress. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. 91. (3) In apposition. was passed by with indulgence. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. logical subject.²DE QUINCEY. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. 92. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. ²EMERSON. you must condense there. Your mere puny stripling.²IRVING To empty here. Indefinite use of you and your. as.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. The word you. which follows the verb.²EMERSON.Time is behind them and before them.²BACON.²BULWER. WEBSTER.²ADDISON. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. or that he has not a great deal more. you sneeze. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject." (3) As a grammatical subject. and they cry. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. in this century. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. like Chinese skill. It is a pity that he has so much learning.²D.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. to stand for the real. as in the sentences.²CARLYLE. why.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.² . She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. or to the idea. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Society. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. as. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.² NEWMAN.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.

²BURNS. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. keeps a school. itself. that is. have laid them downIn their last sleep. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. And when I awoke. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. There was nothing for it but to return. ourselves. For example. They are myself. and its plural selves. however. as. yourself. farms it.²SCOTT. . Of the two forms in parentheses.It is finger-cold. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. who teams it. This occurs in poetry. For when it dawned. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. themselves. "I found me a good book. since firstThe flight of years began.²HOLMES.²COLERIDGE.²EMERSON.. I set me down and sigh.² Now I lay me down to sleep. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. Poor Christian was hard put to it. And millions in those solitudes.²HAWTHORNE.²THOREAU." and there is an end of it. himself. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. A sturdy lad . as they are also called. it rained. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. (thyself)."²IRVING. who in turn tries all the professions.. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. -selves. when they are direct objects. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. 93." "He bought him a horse.²ID. but seldom in prose. they dropped their arms.²BUNYAN. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. we use such expressions as. 94. yourselves.²IRVING. the second is the old form of the second person.²ANON." etc. I made up my mind to foot it. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. herself. used in poetry.²BRYANT. (ourself). It was late and after midnight.²DE QUINCEY. peddles it. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

for example... as we ourself have been.²ID. for example.² The great globe itself . 96. after the analogy of myself. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. In Middle English the forms meself. and build the lofty rhyme. Held dead within them till myself shall die. as in vulgar English. were changed into the possessive myself. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. with self. shall dissolve. as. ourselves. I shrink with pain.To you yourself.As girls were once.²MILTON. NOTE. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. especially in the speech of rulers. theself.² . to every one.² TENNYSON.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. and the others were formed by analogy with these.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. 95. As if it were thyself that's here. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.²WORDSWORTH. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. not the possessive forms. BROWNING.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.²E.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. thyself. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. Use of the reflexives. to us. as. Origin of these reflexives.²EMERSON. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. B. The question might arise. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. etc. Threats to all.²SHAKESPEARE.

²DE QUINCEY. And it grew wondrous cold. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1.² THACKERAY. some each of masculine. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. Three now in use. let him lowly confess it. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. 2.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. some of them being double possessives.On the light fantastic toe. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. . feminine. Infancy conforms to nobody. and what. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. FRANKLIN. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. and neuter. Courage. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. 6. fight it out. all conform to it. Years ago. Come and trip it as we go. is wisdom. 8. 7. and how to do it. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. One obsolete. 3. 97. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active.²B. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 9. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. which. To know what is best to do. 5. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). father. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. 4. 10. but it is the soonest spoiled. where the word is one with that it tells of.

Use of what. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. 98. with its possessive and objective. the gold. used formerly to mean which of two. that. or case. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. These show that what is not inflected for case. . or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. 100. it is always third person. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY.Promised. Whose was that gentle voice. referring to things. The use of who. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. Use of who and its forms. ideas. What wouldst thou do. number. As shown here. whether. actions. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. shall we say. methought. Use of which. having three forms.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. it is selective. etc. not to persons.There is an old word. it refers to either persons or things. whispering sweet. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL.. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. that it is not inflected for gender or number. but now obsolete. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. which is not inflected for gender. that is. that it is always singular and neuter. Which of you. but for case alone. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. as it always asks about somebody. 99.

Function of the relative pronoun. Who. Thus we may say.²by the use of the words. AND PLUR. nominative in the second also. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. 104. 105. in Sec. which. or other word or expression.² "The last of all the Bards was he. being the direct object of the verb shall take. it may be shortened into. objective in the last. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. whose? Obj. AND PLUR. what may be an adverb in some expressions. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. as. who is used as objective instead of whom." In the latter sentence.² . which and what are sometimes adjectives. "The last of all the Bards was he. These bards sang of Border chivalry. as. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. For instance. which is nominative in the first sentence. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. pronoun. 99. 102." Or. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. and what are also relative pronouns. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. The antecedent. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. who? Poss. and so to make smoother discourse. for which the pronoun stands.101. which is called the antecedent of the relative. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. who evidently refers to Bards. Further treatment of who. which and what. SING. and also in having a conjunctive use. It usually precedes the pronoun. subject of doth love. 127). as they take the place usually of a word already used. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. 103.Who sung of Border chivalry. since it is subject of the verb had. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. SINGULAR Nom.

Whose flag has braved. is a divine creation. .²SCOTT. For her enchanting son. Generally speaking. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.Whom universal nature did lament. 6. that. 108. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.²BYRON. WHITNEY.² COX.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. are the men and women who bless their species. 2. 107.²LOWELL In this. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. Two kinds. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. 4.²PARTON Which and its forms.²THACKERAY. what. Indefinite relatives. both his and who have the antecedent priest. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.That guard our native seas. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. 106. 3. in the same sense in which man's nature. The men whom men respect. 2. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.²MILTON.²W. which. a thousand years. The embattled portal arch he pass'd..The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. a simple relative is meant. D. 5. The origin of language is divine. Ye mariners of England. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. They had not their own luster. 3.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE..²DR JOHNSON. but the look which is not of the earth. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. with all its capabilities . Who and its forms. When the word relative is used. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. the women whom women approve. The nurse came to us. will be discussed further on. 4..

Reader. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. 110. W. 3. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. That.. 2.²GOLDSMITH. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.Is fit for treasons. no bad type of what often happens in that country. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. The man that hath no music in himself. 107. 109. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. BEECHER 5. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.²MARGARET FULLER. bought up all the pigs that could be had..5.²IRVING. Examples of the relative that:² 1. (a) This gradation ..] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.. else this description will seem exaggerated. 4.²H.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.²BURKE. and spoils. For what he sought below is passed above. you will not be angry with me for telling you. Who. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1..² SHAKESPEARE 2. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .²EMERSON. Already done is all that he would do.²DE QUINCEY. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. The judge . 111. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. ought to be kept in view. 6. which it certainly is not. stratagems.²LAMB 3. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. The Tree Igdrasil.. What..

not persons. 113.. they are plural. the others are all third person. Kingsley. seemed as much excited as myself.whose. who is first person. possessive case of which. in the third. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. in the second.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. whose is second person. Which. Sec. In 1. In sentence 4. in 4.. The sentences in Sec.. The little gorilla.²LEIGH HUNT. Examples of whose. whose for the possessive.. son. JOHNSON. 96). who.²LOWELL. Smollett. whose wound I had dressed. Who referring to animals. and 3. whom.²SWIFT.²THACKERAY. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. Cooper. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. things.who.²IRVING.. (3) It is nearly always third person. Gibbon. that man. 112. Witness the following examples:² And you. and so on. flung its arms around my neck. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. and others. .²DR. in 5. 5. It has been seen (Sec. p. 2. in the first sentence. referring to animals.²which for the nominative and objective. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. a man. 107. the relatives are singular. Scott. (2) It has three case forms.²who. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. (4) It has two case forms. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. whose. or ideas. whom. and 6. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. My horse. The robins.

Kingsley. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. This often occurs. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. and to persecute without pity. Men may be ready to fight to the death. let us enter the church itself. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. and third persons. Sometimes. which is very notable and curious. (2) It has only one case form.²first. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. too. the antecedent follows which. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens.²THACKERAY. In the sentences of Sec. Which and its antecedents.²DE QUINCEY. 116. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. Primarily.² MCMASTER. and numerous others. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead.114. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich."²RUSKIN.² And. thus. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. which is worse. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. . no possessive. That. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent.²BEECHER. The last two sentences in Sec.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. This moribund '61. 109. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. secondly (which made her stare).²SCOTT. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. animals.²SHAKESPEARE.² I swept the horizon. and things. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. second. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. Burke. So in Matthew Arnold.²RUSKIN. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. 115. (3) It is the same form for first. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.

Sec. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. plural number. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. Who plainly stands for those or the people. that do I.²SHAKESPEARE. whose Obj. it usually follows. The sentences of Sec. for example." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. 109. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. who Poss." (3) "These people heard him. plural number. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. For example. 119. The gender." That evidently refers to truths. that he has. but what I hate. and is emphatic. as. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. 117. either of which would be neuter. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. When expressed. and person of the relatives who. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. third person. by taking them out. Nom. What. 118.² What I would.²BIBLE What fates impose. that men must needs abide. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. which. What a man does. what we said?²CARLYLE. we can. consequently is neuter. is always neuter. as in sentence 6.²EMERSON. that do I not. . third person.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. number. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true.

above. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order.. is in the nominative case." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. Truths in sentence (2). in (1). so is in the objective case. Exercise. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. 8. however. is what we call nature. but of this. The relative what is handled differently. is subject of the verb can't be cured. it is object of uttered. then parse the relatives. but is singular. Now. that takes the case of the truths in (2). the highest result of all education. nobler souls with that which they are. 4. 3. third person."²EMERSON. 5. The word what. who is sure to be cunninger than they. we is the subject. and what is the direct object of the verb call. What must be endured? Answer. Parsing what. in the following sentences:² 1. Another way. "What can't be cured must be endured. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. In (2). standing for the people understood.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. is subject of wrought upon and molded. neuter. . First find the antecedents. after all. etc." Here the subject of is. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. 6. 7. As shown by the following sentences. What can't be cured. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. I think they are trying to outwit nature. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. subject of heard. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. Some prefer another method of treatment. people is the object of the preposition of. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. In the sentence. 120. In the same way who. it is subject of the verb heard. which is. because it has usually no antecedent. and hence is in the nominative case. the simple relative. The whole expression is its subject. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. in (3).

Meaning and use. less common are whoso. whatever. 121. 4. 2. which. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. 2. in a new and original way. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. 7. object of with] which [singular. and his friend a fool. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. Only itself can inspire whom it will. being referred to. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. It is no proof of a man's understanding." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. whatsoever. "common souls pay with that [singular. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. So with the other indefinites.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. that nothing else can stand in their presence. to everything that. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. object of do] they do. whichsoever. whosoever. 123. 3. Hence some take what as a double relative. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. and which in the second clause. 5. whatsoever. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. and parse that in the first clause.²BURKE. Take which you please. List and examples. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. not as direct as the simple relatives. 6. no certain antecedent. It is clear that in 1. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. summer will have its flies. Do what we can. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. Death is there associated. that is. whichever. no particular thing. They are whoever. 122. . or stand on their head. and in 2.²BURKE. The simple relatives who. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. by meaning and use. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities.²you cannot have both.²MACAULAY. whatever is equivalent to all things which. or what else soever. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny.

everything that (or everything which). 121. In early modern English. whereby. what means anything that. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. thus. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. are used. by which.. whereupon. but which only wealth could have purchased. Two words. either one that. Instead of the phrases in which. but mean any one whom.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. etc. etc.²DE QUINCEY. Other substitutes.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. for example. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. and that as after such is equivalent to which. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. but and as.²EMERSON. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. as was used just as we use that or which. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. nothing that does not interest us. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. There is nothing but is related to us. etc.. the conjunctions wherein.²HAWTHORNE. not following the word such.² some particular thing. 126. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. .As shown in Sec. 121. for example.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 125. has been my heaviest affliction. 124. Former use of as. 120. 417).² 1. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. upon which. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. But and as. Proof that they have the force of relatives. 4. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. 2. This. Sec.

a question is disguised in each sentence. would be. Another caution." Likewise with which in 3 (b). 2. what is interrogative.²EMERSON. 127. the full expression being. second. if not. In studying such sentences.. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. But in 1 (b). what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. How to decide. if expanded. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. though the earthwork hid them. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. which having the antecedent lines. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. and whether what = that + which (if so. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. Special caution needed here. 2 (b). it is a simple relative. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. showing that who is plainly interrogative. "But what had become of them? They knew not. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. Thus. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. which would indicate that they are not relatives. In sentences 1 (a). no antecedent is expressed." etc.²WHITTIER. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. 1 (b). it is an interrogative. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. and 3 (b). (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. . if not. So in 2 (b). 3.²ID. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). it is an indefinite relative). (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. who having the antecedent gentleman. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. "Who stood behind? We knew.

On the other hand. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. Examine the following:² 1. which. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. 4. but the life of man in England.²FLETCHER. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. the question is asked by the verb. .²HOLMES. whence is the interrogative word. Put in the relatives who. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists.²GOLDSMITH. In the first. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. 5. The insect I am now describing lived three years. Thus. and asks no question. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. Exercise.²G.²CARLYLE. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. In the second. Relative omitted when object. whose has the antecedent you. In the third. and Court Calendars. 3.128. I visited many other apartments.²SWIFT. which has the antecedent hue. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. 129. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. 2. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. When Goldsmith died.²FORSTER 6.² These are the sounds we feed upon. ELIOT.² THACKERAY. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences.

simple relatives. or indefinite relatives:² 1.²Id. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. that. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. and what.7.²SHAKESPEARE. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. 130.²CAMPBELL. There was such a crowd went. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. It is rare in prose. Examples are. The nobles looked at each other. which. 2. Relative omitted when subject. 3.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. and comparatively so in poetry. Also in literary English we find the same omission.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. the house was full. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. which was already proceeding. Function of adjective pronouns. . Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²SCOTT. 6. who were to be rulers over whom. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened.² LOWELL. 5.Ne'er looks upon the sun. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives.

'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. few. either. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. but in this function. 132." that is. neither. all. but have lost their adjective use. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood.²EMERSON. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. such as this. many. "each cube. "these pranks. that. or use." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. in the first. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. For instance. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns.131. in letters of gold. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. and another to get cool under. such as each. or an argument in a paragraph." Classes of adjective pronouns." "one man. any. none.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. Caution. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. "another bank. and stand for a noun. or may be the whole of a sentence. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS." in the others.²IRVING. or they may stand for nouns." in the second. 133. In the first use they are adjectives. 'Truth. Primarily they are adjectives. etc. and on each is written. expressed or understood. . the former. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. must not modify any word. etc. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS.²BRYANT. necessarily thought of: thus. as some. a word." "Where two men ride on a horse. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. not pronouns. in order to be an adjective pronoun. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. which we have seen in such expressions as. Adjectives. etc. For example. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. "The dead are there.

Compound.²EMERSON 4. or sat. and sow wickedness. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. as seemed good to each. 2. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. but what he fain had seen He could not see. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. because he was not lying in wait for these. They have not shunned the one. and they have well performed the other. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. when the latter was the King of Spain. Their minds accorded into one strain. they that plow iniquity. reap the same. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Simple. Exercises.² They stood. Definition and examples. Some of these are simple pronouns. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.²ID. 5. or reclined. Even as I have seen. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. NOTE. A man inspires affection and honor. accidentally preserved. They had fewer books.²LOWELL.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. Such are a few isolated instances. 3. . for example. but these were of the best.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. 134.All these he saw.²ID. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil.

into a high pavilion of their thoughts. one another. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. as it were.²each other. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. Some inflected. Definition and examples. another. Much might be said on both sides.²KINGSLEY. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. They led one another. as some of the rangers had gone astray. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. Men take each other's measure when they react.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. as most were. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. The word one has a reflexive form. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. None shall rule but the humble. or melt for others' woe. Another opposes him with sound argument. Exercise. we might the more easily discharge them. as. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. you quickly come to the end of all. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. imbued.²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. for example. . ²HAWTHORNE.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. paused over a horoscope. The Soldan. 135.² One reflexive. with the superstitions of his time.²HOLMES. If hand of mine another's task has lightened.Two are compound pronouns. such as one other.

anyone else. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. in building of chaises. every one else.²SHAKESPEARE. unlike adjective pronouns. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. also aught. Every one else stood still at his post. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. everybody else. I tell you what. nobody. Jove laughs. every one (or everyone). 136. 137. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. and they. but.² At lovers' perjuries. . what. anybody. nothing. as shown in the words everybody's. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case.Exercise. anything. no one." It means something. and somewhat.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. Exercise. They indefinite means people in general. everybody. Definition and examples. everything. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. and was indefinite in Old English. they say. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. some one. naught. Somebody. any one (or anyone). Now. etc. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did.. somebody else. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. they are never used as adjectives. something. as. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. anybody else's. etc.

But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 10. 16. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. but not to quite so enormous an extent. The table was good. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 12. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. 8. 18. 2. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. in his negotiations. For this did God send her a great reward. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. Hutchinson tells us of herself. and of no other. 138. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 4. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know.²a feature of natural scenery for which. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 9. to which. 17. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. A reminder. from my earliest days. Others did the same thing. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 6. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 7. . Exercise. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 13. 5. Whoever deals with M. indeed. 11. were suffered to depart. O thou that rollest above. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. All was now ready for action. I first found myself among the mountains. 14. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 3. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again.

in all its height.19. that let him communicate. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. I who alone am. behold now the semblance of my being. 21. 25. 26. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. variety. And I had done a hellish thing. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. who take the world easy. And will your mother pity me. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 32. and seized a pen. 27. 35. They know not I knew thee. hear. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. 31. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. well-oiled dispositions. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. eat white bread or brown. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own.Destroyer and preserver. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday.Who knew thee too well. 30.And it would work 'em woe.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. 34. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. He sate him down. hear! 33. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 29. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . Who and what was Milton? That is to say. thou rollest now. 23. oh. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Whatever he knows and thinks.

adjectives are used. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. If a chemist discovers a new substance. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. etc. So with any object. 38. As to the kind of words used. Again. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. position." etc. such as in the expressions "this man. or with persons.36. 42. 37. He knew not what to do. 43. We are by nature observers. and he learns who receives." "a hundred men. 45. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. or liquid." "yonder hill. 139. size. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. ADJECTIVES. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. brittle or tough. or gaseous. heavy or light. . Office of Adjectives." "some cities. who understands me. that is our permanent state. 41. We need to add some words to tell its color.. Substantives. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. For example. and so he read. Who hears me. as. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. It may have this office alone. then." "that house. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. white or red. in pointing out an object. the number is limited by adjectives. 39. etc. which was no bad step towards my liberation. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. 44. He teaches who gives. and if we are near. "one hat. becomes mine." The office of an adjective. if we are at a distance. 40. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. so that no other will be mistaken for it.

etc. beautiful.²COLERIDGE. "Heaven-derived power." . 142. deep. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. "an old English manuscript.140. If he be thankful for small benefits. terrible. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck.²POPE. it shows that he weighs men's minds." "unlooked-for burden." the "and there. With exception of the "and then." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." "the Roman writer Palladius." and the still less significant "and so." "next-door neighbor. (2) Adjectives of quantity." "ivory-handled pistols. to forgive. 141. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. or how much of a thing. Nouns are not. fair. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "ice-cold water." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. pointing out particular things. words primarily pronouns. used to tell how many things are spoken of." they constitute all his connections. rash.² BACON. (4) Pronominal adjectives. Classes of adjectives. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. however. Examples are. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. To make this clear. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. and their trash. divine. derived from proper nouns. to describe it or to limit its application. They include relative and interrogative words." "half-dead traveler. such as safe. happy. 143. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. remotest." "the Christian pearl of charity. Infinitives." "this life-giving book. such as. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. To err is human. Definition.

" "The clearness and quickness are amazing. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. some." "trailing clouds. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit." "The shattering sway of one strong arm.²COLERIDGE. Exercises." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. which are either pure participles used to describe.But ever she looked on Mr. and another is drunken." "It came on like the rolling simoom. 2. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. any. 'Tis midnight. . 143. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted.²MACDONALD. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. sometimes small. 1." "a charming sight." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds." "an aged man. For instance: in the sentence. 145. Examples are. having some of each subclass named in Sec. much. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished." was accomplished is a verb. and accomplished is an adjective." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." "One is hungry. but small thoughts have I of sleep. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. in studying these last-named words. in this. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. no. They have these three subdivisions:² How much." Caution." was is the verb.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." "The shattered squares have opened into line. Care is needed.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. Oxenham. 144. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. considerable. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb.

