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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

A broader view. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. It is also evident. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. however.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. and thus incite his observation. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. The work it will cover. as. . its peculiar and abundant idioms. but this is bad English now. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. it will at the same time." What grammar is. An æsthetic benefit. and their uses and relations in the sentence. Mental training. from the question. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. Coming back. Few inflections. Surely our noble language." and "Syntax. Literary English. then. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. If. as compared with Latin or Greek. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. there is still much for the grammarian to do. so that a small grammar will hold them all. "Analysis. to those who have studied the language historically. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. This will take in the usual divisions.The province of English grammar is. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. their forms. if rightly presented. Authority as a basis. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. Making rules is risky. assist the classification of kindred expressions. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. with its enormous vocabulary. is worthy of serious study. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. rightly considered.

Such words are called nouns. The words state. or standard. not objects. NOUNS. and the word nation stands for a whole group. the nation is free. 1. and may belong to any of those objects. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. the words sons and master name objects.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. but.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. or Syntax. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Part III. from the eighteenth century on. three divisions:² Part I. too. PART I. Analysis of Sentences. The Parts of Speech. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. Occasionally. Part II. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. and Inflections. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. and will are evidently names of a different kind. that is. which belongs to a people. The plainest name is Arabs. . as they stand for ideas. by which is meant the free. then. besides this one. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Vulgar English. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. submission. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English.²GIBBON. reference will be made to vulgar English. The following pages will cover. The Uses of Words. In the more simple state of the Arabs. Spoken English.

(a) CLASS NAMES: i. or idea. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. Common. or a congress. Thus. A noun is a name word. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. possessed by all. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. or a council. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. substance. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. (b) Common. or thing. We may say. a committee. or a mob. but Chicago names one city. (a) 4. and things separately. This does not imply. They properly belong under common nouns. Abstract.Definition. the man here. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. 5. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. the name of each is an individual or proper name. or things. etc. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. 2. Besides considering persons. 3. place. ATTRIBUTE. and appropriate names to the groups. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. reducing it to a narrow application. however. animals. Name for any individual of a class. representing directly to the mind an object. Proper. whether person. as here used. men in groups may be called a crowd. belonging to one. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. Classes of nouns. Individual. is from a Latin word which means general. For instance. we may think of them in groups. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. Name for a group or collection of objects. or the man in front of you. animals. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Collective. Thus. MATERIAL. . Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. because each group is considered as a unit. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons.

condition. Again. granite. The quality is still there as much as before. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). expressing state. conditions. and fasten a special name to the object considered. wheat. etc." "Learning is hard to acquire. not things. stone.²There are some nouns. as in calling a city Cincinnati. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. etc. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. 6. The reason is. world. moon. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. . paint. and so on. wheat. celluloid. but it is taken merely as a name. etc. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. but in the words sun. dew. wine. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. or action. Such are glass. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. sugar. but which are not called proper names. proof means the act of proving. NOTE. earth. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. however. etc. instead of to each individual or separate object. etc." 9. (3) Geological bodies: mud. rock. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known.Names for things thought of in mass. Words naturally of limited application not proper. potash. we speak of the wisdom of the man. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. soap. considered abstractly. snow. there is no such intention." "a man of understanding. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. frost. frost.. sand. or that which shows a thing has been proved. cloud. . etc. iron. "Painting is a fine art. such as sun. gold. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. rice. or apart from their natural connection. we may say. or actions. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. sugar. Names of ideas. 7. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. rubber. When we speak of a wise man. expressing attributes or qualities. clay. etc. etc. platinum. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. tea. mist. earth. It may. They remain common class names. rain. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person.

theft from thieve. height from high.. Such are beauty." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. is used as a noun. etc. the teachings of the High Spirit. 12. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. the well-being of her subjects. The verb. five proper. he spread his blessings over the land. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. those opinions and feelings. II. 272. mastery from master. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. and they cannot express action. They are only the husks of verbs. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. They cannot govern a word." "a brisk walk. by altering its function. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. childhood from child. the moon caused fearful forebodings. . study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. the great Puritan awakening. hopeful²hope. "a long run" "a bold move. To avoid difficulty. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. 273). 10. hope. redness from red. her longing for their favor. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. etc. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. but are merely names of actions. summer. in the beginning of his life. action from act. (2) peerage from peer. Underived abstract nouns. as glad²joy. kingship from king. speech from speak. service from serve. Caution. joy. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. 1. five abstract. day. as their name implies. a wedding or a festival. Verbal abstract nouns. thunder. night. stupidity from stupid. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. (1) prudence from prudent. energy. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. shadow. etc.Attribute abstract nouns. etc. winter. ease. lightning. NOTE. as in the expressions. the main bearings of this matter. Exercises. there is time for such reasonings. the rude drawings of the book. Thus.

catarrh. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . mathematics? 3.2. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. geology. as pneumonia. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. Using a dictionary. algebra. as physics. typhus. (b) branches of knowledge. diphtheria. pleurisy.

Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. Proper names transferred to common use. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. a Hutton. 13. We know a number of objects made of iron. for example. from Calicut. currants. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. but most of them are in the following groups. port (wine). we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class.²EMERSON. as a davy. from Corinth. damask. from Oporto. Nouns change by use. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. who was its inventor. a Bentham. 119). levant and morocco (leather). Others of similar character are calico. thus." referring to flat- . 15. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. arras. a Fourier. Guillotin. etc. or to go over to it entirely. above. a Lavoisier. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. from Damascus. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. a Locke. but we may say. 14. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. the guillotine. in Portugal. from a town in France. from China. it imposes its classification on other men. "The cook made the irons hot. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. Material nouns may be used as class names. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. and lo! a new system. the word port. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. from the name of Dr.

They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings.²COLLINS. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. nor are they common class nouns. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. slates. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. When it is said that art differs from science. Test this in the following sentences:² . coals. on fire. but differ in strength. This is a poetic usage.²BYRON. Traffic has lain down to rest. A halfway class of words. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. the abstract idea is partly lost. Personification of abstract ideas. For example. though not confined to verse. that disposition is the thing to be created. The words preceded by the article a. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. papers. abstract in meaning. tobaccos. and say teas. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. Class nouns in use. etc. mists. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. a rubber for erasing marks. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified.²BRYANT. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. to prowl or to moan like night birds.In lightnings owned his secret stings. (3) By poetical use. which are made plural. Death.irons.²CARLYLE. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. that the power of art is founded on fact. purity. and only Vice and Misery. candies. These are the same in material. as stones. or used as class nouns. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron.²RUSKIN. etc. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. or. smiled. and so on. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this.²PERCIVAL. not material things. They are not then pure abstract nouns. clouds. be spoken of. are still names of abstract ideas. that is. paints. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. From all around²Earth and her waters. his eyes. or made plural.²HAYNE. but on dispositions which require to be created. but in case an art or a science. Next Anger rushed. or the arts and sciences. tins. oils. clays. 16. a steel to whet a knife on. are abroad. 17.

the wealthy.Let us. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. When I was young? Ah. They are more like the possessive noun. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. But ah! those pleasures. make our own so. however. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. But it is better to consider them as nouns. nouns used to modify. "a family quarrel. NOTE. a bank in New York. 19." "a morning walk. loves. but is still a noun. sir?" and the "No.²If the descriptive word be a material noun.² BURNS. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. for example. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms.² GOLDSMITH. And still. as descriptive adjectives are. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. All these. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. By ellipses. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. Adverbs. fear thy blow.The Solitary can despise. Conjunctions. Adjectives. sir!"²MACAULAY ." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. if we must have great actions. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. a bill as to tax on the banks. 18." which contains a pure adjective. or from any expression. meaning a walk in the morning.²SHAKESPEARE." "the State Bank Tax bill. Then comes the "Why. Every why hath a wherefore.²IRVING. they cannot be compared. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. they do not express quality. which belongs to another word. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen.²EMERSON. Nouns used as descriptive terms." "a New York bank. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. etc.²BURNS.²SHAKESPEARE. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. were mere terrors of the night. or describe it. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. as each repeated pleasure tired. sir!" and the "What then.

It is to be remembered. 2. 8. whether it mean the sun or the cold. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. 3. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. the wealthy.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. or a criminal. 4. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. and Then. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. The it. that cobweb of the brain. 20. and tell to which class each belongs. in a sentence above." or "legal. Learning.²These remarks do not apply. etc. Now. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. There are many of these.²Dr BLAIR In this definition." and another of Dr. . the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. Power laid his rod aside. Caution." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. In the other sentences. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. at the beginning.. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. 6. of words rather than of their meaning. too. to such words as become pure nouns by use. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. 7. without reference to its function in the sentence. why and wherefore. however. NOTE. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. but as a figure of speech. is the word "just. the terms the great. is ambiguous. or a faithful domestic. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. When. Exercise. are spoken of as if pure nouns.Nor iron bars a cage.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. in speaking of the principal of a school. are used."²B. but have an adjectival meaning. Stone walls do not a prison make. of course. so. FRANKLIN. 5. 1. or a state secret. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. When.

The hours glide by. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. returned to Spain. 21. shattered and disabled. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. Male beings are. But pleasures are like poppies spread. A fool speaks all his mind. GENDER. The fleet. 12. German. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. he cried. for every dropHinders needle and thread. always feminine. 24. There are exceptions even to this general statement. Greek. its bloom is shed. always masculine. 14. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 22. 23. It is founded on sex. In Latin. 21. 18. 15. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. 17.You seize the flower. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. in English grammar. female. but not so in English. and names of females are usually feminine. 20.9. 19. that waits you here. 11. One To-day is worth two To-morrows.Fair guests. the silver moon is gone. the welcome. and many other languages.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. .But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. What gender means in English. And see. 16. A little weeping would ease my heart. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 10. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 13.

das Messer (knife) is neuter. the name of it is feminine." .. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals.²LAMB. however.² I have seenA curious child . Hence: Definition. or additions to words.. must be divided into two principal classes. Gunpowder ." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. in German. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. Gender nouns. and neuter nouns. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. if of the female sex. Of animals. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. clapping his burnished wings. "A little child shall lead them. or names of things without life. that is.. Neuter nouns. All nouns. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. inanimate things are spoken of.When. Thus. in English. those with which man comes in contact often. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.²gender nouns.²IRVING. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. the name of it is masculine. The great difference is. . No "common gender. the word child is neuter in the sentence. hortus (garden) is masculine. then. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. according to use. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. mensa (table) is feminine. that pattern of a husband. corpus (body) is neuter. in other languages gender follows the form. 23. according to their use. but are spoken of as neuter.. came to a stand just by the bridge. He next stooped down to feel the pig.² IRVING. 24. are named by gender nouns.. with its gizzard under its wing. For instance: in Latin. if there were any signs of life in it. those distinguishing the sex of the object.. those which do not distinguish sex. and consequently without sex. der Tisch (table) is masculine. or which arouse his interest most. the sex being of no consequence.²masculine and feminine. 22.

Put in convenient form. I. For fox they said vox. generally to a masculine word. as in wine vat. 28. Gender shown by Prefixes. and for the older word fat they said vat. According to the definition. Very few of class I. is. If such words as parent.. or the lack of it. ruler. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. Native suffixes. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. servant.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. (3) By using a different word for each gender. The inflections for gender belong. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. 27. but spinster has now no connection with it. Male nouns beings. relative. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. (2) By adding a suffix. he-bear²she-bear. from the masculine fox. These remain in vixen and spinster. etc. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. cousin. woman. II. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. 26. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster.25. of course. . puts a prefix before the masculine man. they are neuter words. for from they said vram. only to masculine and feminine nouns. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. domestic. One feminine. Gender shown by Suffixes. teacher. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. as he-goat²she-goat. though both words have lost their original meanings. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. the division of words according to sex. Hence vixen is for fyxen. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. 29.

The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). as. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. Unaltered and little used. -ess (French esse. as. Ending of masculine not changed. 30. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. as seam-stress. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. These are attached to foreign words. song-str-ess. Low Latin issa). as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . but in most cases it has not.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. gamester. donna. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. trickster. it has none now in the words huckster. señorita. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. the one most used. Slightly changed and widely used. and are never used for words recognized as English. as czarina. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. executrix. punster.

others have in their origin the same root. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. Gender shown by Different Words. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. chairman. Thus. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. teacheresse. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. or servauntesse. wagoness. frendesse. neighboresse. editor.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. we use the masculine termination.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. as in the fourteenth century. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. to represent persons of either sex. the ending -ess. we use the feminine.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). 31. teacher or lady teacher. We frequently use such words as author. Some of them have an interesting history. NOTE. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. from Latin imperatricem. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. etc. as. as. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. In some of these pairs." III. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. neighbor (masculine and feminine). fosteress. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Instead of saying doctress. 32. as was said in the sixteenth century. from the French -esse.

Mare. though both are ultimately from the same root. from Latin mea domina. Madam is the French ma dame. etc. King and queen are said by some (Skeat.² . The older forms. in Old English mere. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. widuwa²widuwe. became identical. for example. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Two masculines from feminines. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. lhauerd. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. not immediately connected with witch. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). It is not connected historically with our word duck. Besides gander and drake. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Witch is the Old English wicce. the old sign of the masculine. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec.). Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). 16). had the masculine mearh (horse). among others) to be from the same root word. probably meaning house dweller). 34. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Icelandic gás. The masculine was formed by adding -a. leaving our word drake. 33. Personification. but this has long been obsolete. gand-ra. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Widower. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. or lauerd in Middle English. written loverd. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Danish gaas. as in many other words. finally gander. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Three letters of ened have fallen away. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper).

38. Definition. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. Britannia needs no bulwarks. But other words were inflected afterwards. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. This is not exclusively a poetic use. (2) By changing the root vowel. The first two methods prevailed.Her home is on the deep. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. 36. more than one. whenever we adopt a new word. (3) By adding -s (or -es). in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. In nouns. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch.²singular and plural.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. eyen (eyes)."²BYRON. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. NUMBER.No towers along the steep. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. in Old English. that is. . This inflection remains only in the word oxen. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. and not by the form of the noun.²COLERIDGE. for instance. together with the third. the engineer speaks so of his engine. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. treen (trees). we make its plural by adding -s or -es. 37. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. 39. the plural. I. etc. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. 35."Now. Our language has two numbers. Effect of personification.²CAMPBELL. shoon (shoes). and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England.²KEATS. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. The -en inflection. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne.

etc. ditch. Instead of -s. after numerals (if not after numerals. but they now add the ending -s. by.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book.-En inflection imitated by other words. that have the singular and plural alike. as. .²Over the mountains winding down. The old plural was brothru.² The foot are fourscore thousand. etc. Such are box. II. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. lens.²MACAULAY. 42. then brothre or brethre. or if preceded by the prepositions in. Other words following the same usage are.² "God bless me! so then. Kine is another double plural. etc. such as deer. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. brace. Lee marched over the mountain wall. pair. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. retain the same form for plural meaning. as. when they mean soldiery. dozen. wight. cross. Akin to this class are some words.The horse are thousands ten. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. glass. turf. people. 40. Brethren has passed through three stages."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY.²WHITTIER. sheep.²THOREAU. folk. Children has passed through the same history. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. they add -s): also trout. finally brethren. and is still found in dialects. head. heathen. and get settled. cannon. salmon. but has now no singular. borough²formerly had the same inflection. quartz. into Frederick town. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. 41. after all. Examples of this inflection are.Horse and foot. III. originally neuter. sail. swine. The words horse and foot.

is both the science and the art of government. chaise²chaises.²BRYANT. 43. means and politics. e. though this sound combines readily with -s. Some words are usually singular. 44. house²houses. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. the Washingtons. a new syllable is made. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). knife²knives. that when thy summons comes. as. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. hero²heroes.. and the real ending is therefore -s. fairies. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. physics. Words in -ies.g.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe.g. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. prize²prizes. Two words. quoth then that ladie milde.² Politics. etc. 15 and 17). DANA. in its widest extent.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. also news. niche²niches. Formerly. and many branches of learning. Special Lists. these words ended in -ie. etc. The lilie on hir stalke grene. summons. politics. e. 45. pains (care). shelf²shelves. Means plural.. mathematics. allies. optics. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. some adding -s. half²halves. etc. race²races. When such words take a plural ending. fancies. volcano² volcanoes.-Es added in certain cases. they lose their identity. molasses. though they are plural in form. negro²negroes. and go over to other classes (Secs.²PROF. etc. and some -es. means: as.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. It served simply as a means of sight. however. the Americas. So live. Examples of these are. Proper nouns are regularly singular. economics. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. daisies. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name.

²J. With great dexterity these means were now applied.Words.²GOLDSMITH. Politics plural. I say. Now I read all the politics that come out. however.²GOLDSMITH. A relic which. . a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.² MACAULAY. riches will accumulate.²GOLDSMITH. he pronounced to have been a tongs. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.²MOTLEY. by those means which we have already mentioned. Sometimes. if I recollect right. by strongly conveying the passions. LAUGHLIN. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. L. By these means.²BURKE. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. Besides this. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.²IRVING. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. W. 46.²G. Some words have no corresponding singular. CURTIS. it is furnished with a forceps.

etc. pease (collectively). One plural. (2) revenue duties. indices (signs in algebra).² I lisped in numbers.²one corresponding to the singular. may add -s. dice (for gaming). 48. two meanings. or epistles. 50. In speaking of coins. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning.²was it subdued when. number²numbers: (1) figures. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. carry off chaff. (2) care. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. as two sixpences. Numbers also means issues. die²dies (stamps for coins. clothes (garments). or copies. . twopence. Tell me not. sixpence. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. Two classes of compound words. as in the lines. making a double plural. in mournful numbers. shot²shot (collective balls). What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47.). y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. Three words were originally singular. These make the last part plural. the other unlike it. two plurals.²LONGFELLOW. pence (collectively). faculties. pea²peas (separately). Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. part²parts: (1) divisions. eaves. penny²pennies (separately).the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. riches. ways. In Early Modern English thank is found. etc... genius²geniuses (men of genius).²POPE. for the numbers came. index²indexes (to books). brethren (of a society or church). (2) literature. (2) abilities. 49. of a periodical. shots (number of times fired).The air. genii (spirits). trouble. DANA. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). fishes (individuals or kinds). cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth).. (2) poetry. or work in a bellows?²PROF. fish²fish (collectively). Other words have one plural form with two meanings.

there is some disagreement among English writers. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. manservant. Ottoman. for example. Norman. the Misses Rich.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. such as talisman. as man singer. 51. Allen. Brown. or the name may be pluralized. Two methods in use for names with titles.²DR. Brahman. Mussulman.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. The title may be plural. 52. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. The chief member adds -s in the plural. Briggs. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. German. HOLMES. and Mrs. woman singer. and then the three Miss Spinneys. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. but add -s. woman servant. then Silas Peckham. though the latter is often found. As to plurals of names with titles.² Then came Mr. firman. the Drs. as the Messrs. .

FROM THE GREEK. FROM THE LATIN. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II.²GIBBON. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. or Anglicized. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.²GOLDSMITH. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh.²THE CRITIC. 53. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. These are said to be domesticated. Domesticated words. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Du Maurier. Others have been adopted. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. y y analysis antithesis . Exercise. and retain their foreign plurals.²DICKENS. The Messrs. They are then said to be naturalized. or Englished. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.

In the sentence." CASE.. Letters. etc. Words quoted merely as words." the word felon's modifies cell.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. etc. 56. 54. as." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands).y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. without reference to their meaning. In the general wearing-away of inflections. as. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. figures. Definition. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. they form their plurals in the regular way. figures. Only two case forms." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). helping to express the idea of place with the word in. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). also add -s or 's. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. cell has another relation. 55. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. and expresses a relation akin to possession. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. .

Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. 3. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Nouns. and merit. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words." (2) As a predicate noun. Excuses are clothes which. the enemy of the living. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. 57. completing a verb. may be said to have three cases. and the possessive. 4. then. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. three things characterize man. when asked unawares. 1. they returned to their homes. whether inflected or not." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus.²one for the nominative and objective." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. fate. must be understood for purposes of analysis." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. Three properties belong to wisdom.²person. Uses of the Nominative. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. and experience.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. 2. excessive grief.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. the objective. . The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations.²nature. learning. 5. I. Human experience is the great test of truth. 58.²the nominative. and tell which use of the nominative each one has.

how have I frighted thee? II. and makest a calm." (4) As the second object. 3. a patriarch of the village. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. and being equivalent to one verb.Save. Tender men sometimes have strong wills." "Thou makest the storm a calm. 4. (in the older stages of the language. and meaning calmest. taking the object enemies." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. 2. Conscience. her first law broken. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. distance. . Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. Uses of the Objective. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. reconciles. 9. etc." Exercise. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. sword in hand and visor down. and landlord of the inn. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. thy wrath can send. completing the verb. save. and tell which use each has:² 1. 8. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. as will be seen in Sec. the word toward which the preposition points. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due.6. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. good Heaven. 59. (5) As the object of a preposition. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. 68." (3) Adverbially. Set a high price on your leisure moments. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. But of all plagues. They charged. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. wounded lies. they are sands of precious gold. taking the object storm. But the flood came howling one day. measure. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder.

an elegy to commemorate yesterday.²HAWTHORNE. And whirling plate. 10. 61. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.Does his Creator's power display. Possession in some sense is the most common.5. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.e. 60. or in writing yesterday's elegy. as. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. Uses of the Possessive. as shown in the sentences. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.² The unwearied sun. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive.²BYRON. expressed or understood.And gave the leper to eat and drink. The possessive case always modifies another word. 6. The noblest mind the best contentment has. 8. as in these expressions. (2) Objective possessive. (3) Subjective possessive. 7.His winter task a pastime made. tempests that . There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.²ADDISON. It is a poetic expression.²SHELLEY. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. from day to day. III.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. and forfeits paid. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. the most common of all. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. 9. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. the Great Stone Face.

56).. lady Poss. A suggestion. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. there are only two case forms." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. 62. and Obj. Nom. growth which several days had developed). the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. ." Use of the apostrophe. "From every schires ende. 62. "George Jones his book. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. 1. the panther which the forest hides). Nom.e. as schoolboys sometimes write. As said before (Sec. in Chaucer. Case Inflection.e. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. Poss. 63. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. and Obj. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his." "at his beddes syde. One is the simple form of a word..winter is likely to have). expressing the relations of nominative and objective. 64. PLURAL. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. The use of the apostrophe. making the possessive singular. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. Declension or inflection of nouns. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. child NOTE. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. How the possessive is formed. however. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general." "mannes herte [heart]." etc.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. To form the possessive plural. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). A false theory. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s.

but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. as.²HOLMES. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign..²DE QUINCEY. Captain Scrapegrace's. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. Kate saw that. 65. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that." "A postscript is added.²RUSKIN.²SWIFT. instead of the emperor their master's name. as. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular.²CARLYLE. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. store. 67. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. know the amount of my income. but to the ear all may be alike. being understood with it: for example. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience.² LOWELL. the items of my son's. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St."²DE QUINCEY. though instances are found with both appositional words marked.. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. Peter's. the possessive sign is usually last. containing words in apposition. and from a desire to have distinct forms. etc. dwelling. Cervantes' satirical work." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. stands up for God's truth one man. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. church. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. for goodness' sake. James's. 66. as by the countess's command. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. some such word as house. I remember him in his cradle at St." Possessive with compound expressions. a word with a phrase. and she walked off from the don's. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. etc. .Though this opinion was untrue. my neighbors. Possessive and no noun limited. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. in the name of the emperor their master.²THACKERAY. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. In compound expressions. tailor's bill²THACKERAY.

I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears.²E. 87..) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. Emphasis. If. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. making a double possessive.²the introduction which Atterbury made. any. (See also Sec.²FROUDE. especially when used with this or that. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. 1. (b) Rewrite the sentence. sometimes they are used together.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. 2. In most cases. every. (3) It prevents ambiguity. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. (1) When a word is modified by a. and tell whether each is appositional. no. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. as one modifier. however. the sentence might be understood as just explained. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. Both of these are now used side by side. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. in such a sentence as. E. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. etc. A peculiar form. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive.The double possessive. a double possessive. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . Blair). For example. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. or subjective.²CARLYLE. and at the same time by a possessive noun. this. that. HALE. Exercises. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. objective. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. ill-lighted except where she stands. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. Clearness. each. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. corresponding to 's. we use the phrase of Atterbury. the. 68. the statement clearly means only one thing.

it seemed. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 15.3.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. At lovers' perjuries. never in the tongueOf him that makes it.² . A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it.They say. in parsing a noun. 11. In parsing. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. let him seasonably water the one. with every garland crowned. 9.A weary waste expanding to the skies. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. 70. 8. some idioms²the double possessive.Comes dancing from the East. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. therefore. Jove laughs. 4. 6. There Shakespeare's self. Now the bright morning star. and destroy the other. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. 5. 7. 12. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. Hence. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 14. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. Nature herself. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. I must not see thee Osman's bride. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. 69. 10. day's harbinger. we state. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 13. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. Friend.

