roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. Surely our noble language. there is still much for the grammarian to do. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. and their uses and relations in the sentence. Making rules is risky. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. . It is also evident. to those who have studied the language historically. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). its peculiar and abundant idioms. Literary English. rightly considered. and thus incite his observation.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. from the question. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. so that a small grammar will hold them all. but this is bad English now. it will at the same time. Authority as a basis. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions.The province of English grammar is. Few inflections. their forms. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. This will take in the usual divisions. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. "Analysis. is worthy of serious study. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar")." What grammar is. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. A broader view. The work it will cover." and "Syntax. If. however. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. if rightly presented. Mental training. with its enormous vocabulary. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. assist the classification of kindred expressions. Coming back. as compared with Latin or Greek. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. An æsthetic benefit. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). then. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. as.

that is. by which is meant the free. In the more simple state of the Arabs. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. the nation is free. the words sons and master name objects. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. too. The following pages will cover. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. then. Part III. three divisions:² Part I. Occasionally. but. Such words are called nouns. THE PARTS OF SPEECH.²GIBBON. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. PART I. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. not objects. . The words state. Analysis of Sentences. Vulgar English. NOUNS.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. reference will be made to vulgar English. or standard. and the word nation stands for a whole group. and Inflections. 1. submission. besides this one. from the eighteenth century on. and will are evidently names of a different kind. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. The Parts of Speech. The plainest name is Arabs. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. as they stand for ideas. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. The Uses of Words. and may belong to any of those objects. Part II. which belongs to a people.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. Spoken English. or Syntax.

the name of each is an individual or proper name. Collective. etc. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Name for any individual of a class. men in groups may be called a crowd. belonging to one. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. Thus. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. or a mob. however. possessed by all. or a council. This does not imply. as here used. a committee. whether person. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. . 3. (b) Common. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. or thing. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. They properly belong under common nouns. Classes of nouns. animals. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. We may say. and things separately. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. or idea. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. is from a Latin word which means general. ATTRIBUTE. A noun is a name word. and appropriate names to the groups. Name for a group or collection of objects. (a) 4. Common. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. representing directly to the mind an object. Individual. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. Thus. but Chicago names one city. reducing it to a narrow application. we may think of them in groups. For instance. Abstract. MATERIAL. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. place. Proper. or things.Definition. animals. 2. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. or the man in front of you. the man here. 5. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. Besides considering persons. substance. or a congress. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. because each group is considered as a unit.

. platinum. (3) Geological bodies: mud. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. or actions. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. as in calling a city Cincinnati. world. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). etc. It may. sand. sugar. etc. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. paint. granite. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. dew. frost." "a man of understanding. gold. rubber. iron. earth. condition. etc. etc. sugar. . They are called MATERIAL NOUNS." "Learning is hard to acquire. Such are glass. 7. proof means the act of proving. wheat. earth. and so on. there is no such intention. such as sun. When we speak of a wise man. etc. Again. mist. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. wheat. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. The reason is. frost. . or apart from their natural connection. rice. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. expressing state. wine.Names for things thought of in mass. clay. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. NOTE. They remain common class names. celluloid. but in the words sun. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. we speak of the wisdom of the man. potash.²There are some nouns. stone. but it is taken merely as a name. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. but which are not called proper names. not things. or that which shows a thing has been proved. etc. considered abstractly. tea. rock. however. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. instead of to each individual or separate object. we recognize in him an attribute or quality." 9. etc. rain. expressing attributes or qualities. moon. "Painting is a fine art. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. Names of ideas. and fasten a special name to the object considered. Words naturally of limited application not proper. The quality is still there as much as before. conditions. soap. or action. we may say. 6. etc. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. cloud. snow.