Thus. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection.²ID. How many. When some. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted." (b) Indefinite numerals. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. they come under the next division of adjectives. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. The demonstrative adjectives are this. The following sentences present some examples:² ." "He had lived by hunting for some months. latter.²CARLYLE. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. its wake. Exercise. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. any." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. "one blaze of musketry. The list. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. yonder (or yon). The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives." "I have lost one brother.²VAUGHAN.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.²KINGSLEY. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. but I have gained fourscore." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. and with them a few negroes. as. those). instead of modifying them.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. are used with plural nouns." "a dozen volunteers. that. every village." Single ones of any number of changes.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it." "In came some five and twenty more. 146. (plural these." "Then we wandered for many days. An arrow was quivering in each body. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. the former²the latter. former.² Every town had its fair.²THACKERAY. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. Not primarily pronouns. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. Examples. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. no.

²BULWER. tell how many things are meant. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. When we speak of the seventeenth century. for example. In which evil strait Mr. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. skill which was at pause.²GOLDSMITH.²D. They are of two kinds. but. 149. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. The silver and laughing Xenil. Exercise.²ID. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. Oxenham fought desperately. Definition.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. 147. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. of equal skill. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 148.but all these charms are fled. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.²BANCROFT. Indefinite relative adjectives. These were thy charms. FRANKLIN. The taking of which bark.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. These do not. they are changed to adjectives. what revenues or garnitures. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. ²CARLYLE. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. WEBSTER. As has been said. I verily believe. Modify names of persons or things.² It matters not what rank he has."²B...²RUSKIN. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century.²ID. like the other numerals.²KINGSLEY. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²WORDSWORTH.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. skill which was progressive²in the other. but in the one case. . just as the corresponding pronouns do. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.

Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. and gaze.150. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. it is impossible to determine.And whichsoever way I turn. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. In direct questions.²RUSKIN. or whether any. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first.² EMERSON. Adjective what in exclamations. .²ID. He was turned before long into all the universe. Whatsoever kind of man he is. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head.²LAMB. 151. Examples of their use are. as it rather seemed. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.²AGASSIZ. proved not altogether displeasing to him. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. nature will be sure to bear us out in. Was there. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what.²IRVING.. which. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. A lady once remarked. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. whatever. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.²CARLYLE. whichsoever. As in the pronouns. New torments I behold. and new tormentedAround me. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. whichsoever way I move.. you at least give him full authority over your son. In indirect questions. what inquires about things or persons not known. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. But when the Trojan war comes.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). the debt to the rich. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. whatsoever. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. which is selective among what is known.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. whichever. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.

which was fully inflected in Old English. When we place two objects side by side. alas. Exercise. the making of it right. or size.²This. NUMBER. as. But this had also another plural. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article.²but not the same degree.Adjectives have two inflections. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. 155. or weight.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. those). Meaning of comparison. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. Those borrowed from this. The article that was used with neuter nouns. That. It is neither relative nor interrogative. 154.152. And yet. Thus. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. History of this²these and that²those. or amount. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise.²number and comparison. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. we do so by means of their qualities. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. we notice some differences between them as to size. gold is heavier than iron. and when we compare the objects. color. 153 . This is the old demonstrative. All these have certain qualities. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. and those as the plural of that. COMPARISON. of the quality. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. etc. . weight..²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. etc. th s (modern those). what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. In exclamatory expressions.² Oh. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs.

Definition. but were not common until a century later." "the commonest speech. giant-like. indomitable. but. bluer. for example. redder. and the superlative by adding -est." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. or amounts in quantity. easy. universal institution. whose favorite pupil he was. infinite. They came into use about the thirteenth century." "no fewer than a hundred. "untamed thought.²THACKERAY. organic. great.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. immemorial. easiest. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. blue.²SEWARD.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. 159. to the simple form. indefatigable. "more matter. as. whether they attend their own affair or not.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. So with the words sole. they are not compared." "It is a nobler valor. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. 156. These are called degrees of comparison. expressing the greatest degree of quality. bluest. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. with less wit. 157. Freedom is a perpetual. strictly considered." "the largest soul. A main difference betwixt men is. sufficient. and many others. Substitute for inflection in comparison. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. and the superlative. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. reddest. enormous. 160. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. The comparative is formed by adding -er. These are properly the only degrees. The two forms. 158. . expressing a greater degree of quality. red. as. supreme. though the simple. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms." Words that cannot be compared. easier. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States.

quiet. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. These long.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. harsh forms are usually avoided. honestest." "distantest relationships. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. which hung behind in the queerest way. These are adjectives irregularly compared. The following lists include the majority of them:² . but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. and patientest fusing. The general rule is." From Ruskin: "The sharpest." Carlyle uses beautifulest." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given.²ID. madam. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. 163.Which rule. Adjectives irregularly compared. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. polished. though born in no very high degree. 162. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. falling on his knees.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. and yet familiar." said Henry Esmond. who. finest chiseling. witty." "more odd. was most finished. peaceablest. there needed to be a most genuine substance." "the wonderfulest little shoes. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. mournfulest. indisputablest. strange. as. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English.²The Nation." "more austere and holy. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. admirablest. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. easy. and other words are preceded by more and most. etc. "So help me God. I will.² CARLYLE A gentleman.²ID." "sorrowfulest spectacles. most small.

"Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). further Farthest. throw away the worser part of it. 8. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. A double comparative.LIST I. is often used. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. 7. which has softened to the modern best. Worser was once used. List I. as in Shakespeare. last Hindmost. 164. though from a different root. 6. least. a double comparative. 4. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. hindermost Much or many More Farther. next Nearest Latest. lesser. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. (2) In Old English.²HAMLET. 9. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. evil was the positive to worse. utter 3. worst. which has gone out of use. These have no adjective positive:² 1. innermost Outmost. [Out] Outer. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. bad. older Nigher Nearer Later. Good or well Evil. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. as in the sentence (14th century). uppermost LIST III.² We have it in a much lesser degree.² O. as. The superlative I form was betst. 3. 2. There was an old comparative bet. outermost Utmost. . furthest 10. oldest Nighest. Hind 2. [In] Inner Inmost. 1. uttermost Upmost. (3) Little is used as positive to less. latter Hinder LIST II. lesser Elder. 5.

²forth. but not in meaning. a distinction has grown up between the two series.²ID. and the superlative nearest. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. farthest. The meanings greater. an old superlative ending. ²LAMB. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. The latter. oldest. next. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. but originally the comparison was nigh. first. etc. "Many a little makes a mickle. greatest.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. or series. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. eldest. Between the two sets as they now stand. List II. much. instead of lenger. meaning the largest part. for example. th came into the others. are shown in such phrases as. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. latest. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. came into use. Since later. . to England we sailed. (5) The forms elder. the old forms. First became entirely detached from the series.²HAWTHORNE. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti.² The more part being of one mind. farrest. moche." Its spelling has been micel. is quite common. are earlier than older. there is scarcely any distinction. The most part kept a stolid indifference. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. furthest.²KINGSLEY. since the m is for -ma. making the modern farther. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. near... strong. to which is added -ost. and refer to time. strenger. except the form next. doubling the inflection. further. great. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. muchel. as. etc. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. In imitation of further. as long.

Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. but her after deck was still dry. BEECHER. was descried The royal banner floating wide. Her bows were deep in the water. The comparatives are so in form. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective.²H. In List II. (Sec. or have no comparative forms. or each may modify a different word or group of words. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.²KINGSLEY." "the innermost moral soul. all may belong to the same noun. but not in their meaning.²DE QUINCEY. They have no superlatives. Think what each adjective belongs to. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection.²SCOTT." "far-seeing as the sun. and have no comparative force. . on the very topmost twig. Highest and midmost. in having no adjective positives." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man." "their utmost exertion. W. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. 167. 168." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. the upper light of the world." -Most added to other words. The adjectives in List III.²HAWTHORNE. but they have no adjective positives. Decidedly handsome. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. There.165. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives." "The outer is of the day.²EMERSON. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. are like the comparative forms in List II. 166. List III. Her. by the by. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. being merely descriptive.²DE QUINCEY.

²TRENCH. bright. and moral truth. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. and broken. STOWE. philosophical. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. solid. usual modifies incomparable decision. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. A few improper jests and a volley of good.²HAWTHORNE. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. The seldom use of it. But in this sentence. 7. we may say "the then king. For thy stomach's sake." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. Exercise. It may still be argued. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. satisfactory. 3. instead of saying. 4. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. round. our new government." making then an adjective. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination.²HAWTHORNE.²MRS.²BIBLE. STEPHENS 5. in prose. in this sentence. and heaven-defying oaths. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. and thine often infirmities.²NOAH PORTER. By a convenient brevity. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID." in which then is an adverb. Our sometime sister.²HOLMES. This. as. 169. therefore. the then and still owners.² My then favorite. "the one who was then king. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. In the following quotations. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. 6. ²TROLLOPE. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. Richard Hooker.For example. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. not decision alone." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. . adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. deep. Bradbury and Evans.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. H. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. Other instances are. deeply black eyes. May we not. now our queen. 2.²A. rich.²RUSKIN.

and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. Exercise. . Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. 170. and most astounding were those frightful yells. and I waited for none. then. positive degree. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. To every Roman citizen he gives. In parsing an adjective. cannot be compared. These points out what truths. or case. 2. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. person. therefore descriptive. She made no reply. 10. modifies the word truths. not inflected for number. modifies truths. MODEL FOR PARSING. Unfamiliar describes truths. having a singular. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. seventy-five drachmas. if it can be compared. I ask nothing of you. plural number. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. compared by prefixing more and most. 3. (4) What word or words it modifies. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. if it has number. 6. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. This gave the young people entire freedom. 8. To every several man. (3) Its degree of comparison. this.What to tell in parsing. and very few have number. (2) Its number. with awkward but rapid pace. 9. therefore demonstrative. 4. 7. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. frank. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. across the plain. 5. the method of parsing is simple. manly way. Since adjectives have no gender.

25. those dogs in the yard.11. oxen. it is so noble a fruit. 22. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. Like most gifted men. Nearer to our own times. 24. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 16. suggests such thoughts as these. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 21. Here lay two great roads. In music especially. it rests on reality. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. and many poles supported the lower ones. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. 20. Their name was the last word upon his lips. and therefore more interesting to us. 12. during which time I waited. To say what good of fashion we can. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. and dogs. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 32. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. yonder oxen in the pasture. 19. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. . growing in the most unfavorable position. he won affections with ease. With every third step. 13. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. 26. 14. not so much for travelers that were few. the tomahawk fell. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 28. is the settlement of our own country. I know not what course others may take. 31. 33. 18. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. as for armies that were too many by half. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 29. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 27. 23. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. Two hours elapsed. are immutably fishes. and hates nothing so much as pretenders.

An or a came from the old numeral n. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized.²BREWER. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. 173. 174. even when not silent." "an orange. Our expressions the one. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. In the sentence. were formerly that one. the tither. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. Many writers use an before h. the tother. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel." the words the and an belong to nouns. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. and a before consonant sounds. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. that other.34. Two relics. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36." "an honor. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. 35. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. the tother. Their origin. weary-hearted man was he.²MACAULAY. s o.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. later th . 37. th o. that) which was also an article in Old English. A hard-struggling. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. Examples: "a house. sometimes the tother." "a European. 172. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. 171. An historian. a before consonant sounds. . with an ordinary little garden.²SCOTT. he is no literary man. in vulgar English." "a yelling crowd. such as we have been attempting to describe. just as adjectives do." An with consonant sounds. meaning one. these occurring as the tane. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. the latter is still preserved in the expression. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. An before vowel sounds. ðat. ARTICLES. or the tane. but the former is used. the other. for example. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . In Middle English the became an article.

The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. which cannot be used alone. 177.²THACKERAY.. Articles are either definite or indefinite.²HEROES OF ASGARD.. Reference to a known object. 176. the older n. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. doubtless. and not a state or other geographical division.² Don't you remember how. NOTE. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. With names of rivers. or a group or class of things. When the is prefixed to a proper name. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. An hereditary tenure of these offices. BANCROFT. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. or class. since it points out a particular individual. is referred to. as "the Mississippi. 178. To call attention to attributes.²IRVING. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 179.²G. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. An and a are different forms of the same word. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. Definition. thus. 175. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. as in the sentence. Kinds.. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me.² . An article is a limiting word." the article indicates clearly that a river. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. on opening a story. An or a is the indefinite article." "the Ohio. a person is introduced by a.²COLERIDGE. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. The Dakota tribes. The is the definite article.²This use is noticed when. or group. or any individual of a group or class. and when the word river is omitted. not descriptive.

so is the evil. 181. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. With plural of abstract nouns. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. etc.The Bacon. 2.²KINGSLEY. 182. the Spinoza. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons.² The faint. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.²G.²EMERSON. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. and the redwing. but into the region of all the virtues. Kant. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. NOTE.²MOTLEY. The simple rise as by specific levity. as.²SCOTT. 183.²ID. For possessive person pronouns. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. the Hume. or a match put between the fingers. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. 180. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. her. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. If the good is there. Schelling. throwing his cloak from his shoulders.²EMERSON. laid it on the miry spot. Half abstract. One thing for its class. Common. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. would speedily extract the required information. His messages to the provincial authorities.²GIBBON. the gallant. for example. Caution. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. With adjectives used as nouns. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.²ID. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. the song sparrow. BANCROFT.² As she hesitated to pass on. The. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 1. . not into a particular virtue.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

and not a verb. and shame the most astute. to go is no predicate. the most penetrating. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. endured what? anguish. all do not express it in the same way. etc. in (3. in (b). 200: In (1). it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. can deceive has an object. representing something which it influences or controls. Now. to say something to or about some person or thing. might have been anticipated is also one predicate.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. c). "Put money in thy purse. lone took what? answer. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. with some word understood. a). "Put thou money in thy purse. in (2. in (c). Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. and. but cannot be predicates. in (3. from the Latin transire. or a material thing. a noun. Definition and caution. 204. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. hence is not a verb. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. a verb. and to receive the action expressed." Examine the sentences in Sec. or the object. which may be a person. a preposition. and a preposition unite as a verb. All these are called transitive verbs. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. b). it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. an article. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. taking the staff which always guided her steps. In the first. 203. as.In (a). 201. for example. in (2. The nature of intransitive verbs. Has takes the object hypocrisy. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. or an idea. 202. The nature of the transitive verb. Of those expressing action. we consider a verb as one word. the word following. in this sentence from Bulwer. an adverb. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. In each case. By examining a few verbs. the most astute.²BULWER . obeyed is a predicate. which means to go over."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it." put is the predicate. A verb is a word used as a predicate." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. (can) shame also has an object. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. b). Each influences some object. Hence Definition. In the sentence. In giving a definition. care. but fearing is not a predicate.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

the representative system ultimately fail. as. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.²may or may not be true. Condition or Supposition. Again. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. 2). the second founder. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. popular government must be pronounced impossible.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. Most excellent stranger. or be fulfilled.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets.² If. Ideal. 215. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds.I could lie down like a tired child. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. WEBSTER.²MACAULAY. the writer can make the statement following. they were recorded in the Book of Life. in our case. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. for example. ²EMERSON. 222. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. I.²LONGFELLOW. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. Unreal²cannot be true. the first great founder of the Empire. 221.²FRANKLIN. and may or may not be regarded true. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. he will see the need of these ethics. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. but. as. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.²BRYCE.² Now. If this be the glory of Julius.²SHELLEY. .²D.

223. If he had reason to dislike him. especially be.²FRANKLIN. that he might be strong to labor. and sonorous. The subjunctive. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. except. . and striven energetically to save Ney. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.²SWIFT. the clause being introduced by that or lest. NOTE. if he speak to you. and what kind of condition:² 1. melodious. Subjunctive of Purpose. if his lot had been mine. might. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. to drink strong beer. as. WILLIS. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. Epaminondas. etc.² If these things were true.²MACAULAY. would have sat still with joy and peace. thus. do you think. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. The voice. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand.. would you. though. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. 8. if he was the man I take him for.²FRANKLIN. 5." etc.²N.²EMERSON. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed..² CARLYLE. 2.²BAYNE. In the following conditional clauses. 4. I told him. II. he supposed. is of similar physiognomy. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. is used to express purpose. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. may. ²LOWELL. unless. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. 7. 3. but when the verb precedes the subject..²CALHOUN. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. society could not hold together. and should. Exercise.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. 6. which cannot be true.² It was necessary.. that we cannot but regret its absence. clear. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. since he [Byron] was dead. she was regarded as a prodigy. But in no case could it be justified.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. P. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. he had better not have written.

The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.And we. VI.. In a Noun Clause.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. I would it were! ²EMERSON. In Temporal Clauses. 224. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. IV. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.Thou go not.²COLERIDGE. Subjunctive of Result. 227.²SOUTHEY.Were wafted off to seas unknown. III. I've wished that little isle had wings. To tell of what had passed. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.²CARLYLE. none of us could say.²WORDSWORTH. VII. like the quarry-slave at night. Ask the great man if there be none greater.. till it meet the sun in his coming. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause..²D. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. within its fairy bowers.I have been the more particular.²MOORE. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. V. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. Rise up. like the Latin.²BRYANT.²ID. 226.. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. Expressing a Wish. 225. . the answer being regarded as doubtful.That vain it were her eyes to close. So live. In Indirect Questions. After a verb of wishing.²DE QUINCEY. Let it rise.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. WEBSTER. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. The English subjunctive.

object. Concessive Clauses. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. That hunger of applause.²WORDSWORTH. in apposition. The noun clause.And see the Braes of Yarrow. The first merit.²TENNYSON. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. is the ultimate fact of man's life. (b) Adjective. for example.²SHELLEY. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. 228. often contains a subjunctive.²THOREAU. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.²CARLYLE.. The essence of originality is not that it be new. I have no thought what men they be. VIII. See that there be no traitors in your camp.² Be the matter how it may. Whatever betide.Subject.And look thou tell me true. Come. After verbs of commanding. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. 229. that everything be in its place. or whatsoever victual it may be. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. Object. in its various uses as subject. of cash.² DICKENS.²COLERIDGE. etc. tell me all that thou hast seen. Complement.²SCOTT. . is. Some might lament that I were cold.²DE QUINCEY. we'll turn aside.²COLERIDGE. which may be (a) Pronoun. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.

(3) Request. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. IMPERATIVE MOOD. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. Q. At the present day. though. fear none. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. In spoken English.²BRYANT. (1) Command.² CARLYLE. ADAMS. since commands are directed to a person addressed. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. we had found [should have found] a poem here. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. . Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. to express a wish. 231. point to their immortal works.²SHELLEY. It must be remembered. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. 232. entreaties.(c) Adverb. Usually second person. love all men. a concession. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Oh. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative.²CHANNING.The spirit he loves remains.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. Honor all men.²J. or requests. (2) Entreaty. for example. and condition contrary to fact. 230. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. however. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Definition.

And God forget the stranger!" . Mark thou this difference. Break we our watch up. 6.²SHAKESPEARE. 7. request. 2. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. etc. we may use the imperative with we in a command.. nothing is to be preferred before justice. Sometimes with first person in the plural. child of earth!While each performs his part. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. 8. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. "The Devil take the goose. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled.²CAMPBELL. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. etc. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. or I + they.²SCOTT. "Come along with me. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Part we in friendship from your land.. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. there will her heart and her prayers be. Quoth she. noble earl. to you implied in it. but I + you." whispered Kit."²DICKENS Tell me." Exercises on the Moods. Whatever inconvenience ensue.And. Oh.One glance at their array! 5."Hush! mother. receive my hand. 3." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. lest we rust in ease.

how he may do his work. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. That a man parade his doubt. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. will it not fall unbound. . Think not that I speak for your sakes. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. no literary man. 21. 18. 26. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt.High up in silver spikes! 22. or do it at all.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. my dear madam. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. 11. let him live where else he like. He. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12." 16. she ought to have it." cried he. ruined. Well.That they might answer him. whether he do it right or wrong. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner.9. then. but repentant child. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. Though abyss open under abyss.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. "Mr. "tell me where I may find my poor. He is. it would speak. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has.Except. That sheaf of darts. "Oh.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. in what pomps and prosperities he like. 10." continued Old Morgan. Though he were dumb. Forget thyself to marble. as though an instrument. and opinion displace opinion." 25. 14. Marshall. 13. 23. 19. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. 20.

²the present tense. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. PERSON AND NUMBER. tell him to wait. as." present. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. also. past. 235. as the classical languages have. "Thou walkest. or agree with it. and the past tense.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. or future time. Tense means time. as. and future perfect tenses. Meantime. 233. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. or whether it were as one member of a general party.² present. "Thou walkedst. TENSE. by means of the present. to direct his steps. past. When the older pronoun thou was in use. "I go away tomorrow. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. 28. The tenses in detail. a form ending in -eth. whatever she did. Old English had only two tenses. which represented present and future time." "If he comes. in the third person singular. such as be. will. five in the subjunctive. kind.²nothing could exceed the amiable." . such as Latin and Greek. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. 234. five in the imperative. called auxiliaries. Definition. Siddons.27. and future. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. in the conjugations. "It is not in man that walketh. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. Tenses in English. shall. the past. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. have. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect." past. past perfect. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. and the future tense. as will be shown later on.