MODEL FOR PARSING. 3. then make the grammatical statements as to its class.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. and number. a withered serving man. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. like miller's. NOTE. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. it denotes only one person.²common. and limits neckcloth. hence it is a common noun. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. gender. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. has no governing word. therefore neuter. therefore possessive case. a fresh tapster. it is the object of the preposition by. therefore singular number. (3) Whether singular or plural number. therefore masculine gender. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. it expresses time. therefore singular number. and relations. is a common class noun. subject of the verb is understood. Throat is neuter. but is the adverbial objective. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. (4) Its office in the sentence. Exercise. which gender. etc. it has no sex. it expresses possession or ownership. That in the captain's but a choleric word. hence objective case. the connection shows a male is meant. The correct method. and to have it found out by accident. it is the name of a male being. proper. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. if the latter. Neckcloth. 71. . determining its case. Thief is a common class noun. as to case. masculine. and therefore nominative case. 4. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. hence it is objective case. 2. names one thing. object of the verb takes.(1) The class to which it belongs. singular number. 68). hence it is a gender noun. inflections. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. In parsing any word.

5. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. 73. The need of pronouns. 7. He giveth his beloved sleep. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. definite. Time makes the worst enemies friends. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name.And hated her for her pride. blessings light on him that first invented . "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. Jarley's back being towards him. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. PRONOUNS. Now. but by a question we say. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. sleep! 6. or for a group of persons or things. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. (2) Interrogative pronouns. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. A pronoun is a reference word. Mrs. 10. financial minister to Louis XVI. and his daughter." Again. instead of saying. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. and prison. all in one. 11. and representative words. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. or for a person or thing. standing for a name.. Madame de Staël.²palace.. 72. . from a necessity for short. castle. Classes of pronouns. 9. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs.. A few miles from this point. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. 8. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. Necker. were natives of Geneva. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. 76). For instance. Definition. where the Rhone enters the lake.

It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. 77. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. ours . (4) Adjective pronouns. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. Three persons of pronouns. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. as nouns have the same form. Person in grammar. From analogy to pronouns. I Poss. (3) Third person. This gives rise to a new term. that is. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. they are said to have person by agreement. we our. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. Singular. "the distinction of person. my Plural. even if it had a special form. 75. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. 76. (5) Indefinite pronouns. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. standing for a person or thing spoken of. which cannot be used as adjectives.. which have forms for person. representing the person speaking. or other word or expression. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive.(3) Relative pronouns. primarily adjectives." Person of nouns. and the person or thing talked about. 74. words. the person or thing spoken to. representing a person or thing spoken to. pronoun. which relate or refer to a noun. they must represent the person talking. Nom. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. mine. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. (2) Second person.

It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. thine. yours Poss. Old forms. Nom. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Obj. and also for the neuter. Poss. yours you THIRD PERSON. But the third person has. you your. The speaker may be either male or female..Obj. thy Remarks on These Forms. a separate form for each gender. yours you Plural. he his him Fem. Obj. . Nom. hers her Plur. or. masculine h . neuter. neuter hit. Third person singular has gender. namely. Obj. Old Form Common Form. in the singular. thou thee ye you you your. of all Three. 78. so also with the person or thing spoken to. Masc. your. they their. Poss. theirs them Neut. Nom. she her. feminine h o. SECOND PERSON. Obj. by personification. it its it Poss. me us Singular. First and second persons without gender. Nom. Singular.

. as. thy. even when referring to a single object.. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. The consequence is. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. (2) In addressing the Deity. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times.Thou lovest. . which is a neuter noun. Two uses of the old singulars.²BEECHER. etc. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. heora. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. and sometimes its. This is of comparatively recent growth. just as we now say. to thy care we commit the helpless. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. two modern uses of thou. that didst comfort thy people of old. in Old English. The plurals were h .Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. as possessive of it. etc.:² (1) In elevated style. Second person always plural in ordinary English. for example. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. The form its.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. etc. Thou.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. 82. 79. especially in poetry. the forms they. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms.² Oh. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. We use it with a plural verb always. their. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). as in prayers. them. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. but make the plural you do duty for the singular." As shown above. heom. thou Shepherd of Israel. it. which was often sounded with the h silent. 81.²SHELLEY. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. 80. however. thee. There are. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. In spoken English. The old form was his (from the nominative hit).

are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. for.²BULWER. note the following:² 'Twas mine. though those named in Sec. and has been slave to thousands. them. her. Absolute personal pronouns. Not a separate class. 84 are always subjects. 86. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. sometimes his and its. their. That is. The words I. thou. them. . us. she. him. her. his. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. Old use of mine and thine. 83. your. ye. its. her. And since thou own'st that praise. they. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. have a peculiar use. 34). and not make more classes. II. yours. thine. The forms my. they have a nominative form. ²SHAKESPEARE. some say. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. besides a nominative use. hers. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES." the literary language would require he after was. our. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. 58). Additional nominatives in spoken English. to personify objects (Sec. The forms mine. though ye is occasionally used as objective. 84. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. and follow the usage of literary English. Nominative forms. us. him. 85. The Possessive. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. or. I spare thee mine. in such a sentence as. we. theirs. and sometimes in ordinary speech. 'tis his.²COWPER. Yet careful speakers avoid this. me. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. "I am sure it was him. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. however.Use of the pronouns in personification. thy.²LANDOR. I The Nominative. In spoken English. he. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. when they occur in the predicate position.

we find. T. we have. ours. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. ²HOLMES. but few thy voice. it tells of good old times.²ID. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. F.² CARLYLE. . The forms hers.²J. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. pluck it out.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. This usage is still preserved in poetry. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. sometimes its.²CARLYLE. thus."²SCOTT. Long Allen. are really double possessives. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. 87. and with mine. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. for example.²J. (3) To express contempt.²THACKERAY. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens.²THACKERAY. Their uses. yours.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. This ancient silver bowl of mine. theirs. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. thine. If thine eye offend thee. as in nouns.²BIBLE. ours. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. Besides this.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. COOPER." said Henry Woodstall. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. FIELDS. yours. hers. commenting upon a letter of mine. or satire.²ID. "Hold thy peace. thus. Like the noun possessives. Double and triple possessives.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. (2) To bring emphasis. in that old Edinburgh house of his. theirs.²SWIFT. anger. Give every man thine ear. his.

"Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. . In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. 20. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. but not in form.²BIBLE. 86: mine stands for my property. In pronouns." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. "The good alone are great. or use in a sentence. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. but nominative or objective in use.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. The Objective. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. Both joined in making him a present. Now the objective. They may be spoken of as possessive in form." "None but the brave deserves the fair. In Old English there was one case which survives in use.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks.²ID. the thing is done. his for his property. as it is called. as shown in Sec. 90. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. but the form is the same as the objective. 88. Curse me this people. 89. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. was marked by a separate case. mine stands for my praise in the second. In their function. They all handled it. in the first sentence. but expresses for whom. Besides this use of the objective. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. this dative use.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. III. for whose benefit. In such sentences as. and mine in the second has an objective use. But the first two have a nominative use. The old dative case. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches.

and they cry. 92. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature.²IRVING To empty here. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. has not made its progress. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. ²EMERSON.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. was passed by with indulgence. as in the sentences.² NEWMAN. as. or to the idea. logical subject. Your mere puny stripling.²BULWER. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. to stand for the real. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²DE QUINCEY. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. like Chinese skill. thus." (3) As a grammatical subject. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. you must condense there. (3) In apposition. Indefinite use of you and your. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. or that he has not a great deal more.²EMERSON.²ADDISON. 91. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.²BACON. which follows the verb.²D. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. Society. why. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. as. you sneeze.²CARLYLE. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. The word you. WEBSTER.Time is behind them and before them. It is a pity that he has so much learning. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. in this century.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.² .

²BRYANT.²EMERSON. have laid them downIn their last sleep. itself. keeps a school. 94. .² Now I lay me down to sleep. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.It is finger-cold. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively." etc. "I found me a good book.²HOLMES. used in poetry. 93. that is.." and there is an end of it. -selves. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. This occurs in poetry. they dropped their arms. peddles it.²THOREAU. however. ourselves. as. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns.²SCOTT. I set me down and sigh. They are myself. And when I awoke.²ID. and its plural selves.²IRVING. it rained. since firstThe flight of years began. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. himself.²ANON.. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. when they are direct objects. For example. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined."²IRVING. but seldom in prose. I made up my mind to foot it. as they are also called. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. And millions in those solitudes.²DE QUINCEY.²BURNS. who in turn tries all the professions. It was late and after midnight. yourself. There was nothing for it but to return. farms it. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. (thyself). who teams it. (ourself). referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. Of the two forms in parentheses.²COLERIDGE.²BUNYAN." "He bought him a horse. we use such expressions as. A sturdy lad . For when it dawned. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. yourselves. themselves. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw.²HAWTHORNE. the second is the old form of the second person. Poor Christian was hard put to it. herself. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.

²MILTON. As if it were thyself that's here. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. Threats to all. for example. were changed into the possessive myself.²EMERSON. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. ourselves.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. after the analogy of myself. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.² TENNYSON. and the others were formed by analogy with these. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. with self.²SHAKESPEARE. as. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.. Origin of these reflexives.²WORDSWORTH. to us. The question might arise.²E. and build the lofty rhyme. as we ourself have been. as.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. shall dissolve. I shrink with pain.² .² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. not the possessive forms. to every one. for example. NOTE. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.As girls were once. Use of the reflexives. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. as in vulgar English. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.² The great globe itself . In Middle English the forms meself. 95. especially in the speech of rulers. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. theself.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. 96.To you yourself. etc. thyself. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. B.²ID. Held dead within them till myself shall die. BROWNING.. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun.

let him lowly confess it. And it grew wondrous cold. To know what is best to do. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. some of them being double possessives.²B. 6. 3. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. Come and trip it as we go. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. all conform to it. Three now in use. 8. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. feminine.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. One obsolete. 9. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. and what. Years ago. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. which. and neuter. FRANKLIN. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. . 4. 2. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. where the word is one with that it tells of. Courage. father. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). 5. 10. 97. but it is the soonest spoiled. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. some each of masculine. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. 7. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. Infancy conforms to nobody. fight it out.On the light fantastic toe.² THACKERAY.²DE QUINCEY. and how to do it. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. is wisdom.

What wouldst thou do. etc. used formerly to mean which of two. referring to things. .There is an old word. 100. Which of you. as it always asks about somebody. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. whispering sweet. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. having three forms. ideas. that it is not inflected for gender or number. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. Use of who and its forms. it refers to either persons or things.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. with its possessive and objective. These show that what is not inflected for case. not to persons.. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. shall we say. which is not inflected for gender. whether. it is always third person. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. As shown here. that. The use of who. but for case alone. it is selective. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. Use of what. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. methought. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. Whose was that gentle voice. 99. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL.Promised. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. actions. 98. but now obsolete. that it is always singular and neuter. the gold. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. that is. Use of which. or case. number.

²by the use of the words. 105. as. whose? Obj. 103. as. SING. which and what. and so to make smoother discourse. or other word or expression. pronoun. Thus we may say. in Sec. 99. what may be an adverb in some expressions.101. The antecedent. 127). objective in the last. who evidently refers to Bards. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. AND PLUR. Further treatment of who. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. which is called the antecedent of the relative. and also in having a conjunctive use. since it is subject of the verb had. which and what are sometimes adjectives. who is used as objective instead of whom.² "The last of all the Bards was he. for which the pronoun stands. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.Who sung of Border chivalry. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. nominative in the second also. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. as they take the place usually of a word already used. subject of doth love. Who." In the latter sentence. and what are also relative pronouns. who? Poss. which.² . being the direct object of the verb shall take. "The last of all the Bards was he. 104. it may be shortened into. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. SINGULAR Nom. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. Function of the relative pronoun." Or. 102. AND PLUR. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. These bards sang of Border chivalry. which is nominative in the first sentence. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. It usually precedes the pronoun. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. For instance.

The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. Two kinds. They had not their own luster.Whose flag has braved. WHITNEY. D.. a simple relative is meant. . The origin of language is divine. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. Ye mariners of England. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. For her enchanting son. 3. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. in the same sense in which man's nature.² COX.²LOWELL In this. what.That guard our native seas. with all its capabilities . Indefinite relatives. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. which.²SCOTT. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. Generally speaking. both his and who have the antecedent priest..The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. the women whom women approve. 2.²THACKERAY. a thousand years. 2. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. 4. will be discussed further on. 4.Whom universal nature did lament. 5. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. but the look which is not of the earth. The men whom men respect. 106. When the word relative is used. 107. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. are the men and women who bless their species. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.²W. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.²DR JOHNSON. that. 108. 6.²PARTON Which and its forms. 3. is a divine creation. Who and its forms. The nurse came to us.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war.. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.²BYRON.²MILTON.

. 6. What. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. That.²MARGARET FULLER..²H. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. Who.² SHAKESPEARE 2. Reader..²BURKE. For what he sought below is passed above. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. bought up all the pigs that could be had.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. no bad type of what often happens in that country. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.. W.5. 110. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. stratagems. The judge .²IRVING. Already done is all that he would do. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. 111. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²LAMB 3.. 109. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.. 3.²DE QUINCEY. and spoils. you will not be angry with me for telling you. Examples of the relative that:² 1. ought to be kept in view. The man that hath no music in himself.²EMERSON. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.²GOLDSMITH. 2.Is fit for treasons. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. 4. 107.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. which it certainly is not. BEECHER 5. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. (a) This gradation . Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. else this description will seem exaggerated.. The Tree Igdrasil.

things. whose for the possessive. son. possessive case of which. Witness the following examples:² And you. that man. Which. whose is second person.. (4) It has two case forms. Examples of whose. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. in 5. referring to animals. who.²LOWELL. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. The sentences in Sec.²IRVING. Who referring to animals. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. whose wound I had dressed. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Scott.²which for the nominative and objective. flung its arms around my neck.²THACKERAY. The little gorilla. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. Kingsley. 5. The robins. 112. whom. 96). whose.²SWIFT. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. Cooper. in the second. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. . or ideas. Sec.²DR. In 1. in 4.. seemed as much excited as myself. in the first sentence. Gibbon.. in the third. It has been seen (Sec.who.. whom. Smollett. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. and others. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. who is first person..²LEIGH HUNT.. In sentence 4. 113. and so on. they are plural. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. a man. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. the others are all third person. and 6. and 3.whose.²who. (3) It is nearly always third person. JOHNSON. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. p. 2. not persons. 107. My horse. the relatives are singular. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. (2) It has three case forms.

(3) It is the same form for first. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich.²BEECHER. thus. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons.² And.²THACKERAY. 115. second. That.² MCMASTER. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. (2) It has only one case form. . as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.114. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. no possessive.²SHAKESPEARE. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. 109. and third persons. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. which is worse.²RUSKIN. and things.²SCOTT. 116.²first. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. and to persecute without pity. secondly (which made her stare). on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. In the sentences of Sec.² I swept the horizon. the antecedent follows which. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. let us enter the church itself. Which and its antecedents. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. which is very notable and curious."²RUSKIN. The last two sentences in Sec.²DE QUINCEY. animals. too. This often occurs. Sometimes. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. and numerous others. Primarily. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. So in Matthew Arnold. Men may be ready to fight to the death. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. Burke. Kingsley.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. This moribund '61.

. third person. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. that do I. which. we can. For example. The gender. as in sentence 6. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things.²SHAKESPEARE." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. plural number." Since the relatives hold the sentence together.²EMERSON. and is emphatic.²BIBLE What fates impose. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. 118. that he has. but what I hate. 119. whose Obj. that do I not. third person. Nom. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. is always neuter. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. for example. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. What a man does. Sec. and person of the relatives who. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.² What I would. When expressed. plural number. by taking them out. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. who Poss. either of which would be neuter." (3) "These people heard him. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. it usually follows. Who plainly stands for those or the people. 109.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. as." That evidently refers to truths. number. The sentences of Sec. What. consequently is neuter. that men must needs abide. 117. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. what we said?²CARLYLE.

then parse the relatives. it is object of uttered. The relative what is handled differently. is subject of wrought upon and molded.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. in (3). Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. "What can't be cured must be endured. and what is the direct object of the verb call. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. Truths in sentence (2). I think they are trying to outwit nature." Here the subject of is. The whole expression is its subject. etc. What can't be cured. 6. 8. In the sentence. so is in the objective case. 3. which is. in (1). What must be endured? Answer. however.. we is the subject. but of this. above. is what we call nature. the highest result of all education. who is sure to be cunninger than they. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. the simple relative. is subject of the verb can't be cured. after all. nobler souls with that which they are. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. The word what. people is the object of the preposition of. third person. In (2). In the same way who." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. . Another way. in the following sentences:² 1. Exercise. because it has usually no antecedent. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. and hence is in the nominative case. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. Some prefer another method of treatment. standing for the people understood. it is subject of the verb heard. but is singular. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. that takes the case of the truths in (2). Parsing what. 7."²EMERSON. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. First find the antecedents. is in the nominative case. As shown by the following sentences. Now. 5. neuter. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. 4. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. subject of heard. 120.

It is clear that in 1. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. 7. or what else soever. whatever. which. in a new and original way. summer will have its flies. whatsoever. .²BURKE. that nothing else can stand in their presence. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. 123. whatever is equivalent to all things which. less common are whoso. and which in the second clause. whatsoever.²BURKE. not as direct as the simple relatives. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. that is. Do what we can. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. by meaning and use. 3. Take which you please. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. whichsoever. Hence some take what as a double relative. List and examples. to everything that. They are whoever. and his friend a fool." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. 6. Only itself can inspire whom it will.²MACAULAY. Death is there associated.²you cannot have both. 2. 2. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. 121. no particular thing. It is no proof of a man's understanding. whichever. Meaning and use. whosoever. and in 2. no certain antecedent. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. 122. The simple relatives who. being referred to. object of do] they do. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. "common souls pay with that [singular. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. or stand on their head. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. object of with] which [singular. 4. and parse that in the first clause. So with the other indefinites. 5. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge.

what means anything that. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. 124. 126. as was used just as we use that or which. for example. etc. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. whereby.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. whereupon. . as what hardly ever has an antecedent. Instead of the phrases in which. Former use of as. etc. are used. 121. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. Sec.² 1. There is nothing but is related to us. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3.As shown in Sec. everything that (or everything which). has been my heaviest affliction. nothing that does not interest us.. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. 2.²EMERSON.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES.²DE QUINCEY. but which only wealth could have purchased. 120. Two words.²HAWTHORNE. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. 125. but mean any one whom.. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. This. Other substitutes. But and as. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. by which. but and as. 4.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. and that as after such is equivalent to which. not following the word such. the conjunctions wherein. upon which. 417). as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. etc.² some particular thing. thus. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. In early modern English. 121. for example. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. either one that. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. Proof that they have the force of relatives.

who having the antecedent gentleman. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure.. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first." Likewise with which in 3 (b). it is a simple relative. and 3 (b). (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. Thus. 3. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. what is interrogative. 2 (b). if expanded. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. Special caution needed here. second. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. 127. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. it is an indefinite relative). 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. "Who stood behind? We knew. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form.²EMERSON. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). though the earthwork hid them. the full expression being. no antecedent is expressed.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide." etc. But in 1 (b). (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. 2. and whether what = that + which (if so. if not. How to decide. "But what had become of them? They knew not. In studying such sentences. showing that who is plainly interrogative. Another caution. a question is disguised in each sentence. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. 1 (b).²ID.²WHITTIER. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. . which having the antecedent lines. In sentences 1 (a). (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. if not. it is an interrogative. would be. So in 2 (b). which would indicate that they are not relatives.

²FORSTER 6.²CARLYLE. the question is asked by the verb. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. In the second. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. 2. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. ELIOT.128. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. In the first.² THACKERAY. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. Examine the following:² 1. Relative omitted when object.² These are the sounds we feed upon. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. On the other hand. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. and asks no question. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. which has the antecedent hue. which. whose has the antecedent you. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence.²HOLMES. In the third. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. but the life of man in England.²GOLDSMITH. 4. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. The insect I am now describing lived three years.²SWIFT. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. Put in the relatives who. When Goldsmith died. and Court Calendars.²FLETCHER. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. 129. whence is the interrogative word. Thus. I visited many other apartments. . 5. 3. Exercise.²G.

He went on speaking to who would listen to him.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.Ne'er looks upon the sun. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. simple relatives. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. Examples are. which. The nobles looked at each other. There was such a crowd went. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. that. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. and what. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. the house was full. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.² LOWELL. or indefinite relatives:² 1. 5. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. .7. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened.²Id. and comparatively so in poetry. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.²SCOTT. 3.²CAMPBELL. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. It is rare in prose. 2. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. which was already proceeding. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. 130. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.²SHAKESPEARE. 6. who were to be rulers over whom. Function of adjective pronouns. Also in literary English we find the same omission. Relative omitted when subject.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. or may be the whole of a sentence. the former.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. "another bank. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. neither. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched." that is. "these pranks. few.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. such as each. 'Truth. For example. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood.²BRYANT. many. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. must not modify any word. as some. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence." Classes of adjective pronouns." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. necessarily thought of: thus. none. For instance." in the second. a word." in the others. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Primarily they are adjectives. etc. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. in letters of gold. and stand for a noun. either." "Where two men ride on a horse. not pronouns. and another to get cool under." "one man. and on each is written. which we have seen in such expressions as. .²IRVING. "The dead are there. "each cube. in order to be an adjective pronoun. 132. such as this. etc. 133. or they may stand for nouns. any. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. but in this function. In the first use they are adjectives. that. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use.131. or use. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. or an argument in a paragraph. Adjectives. all. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²EMERSON. but have lost their adjective use. etc. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. Caution. in the first. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. expressed or understood.

They had fewer books. when the latter was the King of Spain. accidentally preserved. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. 3. because he was not lying in wait for these.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil.All these he saw. and sow wickedness. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. but these were of the best.²LOWELL. they that plow iniquity. Definition and examples. or sat. and they have well performed the other. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. . or reclined.²EMERSON 4. for example. NOTE.² They stood. Their minds accorded into one strain. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. A man inspires affection and honor. but what he fain had seen He could not see. 134. Some of these are simple pronouns. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. Such are a few isolated instances. Even as I have seen. Simple.²ID. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. Compound. as seemed good to each.²ID. 2.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. reap the same. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. 5. They have not shunned the one. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Exercises.

The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. The word one has a reflexive form. another. Men take each other's measure when they react. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. we might the more easily discharge them.²HAWTHORNE. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. as some of the rangers had gone astray. The Soldan. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. or melt for others' woe. as. paused over a horoscope. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. imbued. for example. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay.Two are compound pronouns. with the superstitions of his time. 135. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul.²HOLMES. Another opposes him with sound argument.²EMERSON. such as one other. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. as it were. you quickly come to the end of all.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. Exercise. Definition and examples.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.²KINGSLEY. Some inflected. ²HAWTHORNE. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. None shall rule but the humble. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. as most were. one another.²each other. They led one another.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good.² One reflexive. . Much might be said on both sides.

Every one else stood still at his post. as.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. some one. nothing. 136. Jove laughs. nobody. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. anybody. what. but. Exercise. every one else. as shown in the words everybody's. etc. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Somebody. no one. . and was indefinite in Old English. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. They indefinite means people in general. everybody. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. everybody else. also aught. anyone else." It means something. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. every one (or everyone). William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. Definition and examples. These other souls draw me as nothing else can.²SHAKESPEARE. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns.Exercise. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. they are never used as adjectives. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. etc. anything. they say. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. everything. unlike adjective pronouns. 137. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. and somewhat. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. and they. I tell you what..² At lovers' perjuries. anybody else's. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. Now. any one (or anyone). naught. in building of chaises.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. somebody else. something.

18.²a feature of natural scenery for which. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. but not to quite so enormous an extent. O thou that rollest above. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 4. 2. A reminder. indeed. 7. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Whoever deals with M. Exercise. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. I first found myself among the mountains. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. 9. were suffered to depart. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 12. 138. 14. Others did the same thing. from my earliest days. to which. 11. and of no other. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 17. 6.See also "Syntax" (Sec. The table was good. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 13. Hutchinson tells us of herself. For this did God send her a great reward. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. in his negotiations. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 10. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. . 5. 3. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 16. All was now ready for action. 8.

variety. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. eat white bread or brown. 32.Who knew thee too well. hear! 33. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere.And it would work 'em woe.19. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. And will your mother pity me. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. 26. 31. He sate him down. And I had done a hellish thing. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. 30. hear. who take the world easy. behold now the semblance of my being. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. They know not I knew thee. 35. 34. 27.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday.Destroyer and preserver. in all its height. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. well-oiled dispositions. Whatever he knows and thinks. oh. 25.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. I who alone am. 23. 21. thou rollest now. that let him communicate. and seized a pen. 29.