hopeful²hope. Caution. the rude drawings of the book. summer. by altering its function. To avoid difficulty. joy. etc. Underived abstract nouns. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. five proper. day. the well-being of her subjects. energy. Thus. stupidity from stupid. is used as a noun." "a brisk walk." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. the great Puritan awakening. the moon caused fearful forebodings. a wedding or a festival. ease. 1. hope. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. as in the expressions. there is time for such reasonings. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. They cannot govern a word. five abstract. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. action from act. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. but are merely names of actions.. theft from thieve. speech from speak. (2) peerage from peer. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. he spread his blessings over the land. 272. thunder. The verb. in the beginning of his life. the main bearings of this matter. 10. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. II. shadow. mastery from master. redness from red. childhood from child. winter. kingship from king. Verbal abstract nouns. and they cannot express action.Attribute abstract nouns. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. etc. 273). her longing for their favor. lightning. those opinions and feelings. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. as their name implies. "a long run" "a bold move. (1) prudence from prudent. height from high.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. etc. Exercises. 12. the teachings of the High Spirit. Such are beauty. night. They are only the husks of verbs. . feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. etc. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. as glad²joy. service from serve. NOTE.

Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases.2. pleurisy. algebra. Using a dictionary. (b) branches of knowledge. as pneumonia. typhus. mathematics? 3. diphtheria. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . catarrh. as physics. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. geology.

15. thus. etc. a Bentham. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. the guillotine. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Proper names transferred to common use. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. from a town in France. Sodom was famous for wickedness. above. Guillotin. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. from China. 13. 119). a Fourier. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. who was its inventor. from Calicut. a Locke. levant and morocco (leather). Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. or to go over to it entirely. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. and lo! a new system. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Nouns change by use. as a davy. arras. it imposes its classification on other men. from Corinth. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. currants." referring to flat- . damask. from Oporto. but we may say.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. in Portugal. a Lavoisier. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. the word port. Others of similar character are calico. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. "The cook made the irons hot. We know a number of objects made of iron.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. but most of them are in the following groups.²EMERSON. 14. for example. port (wine). from Damascus. from the name of Dr. a Hutton. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. Material nouns may be used as class names.

²RUSKIN. as stones. tins. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice.In lightnings owned his secret stings. and say teas. Class nouns in use. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. be spoken of.²COLLINS. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. For example.²CARLYLE. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. purity. but differ in strength. This is a poetic usage. They are not then pure abstract nouns. etc. a rubber for erasing marks. but on dispositions which require to be created. the abstract idea is partly lost. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. his eyes. are abroad. and only Vice and Misery. but in case an art or a science. These are the same in material. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. slates. coals. Test this in the following sentences:² . that disposition is the thing to be created. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. Next Anger rushed. 16. From all around²Earth and her waters. 17. When it is said that art differs from science. smiled. to prowl or to moan like night birds. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. paints. which are made plural. tobaccos. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. abstract in meaning. (3) By poetical use. mists. or the arts and sciences.²BRYANT. though not confined to verse. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. A halfway class of words. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. not material things. Personification of abstract ideas. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. or made plural. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names.²PERCIVAL. nor are they common class nouns. or used as class nouns. clouds. are still names of abstract ideas. candies. Death.irons. papers. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. on fire. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. or. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. Traffic has lain down to rest. etc. that is.²BYRON. and so on. clays.²HAYNE. The words preceded by the article a. a steel to whet a knife on. that the power of art is founded on fact. oils. his mask melting like a nightmare dream.

fear thy blow. which belongs to another word.²IRVING. nouns used to modify. When I was young? Ah. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. as descriptive adjectives are. 18. sir!"²MACAULAY . or from any expression.The Solitary can despise. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. as each repeated pleasure tired. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. for example. Every why hath a wherefore.² GOLDSMITH. if we must have great actions. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. 19. loves. a bank in New York. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. Nouns used as descriptive terms.Let us. And still. By ellipses. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. or describe it. They are more like the possessive noun. Then comes the "Why. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. sir!" and the "What then.²EMERSON. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. "a family quarrel. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. they cannot be compared. Adjectives.²SHAKESPEARE. NOTE. Adverbs. the wealthy. however. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. etc. meaning a walk in the morning. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. were mere terrors of the night. but is still a noun. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. But it is better to consider them as nouns. Conjunctions.²BURNS." "a morning walk.²SHAKESPEARE. sir?" and the "No." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. All these. a bill as to tax on the banks. they do not express quality.² BURNS.²If the descriptive word be a material noun." which contains a pure adjective. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. make our own so. But ah! those pleasures." "a New York bank. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning." "the State Bank Tax bill.