Singular 1. [He] is [They] are 3. PRESENT TENSE. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. [He] were [They] were . 238. You (thou) be 3. are. walks. Such verbs as choose have five. The verb be has more forms. PRESENT TENSE. chose. 237. singular number.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. tense. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. persons. chooseth. mood. moods. as. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. chosen (old. walked. and numbers. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. choosing. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. choosest. walk has walk. "He walks.²am. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. CONJUGATION." and this only in the present tense indicative. since it is composed of several different roots. I be 2. chosest). sometimes adding the old forms walkest. 236. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. wert) 3. tenses. Few forms. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. walking. for example. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. Indicative Mood. etc.²choose. chooses. walkedst. I were 2. Singular 1. walketh. Singular 1. This is the third person. were. Singular 1. etc. been. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. Definition. In classical languages. is. You are 2. but in English. [He] was Subjunctive Mood.

239.Imperative Mood. to form the passive voice.²BURKE .. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. (b) With the past participle in -ed. were. 240. same as the German sind. etc.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. Remarks on the verb be. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. obligation.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. By solemn vision and bright silver dream.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. in four ways. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. though it is usually a dialect form. (3) be.²GOLDSMITH. (d) With the infinitive. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.²THACKERAY. The light that never was on sea and land. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. to express intention. -en. Instead of the plural are.²SCOTT. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. thus. (2) was. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.²ID. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.His infancy was nurtured. as.. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. for example. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.²WORDSWORTH. is. (2) As auxiliary verbs. condition.²SHELLEY. which was now become an occasional banquet.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. etc.

tenses. PRESENT TENSE. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. 1. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. etc. I choose 2. "I shall be. You chose Plural. Singular. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. You choose Plural. tenses. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. You chose Plural. PRESENT TENSE. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose." (2) Present perfect. In addition to the above inflected forms. I chose 2. Indicative Mood. as. You choose Plural. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. by placing have." "He will choose.241. 1. I chose 2. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. 242. had. 1. [He] choose [They] choose 3. Singular. (2). Some of these have been indicated in Sec. We chose You chose 3. Machinery of a verb in the voices. as. 1. Singular. We chose You chose 3. "I had gone" (past perfect). past perfect. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Singular. future perfect. "I have gone" (present perfect). . I choose 2. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). We choose You choose PAST TENSE. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. 240. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood.

Subjunctive Mood. Same as indicative. Past perfect. Future definite. He has been choosing. He had been choosing." "They had been running. Past. Future. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning.] he choose. ." 243. Present perfect. he have been choosing. etc. "I was chosen. he chose (or were to choose). of each tense. " " " " " " " he be choosing. He was choosing. Present definite. Past perfect definite. Present definite. He will he choosing. Present perfect. "I am running. Future perfect. Imperative Mood. lest. He chooses. Present perfect definite. He had chosen. Present. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs." "You are chosen. He will choose. He chose. singular number. He is choosing. Indicative Mood. he have chosen. Future perfect definite. will be given. ACTIVE VOICE. Only the third person. (2d per. " Be choosing. Past perfect. Past definite." (4) The passive forms. Present definite. as. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Past definite. Present. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Past. He has chosen. Same as indicative. Present perfect definite.) Choose. as. He will have been choosing. [If. Present. though. He will have chosen. Past perfect definite.(3) The definite form of each tense.

Past perfect. None. He will be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. Present perfect. etc. Exercises should be given. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. he had been chosen.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs..²This table is not to be learned now. He had been chosen. He has been chosen. lest. in affirmative sentences. None. Subjunctive Mood. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). None. 262). Present definite. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form.NOTE. " " " " " " " None. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. however. Past definite. Imperative Mood. though. (2d per. he have been chosen.) Be chosen. Past perfect definite.] [If. Present. Future. Present perfect definite. Present tense. but verbals. if learned at all. Past definite. Past perfect definite. "He does strike. Present definite. He was chosen. he were being chosen. He will have been chosen. None." "He did strike. None. Future definite. as. Present perfect. .] he be chosen. Future perfect definite. Present perfect definite. He is chosen. Past Perfect. He is being chosen. Future perfect. He was being chosen. Present. None. Also. Past. they will be discussed later (Sec. Past." [Note to Teacher. Indicative Mood.

[adj. beg. which are in parentheses Present Tense. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. Some of these also have weak forms. begged. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. Past Tense. bit blown broken chidden. 245. sleep. slept. lay. Kinds. but adds no ending. According to form. drove. drive. bounden] bitten. ran. catch. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. and may or may not change the vowel: as. NOTE. caught. Definition. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. run. laid.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. bid bound. as. verbs are strong or weak. 244. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense.

eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten. drank[adj.

sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sunken] sat slain slidden. trod worn woven won wound .

TAYLOR. nor a dog barked.²cleave. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. only one set remains certain. the other. and another (born) for the passive. for example. "stricken with paralysis. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated).²IRVING. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. When it means to carry or to endure. as. "his bounden duty. as.²as (from Shakespeare). but is much used in vulgar English. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. clave or clove. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance." "a sunken snag. ²THACKERAY.²MILTON. cleft. as. now told us it was time for repose.² Thou hast clomb aloft." "a drunken wretch. and. cloven." In this confusion of usage.² We had each drank three times at the well.²TENNYSON. The former used to be cleave. borne is also a passive. cleaved. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. which always crew at eleven. cleave. and sometimes occurs in poetry. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). Our cock. Sometimes in literary English. . But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. as (from Holmes).²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. The form clomb is not used in prose. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. How fairy Mab the junkets eat." "the cloven hoof. and the latter. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English.²B. probably to avoid confusion with this. Historically. cleaved. cleft (to split)."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.²one meaning to adhere or cling. 246.²COLERIDGE. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as.²GOLDSMITH. instead of ate and eaten. Not a cock crew. to split. especially in that of an earlier period.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain.

4. 2.²WORDSWORTH. for example. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. 10. given. Throw. as." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. found.²SCOTT. thrown. shaken. for example. begun. Fling. and seized a pen. fell. 8. found."²KINGSLEY. and grasping at his sword. (a) From the table (Sec. This heard Geraint. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. frozen.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. as "a shorn lamb. threw." but not much as a participle. Begin.² We had all got safe on shore. One example out of many is. 3. even in poetry. The butler was hanged. Exercises. maiden. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. Freeze. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. Usually shear is a weak verb. flung. 7. fallen. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. which is seldom used except in poetry. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. broke. gave. 245). Break.²DE FOE. . got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. 5.The form gotten is little used. Find. Drive. driven. broken. 6. froze. began.²BIBLE.²TENNYSON. We usually say. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. shook.² If. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Shake. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.²BYRON. 9. shore is rare. flung. He sate him down. Fall. Give. drove.

"²WINIER.²CHANNING This.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise.²PAINE. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. for full drill on the forms. "far off his coming shines. PRESENT. etc.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. of course.²HAWTHORNE.. purpose.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. HAMILTON.. Indicative Use: Permission. Can is used in the indicative only. according to the infinitive used. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. ability. It is indicative when it expresses permission. as it has two meanings. PAST.[To the Teacher. from the obsolete verb motan. etc. Have we valuable territories and important posts. as. (See also Sec. 220. as in Sec. or.²CHANNING. PAST. Must is historically a past-tense form. Could may be subjunctive. which survives in the sentence. . Ability.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed.²SCOTT. Like must. 249. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. there is one general principle. but came through analogy with should and would. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. The same remarks apply to ought. 250. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. as it sometimes does.. 247. His superiority none might question. "So mote it be... or when it expresses wish. 251. 223. must have been an ocular deception. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. it is used only in the indicative mood." Must is present or past tense. The l in could did not belong there originally. Subjunctive use. They are as follows:² PRESENT.

as. as.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. "I think I will go. WEBSTER. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. to the neglect of shall and should. She rejects his suit with scorn. in the form of command.e. Shall and Will.²LONGFELLOW. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.² (a) To express authority. with pronouns of the first person. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. future action). They shall have venison to eat.²IRVING. or confident prediction.²THAXTER. Second and third persons. (b) In questions asking for orders. especially in the United States.²BULWER. not plod along like apeasant. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. what shall I say?²N. my lad. shall and should are used. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.² The time will come full soon..² With respect to novels. shall and should are used." Uses of shall and should.² Futurity and questions²first person. he said.²MACAULAY. MOULTON. I shall be gone. as. C. . to use will and would. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. (b) In indirect quotations. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. 252. The following are examples:² Never mind.²L.Nay. promise. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. she should ride like a queen. The sea shall crush thee. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. She should not walk. for example. BROCKDEN BROWN. and corn to hoe.²COOPER. while ought always has to. yea.

(1) With the FIRST PERSON. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. . (c) With direct questions of the second person. First. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.²WORDSWORTH.²SWIFT. for example. And promised.²ROGERS. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. time. as the sole inventor. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. BROWN.²BYRON. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. JR.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.²CABLE.that I would do him justice. and is equivalent to ought.²WORDSWORTH. purpose. for example. was to be expected. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. or a promise. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. etc. B. thus... 253.²WORDSWORTH.. second and third persons.²A.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. Disguising a command.²SCOTT. I never was what I should be. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. JAMES. with the conviction that he should win in the end. and will not return until all is finished.² I will go myself now. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. as.²C.²H. LARNED. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.²WINTER.

² DICKENS.²War Records.²SCOTT. for example. etc. (4) With FIRST.² Thou wilt take the skiff. AND THIRD PERSONS. will and would are used to express simple futurity. When I am in town. through storms their brothers are afraid of. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. Roland.. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. SECOND. 254. will and would often denote an action as customary. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. will is used to express command.²SCOTT. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). This puts the order more mildly.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.²BANCROFT. In this stately chair would he sit. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. Thine was a dangerous gift. The gift of Beauty.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. To be sure. for example. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. so you will. Would thou hadst it not.²BURKE. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. without regard to future time.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion... as if it were merely expected action.²the original meaning of the word will. PASSIVE VOICE..² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. . They will go to Sunday schools. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. as. for punishment or intimidation.. Mere futurity. would is used to express a wish. and two of my people.²IRVING. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. as.² Subject I omitted: often so. and mark on the grounds the works.. action merely expected to occur. B. BROWN. when thou wast born. and fetch off certain plate and belongings.²LANDOR. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.

the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. Singular. Plural. We will be chosen. 2. [He] shall choose. Thou shalt have a suit. Plural.:² ACTIVE VOICE. 2. etc. Singular. 2. I shall choose. [He] will be chosen. You will choose. You shall be chosen. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. [They] shall be chosen. You shall be chosen. We shall choose." answered Herbert stubbornly. [They] will choose. You will choose. You shall choose. (b) Examine the following sentences. and that of the newest cut. Plural. 3. We will choose. 6. 1. I shall be chosen. 1. promise. 2. We shall be chosen. I will be chosen. [They] will be chosen. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 2. To express determination. Plural. 3. 5. I will choose. 1. 4. PASSIVE VOICE. He informed us. Thou art what I would be. 2. 1.Singular. You will be chosen. yet only seem. You will be chosen. [He] will choose. and justify the use of shall and will. 252 and 253. 3. Singular. . "I shall not run. (a) From Secs. [He] shall be chosen. [They] shall choose. 3. 3. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. You shall choose. 3. 1. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. Exercises on Shall and Will.

But the rest. 10. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. 256. No. and have no change of vowel. bereft. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. which may be called irregular weak verbs.²CHAUCER. WEAK VERBS. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set.7. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. Past Tense. 255.²ID. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please.²Class I. set." 14. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. bereave beseech bereft. "I am a wayfarer. Without having attended to this. set. The beast made a sluggish movement. as if he would have more of the enchantment. 9. very anxious. my son. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. put. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. as. and I have nothing to say. 11." the stranger said. 12. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. then. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. Irregular Weak Verbs.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. Lucy stood still.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. bereaved besought . Present Tense. The old ending to verbs of Class II. bereave besought Past Participle. Of smale houndes hadde she. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. or mylk and wastel breed. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. put. put. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. 13. 257. This ending has now dropped off. need some attention and explanation. was -de or -te.

pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

10. a perfect. To with the infinitive. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. [To] have chosen. Cases when to is omitted. INFINITIVES. will (with should and would). Imperfect. 266.. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. 8. [To] have been chosen. 268. Perfect definite.6. When active.. But later. when inflections became fewer. Three saplings. [To] be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. Perfect. an imperfect. . expressing purpose. and when passive. like participles. Indefinite.. [To] choose. [To] be choosing. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. Nothing of the kind having been done. Indefinite. Perfect. 7. try clemency. as in the Old English. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. to was used before the infinitive generally. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). [To] have been choosing.²the creature warring against the creating power. 267. In Sec. to express action unconnected with a subject. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. 9. they have an indefinite. Infinitives. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. and a perfect definite form. an indefinite and a perfect form. have no tense. I returned to reflection on my situation. formed a kind of bedstead. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. ACTIVE VOICE.

it may be the subject of a verb. sometimes need (as. negative. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. "She ask my pardon. learn [doth learn is one verb. .²TENNYSON. They shall have venison to eat. as in the expression. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. too. the gerund may be called a noun verbal." "I shall have chosen. 270. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. also in the imperative. While the gerund expresses action.²GOLDSMITH. under "Analysis. it has several attributes of a noun.). "He need not go") and dare (to venture). see. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. poor woman!" cried Charles. E." etc. hear.²it may be governed as a noun.(2) After the verbs may (might). The gerund is like the participle in form. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. 269. and corn to hoe. But there was nothing to do.²COOPER. make. watch. as the credulous imagine. can (could). "I do go" etc. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. as. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. it is often preceded by the definite article.²E. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William." Examples are. also let. 271.. bid (command). must. or the object of a verb or a preposition.²HOWELLS. "a house to let. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. "He will choose.² She was a kind. do (as. feel. and like a noun in use. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. GERUNDS.²MACAULAY. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. as. HALE. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. liberal woman.² What! doth she. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win." (4) In exclamations. 272. please.²DE QUINCEY." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. and emphatic forms of the present and past. as.²IRVING.

making the definite tenses. when. (3) Participial adjectives. which have lost all verbal force. which express action. after examining the nest. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun.²Find sentences containing five participles. (6) Verbal nouns. according to use as well as meaning." also (2. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. 2. on your leaving the spot. (2) Pure participles. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. Sec. which name an action or state. but cannot govern. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. Then how pleasing is it." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. to see the returning hope of the parents. Exercise. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. What a vast. above. five infinitives. may govern and be governed. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. which express action and also modify. which express action. 273. (5) Gerunds. Words in -ing are of six kinds. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. 4." Exercise. and has been put down. (4) Pure adjectives." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. and five gerunds. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy." "Certainly dueling is bad. they find the nurslings untouched! 3." "He could not help holding out his hand in return." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. b). brilliant. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. but do not assert." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. II). and wonderful store of learning! .

Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb.²which of the tenses given in Sec. you must. he gave out sentence by sentence. 14.²strong or weak. dictating from his chair. like Sir Walter Scott. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. What is dreaming? 8. 7. 11. (2) Voice. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. 15. write twenty pages without stopping. 10. (5) Person and number. much corroded. round which is an iron railing. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 13. 9. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. subjunctive. 16. VERBS. . Caution. The only means of ascending was by my hands. giving principal parts. He spread his blessings all over the land. slowly. (4) Tense.²indicative. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. I. or imperative. but. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing.5. 275. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 6.²transitive or intransitive. (b) as to use. 234. I suppose I was dreaming about it. Thackeray did not. give reality to your teaching. 12. (3) Mood. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. In parsing verbs.²active or passive. bearing her national emblem. by object lessons.

etc. In such sentences as 1. 3. Especially frequent are those made up of should. (b) whether indefinite. VERBALS. has for its subject Lee. II. followed by a pure infinitive without to. and parting day linger and play on its summit. VERB PHRASES. might. could. active. and ends in -s. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 273). and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. verbals. then parse it as an adjective. 4. usually it does not. 2. in the world. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. definite. call might a weak verb. (a) From what verb derived. must. imperfect." Sometimes it does. call should a weak verb. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. (3) Gerund. But unless the verb is present. (b) whether active or passive. may. If a participial adjective. The government might have been strong and prosperous. past tense. indicative. Exercise. In 2. indicative (as it means could). The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. can. past tense. we must beware of the rule. till it meet the sun in his coming. give points (a) and (b). Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Let it rise! let it rise. Parse the verbs. It has been intimated in Sec. (c) to what word it belongs." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. perfect. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. III. (2) Infinitive. therefore active. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive.. would. 235. 278. You are gathered to your fathers. intransitive. has the subject government. and should always be analyzed as phrases. Take these examples:² 1. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. 277. intransitive. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 2. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. no sin nor sorrow. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. (1) Participle. and not taken as single verbs. see Sec. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. (b) its use (Sec. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive.276. perfect. etc. . 278(2).

10. 19. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. In going for water. a sweet good will. 8. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 24. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. 17. 6. 21. 20. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill.O God. he thought only of her. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. from a sort of temporary death. 14. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. With them. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. or. When he arose in the morning. a new bursting forth of the sun." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. as the Hindoos say. Right graciously he smiled on us. a new waking up of all that has life. 16. 9. 11. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. see that it is in good condition. and wondered if she were yet awake.Henceforth in me instill. 15. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. However that be. 18. 23. 22. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. . a deafening shout. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. as rolled from wing to wing. morning is not a new issuing of light. Whatever ground you sow or plant. The soul having been often born.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 12.Down all the line. So. He passed across the room to the washstand. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. leaving me upon the bed. 13. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births.5. as usual.

² The young man reveres men of genius. When action is expressed.²EMERSON. 26. as. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. and so on. Oh.²time." An adjective or an adverb. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. Is it only poets. 29. they are more himself than he is. because. for example. The word adverb means joined to a verb. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree.²CARLYLE. "William's private life was severely pure." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. 279." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. or manner: as. and men of leisure and cultivation. To the almost terror of the persons present. Adverbs modify. Better it were. to consent. Nor was it altogether nothing. and limit adjectives or adverbs. to speak truly. and live ere life be spent.²SHELLEY. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].²THACKERAY." "He was absolute. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4."²DE QUINCEY. ADVERBS. who live with nature?²ID. . And now wend we to yonder fountain. thou sayest.Feast while we may.25. for the hour of rest is at hand." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. 27. place. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. A verb. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.

ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. etc.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. Definition. perhaps. is a modifying word. lately. has induced some of us to attend it. as shown in the sentences. ²IRVING.²TROLLOPE.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. 282.²LEIGH HUNT.²These last differ from the words in Sec. as.²THOREAU. I draw forth the fruit. or a word group used as such. not simply the forms used in predication.² FRANKLIN. ALDRICH. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. A clause or sentence. 280.² LOWELL. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. for example. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. 169 are felt to be elliptical.²T. but some verb understood. but still with a rich bloom to it. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. thus. ever. We are offered six months' credit. .² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near.He was incidentally news dealer. as now. like the light of heaven. not the noun. Surely happiness is reflective. (2) according to their use in the sentence. A phrase. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. NOTE. while those in Sec. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. there are six classes:² (1) Time. It may also modify a sentence. then. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. and half awfully. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. hitherto. all wet and glossy. B. to-day. before.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. 169. 281. and that. An adverb.²BYRON. Make music to the lonely ear. which may qualify an action word or a statement. but really modifying. being adverbs naturally and fitly. Thus considered. NOTE.

] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.²LECKY.. as hence.. etc. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. etc. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. while so precedes only the adjective usually. the more friends you will have. the more evidently they love liberty. at least.whither. as hither. slightly. better. and others. as perhaps. surely. etc. just. (4) Number.²BROWNING. This long's the text. above. Emerson. as little.thence. (see also Sec. Motley. telling how much. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. bravely. etc.²HAWTHORNE.where. thus. possibly.which gained him such universal popularity. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. LOUIS STEVENSON. White.yonder. (3) Manner. or how far he believes it to be true. slowly.²SHAKESPEARE. The more they multiply.²IRVING. So also in Grote. not.² The master. 283. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. much. (5) Degree. enough. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. probably. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. especially the comparative of these words. Thackeray.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations.near. as well. maybe. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. for example. the more perfect will be their obedience. . telling how many times: once. too. etc. [Sidenote The status of such. telling how anything is done..²R.²DE QUINCEY.. I was. partly. whencesoever. whithersoever. 283).²BURKE. twice. as here.(2) Place. and not infrequently are found in literary English. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.thither. singly. beautifully.there. that these adverbs form a very large class.was for this once of her opinion. very.whence. (6) Assertion. Meekness. two by two. greatly.. etc.