Instead of using nouns indefinitely. we need some word to point out the house we speak of.36. etc. Office of Adjectives. Who hears me. 38. . in pointing out an object. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. We need to add some words to tell its color. which was no bad step towards my liberation. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. 43. So with any object. For example." "a hundred men. size." "that house. If a chemist discovers a new substance. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. 45. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. and so he read. 42. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master." "yonder hill." The office of an adjective. such as in the expressions "this man. brittle or tough. He teaches who gives. etc. who understands me. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. so that no other will be mistaken for it. as. ADJECTIVES. white or red. position. 39. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. becomes mine. Again. 41. "one hat. and he learns who receives. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. 37. and if we are near.. heavy or light. As to the kind of words used. if we are at a distance. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. or with persons. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. adjectives are used." etc. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit." "some cities. It may have this office alone. 139. Substantives. or gaseous. then. 44. We are by nature observers. He knew not what to do. that is our permanent state. or liquid. 40. the number is limited by adjectives. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning.

words primarily pronouns. Examples are. With exception of the "and then. If he be thankful for small benefits." "half-dead traveler." "ivory-handled pistols. it shows that he weighs men's minds. deep. or how much of a thing. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. pointing out particular things. To make this clear." "the Christian pearl of charity. (4) Pronominal adjectives. (2) Adjectives of quantity. to forgive.140." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. however. Nouns are not." "unlooked-for burden. beautiful." "ice-cold water. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. "an old English manuscript. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. such as. 142. such as safe. to describe it or to limit its application." "the Roman writer Palladius.² BACON. divine. and their trash. 143. 141." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES." they constitute all his connections." the "and there. Definition. To err is human. etc. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. rash. derived from proper nouns.²COLERIDGE. "Heaven-derived power. Classes of adjectives. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. fair. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. terrible. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES." and the still less significant "and so." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. used to tell how many things are spoken of. Infinitives. remotest." . made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets." "next-door neighbor." "this life-giving book. They include relative and interrogative words.²POPE. happy.

and another is drunken. but small thoughts have I of sleep.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. 143." "an aged man. in this." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. 1. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. 145. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. and accomplished is an adjective. They have these three subdivisions:² How much.But ever she looked on Mr. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. much. .(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. 'Tis midnight." "One is hungry.²MACDONALD. Exercises. 144. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb." "The shattered squares have opened into line." Caution." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. 2. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. any.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. sometimes small." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. some." "It came on like the rolling simoom. no. which are either pure participles used to describe. considerable. Oxenham. having some of each subclass named in Sec. in studying these last-named words. For instance: in the sentence." was is the verb." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.²COLERIDGE. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. Care is needed." was accomplished is a verb." "trailing clouds. Examples are." "a charming sight.

" "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head.²THACKERAY. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. The list. Exercise. How many. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. they come under the next division of adjectives." "a dozen volunteers. Thus." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. The following sentences present some examples:² ." "Then we wandered for many days. those).²VAUGHAN. instead of modifying them. When some. Examples. (plural these. An arrow was quivering in each body. any. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. as. 146. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. its wake. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." Single ones of any number of changes." (b) Indefinite numerals.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking." "I have lost one brother. former. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. are used with plural nouns. yonder (or yon)." "He had lived by hunting for some months.²KINGSLEY. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. latter. "one blaze of musketry.²CARLYLE. The demonstrative adjectives are this. every village.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. that. Not primarily pronouns.²ID. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. and with them a few negroes." "In came some five and twenty more. no.² Every town had its fair. but I have gained fourscore. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. the former²the latter.

they are changed to adjectives. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.but all these charms are fled. 148. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. tell how many things are meant. . skill which was progressive²in the other.²RUSKIN. I verily believe. just as the corresponding pronouns do. for example.²BANCROFT. FRANKLIN. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. of equal skill. 147.²BULWER. Exercise. The taking of which bark.²ID. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. These do not. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course.² It matters not what rank he has.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. skill which was at pause.²ID. Modify names of persons or things.²D. When we speak of the seventeenth century. WEBSTER.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.. 149.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions.²WORDSWORTH. In which evil strait Mr. As has been said. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. but. what revenues or garnitures. The silver and laughing Xenil. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. but in the one case. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. These were thy charms. They are of two kinds. like the other numerals.²GOLDSMITH."²B. Oxenham fought desperately. ²CARLYLE. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. Definition. Indefinite relative adjectives.²KINGSLEY.

²IRVING. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. whichever. which is selective among what is known. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. proved not altogether displeasing to him. or whether any.²ID. you at least give him full authority over your son. As in the pronouns. it is impossible to determine. what inquires about things or persons not known.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor.²CARLYLE. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. whatever. whatsoever. whichsoever way I move. Was there. 151. A lady once remarked.²AGASSIZ. as it rather seemed. nature will be sure to bear us out in. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. ..²LAMB. the debt to the rich. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). Adjective what in exclamations. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. He was turned before long into all the universe. But when the Trojan war comes. Examples of their use are. and new tormentedAround me.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew.150. and gaze.² EMERSON. In indirect questions. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. whichsoever. In direct questions. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. Whatsoever kind of man he is. New torments I behold. which. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first.²RUSKIN.And whichsoever way I turn. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head.

² Oh.²This. Thus.152. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. of the quality. which was fully inflected in Old English. or amount. 154.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. History of this²these and that²those. Meaning of comparison. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. This is the old demonstrative. 155. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. COMPARISON. Those borrowed from this. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. 153 . th s (modern those). But this had also another plural. The article that was used with neuter nouns. or size. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. we do so by means of their qualities. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. or weight. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. That. etc. the making of it right. weight. gold is heavier than iron. we notice some differences between them as to size. In exclamatory expressions. It is neither relative nor interrogative. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. NUMBER.. alas. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep.²but not the same degree. and those as the plural of that. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. . What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. those). And yet. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. as. Exercise. and when we compare the objects. color. All these have certain qualities. When we place two objects side by side.²number and comparison.Adjectives have two inflections. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. etc.

bluer. but were not common until a century later. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. and the superlative. as." "the commonest speech. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. Freedom is a perpetual. but. These are properly the only degrees. sufficient. expressing the greatest degree of quality. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. or amounts in quantity. to the simple form. though the simple. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. These are called degrees of comparison. great. for example. with less wit. They came into use about the thirteenth century. . 159. supreme. strictly considered. as.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE." "It is a nobler valor.²THACKERAY. red." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example." "no fewer than a hundred. whose favorite pupil he was. and many others. infinite. whether they attend their own affair or not. Definition. So with the words sole. The comparative is formed by adding -er. 156.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality." "the largest soul. The two forms. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. Substitute for inflection in comparison. reddest. easy." Words that cannot be compared. organic.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. expressing a greater degree of quality. and the superlative by adding -est. universal institution. immemorial. bluest. easiest. enormous. blue. easier. 157. "untamed thought. 158. giant-like. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. redder. A main difference betwixt men is. indefatigable. indomitable. they are not compared. 160. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States.²SEWARD. "more matter. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them.

honestest." "the wonderfulest little shoes.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. admirablest. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. harsh forms are usually avoided. finest chiseling. witty.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain." "the immensest quantity of thrashing.² CARLYLE A gentleman. who. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives.²ID." "distantest relationships.²The Nation. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. "So help me God. and yet familiar. as. I will." said Henry Esmond." "more austere and holy. most small. madam. though born in no very high degree. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. Adjectives irregularly compared. there needed to be a most genuine substance. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. 162. which hung behind in the queerest way. The general rule is. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. polished." "sorrowfulest spectacles. and patientest fusing. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. falling on his knees.Which rule.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. etc. strange. easy. mournfulest.²ID. quiet. peaceablest. and other words are preceded by more and most. These are adjectives irregularly compared. These long." "more odd. The following lists include the majority of them:² . and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. indisputablest. 163." Carlyle uses beautifulest. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. was most finished. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given.

lesser Elder. Worser was once used.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. (3) Little is used as positive to less. 9. a double comparative. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. hindermost Much or many More Farther. The superlative I form was betst. bad. [Out] Outer. outermost Utmost. 1.² O. though from a different root. which has softened to the modern best. 4.² We have it in a much lesser degree. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). as in the sentence (14th century). Good or well Evil.²HAMLET. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. evil was the positive to worse. next Nearest Latest. There was an old comparative bet. furthest 10. These have no adjective positive:² 1. [In] Inner Inmost. further Farthest. oldest Nighest. latter Hinder LIST II. which has gone out of use. (2) In Old English. Hind 2. innermost Outmost. 6. uttermost Upmost. last Hindmost. 5. throw away the worser part of it. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. 7. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse.LIST I. List I. . as in Shakespeare. 3. 164. uppermost LIST III. A double comparative. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. is often used. lesser. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. least. as. 8. 2. older Nigher Nearer Later. worst. utter 3.

moche. as long.²KINGSLEY. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. and refer to time. but not in meaning. In imitation of further.²forth. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. great. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. The meanings greater.² The more part being of one mind. List II. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. further. instead of lenger. is quite common. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. there is scarcely any distinction. for example. "Many a little makes a mickle.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti.. an old superlative ending. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. and the superlative nearest. or series. etc.²ID.. but originally the comparison was nigh. first. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. since the m is for -ma. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. The latter. farrest. to England we sailed. meaning the largest part. muchel. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. The most part kept a stolid indifference. a distinction has grown up between the two series. greatest. Since later. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. near. are earlier than older. latest. as. oldest. strenger. etc. farthest. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. making the modern farther. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. eldest." Its spelling has been micel. First became entirely detached from the series. the old forms. furthest. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. (5) The forms elder. much. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. to which is added -ost. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. strong. Between the two sets as they now stand. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. . are shown in such phrases as. except the form next. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. came into use.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. doubling the inflection. th came into the others. next.²HAWTHORNE. ²LAMB.

The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY." "far-seeing as the sun. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives.²EMERSON. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. They have no superlatives. The adjectives in List III. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection." "the innermost moral soul.²H." "their utmost exertion. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing.²KINGSLEY. all may belong to the same noun. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. BEECHER. was descried The royal banner floating wide. Her. but they have no adjective positives." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. In List II. Her bows were deep in the water. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. 167. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. 168. and have no comparative force. in having no adjective positives. W. 166.²HAWTHORNE. Think what each adjective belongs to. Decidedly handsome. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. being merely descriptive. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. or have no comparative forms. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink.165. Highest and midmost. There. on the very topmost twig. but her after deck was still dry. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. (Sec. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain." "The outer is of the day. or each may modify a different word or group of words. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. the upper light of the world.²SCOTT. but not in their meaning. are like the comparative forms in List II. The comparatives are so in form. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. by the by. ." -Most added to other words. List III.

" it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable.²HAWTHORNE. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank." in which then is an adverb. deeply black eyes. H. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. Richard Hooker. philosophical.²A. For thy stomach's sake. 3. our new government. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. not decision alone. in prose. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. 2. and thine often infirmities. The seldom use of it. May we not. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility.²RUSKIN. This.²HAWTHORNE.²HOLMES. It may still be argued. bright. solid. In the following quotations. and heaven-defying oaths. instead of saying. 6. now our queen. and broken.² My then favorite. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. the then and still owners. rich. 4.²NOAH PORTER. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. 7. . A few improper jests and a volley of good.For example. satisfactory. deep. therefore. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet.²TRENCH. 169. STOWE. Exercise. as. and moral truth. we may say "the then king. Our sometime sister. Bradbury and Evans. STEPHENS 5. usual modifies incomparable decision. But in this sentence. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. "the one who was then king. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES.²BIBLE. By a convenient brevity.²MRS. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. Other instances are. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. in this sentence. ²TROLLOPE. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. round. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank." making then an adjective.

therefore descriptive. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. or case. In parsing an adjective. 6. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. person. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. then. and I waited for none. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. 9. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure.What to tell in parsing. 7. with awkward but rapid pace. if it can be compared. She made no reply. 10. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. modifies truths. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. having a singular. These points out what truths. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. (3) Its degree of comparison. seventy-five drachmas. the method of parsing is simple. MODEL FOR PARSING. I ask nothing of you. and very few have number. if it has number. 3. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. (2) Its number. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. (4) What word or words it modifies. Since adjectives have no gender. . 2. plural number. This gave the young people entire freedom. Exercise. across the plain. this. Unfamiliar describes truths. To every several man. modifies the word truths. 170. 4. therefore demonstrative. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. 5. cannot be compared. To every Roman citizen he gives. not inflected for number. and most astounding were those frightful yells. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. manly way. positive degree. compared by prefixing more and most. frank. 8.

22. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 12. . What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. In music especially. yonder oxen in the pasture. 29. I know not what course others may take. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 13. To say what good of fashion we can. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. Two hours elapsed. it is so noble a fruit. 24. not so much for travelers that were few. oxen. the tomahawk fell. and many poles supported the lower ones. 27. and therefore more interesting to us. it rests on reality. With every third step. 31. 18. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. Like most gifted men. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 23. 20. as for armies that were too many by half. 33. 19. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. 26. are immutably fishes. he won affections with ease. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. Their name was the last word upon his lips. Nearer to our own times. Here lay two great roads. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 25. 14. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 32. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 16. those dogs in the yard. growing in the most unfavorable position.11. is the settlement of our own country. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 21. 28. suggests such thoughts as these. and dogs. during which time I waited.

sometimes the tother. the tither. when the word is not accented on the first syllable.²BREWER. he is no literary man. In Middle English the became an article. with an ordinary little garden. 173. weary-hearted man was he. or the tane." "a yelling crowd. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general." "a European. ARTICLES. just as adjectives do.²SCOTT. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. An or a came from the old numeral n. Two relics. s o." "an honor. ðat. and a before consonant sounds. Examples: "a house. but the former is used. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment." "an orange. and that remained a demonstrative adjective." An with consonant sounds. that other. An historian. the tother. In the sentence. such as we have been attempting to describe. Our expressions the one. 37. the latter is still preserved in the expression.34. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . the other. 172. meaning one. the tother. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. in vulgar English. 35. A hard-struggling.²MACAULAY. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. a before consonant sounds. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. Many writers use an before h. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. these occurring as the tane. An before vowel sounds. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. were formerly that one. later th . th o. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives." the words the and an belong to nouns. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. for example. 171. 174. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. that) which was also an article in Old English. . Their origin. even when not silent.

or group.²HEROES OF ASGARD. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north." "the Ohio.² . the older n. or any individual of a group or class. An article is a limiting word. Definition. To call attention to attributes. An hereditary tenure of these offices. When the is prefixed to a proper name. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY.²THACKERAY. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me.² Don't you remember how. An or a is the indefinite article.. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. NOTE. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. as "the Mississippi. is referred to. Kinds. The Dakota tribes. 178.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. 179.²This use is noticed when. 175. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. which cannot be used alone. Reference to a known object. The is the definite article. BANCROFT. since it points out a particular individual. 177.²COLERIDGE. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. a person is introduced by a. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. An and a are different forms of the same word.²G. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon.. on opening a story. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. as in the sentence. and not a state or other geographical division. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. not descriptive. Articles are either definite or indefinite. thus. With names of rivers. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things." the article indicates clearly that a river. or a group or class of things. or class. doubtless. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. and when the word river is omitted.²IRVING.. 176.

or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. the song sparrow. laid it on the miry spot. so is the evil. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. The. would speedily extract the required information. the Spinoza.²ID.²EMERSON.²G. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. Common.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.² As she hesitated to pass on. etc. BANCROFT. 183. 182. . as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. The simple rise as by specific levity. If the good is there. not into a particular virtue. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. 181. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. and the redwing. 1. One thing for its class. 2.²GIBBON.²KINGSLEY. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head.²SCOTT. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his.²MOTLEY. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. her. Schelling.²EMERSON.²ID. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. With adjectives used as nouns. His messages to the provincial authorities. or a match put between the fingers. for example. as. but into the region of all the virtues. Caution. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.The Bacon. With plural of abstract nouns. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. 180. the Hume. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. Kant. Half abstract. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. the gallant. NOTE. For possessive person pronouns.² The faint.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

or an idea. which may be a person. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek." Examine the sentences in Sec. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. Definition and caution. All these are called transitive verbs. Now. and not a verb. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. representing something which it influences or controls. and shame the most astute."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. an adverb. 202. the most penetrating. The nature of intransitive verbs.In (a). Has takes the object hypocrisy. but fearing is not a predicate. and. in (3. 204. or a material thing. a verb. b). (can) shame also has an object. By examining a few verbs. Of those expressing action. a noun. an article. In the sentence.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. "Put thou money in thy purse. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. lone took what? answer. for example. and to receive the action expressed. The nature of the transitive verb. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. c). to say something to or about some person or thing. Each influences some object. but cannot be predicates. etc. In each case. all do not express it in the same way. a). 201. in (b).²BULWER . hence is not a verb. In giving a definition. In the first. in (2. in (3. and a preposition unite as a verb. 200: In (1). the most astute. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. a preposition. Hence Definition. in this sentence from Bulwer. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. 203. obeyed is a predicate. b). which means to go over. "Put money in thy purse. care. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. we consider a verb as one word. the word following." put is the predicate. to go is no predicate. taking the staff which always guided her steps. with some word understood. from the Latin transire. can deceive has an object. A verb is a word used as a predicate. in (c)." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. or the object. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. endured what? anguish. as. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. in (2. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. popular government must be pronounced impossible. they were recorded in the Book of Life.²D. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. the first great founder of the Empire. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. he will see the need of these ethics. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. Condition or Supposition. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. as. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. Again.I could lie down like a tired child. 222. in our case. but.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. . as. or be fulfilled.²BRYCE.²SHELLEY. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. 221. and may or may not be regarded true.²FRANKLIN. the writer can make the statement following.²LONGFELLOW. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. WEBSTER.²may or may not be true. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. Unreal²cannot be true.²MACAULAY. Most excellent stranger. Ideal. the second founder. 2). 215.² If. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. the representative system ultimately fail. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. ²EMERSON. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY.² Now. I. for example. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. If this be the glory of Julius. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.

II. ²LOWELL. Epaminondas.. is used to express purpose. The voice. especially be. society could not hold together. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. and sonorous. Subjunctive of Purpose. The subjunctive. he had better not have written.²EMERSON. if he speak to you.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. that he might be strong to labor. and striven energetically to save Ney. if he was the man I take him for. and should.. NOTE.² If these things were true. 4. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. Exercise. etc. thus. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. 223. as. melodious. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. might.. unless. 3.²FRANKLIN. but when the verb precedes the subject. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. 2. to drink strong beer. . is of similar physiognomy. do you think.²BAYNE. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.²N. except. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. P.. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding.² CARLYLE. the clause being introduced by that or lest." etc. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. would you.²SWIFT. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. since he [Byron] was dead. WILLIS. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. that we cannot but regret its absence. 8. In the following conditional clauses.²FRANKLIN. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.² It was necessary.²CALHOUN. may. and what kind of condition:² 1. But in no case could it be justified. 5. though. clear. I told him. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. would have sat still with joy and peace. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. 7. if his lot had been mine. 6.²MACAULAY. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. If he had reason to dislike him. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. which cannot be true.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. she was regarded as a prodigy. he supposed.

The English subjunctive.Thou go not. In Temporal Clauses. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.I have been the more particular.²DE QUINCEY. 224.²D. till it meet the sun in his coming. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. Expressing a Wish.²COLERIDGE. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. I would it were! ²EMERSON..²SOUTHEY... III. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. Ask the great man if there be none greater.²BRYANT. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.²MOORE. In a Noun Clause. 226.And we. 227.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. the answer being regarded as doubtful. none of us could say. After a verb of wishing. within its fairy bowers.That vain it were her eyes to close.²WORDSWORTH. IV.²CARLYLE..that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.Were wafted off to seas unknown. 225. I've wished that little isle had wings. Let it rise. . The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. Subjunctive of Result. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. like the Latin. WEBSTER. VI. V. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. To tell of what had passed. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. So live. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.²ID. like the quarry-slave at night. In Indirect Questions. VII. Rise up.

To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. is. is the ultimate fact of man's life.²SCOTT. See that there be no traitors in your camp. I have no thought what men they be.And see the Braes of Yarrow. .²DE QUINCEY. in its various uses as subject. 229.² Be the matter how it may. Object. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. which may be (a) Pronoun. we'll turn aside. After verbs of commanding.²SHELLEY. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. 228. The noun clause. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. object. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. tell me all that thou hast seen.²TENNYSON. The essence of originality is not that it be new. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. That hunger of applause. for example. (b) Adjective.²COLERIDGE. Complement. that everything be in its place.²THOREAU.²WORDSWORTH. Whatever betide.And look thou tell me true.² DICKENS. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. VIII.Subject. of cash. Come.²COLERIDGE.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. in apposition. or whatsoever victual it may be. Concessive Clauses. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. Some might lament that I were cold. The first merit.²CARLYLE. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. often contains a subjunctive.. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. etc.

the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact.² CARLYLE. It must be remembered. point to their immortal works. though. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. 232. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. (2) Entreaty. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. since commands are directed to a person addressed. Q. 230. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought.²J. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. a concession. and condition contrary to fact. (1) Command. love all men. or requests. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. In spoken English. fear none. Definition. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. . to express a wish. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements.²BRYANT. we had found [should have found] a poem here.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. ADAMS.The spirit he loves remains. 231. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts.²CHANNING.²SHELLEY. for example. (3) Request.(c) Adverb. Oh. Usually second person. At the present day. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Honor all men. however. entreaties.

" whispered Kit.. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. to you implied in it. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. 2. child of earth!While each performs his part. Break we our watch up.²SHAKESPEARE. etc. request." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. 6. nothing is to be preferred before justice. "Come along with me. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Whatever inconvenience ensue. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. but I + you. Quoth she.And." Exercises on the Moods.²CAMPBELL. "The Devil take the goose. Sometimes with first person in the plural.²SCOTT. receive my hand.And God forget the stranger!" . (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. 8. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. lest we rust in ease. Oh.One glance at their array! 5. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. or I + they."²DICKENS Tell me. noble earl. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. 7. Part we in friendship from your land. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. 3. etc.. there will her heart and her prayers be."Hush! mother. Mark thou this difference.

alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree.Till you might faint with that delicious pain." continued Old Morgan. God send Rome one such other sight! 24.Except. 23. 20. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. or do it at all.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. 14. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. That a man parade his doubt." 25. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. let him live where else he like.That they might answer him. Think not that I speak for your sakes." 16. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. Forget thyself to marble. Though he were dumb. whether he do it right or wrong. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. He is. as though an instrument.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. 11. in what pomps and prosperities he like.9." cried he. He. and opinion displace opinion. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. "Oh. it would speak. 10. will it not fall unbound. she ought to have it.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. Marshall. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 13. 18. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. but repentant child. "Mr. That sheaf of darts. ruined. 19. Though abyss open under abyss. "tell me where I may find my poor. . no literary man. Well. then. 26. 21.High up in silver spikes! 22. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. how he may do his work. my dear madam.

The tenses in detail. or future time. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being.²the present tense. or whether it were as one member of a general party.27. or agree with it. Definition. and future. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. as the classical languages have. 233. Tense means time. 28.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. past. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. such as Latin and Greek. also. "Thou walkedst. kind. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. and the past tense. When the older pronoun thou was in use. in the third person singular. called auxiliaries. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. Meantime. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. 235. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no.² present.²nothing could exceed the amiable. in the conjugations. five in the imperative. "I go away tomorrow. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. five in the subjunctive. past. a form ending in -eth." "If he comes. and future perfect tenses. as. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. 234. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. and the future tense." past. Tenses in English. by means of the present. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. PERSON AND NUMBER. as. Old English had only two tenses. past perfect.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. to direct his steps. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present." ." present. TENSE. the past. "Thou walkest." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. will. which represented present and future time. shall. as will be shown later on. Siddons. "It is not in man that walketh. whatever she did. such as be. have. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. tell him to wait.

You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. been. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. tense. You (thou) be 3. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE." and this only in the present tense indicative. walked. walketh. chooses. chooseth. were. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. Indicative Mood. [He] were [They] were . are. This is the third person. Singular 1. Singular 1. Definition. chose. choosest. CONJUGATION. is. for example. persons. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. [He] is [They] are 3. PRESENT TENSE. In classical languages. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. but in English. Singular 1.²am.²choose. 236. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. moods. wert) 3. "He walks. 237. The verb be has more forms. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. choosing. as. since it is composed of several different roots.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. and numbers. tenses. 238. walking. chosen (old. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. walks. I be 2. You are 2. PRESENT TENSE. etc. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. I were 2. mood. chosest). singular number. etc. walkedst. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. Singular 1. Such verbs as choose have five. Few forms. walk has walk.