and tell to which class each belongs.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. is ambiguous. 4. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. 8. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. are spoken of as if pure nouns. NOTE. but as a figure of speech. but have an adjectival meaning." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. is the word "just. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. in a sentence above. 1. 7. the terms the great. In the other sentences. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. why and wherefore. Learning. however. 6. FRANKLIN. in speaking of the principal of a school. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. Now. or a criminal. 2. whether it mean the sun or the cold.Nor iron bars a cage.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. etc. are used. of words rather than of their meaning.. When. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. 5. that cobweb of the brain. 20. 3. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. and Then. so. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Exercise. too. of course." and another of Dr."²B. The it. . Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. to such words as become pure nouns by use. or a state secret. It is to be remembered. There are many of these.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. Stone walls do not a prison make. without reference to its function in the sentence. or a faithful domestic. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. When.²These remarks do not apply." or "legal. Caution. at the beginning. the wealthy. Power laid his rod aside.

the silver moon is gone. . 10. 16. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest.Fair guests. shattered and disabled. A fool speaks all his mind. The hours glide by.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. returned to Spain. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. that waits you here. but not so in English. always feminine. In Latin. A little weeping would ease my heart. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. the welcome. 14. 23. There are exceptions even to this general statement. in English grammar. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 15.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. The fleet. German. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. and many other languages. 20. 19. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. he cried. 22. 13. But pleasures are like poppies spread.9. 21. for every dropHinders needle and thread. It is founded on sex. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. always masculine. And see. 18. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. GENDER. 11. What gender means in English.You seize the flower. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. 17. and names of females are usually feminine. Male beings are. 21. 24. 12. Greek. female. its bloom is shed. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter.

if there were any signs of life in it. those which do not distinguish sex. 22. 23. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. with its gizzard under its wing. however. All nouns. must be divided into two principal classes.. 24. Thus. according to use. inanimate things are spoken of. in other languages gender follows the form.²masculine and feminine. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID.²gender nouns. . Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. those distinguishing the sex of the object. the sex being of no consequence. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects.. and neuter nouns. the name of it is masculine. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. if of the female sex. Of animals. in English. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. those with which man comes in contact often." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. that is.²IRVING. The great difference is.. Neuter nouns. No "common gender..When. came to a stand just by the bridge. or names of things without life. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. and consequently without sex. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. For instance: in Latin. Gunpowder . corpus (body) is neuter. are named by gender nouns. Gender nouns." .²LAMB. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. the name of it is feminine. das Messer (knife) is neuter. then. that pattern of a husband.. clapping his burnished wings. der Tisch (table) is masculine. hortus (garden) is masculine.² I have seenA curious child . Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. "A little child shall lead them. or additions to words. or which arouse his interest most.. mensa (table) is feminine. the word child is neuter in the sentence. according to their use. He next stooped down to feel the pig. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. Hence: Definition. in German.² IRVING. but are spoken of as neuter. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock.

. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. or the lack of it. 26. 29. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. I. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. These remain in vixen and spinster. they are neuter words. The inflections for gender belong. ruler. Hence vixen is for fyxen. 28. only to masculine and feminine nouns. For fox they said vox. for from they said vram. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. the division of words according to sex. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. Put in convenient form. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. cousin. though both words have lost their original meanings. . The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. 27. Gender shown by Prefixes. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. as in wine vat. According to the definition. (2) By adding a suffix. Gender shown by Suffixes. woman.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. relative. he-bear²she-bear. II. Native suffixes. as he-goat²she-goat.25. from the masculine fox. servant. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Very few of class I. If such words as parent. generally to a masculine word. and for the older word fat they said vat. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. teacher. of course. domestic. but spinster has now no connection with it. One feminine. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. Male nouns beings. puts a prefix before the masculine man. is. etc. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words.