Notice meanings.²FIELDING." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. and art but a fool. and its lawn before [place]. 284. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Neville.² You are mighty courteous. and other writers. Again. Beau Fielding.²THACKERAY. Aldrich." "The house.²BULWER. Mighty. Emerson. for example. STOWE. "Peace. 282." "That were far better [degree].²HAWTHORNE.² KINGSLEY. Direct questions.²"He walked too far [place]. .² "Mighty well.Pretty. Hard blows and hard money. Simple. Burke.²THACKERAY. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Pretty is also used by Prescott." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. have the additional function of asking a question. De Quincey. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Defoe. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Dickens. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. 286.²GOLDSMITH. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Franklin." "He spoke positively [manner]. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. 285. It is only occasionally used in literary English."²SCOTT. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Interrogative. a mighty fine gentleman." said the king. Holmes. B. Such are most of those given already in Sec. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. A pretty large experience.²BAYNE. for example. Some adverbs." "I have seen you before [time]. besides modifying. Kingsley. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.

(2) Place. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. 287.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. they smiled. (2) Place.²BYRON (3) Manner. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.²BYRON. (5) Reason. When did this humane custom begin?²H. .²D. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. I will not ask where thou liest low. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. WEBSTER. I hearkened. (4) Degree. I know not why.²POE.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. for example.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. (4) Degree. I do not remember when I was taught to read. CLAY.²BULWER. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.

Its strings boldlier swept. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. For further discussion.²TENNYSON.²BYRON. higher. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. Tell what each word in ly modifies. 288.²COLERIDGE. Superlative. just as adjectives do. only occasionally having -er and -est. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. soonest. not an adverb. sooner. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. Form vs. as. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. when. The following. highest.. Only that we may wiselier see.) rather 289. 290. I should freelier rejoice in that absence.But in reality. Exercise. Then must she keep it safelier. soon. when does not express time and modify. furthest (rathe. but the whole clause. obs." Exercise.²SHAKESPEARE. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. . have the same inflection as adjectives.²EMERSON.eyes.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. well much little far late Comparative.. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. use. Many adverbs are compared. Many adjectives have the same ending. irregularly compared. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. see Sec. high. representing four classes. and. when compared. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. further farthest.

seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. Not near so black as he was painted. that in Old and Middle English. 3. Again. 2. Such are most. Special use of there. 6. The reason is.²TENNYSON. merely introduces a sentence. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. to be sure. . It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. 7. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. kindly and good-natured in secret.²WORDSWORTH. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. 4. 5. He is inexpressibly mean. curiously jolly. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. There are eyes.²CHAUCER. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly.And his mien of kingly state. And all about. 2. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. near. nearly. mostly. but with a different meaning. many words without -ly have the same form. as. But he must do his errand right. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. evenly. more courtly in their manners. if it has the verb be.² EMERSON. hard.1. With his proud.²ID. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. even. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. Frequently the word there.²IRVING. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. 292. etc. 8.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly].²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. quick-flashing eye. hardly. instead of being used adverbially." Compare these:² 1. or down the leaves laughed through. whether adverbs or adjectives. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. 291.²THACKERAY.

18. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. For the impracticable. (2) Degree of comparison. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. 4. 15. 16. Exercise. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 11. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. according to meaning and also use. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. give² (1) The class. 17. 7. But a few steps farther on. at the regular wine-shop. In parsing adverbs. but from my fall? 6. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. 293. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. . It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. The higher we rise in the scale of being. and sate down on the steps of a house. is always politically unwise. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. 2. (3) What word or word group it modifies. It is the Cross that is first seen. the Madonna is in great glory. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. however theoretically enticing. 12. but continually shifted. 10. 9. 5. 3.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. Thither we went. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. if the word is compared. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. and always. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. burning in the center of the temple.

294. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. sentences.19. but side by side within the American Union. Definition. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. 22. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. should be omnipotent for evil? 24." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. It was pretty bad after that. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. hence. 295. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. nor." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. . (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. but the student will readily find them. upon which the sun now shone forth. A conjunction is a linking word. 21. Unlike adverbs. however. connecting words. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. etc." Paragraphs. But now the wind rose again. CONJUNCTIONS. word groups." Sentences. then. 20. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. Clauses. therefore. or sentence groups.

either.but (or but also).. (2) Subordinate. the butter too. likewise. "Howbeit. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.. however. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause.and.or.. as and.. 296.. not only.. word groups..or.. as but. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. whether. serves but to show their ignorance.. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. neither.. either.. (2) ADVERSATIVE. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate.. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. of the same rank. Causal.. and not man corn. Your letter. etc.or. neither. etc. The chief ones are... introducing a reason or cause. for. Nor mark'd they less. hence. as. as well as. yet. Correlatives. (4) ALTERNATIVE. Some of these go in pairs... else. and. also. The assertion. or the sea rolls its waves. nor. etc. Some go in threes.Classes of conjunctions.." Nevertheless. then. neither. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. whether.or. the window being open.but. therefore. however. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. Alternative. either. answering to each other in the same sentence. as. both... COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. but is emperor in his own right. joining words. had its weight. still. not only.nor. Adversative. 297. expressing a choice. . as well as the room door. (3) CAUSAL. 298. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.. They are or. while. nor. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.nor. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE.. While the earth bears a plant. usually between two things. moreover...or whether. only.. the bread was spent. whether.

in order that. until. while. especially that after so. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. etc. so. on condition that. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. (6) PURPOSE: that. lest. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. even if. seeing.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. (7) RESULT: that. whereas.²WILSON. however. whither.²J. . nor echo. after. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. in case. whence. whereto. in apposition. so. He is not only bold and vociferous. object.²DE QUINCEY. wherever. whether. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. provided. nor wing of bird.. whenever.. howsoever. provided that. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. etc. etc. Neither the place in which he found himself. so that.²BIBLE. although. so. before.²IRVING. ere. ²ALLSTON. 299. since. now.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. as. nor creeping²PAULDING.²COOPER. etc. Where the treasure is. sometimes if. (3) MANNER: how. so that. except. Time. there will the heart be also. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. etc. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place.. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. though. It is. QUINCY. that. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. (2) TIME: when. as. as.. unless. whithersoever. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. nor green leaf. since. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.²BURKE.

that we might celebrate its immense beauty.That vain it were her eyes to close.² EMERSON. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.² HAWTHORNE. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. As a soldier. a thousand bodies. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. not as they were expected or intended. Manner.²EMERSON. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.So I behold them not.²BYRON.²EMERSON.²BURKE. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.² WORDSWORTH. Now he is dead. JACKSON. reason. Comparison.²CAMPBELL. H.²AMES.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. Cause. . but not so long but I held it out.²IRVING. Then Denmark blest our chief. Condition. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.²EMERSON. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Concession. Substantive. Let the world go how it will. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²AMES. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. Sparing neither whip nor spur.²CARLYLE Events proceed. I was again covered with water.That he gave her wounds repose.²COLERIDGE.² H. We wish for a thousand heads.²AMES. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Result.²DEFOE. Purpose.

that. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. 15.²RUSKIN. 5. 300. He was brought up for the church. 14. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. 10. . Exercises. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. While patriotism glowed in his heart. it will remain harmless. 3. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. And they lived happily forever after. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. Crept under the leaf. No one had yet caught his character. After he was gone. Besides. however. 7. 9. as he shot in air. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. hold a subordinate rank. And then recovering. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. the lady called her servant. then. some words²for example. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. 6. while. In what point of view. The moth fly.Let us see whether the greatest. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. They. 2. since. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. as. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. 13. her real merit is known at home. the wisest. As will have been noticed. While a faction is a minority. etc. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. and hid her there. she faintly pressed her hand.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. 12. 4.

as is often equivalent to as if. As if. 303.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. . expressing degree if taken separately. In Emerson's sentence. even as they would weep. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.16.Clouded. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. His voice .As though a rose should shut.. SPECIAL REMARKS. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. for example.²IRVING. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. GREELEY. and part as though we parted not. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. Consequently. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. As for as if.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. they connect. 301. etc. In parsing conjunctions. in this case. 304. So silently we seemed to speak. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. the expression would be.²EMILY BRONTE. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner." as.²HOOD. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. and the frame will suit the picture. "We meet. In poetry. and be a bud again. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. As though.. (2) What words. If analyzed. word groups.So slowly moved about.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. 302.. thus.²BYRON. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. none of the lashings having given way. as is shown by the use of as though.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved.

as beside his own chimneys. so means provided. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. and very seldom?" 8.Caution. In classifying them. so that I could not stir abroad. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. or in the snow. If he could solve the riddle. It may be safely trusted. or in the forest. For example. 11. so it be faithfully imparted. so they paddled on. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. that it might testify of that particular ray. 6. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower.²that the fairies do not like to be named. dines with as good an appetite. such as nor. Exercise. so that expresses result.²DEFOE 2. and its clause depends on the other. 2. when. others belong to several classes. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. When the gods come among men. because it is his. . All the postulates of elfin annals. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. 9. "Doctor.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. in 3. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait.²I find them true in Concord. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. 7. He dismisses without notice his thought. and associates as happily. He is the compend of time. 3. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. he sleeps as warm. he is also the correlative of nature. 13. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. Some conjunctions. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. At sea. and its clause is independent. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. compare the sentences. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. the Sphinx was slain. they are not known. in 2." said his wife to Martin Luther.²EMERSON 3. 5.²is subordinate of condition. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. and.² 1. because. 4. 10. are regularly of one particular class. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. and the like. etc. 12. but of the natural. so means therefore. It continued raining. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries..

And whether consciously or not. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. the whole conditions are changed. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 26. I speak. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. PREPOSITIONS. you must be.14. in this they agree. 305. . in many a heart. 30. enthroned. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. 29. that both were wayward. 22. 20. when it was presented to them. 16. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 19. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last.²else it is none. therefore. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. save it were sinful like herself. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. whose names I omit.. 27. Still. For. Goodness must have some edge to it. 23. of good novels only. 18. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. There was no iron to be seen. It is clear. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. 28. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. 15. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. won't you lay on? 17. she might have the family countenance. I rejoice to stand here no longer. Now you have the whip in your hand. 24. It may be so in the majority of cases. 21. 25. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. however.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at play.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. H. CONWAY. For. at peace. by the blessed memory of the departed. At that time [the earth] was richer. at first. (4) Measure of excess. at one. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at the worst. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at most. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.²SWIFT.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. at length. Exercise. She saw the boat headed for her. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. at random. 320. expressing the degree of difference.²ALDRICH. at any rate. at all. at rest. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. Helena. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. at the best. as.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by.. D. Richard was standing by the window.² (1) The general meaning of place. he stopped. (3) Agency or means. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. By my faith. 321.²WARNER. at war. . at naught.²ID. At St. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. ²PARTON. by the ruins of nations. at least. (2) Time. by many a million of acres. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. by the wrecks of time. the first port made by the ship.²EVERETT.²DE QUINCEY. STODDARD.²M. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²COOPER. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. etc. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations.²R. Exercise. at work. at once. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. etc.²B. By. Like at. by means near or close to.

(3) Duration of time.²PARKMAN. had a forest of poor relations. But the Colonel. cause. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. respecting. etc.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. for famine. (4) Substitution or exchange.²EMERSON. but a few sunsets since. etc.²HOLMES.(2) In favor of. ate her child. etc. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. he repented of his folly.²H. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. incitement to action.²ID. in behalf of. meaning although. E.²IRVING.. L. (9) Motive. meaning with regard to. There are gains for all our losses. meaning in the character of. reason. (7) Concession."²SCOTT By my faith. He and they were for immediate attack." said the Lady of Lochleven. for all his title. and leaped for joy. Still. .hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. For him.²STODDARD. H. or in spite of. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. as being. An Arab woman. poor fellow.One of Eve's family. for the benefit of. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. For the rest. GARRISON.²HOOD. (5) Reference.² RUSKIN.. if your worship can accomplish that. "Nay. "thou hast counseled wisely.²LAMB.²E. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland.²PARKMAN. BANCROFT. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. a person or thing.²W. "For a fool." answered Master Brackett. The twilight being. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. or extent of space. for all slips of hers. the Colonna motto would fit you best. (6) Like as. as to. considering that etc. they are now for us.

²Find sentences with three meanings of from.²Find sentences with five meanings of for.²HALE. From. from a desire of seeming valiant. Exercise. or reason. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²MILTON.²HIGGINSON.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. (1) Origin or source.²ID. The original meaning of of was separation or source. A distrustful. Like boys escaped from school. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. The general idea in from is separation or source. (2) Origin. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. The From Relation. H. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. Exercise. like from. 322. From harmony. ceased to be merciful. 323. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²H. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. more. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. nay. The young cavaliers.²DRYDEN. . if not a desperate man.²BANCROFT.²HUME. The king holds his authority of the people. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. (3) Time. (4) Motive. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. cause.²HUXLEY. It was from no fault of Nolan's. Of.

free of. reason.²BOSWELL. "I am glad of that. ²PARTON. the finest army that Europe had yet seen.. acquitted them of. south of. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. Back of that tree. etc. such as ease. The hills were bare of trees. A singular want of all human relation.²SCOTT Who formed. ask. expressing a part of a number or quantity. (b) After some adjectives. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. relieve. White shirt with diamond studs. (5) Expressing agency. or breastpin of native gold. (d) With words expressing distance. motive.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause.²LEW WALLACE. You cannot make a boy know. Other Relations expressed by Of. etc. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. and grass. clear.² HUXLEY.²clear of. rid. ²GAVARRE. out of the most unpromising materials. demand. (c) After nouns expressing lack. Of the Forty.²ALDRICH.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. bound with thongs of boar's hide. that Cromwell once ruled England. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.²BAYARD TAYLOR. weeds. bare of. divest. wide of. of his own knowledge. HALE. beg. .²DICKENS II.²PARKMAN. (3) With expressions of material. deprive. More than one altar was richer of his vows.²HIGGINSON. rob. purge. free. Sandals. disarm. Asked no odds of."²E. etc. etc. (6) Partitive. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. there were only twenty-one members present.²BANCROFT. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.²ID. deprivation. etc. He is away of his own free will. especially out of. as north of. cure. E.

(10) Of reference.²W. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. The nation of Lilliput. (c) Two nouns. Besides the phrases of old. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. of is used in the sense of during. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. (7) Possessive. (9) Of time. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²BANCROFT. . of late.²ID.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²COOPER. with its object.²SWIFT.²FROUDE.²ALDRICH. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns..²LAMB. equal to about. of a sudden. (8) Appositional.²LOWELL. Not even woman's love. for the possessive. being equivalent to an infinitive. with regard to. E. ²IRVING.²HALLECK. See also Sec. could give shelter from his contumely. CHANNING.²BANCROFT. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.²PRESCOTT.He washed out some of the dirt. concerning. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. Idiomatic use with verbs. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. and the dignity of a queen. standing. Such a book as that of Job. etc.²BANCROFT. when the first is descriptive of the second. 309. (b) Noun and gerund. The fair city of Mexico. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.

permit. on view.²DE QUINCEY.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. 324. on the alert. (3) Reference. Exercise. The general meaning of on is position or direction. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. and others.²ALDRICH. On my life. and not a day more.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. repent. etc. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence.²MRS. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. concerning. Upon my reputation and credit. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. on trial. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. accept. Exercise. consist. ²BANCROFT. . On. equal to about. allow. (4) In adjurations. Upon. without adding to their meaning. 325. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²PARKMAN. (b) With motion. on a sudden. such as admit.²PARKMAN. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.²EMERSON. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. Cannon were heard close on the left. avail (one's self).²Find sentences with six uses of of. approve.²PARKMAN. Upon is seldom used to express time. (2) Time.²BRYANT. complain. on board. on high. disapprove. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. To. on the wing. SIGOURNEY. It also accompanies the verbs tire.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. etc. you are eighteen.

But when.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification.²BENTON To our great delight. We cook the dish to our own appetite.. Revolutions. unmasked.²often to the loss of vigor. . whose influence is felt to this hour. 268). (5) Equivalent to according to. (b) Referring to time. With..²IRVING. gay Comedy appears.. 326.²PARTON. To the few. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with..²B. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. In Old English. it may be genuine poetry.²BULWER. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.²PARKMAN. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²BRYANT.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.²HALE. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. Exercise. Nor. mid meant in company be written over. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.²LANG. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. His brother had died. Death!²HALLECK. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. had ceased to be. does the mere music. to my taste. He usually gave his draft to an aid.Come to the bridal chamber.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. interest. to him. (2) Expressing result.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.²GOLDSMITH.

.²HOWELLS.²DE QUINCEY. had already reached the defile.²ALDRICH. It seemed a supreme moment with him. with Heyward at its head. (5) Opposition. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. "poetry is not a pursuit. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. with all his boldness. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²COOPER.²SCOTT. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. Messala. first of all. it is necessary. in spite of. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.²Find sentences with four uses of with. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. I think. to find the object of the preposition. (2) Instrumentality. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. E. but with you. With all his sensibility. or with the haunch of our near leader. he gave millions to the sword. reason.²HOWELLS. She seemed pleased with the accident. (4) Estimation.²WALLACE (7) Time.²HALE. He expired with these words. He was wild with delight about Texas.²CHANNING. motive. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. opinion. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²EMERSON.²DE QUINCEY. but a pleasure"?²LANG. felt it unsafe to trifle further. transmitted from the beginning. as with you. HALE. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. (3) Cause. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. 327.²COLERIDGE. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. Either with the swingle-bar.²LANG.The advance.²E. Exercise.

(a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I speak these things from a love of justice. by which a dozen apples. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. 2. I remember. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. And so on. came tumbling about my ears. To our general surprise. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. of from.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. and knocked me down flat on my face. the malicious rogue. which. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. beginning. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. (2) on which. shook it directly over my head. but all to no purpose. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. The object of on board is ships. In (3). Be that as it will. 5. (3) without a country. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours.²ID. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. but I received no other hurt. the phrase answers the question where. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. Whereupon. In (2). or was. of without. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. before the dwarf left the queen. we met the defaulter here. I called out several times. 4. I felt my box raised very high in the air.²SWIFT 2. In (1). . which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. telling what man. like the clapping of wings. of on. hence we say. I heard a noise just over my head. without a country modifies man. he followed us one day into those gardens. The guns were cleared of their lumber. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. country. (4) from the beginning. 3. because I had given the provocation. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. Exercises. I looked towards my windows. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man.

I like to see the passing. 13. he favored the world with his opinions. 10. after a restful morning. 21. to one dark and gloomy. 22. 15. 9. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 20. 16. 29. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 7. 17. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 23. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. when. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day.Without stop or stay. 25. 18. in this respect. in town.6. 8. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. The savage army was in war-paint. His breeches were of black silk. 19. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. With all his learning. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 27. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 26. On all subjects known to man.He spurred his courser on. 12. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. The mother sank and fell. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. plumed for battle. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 11. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. grasping at the child. For my part. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 14. 24. . down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone.

Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. We wish that labor may look up here. (c) Substantive conjunction.² JOHNSON.30. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose.²WEBSTER. A few are discussed below. 328. (2) As an adjective pronoun. THAT. and be proud in the midst of its toil.²COLERIDGE. That night was a memorable one.²BEECHER. . That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. That was a dreadful mistake.²WEBSTER. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. (1) Relative pronoun. (3) As a relative pronoun.²STOCKTON. (b) Of result. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. And now it is like an angel's song.That makes the heavens be mute. 330.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. 329. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (a) Indefinite relative. and not according to form. (4) As an adverb of degree. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²HUXLEY.²WEBSTER. That is what I understand by scientific education. He will raise the price. that you might behold this joyous day. not merely by the amount of the tax. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. WHAT.

(b) Indirect question.²WEBSTER.. If he has [been in America]. What. (9) As an exclamation. (8) Conjunction.. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.²S.. (b) Copulative. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.²THACKERAY.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. What. What with the Maltese goats.²ID.²EMERSON. 331. partly. BUT. (b) Indirect question. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.²ID.Those shadowy recollections.. it rests on reality." (4) Relative adjective..but. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.S. but the result of calculation. silent still. (6) Exclamatory Pera.these sounds are only to be heard. and silent all!²BYRON. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. At what rate these materials would be is impossible to determine. he knows what good people are to be found there.²WORDSWORTH.. (7) Adverb of degree. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. "I'll tell you what. To say what good of fashion we can. to see what might be hidden. or not only. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.. nearly equivalent to partly.Which be they what they may.²EMERSON. after not only. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. .. Cox. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.

(1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.²SHELLEY.. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. than. To lead but one measure. equivalent to that . after a negative. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. (4) Relative pronoun. not. (e) Introducing an appositive word..²EMERSON.²IRVING. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. (c) Of degree.He yearned to our patriot bands. Who knows but.²HAWTHORNE.. Doing duty as a guard. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain... . ²CARLYLE. after such.. (b) Substantive. sometimes same.²IRVING. As orphans yearn on to their mothers.²SCOTT. 332. but piercing cries. meaning except.²FRANKLIN. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. on all sides. (b) Of manner. (5) Adverb.²IRVING. (3) Preposition. (2) Relative pronoun. stands for that .. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village.. not. AS. or who .²CARLYLE. meaning only. I shall see but little of it. towards order. at all moments. meaning otherwise . (d) Of reason. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.²LAMB. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction.Then arose not only tears. not. like the dog.²MRS BROWNING.