239.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. (2) was. in four ways.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. (d) With the infinitive. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. obligation. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.²WORDSWORTH. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. is. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. thus. though it is usually a dialect form. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. (b) With the past participle in -ed. for example. Instead of the plural are. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. The light that never was on sea and land.²SHELLEY. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.²BURKE . etc.His infancy was nurtured.Imperative Mood. to form the passive voice.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. etc... as.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. to express intention. -en. were. (2) As auxiliary verbs.²SCOTT. (3) be.²GOLDSMITH. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. same as the German sind.²THACKERAY. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. 240.²ID. which was now become an occasional banquet. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. Remarks on the verb be. condition.

Singular. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. Singular. "I have gone" (present perfect). [He] chooses [They] choose 3. PRESENT TENSE.241. . had. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. 1. 1. PRESENT TENSE. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. tenses." "He will choose. You chose Plural. tenses. We chose You chose 3. as. I chose 2. I choose 2. You chose Plural. 242. In addition to the above inflected forms. You choose Plural. You choose Plural. We chose You chose 3. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. as. "I shall be. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). Singular. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. 1. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. (2). etc. Singular. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. "I had gone" (past perfect)." (2) Present perfect. 240. Indicative Mood. 1. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. I choose 2. past perfect. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. future perfect. [He] choose [They] choose 3. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. Machinery of a verb in the voices. I chose 2. by placing have.

] he choose. Future. Present definite. Present. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. as.) Choose. Present. Present perfect definite. He is choosing. he chose (or were to choose)." (4) The passive forms. though. He chose. Only the third person. Future definite. He will choose. Present perfect. he have chosen. He has been choosing. Past definite. He has chosen. Same as indicative. [If. he have been choosing. Past definite. Past perfect. Same as indicative. Indicative Mood. Past. Future perfect definite. "I am running. of each tense. He chooses. He had chosen. Imperative Mood. . Present perfect. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. " " " " " " " he be choosing. as. He will have chosen." "You are chosen. He will he choosing. Past perfect. Past perfect definite. etc. lest. Present. He was choosing. Subjunctive Mood. Present definite." 243. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Present perfect definite." "They had been running. Present definite. singular number. "I was chosen.(3) The definite form of each tense. Future perfect. He had been choosing. (2d per. Past perfect definite. Past. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. will be given. " Be choosing. He will have been choosing. ACTIVE VOICE.

as. He will have been chosen." "He did strike.] he be chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. they will be discussed later (Sec. however. He had been chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. though. Indicative Mood. "He does strike. he had been chosen. Future perfect. He is chosen. Subjunctive Mood. Exercises should be given. Past definite. 262). (2d per. He will be chosen. Present definite. etc. None." [Note to Teacher. He was being chosen. Imperative Mood.²This table is not to be learned now. Present perfect definite. Future. Present. None. Past. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). " " " " " " " None.NOTE.] [If. in affirmative sentences. None. Also. None. None. but verbals. Past Perfect. he were being chosen.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Present definite. Past definite.. Future perfect definite. lest. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form.) Be chosen. if learned at all. . He was chosen. He is being chosen. Present perfect. Present perfect. Past perfect definite. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. None. He has been chosen. Future definite. Past perfect. he have been chosen. Present tense. Past perfect definite. Present. Present perfect definite. Past.

sleep. caught. begged. bit blown broken chidden. verbs are strong or weak.[adj. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. bid bound. but adds no ending. Some of these also have weak forms. drive. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . laid. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. Definition. drove. as. which are in parentheses Present Tense. run. Kinds. NOTE. slept. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. 245. beg. 244. lay. Past Tense. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. catch. ran. and may or may not change the vowel: as. According to form. bounden] bitten.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM.

eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drank[adj. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drunken] driven eaten.

sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. trod worn woven won wound . sunken] sat slain slidden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.

as (from Holmes). When it means to carry or to endure. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). as." "a drunken wretch. The former used to be cleave. cloven. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. But drunk is very much used as an adjective.² Thou hast clomb aloft. How fairy Mab the junkets eat.²MILTON. Historically. borne is also a passive.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms." "the cloven hoof. ²THACKERAY.² We had each drank three times at the well. cleft.²as (from Shakespeare).²TENNYSON." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. cleave. to split. "stricken with paralysis. cleaved.²IRVING. as. the other. especially in that of an earlier period." In this confusion of usage. cleft (to split)."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. only one set remains certain.²one meaning to adhere or cling.²GOLDSMITH. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). which always crew at eleven. Sometimes in literary English. The form clomb is not used in prose.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. as. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. clave or clove. and. and another (born) for the passive. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. Not a cock crew.²B. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. for example.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. probably to avoid confusion with this. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. and the latter. "his bounden duty. Our cock. and sometimes occurs in poetry. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.²COLERIDGE. TAYLOR." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. ." "a sunken snag.²cleave. now told us it was time for repose. instead of ate and eaten.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. but is much used in vulgar English. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. nor a dog barked. cleaved. 246.

froze. and seized a pen.²SCOTT. 3. Fall. maiden.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. Throw. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. flung. which is seldom used except in poetry. Break. 10. 2. fallen. as. driven.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. found. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. as "a shorn lamb. fell. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense.²BYRON. shook. 5.The form gotten is little used. Give. . Find. 7.² If. given. 8. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. and grasping at his sword. Begin. Exercises. for example. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. 9.²TENNYSON. 6. begun. broke. frozen. even in poetry. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. This heard Geraint." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend." but not much as a participle. thrown. Freeze. Usually shear is a weak verb. Drive. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. flung. broken.²DE FOE. for example. found. drove.²WORDSWORTH. He sate him down. The butler was hanged. began. We usually say. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. gave."²KINGSLEY. shaken. (a) From the table (Sec. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting.²BIBLE. 245). Fling. 4. Shake. shore is rare.² We had all got safe on shore. One example out of many is. threw.

as it sometimes does. 249. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. purpose. 251.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. must have been an ocular deception. "So mote it be.²CHANNING. "far off his coming shines. They are as follows:² PRESENT.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons.. or when it expresses wish. Indicative Use: Permission. Could may be subjunctive. Can is used in the indicative only.. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. ability. Like must. Ability. . etc. which survives in the sentence. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. according to the infinitive used.²HAWTHORNE. HAMILTON. The same remarks apply to ought. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. PRESENT.[To the Teacher. or. 247. The l in could did not belong there originally. Must is historically a past-tense form.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS..²PAINE." Must is present or past tense. PAST. It is indicative when it expresses permission. 220. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. 223. for full drill on the forms. etc. there is one general principle. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. it is used only in the indicative mood. His superiority none might question. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. but came through analogy with should and would.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. of course. as it has two meanings. Subjunctive use.. as. from the obsolete verb motan. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe.. Have we valuable territories and important posts."²WINIER.²CHANNING This. PAST. as in Sec. (See also Sec.²SCOTT. 250.

as. (b) In questions asking for orders.² With respect to novels. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. The sea shall crush thee. BROCKDEN BROWN.² Futurity and questions²first person.²MACAULAY. .²THAXTER. 252. to use will and would. I shall be gone.² The time will come full soon.Nay.. while ought always has to. what shall I say?²N. or confident prediction. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.²LONGFELLOW.²IRVING. she should ride like a queen.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. WEBSTER." Uses of shall and should. not plod along like apeasant.² (a) To express authority. with pronouns of the first person.e. shall and should are used. C. Second and third persons.²L. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. "I think I will go. shall and should are used. They shall have venison to eat. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. yea. (b) In indirect quotations. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. to the neglect of shall and should. as. especially in the United States. in the form of command. and corn to hoe. future action). promise. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.²COOPER. he said. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time.²BULWER. for example. The following are examples:² Never mind. She should not walk. MOULTON.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. Shall and Will. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. as. my lad. She rejects his suit with scorn.

²WORDSWORTH. B. BROWN. etc. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. as.²WORDSWORTH..²A.²C. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. thus. purpose. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. time. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. was to be expected. LARNED. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.that I would do him justice. as the sole inventor. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.²SWIFT.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. with the conviction that he should win in the end. for example.²ROGERS. . and will not return until all is finished.²WINTER. second and third persons.²CABLE. (c) With direct questions of the second person. I never was what I should be.²SCOTT. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. First. for example.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. JAMES. JR. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. or a promise.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation..²WORDSWORTH. Disguising a command. And promised.² I will go myself now.²H.. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.²BYRON. 253. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. and is equivalent to ought. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS.

²HOLMES On a slight suspicion.. so you will. without regard to future time. To be sure. action merely expected to occur.. When I am in town.²the original meaning of the word will.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.² Thou wilt take the skiff.²SCOTT. and mark on the grounds the works. for example. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. 254. Thine was a dangerous gift. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). when thou wast born. They will go to Sunday schools. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.²War Records. SECOND. Mere futurity.²IRVING.² All this will sound wild and chimerical.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. as.²SCOTT. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE... This puts the order more mildly. as if it were merely expected action. for punishment or intimidation. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. In this stately chair would he sit.²BANCROFT. would is used to express a wish. for example. Roland. (4) With FIRST. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.² Subject I omitted: often so. will is used to express command.. through storms their brothers are afraid of. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. will and would are used to express simple futurity.. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. etc.² DICKENS. B.²LANDOR. as.²BURKE. . The gift of Beauty. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. BROWN. will and would often denote an action as customary. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. AND THIRD PERSONS. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. Would thou hadst it not. PASSIVE VOICE. and two of my people. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.

Singular. You shall choose. 1. 3. Singular. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. [They] shall be chosen. We will be chosen. 1. [He] will be chosen. I will choose. You will choose. 2. 3. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 3. [They] will be chosen. [He] shall be chosen. I will be chosen. etc. [They] shall choose. 6. 2. [They] will choose. Thou art what I would be. You shall be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 2. We will choose. 2. 3. To express determination. 3. We shall be chosen. (a) From Secs. I shall be chosen." answered Herbert stubbornly. We shall choose. 252 and 253. You shall be chosen. 2.Singular. You will be chosen. yet only seem. [He] shall choose. You will choose. Thou shalt have a suit. promise. He informed us. 4. I shall choose. 5. 1. You shall choose. PASSIVE VOICE. 2. 1. [He] will choose. and justify the use of shall and will. and that of the newest cut. Singular. Plural.:² ACTIVE VOICE. Plural. . "I shall not run. 3. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. 1. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. Plural. Plural. (b) Examine the following sentences. You will be chosen. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so.

bereave beseech bereft. bereft.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. 13. This ending has now dropped off. No. 257. was -de or -te.²CHAUCER. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. put. my son. "I am a wayfarer. put." 14. The beast made a sluggish movement. very anxious. bereaved besought . Present Tense. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. WEAK VERBS. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. set. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. Of smale houndes hadde she. and have no change of vowel. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. 10. Past Tense. Lucy stood still.7.²Class I. which may be called irregular weak verbs. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. and I have nothing to say." the stranger said. But the rest. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. The old ending to verbs of Class II. 11. 256. Irregular Weak Verbs. as. bereave besought Past Participle. 12. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs.²ID. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. then. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. 9. or mylk and wastel breed. set. put. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. need some attention and explanation. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. Without having attended to this. 255. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. as if he would have more of the enchantment. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle.

burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. spelt spilt staid. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leant leaped. hid kept knelt laid leaned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leapt left lost meant paid penned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Nothing of the kind having been done. as in the Old English. [To] have chosen. expressing purpose. to was used before the infinitive generally. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. will (with should and would). 268.. and a perfect definite form. I returned to reflection on my situation.6. 8. to express action unconnected with a subject. 7. To with the infinitive. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. [To] choose. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. 9. Indefinite. INFINITIVES. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system.²the creature warring against the creating power. When active. [To] be choosing. a perfect. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). like participles. and when passive. PASSIVE VOICE. an indefinite and a perfect form. Cases when to is omitted. Three saplings. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. [To] be chosen. Perfect. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. ACTIVE VOICE. 10. But later. 267. Perfect definite. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive.. formed a kind of bedstead. Indefinite.. they have an indefinite. try clemency. have no tense. In Sec. an imperfect. Imperfect. [To] have been choosing. 266. when inflections became fewer. [To] have been chosen. . Infinitives. Perfect.

feel. liberal woman. too." "I shall have chosen. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.). The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. it has several attributes of a noun. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. or the object of a verb or a preposition." (4) In exclamations. watch. "I do go" etc. "He need not go") and dare (to venture).²IRVING. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II.(2) After the verbs may (might). The gerund is like the participle in form. do (as. and like a noun in use. GERUNDS." Examples are. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. the gerund may be called a noun verbal.² What! doth she.²GOLDSMITH. as. as in the expression. poor woman!" cried Charles. make. HALE. also in the imperative. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win.²it may be governed as a noun. under "Analysis. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. it may be the subject of a verb.²DE QUINCEY.²MACAULAY. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. "She ask my pardon.²COOPER. While the gerund expresses action. must." etc. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. see. 271. bid (command). but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. hear. please." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. "He will choose. . 272.²HOWELLS. But there was nothing to do. as the credulous imagine. (3) After had in the idiomatic use.² She was a kind. and corn to hoe. "a house to let. as. as. and emphatic forms of the present and past. 269. also let. negative. 270. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. it is often preceded by the definite article.. They shall have venison to eat.²TENNYSON. E. learn [doth learn is one verb. sometimes need (as.²E. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. can (could).

" "He could not help holding out his hand in return. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. when. Exercise. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. and has been put down. to see the returning hope of the parents. above. which express action. II). 4. (3) Participial adjectives." "Certainly dueling is bad. but do not assert. (4) Pure adjectives. (6) Verbal nouns. which express action. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. they find the nurslings untouched! 3." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. What a vast. and five gerunds. (5) Gerunds. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. brilliant." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. b)." Exercise. after examining the nest." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. but cannot govern. which express action and also modify. according to use as well as meaning. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. five infinitives. 273.²Find sentences containing five participles. Then how pleasing is it. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. on your leaving the spot.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. which have lost all verbal force. Sec. (2) Pure participles." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. Words in -ing are of six kinds. and wonderful store of learning! . 2. which name an action or state." also (2. may govern and be governed." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. making the definite tenses. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings.

(4) Tense. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. slowly. like Sir Walter Scott. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. or imperative. I. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. giving principal parts. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. He spread his blessings all over the land. (2) Voice. I suppose I was dreaming about it. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. Caution. 10. VERBS.²indicative. (3) Mood. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. (b) as to use. 11.²strong or weak. What is dreaming? 8. by object lessons.²which of the tenses given in Sec. In parsing verbs. 15. 234. . 9. write twenty pages without stopping. much corroded. 7. round which is an iron railing. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. but. The only means of ascending was by my hands. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 6. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. bearing her national emblem. (5) Person and number. give reality to your teaching. 12.5. 14. 275. subjunctive. Thackeray did not. he gave out sentence by sentence.²active or passive.²transitive or intransitive. dictating from his chair. 13. you must. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. 16.

(1) Participle. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. would. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. perfect. 278. intransitive. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. has for its subject Lee. must. see Sec. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. In such sentences as 1. VERB PHRASES. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. But unless the verb is present. (a) From what verb derived. 277. 235. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. has the subject government. intransitive. (2) Infinitive. . 2. past tense. It has been intimated in Sec. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. imperfect." Sometimes it does. indicative (as it means could). definite. 2. II.276. call should a weak verb. (b) its use (Sec. indicative. can. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. (b) whether active or passive. and should always be analyzed as phrases. till it meet the sun in his coming.. In 2. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. etc." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. 4. usually it does not. give points (a) and (b). (c) to what word it belongs. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. Let it rise! let it rise. could. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. and ends in -s. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. might. followed by a pure infinitive without to. then parse it as an adjective. past tense. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. we must beware of the rule. Exercise. in the world. 273). Parse the verbs. verbals. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. may. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. (3) Gerund. no sin nor sorrow. call might a weak verb. (b) whether indefinite. perfect. If a participial adjective. and not taken as single verbs. III. You are gathered to your fathers. therefore active. active. 278(2). let the earliest light of the morning gild it. etc. VERBALS. and parting day linger and play on its summit. The government might have been strong and prosperous. 3. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Especially frequent are those made up of should. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. Take these examples:² 1.

Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. a sweet good will. 23. 6. as the Hindoos say.5. see that it is in good condition. a deafening shout." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. 24. 11. 14. or. a new bursting forth of the sun. In going for water. However that be.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. as usual. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. from a sort of temporary death. The soul having been often born. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 12. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 16. 8. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. When he arose in the morning. He passed across the room to the washstand. he thought only of her.O God. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. 17. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 15. With them. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. 21. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 18.Down all the line. as rolled from wing to wing. Whatever ground you sow or plant. So. 22. and wondered if she were yet awake. 20. 9. Read this Declaration at the head of the army.Henceforth in me instill. 10. 13. 19. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. morning is not a new issuing of light. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. . Right graciously he smiled on us. leaving me upon the bed. a new waking up of all that has life. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring.

26. 279.² The young man reveres men of genius. Better it were. The word adverb means joined to a verb. for example. place. And now wend we to yonder fountain.²SHELLEY. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. who live with nature?²ID." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. for the hour of rest is at hand. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. 27. and live ere life be spent. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. Adverbs modify. A verb. or manner: as. and so on. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. When action is expressed. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.Feast while we may." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. because. 29. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. to speak truly. ." An adjective or an adverb. and men of leisure and cultivation. as. ADVERBS.²THACKERAY.²CARLYLE. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Is it only poets." "He was absolute. Nor was it altogether nothing. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. they are more himself than he is.25. to consent. Oh."²DE QUINCEY. thou sayest. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. To the almost terror of the persons present.²time. "William's private life was severely pure.²EMERSON. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. and limit adjectives or adverbs.

to-day. perhaps. I draw forth the fruit. NOTE. (2) according to their use in the sentence. being adverbs naturally and fitly.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. 169 are felt to be elliptical.He was incidentally news dealer. has induced some of us to attend it. but some verb understood. ALDRICH. there are six classes:² (1) Time. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. .²TROLLOPE.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. A phrase. thus. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. all wet and glossy. for example.²LEIGH HUNT.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. lately. but still with a rich bloom to it. before. A clause or sentence. which may qualify an action word or a statement. or a word group used as such. is a modifying word. as shown in the sentences. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. Thus considered. Make music to the lonely ear.²THOREAU. hitherto. not simply the forms used in predication. NOTE.²BYRON. not the noun. We are offered six months' credit. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. Definition.² FRANKLIN. like the light of heaven. 280. 169. ²IRVING.²T. B. and half awfully. 282. as. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. ever. 281. An adverb. etc. as now.² LOWELL. It may also modify a sentence. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.²These last differ from the words in Sec. while those in Sec. but really modifying. and that. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. Surely happiness is reflective. then.

not. etc.where. etc. two by two. I was.. enough. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. beautifully.²DE QUINCEY. (3) Manner.²IRVING. slightly. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways.(2) Place. surely. much. telling how much. as well. whencesoever. bravely.²BURKE.which gained him such universal popularity. 283. Emerson.²HAWTHORNE.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. as little.²R.²LECKY. singly. Motley. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.² The master. twice. too. as hence. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. thus. (see also Sec. better. partly. the more evidently they love liberty. So also in Grote. the more perfect will be their obedience. possibly. Meekness.thence. probably. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. This long's the text. White. maybe. and others. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. the more friends you will have. greatly.. as here.there.. [Sidenote The status of such.. .near. just. LOUIS STEVENSON. above. and not infrequently are found in literary English. etc. (4) Number. as hither. very.²BROWNING. etc. slowly. 283). etc. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. at least. whithersoever..²SHAKESPEARE.thither. or how far he believes it to be true. (6) Assertion.whither. as perhaps. telling how many times: once. Thackeray. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. etc. that these adverbs form a very large class. (5) Degree. especially the comparative of these words. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. telling how anything is done. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. The more they multiply.whence. for example. while so precedes only the adjective usually.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.was for this once of her opinion.yonder.

All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. De Quincey.²"He walked too far [place].²BAYNE. 284." "I have seen you before [time].²GOLDSMITH. B. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. It is only occasionally used in literary English. and art but a fool." "He spoke positively [manner]. "Peace. 282. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form." "The house.²FIELDING. have the additional function of asking a question. and other writers.² KINGSLEY."²SCOTT. Hard blows and hard money. Neville. Mighty. Aldrich.²HAWTHORNE. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. A pretty large experience. 286. besides modifying." said the king. a mighty fine gentleman." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE.²THACKERAY. Emerson. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Interrogative. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Dickens. Burke.²THACKERAY. Beau Fielding. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. for example. Simple. Again." "That is positively untrue [assertion].Pretty. 285. Some adverbs. Direct questions. Kingsley.² "Mighty well. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. for example.² You are mighty courteous. Notice meanings. and its lawn before [place]. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Pretty is also used by Prescott. Franklin. Defoe. ." "That were far better [degree]. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Holmes.²BULWER. STOWE. Such are most of those given already in Sec. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.

² When last I saw thy young blue eyes.²D. for example. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. I do not remember when I was taught to read. I will not ask where thou liest low. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. I hearkened. they smiled.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. CLAY. (5) Reason. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. I know not why. When did this humane custom begin?²H. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.²BULWER.²BYRON. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. .²BYRON (3) Manner. (2) Place. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. WEBSTER.²POE. (4) Degree. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. 287. (4) Degree. (2) Place. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.

²SHAKESPEARE. when. 290. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest.eyes. well much little far late Comparative.²EMERSON. furthest (rathe.²TENNYSON. but the whole clause.²COLERIDGE.But in reality. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem.) rather 289. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. Exercise.. high. only occasionally having -er and -est. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. as. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. when compared. Form vs. just as adjectives do. 288. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. Superlative. not an adverb. The following. irregularly compared. Many adverbs are compared. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. have the same inflection as adjectives. sooner.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. representing four classes. Then must she keep it safelier. obs. and." Exercise. soon. use. Its strings boldlier swept. For further discussion. . further farthest. soonest. highest. see Sec. Many adjectives have the same ending. and when has simply the use of a conjunction.. higher. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form.²BYRON. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. when does not express time and modify. Tell what each word in ly modifies. Only that we may wiselier see. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.

near. But he must do his errand right. to be sure. 5. With his proud. more courtly in their manners.And his mien of kingly state. etc.²TENNYSON. but with a different meaning. curiously jolly. . even. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. And all about.²ID. or down the leaves laughed through. hardly. whether adverbs or adjectives.²WORDSWORTH. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. 3. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. 4. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. if it has the verb be. Frequently the word there. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. that in Old and Middle English. nearly.²THACKERAY. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits.²IRVING.1.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. instead of being used adverbially. 2." Compare these:² 1. many words without -ly have the same form. Special use of there. He is inexpressibly mean. as. hard. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt.² EMERSON. mostly. Such are most. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 2.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. quick-flashing eye. 292. kindly and good-natured in secret. 7. There are eyes. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. Again. merely introduces a sentence. The reason is. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. 8.²CHAUCER. 6. 291. evenly. Not near so black as he was painted.

whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. however theoretically enticing. the Madonna is in great glory. 10. but continually shifted. (2) Degree of comparison. but from my fall? 6. 12. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. burning in the center of the temple. 293. Thither we went. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. In parsing adverbs. 2. 17. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. 9. But a few steps farther on. give² (1) The class. is always politically unwise. 4. For the impracticable. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 11. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. Exercise. if the word is compared. at the regular wine-shop. and sate down on the steps of a house. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 7. 18. and always. (3) What word or word group it modifies. 3. according to meaning and also use. It is the Cross that is first seen.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. . Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. The higher we rise in the scale of being. 5. 16. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 15.

(4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. It was pretty bad after that. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. sentences. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. 21. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. connecting words. But now the wind rose again. hence. upon which the sun now shone forth. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence." Paragraphs. nor. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. therefore. Clauses. etc.19. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. word groups. CONJUNCTIONS." Sentences. 20. . Unlike adverbs. but side by side within the American Union. Definition. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. or sentence groups. but the student will readily find them. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. 295. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. then. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. 294. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. A conjunction is a linking word. 22. however. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God.

or. then. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. yet. had its weight. while.. The assertion. whether. expressing a choice. nor.. etc.. 296. nor. however. The chief ones are. 297..and.. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. whether. not only. only.. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. Nor mark'd they less. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. hence... answering to each other in the same sentence. neither.. Some of these go in pairs. therefore. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. as. moreover.nor.. Adversative. neither. likewise. (4) ALTERNATIVE. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. as well as the room door. They are or. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. as and. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.Classes of conjunctions. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.. introducing a reason or cause... either. etc. not only. else.. also.... and. (2) ADVERSATIVE. serves but to show their ignorance. the bread was spent. While the earth bears a plant. as. for. Some go in threes. both. or the sea rolls its waves.. as but. still.. "Howbeit. and not man corn.. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. Causal. . Your letter. neither. joining words. Correlatives.. etc. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. of the same rank. the window being open..or whether. the butter too. (3) CAUSAL. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. either.. Alternative.but. as well as.or.nor. however. (2) Subordinate..but (or but also).or. usually between two things. word groups. but is emperor in his own right. either.or. whether. 298.." Nevertheless.

etc.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. whence. .. except. whereto.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. Time. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. It is.²BIBLE. however. until.²WILSON. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. as.²J. on condition that. provided. whereas. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. so. unless. lest. howsoever. in apposition. Neither the place in which he found himself. especially that after so. though. ere. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. He is not only bold and vociferous. etc.²COOPER. sometimes if. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. there will the heart be also. nor creeping thing. in case. nor echo. before. as. etc. whithersoever. etc. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. 299. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. whether..²BURKE. (6) PURPOSE: that. (7) RESULT: that. now. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. that. QUINCY.as. so. nor wing of bird. whenever.²IRVING. ²ALLSTON. in order that. while.. so that. since.²DE QUINCEY. as. (2) TIME: when. whither.. seeing. so. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. even if. since. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. wherever.²PAULDING. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. Where the treasure is. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. object. so that. etc. after. (3) MANNER: how. although. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. nor green leaf. provided that.