Slightly changed and widely used. Low Latin issa). Unaltered and little used. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. but in most cases it has not. punster. 30. as. and are never used for words recognized as English. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. señorita. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). as. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. the one most used.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. trickster.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. as seam-stress. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. it has none now in the words huckster. gamester. These are attached to foreign words. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. as czarina. song-str-ess. executrix. -ess (French esse. donna. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Ending of masculine not changed.

we use the masculine termination. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. 31. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. others have in their origin the same root. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt .Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). teacher or lady teacher. NOTE.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. wagoness. teacheresse. Thus. from the French -esse. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. In some of these pairs. the ending -ess." III. as was said in the sixteenth century. neighboresse. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. as. or servauntesse. 32. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. to represent persons of either sex. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. Instead of saying doctress. chairman. as in the fourteenth century. Gender shown by Different Words. we use the feminine.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. fosteress. Some of them have an interesting history. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. editor. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. neighbor (masculine and feminine). frendesse. We frequently use such words as author. as. from Latin imperatricem. etc.

Witch is the Old English wicce. the old sign of the masculine. Mare. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. not immediately connected with witch. became identical. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Madam is the French ma dame. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. probably meaning house dweller). for example. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). or lauerd in Middle English. lhauerd. from Latin mea domina. 34. written loverd. etc. Personification. Besides gander and drake. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Three letters of ened have fallen away. Two masculines from feminines. among others) to be from the same root word. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). The masculine was formed by adding -a. gand-ra. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). finally gander.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. in Old English mere. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Danish gaas. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. It is not connected historically with our word duck. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. but this has long been obsolete. Widower. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. leaving our word drake. as in many other words. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. widuwa²widuwe. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Icelandic gás. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). The older forms.). This gansa was modified into gan-ra. though both are ultimately from the same root. had the masculine mearh (horse). 16). there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. 33.² . Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf.

35. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. 38. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. 39. eyen (eyes). But other words were inflected afterwards. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. the plural. (3) By adding -s (or -es). whenever we adopt a new word."²BYRON. I. Britannia needs no bulwarks. and not by the form of the noun. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one.No towers along the steep."Now. 37. .²COLERIDGE. the engineer speaks so of his engine. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. The first two methods prevailed. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. etc. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. Definition. more than one. shoon (shoes). for instance. together with the third. (2) By changing the root vowel. Our language has two numbers. that is. NUMBER. treen (trees).Her home is on the deep.²CAMPBELL.²KEATS. in Old English. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. In nouns.²singular and plural. This is not exclusively a poetic use. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. Effect of personification. The -en inflection. 36.

42. Kine is another double plural. borough²formerly had the same inflection. but they now add the ending -s. Such are box. that have the singular and plural alike.Horse and foot.-En inflection imitated by other words. etc. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. Brethren has passed through three stages. heathen. pair. Children has passed through the same history. people. Akin to this class are some words. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like.The horse are thousands ten. swine. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. cannon. The old plural was brothru. Instead of -s. Examples of this inflection are. or if preceded by the prepositions in. glass. when they mean soldiery. brace.²WHITTIER. 40. as. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. folk. 41. etc.²Over the mountains winding down. by. as. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. but has now no singular. wight. turf. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. Other words following the same usage are.²THOREAU. etc. into Frederick town. head. after all. after numerals (if not after numerals. then brothre or brethre. II. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. lens. The words horse and foot.²MACAULAY. they add -s): also trout. retain the same form for plural meaning. cross. sheep. and get settled. salmon.² "God bless me! so then. and is still found in dialects.² The foot are fourscore thousand. dozen. .² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. such as deer. originally neuter."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. sail. ditch. Lee marched over the mountain wall. quartz. finally brethren. III.

g. So live. politics. chaise²chaises.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. It served simply as a means of sight. knife²knives. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. physics. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). means: as. Some words are usually singular. the Americas. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. in its widest extent. The lilie on hir stalke grene. as. 45. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. e.² Politics. Examples of these are. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s.g. they lose their identity. hero²heroes.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. 44. also news.-Es added in certain cases. a new syllable is made. house²houses. race²races. though this sound combines readily with -s. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. Formerly. 43. volcano² volcanoes. fancies. prize²prizes. Words in -ies. Special Lists. some adding -s. optics. shelf²shelves. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware.²PROF. pains (care). (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. negro²negroes. allies. etc. and go over to other classes (Secs. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . daisies.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular.²BRYANT. means and politics. summons. DANA. etc. though they are plural in form. economics. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. etc. half²halves. these words ended in -ie. however. mathematics. and the real ending is therefore -s. Two words. and many branches of learning. the Washingtons. niche²niches. is both the science and the art of government. etc. molasses. When such words take a plural ending.. quoth then that ladie milde. Means plural. fairies. 15 and 17). e. Proper nouns are regularly singular. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. and some -es.. that when thy summons comes.