²LAMB. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.²HALLECK.²ALDRICH. (1) An adjective. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²HIGGINSON. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. In this second use. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. 333. and was clearly an adjective.²EMERSON.²LONGFELLOW.²CASS. staring like a bewildered man.²ALDRICH. Through which they put their heads.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. indeed. ²PARKMAN. No Emperor.²HAWTHORNE. In each case. like him awhile ago. like Martin was.²DARWIN. Note the difference between these two uses. I do with my friends as I do with my books. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. NOTE. and as or as if takes its place. Introduces a clause. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. and is followed by a dative-objective.-SCOTT. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. That face. There is no statue like this living man.²EMERSON. like drops out. this. like a cook beating eggs. but this is not considered good usage: for example. Give Ruskin space enough.²SHAKESPEARE. If the verb is expressed.² A timid. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.²MAYHEW. They look. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. . like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. like summer ocean's. but its verb is omitted. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. Stirring it vigorously.² HAWTHORNE. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. nervous child. This follows a verb or a verbal.LIKE.

but it still retains its identity as noun. etc. that is. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. as. 334. verb. in separating them into their component parts. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons.INTERJECTIONS. Value of analysis. tut! buzz! etc. clauses introduced by conjunctions. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. Some of these are imitative sounds. pronoun. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric." PART II. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech.²in determining case. subject and predicate." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. that is. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. 335. Definition.. Definition. entering into the structure of a sentence. Not all exclamatory words are interjections.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. 336. What analysis is. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. . etc. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc.: for example. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin.

A rare old plant is the ivy green. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. "Hath he not always treasures. (3) Imperative. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. not according to the form in which a thought is put. question. But now all is to be changed. 338. hence. "Come to the bridal chamber. 337. according to form. old man?" "Be thou familiar. or request. (2) Interrogative. Every sentence must contain two parts. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. but the sentence would still be declarative. Definition: Predicate. you must not die!" interrogative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. "Old year. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. entreaty. or command: for example. . A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement." 340. but by no means vulgar. 339. always friends?" imperative. Examples of these three kinds are.²a subject and a predicate. "The quality of mercy is not strained." "What wouldst thou do. which puts the thought in a question. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. interrogative. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence.Kinds of sentences as to form. but according to how many statements there are. which expresses command. Definition. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. or imperative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. Division according to number of statements. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. This is the most common one. declarative. 2.

6. but about the ivy green. adjective. In the interrogative sentence. the subject is frequently after the verb. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. . we say all is the subject of the sentence." Exercise. 5. Slavery they can have anywhere. the subject (you. 8. The last of all the Bards was he. Listen. Thus. a rare old plant. especially in poetry. to an ignorant man. on the other hand. In analyzing such sentences. 3. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something.²What is to be changed? Answer. or adverb that asks about the subject. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. But if we try this with the second sentence. we have some trouble. 341. 7. as. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. thou. or ye) is in most cases omitted. and is to be supplied. Consequently. always reduce them to the order of a statement. and the real subject is the latter. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. and our definition must be the following. not of a rare old plant.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. or an interrogative pronoun. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. all.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence.²What is the ivy green? Answer. to suit all cases:² Subject. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. 4. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. 2. "[You] behold her single in the field. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1.

It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. (2) The predicate. and means summoned. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE." Complement: 344. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. but of call chief. 342. Direct Object." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. but chief belongs to the verb. Of a transitive verb. (3) The object. for example. The transitive verb often requires. (6) Independent elements. "Ye call me chief. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. just as if to say. but it is a true complement. and by object we mean the direct object. Indirect object. (4) The complements." indirect. The subject and predicate have been discussed. . 343. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. in addition to the object. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). (5) Modifiers. or second object. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. direct. and me here is not the object simply of call. "Ye honor me.²transitive and intransitive. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions.10. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object.

Thom of the Gills." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. Phrases. "Brow and head were round. 352. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." "He was termed Thomas. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. more familiarly. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. above sixty. and barring the door." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. as. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. in exercise following Sec." 345. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds.." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. especially the forms of be. I mentioned a case of that nature." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" ." (2) PARTICIPIAL. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. A phrase is a group of words. or. ay. he was now getting old." "The good man. 351. appear. seem. 'Ay.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. etc. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. become. for instance." All these complete intransitive verbs. "A cheery. as in drowning. in the popular judgment. as in the sentence. and. Complement of an intransitive verb. not containing a verb. 355." Things used as Subject. 364. to the completion of this man of the world." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. 346. See sentence 19. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. 347. As to form." Also an expression used as a noun." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. and of massive weight. in the original Opium Confessions. introduced by a preposition: for example." (3) INFINITIVE. An intransitive verb. but used as a single modifier." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. taste. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. sir!' rang out in response. feel.

my deficiency. but the real or logical subject is to print." "Never.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust).²the infinitive phrase. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. asserting eyes." Things used as Complement. etc. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject.²the talent of starting the game. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. from their lips." "There are asking eyes. or the thundering of organs." 348. or their religion from their sect. and by Saint George!' said the King." In this sentence. . prowling eyes. (4) After "there introductory. for which see Sec. 349. was heard one syllable to justify." The for did not belong there originally. "Therein has been. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. but they will be given in detail here." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." "The dead are there. but obscures the real subject. Disguised infinitive subject. 341. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. "'By God. (2) In interrogative sentences. and ever will be." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." Things used as Direct Object. I saw the quick and the dead. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb." etc." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral.

complements of the predicate. Object." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me." "Their tempers. at the same time.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. (3) Infinitive. or the equivalent of the noun. and whenever the complement is a noun. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. As complement of an intransitive verb." (4) Participle.²completing the predicate." . Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. the shepherd girl. 351. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. and the words italicized are still complements. Of a transitive verb." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." Modifiers. the object is made the subject by being passive. they are adjuncts of the object." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. or Complement. and explaining or modifying the subject. I. Modifiers of Subject." "Serving others is serving us. As complement of a transitive verb.²heads or tails." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale.350. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. and." "I hear the echoes throng. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." In this last sentence." "She asked her father's permission. Like all the complements in this list. doubtless.

" "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. 357-363." (For participial and infinitive phrases. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. but it is really a contracted clause. 351." In such a sentence as. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. this young idolater. the prisoner at the bar. I have seasoned for thee.²proud. the verb being omitted. or complement is modified." Exercise. "He died like a God. unforgiving. Modifiers of the Predicate." "Him. 352. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. but with other men. see further Secs. austere. and modify the predicate in the same way." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. no sociable angel." "Give them not only noble teachings. not with nature." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. and leading him from star to star. II. object. or ." "In the twinkling of an eye. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. but noble teachers." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. tell whether the subject. Tells how. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. was now called upon for his defense. Retained with passive. given at the request of a Dutch lady.²In each sentence in Sec. Since the predicate is always a verb." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. was the scene from King John." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent.

as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. in regard to particulars. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. but to be loved. is good in the making. no relief to the dead prosaic level." Exercises. with my joy and grief. 7. and." (6) Adverbial objective. This. 4. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. no emotion. 5. 5. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition." "One way lies hope. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. but the children of the great. On the voyage to Egypt. the indirect object is retained. to the animal strength and spirits. he liked. 3. 6. His books have no melody. predicate. or how long. They do not wish to be lovely. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. Evil. 7. 3. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. negative. and as many to oppose it. a sort of personality to the whole writing. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. 6. 2. and other measures of precaution. predicate." "All such knowledge should be given her. These answer the question when. gives wonderful animation.When the verb is changed from active to passive. according to old philosophers. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. (b) Pick out the subject. (a) Pick out subject. I took. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. 8. etc. But anger drives a man to say anything. To the men of this world. and (direct) object:² 1. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. no humor. after dinner." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster.. Why does the horizon hold me fast." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. 2. in this center? 4. and the direct object is retained: for example. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. . how far. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. Fashion does not often caress the great.

That night. Unhorse me. Not the less I owe thee justice. Compound Predicate. for the first time. 4. this imperial rider. viz.. Their intention was to have a gay. expecting the return of their parents. . the present Archbishop of Dublin. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. 4. to the right and to the left. 3. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. that was thy portion in life. this nun so martial. 2. then. 6. must visit again the home of her childhood. six children sat by a peat fire. and a member of the world. in little peaceful Easedale.²the river Meuse. Yes. In one feature. this dragoon so lovely. y y y y Compound Subject. a room seventeen feet by twelve. downwards. then. at length the warrior lady. 2. happy dinner. 5. A river formed the boundary. 3. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 2.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. I felt myself. I gave him an address to my friend. the attorney. 5. 3. upwards. 4. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. I promised her protection against all ghosts. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. etc. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore.y 8. Not compound sentences. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. burthened with the anxieties of a man. after their long confinement to a ship. To suffer and to do. the blooming cornet. at the chief hotel. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. Paint me.

shouldered the rusty firelock.. the tone of her voice. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." And so with complements. For example. several modifiers. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. but it is to be noticed that. forming a sentence: "Oh." "Voyages and travels I would also have. two or more subjects of the same predicate. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. exposes. Larger view of a sentence. that is. etc. then the grammatical subject and predicate. however. in all such sentences as we quote below. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. and the rest is the logical predicate. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. together with all its modifiers. hurry." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. my brave young man!" ." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. the verb). may be the person or thing addressed. modifiers. ulcer." "The name of the child. and. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. the predicate. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. "Ah. 354. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. the air of the mother." Sentences with compound predicates are. I'm with you once again. complements. same as (1). hurry. 355. etc. "The company broke up." "Ye crags and peaks." "He shook his head. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. etc. the object. Independent Elements of the Sentence. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. together with its modifiers. they are not a necessary part. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. and its object or complement. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. the simple subject is situation. Of this. Examples of compound subjects are.353. The exclamatory expression. turned his steps homeward. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. above: thus. in the sentence. Bishop.

as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. grandma.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short." Another caution. 4). modifying a noun. he somehow lived along." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. this story runs thus. therefore. These need close watching." "Why. see Sec. (1) Adjectival. and so on. he was a conscientious man. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion.. 357. In their use. the company broke up. to the best of my remembrance." (2) Adverbial. 6)." (3) Independent. There are some adverbs. why. truly. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. 356. etc. ." (6) Single words: as. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. The words well. 351. how you're winking!" "Now. six quill-driving gentlemen. yes! everybody knew them. 4). are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. pronoun. object. instances of which were seen in Sec." "Well. or complement (see Sec. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. 355. 3. besides. see Sec. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. "Oh." "At all events. and some conjunctions. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow." "No. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. generally speaking.. y (2) The adverbial use. that have an office in the sentence. her noticing even this is creditable. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. 350. already noticed." "Truth to say. really." (5) Participial phrase: "But. prepositional phrases may be." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. let him perish. now. 352. such as however." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. undoubtedly. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. etc. then. (b) As a modifier of subject. moreover. he closed his literary toils at dinner. or word used as a noun: for example. nevertheless. such as perhaps. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. modifying the predicate.

but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. my dear. y (a) With may (might).seem. he should not have known them at all. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. "Because I was. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES." (c) With the definite forms of go. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. therefore. 355. etc. but require somewhat closer attention. See Sec. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. This case excepted." "There. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every .can (could). and they will be presented here in full. but having no other office than a verbal one. was speedily run through. thus. modifying was speedily run through. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. I." etc. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business.: as in the sentences. 358. Wilt thou.should. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts.]. and hence is adverbial.would. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. being equivalent to a future with obligation. containing no matters of business. "The letter of introduction. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. and teach her how to be happy and good. etc. (5).: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. ought. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule." (b) With the forms of be. necessity.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. or as nearly so as the student will require." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. The verbal use." In this sentence.

.²both purpose clauses. complement. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. to look means that he might look. 351. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. was to have the foe's life at their mercy." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. The fact that the infinitives in Sec." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. . already examined." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. II." "Are you mad. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. Don Guzman. to please is equivalent to that he may please. result. hang the idiot. The substantive use." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. IV. To test this." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. and the eyes to fill?" 359. etc. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. 361 are used adverbially. 5). "But there was no time to be lost. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. notice the following:² In (1)." (3) As complement: See examples under (1).moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). object." "He insisted on his right to forget her. 361. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. is evident from the meaning of the sentences.: for example. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). above. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. The adverbial use. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. 362. to hear McOrator after dinner." "To teach is to learn." 360." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. modifying a noun that may be a subject. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. the Scotch fighting all the battles." "To say what good of fashion we can. III." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. etc. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. The adjectival use. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. (4) In apposition.

363. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. (5) The subject (Sec. In (4). (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. to find shows the result of the return. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. object. to hear means if you should hear. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. give² (1) The predicate. not in a book. (7) Independent elements (Sec. 355. 352). 349). and to betray and to bring express the reason. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. equivalent to that you betray. 268. which is of two kinds. In (5).. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. (3). give the complement (Secs. savage and serene in one hour. etc.²both expressing condition. 364. must be in a life.In (2). Our life is March weather. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. 347). I will try to keep the balance true. 351). 351). and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 4. 2. V. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. etc. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. 3. The independent use. etc.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. In (3). If it is an incomplete verb. In analyzing simple sentences. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. . to part means because I part. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers.. 351). and to say is equivalent to if we say." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 355)." (See also Sec. as in Sec.

23. to keep England out of war. 12. just on the edge of destruction. through evil agents. in popular use. 11. and every moment discover something new. 6. 17. 13. I have heard Coleridge talk. neither ammunition.The old crow of Cairo. 7. nor generals. 20. .4. 24. two stricken hours. a skilled musician. with eager energy. nor himself. 16. to the moral sphere. nor troops. You may ramble a whole day together. To these gifts of nature. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. 15. Through the years and the centuries. 5. His opinion is always original. is to have no political system at all. 22. 9.Burnt green and blue and white. To be hurried away by every event. The word conscience has become almost confined. to restore civil and religious order. a good shot. good and amiable otherwise. an accomplished scholar. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. The whole figure and air. a graceful dancer. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. through toys and atoms. He risked everything. always in a bad plight. 14. We are always in peril. 8. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. The water. and spared nothing. 10. Her aims were simple and obvious. the carrion crow. Old Adam. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. and to the purpose. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. might be called flabby and irresolute. nor money. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune.²a getting-out of their bodies to think.He sat in the shower. like a witch's oils. 21. 19. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 18.²to preserve her throne.

The cry.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. 27.Effacing many a stain of former crime. I hate him and myself. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. 29. had but one foible. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 36. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 33. and the wherefore? . 39. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. proud foe. in less heroic and poetic form. 41. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. 34. The villain. still. Now. the present capital of New England. haply. an elderly man. to be a reproach to such goodness. Supposing this computation to be correct. secluded. She had made a two days' march. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 40. in front of all this mighty crowd. 37. Upon this shore stood. and the why. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. In the Acadian land. 26. 35. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. to bid you leave the place now and forever. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Oxford. 38. upon my own ground. This amiable relative. baggage far in the rear. the ship was in an uproar. the prime minister of Spain. and. But yield. and in my own garden. in this world. Of the same grandeur. it would not have been filial or ladylike. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. or perhaps one virtue. and no provisions but wild berries. time-honored. the same Condé Olivarez. 31. 32. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. on the shores of the Basin of Minas.Distant. 30. Few in number.25. I dare this. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. Fair name might he have handed down. ready to receive her. Must we in all things look for the how.

As shown in Part I." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. as would be the connective instead of like. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. if they were expanded. COMPLEX SENTENCES. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities.From her own loved island of sorrow. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. thus. made merely for convenience and smoothness. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. the pride and beauty of the grove. though often treated as phrases. 367. are really contracted clauses. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. however. The simple sentence the basis." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. as." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. which is the unit of speech. (Sec." Sentences with like.² "She is like some tender tree. . 366. Words left out after than or as." To show that these words are really omitted. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences." This must. 333). compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. the expressions of manner introduced by like. 365. but.

and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. A clause is a division of a sentence. complements. containing a verb with its subject.. modifiers. CLAUSES. then we recognize this as the main statement. is taken in. object. complement. Definition. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. A principal.. 371. etc.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. each clause has its subject. predicate. which are so united that one member is the main one. main. and the last. logically depends on suffering. 368. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. 369. as in this sentence. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. we are aware. Independent clause.²the other members subordinate to it. or it may be applied to the others. how great .² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. suffering. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. that . . and modifier. Hence the following definition:² Definition. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. that is..Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. or dependent on it. and the next one.. 370. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. murmur. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. object.²the backbone.²the dependent or subordinate clauses.

and it is . Noun Clauses. impertinences²would be grammatical. verbal. 352.. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences." Just as the object noun. 5). for example.. clauses are divided into NOUN. (b) that are .Dependent clause. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. so the object clause is retained. put an end to my fancies. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories.. Kinds." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. But since they are complex in form.. and ADVERB clauses. ADJECTIVE. 'I know that he can toil terribly. 372. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. but logically the sentence is. . that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend.. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. or adverbs. We ourselves are getting . over which the torrent came tumbling. and the whole clause is not. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. with a noun clause in apposition with it. pronoun." 374. (a) Ordinary apposition." (2) Object of a verb. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. infinitive." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. As to their office in the sentence. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise.. for example." "I was told that the house had not been shut." (4) Apposition. etc.' is an electric touch. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. for a time. for a hundred years." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. thus. night or day." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. adjectives. impertinences. 373.. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. attention is called to them here." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause.

that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. which. but. Frequently there is no connecting word. 10. and not on the sentiment. etc. 9. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. 375. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. that. he could know nothing. 3. What history it had. whither. of a nation. Such a man is what we call an original man. . whence. 5. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. no man will ever know. he would repent it. whether he should choose one or not. how it changed from shape to shape. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. As the office of an adjective is to modify. Adjective Clauses. Examples of adjective clauses. But the fact is. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. Except by what he could see for himself." Exercise. 7. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. still remains reasonable. 8. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. Other examples of this construction are.² "It is on the understanding. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. that he was a scheming impostor. that all safe legislation must be based. or equivalent of a noun. whereby. 6." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. 4. 2. a falsehood incarnate. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. that. I was napping. sometimes by the conjunctions when. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. where. as. wherein. The reply of Socrates. in the sentence. a relative pronoun being understood.

which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 4. etc." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. and tell what each one modifies. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. he begins to help us more as an effect. 10. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once.376." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. which Rowena tasted." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. all is vacancy. I walked home with Calhoun. i. 11. 2. 7. 1. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. Adverbial Clauses. Pick out the adjective clauses." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. which formed the center of the mansion. . There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. the champions advanced through the lists. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. 3. 6. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 8.. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. 5." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. or that essence we were looking for." Exercise. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. No man is reason or illumination.e. whether subject. object. 9." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight.

and will be given in detail. however. is wider.² whoever. expressing the degree in which the horizon.. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. 378. etc. the wider is the horizon of their thought. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand.377." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. an adjective. etc. introduced by indefinite relatives. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion.: "But still." "Who cares for that. adverbs. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. and adverbial conjunctions. with examples. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. shaping our actions. it takes precedence of everything else." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. to make up our shortcomings." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. Joanna is better. however good she may be as a witness." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." "The right conclusion is. Exercise. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. Shakespeare is our city of refuge." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome." These mean no matter how good. that we should try." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. he goes away as if nothing had happened. but they require careful study. whatever." "When he was come up to Christian." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. the milestones are grave-stones." "The broader their education is. so far as we can. no matter what remains." "After leaving the whole party under the table. a verbal." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. or an adverb. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance." (9) CONCESSION. etc. since he was too great to care to be original. tell what kind each is." (7) RESULT." (5) DEGREE. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. and what it modifies:² ." (3) REASON. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." "He went several times to England.

and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. then treat noun clauses as nouns. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. find the principal subject and principal predicate. its object is that Odin was a reality. etc. predicate. If the children gathered about her. and modifiers. when the wind was unruly. of which clause Odin is the subject. so as to picture the parts and their relations. (2) First take the sentence as a whole." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. 379." 2.1. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. incoherent exclamations. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. howling and whistling. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. they might perhaps say of their visitors. in the sentence. and twirling weathercocks. object. to tell the truth. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. as they sometimes did. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. on a dark wintry night. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. with shrill. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. snatching up stones to fling at them. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. banging about doors and windows. we are a little disappointed. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. 3. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. For example. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . 380. 'Well. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES.