Substantive.²BURKE.² WORDSWORTH. Let the world go how it will. Condition. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.²AMES.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.So I behold them not.²AMES.²DEFOE. a thousand bodies. but not so long but I held it out.That vain it were her eyes to close. .² H. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Manner.²IRVING. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Now he is dead.That he gave her wounds repose.²COLERIDGE. Purpose.² EMERSON.² HAWTHORNE. Sparing neither whip nor spur.²CARLYLE Events proceed. Cause. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²BYRON. Result. We wish for a thousand heads. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. not as they were expected or intended. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. I was again covered with water. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. H.²CAMPBELL. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.²EMERSON. As a soldier. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. Then Denmark blest our chief. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²AMES. Concession. Comparison. JACKSON. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²EMERSON. reason.²EMERSON.

7. While patriotism glowed in his heart. And they lived happily forever after. As will have been noticed. .Let us see whether the greatest. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. etc.²RUSKIN. 5. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. 300. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. as. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. 4. 15. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. In what point of view. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. The moth fly. 14. as he shot in air. Crept under the leaf. While a faction is a minority. Exercises. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. some words²for example. 2. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. He was brought up for the church.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. They. the lady called her servant. After he was gone. 3. Besides. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. And then recovering. the wisest. No one had yet caught his character. her real merit is known at home. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. and hid her there. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. then. 10. she faintly pressed her hand. 9. 6. 12. hold a subordinate rank. however. 13. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. that. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. since. while. it will remain harmless. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city.

. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS.Clouded. thus. His voice . sounded as though it came out of a barrel. 302. expressing degree if taken separately. 301. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. and be a bud again. SPECIAL REMARKS. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. In poetry. even as they would weep. they connect.²HOOD. for example. etc. word groups. In Emerson's sentence.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. GREELEY.²BYRON.²EMILY BRONTE. . and the frame will suit the picture..So slowly moved about.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. (2) What words. as is shown by the use of as though. as is often equivalent to as if. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. The raft and the money had been thrown near her.. Consequently. "We meet. none of the lashings having given way. If analyzed. And their orbs grew strangely dreary.As though a rose should shut. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. As for as if.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out." as. 304. 303.16. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. and part as though we parted not. As though. So silently we seemed to speak.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. As if. in this case. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. In parsing conjunctions. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. the expression would be." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc.²IRVING.

²is subordinate of condition. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. "Doctor. so means provided. and.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. etc. 2. and associates as happily. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. For example. so it be faithfully imparted. or in the snow. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. but of the natural. It continued raining. others belong to several classes. in 3. as beside his own chimneys. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. 7. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. 5. 3. the Sphinx was slain.²EMERSON 3. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. 12. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. dines with as good an appetite. because. He dismisses without notice his thought. . All the postulates of elfin annals. are regularly of one particular class. At sea.²that the fairies do not like to be named. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. because it is his. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. 10.²DEFOE 2.Caution. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. When the gods come among men. or in the forest. and the like. and its clause is independent. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. compare the sentences. Exercise. such as nor. so that expresses result. Some conjunctions. 4. and its clause depends on the other. that it might testify of that particular ray. so they paddled on. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted.²I find them true in Concord. he is also the correlative of nature. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. It may be safely trusted. so that I could not stir abroad.. 6. 13." said his wife to Martin Luther. when. 9. and very seldom?" 8. they are not known. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. he sleeps as warm.² 1. In classifying them. 11. If he could solve the riddle. in 2. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. He is the compend of time. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. so means therefore.

the whole conditions are changed. she might have the family countenance.²else it is none. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. Goodness must have some edge to it. you must be.. won't you lay on? 17. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 16. There was no iron to be seen. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 29. I speak. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. 19. in many a heart. It is clear. whose names I omit. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. 20. . however. save it were sinful like herself. 24. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. Now you have the whip in your hand. in this they agree. And whether consciously or not. 22. For. 305. 23. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object.14. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. PREPOSITIONS. 26. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 18. that both were wayward. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 15. therefore. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. Still. of good novels only. 30. enthroned. It may be so in the majority of cases. 25. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 28. 21. 27. when it was presented to them.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

²EVERETT. at most.²SWIFT.. at one. by the ruins of nations. at naught. She saw the boat headed for her.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. By my faith. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. CONWAY. 321. at any rate.²M. at first. by means near or close to. the first port made by the ship. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by.²ALDRICH. . at the worst. by the blessed memory of the departed. etc. Richard was standing by the window. ²PARTON. at play. Exercise.²WARNER.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. etc. at peace. (2) Time. (3) Agency or means. at war.²COOPER. Helena. At that time [the earth] was richer. at the best. at work. at all. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.²R. For. D. 320. expressing the degree of difference. by many a million of acres. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. At St. By.²DE QUINCEY. (4) Measure of excess.²B. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. by the wrecks of time. STODDARD. as. at least. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. he stopped.² (1) The general meaning of place. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at random. Like at. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at rest.²ID. H. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. Exercise. at once. at length.

.²HOOD. L. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. GARRISON. An Arab woman. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. E.²EMERSON. etc.(2) In favor of." said the Lady of Lochleven. for the benefit of. For him. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. meaning although.²IRVING. "Nay. BANCROFT. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. meaning in the character of. he repented of his folly.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. respecting. ate her child. reason. (4) Substitution or exchange.²ID. poor fellow.²E. they are now for us. "thou hast counseled wisely. cause. (3) Duration of time. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. or in spite of.²HOLMES.²W. for famine. H. He and they were for immediate attack. The twilight being. in behalf of. as being.²H.²STODDARD. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. but a few sunsets since.²PARKMAN. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. a person or thing. the Colonna motto would fit you best.²PARKMAN. (6) Like as.²LAMB. For the rest. (5) Reference. considering that etc. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. There are gains for all our losses. "For a fool.² RUSKIN. had a forest of poor relations.." answered Master Brackett. or extent of space. if your worship can accomplish that. and leaped for joy.. (7) Concession.One of Eve's family. incitement to action. etc. for all slips of hers. Still. etc. meaning with regard to."²SCOTT By my faith. (9) Motive. as to. But the Colonel.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. for all his title.

cause. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. The young cavaliers. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. ceased to be merciful. (4) Motive. if not a desperate man. Exercise. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.²ID. It was from no fault of Nolan's. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. From. From harmony. The original meaning of of was separation or source.²BANCROFT. Exercise. (2) Origin. 323.²H. H. (1) Origin or source. or reason. .(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. from a desire of seeming valiant. nay. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.²MILTON. The general idea in from is separation or source. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²DRYDEN. The king holds his authority of the people. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²HALE. Of.²HIGGINSON. 322.²HUXLEY. like from.²HUME. (3) Time. The From Relation. more. A distrustful. Like boys escaped from school. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.

that Cromwell once ruled England. A singular want of all human relation. ²GAVARRE.²ALDRICH. White shirt with diamond studs. Asked no odds of. You cannot make a boy know. divest.²clear of. rid. relieve. free of. Sandals. HALE. and grass.²SCOTT Who formed. there were only twenty-one members present. cure. of his own knowledge. free. (6) Partitive. motive.² HUXLEY. rob. beg.²DICKENS II.²BOSWELL. south of. (3) With expressions of material.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause.²BANCROFT. out of the most unpromising materials. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. acquitted them of.²ID.²LEW WALLACE. . Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. (5) Expressing agency. Of the Forty.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. weeds. ²PARTON. etc. The hills were bare of trees. bare of.²HIGGINSON.²PARKMAN. More than one altar was richer of his vows. deprivation. (d) With words expressing distance. Other Relations expressed by Of. disarm. especially out of. (c) After nouns expressing lack. wide of. He is away of his own free will. deprive. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. "I am glad of that. reason.²BAYARD TAYLOR. demand. Back of that tree. E. etc. clear. etc. or breastpin of native gold."²E. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. bound with thongs of boar's hide. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. etc. as north of. expressing a part of a number or quantity. etc. purge. such as ease.. ask. (b) After some adjectives.

²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. with its object.He washed out some of the dirt. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²HALLECK. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. (c) Two nouns. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. Such a book as that of Job. The nation of Lilliput. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold..²ALDRICH. and the dignity of a queen.²BANCROFT.²FROUDE. etc. The fair city of Mexico. standing. Besides the phrases of old. See also Sec.²COOPER. of is used in the sense of during. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. ²IRVING. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. with regard to.²W.²BANCROFT. (8) Appositional.²ID.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. 309.²BANCROFT. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. equal to about. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. . of a sudden.²SWIFT. CHANNING. could give shelter from his contumely. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. Not even woman's love.²PRESCOTT. when the first is descriptive of the second. (9) Of time. Idiomatic use with verbs. (10) Of reference. for the possessive.²LAMB. of late. being equivalent to an infinitive. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. concerning. (b) Noun and gerund. (7) Possessive. E.²LOWELL.

Upon is seldom used to express time. permit. consist. (b) With motion. you are eighteen.²PARKMAN. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. on high. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. such as admit. on view. on board. on the wing. allow. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. SIGOURNEY.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. ²BANCROFT. and others. To. 324.²BRYANT. (4) In adjurations. Upon.²PARKMAN.²Find sentences with six uses of of. Upon my reputation and credit.²EMERSON. (2) Time.²DE QUINCEY. concerning. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. accept. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. On my life. Exercise. The general meaning of on is position or direction. (3) Reference. Cannon were heard close on the left. and not a day more. complain. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. 325. etc.²ALDRICH. on the alert. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. avail (one's self). without adding to their meaning.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. etc. equal to about. repent. approve. on trial. disapprove.²MRS. .²PARKMAN. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. On. on a sudden. It also accompanies the verbs tire. Exercise.

²GOLDSMITH. Nor. With. (5) Equivalent to according to.. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.Come to the bridal chamber. But when. it may be genuine poetry. We cook the dish to our own appetite.. Death!²HALLECK. does the mere music. to him.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. . In Old English.²often to the loss of vigor. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. interest. Exercise. unmasked.²B.²IRVING. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. had ceased to be. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. 326. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²PARTON.²BULWER.²PARKMAN..²BRYANT.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.to be written over. To the few..²HALE. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. mid meant in company with. He usually gave his draft to an aid.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. (b) Referring to time. gay Comedy appears. His brother had died. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. to my taste. 268). Revolutions.²BENTON To our great delight. whose influence is felt to this hour. (2) Expressing result. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.²LANG.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears.

²SCOTT. he gave millions to the sword. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. opinion. (2) Instrumentality. felt it unsafe to trifle further.²E. but with you. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. to find the object of the preposition.²DE QUINCEY. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. or with the haunch of our near leader. Messala. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. . as with you. It seemed a supreme moment with him. E. (5) Opposition. with Heyward at its head.²EMERSON.²ALDRICH.²HALE.²DE QUINCEY. motive. had already reached the defile.²CHANNING. 327. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. I think. (3) Cause. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. reason.²COLERIDGE.²COOPER. in spite of. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits.²WALLACE (7) Time.²HOWELLS.²LANG. transmitted from the beginning. (4) Estimation.²Find sentences with four uses of with.²HOWELLS. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.The advance. He was wild with delight about Texas. With all his sensibility. with all his boldness. it is necessary. Exercise. He expired with these words. but a pleasure"?²LANG. Either with the swingle-bar. "poetry is not a pursuit. first of all. She seemed pleased with the accident. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. HALE.

4. To our general surprise.²SWIFT 2. beginning. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. and knocked me down flat on my face. The guns were cleared of their lumber. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1.²ID. of on. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. but all to no purpose. we met the defaulter here. the phrase answers the question where. the malicious rogue. And so on. . I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. hence we say. The object of on board is ships. (3) without a country. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. 3. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. because I had given the provocation. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. I remember. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. In (3). I speak these things from a love of justice. Whereupon. I called out several times. he followed us one day into those gardens. In (2). (2) on which. Be that as it will. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. 5. shook it directly over my head. I heard a noise just over my head. telling what man. of from. I felt my box raised very high in the air. came tumbling about my ears. (4) from the beginning. Exercises. country.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. by which a dozen apples. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. like the clapping of wings. without a country modifies man. or was. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. but I received no other hurt. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. before the dwarf left the queen. which. of without. In (1). 2. I looked towards my windows.

10. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 15. 27. Carteret was far from being a pedant. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. after a restful morning. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. in this respect. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. plumed for battle. when. 11. 18. He locked his door from mere force of habit. For my part. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. The savage army was in war-paint. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 14. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 17. With all his learning. The mother sank and fell. he favored the world with his opinions. grasping at the child. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 7. 21. 12. in town. . 22. 8. On all subjects known to man. 19.6. 23. to one dark and gloomy.He spurred his courser on. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 24. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28.Without stop or stay. 26. His breeches were of black silk. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 25. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. I like to see the passing. 13. 20. 29. 16. 9.

(b) Of result. (4) As an adverb of degree. He will raise the price.²COLERIDGE. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. 328. A few are discussed below. 329. 330.²STOCKTON.²BEECHER. that you might behold this joyous day. THAT. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. . Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. (1) Relative pronoun.² JOHNSON.30. (a) Indefinite relative. That was a dreadful mistake. not merely by the amount of the tax. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. That is what I understand by scientific education.That makes the heavens be mute.²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (2) As an adjective pronoun. We wish that labor may look up here. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. WHAT. and not according to form. (3) As a relative pronoun. and be proud in the midst of its toil. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. And now it is like an angel's song. (c) Substantive conjunction. That night was a memorable one.²WEBSTER.²HUXLEY.

Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. (6) Exclamatory adjective. (b) Copulative. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. What with the Maltese goats. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. to see what might be hidden.²EMERSON. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.. (b) Indirect question.Which be they what they may.these sounds are only to be heard.but. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. (8) Conjunction... If he has [been in America]. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. nearly equivalent to partly." (4) Relative adjective..Are yet the fountain light of all our day. he knows what good people are to be found there.Those shadowy recollections. silent still. or not only. What. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. partly.²WEBSTER.it is impossible to determine. (9) As an exclamation... To say what good of fashion we can. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. it rests on reality. 331... who go tinkling by to their pasturage. after not only. "I'll tell you what. .in Pera. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.²ID.²WORDSWORTH. and silent all!²BYRON. What. (b) Indirect question. (7) Adverb of degree.²EMERSON. but the result of calculation. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.S.. BUT....²ID. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.²THACKERAY. Cox.²S.

²IRVING. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. Who knows but. not. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. (2) Relative pronoun. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.²SHELLEY.. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. (4) Relative pronoun. (d) Of reason. at all moments. AS. after a negative.²CARLYLE. To lead but one measure. equivalent to that .²SCOTT.²MRS BROWNING. (b) Of manner.. stands for that . meaning except. after such.²IRVING. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. I shall see but little of it. on all sides. Doing duty as a guard. (c) Of degree.He yearned to our patriot bands. (b) Substantive.²IRVING. meaning otherwise .. ²CARLYLE. sometimes same. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. like the dog.Then arose not only tears. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. but piercing cries. (3) Preposition. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. or who .²EMERSON.. not. not.. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.²HAWTHORNE. 332.. .. towards order.²FRANKLIN. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (5) Adverb.²LAMB. meaning only.. than. (e) Introducing an appositive word.

²ALDRICH. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. like him awhile ago.²ALDRICH. In each case. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²LONGFELLOW.-SCOTT.² A timid. That face. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. this. If the verb is expressed. and as or as if takes its place. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. like a cook beating eggs.LIKE.² HAWTHORNE. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. Introduces a clause. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun.²EMERSON.²EMERSON. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. This follows a verb or a verbal. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. but its verb is omitted.²HAWTHORNE. Through which they put their heads. like drops out. NOTE. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. In this second use.²HIGGINSON. Stirring it vigorously. nervous child. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. (1) An adjective. Give Ruskin space enough.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. Note the difference between these two uses. and is followed by a dative-objective.²LAMB. staring like a bewildered man. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. I do with my friends as I do with my books.²DARWIN. and was clearly an adjective.²HALLECK. ²PARKMAN.²SHAKESPEARE. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. 333.²CASS. They look. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. like summer ocean's.²MAYHEW. indeed. No Emperor. There is no statue like this living man. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. but this is not considered good usage: for example. like Martin was. .

Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. 335.INTERJECTIONS. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell." PART II.. in separating them into their component parts. that is. Definition. tut! buzz! etc. What analysis is. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. clauses introduced by conjunctions. pronoun. etc. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. but it still retains its identity as noun. as. subject and predicate. that is. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech.²in determining case. Definition. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. entering into the structure of a sentence. etc. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. 336. Some of these are imitative sounds. verb. 334. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM." "Up! for shame! [adverb].²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.: for example." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. Value of analysis. . A sentence is the expression of a thought in words.

there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. (3) Imperative. Every sentence must contain two parts." 340. (2) Interrogative. This is the most common one. or command: for example. you must not die!" interrogative. . or request. interrogative. which puts the thought in a question." "What wouldst thou do. 339. which expresses command. A rare old plant is the ivy green. "Come to the bridal chamber. But now all is to be changed. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. 2. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. hence. Examples of these three kinds are.Kinds of sentences as to form. not according to the form in which a thought is put. 337. but the sentence would still be declarative. entreaty. according to form. "Hath he not always treasures. always friends?" imperative. but according to how many statements there are. or imperative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. 338. Definition. question. but by no means vulgar.²a subject and a predicate. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. Division according to number of statements. "The quality of mercy is not strained. Definition: Predicate. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. "Old year. old man?" "Be thou familiar. declarative. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. In order to get a correct definition of the subject.

Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. but about the ivy green. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. to suit all cases:² Subject. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. 7. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. "[You] behold her single in the field. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. In analyzing such sentences. as. 2. the subject (you. a rare old plant. and our definition must be the following. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. In the interrogative sentence. 6. or adverb that asks about the subject. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. on the other hand. 5.²What is to be changed? Answer. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9." Exercise. and the real subject is the latter. adjective.²What is the ivy green? Answer. The last of all the Bards was he. we have some trouble. 3. not of a rare old plant. to an ignorant man. 4. Listen. all. But if we try this with the second sentence. Consequently. the subject is frequently after the verb. .² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. always reduce them to the order of a statement. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. thou. 341. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. especially in poetry. we say all is the subject of the sentence. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. 8. or an interrogative pronoun. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. Slavery they can have anywhere. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. Thus. or ye) is in most cases omitted. and is to be supplied.

but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. The transitive verb often requires. (4) The complements." Complement: 344. "Ye honor me. or second object. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. but it is a true complement. 342. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. "Ye call me chief. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. Indirect object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. direct. (6) Independent elements. but of call chief. and by object we mean the direct object. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions." indirect. in addition to the object. (3) The object. .²transitive and intransitive. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. The subject and predicate have been discussed. and means summoned.10. (5) Modifiers. Of a transitive verb. and me here is not the object simply of call. just as if to say. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. Direct Object. 343. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. but chief belongs to the verb. for example. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. Examples of direct and indirect objects are." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). (2) The predicate.

more familiarly.. or. above sixty. to the completion of this man of the world. as in the sentence." (2) PARTICIPIAL. See sentence 19." Also an expression used as a noun. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. A phrase is a group of words. in the popular judgment. taste. seem." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. 346. 355. As to form. introduced by a preposition: for example." Things used as Subject. as. An intransitive verb. ay. 352. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. 'Ay." (3) INFINITIVE. "Brow and head were round. in the original Opium Confessions." 345. Complement of an intransitive verb. for instance. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. not containing a verb. feel. "A cheery. and barring the door.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" ." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. Thom of the Gills. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. 347. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." "He was termed Thomas. as in drowning. become. and. he was now getting old." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. Phrases." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." All these complete intransitive verbs. but used as a single modifier. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. 351." "The good man. 364. etc. and of massive weight. sir!' rang out in response. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. in exercise following Sec. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. I mentioned a case of that nature. appear. especially the forms of be. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick.

Complement: Of an intransitive verb." "The dead are there. (2) In interrogative sentences." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. I saw the quick and the dead. "Therein has been. or their religion from their sect." "Never. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. etc." etc." In this sentence." Things used as Complement. prowling eyes." 348." The for did not belong there originally. "'By God. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. and by Saint George!' said the King." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. but the real or logical subject is to print. from their lips." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile.²the talent of starting the game. (4) After "there introductory.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. was heard one syllable to justify. Disguised infinitive subject. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive.²the infinitive phrase. and ever will be. or the thundering of organs. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. . my deficiency. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. asserting eyes. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust)." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. 341. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. 349." "There are asking eyes." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. but they will be given in detail here." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. for which see Sec." Things used as Direct Object. but obscures the real subject.

at the same time." "Serving others is serving us.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. As complement of a transitive verb. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. As complement of an intransitive verb. Like all the complements in this list. I. and the words italicized are still complements. complements of the predicate. Of a transitive verb." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method.²heads or tails." Modifiers." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. the object is made the subject by being passive.350. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. 351.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. Object. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. Modifiers of Subject. the shepherd girl. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. and. or Complement." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale." "Their tempers." "She asked her father's permission." In this last sentence." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. or the equivalent of the noun. and whenever the complement is a noun. (3) Infinitive. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." (4) Participle." . doubtless.²completing the predicate." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways." "I hear the echoes throng." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. they are adjuncts of the object." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. and explaining or modifying the subject. trusting the hearts of his countrymen.

unforgiving. see further Secs. the verb being omitted." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. tell whether the subject. Modifiers of the Predicate." Exercise. was now called upon for his defense. I have seasoned for thee." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. but with other men." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." In such a sentence as. and leading him from star to star. object." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. but it is really a contracted clause. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. and modify the predicate in the same way. was the scene from King John." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. 352. or . at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. interpreting for him the most difficult truths." "Give them not only noble teachings." "In the twinkling of an eye. but noble teachers. II. this young idolater. no sociable angel." (For participial and infinitive phrases. Retained with passive. 357-363. or complement is modified." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. Tells how." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." "Him." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. Since the predicate is always a verb. given at the request of a Dutch lady. the prisoner at the bar.²In each sentence in Sec.²proud. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. "He died like a God. not with nature. 351." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. austere." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing.

" subject of passive verb and direct object retained. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. To the men of this world." (6) Adverbial objective. 3." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. in regard to particulars. is good in the making. he liked. and as many to oppose it. They do not wish to be lovely. His books have no melody. but to be loved. after dinner. 3. with my joy and grief. no emotion. and (direct) object:² 1. I took. no relief to the dead prosaic level. how far. but the children of the great. the indirect object is retained. Evil. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. This. no humor. 5. predicate. negative." "One way lies hope. Fashion does not often caress the great. 7. or how long. predicate. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. to the animal strength and spirits. These answer the question when. in this center? 4. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 2. (b) Pick out the subject. On the voyage to Egypt. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. 4. 5. and the direct object is retained: for example. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive.. 2. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. the man of ideas appears out of his reason." Exercises. 8. (a) Pick out subject. etc. and other measures of precaution. a sort of personality to the whole writing. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. according to old philosophers. gives wonderful animation. 7. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. 6. . But anger drives a man to say anything. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour." "All such knowledge should be given her. 6. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. and.When the verb is changed from active to passive.