That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. as seen in the "map" (Sec. 2. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. 364..| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. Exercises. (1) Find the principal clause.. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 364. 3. 380). . that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. d. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and .

the flower should revive for us. 9. 24. that. This is she. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. for yours. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 6. 19. if applied to the Bible. counselor that had none for herself. 23. Had they been better chemists. The night proved unusually dark. 22. of a light hazel. the mixed result. Here lay two great roads. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 20. could not have been effected. or whether any. as for armies that were too many by half. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. 21. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. M. . so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. not so much for travelers that were few. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. He was what our country people call an old one. bishop. namely. which. Next came a wretched Dominican. 11. 8. that pressed her with an objection. 10. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. 13. 5. had we been worse. the shepherd girl. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. Now. whom I choose. dying for them. And those will often pity that weakness most. But now that she has become an establishment.4. 12. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 18. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. 16. I like that representation they have of the tree. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. The deep eyes. 15. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 14. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. 7. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. Whether she said the word is uncertain. 17. who would yield to it least. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year.

28. That which we do not believe. and not from his heart. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. or commands. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 5. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. 3. 7. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia.²which will not be disposed of. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. and what content I can find in conversing with each. if continuously extended. that it was no more than his daily walk. 382. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. and temper.25. . The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. if there be one to whom I am not equal.² Definition. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. would easily reach. (b) First analyze. though we may repeat the words never so often. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. speed. but above it. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. Hence the definition." 4. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 380. "No book. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. How formed. then map out as in Sec. 6. "was ever written down by any but itself. questions. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. COMPOUND SENTENCES. the following complex sentences:² 1. is to speak and write sincerely. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 2. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation." said Bentley. 26. 30. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. 27. and stamped with his right number. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. 383. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. we cannot adequately say. These things we are forced to say.

385. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. from the second." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. now adverbs or prepositions. Exercise. Of the following illustrative sentences. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). moon-like ray" (adversative). etc. he soliloquizes. others sometimes coördinate. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. The coördinate conjunctions and. however. and it shall be the universal sense. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. yet. whereas. he walks with arms akimbo. the planet has a faint. the semicolon separates the first. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. and nor the second and third complex members. which are simple statements. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. in (2). the waving grass." 384.. nor." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. he is twice a man. "Only the star dazzles. Speak your latent conviction. he dilates. Thus in (1). and which complex:² 1. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. Connectives. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. 386. while (whilst). as in Sec. a complex member. if there are any. tell which are compound. for. The division into members will be easier. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. . 383 (1). etc. or but. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. Another example is. a simple member. 297). Some of these are now conjunctions. and not the form of the connective. and connects the first and second complex members. in (3). Study the thought. as but. nor does he know until he has tried.

and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 13. for example. all pain. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. (i) Separate it into its main members. 4. the tax is certain. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. I can yet love. 7. passed in that time. you have gained something else. . but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. 3. 14. Whilst the world is thus dual. to find a pot of buried gold. 5. 11. In this manner. from a happy yet often pensive child. I can still receive. 10. and not by what each is. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. and as yet very early in the morning. 6. All loss. quiet.2. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. yield to them heart and life. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. Exercise. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. Love. Man does not stand in awe of man. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. so is every one of its parts. nay. or. The gain is apparent. and for everything you gain. and thou shalt be loved. 387. 4. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. however. 12. For everything you have missed. that it was Easter Sunday. he grew up to be a mild. 8. is particular. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. you lose something. 9. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. 3. 381. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 2. However some may think him wanting in zeal. unobtrusive boy. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. 364.

9. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. and they repel us. Whatever he knows and thinks. and they will show themselves great. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. and the other dares not. abide by it. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. give those merits room. Stand aside. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. 20. and each shows only what lies at its focus. Come into port greatly. 6. one is afraid. and he learns who receives. whilst frankness invites frankness. "as nigh the scythe as you can. "the iron is white. and the cart as nigh the rake. and not an emotion of bravery. 19. or men will never know and honor him aright. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. When you have chosen your part. 8. Trust men. 15. that let him communicate. and not a thought has enriched either party. puts the parties on a convenient footing. as children. 21. if you rip up his claims. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. We see the noble afar off. 14. 18. or sail with God the seas. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world.5. which always make the Actual ridiculous." says the smith. feign to confess here. crook and hide. or hope. and makes their business a friendship. He teaches who gives. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. We go to Europe." "keep the rake. . only that they may brag and conquer there." 13. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. 7. "Strike. because. modesty. and the peace of society is often kept. Times of heroism are generally times of terror." says the haymaker. or we read books. let them mount and expand. 17. and you are without effort impelled to truth. or we pursue persons. 11. why should we intrude? 10. is as thin and timid as any. and they will be true to you. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. They will shuffle and crow. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. 16. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. treat them greatly.

verb and subject. but its leading characteristic is. 24. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax.22. if they live. it never was known to fall into the rear. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. it ends in headache. PART III. Essential point in English syntax. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. Following the Latin method. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. 388. they lose themselves in the crowd. they die young. adjective and noun. 25. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. Ground covered by syntax. but they never acquit the debt. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. but go about your business anywhere. We see young men who owe us a new world.²agreement and government. SYNTAX. 380. Do not craze yourself with thinking. So does culture with us. the department of syntax will be a small affair. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. or. and dodge the account. pronoun and antecedent. so readily and lavishly they promise. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. INTRODUCTORY. By way of introduction. 23. 390. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their .

standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. or the same writer will use both indifferently. pronoun and antecedent. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. and whose judgment. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar." In this there is a possessive form. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. the sentence. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. then. and added to it the preposition of." that is." is ambiguous. therefore. the order being inverted. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. Also in the sentence. take the sentence. 393. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. both forms will be given in the following pages. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. . authorities²that is. sometimes verb and subject. "None remained but he. also expressing a possessive relation. or when they exist side by side in good usage. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. good English. distinct forms would be used. etc. 392. but are not now. Second. and it would not matter which one stood first. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. as to study inflected forms. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. following the regular order of subject. "The savage here the settler slew. This is not logical. When usage varies as to a given construction. The basis of syntax. There is. and imitate it. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). or settler may be the subject. Savage may be the subject. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. Some rules not rigid. In some cases. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. As an illustration of the last remark." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. and nothing but important points will be considered. In Latin. some of which conform to classical grammar. Why study syntax? 391.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. For example.² First.

PRONOUNS. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. as. and Pope's. Adam and Eve's morning hymn.² Live your king and country's best support. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.²MILTON. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. etc.²MACAULAY.NOUNS. Bentham's principles together.²ROWE. 394. ²ID. . but imply separate possession or ownership. for example. Separate possession. and Peterborough's. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays.²THACKERAY. sense and nature's easy fool. Woman. and Peter's. and Harley's. 408). the antechamber of the High Priest. Putting Mr. Mill's and Mr.² He lands us on a grassy stage. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. 396." Juletta tells.²RUSKIN. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. He kept Bolingbroke's. Joint possession. or indicate joint ownership or possession.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. the shore of Galilee. Use of the possessive.²EMERSON.²MCCULLOCH. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. 395. and Paul's. 397.²BYRON.

. for example. Some of the violations are universally condemned. others are generally. together with the relative who. who.²POPE. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. there are two general rules that require attention.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS." 400." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. thus. But he must be a stronger than thee. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. sanctioned. and should be the nominative form. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. the last expression has the support of many good writers.²BYRON. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.) "The young Harper. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. Bedott Papers.²WHITCHER. No mightier than thyself or me. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). Since most of the personal pronouns. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. if not universally. General rules. 398.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me.²SOUTHEY. I. This should be "as she. whom is the complement after the verb am.²THACKERAY. Objective for the nominative. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.²TROLLOPE. as.²SHAKESPEARE. Still. 399. the real thought being forgotten. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject.

they are yet holier than we. for example.²THACKERAY. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable.²SCOTT. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. But still it is not she. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. are.²COLERIDGE. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. and the other forms of the verb be. In spoken English. BLACK. One exception is to be noted. namely. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who.²PARTON. both in England and America. as. The usage is too common to need further examples.² For there was little doubt that it was he. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.²RUSKIN."²WM.² One I remember especially. unless a special. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed." 401. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. on the other hand."²KINGSLEY. The camp of Richard of England.²FIELDING. the objective form is regularly found. Patrick the Porter.²LONGFELLOW. but such is the fact. it will not be me. And it was heThat made the ship to go. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. "Who's there?"²"Me. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. "Than whom."²WINTHROP. . Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.²KINGSLEY.²MACAULAY. "If there is any one embarrassed." There is no special reason for this. is. A safe rule.

it is me. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). object of saw). but not he" (he should be him. or preposition which governs it. Me in exclamations. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. 9. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. and prepositions. 5.²MILTON. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. verbals. or this. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. used after verbs. or us). I speak not to" (he should be him. Whom they were I really cannot specify. "Ask the murderer. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences." 6. 7. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. as this from Shakespeare. 11. as. verbal. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. . as. 403. now. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. Truth is mightier than us all. Nominative for the objective. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. You know whom it is that you thus charge. as. 10." the word being in apposition with murderer). in the case of words used in apposition with the object. 404. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. 4. the object of to). It is not me you are in love with. If there ever was a rogue in the world.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. you or me. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person.Exercise. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. (3) By forgetting the construction. 2. 8. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. 3.

Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. Thy shores are empires. for they say there are none such in the world. 2. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. changed in all save thee.Exception 1. as. etc.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.²STEELE. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. as. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²BYRON. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. "Who did you see?" or. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. after the preposition but (sometimes save). "Who were they talking to?" etc. Exercise. I've sworn.²KINGSLEY. 406.² All were knocked down but us two. Let you and I look at these.²BYRON. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Nature. I arraign.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. None. as well as the objective. 405. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. but he.²KINGSLEY. partial Nature. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. for example.²KINGSLEY. Who have we here?²ID.²GOLDSMITH. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. Exception 2. We regularly say.Shall be left upon the morn. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. and is usually avoided. Thou. . save thou and thine. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. all but he. who interrogative.

407.²RUSKIN. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. 12.²DE QUINCEY.²SCOTT.²C.3. 5. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. who. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. Bartholomew. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. or objective? . Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 7. B. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. POSSESSIVE FORMS. They are coming for a visit to she and I. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. and they know that as well as me. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. with Jortin and Thirlby. 6. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. This usage is not frequent. BROWN." 4. 11.Ye I salute. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. 10. Preceding a gerund. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well.²possessive. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. As antecedent of a relative.²THACKERAY. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. Markland. and by hers whom I most worship on earth.²MACAULAY. They crowned him long ago. 9. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. 8. II.

²RUSKIN. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.² SCOTT. and asked why it was not made. But in common use there is no such distinction.²MACAULAY. Why both are found. and the meaning is. sometimes it has the objective. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. In the examples quoted. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.²DICKENS. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. that the bitterness of death was past. We heard of Brown.² CARLYLE.² IRVING. and that in the second. as he turned away from his wife. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.² THACKERAY. [who was] studying law. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.²BREWER. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. .408. The last incident which I recollect. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.²CARLYLE. Objective. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. studying is a gerund. Both types of sentences are found. Possessive. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea.²DE QUINCEY. etc. object of heard of." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. Here I state them only in brief. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. The use of the objective is older." That is. both are gerunds.

or is a distributive word.²CABLE. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. The pale realms of shade. taking in each of many persons. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. number. and gender.² BRYANT. and ought to agree with them in person. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²RUSKIN. If any one did not know it.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON III. preceded by a distributive. Examples of these constructions are. if the antecedent is neuter.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. In such a case as the last three sentences.²C.²THACKERAY. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. Watch for the real antecedent. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. 410. Every city threw open its gates.²THOREAU. 409.²HOLMES.²HUXLEY.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²when the antecedent. .²DE QUINCEY.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²DEFOE. it was his own fault.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. where there were examinations. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. BROCKDEN BROWN. Everybody had his own life to think of. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. in one person.²AUDUBON. the pronoun will be neuter singular.

By using the plural pronoun. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²PALGRAVE. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. Struggling for life. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²EMERSON. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Every one must judge of their own feelings. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²SCOTT. not a mowing idiot.²DEFOE. let them break it off. This is not considered the best usage.²FIELDING. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²BIBLE.²THACKERAY. as anybody in their senses would have done. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²AUSTEN. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. . Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. and giving them means of being so. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. for example. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. The sun. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. till they have lost him. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²RUSKIN.² Not the feeblest grandame. Whosoever hath any gold. 411. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²HUXLEY.²ID.²PAULDING.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²BYRON. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²ID. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. If the part deserve any comment.²PALEY.

and that always restrictive. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. It adds a new statement to what precedes. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent.) and a personal pronoun. 2. no one could take upon them to say. and that are restrictive or not. that being considered already clear. which. and does not add a new statement." A relative. and he went away. because. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. as. who went away. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES.² SHERIDAN. but. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive.²In the above sentences. What these terms mean. . "I gave it to the beggar.²ADDISON. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. unless both genders are implied. As to their conjunctive use. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. Exercise.²HAWTHORNE. or what was become of her.²ID. tell whether who. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. but. when restrictive. according to the practice of every modern writer. etc. In the following examples. That is in most cases restrictive. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. I." This means. 412. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. Exercise. 1. which. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. when coördinating. 413. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. A relative.Where she was gone. the definite relatives who." It defines beggar. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. or unrestrictive. in each instance:² Who. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers.

or it might have gone hard with the tutor. etc. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. he. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. For example. However. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. 10. you. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. 14. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.²DE QUINCEY. which Mr. 7. BEECHER 5. .²ID.² MOTLEY. That. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. and over England are saying. W. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.²ADDISON. because of its antecedent.²HOLMES. 414. 6.² NEWMAN.. So different from the wild. 9. 8. in the sentence. as that does not vary for person or number. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. etc. long arms and legs. On hearing their plan. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive.²ID. who. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. Hare has printed. which was to go over the Cordilleras. We say I.² CARLYLE. down. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. 11. The rule.² IRVING." that is invariable as to person and number. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.²THOREAU. Which. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. but. that were often vicious. and it is called logic. they. In what sense true. 13. II.3. etc. it makes the verb third person singular. 12. she agreed to join the party. Yet how many are there who up. 4. hard-mouthed horses at Westport.²H. these or that which. A grizzly-looking man appeared.²DE QUINCEY. With narrow shoulders. The general rule is.

²HOLMES. [singular or plural. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.. "one of the finest books that have been published.²ADDISON. Let us be of good cheer. etc.. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. The latter is rather more frequent. He is one of those that deserve very well. and write the verb in the plural. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. [plural] that who. but myself." One of .²HOWELLS. etc. "one of the finest books that has been published..²LOWELL.. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.] Both constructions are frequently found. when he derided the shams of society. French literature of the eighteenth century. T. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.²MACAULAY.²whether we should say.. 415. or which . Franklin. the true antecedent. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.²BOWLES.. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. but speaks of him as that sort. The fiery youth ." or. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. and in improving a victory.²ADDISON. with one as the principal word. JR.²SCOTT. MORSE.²J. A disputed point. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. in winning a battle. but the former has good authority. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions..²LECKY. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY.²M. ARNOLD.²LOWELL. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. Singular. who rarely speak at all. .Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. others regard books as the antecedent.

return. and such like: as. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. 416. that is. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.² .²SWIFT. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.²EMERSON. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.In that same state I came. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. when the relative word is a pronoun. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. Exercise. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²EMERSON. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²DEFOE.²VAUGHAN. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME.²ADDISON. 417.² THACKERAY. whence.² RUSKIN. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. object of a preposition understood. But I by backward steps would move.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. or where] he died.And.²IRVING.²GOLDSMITH. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay." "India is the place [in which. The same day I went aboard we set sail.²SCOTT. when this dust falls to the urn.²BURNS. I could see nothing except the sky.²CARLYLE. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.A rare Roundabout performance. III. where."²DICKENS.²In the above sentences. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. IV. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²ID.

²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. which.² MACAULAY. she passed the lamp over her face and person. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. boats. Caution.. but we find the relative who.²ADDISON. etc. as is not used.²R. he.²SCOTT. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. W. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. I might as well have staid at home. for example. or that. 418. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. but. looking-glasses. ²GOLDSMITH. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. The regular construction. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. That. Mr. if same is followed by a complete clause. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.² as his apprentice. with Turner. Anacoluthic use of which. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. CHURCH. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.²FRANKLIN. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. if I had resolved to go on with. was a discoverer. V. Which. but which is usually carefully avoided.² THACKERAY.²SWIFT.² BURKE.. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin.² Which. and working in the same spirit. They believe the same of all the works of art. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. . as of knives.He considered.

but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. and which. But who. After this came Elizabeth herself. le Conte. etc. which when Mr. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun... who are now thrown. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. or leave out both connective and relative. but none is expressed. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. 4.²which if they once heard. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.²DE QUINCEY. 3.²SHAKESPEARE. once a great favorite of M.²HAWTHORNE. Express both relatives. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. or. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. and who are now thrown upon their compassion.²GOLDSMITH. As the sentences stand.²RUSKIN. now thrown upon their.²SCOTT. 2. He delivered the letter. That is. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. etc." etc.² Direction for rewriting. or omit the conjunction.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. (3) "Among the poorer sort. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. Exercise. Thornhill had read. he said that all submission was now too late. and this be placed in the proper clause. (2) "Among the poorer sort. ." etc. This was a gentleman.²THACKERAY. but." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. and who are now. (1) "Among those who are poor. And who." etc. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. 419.She'd come again. 1. Exercise..

²IRVING.²SCOTT.²PEARSON. . then.²DE QUINCEY. which the Scotch had learned. 13. 12. That . like that spoken in the towns. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. and which may even be heard a mile off. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. 6. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. and which. But which. Exercise.5. I shall have complete copies. indeed.. 9. the French. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. etc. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin.²HAWTHORNE. 7. 1. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. 8.²SCOTT. and repeat this for any further reference. etc. "What knight so craven. 420.. and to whom no door is closed. "A mockery. one of signal interest. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. who." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. 10. Dr. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. and which has never been described. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. Akin to the above is another fault. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy.. 11. Or which. And which. English by name. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That .. Or who.²DE QUINCEY.² MOTLEY. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. either from imitation of their frequent allies. as a false and astucious mark. I saw upon the left a scene far different.

Such as .²EMERSON. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.2. 12.. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. E.. but which. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. but which is perhaps not so different from it.. Which .. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.. 6. SIMMS. He.²HOLMES. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. G. the cent. 5. which. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. In my native town of Salem. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.. I recommend some honest manual calling. He flung into literature.²SCOTT That which .. which. was hung in air. 14. 3.²W.²HAWTHORNE. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. I grudge the dollar.²SCOTT. was a bustling wharf. in his Mephistopheles. whom.²DEFOE. . 4. the dime.²W. 9.. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.²EMERSON. in his present condition. and to whom I do not belong. Such as .. 11.. 15. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. such as they have very probably been bred to.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. that .²DE QUINCEY. at the head of what. I give to such men as do not belong to me. The Tree Igdrasil. It rose into a thrilling passion.²BEECHER.²HALLAM.. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. CHANNING. 10. 8. and whose examples and principles we inherit. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. half a century ago. 7.. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. 13. what. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. That . and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. that.²HOWELLS. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.

In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. always at war with one another. 422.² Some one must be poor. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. England was then divided between kings and Druids. By their original meaning. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. whether or not the two are equivalent.²HAWTHORNE. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. as. as. for example. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.²EMERSON. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. 421. that not all combined. one another.²DICKENS. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects.²RUSKIN. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. We call ourselves a rich nation.²ID. in which case any should be used instead. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. Each other.²RUSKIN. and in want of his gold²or his corn. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.² HAWTHORNE. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. Use of any. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. . Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²GOLDSMITH.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²MACAULAY. as it were.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. Assume that no one is in want of either. Distributives either and neither. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.

for him have I offended. even in Bettine. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. in the prose of the present day. before that.²SCOTT. during his stay at Yuste. that I know of. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . I mean that any of them are dead? None are. as. Examples of its use are.²THACKERAY. Any usually plural.²BURKE. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.. speak. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²PROF. The adjective pronoun none is. as.²STIRLING. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.² In earnest. at one time in Bacon. . any was often singular. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. 423. None usually plural.² If any. as none of the French philosophers were.. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be..²SHAKESPEARE.² EMERSON.²BIBLE. 424. any of his friends had died. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. whilst I still cherish their genius. when any of them are so good as to visit me. None of Nature's powers do better service. if ever man was. and is isolated. In earlier Modern English. in Shakespeare. let him ask of God. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. I beseech you. Do you think. then in Plotinus.²BEECHER Whenever. which is plural as often as singular. usually plural.²EMERSON. afterwards in Goethe.²FRANKLIN. etc. Do you think. Caution. then in Plutarch.²CARLYLE. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). If any of you lack wisdom.

. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. etc. for example.. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. and all was lost on the other. the plural.² Singular.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. fixing his eyes on the mace.²NAPIER Plural.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. which is used absolutely. etc.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. or somebody else's? 426. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. when it means all persons: for example. are treated as units.²SCOTT Like the use of any. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. that all was lost. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. nobody else. and Ford has nobody's else.² PEARSON.²THOREAU.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. etc. and less rarely in poetry.² None of them was cleansed. The light troops thought . and hence is more likely to confuse the student.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. etc. Somebody's else. The compounds somebody else. 425. any one else.²McMASTER. saving Naaman the Syrian. When all were gone. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. as.

²RUSKIN..A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²N. unlike anybody else's in the world. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²MULOCH. "Ye see.SYDNEY SMITH. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's." "those kind of trees. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. for example. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft.²DICKENS.²AUSTEN.² FIELDING. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.² These kind of knaves I know. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. etc. WILLIS. These sort. etc." "all manner of men. ELIOT.²in such as "these sort of books. 427. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. Whitefield or Wesley.²G. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²SWEET." the nouns being singular. . Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. the adjectives plural.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). Again. STOWE. P. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. London.² Saturday Review. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. or those sort of people.²RUSKIN.curled once all over it in long tendrils.²THACKERAY. or some other such great man as a bishop."²MRS.²SHERIDAN. His hair. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. ADJECTIVES. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. all manner of.

as. According to the approved usage of Modern English. Consequently we have a confused expression." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. Later form. "This sort of trees should be planted. to express a higher degree of quality.The library was open." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). with all manner of amusing books. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. or one object with a class of objects. This the modern expression reverses. in spoken English. gradually displacing the old. which accounts for the construction. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. more alarming than a total silence." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. such as. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. 428. Should we say. made to agree with it.² Which is the better able to defend himself. when the necessary dispositions concur. History of this construction. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. for example. they said. In Old and Middle English. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. the victor or the vanquished.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. At the source. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. Of two such lessons. "These kind of trees are best. The result.²RUSKIN. or the nouns to the plural. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. not "all kinds of wild animals." A question. "This kind of rules are the best. and the adjective is.² PRESCOTT. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. . Burke's sentence. and in this way may take a plural verb. Use of the comparative degree. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract.

This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²LOWELL. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. by almost the breadth of my nail. has sanctioned. if not. I am concerned to see that Mr. the highest stakes are paid.²SWIFT.²SCOTT.²CARLYLE. 430. would not have had the face. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. Henry. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. Exercise. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other.² THACKERAY. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.²MACAULAY. 4.A braver ne'er to battle rode. To the man who plays well.²TROLLOPE.²MACAULAY. 6.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. than any of his court.²HAWTHORNE.²THACKERAY. . to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. Other after the comparative form. etc. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. 3. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. Even Dodd himself.²WIRT. Superlative with two objects. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. Use of the superlative degree. 429."²ID. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. 2. Gary. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²HUXLEY. 5. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. He is taller.

."²GOLDSMITH.²Bible.²BEN JONSON. ha.²MRS. CÆSAR. Double comparative and superlative."²HAWTHORNE. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child.²EMERSON. I should say that one has the best cause.²RUSKIN. and the other contains the best men. whichever can be got easiest. not a bit of high life among them.. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. 431. 1611.²TEMPEST. Also from the same period. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.²SCOTT.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense.²ADDISON. The eldest.. "Ha. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. The following examples are used purposely. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. These two properties seem essential to wit. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. who eat white bread or brown. In all disputes between States. OLIPHANT.²HAMLET.²IRVING.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.²GOLDSMITH.²J.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. Mary.²DR BLAIR."²BULWER. Examples from Shakespeare are. Rip was one of those . more particularly the last of them. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. Come you more nearer. After the most straitest sect of our religion. and differ only in form. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.

These are the three first needs of civilized life. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. ARTICLES. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. 433. not only so in popular speech.²GIBBON. and Secretary Walsingham also.²PRESCOTT. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. First three. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. Three first. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.²GIBBON. but in literary English. Examples of this construction are. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. The meaning intended is the same. jar upon us constantly. The merit of the Barb. Instances of both are given below.²LAMB.²RUSKIN. ²COWPER. etc. For Carlyle. the Spanish.² SMOLLETT.²ADDISON. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. The delay in the first three lines. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs.²KINGSLEY. .THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. and conceit in the last. As to these two expressions.²DE QUINCEY.²RUSKIN. Definite article. etc.² With a singular noun. The first five had specific names. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.

and flexible language.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. the greatest poems. as. The not repeated. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.. the hour of parting came. however.² MACAULAY. of the eighteenth century.² RUSKIN. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. melodious. 434.²THACKERAY. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.²THE NATION. with a singular noun.²SCOTT.²TAYLOR. as. Frequently.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. The flowers. were placed at a very tender age. The lofty. Here the youth of both sexes.. 435. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. of the higher and middling orders. or to emphasize the meaning. He is master of the two-fold Logos. distinct. and the presents.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. Meaning same as in Sec. Indefinite article. but inseparable from each other. 433.²ID. Origin of the Aryans. to distinguish clearly. the thought and the word. 433.²TENNYSON. with a plural noun. . 1508. One object and several modifiers.²CARLYLE. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.²MACAULAY.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.²PRESCOTT. as in Sec. No. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. having been arranged.²NEWMAN. but is used with one only. With a plural noun. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . I think.

So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²B. 435. T.²S. He saw him in his mind's eye. only one of which is expressed. one noun is expressed." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. interest. a murderer. 436).²MACAULAY.²DICKENS. and inexhausted vein. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. rich. In the sentences of Secs." and "a red and a white geranium. 433 and 436. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. or clearness to each of several nouns. 438.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. The indefinite article is used. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.436.²DRYDEN. Examples of this use are.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist.² MACAULAY. like the definite article. a collegian. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.²JOHNSON. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. a round and a square one alternately. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.²BEECHER. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. 437.²BULWER.²MACAULAY. . But in the following sentences. to limit two or more modified nouns. and a usurper. as in the first three of Sec.An early. a tyrant. as. COLERIDGE. JONSON.² BURKE. One article with several adjectives. For rhetorical effect.²THACKERAY. The indefinite article (compare Sec. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.

² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²AGASSIZ. 439. Another writer might.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds.. 276. as.²The Nation. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. has got already.²CARLYLE This usage. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men.²M. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. Such. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. Singulars connected by or or nor. He sees that it is better to live in peace. ELIOT. Sec. . In English. A broad and loose rule.²FROUDE. then. as. without academies. This was spoken of in Part I. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. Singular verb. like some others in this series. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. Collective noun of singular meaning.²G.²GIBBON. 440.²W. for example. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. all that academies can give. or the great intellectual life of our nation. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form.²COOPER. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.VERBS. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. ARNOLD. was the earliest American land. and the following illustrations prove it.

but each one emphatic. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. A fever. for example.²WHITTIER. a loss of wealth. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.² Politics is the only field now open for me. for example. or as making up one general idea. ADAMS. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. nor Mahomet. No.²DE QUINCEY. Q.²GIBBON.²EMERSON .²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. that of a large town. a loss of friends. the cheap defense of nations.² The unbought grace of life. nor John. (4) When the subject is plural in form. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. as. Plural form and singular meaning.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. and other singulars of plural form. a mutilation. and every four hours. as.²J. is gone.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. a cruel disappointment. seems at the moment unpaid loss.²BURKE. other names.²CRITIC. Between ourselves. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.²GOLDSMITH. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. or considered as appositional. Several singular subjects to one singular verb.² In a word. ²EMERSON. nor Paul. but considered as meaning about the same thing.² GOLDSMITH. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.Jesus is not dead.

the dismay. as well as Europe.²M ARNOLD.The author. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. is a man of wit.² .²SCOTT. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. a gorget. For wide is heard the thundering fray.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. each. an agitated gesture. was dazzled. wineBegins to stir itself. Every fop. no matter if the second is plural).²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. every boor.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. Every sound. Then comes the "Why. no. Here is no ruin. as. many a. a cuirass.²MACAULAY.²PRESCOTT. Her back. 441.²RUSKIN. the ruin. almost every day. and such like adjectives.² Asia. Every week.²EMERSON. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.² There is a right and a wrong in them. does not take the place of the man.²PRESCOTT. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. The Epic. the wit.²LONGFELLOW. as well as the newest. sir!"²MACAULAY. no spent ball. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. the fine gentleman. as well as the Drama.²BUTLER.²MACAULAY. sir!" and the "What then. nay. thus.The rout. sir?" and the "No. every echo.²ID. was punished. Subjects after the verb. no discontinuity. as well as sides. There is a moving tone of voice. To receive presents or a bribe. and greaves.²NEWMAN. in a judge. with death. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. The oldest.²HAWTHORNE. Plural verb. an impassioned countenance. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. as. the partisan. was listened to for five hours. was like to crack.²ID. every valet.

²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²SWIFT.²COLERIDGE.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²DE QUINCEY. were men of insignificant characters. as. far away thy children leave the land. and its history are alike a mystery to us. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. The conjunction may be omitted. All our household are at rest. the Duke of Berri.These bits of wood were covered on every square. b).²EMERSON.²CARLYLE But its authorship. His clothes.²GOLDSMITH.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²SCOTT. as in Sec. TAYLOR.² A multitude go mad about it. its date. The Dauphin.²THOREAU. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. The travelers.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. as.²FROUDE. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. A shady grove. shirt. Conjunction omitted.²ADDISON. are sufficient to attract a colony. a stream of fresh water. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. 440 (5. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. a green pasture. for example. . Far.²B.²FROUDE.² GIBBON. making up a plural subject.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. Philip of Anjou.²GIBBON. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²FRANKLIN. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. as with a subject of plural form. of whom there were a number. but the verb is plural. A party of workmen were removing the horses.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.

the subject being really equivalent to we. Not I. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. nor has she").² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. When the subjects. 444. his blood dost shed.²RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. Not Altamont. "I have never said so. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. but thou. General usage.²RUSKIN. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. of different persons. but thou. for example. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath.²SMOLLETT.²ROWE. . If there is only one person in the subject." etc.²DE QUINCEY." or. This construction is at the best a little awkward. as. You and I are farmers.²BYRON. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. WEBSTER. the verb takes the construction of the first person.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. Exceptional examples. Nothing which Mr. ARNOLD. "You would not be wiser.But notice the construction of this. Second or third and first person in the subject. hadst been my lord. 442.²D. 443. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²LOWELL.²WHITTIER.). the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. Ah.²M.²GOLDSMITH. You and I are tolerably modest people. that is. we never talk politics.²THACKERAY. Pattison or I have said. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. "He or I can go." "She or you may be sure. nor should I. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.

nor bush are there. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. How each of these professions are crowded. 11. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.²MILTON. nor tree. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. The following illustrate exceptional usage.²ADDISON. 9. which it is proper to mention. Neither of them. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. as we would hope. 446. Both death and I am found eternal. 440-444):² 1. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²EMERSON. 2. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²SCOTT. BANCROFT.²G.²THACKERAY.² TROLLOPE.²BYRON. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. in my opinion. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²and.That neither of their intellects are vast. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 7. Nor wood. In the following sentence. 12. Neither of their counselors were to be present. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. 8. as illustrated above (Secs. 5. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²BURKE. 10. In a word. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.²SMOLLETT. In this sentence from Defoe. Exercise." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. 4. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 6.²ADDISON.²ID.Her course to intercept.²perhaps the devil. Also in verbals. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses.445. 3.

²MACAULAY. meaning. however. Indirect discourse means reported speech..² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. to have divided with her whatever might remain. as. I gave one quarter to Ann. W. CHURCH. on my return. 3. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. 448. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. INDIRECT DISCOURSE.²DE QUINCEY 2. Definitions. 447.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. Direct discourse²that is. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. 4. Of course.²KINGSLEY.²R. The present rule is recent. for exact connection. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. to have seen should be changed to to see. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .²FRANKLIN 6. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. But I found I wanted a stock of words." . I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.²THACKERAY. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. change them to a better form:² 1. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. It should be remarked.. Two samples of indirect discourse. Exercise. if not.²IRVING.² PALGRAVE 5. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece.

." etc. This includes the auxiliaries be. Sebastian's. 1. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. 449. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. She thought to herself. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat.. The substance of his lamentation was. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. "I cannot oblige you . His exact words were. will. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. . 2. under interrogative pronouns." etc. have.. Summary of the expressions. Her prudence whispered eternally. introductory verb is in the past tense. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. Direct. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. interrogative adverbs. and the indirect question by whether or if. Direct.. "Oh. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. etc. or regular interrogatives." Indirect. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Oh.

my first observation will be found nearly true.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example.²ID. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. handed down from his ancestor the historian. the sound of their balls. with his crew of the Half-moon. the first discoverer of the river and country. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. VERBALS. and that he himself had heard. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.²ADDISON. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. he assured me that nothing was more easy. The trouble is. 450. like distant peals of thunder. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill.Exercise." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. Careless use of the participial phrase. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. if this were expanded into a verb. . Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. FRANKLIN. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. PARTICIPLES.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster.²B. Notice this. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. one summer afternoon. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.²GOLDSMITH." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. in the sentences first quoted.

many things to be carefully considered. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. avoid it. Consequently one of two courses must be taken.² HERBERT SPENCER. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. purposely or not. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1.²SCOTT. For example. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . Adverb between to and the infinitive. It is a solemn. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. This is the more common arrangement. the first sentence would be.. 2." Exercise." etc. universal assertion.. my first collection was. Standard writers often use it. leaving the principal statement as it is. and often.²RUSKIN. Exercise.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. either "As I was pleased. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. . deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.Correction. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. while defended or excused by others. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. .²ID. 451. then. INFINITIVES.. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. if a strike is to succeed. 3.²LAUGHLIN.. In the following citations.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. There are..

Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. therefore. ADVERBS. when such adverbs as only. 11. Position of only. but it is placed before the infinitive.. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. 1533. I wish the reader to clearly understand. BLAIR. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . 6. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. are used. 7. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned.²ID. if they modify single words. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. 5.² ADDISON. 12. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. In works of art. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. The spirits.. even.²The Nation. but they are often removed from the exact position. Now. is to be very cautiously admitted.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. from Irving.²GOLDSMITH. 8. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. china. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. and earthenware. but cannot misunderstand the thought. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. 9. this kind of grandeur. even. 452. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. etc. The rigid rule in such a case would be.²SCOTT.4." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. A little sketch of his.²RUSKIN.²BURKE. 13. which consists in multitude. 10.² MACAULAY. No. Exercise.²DR. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen.²TROLLOPE. etc. etc.

1. whence he was never destined to return.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. . 17. He could only afford to keep one old horse. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²MOTLEY.²MRS.²PALGRAVE. 12. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.²SWIFT.²RUSKIN. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 7. 453. might not marry.²ID.²HIGGINSON. WILLIS.²EMERSON. 16. His last journey to Cannes. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.²THACKERAY.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. The old usage.²CHAUCER. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. to avoid a crowd. for example. 8. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. 4. No sonne.² THACKERAY. In Old and Middle English. 11. 9. 5. 15. My master. ²ASCHAM.²ID. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. During the whole course of his administration. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. He shouted in those clear. 10.²SYDNEY SMITH. P. were he never so old of yeares. 2.²N.²ID. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²MACAULAY. 14. 6. GROTE. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. In relating these and the following laws.²COOPER. Irving could only live very modestly.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 13. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 3. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.

Regular law of negative in modern English. if two negatives are found together. as.²GROTE. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. I did not act so hastily. Not only could man not acquire such information. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. who hadn't been to school for nothing. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. 5. There weren't no pies to equal hers.²BURKE. can so agreeably affect. etc.²DEFOE.² HAMILTON. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. is not common. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. Exceptional use.²LOWELL. STOWE. denying each other. the usual way of regarding the question now is. 6. This. one of the negatives is often a prefix. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. nor the grandeur of no king.²BAYNE. and why:² 1. Exercise. The prosperity of no empire. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. as infrequent.²DE QUINCEY.²HOLMES. when one of the negatives is a connective. 2.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. nor never shall. In the execution of this task. . in Ole Virginia. but ought not to labor after it."²MRS. Therefore.²HAWTHORNE. But.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. uncommon. 7."²four negatives. and is still kept in vulgar English. In the latter case. neither. 3. I never did see him again. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. however. ²PAGE.²MRS. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. under the influence of Latin syntax. STOWE. However. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. 4.

"A weapon. or.. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.... The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. if the last precedes a verb. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. or with advantage."²SCOTT." said the King. or to reply to it. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. as the use of the conjunction. nor is often changed to not²either . not only . a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.. And who. and which. "well worthy to confer honor. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not ... Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever.. but. 455. if the second precedes a phrase. or to reply to it. the first should also. especially both . In the sentence. not merely .²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. either. and. not only to the success of their common cause. Correction." Besides neither . CONJUNCTIONS." ." may be changed to "This loose . The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives.. The sentences given in Secs.. but (also).. there we were. even neither .²LOWELL. nor. 454..8. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.. or. as well as of the pronoun. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.. not or is the proper correlative of neither. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs.²PRESCOTT.. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it.²SCOTT... Things to be watched. either . The sentence. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. the first ought to be placed before a verb. should be scrutinized. Choice and proper position of correlatives.. but to their own safety. neither . and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals." both of the above requirements are violated.

I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. Try and for try to. 5. Some exceptions. 2. Try and avoid the pronoun. as. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous.²THACKERAY. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. They will. Exercise. etc." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. In the following sentences. substitute that. but they will outrage.²RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. 7.²GOLDSMITH. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. Correct the following sentences:² 1. or but that. 8. but grown-up persons. or the negative relative but. 4. JEWETT. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. or but that for the words but what:² 1. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. as. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. 3. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.² ADDISON. nor the disgrace of assailing him. 457. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.²BAIN. murder. too. not merely interest children.Exercise. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²GIBBON. but.²ID.²S. but. Now.²FRANKLIN. and chop up their own kin. . 456. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. O. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. and I don't know but what he was right. 6. But what.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW.²MACAULAY.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether.

²ADDISON. 4. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. 305. 3. Between and among. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY.² BULWER. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. 459. no separation or division by twos being implied. PREPOSITIONS.²EMERSON. . Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies.² SWIFT. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Between is used most often with two things only. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. 6.²TROLLOPE.²EMERSON. 458. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass.2.²BURKE. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. see Sec. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²ADDISON.²SCOTT. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. as already seen in Sec. 313. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. 5.

Such are absolve. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Paley. or one object and a group. as. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. averse. Some of them have. Bestow on (upon). as.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Abhorrent to. Mackintosh.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Accord with. 461. LIST I. Comply with. confer. and philosophers like Locke. etc. Acquit of. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. and Coleridge. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Different from. Derogatory to. Averse to. Affinity between. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Dissent from. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. and Stewart. Conversant with. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. a soldier of the Cross. Dependent on (upon). . and another to convey a different meaning. Two groups or one and a group. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. involve. Such are derogatory.: Words with particular prepositions.²KINGSLEY. by custom. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Conform to. 460. correspond. List I. ²EMERSON. Kant.²RUSKIN What have I. different.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire.

y y y Deprive of. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Confer with (talk with). Change to (become). 463. List II. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). A taste of (food). Correspond to (a thing). Disappointed in (a thing obtained)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Reconcile with (note below). LIST II. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Change with (a person). in the sense of making friends with. Correspond with (write to). as. LIST III. as.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. 462. as." also of persons. and sometimes creeps into standard books. Independent of. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Reconcile to (note below). Confer on (upon) (give to). A taste for (art. Differ with (note below). Agree to (a proposal). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Involve in. Confide to (intrust to)." List III. "The king is reconciled to his minister. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Confide in (trust in).).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. . Differ from (note below). as meaning to be in keeping with. but it is not good usage. etc. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Change for (a thing).

²FIELDING. Expect of. as Cervantes informs us.²GOLDSMITH. they shall die by this hand.²POPE." The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²BOSWELL. It would take me long to die of hunger.²G.²G. I am positively dying with hunger.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²GOLDSMITH. Take thought and die for Cæsar. instrument).²ADDISON.²MACAULAY. She died of hard work. died for love of the fair Marcella. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire." (because of). die from.²MACAULAY. "Die with. and ill treatment. No one died from want at Longfeld." She would have been ready to die with shame. die with. Who." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger." (in behalf of). die of. "Die by. "Die for. ²ATHENÆUM.²BURNETT. "Die for.y y y Die by. . Part from.²SHAKESPEARE. People do not die of trifling little colds. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²BULWER.:² "Die of.²MACAULAY. expect from. ELIOT. If I meet with any of 'em." "die from. ²THACKERAY.²SCOTT." etc. One of them said he would die for her. privation. He died at last without disease. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. "Die from. ELIOT." (material cause. die for. It is a man of quality who dies for her. part with. simply from old age. Illustrations of "die of.