She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. viz.²the river Meuse. Yes. That night. burthened with the anxieties of a man. To suffer and to do. in little peaceful Easedale. 5. Paint me.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. this nun so martial. In one feature.. at the chief hotel. etc. downwards. at length the warrior lady. 2. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. 5. Their intention was to have a gay. A river formed the boundary. 4. 3. Unhorse me. the attorney. I gave him an address to my friend. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. 2. 3. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. y y y y Compound Subject. . Compound Predicate. 4. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. a room seventeen feet by twelve. the blooming cornet. to the right and to the left. 2. then. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. that was thy portion in life. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. must visit again the home of her childhood. and a member of the world. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. I felt myself. I promised her protection against all ghosts. 6. then. expecting the return of their parents. this dragoon so lovely. this imperial rider. after their long confinement to a ship. for the first time. 3. six children sat by a peat fire.y 8. 4. the present Archbishop of Dublin. happy dinner. Not the less I owe thee justice. Not compound sentences. upwards.

and returned to the more important concerns of the election. in all such sentences as we quote below. ulcer. Of this. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. two or more subjects of the same predicate. same as (1). etc. The exclamatory expression. together with all its modifiers. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. the verb). forming a sentence: "Oh. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. the object. exposes. modifiers." Sentences with compound predicates are. "The company broke up. they are not a necessary part. together with its modifiers. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. that is. For example. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences." "He shook his head. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. hurry. Larger view of a sentence. and its object or complement. the air of the mother. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. Independent Elements of the Sentence. "Ah. my brave young man!" . Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety." "Voyages and travels I would also have. 355.. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. turned his steps homeward. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative." "Ye crags and peaks. then the grammatical subject and predicate.353. and. may be the person or thing addressed. hurry. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. shouldered the rusty firelock. however." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. 354. in the sentence.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind." And so with complements. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. several modifiers. etc. the predicate. Examples of compound subjects are. but it is to be noticed that. and the rest is the logical predicate. Bishop. etc. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. complements. the tone of her voice." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. above: thus." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are." "The name of the child. the simple subject is situation. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. I'm with you once again.

351. These need close watching. he was a conscientious man. In their use." (6) Single words: as. that have an office in the sentence. etc. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. (b) As a modifier of subject. really. moreover. 4). therefore. . In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb." (3) Independent." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. and so on. undoubtedly. 352. 355. (1) Adjectival. he somehow lived along. see Sec. pronoun. or complement (see Sec. There are some adverbs. let him perish." "Why. y (2) The adverbial use.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. see Sec. 357. her noticing even this is creditable.. etc. besides. 3. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. The words well." (5) Participial phrase: "But. nevertheless. prepositional phrases may be." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. instances of which were seen in Sec. this story runs thus. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. six quill-driving gentlemen." Another caution. he closed his literary toils at dinner. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. such as perhaps. 4). yes! everybody knew them. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. 6). to the best of my remembrance. modifying the predicate. or word used as a noun: for example. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. and some conjunctions. "Oh. such as however. the company broke up. already noticed. grandma.. truly." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. 356. modifying a noun. now." "Well. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." (2) Adverbial. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. how you're winking!" "Now. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. 350." "No. object. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. then. why." "Truth to say. generally speaking." "At all events. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife.

" "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. I. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." (c) With the definite forms of go." In this sentence. necessity. etc.: as in the sentences." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb.]. being equivalent to a future with obligation. (5)." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. containing no matters of business. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. he should not have known them at all. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. and hence is adverbial.can (could). 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . but require somewhat closer attention." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening." (b) With the forms of be. 355. See Sec. Wilt thou. etc. therefore. and they will be presented here in full. This case excepted.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. modifying was speedily run through. 358. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter.seem. was speedily run through.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. "The letter of introduction." "There. my dear. or as nearly so as the student will require. "Because I was. The verbal use. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. y (a) With may (might).should. thus. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. ought.would. and teach her how to be happy and good. but having no other office than a verbal one." etc.

notice the following:² In (1)." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. .moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry." "He insisted on his right to forget her. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. The adverbial use. The substantive use. IV." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. complement. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. 5). modifying a noun that may be a subject. To test this. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. etc. and the eyes to fill?" 359. 361. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. hang the idiot. "Do they not cause the heart to beat." (5) Condition: "You would fancy." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. to please is equivalent to that he may please. to look means that he might look.: for example. object." "Are you mad." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec." 360." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. the Scotch fighting all the battles. 361 are used adverbially. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. II. (4) In apposition. 362." "To say what good of fashion we can. result. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. to hear McOrator after dinner. above." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. Don Guzman." "To teach is to learn.. 351.²both purpose clauses. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. etc. III. "But there was no time to be lost." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). The adjectival use. already examined.

²both expressing condition. 355. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. 347). equivalent to that you betray. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. object. not in a book. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 363. give² (1) The predicate. In analyzing simple sentences. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it." (See also Sec. give the complement (Secs. Our life is March weather. I will try to keep the balance true. 364. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. 355). (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. which is of two kinds. (5) The subject (Sec. (2) The object of the verb (Sec.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. In (5).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. and to betray and to bring express the reason. and to say is equivalent to if we say. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. to part means because I part. must be in a life. etc. 351). but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. 4. In (4). 352).. etc. 3. . If it is an incomplete verb. V. 351).. to find shows the result of the return. etc." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. In (3). to hear means if you should hear. 2. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. The independent use.In (2). 349). 351). (3). as in Sec. (7) Independent elements (Sec. savage and serene in one hour. 268.

might be called flabby and irresolute. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 8. 21. You may ramble a whole day together. like a witch's oils. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. to keep England out of war. 22. nor money. through toys and atoms. always in a bad plight. with eager energy. The whole figure and air. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 12. and only to be saved by invention and courage. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. to restore civil and religious order. The word conscience has become almost confined. an accomplished scholar.Burnt green and blue and white. nor troops. He risked everything. 9. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language.²to preserve her throne. is to have no political system at all. neither ammunition. a graceful dancer. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. and to the purpose. two stricken hours. 16. 24. Her aims were simple and obvious. 11. To these gifts of nature. 23. and every moment discover something new.He sat in the shower.4. To be hurried away by every event. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. the carrion crow. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 6. Old Adam. to the moral sphere. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual.The old crow of Cairo. and spared nothing. 5. in popular use. The water. 14. 10. nor generals. We are always in peril. His opinion is always original. 17. through evil agents. 7. 20. Through the years and the centuries. 19. good and amiable otherwise. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. 18. just on the edge of destruction. a skilled musician. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. nor himself. . 15. 13. I have heard Coleridge talk. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. a good shot.

to bid you leave the place now and forever. 27. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. Oxford. an elderly man. Now. Fair name might he have handed down. The villain. in front of all this mighty crowd. ready to receive her. 26. and the why. Supposing this computation to be correct. the prime minister of Spain. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. and. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. Few in number. or perhaps one virtue. Of the same grandeur. 36.Effacing many a stain of former crime. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. 29. 39. Upon this shore stood. 35. 32. in less heroic and poetic form. haply. to be a reproach to such goodness. had but one foible. But yield. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. 41. I hate him and myself. and in my own garden. She had made a two days' march. 33. This amiable relative. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. it would not have been filial or ladylike. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. 37. 30. the ship was in an uproar. in this world. upon my own ground. the present capital of New England.25. proud foe. 34.Distant. In the Acadian land. the same Condé Olivarez. and no provisions but wild berries. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 40. I dare this. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. Must we in all things look for the how. time-honored. 31. The cry. still. baggage far in the rear. 38. and the wherefore? . secluded. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes.

" "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. the expressions of manner introduced by like. Words left out after than or as. are really contracted clauses. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. 367. if they were expanded. but. as would be the connective instead of like.² "She is like some tender tree. as.From her own loved island of sorrow." Sentences with like. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. As shown in Part I. COMPLEX SENTENCES. The simple sentence the basis. though often treated as phrases." This must. . which is the unit of speech. thus." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. made merely for convenience and smoothness." To show that these words are really omitted. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. the pride and beauty of the grove. 333).² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. however. 366." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. (Sec. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine].CONTRACTED SENTENCES. 365.

This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. modifiers. which are so united that one member is the main one. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. or it may be applied to the others. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. Hence the following definition:² Definition. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. then we recognize this as the main statement. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. we are aware.²the backbone. logically depends on suffering. that . and the last.. how great . each clause has its subject. that is. object. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. 368. and the next one. A clause is a division of a sentence. CLAUSES. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. Definition. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. main.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint.. predicate. and modifier. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence.²the other members subordinate to it. 370.. ." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. complements. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. 371. complement. A principal. murmur. is taken in.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second.. as in this sentence. 369. object. etc. suffering. containing a verb with its subject. Independent clause. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause).²the dependent or subordinate clauses. or dependent on it.

' is an electric touch. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. adjectives.Dependent clause. 373. or adverbs. (b) that are . Kinds. 5). but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. impertinences²would be grammatical. (a) Ordinary apposition. thus. and ADVERB clauses. As to their office in the sentence." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves." "I was told that the house had not been shut. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. put an end to my fancies. is retained after a passive verb (Sec... Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. clauses are divided into NOUN. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall.. Noun Clauses." Just as the object noun. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories..." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. so the object clause is retained. 352. We ourselves are getting ." 374. and the whole clause is not.." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. night or day. but logically the sentence is. impertinences. But since they are complex in form. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. pronoun. for a time. infinitive. over which the torrent came tumbling. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. and it is ." (4) Apposition. etc." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. ADJECTIVE. 372. for example. for example.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. verbal. .. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." (2) Object of a verb. for a hundred years. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. 'I know that he can toil terribly. attention is called to them here. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. with a noun clause in apposition with it.

7. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. still remains reasonable. 3. of a nation. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. whereby. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. that. 2. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. sometimes by the conjunctions when. or equivalent of a noun. where. As the office of an adjective is to modify." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. whither. Such a man is what we call an original man. But the fact is. whether he should choose one or not. how it changed from shape to shape. no man will ever know. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. etc. . as. 6. 5. Frequently there is no connecting word." Exercise. 4. and not on the sentiment. Examples of adjective clauses. in the sentence. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. Other examples of this construction are. wherein. I was napping. What history it had. 9. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. he could know nothing. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. 375. but. 10. The reply of Socrates. 8. that all safe legislation must be based.² "It is on the understanding. which. he would repent it.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. a falsehood incarnate. Adjective Clauses. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. a relative pronoun being understood. that. that he was a scheming impostor. whence. Except by what he could see for himself. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force.

Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. Adverbial Clauses." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. i. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. 10. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 3." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. which Rowena tasted. 6. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. 7. etc. which formed the center of the mansion. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. 5. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 11. object. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. Pick out the adjective clauses. he begins to help us more as an effect. I walked home with Calhoun. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats." Exercise. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. 2. 4. No man is reason or illumination. whether subject. the champions advanced through the lists. 8.e. and tell what each one modifies. 1. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble.376. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. . 9.. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. all is vacancy. or that essence we were looking for.

² whoever. etc. adverbs. the milestones are grave-stones.377." "Who cares for that. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. Joanna is better." "When he was come up to Christian. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." (5) DEGREE. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. so far as we can. 378. since he was too great to care to be original." (7) RESULT." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. but they require careful study. and will be given in detail. that we should try." (3) REASON. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. expressing the degree in which the horizon." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. however good she may be as a witness. etc." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future." (9) CONCESSION." "After leaving the whole party under the table. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. Shakespeare is our city of refuge." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. shaping our actions. is wider.: "But still. and what it modifies:² . to make up our shortcomings. whatever. or an adverb. etc. tell what kind each is. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. he goes away as if nothing had happened. an adjective." "He went several times to England. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." "The right conclusion is. the wider is the horizon of their thought. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand.." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. however. no matter what remains. a verbal." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. with examples." "The broader their education is. it takes precedence of everything else. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. and adverbial conjunctions. introduced by indefinite relatives. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." These mean no matter how good. Exercise." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints.

with shrill." 2. If the children gathered about her. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. and twirling weathercocks. 379. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. incoherent exclamations. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. 'Well. object. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. as they sometimes did. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. 3. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. on a dark wintry night. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. when the wind was unruly. of which clause Odin is the subject. we are a little disappointed." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. etc. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. 380. to tell the truth. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. find the principal subject and principal predicate. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. and communicated itself to a thousand objects.1. so that the living were frightened out of their beds.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. howling and whistling. then treat noun clauses as nouns. its object is that Odin was a reality. in the sentence. snatching up stones to fling at them. banging about doors and windows. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. they might perhaps say of their visitors. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. and modifiers. so as to picture the parts and their relations. For example. predicate.

364. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. Exercises.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much.. (1) Find the principal clause. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. (2) Analyze it according to Sec.. 2. 364. 3. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. 380). . that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. d. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. as seen in the "map" (Sec.

19. 23. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. This is she. 6. I like that representation they have of the tree. The night proved unusually dark. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 8. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. He was what our country people call an old one. 12. Whether she said the word is uncertain. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. as for armies that were too many by half. 10. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. dying for them. counselor that had none for herself. 5. Had they been better chemists. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. . not so much for travelers that were few. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. Here lay two great roads. 13. could not have been effected. whom I choose. 24. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. 18.4. the mixed result. that. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 16. 11. Next came a wretched Dominican. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. And those will often pity that weakness most. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 22. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. for yours. of a light hazel. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. namely. 9. The deep eyes. 21. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. But now that she has become an establishment. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 14. 17. had we been worse. which. 15. bishop. that pressed her with an objection. 20. who would yield to it least. the flower should revive for us. or whether any. 7. if applied to the Bible. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. the shepherd girl. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. Now. M.

It makes no difference how many friends I have. 3. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature." said Bentley. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. questions. the following complex sentences:² 1. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. 382. Hence the definition." 4. or commands. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. is to speak and write sincerely. That which we do not believe. 28. 5. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. and not from his heart. "No book. While the complex sentence has only one main clause.²which will not be disposed of. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. COMPOUND SENTENCES.25. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. then map out as in Sec. 30. but above it. 380. and what content I can find in conversing with each. These things we are forced to say. 2. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 6. How formed.² Definition. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 27. we cannot adequately say. 7. if there be one to whom I am not equal. would easily reach. 26. if continuously extended. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. and temper. (b) First analyze. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. speed. that it was no more than his daily walk. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. . should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. "was ever written down by any but itself. 383. and stamped with his right number. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. though we may repeat the words never so often.

. 297). Thus in (1). and not the form of the connective. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. he is twice a man. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. nor. the waving grass. "Only the star dazzles. Some of these are now conjunctions. yet." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. as in Sec. or but. and which complex:² 1. as but. Another example is. in (3). in (2). for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. and it shall be the universal sense. The coördinate conjunctions and. from the second. now adverbs or prepositions. for.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. etc. etc. 385. . and connects the first and second complex members. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. Connectives. moon-like ray" (adversative). for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. The division into members will be easier. Study the thought. if there are any. which are simple statements. he soliloquizes. a complex member. whereas. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. and nor the second and third complex members. however. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. others sometimes coördinate. nor does he know until he has tried." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. Of the following illustrative sentences. 383 (1). 386. he dilates. Exercise. he walks with arms akimbo. a simple member. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3)." 384. the semicolon separates the first. Speak your latent conviction. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. tell which are compound. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. the planet has a faint. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. while (whilst). the semicolons cut apart the independent members.

A man cannot speak but he judges himself. 6. However some may think him wanting in zeal. All loss. so is every one of its parts. or. 381. 14.2. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. unobtrusive boy. all pain. 12. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. nay. and thou shalt be loved. Whilst the world is thus dual. 3. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 387. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. that it was Easter Sunday. is particular. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. For everything you have missed. 364. 4. and for everything you gain. 9. for example. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. passed in that time. 4. 8. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. however. 2. 7. In this manner. (i) Separate it into its main members. I can still receive. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. Love. 11. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 13. Man does not stand in awe of man. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. yield to them heart and life. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. Exercise. he grew up to be a mild. 3. and not by what each is. 5. quiet. The gain is apparent. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. to find a pot of buried gold. the tax is certain. you have gained something else. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 10. . I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. from a happy yet often pensive child. I can yet love. and as yet very early in the morning. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. you lose something.

We go to Europe. 6. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. and he learns who receives. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. "as nigh the scythe as you can. and they will show themselves great. 20. Come into port greatly. puts the parties on a convenient footing." 13. He teaches who gives. Stand aside. or sail with God the seas. 15. 11. and they will be true to you. and makes their business a friendship. whilst frankness invites frankness. We see the noble afar off. ." says the haymaker. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. or hope. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 7. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and the cart as nigh the rake. and each shows only what lies at its focus. why should we intrude? 10. 17. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. crook and hide. give those merits room. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. or men will never know and honor him aright. if you rip up his claims." says the smith. because. 16. and the peace of society is often kept. feign to confess here. or we pursue persons. treat them greatly. and you are without effort impelled to truth. "the iron is white. which always make the Actual ridiculous. one is afraid. only that they may brag and conquer there." "keep the rake. let them mount and expand. and they repel us.5. and not a thought has enriched either party. 18. They will shuffle and crow. and the other dares not. modesty. "Strike. or we read books. 8. 14. is as thin and timid as any. 21. 9. 19. Whatever he knows and thinks. and not an emotion of bravery. that let him communicate. as children. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. When you have chosen your part. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. abide by it. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. Trust men.

25. but go about your business anywhere. but they never acquit the debt. Following the Latin method. they lose themselves in the crowd. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. 23. 380. SYNTAX. it ends in headache. Ground covered by syntax. So does culture with us. 388. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . pronoun and antecedent. INTRODUCTORY. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. or. and dodge the account. 24. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Essential point in English syntax. By way of introduction. verb and subject. if they live. We see young men who owe us a new world. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads.22.²agreement and government. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. it never was known to fall into the rear. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. so readily and lavishly they promise. the department of syntax will be a small affair. Do not craze yourself with thinking. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. adjective and noun. PART III. 390. but its leading characteristic is. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. they die young.

while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. 393. but are not now. Some rules not rigid. In Latin. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. and it would not matter which one stood first. Also in the sentence. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. the order being inverted. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. Second. distinct forms would be used." that is. pronoun and antecedent. therefore. good English. When usage varies as to a given construction. . or settler may be the subject. The basis of syntax. In some cases. some of which conform to classical grammar. or when they exist side by side in good usage. and added to it the preposition of. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used.² First. or the same writer will use both indifferently. As an illustration of the last remark.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. "The savage here the settler slew. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. also expressing a possessive relation. the sentence. then. Why study syntax? 391. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. as to study inflected forms. For example. and nothing but important points will be considered. There is. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. Savage may be the subject. and imitate it. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English." is ambiguous. "None remained but he. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. etc. take the sentence." In this there is a possessive form. This is not logical. and whose judgment. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. following the regular order of subject. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. authorities²that is. sometimes verb and subject. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. 392. both forms will be given in the following pages.

²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. Mill's and Mr. Separate possession. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.²MCCULLOCH.²ROWE. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage." Juletta tells. the possessive sign is used with each noun. and Peterborough's.NOUNS. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. ²ID. and Peter's. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. Bentham's principles together. the antechamber of the High Priest.²BYRON. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays.²MILTON. for example.²MACAULAY.² He lands us on a grassy stage. He kept Bolingbroke's. or indicate joint ownership or possession. and Harley's. Putting Mr. and Pope's. Adam and Eve's morning hymn.²THACKERAY.²EMERSON.²RUSKIN. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. PRONOUNS. Use of the possessive. sense and nature's easy fool. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. 394.² Live your king and country's best support. Joint possession. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. 395. as. Woman. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. . but imply separate possession or ownership. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. 397. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. and Paul's. 408). When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. 396. the shore of Galilee. etc.

It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.²THACKERAY.PERSONAL PRONOUNS.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. the last expression has the support of many good writers. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. Some of the violations are universally condemned. sanctioned. others are generally.²SOUTHEY. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. the real thought being forgotten. I. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS.²TROLLOPE. for example. together with the relative who. 399." 400. 398. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.²BYRON. if not universally. No mightier than thyself or me. Bedott Papers. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. This should be "as she. Since most of the personal pronouns. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun.) "The young Harper. . General rules.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. there are two general rules that require attention.²SHAKESPEARE. who. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was).² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. as.²WHITCHER. Objective for the nominative.²POPE. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. thus. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. Still. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. But he must be a stronger than thee. whom is the complement after the verb am. and should be the nominative form.

One exception is to be noted. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. is.²PARTON. the objective form is regularly found. are. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so."²WINTHROP. namely.²COLERIDGE. The camp of Richard of England. both in England and America. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage." There is no special reason for this. .²THACKERAY. they are yet holier than we.² For there was little doubt that it was he. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²RUSKIN. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. And it was heThat made the ship to go. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²FIELDING.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. "Who's there?"²"Me. "If there is any one embarrassed. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. unless a special. BLACK. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance."²WM. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. A safe rule.²LONGFELLOW. "Than whom. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. and the other forms of the verb be. it will not be me.²MACAULAY. Patrick the Porter.²KINGSLEY. on the other hand. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. for example. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON."²KINGSLEY.²SCOTT.² One I remember especially." 401. In spoken English. but such is the fact. as. But still it is not she. The usage is too common to need further examples.

If there ever was a rogue in the world.Exercise. 3. You know whom it is that you thus charge. (3) By forgetting the construction. as. as. Whom they were I really cannot specify.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. 10. 5. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. 7. verbals. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no.²MILTON. I speak not to" (he should be him. as. it is me. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned." the word being in apposition with murderer). in the case of words used in apposition with the object. or preposition which governs it. 404. now." 6. but not he" (he should be him. or us). The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. used after verbs. 8. "Ask the murderer. and prepositions. 9. verbal. Truth is mightier than us all. Me in exclamations. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. the object of to). object of saw). 2. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. you or me. Nominative for the objective. 403. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). or this. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. 4. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. . It is not me you are in love with. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 11. as this from Shakespeare.

as. Let you and I look at these. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. 406. as. partial Nature. I arraign. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use.²BYRON.²STEELE. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. None.Exception 1. as well as the objective. for they say there are none such in the world. for example.²KINGSLEY. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. all but he. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing.² All were knocked down but us two.Shall be left upon the morn.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. I've sworn. We regularly say. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. Exception 2.²KINGSLEY. "Who were they talking to?" etc. and is usually avoided. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. but he. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Exercise. save thou and thine.²GOLDSMITH. "Who did you see?" or. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. 405.²KINGSLEY. Nature. Thou. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Thy shores are empires. changed in all save thee. 2. who interrogative.²BYRON. Who have we here?²ID.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. etc. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. . giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.

The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada.²C. This usage is not frequent. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea." 4. Bartholomew.Ye I salute.²MACAULAY. BROWN. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. B. 12. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. and they know that as well as me. who.²THACKERAY. Markland. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. with Jortin and Thirlby. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. 9. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. They crowned him long ago.²DE QUINCEY.²possessive. 7.²RUSKIN.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 8. 407. As antecedent of a relative. Preceding a gerund. POSSESSIVE FORMS. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. 6. II. or objective? . 5.²SCOTT. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. They are coming for a visit to she and I. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. 11. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. 10.3.

²MACAULAY. Here I state them only in brief. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.²CARLYLE. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house.408.²RUSKIN. etc. sometimes it has the objective. Possessive. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. both are gerunds. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. The use of the objective is older. Why both are found. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. that the bitterness of death was past.² IRVING. studying is a gerund. and that in the second. Objective.² CARLYLE. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. Both types of sentences are found. We heard of Brown. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. and the meaning is. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.²BREWER. [who was] studying law. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.² THACKERAY. But in common use there is no such distinction. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. .²DE QUINCEY. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. as he turned away from his wife. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.² SCOTT. In the examples quoted." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. The last incident which I recollect. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. and asked why it was not made.²DICKENS." That is. object of heard of.

The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. Every city threw open its gates.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. and ought to agree with them in person. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²HUXLEY. and gender. preceded by a distributive. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. Everybody had his own life to think of.²DEFOE.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. or is a distributive word.²DE QUINCEY. 410. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. If any one did not know it. in one person.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. number.²C. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. 409. In such a case as the last three sentences. . The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²CABLE. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²RUSKIN. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²THACKERAY. where there were examinations.²HOLMES. BROCKDEN BROWN. if the antecedent is neuter.²THOREAU.²DE QUINCEY. Watch for the real antecedent.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²when the antecedent. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. The pale realms of shade.²EMERSON III.² BRYANT. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. it was his own fault. taking in each of many persons. Examples of these constructions are. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²AUDUBON.