²G.²G. It was a little bad of you.²WALLER. "Part from. Illustrations of "expect of. I have just seen her." "part from:"² "Part with.²MACAULAY. just parted from her.²AUSTEN. kind of you.²SCOTT.²POE. ELIOT. either of or in is used indifferently. With words implying behavior or disposition. nothing better was to be expected. . 465. which he would by no means part from.²WALPOLE. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. and hated to part with them. Illustrations of "part with. ELIOT. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. "Expect from.²BULWER.²MACAULAY. I have long expected something remarkable from you. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. ELIOT. as my friend." He was fond of everybody that he was used to." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²TROLLOPE. Kind in you. His precious bag.²DICKENS. 466. I can part with my children for their good. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. That is more than I expected of you.²SHAW. Of Doctor P." To part from you would be misery.²BULWER." She will expect more attention from you." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²G. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²MARRYAT. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. I part with all that grew so near my heart. 464.

. Hampden. the vast abyss.²DICKENS. nor green. and ran up the alley. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. This narrative. or which we are most imperatively required to do. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. tedious perhaps. 3. 6. nor yellow. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. with seraphims.²BEACONSFIELD.²BULWER. It will be anything but shrewd in you. The noise of vast cataracts. That is very unreasonable in a person so young.²TENNYSON. but which the story renders necessary. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. In the friction between an employer and workman. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 8. 1. 10. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. 5. Very natural in Mr. In. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. or that they are any way dependent on each other. nor blue. 13. nor of a pale red. Thou tread'st. raging storms. it is commonly said that his profits are high. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing.²CARLYLE. 4. 15. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. thrown it over Amyas's head. 7. 14. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. or artillery. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. But this is idle of you. 11. 9.He did not think it handsome of you. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. thunder. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white.²BULWER.

16. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 26.I would wish me only he. 32. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 35. 17. 27. That night every man of the boat's crew. 411. 21. 22.) 34. and most of us do know. You have seen Cassio and she together. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 37. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. or how beautiful it is. 29. but in the price paid to them. 18. Every one of these letters are in my name. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 24. 28. The effect of proportion and fitness. (Sec. 31. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. and almost as good as a pony. triangles. When the glass or liquor are transparent. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 23. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. Squares. what is a just and unjust act. . the light is sometimes softened in the passage.And were I anything but what I am. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. produce approbation. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. you or me. 20. But every man may know. 33. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 25. Friday. save Amyas. 19. 36. were down with raging fever. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 38. and other angular figures. the acquiescence of the understanding. 30. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn.

116. 40. . 260. nouns. 124. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. (3) Modern English. demonstrative. He had four children. as. 92. 133. 102. 89. origin of. INDEX. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. numeral. syntax uses Absolute. of. 119. voice. as comparison definition demonstrative. adjectives. 91. of. 25. adverbs used complements. 239. 47. from about 1500 to the present time. of. 124. 107. 90. 20. Abstract with Active Address.39.000 between them. nominative. 47. pronouns. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. of. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. (2) Middle English. 310. from nominative clauses. A. of. article. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 98. Adjectives.

predicate. between of. 275.from function how in not of of ordinal. parse. as nouns. antecedent. 207. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. of. 114. 27. 325. 106. plural pronominal. adjectives. Alms. . infinitive. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. of. 303. quantity. clauses. adjectives. 103. 183. antecedent. modify. conjunctions. sentence. from to of. 195. 109. compared. 104. 99. 194. 291. 48. parse. Against. 97. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 302. 316. conjunction. 27. adjectives. nouns. 242. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 187. quality. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 287. 116. and 185. of. of. 323. 325. 328. 115. objective. 190. 116. 239. 262. 148. 101. 191. 42. 207. 190. to used of. 194. Agreement. 303. of. 184. of. of. nouns. with with with subject.

Among. which. 207. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 84. 296. after of. as uses verbs. . 74. 49. 208. Are. though. 47. 300. 67. 150. 67. 264. sentences. words between. 252. of and pronoun of. 90. 275. definition how indefinite. 287. An. 79. sentences. 309. 101. 198. sentences. 120. syntax. 240. parse. agreement personal as pronoun. adjective. of. it. 51. See 74. syntax As. which. 271. of. See with definition complex compound simple who. to of. Agreement. 124. uses As At. 148. A. 225. of. of. 231. 120. same. 295. 294. 331. Auxiliary if. of of of And Antecedent. derivation in definite. of. possessive. and. Arrangement Articles. in in. which. pronouns. 127. Anacoluthon Analysis. definition of of of Any.

110. 279. of. 39. 39. Between. of nouns. objective. 63. 262. . double possessive. 330. See of. 54. uses nominative of. 46. 278. 37. 48. 278. of nouns. 224. of. Case. 45. syntax of. 194. 149. 150. definition could. Cause. plurals of. of what. clauses of. best. 260. 161. Be. 110. nominative. 66. of. 279. number of. 46. with But By. Among. Brethren. uses Better. 49. adjective. 47. of nouns. Children. possessive. 283. of pronouns. 62. Clause. of pronouns. of pronouns. forms. adverb. of pronouns. 111. comparison conjugation of. of nouns.Bad. Can. in Old and Modern English. conjunctions Cherub. 84. 64. Case. pronoun. 195. But. 262. 210. uses of. Bridegroom.

of. 305. 271. of. 258. infinitive. of. 43. 312. plural of. 307. Cleave. in analysis. of. 257. of. 248. nouns. 113. of. 18. 18. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. sentence. verb. adjectives. 264. 157. of. adverbs. of. 111. predicate of and from from of. 43. 158. Clomb. and sentence. definition degrees irregular. 189. superlative. 239.definition kinds noun. proper. 108. clothes. 268. 53. defective. of. 307. and forms of. predicate. 12. 257. 108. 257. Cloths. nouns. 263. subject. nouns. English. 315. 24. 110. . 23. 244. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. analysis of. double. material. 107.

193. and clause. adverbs. Conjunctions. 73. 231. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. Dative Declarative Declension of case. . See English. to of. 207. same words. 66. analysis. 138. coördinate. Can. Agreement. 269. See in subjunctive.with Concord. 194. pronoun. 199. parse. pronouns. 149. sentences. See analysis clauses. subjunctive. 194. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. of. 151. 328. verbs. definition be. conjunctions. conjunction. 255. correlative. sentences. 194. 289. 263. pronoun. sentence. other other parts of speech. 143. interrogative pronouns. conjunctions. 195. 149. of of Conjunctions. of. 196. 188. in Old vs. definition how subordinate. replaced by objective. 139. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 195.

185. pronouns. 43. with of. 80. 288. of. possessive. tenses. for. of personal relative verbs. of. nouns. verb. 315. Comparative. article. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 51. Subordinate clause. 90. by. Case. 102. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. adverbs See adjectives. 26. 242. 91. pronouns. pronouns. of. indirect. 152. . of. 333. discourse. See adjectives.Declension. 287. comparative. 320. 99. See See 48. See 148. 160. passive adjectives. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. Articles. 300. Comparison. 303. object. nouns. from. 35. 102. 60. clause. duck. use of dies. with. pronouns. 242. vs. Degrees.

the of sentence. 257. 62. 12. of. vulgar. 287. added suffix. spoken. in 'Em. Each. Either. another. 92. 34. adjective. 112. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 328. predicate. pronoun. object. 90. 240. complement. one ( t). syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 33. 38. 300. of. 287. of. error in sentence. of. 299. Elements Ellipsis. 92. of. 40. of subject. 110. 194. adjective. 241. 255. Empress. feminine plural English. plural. 42. -En. 158. pronouns. 234. . 90. 102.Drank. suffix. possessive suffix. other. 33. ending. 280. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 92. 51. syntax Each Eat Eaves. original. conjunction. to suffix. 32. drunk. 39. of. literary. pronoun. 158. older.

48. 103. 30.Every. 102. pronoun. first. Further. From. 152.. of. to of. as a noun. few. nouns. First. from. 43. object. 319. 152. 36. 45. have adjective. 212. See Gander. 102. For. with in sex. 112. definition distinguished in English. the. of. modes "common goose. First Fish. used of. other languages. 126. Farther. 110. of." 31. 189. two. fishes. 287. uses redundant. 30. etc. 235. Feminine. gender. 308. with infinitive. . 91. as of from compared marking. two a further. Few. 112. Future Future tense. 211. 148. uses Foreign Former. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther.. 30. 29. 334. adjective. Gender. plurals. 32. expect gone. 238. 212. etc. 147. perfect.

possessive pronouns. forms in Girl. 9. 177. of. 10. Got. Gerund. she. of. 60. 61. pronoun. of. of. definition divisions opinions province H. . 275. kinds of. 12. 159. 231. 144. and case verbal with. 61. 101. 173. it. on. 120. He. I. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 60. first sentence. 36. pronouns. Government. participle. 13. 145. distinguished syntax. 12. definition basis of. 285. for before. had hung. His Husband. 159. personal relative geniuses. noun. person. rather. Grammar. from participle of. adjective. 80. Had Hanged.of of Genii. an better. 175. 43. its. 176. 35.

231. 131. verbs. summary See passive mood. pronouns. 67. 176. of. 188. indirect of. 131. 178.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. transitive. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. Direct object. 233. elements. of. of. 153. 276. uses discourse. 245. 320. 110. 319. questions. 72. 248. use article. adjectives. a object. 227. 43. 93. sentence. 85. meaning. of clause. 283. in compared syntax. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 323. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. adverbs. pronoun. with of. See Articles. . your. Questions. adjectives. questions. See you. mood. indices. 73. 105. of. words. 257. 136.

predicate. Lady. See Madam. Like. Lay. in little. of." history etc. 36. latest. "It Its. plural. and See words in. 226. lord. Kind. It.. these double kind. of. Kine. 227. uses Literary Little. 110. a vs. 126. 245. Latter. 190. . 102.. -Ly. 39. 113. Last. lie. syntax the. of. Lady. Logic Logical Lord. Lay. 91. Lie. queen. subject form. 36. lesser. 110. Less. was uses me. 281. adjective. 67. 36. 12. 303. 170. English. 61. of. syntax. 113. pronoun. 189. etc. 276.adverbs. King. 63.

May. Mighty Mine. of. indicative. Much. 112. of. Enlargement. of. 256.. 325. 188. conjunctions Many. 41. construction as of adverb. adjective. 114. 326. 112. of. 113. 161. subjunctive. 160. 36. Modifiers. 126. superlatives. 34. imperative. 110. 64. mine. 265. 110. Mood. 185. in adverbs comparison a. 328. 187. of. Modifier. 112. 135. etc. 137-144. 287. 195. . See definition 136. 137. 144. comparison Near. Negative. might. mistress. syntax conjunction. 102. 189. 110. of. Must. 194. nigh. Many Mapping Mare. -Most. out of. position adverb. of. 189. double. of.Manner. Neither. Means. sentences. syntax nearer. Master.

25. number once other plural. half abstract. 300. 26. 46. of. 246. clause. 29. 124. 38. used as. 38-41. . gender how kinds material. Case. gender nouns. 258. in. 301. 45. of of of of of a. 21. 125. 25. nouns. of. 328. 30. Not Noun Nouns. to use. become become formation case collective. analysis. etc. No Nominative. class used singular. abstract.pronoun. of. abstract. foreign. 17. of. 17. None. of. 18. formed. Nor. See 194. common. syntax in gender nouns. of. 30. words how compound. 19. proper. nouns. now plural. 92. syntax Neuter or two News. parse. material. 27. 32. kinds 90. etc. 126. definition descriptive. 41. 20. 46. 56. 17 19. of. and figures. 42. 41. become neuter. letters as 24. to of. definition according of. 41 43. 30.

39.. in nouns. and analysis. 285. 196. 48. 41. 242. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 242.of same two with proper. 102. pronouns. of. verbs. of different possessive definite of. 18. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 48. 148. 281. preposition. 41. of. 195. 124. . 42. 235. plural. 278. with case. or plural. 282. as forms titles. plural no two singular construction. article. 106. conjunction. adjectives. 101. meaning. form. 279. of. 278. 101. English. 240. in article. nominative. 41. 92. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. of. adverbial. plural form. 43. dative. Preposition. 42 44. 42. personal. See in in in Numeral distributive. adjectives. common. 66. of. with with with Now Number. singular. indefinite. of. passive adverbial. 48. indirect. 48. etc. Numeral Object. spoken of instead nouns. 48. 121. 23. singular. meanings. pronouns. See verb. definite. Nouns. 60.

of upon.syntax Of. 216. Our. Parsing. a in adjectives. ours. nouns. with (the). of. 237. treatment comparatives. Each adjective. of. 325 275. Ourself. 127. adverbs. position Order. . pronoun. conjunction. 56. definite relative uses of. Oxen. 306. Pains. of syntax. another. 101. 116. for. Ordinal Other Ought. articles. as other. 93 other. 199. 117. See pronoun. 161. See the as of. 191. inverted. 87. 194. Omission On. 279. 94. Elder. 69. adjective. conjunctions. 41. 64. adverb. 233. of. of of of of of models adjectives. 56. 213. 103. 38. part analysis. 115. 91. One. as of. 293. 103. Older. indefinite possessive One One as Only. uses numeral pronoun.

179. 59. 64. included various. 148. pease. 100. nominative. pronouns. or of. of. 61. 43. of.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 63. 219. 172. Person. 173. antecedent. 281. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. pronoun. article 150. 70. used as voice. 56. 59. -ing words. part adjective. 28. of. of. 62. not is. Pence. 335. verbs. . pronouns. 69. predicate use of. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. in. 62. 119. and subject in. phrases. 181. of. phrase. 247. 95. of. possessive and of. 322. them. reflexive. relatives. verbs. 177. 134. from definition other of. verbals. 174. 172. 27. pennies. parsed. agreement of verb nouns. 59. 180. absolute with of. 317. of. verb idioms it from. speech. 43. 80. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 287. with. 56.

25. 247. 53. 236. of. as double. 245. plural. singular degree. Personification. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. appositional. 's. pronoun. of. adverbs of. Positive Possessive. 51. 278.objective syntax table triple uses of. noun nouns. of nouns. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 245. 106. kinds infinitive. of. 278. 37. relative. conjunctions prepositions Plural. of. 303. adjectives. of. singular. Place. 60. 53. 195. of. . 54. of. pronouns. 281. 281. 303. prepositional. Comparison. 188. 63. omitted. pronoun. 236. 206. 241. 50. 61. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. syntax of of Politics. English. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. nouns. or See of of See 185. double. spoken of. nouns. 41. nouns. 248. 285. 67. complete. Personal subjective. of Phrase. 49. 232. vs. simple. participial. See 60. 64. 235. in of. objects. antecedent of of pronouns. 52. 247. it. of. Nouns.

186. 202. 203. of. parse. another. 302. 283. none. somebody definition how indefinite. 105. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. meaning. future. of. after but. 187. 299. plural. 89. as 54. 282. 300. verbs. by. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 195. . 303. usually to as than. 285. 129. plural. expressed as other of. each either. adverb. exclamatory. 206. 93. forms of. neither. 207. Prepositions. objective. by with shown certain of. and one with else's. in exclamations. who personal. 219. 208. with tense certain. 58. words. 279. 281. adjective. speech. of. Pronouns. possessive nominative to of. case. of. 64. 59. for predicate nominative. singular usually other. any. 72. 300. interrogative. of. of. 104. 287. what. case. 301.Prefixes. all. by parts of of. plural. of. 333. 283. interrogative. same used as adjectives. 132. 147. 105. 332. objective. 331. parse. as. and form form form form of. 58. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 95. 203. 280. 32. 205. as antecedent of relative. 284.

84. questions. of. Questions. 74. 99. personal pronoun. 105. conjunctions Quality. which after same. 80. 85. 74. 87. 83. 296. 68. of. of. pronoun. . of. 293. in. pronouns. that. 295. in. of. of. indirect. and antecedent. Quantity. indirect compound. 69. 58. and relatives. 263. 195. 286. discourse. unrestrictive. of. 87. pronominal pronouns indirect. parse. same antecedent. 85. from and interrogative. 279. use in as. which. of. 291. Quotations. 188. Nouns. 74. agreement anacoluthon and as. 69. Direct same and different. 293. nouns. and which. 297. 289. use of history formed. in. who. adverbs in. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 295. to of.possessive relative. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. of. See of. 189. Rank. 101. with who. or of. Rather. 289. 142. with with gerund.

51. pronoun. 74. of. of. 196. that. 294. 196. 242. 289. 159. simple. object. plural possessive as. tenses. of. elliptical. 42. 43. in of. Seeing. 252. would. 162. gender. 170. 195. of sit. S. 'S. complex. conjunctions Retained Riches. 259. suffix.syntax use Result. 159. which. See Sentences. Sex Shall. Shot. Shear. forms shots. 26 271. who. Simple in sate. effect. 255. 231. in form. Self Sentences. 319. 69. ending. conjunction. Same Sat. of of of complex Sentences. will. kinds Sequence Set. 231. 29. and should. definition . clauses of. 263. 40. of. simple of. sentence. reflexive analysis of compound.

sort. Somebody Sort.. English. disuse in spoken complete. English. definition how kinds noun. in feminine suffix. -es. 303. definition 67. 12. of. 138. 258. 33. 38. literary clause. 237. 270. distinguish. . of. See -En. 240.Singular Sir. 32. etc. 258. 33. used mood. to of. Subject. as. 257. 245. 260. adverb. in Middle English. 233. other Such Such Suffix -s. of. 257. 126. Split Spoken -Ster. 323. 245. 257. 144. vs. 36. of. 38. 144. phonetic in infinitive. 258. logical. of. of. these number. Spelling Spinster. 169. 137. adverb. -en. 257. English. English. 303. Modern use becoming else's. for. names as a. 186. verbs. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. of. 262.

auxiliaries. 306.. of . English. restrictive. syntax of. 307. 116. meaning. coördinating. of. 61.. which. article. Kind. 119. this. of. 147. degree. plural as adverb. subject. of. 108. 88. 306. 106. Then. me. of. . adjectives. 152. when relative. in double. adverbs. of. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 297. 87. 107. object. as adverbs. than of. 309. Tenses. 280. 123. 222. 189. 289. not suggesting adjectives. 147. form. in comparison. of languages. There These kind. of.. of. 290. 33. in Modern number sequence table Than That. classical of. 147. king. 277. they. 186. when as of. See etc. 319. of. two basis not same definition definite. 148. 275. as history syntax Their. and and of. that uses That. meaning made up in Old of. omission whom. 275. "the then foreign. 191." introductory. 109. 106. 120.Suffixes. as history The. definition in English Tense. English. 186. objects.

Time. 21. 172. 323. kinds participle.These. 248. conjunctions prepositions To. 185. 128. first. 175. from cleft to 174. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. thy. Utter. uttermost. 181. exclamations. infinitive. 322. -ing 111. of. See On. -Trix. certain as the before with of. 173. how infinitive. suffix. of. tother. words. 61. 217. uses of. analysis. 114. 175. adverbs those. preposition. try two. 180. 114. of. etc. to. 188. 175. of. 195. Thou. carelessly uses syntax this. parse. 114. in omitted uses T'other. first adjective. verbs. in of. 330. 308. Try Two Under. 20. used. Upper. infinitive. uses history of. other noun.. gerund. Upon. See That. phrases. feminine and. . 207. 322. of. of. 172. 119. 247. thee. 33. of. 176.

definition of. 169. tense of. auxiliary.Verbs. 312. how to parse. 133. phonetic. remarks on certain. 47. 148. 157. 242. 135. passive. 159. 39. . 151. analysis. syntax of. 154. 150. passive form. formed by. person and number of. 223. but uses what. made transitive. 169. 130. strong. active meaning. agreement of. table of irregular. 167. 134. with subject in number. past tense formed nominative. 236. definition of. active. in indirect discourse. conjugation of. regular. of. 312-316. sequence of. 330. 133. 167. change. 179. intransitive. 154. verbs. 245. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 154. in person. defective. 155. mood of. 160. 129. Vixen. Vocative in Voice. 317. What. 320. verbs by. 149. definition of. 33. 12. transitive and intransitive. becoming irregular. table of. 319. of English. spelling of. 148. voice of. weak. of. of incomplete predication. retained object with passive. 147. 131.

178. a. animals. of. whereto. plural of in nouns -ing. With. would. of. wizard. 79. worser. 104. English. 295-299. in -ly. conjunction. 83. 73. Words in Worse.what Whereby. 75. relative indirect relative. 36. 85. Woman. . Who. antecedent adjective. pronoun. Wife. pronoun. 296. direct of. 190. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. etc. questions. 78. questions. questions. referring syntax Widower. spoken in of. 111. Witch. 85. 194. 85. 72. Whether. 72. 299. 105. Yes ending analysis. 37. 75. interrogative Which. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. relative. questions. 105. 36. 32. Y. in. 40. 218. in in indefinite objective. 72. uses See Shall. relative.. 83. 246. 77. 126. Will.

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