It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²BIBLE.²ID. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. If the part deserve any comment. Whosoever hath any gold. Struggling for life. not a mowing idiot. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.²DEFOE. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Every one must judge of their own feelings. . till they have lost him. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. for example.²HUXLEY. This is not considered the best usage. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. let them break it off.²FIELDING. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²RUSKIN. as anybody in their senses would have done. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²PALGRAVE. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion.²PAULDING.²AUSTEN. The sun.Avoided: By using both pronouns. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.²ID. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²PALEY.²THACKERAY.² Not the feeblest grandame. and giving them means of being so. By using the plural pronoun. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²EMERSON.²BYRON.²SCOTT. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. 411.

the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. when coördinating." This means. in each instance:² Who. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. or what was become of her.²ID. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health.Where she was gone. 413. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. 412. that being considered already clear.²HAWTHORNE. I." It defines beggar. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. Exercise. . change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. etc. which. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. unless both genders are implied. What these terms mean. but. As to their conjunctive use.) and a personal pronoun. according to the practice of every modern writer. no one could take upon them to say.² SHERIDAN. and he went away. but.²ADDISON. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word." A relative. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. That is in most cases restrictive. as. the definite relatives who. Exercise. and that are restrictive or not. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. It adds a new statement to what precedes. or unrestrictive. and does not add a new statement. because. "I gave it to the beggar. who went away. 1. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. A relative. tell whether who. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. In the following examples. 2. which. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive.²In the above sentences. when restrictive. and that always restrictive.

but. you. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. etc.²DE QUINCEY. On hearing their plan. or it might have gone hard with the tutor.3. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. W. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. Yet how many are there who up. That. Which. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. BEECHER 5.² CARLYLE.²HOLMES. because of its antecedent. So different from the wild. With narrow shoulders.. 414. they. . that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. 7. 6. down." that is invariable as to person and number.² MOTLEY. We say I. 9.²THOREAU.²DE QUINCEY.² IRVING.²H. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. 14. 8. he. she agreed to join the party. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. that were often vicious. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. which was to go over the Cordilleras. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. and it is called logic. etc. 4. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. 12. A grizzly-looking man appeared. Hare has printed. as that does not vary for person or number. 11. who. long arms and legs. etc. The general rule is. However. and over England are saying. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 10. these or that which.²ADDISON. it makes the verb third person singular.²ID. In what sense true. in the sentence. The rule. which Mr. II.² NEWMAN. 13. For example.²ID.

A disputed point. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. Let us be of good cheer. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. and write the verb in the plural. but speaks of him as that sort..²HOWELLS. The fiery youth . and in improving a victory. when he derided the shams of society. Singular. others regard books as the antecedent.²LOWELL. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.²BOWLES. T. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. "one of the finest books that have been published.²LECKY.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. The latter is rather more frequent.²ADDISON. or which .²MACAULAY.²J. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. JR.²SCOTT. with one as the principal word.²whether we should say. etc. but the former has good authority. who rarely speak at all. the true antecedent.. [singular or plural. ARNOLD.. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest." One of .. . It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.²HOLMES. [plural] that who. 415.. in winning a battle.. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. "one of the finest books that has been published. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. MORSE. but myself..²M. He is one of those that deserve very well." or.²ADDISON. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. Franklin.] Both constructions are frequently found. etc.²LOWELL. French literature of the eighteenth century.

The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. IV.²ID. that is.²SCOTT. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. 417.²CARLYLE. III. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.²BURNS. The same day I went aboard we set sail.²IRVING. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.²In the above sentences. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. or where] he died." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. and such like: as.²SWIFT.² THACKERAY.²DEFOE. where. when the relative word is a pronoun." "India is the place [in which."²DICKENS. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. when this dust falls to the urn. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.²EMERSON.² . or is equivalent to the conjunction when. object of a preposition understood.²VAUGHAN.²EMERSON. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.A rare Roundabout performance.²GOLDSMITH. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. Exercise.² RUSKIN. return. I could see nothing except the sky. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²ADDISON. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. 416.And. whence.In that same state I came. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. But I by backward steps would move. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.

or that. Mr.²SWIFT. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. which. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin.² MACAULAY. she passed the lamp over her face and person. for example. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles..me as his apprentice. looking-glasses. W. but we find the relative who. as of knives. That. Anacoluthic use of which. Which. boats. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. if I had resolved to go on with. Caution.² THACKERAY. .² Which. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. if same is followed by a complete clause. and working in the same spirit.He considered.. ²GOLDSMITH. The regular construction. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. etc.²WORDSWORTH. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.²R. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. was a discoverer. he. but which is usually carefully avoided. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. with Turner.²SCOTT. They believe the same of all the works of art. 418.² BURKE. I might as well have staid at home. V. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard.²FRANKLIN.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. as is not used. but.²ADDISON. CHURCH.

" etc." etc. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. 419. etc. But who.²which if they once heard. Thornhill had read. but none is expressed. 4." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. (1) "Among those who are poor. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. and who are now.²THACKERAY. and this be placed in the proper clause. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. or. . etc.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. or leave out both connective and relative..We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. now thrown upon their. he said that all submission was now too late.²GOLDSMITH. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.She'd come again. (2) "Among the poorer sort. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. le Conte. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.²HAWTHORNE.²RUSKIN. And who. He delivered the letter. Express both relatives. 3. This was a gentleman. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.." etc.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. Exercise. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. which when Mr. (3) "Among the poorer sort.²SHAKESPEARE.²DE QUINCEY. 1. but.² Direction for rewriting. As the sentences stand. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. That is. once a great favorite of M. 2.²SCOTT. and which. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. After this came Elizabeth herself. Exercise.. who are now thrown. or omit the conjunction.

and which has never been described. .² MOTLEY. 420. and which. and which may even be heard a mile off. I saw upon the left a scene far different. the French.²HAWTHORNE. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. "What knight so craven. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.²PEARSON. either from imitation of their frequent allies. And which.²SCOTT.²IRVING. 11. as a false and astucious mark. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence.. and repeat this for any further reference. 1.²SCOTT. Or who. 6. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. etc. 7." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 8. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. who. Dr. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. That . or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. 10. etc. I shall have complete copies.²DE QUINCEY. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. indeed.²DE QUINCEY. 13. and to whom no door is closed. Exercise. one of signal interest. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . English by name.. But which. 9. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. which the Scotch had learned. 12. Or which. then. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. Akin to the above is another fault. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. "A mockery. like that spoken in the towns. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary.5...

. 5. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. Such as . which. Such as . I give to such men as do not belong to me. but which is perhaps not so different from it.. He flung into literature.²HOLMES. 4. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. SIMMS. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. 9.. but which. the dime.. 15. 3.²EMERSON.²EMERSON..²BEECHER. I recommend some honest manual calling. . He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. That . It rose into a thrilling passion.. 11. 8. The Tree Igdrasil. half a century ago. was hung in air.²SCOTT. I grudge the dollar. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.²DEFOE. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren.²HALLAM. that .. the cent. whom.2. such as they have very probably been bred to.²W. was a bustling wharf. and whose examples and principles we inherit. in his present condition. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.. 10. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. that. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. 6. 7. in his Mephistopheles. 12.²HOWELLS... and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.²HAWTHORNE. 14.²DE QUINCEY. 13. at the head of what.²SCOTT That which . which. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. what. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear... In my native town of Salem. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. CHANNING. Which . His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. and to whom I do not belong. E. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion.²W. He. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. G. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted.

and in want of his gold²or his corn. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.² Some one must be poor. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. in which case any should be used instead. for example.²ID. Each other. England was then divided between kings and Druids. Use of any. as it were. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²HAWTHORNE. as. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. one another. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. .²DICKENS.²RUSKIN. We call ourselves a rich nation. whether or not the two are equivalent. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. By their original meaning. 421. Assume that no one is in want of either. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.²EMERSON. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. into the high pavilion of their thoughts.²RUSKIN. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. as. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.²MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH.² HAWTHORNE. that not all combined. 422. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. always at war with one another. Distributives either and neither. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.

² In earnest.²THACKERAY. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.²SCOTT. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. in Shakespeare. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.. usually plural.²CARLYLE. when any of them are so good as to visit me. then in Plutarch. speak. If any of you lack wisdom..²EMERSON.. Do you think. as. then in Plotinus. In earlier Modern English. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.²BURKE.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. Any usually plural. during his stay at Yuste. before that. and is isolated. any of his friends had died. None of Nature's powers do better service. None usually plural. The adjective pronoun none is.²STIRLING. 423.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . for him have I offended. Caution. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. whilst I still cherish their genius.²PROF. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. as none of the French philosophers were. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. that I know of. even in Bettine. Examples of its use are. if ever man was.²BIBLE. . he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.²SHAKESPEARE.² EMERSON. at one time in Bacon. etc. 424. Do you think. which is plural as often as singular.²BEECHER Whenever. as. afterwards in Goethe. in the prose of the present day.² If any. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.²FRANKLIN. any was often singular. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. I beseech you. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. let him ask of God. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).

Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. etc. which is used absolutely. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. when it means all persons: for example. The compounds somebody else. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell..²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled.²McMASTER. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. for example.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. any one else.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. fixing his eyes on the mace. or somebody else's? 426. that all was lost. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. nobody else. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . Somebody's else. When all were gone.²THOREAU.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. and Ford has nobody's else. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.²SCOTT Like the use of any. the plural. and all was lost on the other.² None of them was cleansed. are treated as units.² Singular. saving Naaman the Syrian.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. etc..²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose..²NAPIER Plural. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. The light troops thought . as. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. 425. etc. and hence is more likely to confuse the student.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.² PEARSON. etc. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. and less rarely in poetry.

Whitefield or Wesley. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. Again. the adjectives plural. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. .SYDNEY SMITH.. STOWE.² FIELDING.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. etc. WILLIS.²SWEET. all manner of. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. His hair. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).²DICKENS. London. ADJECTIVES.²THACKERAY. P. ELIOT.² These kind of knaves I know.²RUSKIN." "those kind of trees. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²MULOCH. for example. etc. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.²G.² Saturday Review. unlike anybody else's in the world.²N. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.curled once all over it in long tendrils. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. These sort..A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.²in such as "these sort of books. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes." the nouns being singular.²SHERIDAN. or some other such great man as a bishop.²RUSKIN. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. "Ye see." "all manner of men.²AUSTEN."²MRS. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. 427. or those sort of people. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.

But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. made to agree with it." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind).²RUSKIN. and the adjective is. The result. Use of the comparative degree. . Of two such lessons. Later form." A question. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. in spoken English. such as. Should we say. In Old and Middle English." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. the victor or the vanquished. This the modern expression reverses. with all manner of amusing books. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. which accounts for the construction. they said. At the source. Burke's sentence. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. or the nouns to the plural. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. "These kind of trees are best. or one object with a class of objects. "This kind of rules are the best. and in this way may take a plural verb.² PRESCOTT. "This sort of trees should be planted. more alarming than a total silence. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. Consequently we have a confused expression." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. for example. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. as. to express a higher degree of quality.² Which is the better able to defend himself. gradually displacing the old.²a strong man with nothing but his fists.The library was open. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. when the necessary dispositions concur. History of this construction." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. not "all kinds of wild animals. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. According to the approved usage of Modern English. 428.

²MACAULAY.² THACKERAY. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. . the highest stakes are paid. Exercise. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things."²ID. than any of his court. 2.²TROLLOPE. 4. by almost the breadth of my nail. Use of the superlative degree. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.²SWIFT. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. has sanctioned. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²HUXLEY. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. would not have had the face. 6. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. if not. He is taller. Superlative with two objects.²WIRT. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. Henry. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. 3. 5. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Other after the comparative form. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²HAWTHORNE. 430. Gary.²CARLYLE. To the man who plays well. I am concerned to see that Mr.²MACAULAY.A braver ne'er to battle rode. Even Dodd himself.²LOWELL.²THACKERAY.²SCOTT. 429. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. etc. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot.

²Bible."²HAWTHORNE. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²SCOTT.²GOLDSMITH. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. and the other contains the best men. Examples from Shakespeare are. whichever can be got easiest.. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. I should say that one has the best cause. not a bit of high life among them.²MRS. These two properties seem essential to wit. who eat white bread or brown. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.²TEMPEST. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.²RUSKIN. ha. OLIPHANT.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong.²IRVING. Rip was one of those .² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. . After the most straitest sect of our religion.²ADDISON."²BULWER. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. Come you more nearer. The following examples are used purposely. CÆSAR. and differ only in form. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.²J. In all disputes between States.. more particularly the last of them. Mary. "Ha. Also from the same period. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest."²GOLDSMITH. 431.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²HAMLET.²EMERSON.²BEN JONSON. 1611. The eldest. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. Double comparative and superlative.²DR BLAIR. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.

The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. not only so in popular speech. 433. ²COWPER. etc.²KINGSLEY. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.² With a singular noun.²GIBBON.²DE QUINCEY.²LAMB. The first five had specific names. jar upon us constantly.² SMOLLETT. Definite article. These are the three first needs of civilized life.²RUSKIN. and Secretary Walsingham also.²RUSKIN.²PRESCOTT. etc. but in literary English. The delay in the first three lines. First three. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. The merit of the Barb. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. As to these two expressions. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. For Carlyle. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. The meaning intended is the same. the Spanish. . In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. Three first.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. Examples of this construction are. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.²ADDISON. and conceit in the last. Instances of both are given below.²GIBBON. ARTICLES.

With a plural noun. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.²NEWMAN. One object and several modifiers. were placed at a very tender age.²THACKERAY. 433. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.²MACAULAY. and the presents.. but is used with one only. 1508.² MACAULAY. or to emphasize the meaning. Here the youth of both sexes.²SCOTT. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. the greatest poems. Meaning same as in Sec. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. the thought and the word. He is master of the two-fold Logos. as. . but inseparable from each other.²TENNYSON.²TAYLOR. No.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.²PRESCOTT. with a singular noun.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.²ID.²CARLYLE. The flowers. 435. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. distinct. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. 434. melodious. as in Sec.² RUSKIN. Indefinite article.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. to distinguish clearly. I think. The not repeated. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. of the higher and middling orders. with a plural noun. and flexible language. however. the hour of parting came. The lofty. having been arranged. and the trunks and bonnet boxes .²THE NATION. 433. Origin of the Aryans. of the eighteenth century. Frequently.. as.

436). But in the following sentences.²DRYDEN.²DICKENS. as.²THACKERAY." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. The indefinite article (compare Sec.²JOHNSON. a collegian. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.² MACAULAY. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. like the definite article. interest. COLERIDGE. Examples of this use are.²B. The indefinite article is used. T. 437. . and inexhausted vein. rich. a murderer. one noun is expressed. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. In the sentences of Secs. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.² BURKE. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. 435.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. to limit two or more modified nouns. as in the first three of Sec. JONSON. or clearness to each of several nouns. a round and a square one alternately.An early." and "a red and a white geranium. 433 and 436.²BEECHER. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. only one of which is expressed. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. a tyrant. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. One article with several adjectives.²S. He saw him in his mind's eye.²MACAULAY. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. and a usurper. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. 438. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns.²MACAULAY.436. For rhetorical effect.²BULWER. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.

depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. as.²COOPER. In English. Such. for example. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. ELIOT. Sec. then. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.²FROUDE. 276. Collective noun of singular meaning. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. like some others in this series.²CARLYLE This usage. He sees that it is better to live in peace. as. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. all that academies can give.²GIBBON. ARNOLD. 440. and the following illustrations prove it.² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²AGASSIZ. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. without academies.. 439. . or the great intellectual life of our nation. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. has got already. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.²G.²The Nation.²W. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. was the earliest American land. Singular verb. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. A broad and loose rule. Singulars connected by or or nor. Another writer might. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.VERBS.²M. This was spoken of in Part I.

²EMERSON .²CRITIC. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²GIBBON. as.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²DE QUINCEY.² GOLDSMITH. a mutilation. A fever.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. but considered as meaning about the same thing.Jesus is not dead. a cruel disappointment.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. nor John. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. that of a large town. No. for example. Plural form and singular meaning. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.² In a word. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. or considered as appositional.²GOLDSMITH.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. a loss of friends. a loss of wealth. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. Q. Between ourselves. is gone. or as making up one general idea. the cheap defense of nations. as. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. (4) When the subject is plural in form.²WHITTIER. but each one emphatic. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. nor Mahomet. ²EMERSON.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. ADAMS. nor Paul. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. and other singulars of plural form.²BURKE. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.² The unbought grace of life. for example. seems at the moment unpaid loss.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²J. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. other names. and every four hours.

441. sir!"²MACAULAY. no.²LONGFELLOW. every echo. was listened to for five hours. no spent ball. Every week.²ID.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. sir?" and the "No. wineBegins to stir itself. is a man of wit.²EMERSON.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. the fine gentleman. was like to crack. no discontinuity. was punished.²PRESCOTT. and such like adjectives. an agitated gesture. Plural verb. the ruin.²MACAULAY. every boor. was dazzled. There is a moving tone of voice. each. every valet. Her back. as well as the Drama.²PRESCOTT.² Asia. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. sir!" and the "What then. many a. The Epic. Every sound. no matter if the second is plural). does not take the place of the man. nay. Subjects after the verb.The rout. with death.²MACAULAY. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. as well as sides. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. The oldest. as well as the newest.²M ARNOLD.²NEWMAN.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two.²ID. Every fop. as. the dismay.²RUSKIN. the wit. For wide is heard the thundering fray. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²HAWTHORNE. and greaves. the partisan. is divided into tragedy and Comedy.²BUTLER. Here is no ruin. an impassioned countenance. a cuirass. almost every day. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. in a judge.² There is a right and a wrong in them.² . a gorget.²SCOTT. as well as Europe. as. thus. Then comes the "Why.The author. To receive presents or a bribe.

One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. far away thy children leave the land.These bits of wood were covered on every square.²SCOTT. its date.²FROUDE.²FROUDE. The travelers.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²B.² GIBBON.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. The conjunction may be omitted. of whom there were a number. a green pasture.²EMERSON.² One or two of these perhaps survive. and its history are alike a mystery to us.²CARLYLE But its authorship. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. for example. are sufficient to attract a colony. A party of workmen were removing the horses. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. as in Sec. a stream of fresh water. shirt. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. making up a plural subject. A shady grove.²GOLDSMITH. 440 (5. Conjunction omitted.² A multitude go mad about it. The Dauphin. His clothes. but the verb is plural.²DE QUINCEY. TAYLOR. . the verb agrees with the one nearest it. as.²GIBBON. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. All our household are at rest. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. Philip of Anjou. as with a subject of plural form.²COLERIDGE. were men of insignificant characters.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. Far. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.²ADDISON. the Duke of Berri. b).²THOREAU.²FRANKLIN.²SWIFT. as.

but thou. 443. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.²RUSKIN.)." etc.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. we never talk politics.²M.²WHITTIER. hadst been my lord. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. nor has she"). When the subjects. the verb takes the construction of the first person. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. If there is only one person in the subject." or.²THACKERAY. Exceptional examples. .²LOWELL. Second or third and first person in the subject. "You would not be wiser.²D. 442.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.²GOLDSMITH. for example. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.But notice the construction of this. "I have never said so. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. ARNOLD. Ah.²RUSKIN. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. WEBSTER." "She or you may be sure.²SMOLLETT. his blood dost shed. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. but thou.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. Nothing which Mr. nor should I. You and I are farmers. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. the subject being really equivalent to we. You and I are tolerably modest people. that is. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath.²DE QUINCEY. This construction is at the best a little awkward. 444. "He or I can go.²THACKERAY. Not Altamont. as. of different persons. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.²BYRON.²ROWE. Pattison or I have said. Not I. General usage. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it.

give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Also in verbals. 8. Exercise. 12. Neither of their counselors were to be present. in my opinion. 7. 10.445. nor tree. 3.²SMOLLETT. 440-444):² 1. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. In the following sentence. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. as illustrated above (Secs. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). 2. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² .²G.²MILTON. 5. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²EMERSON.²BURKE.²ID. 446. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. 4.²BYRON. How each of these professions are crowded.² TROLLOPE. Neither of them. Both death and I am found eternal. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. Nor wood. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. In a word.²ADDISON. 6. nor bush are there.Her course to intercept. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. which it is proper to mention. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²SCOTT. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.That neither of their intellects are vast.²and. 9.²THACKERAY. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. as we would hope.²ADDISON. BANCROFT.²perhaps the devil. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 11. In this sentence from Defoe. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.

as. It should be remarked.²IRVING. however. for exact connection.²R.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. which I thought I should have acquired before that time.²MACAULAY.. I gave one quarter to Ann. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. Direct discourse²that is.²KINGSLEY. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. if not. 448.²FRANKLIN 6.²DE QUINCEY 2. on my return. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. Of course." . Definitions. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. 4. Indirect discourse means reported speech.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.²THACKERAY. CHURCH. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. But I found I wanted a stock of words. 447. Two samples of indirect discourse.² PALGRAVE 5. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 3. to have divided with her whatever might remain. to have seen should be changed to to see.. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. meaning. change them to a better form:² 1. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. W. Exercise. The present rule is recent.

the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. 1.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. Her prudence whispered eternally. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. She thought to herself. etc. Summary of the expressions. or regular interrogatives.. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Sebastian's. Oh. Direct. "Oh." Indirect. 449. introductory verb is in the past tense." etc. under interrogative pronouns. and the indirect question by whether or if.. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. interrogative adverbs. His exact words were. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. will.. have.. . Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead." etc. The substance of his lamentation was. "I cannot oblige you . Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. This includes the auxiliaries be. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. 2. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Direct. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St.

PARTICIPLES. . Notice this. with his crew of the Half-moon.²ADDISON. and that he himself had heard. VERBALS. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. handed down from his ancestor the historian. FRANKLIN. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. 450. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. in the sentences first quoted. he assured me that nothing was more easy. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.²ID. if this were expanded into a verb. the first discoverer of the river and country. my first observation will be found nearly true.Exercise. Careless use of the participial phrase. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact.²B. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. one summer afternoon. The trouble is. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. the sound of their balls.²GOLDSMITH. like distant peals of thunder. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.

Standard writers often use it.²ID. 3. INFINITIVES. . It is a solemn. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. For example.²RUSKIN.²LAUGHLIN. leaving the principal statement as it is. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. avoid it.. . if a strike is to succeed. Adverb between to and the infinitive.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. then." Exercise.²SCOTT. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible.. 2.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. This is the more common arrangement. Consequently one of two courses must be taken." etc. while defended or excused by others. In the following citations. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. There are. Exercise. and often. many things to be carefully considered. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . 451.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. my first collection was. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. universal assertion.. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive..Correction. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1.² HERBERT SPENCER. either "As I was pleased. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. purposely or not. the first sentence would be..' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.

The spirits. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. is to be very cautiously admitted. which consists in multitude. etc. In works of art. A little sketch of his. 9.4. but it is placed before the infinitive. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. this kind of grandeur.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. etc. ADVERBS.²BURKE. 5. 1533. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation..² ADDISON. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. are used. I wish the reader to clearly understand. but cannot misunderstand the thought. 11. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position.²ID.² MACAULAY.²RUSKIN. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity.²SCOTT. 10. BLAIR.²GOLDSMITH.²TROLLOPE. etc. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. 452. The rigid rule in such a case would be. 13. china. Now." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. No.. 7. 12. and earthenware. even. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. Exercise.²The Nation. Position of only. from Irving. when such adverbs as only. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. therefore. 8. 6. if they modify single words. even. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. but they are often removed from the exact position. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.²DR.

The old usage. 16. 13. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²COOPER. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²ID.²MOTLEY. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²EMERSON. GROTE. 6.²RUSKIN.²N. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²PALGRAVE. During the whole course of his administration. In relating these and the following laws. 15.²ID. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. 11.²MRS. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. ²ASCHAM. WILLIS.²ID. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.²SWIFT. 2. . 7. whence he was never destined to return.²MACAULAY.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 453. 9.² THACKERAY. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. 3.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. Irving could only live very modestly. 8. 10. were he never so old of yeares. might not marry. 14.²CHAUCER. He shouted in those clear. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 5. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. 4. His last journey to Cannes. 17.²HIGGINSON.²THACKERAY. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. to avoid a crowd.1. My master. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. 12. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. In Old and Middle English. P.²SYDNEY SMITH.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. No sonne. for example.

that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. one of the negatives is often a prefix.²BAYNE. ²PAGE. In the execution of this task. Not only could man not acquire such information. uncommon.²MRS. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. Exercise. 5. neither. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. and is still kept in vulgar English. STOWE. The prosperity of no empire. Therefore. . However.²DE QUINCEY. There weren't no pies to equal hers.²GROTE. the usual way of regarding the question now is. nor never shall. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. can so agreeably affect. 6. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. Regular law of negative in modern English. is not common. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. In the latter case.² HAMILTON. 2.²HOLMES.²DEFOE. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.²BURKE. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. who hadn't been to school for nothing. STOWE. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. 4. and why:² 1. in Ole Virginia."²four negatives. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. as infrequent. etc. But. I never did see him again. nor the grandeur of no king. This. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. as."²MRS.²LOWELL. Exceptional use. if two negatives are found together. 7. I did not act so hastily. under the influence of Latin syntax. 3. but ought not to labor after it. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man.²HAWTHORNE. when one of the negatives is a connective. denying each other. however.

455.." said the King. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals.. either. Correction. neither . "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it.. not merely . as the use of the conjunction.. the first ought to be placed before a verb. "well worthy to confer honor.8.. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. CONJUNCTIONS.. Things to be watched. but. or to reply to it. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. not only .²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it.. if the last precedes a verb. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs... A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.²PRESCOTT. not or is the proper correlative of neither. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. the first should also. especially both .. Choice and proper position of correlatives.. there we were. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives.²SCOTT." both of the above requirements are violated. should be scrutinized. nor is often changed to not²either . 454.." Besides neither . or with advantage."²SCOTT... misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. but to their own safety. or. and which." may be changed to "This loose .. if the second precedes a phrase. or to reply to it. And who..." . In the sentence.. or. not only to the success of their common cause. even neither . "A weapon. nor.. and.²LOWELL. as well as of the pronoun. The sentences given in Secs. but (also). either . and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. The sentence. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.

²GOLDSMITH. 5. substitute that. Now.²BAIN. 456. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. but. 7. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. Some exceptions. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. but they will outrage. Correct the following sentences:² 1. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. 4. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. Try and for try to. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.Exercise. or but that for the words but what:² 1. But what. or but that. They will. . but grown-up persons. not merely interest children." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. In the following sentences. as. too. but. 6.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. 3.²GIBBON. JEWETT. nor the disgrace of assailing him. and chop up their own kin. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. 457. murder. Exercise. Try and avoid the pronoun. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. etc.² ADDISON. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. as.²THACKERAY. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²S. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. 2.²FRANKLIN. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. or the negative relative but. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.²ID. 8.²MACAULAY. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.²RUSKIN. and I don't know but what he was right.²THACKERAY. O.

Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.²SCOTT. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.2.²ADDISON. as already seen in Sec. 6.² SWIFT.²EMERSON. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). 4. . There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.²EMERSON. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. 459. 3. no separation or division by twos being implied. Between and among. 458. 5.² BULWER.²TROLLOPE. 305. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. 313. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Between is used most often with two things only. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction.²ADDISON. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. see Sec. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.²BURKE. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. PREPOSITIONS. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies.

and Coleridge. Comply with. involve. as. Conversant with. Mackintosh.²KINGSLEY. and philosophers like Locke. Kant. and Stewart.²between philosophers like Spinoza. . The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Acquit of. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. and another to convey a different meaning. ²EMERSON. List I. different. averse. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Bestow on (upon). Accord with. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Such are derogatory. or one object and a group. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. correspond. Some of them have. LIST I. as. Conform to. Affinity between. Two groups or one and a group. confer. a soldier of the Cross. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. by custom. 461. Derogatory to.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. Averse to. Dissent from. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Dependent on (upon).² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Different from.: Words with particular prepositions. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT.²RUSKIN What have I. 460. Such are absolve. Abhorrent to. Paley. etc. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo.

A taste of (food)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Change for (a thing). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. A taste for (art. etc. LIST III. Differ from (note below). Change to (become). Confer with (talk with). LIST II. Disappointed in (a thing obtained).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Confide in (trust in). as. . Confer on (upon) (give to). Agree to (a proposal). as meaning to be in keeping with. Involve in. as. "The king is reconciled to his minister. as. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Reconcile to (note below). Correspond to (a thing). List II. but it is not good usage.). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning." List III. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person).y y y Deprive of. 462. Confide to (intrust to). and sometimes creeps into standard books. in the sense of making friends with. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Change with (a person). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Correspond with (write to). Independent of." also of persons. Reconcile with (note below). 463. Differ with (note below).

²POPE." (in behalf of).²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy." etc. ELIOT. expect from.²BOSWELL.²SHAKESPEARE.²MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH. ²THACKERAY. die for. "Die by. "Die for. Part from. they shall die by this hand. If I meet with any of 'em.²FIELDING. It would take me long to die of hunger. Who.²BULWER. . instrument)." (material cause. "Die for. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread.²ADDISON.²G. die from." "die from. died for love of the fair Marcella. Take thought and die for Cæsar." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. die of. No one died from want at Longfeld.²G. She died of hard work. I am positively dying with hunger. One of them said he would die for her.²BURNETT.²MACAULAY.²GOLDSMITH." (because of). as Cervantes informs us.²SCOTT.:² "Die of. He died at last without disease. privation. simply from old age. "Die with. Expect of. It is a man of quality who dies for her. part with. ²ATHENÆUM.y y y Die by. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. die with." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²MACAULAY. "Die from. and ill treatment." She would have been ready to die with shame. Illustrations of "die of. People do not die of trifling little colds.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. ELIOT.

464. I can part with my children for their good. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²MACAULAY.²DICKENS.²POE.²G.²WALPOLE.²SCOTT. "Expect from.²AUSTEN. Illustrations of "expect of.²TROLLOPE. I have long expected something remarkable from you. either of or in is used indifferently.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year." To part from you would be misery. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. just parted from her. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²G.²MACAULAY. ELIOT. 466. "Part from. kind of you. nothing better was to be expected. With words implying behavior or disposition. ." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. That is more than I expected of you. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. 465. Illustrations of "part with. Of Doctor P.²SHAW. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things." "part from:"² "Part with. as my friend. ELIOT." She will expect more attention from you. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²G.²MARRYAT.²BULWER. I have just seen her. and hated to part with them. which he would by no means part from.²BULWER.²WALLER. His precious bag. Kind in you." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. It was a little bad of you." "expect from:"² "Expect of. ELIOT.

None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white.²BULWER. and ran up the alley. is not always the thing that most needs to be done.²CARLYLE. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. In. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame.²DICKENS. . the vast abyss. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. or that they are any way dependent on each other. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. it is commonly said that his profits are high. nor of a pale red. 14.²TENNYSON. The noise of vast cataracts. raging storms. nor yellow.He did not think it handsome of you. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. but which the story renders necessary. This narrative. 15. nor blue. Very natural in Mr. 5. 3. thunder. or which we are most imperatively required to do.²BEACONSFIELD. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. tedious perhaps. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 9. 11. 8. Hampden. 7. 4. 6. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. But this is idle of you.²BULWER. or artillery. It will be anything but shrewd in you. with seraphims. nor green. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. thrown it over Amyas's head. 13. 10. In the friction between an employer and workman. 1. Thou tread'st.

The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 25. When the glass or liquor are transparent. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. or how beautiful it is. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 37. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 27. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. 38. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. . (Sec. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. triangles. but in the price paid to them. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. were down with raging fever. 24. 23. You have seen Cassio and she together. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. you or me. But every man may know. 18. 31. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 32. and almost as good as a pony. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 411. 30. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. and other angular figures. produce approbation.) 34. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 17.I would wish me only he. 20. 29. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. That night every man of the boat's crew. and most of us do know. 33. Every one of these letters are in my name. 36. Squares. 35. The effect of proportion and fitness. 19. 26.And were I anything but what I am. 21. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 22. 16. Friday. 28. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. what is a just and unjust act. save Amyas. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. the acquiescence of the understanding. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy.

124. 102. adverbs used complements. 40. as. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 90. of. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 91. He had four children. adjectives. 107. 133. of. 310. from about 1500 to the present time. 119. of. voice. from nominative clauses. as comparison definition demonstrative. 25.39. 260. article. pronouns. 98. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. A. numeral. syntax uses Absolute. 47. (2) Middle English.000 between them. . of. 239. Adjectives. 89. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 47. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. (3) Modern English. demonstrative. nouns. Abstract with Active Address. 92. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 124. origin of. nominative. 20. 116. of. INDEX.

303. 183. 325. parse. 103. 239. between of. 323. compared. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. nouns. 191. 106. 97. antecedent. 99. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. predicate. quality. adjectives. clauses. modify. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 116. with with with subject. infinitive. conjunctions. . adjectives. 114. 325. of. parse. 187. 27. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 148. nouns. 115. 195. to used of. from to of. adjectives. as nouns. 48. 184. sentence. 109. of.from function how in not of of ordinal. Alms. 262. and 185. 42. 287. of. Against. quantity. of. Agreement. of. 328. 27. 207. 316. of. antecedent. 302. 190. 242. 275. 194. 303. 116. plural pronominal. 291. 104. 190. 194. conjunction. of. 207. 101. objective.

309. 198. same. See 74. it. after of. 150. parse. 207. 90. 79. 331. Arrangement Articles. 300. 225. though. 120. 287. syntax As. 67. Auxiliary if. of. A. An. 271. of and pronoun of. of. definition how indefinite. 296. 49. 264. 148. 124. possessive. Anacoluthon Analysis. 51. words between. pronouns. 74. in in. which. sentences. of.Among. agreement personal as pronoun. which. and. definition of of of Any. 84. Agreement. 101. of of of And Antecedent. sentences. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 208. derivation in definite. of. 275. uses As At. 295. sentences. 47. 67. 252. to of. 294. syntax. which. 240. 231. adjective. See with definition complex compound simple who. 120. as uses verbs. Are. 127. . of.

of pronouns. 149. of nouns. 262. adjective. 279. 279. of. 45. uses of. 84. of nouns.Bad. Be. 39. 224. of nouns. double possessive. best. Clause. number of. 62. . Can. objective. Among. 48. of what. 46. of pronouns. 49. 210. 150. Between. of pronouns. plurals of. Bridegroom. 37. conjunctions Cherub. 262. 330. uses Better. nominative. pronoun. Children. 111. 283. 39. 278. definition could. 110. comparison conjugation of. 278. of pronouns. Case. See of. 161. 195. adverb. 54. 63. 260. Case. syntax of. of. of nouns. But. Cause. 47. 66. possessive. in Old and Modern English. 110. 46. 194. of. 64. uses nominative of. with But By. Brethren. forms. clauses of.

258. infinitive. double. of. 257. 24. 18. 157. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. Cloths. 271. of. 264. 158. 248. 305. 108. definition degrees irregular. of. in analysis. of. superlative. 111. 18. 108. . of. sentence. English. 307. 110. 307. of. defective. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of. 107. 113. plural of. proper. 43. Clomb. and sentence. subject. material. 268. adjectives. nouns. 257. 43. analysis of. 239. 257. Cleave. and forms of. 312. of. predicate.definition kinds noun. 315. 12. verb. predicate of and from from of. 244. nouns. of. nouns. 263. 189. 23. adverbs. 53. clothes.

289. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 138. Agreement. See English. 255. 149. adverbs. 231. 269. conjunctions. 328. 199. 151. verbs. 195. Dative Declarative Declension of case. of. to of. sentence. definition be. same words. conjunction. replaced by objective. other other parts of speech. 195. Can. 143. 207. interrogative pronouns. sentences. parse. 149. pronoun. See analysis clauses. of of Conjunctions. pronoun.with Concord. conjunctions. 194. sentences. in Old vs. definition how subordinate. correlative. of. and clause. . Conjunctions. analysis. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 193. 139. 194. 73. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. coördinate. 188. See in subjunctive. 66. 196. 194. subjunctive. pronouns. 263.

with of. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 160. 43. discourse. object. pronouns. of. 242. 320. pronouns. 102. 60. pronouns. of. 287. indirect. adverbs See adjectives. of. Comparative. 26. duck. vs. 80. See 148. 300. 333.Declension. verb. use of dies. See See 48. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. of. possessive. passive adjectives. with. by. . Subordinate clause. pronouns. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 99. of personal relative verbs. nouns. tenses. 303. 35. from. Case. comparative. Degrees. for. clause. 185. 152. 315. 91. See adjectives. 242. nouns. Comparison. 90. Articles. 102. 51. 288. article.

pronouns. adjective. 300. 33. plural. of. literary. 34. other. added suffix. 102. 158. of subject. another. 257. syntax Each Eat Eaves. of. predicate. Empress. vulgar. 158. 40. 92. 32. Either. .Drank. of. spoken. drunk. 280. 42. original. 33. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. of. 234. in 'Em. feminine plural English. the of sentence. possessive suffix. Elements Ellipsis. 39. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. of. 194. 12. 92. 51. object. suffix. Each. -En. adjective. 241. 287. 240. pronoun. 299. older. 255. 110. 328. of. 112. to suffix. error in sentence. complement. ending. 287. conjunction. 62. 92. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 90. 38. 90. one ( t). pronoun.

first. Farther. For. First. two. of. 148. gender. plurals. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 235. 211. 212. 91. used of. 30. uses redundant. 308. have adjective. uses Foreign Former. Feminine. of. object. 32. fishes. See Gander. few. modes "common goose. 30. From. 45. with in sex.. 48. from. 212. the. expect gone. two a further. 103.Every. 29. 112. 152. Future Future tense. 112. with infinitive. 102. Further. etc. 110. definition distinguished in English. 102. Few. adjective. 147. 238. 287. Gender. pronoun. as of from compared marking. perfect.. etc. of. 43. 36. 152. 189. as a noun. 30. 334. 126." 31. to of. . 319. nouns. First Fish. other languages.

12. 175. adjective. on. 13. 60. had hung.of of Genii. 101. 275. personal relative geniuses. definition basis of. noun. 159. 61. 177. 80. distinguished syntax. 60. person. Had Hanged. for before. from participle of. 10. possessive pronouns. and case verbal with. 173. participle. 61. she. 176. rather. pronoun. 9. Grammar. His Husband. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 35. 145. 12. of. 285. 231. 43. Got. forms in Girl. I. Government. it. pronouns. its. . of. kinds of. 159. an better. first sentence. 36. 144. definition divisions opinions province H. of. 120. of. Gerund. He.

Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. pronouns. indices. 153. with of. 43. uses discourse. 227. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 248. 136. 320. of. 245. 67. elements. Direct object. 231. words. mood. summary See passive mood. verbs. 178. transitive. 72. 131. in compared syntax. pronoun. 73. 257. 110. 323. 176. 276. meaning. 93. of clause. 105. a object. 85. questions. use article. 319. adjectives. questions. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. indirect of. of. sentence. Questions. 131. . adverbs. your. of. adjectives. 233. See you. See Articles. of.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 188. 283.

King. 39. pronoun. 36. Kine. 276. was uses me. 63. It. adjective. 190. of. 110. 91. lord. 67. 226. of. 110. . Lie. 189. See Madam. uses Literary Little. queen. predicate. of. and See words in. Kind. plural. 170. etc. lie. syntax the. 113. 245. Lady. 113. 36. subject form. in little. these double kind. 61. English. 303. Last. "It Its. Latter. 36. lesser. Logic Logical Lord. Like.. Less. latest. of. 12." history etc. Lady. 102. 227. 126. Lay. a vs.adverbs. 281. syntax. -Ly. Lay..

110. superlatives. 287. 112. subjunctive. 110. of. nigh. Many Mapping Mare. Neither.. position adverb. of. 41. 64. 34. 113. Master. indicative. of.Manner. mistress. of. 112. Modifiers. sentences. imperative. Mood. 185. 137-144. 36. 195. syntax conjunction. conjunctions Many. comparison Near. adjective. See definition 136. Modifier. 135. -Most. Mighty Mine. 189. 188. 161. in adverbs comparison a. Negative. 110. construction as of adverb. etc. . 126. Must. might. of. 114. of. 194. 265. 325. double. 160. 328. Means. 187. Enlargement. of. May. mine. 112. Much. 137. syntax nearer. 144. 256. 189. 102. out of. 326. of.

Nor. 41. number once other plural. parse. common. 20. 25. etc. Not Noun Nouns. 41. See 194. gender nouns. 17 19. 17. 18. etc. 328. 126. words how compound. of. letters as 24. 41 43. 21. foreign. abstract. 46. 30. of. to use. 300. become neuter. now plural. of. of.pronoun. definition according of. 29. . of of of of of a. class used singular. 38. nouns. of. 92. 45. become become formation case collective. definition descriptive. nouns. 56. proper. material. 125. to of. 19. formed. analysis. syntax in gender nouns. clause. kinds 90. 246. half abstract. 124. abstract. 301. syntax Neuter or two News. gender how kinds material. 26. 258. of. 27. 30. used as. 17. 30. Case. of. 25. No Nominative. None. 46. in. 42. 32. and figures. 38-41.

242. conjunction. form. 106. 278. 242. and analysis. as forms titles. 60. 285. with with with Now Number. article. 282. . meanings. meaning. 18. of. 42. 101. 48. with case. 196. 148. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. become syntax use with with with Nouns. of. verbs. or plural. nominative. pronouns. 39. dative. 279. plural. etc. 41.. indefinite. adverbial. Numeral Object. singular. See verb. of different possessive definite of. of. 48. of. 195. spoken of instead nouns. 42 44. 235. in nouns. Preposition. of. 102. indirect. common. preposition. English. Nouns. singular. definite. plural no two singular construction. 48. pronouns. 41. 92. adjectives. 281. plural form. of. 124. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. See in in in Numeral distributive. 66. 121. in article. adjectives. 42. 48. 48. 240. 23. 41. 43. personal. 278. passive adverbial. 101.of same two with proper.

233. 103. a in adjectives. of. 56. position Order. See the as of. 237. inverted. of syntax. Older. of upon.syntax Of. . of. treatment comparatives. 279. definite relative uses of. 69. 41. See pronoun. another. 87. ours. 194. for. 199. conjunction. Our. 64. conjunctions. 101. articles. as of. 94. 93 other. 56. 117. Ordinal Other Ought. 293. Parsing. 116. adverbs. Ourself. 213. nouns. 115. Elder. One. as other. 161. Each adjective. Pains. 91. part analysis. 127. with (the). Omission On. of of of of of models adjectives. of. uses numeral pronoun. 103. adjective. indefinite possessive One One as Only. pronoun. adverb. 38. 306. 325 275. Oxen. 191. 216.

included various. 219. phrase. 148. 174. nominative. reflexive. 59. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 317. pronouns. and subject in. 335. 172. of. 179. phrases. 43. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 95. verb idioms it from. 181. pease. 27. 177. 134. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. possessive and of. article 150. 56. Person. speech. of. Pence. 281. 62. 43. 59. in. 80. verbals. part adjective. 247. relatives. 287. with. 69. -ing words. 70. 62. 61. pronoun. parsed. them. pronouns. verbs. antecedent. of. predicate use of. not is. from definition other of. 180. or of. of. pennies. 119. 59. 56. agreement of verb nouns. of. verbs. 63. 173. 322. of. used as voice. 100. 64. of. 28. . 172. absolute with of.

278. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. pronouns. of nouns. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 67. pronoun. relative. plural. of. of.objective syntax table triple uses of. participial. 281. of. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 236. 188. English. 303. adjectives. 206. 247. 53. omitted. See 60. 54. singular. 236. or See of of See 185. Personal subjective. 53. 51. . 285. 49. 195. 241. Positive Possessive. 41. 64. 245. 25. of. 303. 50. 106. Place. complete. adverbs of. it. 's. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. kinds infinitive. of. prepositional. syntax of of Politics. noun nouns. Nouns. nouns. 235. 60. 248. vs. singular degree. objects. spoken of. nouns. 247. 63. nouns. 245. pronoun. Personification. appositional. of. 278. 37. double. 281. in of. 61. of Phrase. as double. 232. simple. antecedent of of pronouns. of. of. Comparison. 52. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of.

281. 129. of. 283. 332. what. possessive nominative to of. of. 331. 299. each either. usually to as than. 279. 59. 208. 284. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 301. objective. 203. verbs. 302. 104. 105. singular usually other. 95. in exclamations. case. Prepositions. as. 282. objective. 105. 333. 219. by. by parts of of. 147. of. 203. adjective. 132. by with shown certain of. speech. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. all. 195. case. plural. who personal. 32. of. with tense certain. . none. interrogative. any. 186. 287. as antecedent of relative. same used as adjectives. parse. 300. exclamatory. meaning. 202. of. 206. 303. somebody definition how indefinite. Pronouns. after but. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 187.Prefixes. parse. 58. plural. 93. expressed as other of. 283. 58. future. plural. of. 285. 280. and form form form form of. 207. neither. as 54. 72. 89. 205. adverb. of. 64. words. another. forms of. interrogative. and one with else's. for predicate nominative. 300.

69. of. Nouns. of. and relatives. 83. adverbs in. nouns. in. Quotations. and antecedent. 195. in.possessive relative. that. of. Direct same and different. discourse. of. . with with gerund. 293. Questions. of. 291. 295. Rather. unrestrictive. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 296. 74. 99. pronoun. from and interrogative. Quantity. conjunctions Quality. pronouns. indirect compound. 289. questions. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. which after same. 84. 58. 142. of. 68. 69. 289. with who. use in as. 87. in. 74. same antecedent. 105. 279. indirect. See of. 295. 297. 80. which. to of. 101. of. 74. agreement anacoluthon and as. 189. Rank. 293. of. who. 85. personal pronoun. parse. 188. pronominal pronouns indirect. and which. 286. 87. 85. of. 263. use of history formed. or of.

simple. 289. 196. 29. conjunctions Retained Riches. of sit. 319. 231. reflexive analysis of compound. Self Sentences. 26 271. Seeing. 42. that. Same Sat. elliptical. 263. of. pronoun. will. 40. See Sentences. forms shots. gender. and should. S. 162. 51. 231. in of. 242. of of of complex Sentences. Simple in sate. 259. of. effect. clauses of. ending. complex. suffix. Sex Shall. which. conjunction. in form. 252. 69. 255. of.syntax use Result. definition . sentence. would. 170. 195. tenses. Shot. 159. simple of. 159. kinds Sequence Set. 74. 43. of. 294. who. 196. object. Shear. plural possessive as. 'S.

in feminine suffix. Somebody Sort. 38. 237. English. 137. 33. . of. adverb.Singular Sir. 303.. used mood. See -En. 258. English. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. in Middle English. verbs. logical. 144. sort. to of. 270. 260. English. of. of. -en. 240. 245. 144. adverb. of. etc. other Such Such Suffix -s. 257. names as a. Split Spoken -Ster. for. 257. Modern use becoming else's. disuse in spoken complete. 258. 323. English. of. 257. distinguish. Subject. 169. 245. definition 67. 36. 258. as. vs. 186. 12. of. -es. these number. 126. definition how kinds noun. 257. 233. Spelling Spinster. 138. 32. phonetic in infinitive. 38. 33. 303. 262. literary clause. of.

. 289. 116. 309. adverbs. as history syntax Their. of. of. 33. of. Then. "the then foreign. 107. of. meaning. Kind. 275. this. not suggesting adjectives. subject. English. 123. 120." introductory. 319.. syntax of. 191. degree. 87. 147. in double.. 297. auxiliaries. that uses That. 277. of. 186. object. adjectives. they. 186. 108. meaning made up in Old of. 88. which. 106. 222. 152. two basis not same definition definite. 61. plural as adverb. as adverbs. in comparison. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 106. of. 147. See etc. 306. 280. restrictive. me. 275. 119. 109. of.. coördinating. 147. objects. classical of. English. of . 148. and and of. as history The. when relative. There These kind. form. 189. omission whom. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 306. when as of. than of. article. king. 290. 307. of. of languages.Suffixes. Tenses. definition in English Tense.

thee. in of. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. gerund. 20. 119. Thou. . thy. certain as the before with of. Try Two Under. carelessly uses syntax this. See On. feminine and. 21. of.These.. analysis. verbs. other noun. words. 61. uses history of. 176. 181. 175. 195. 114. adverbs those. first. 308. 322. Time. 217. of. try two. from cleft to 174. Utter. Upper. conjunctions prepositions To. how infinitive. in omitted uses T'other. 247. of. preposition. 128. 175. -Trix. 207. parse. -ing 111. See That. infinitive. etc. 172. 188. to. kinds participle. 114. of. 248. 323. uses of. of. infinitive. 185. uttermost. 173. 33. 172. 330. 180. 114. of. Upon. of. exclamations. first adjective. 175. suffix. tother. phrases. used. 322.

mood of. strong. 154. . in indirect discourse. 33. formed by.Verbs. 154. 39. passive form. Vocative in Voice. 47. 130. table of. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. of incomplete predication. 129. definition of. definition of. Vixen. defective. 148. analysis. 135. 312-316. 154. 319. how to parse. 312. past tense formed nominative. intransitive. sequence of. 133. 159. becoming irregular. active meaning. weak. change. of. but uses what. conjugation of. retained object with passive. transitive and intransitive. in person. regular. verbs by. voice of. 160. 150. definition of. 134. made transitive. active. 155. 147. 149. 151. 330. of English. 242. 236. person and number of. 148. 131. auxiliary. agreement of. 245. 167. 179. tense of. 12. 169. verbs. spelling of. 169. 223. table of irregular. passive. 320. What. syntax of. with subject in number. remarks on certain. 157. 317. phonetic. 133. of. 167.

relative indirect relative. questions. Y. a. relative. English. of. 72. antecedent adjective. in in indefinite objective. questions. 85. 85. relative. Yes ending analysis. questions. 104. 78. 105. 72. 37. 40. spoken in of.what Whereby. of. 299. 190. uses See Shall. 296. . 85. conjunction. Will. 75. pronoun. 178. 218. Woman. direct of. 36. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. wizard. 77. plural of in nouns -ing. 126. Witch. referring syntax Widower. in. worser. 111. pronoun. 32. 83. would. 79. 194. Who. Whether. 36. 246. 105. With. whereto. 72. animals. interrogative Which. etc. Wife. 75. in -ly. 295-299. 83. Words in Worse. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose.. 73. questions.

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