²GOLDSMITH. I say. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.²IRVING. By these means. by those means which we have already mentioned. A relic which. Some words have no corresponding singular.²MOTLEY.² MACAULAY. by strongly conveying the passions. LAUGHLIN. 46.²BURKE. . L. CURTIS. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.Words. With great dexterity these means were now applied. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. if I recollect right. Politics plural. Sometimes.²GOLDSMITH. riches will accumulate. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²GOLDSMITH. W. he pronounced to have been a tongs. it is furnished with a forceps. however. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. Besides this.²G. Now I read all the politics that come out.²J.

DANA. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. (2) revenue duties. brethren (of a society or church). shots (number of times fired). fishes (individuals or kinds). In Early Modern English thank is found. the other unlike it. 50. of a periodical. sixpence. genius²geniuses (men of genius). eaves. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. number²numbers: (1) figures.The air. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. die²dies (stamps for coins. indices (signs in algebra).²was it subdued when. for the numbers came. etc. shot²shot (collective balls). two plurals. 49.).²one corresponding to the singular.. faculties. pea²peas (separately). In speaking of coins. (2) poetry. or work in a bellows?²PROF. (2) literature. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. Two classes of compound words. twopence. (2) care. pence (collectively). part²parts: (1) divisions. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). riches. pease (collectively). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. . These make the last part plural. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). ways. Numbers also means issues. penny²pennies (separately). Tell me not. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. as two sixpences. etc. two meanings. or epistles. 48.. index²indexes (to books)..²LONGFELLOW. clothes (garments). or copies. in mournful numbers. Three words were originally singular. carry off chaff.² I lisped in numbers. may add -s. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. genii (spirits). making a double plural. fish²fish (collectively). (2) abilities. dice (for gaming). trouble. One plural.²POPE. as in the lines.

The chief member adds -s in the plural. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. German. as man singer. As to plurals of names with titles. Brown. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. 51. the Misses Rich.² Then came Mr. Norman. HOLMES. then Silas Peckham. as the Messrs. Mussulman. . for example. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. Allen.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. woman servant. or the name may be pluralized. and Mrs. Ottoman. 52. Briggs. The title may be plural. Two methods in use for names with titles. Brahman. but add -s. and then the three Miss Spinneys. there is some disagreement among English writers. such as talisman. manservant. though the latter is often found. woman singer. firman. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. the Drs.²DR.

²GIBBON. Exercise. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. These are said to be domesticated. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too.²THE CRITIC. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.²GOLDSMITH. Domesticated words.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. 53. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Du Maurier. or Anglicized.²DICKENS. FROM THE LATIN. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Others have been adopted. or Englished. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. y y analysis antithesis . FROM THE GREEK. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. and retain their foreign plurals. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. They are then said to be naturalized. The Messrs.

" CASE." the word felon's modifies cell. etc. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. as. 54. also add -s or 's. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). helping to express the idea of place with the word in. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. figures. Letters. Words quoted merely as words. In the sentence." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). . "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). 56. without reference to their meaning. and expresses a relation akin to possession. etc. figures. as. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. In the general wearing-away of inflections.. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. 55.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. they form their plurals in the regular way. Definition. Only two case forms. cell has another relation.

may be said to have three cases. and tell which use of the nominative each one has.²one for the nominative and objective." (2) As a predicate noun. 57.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. Nouns. Human experience is the great test of truth. Uses of the Nominative. and merit." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. 2. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen.²nature. three things characterize man. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. 5. excessive grief. fate. 4. and experience. then.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Excuses are clothes which. must be understood for purposes of analysis. learning." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. whether inflected or not.²the nominative. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. . 58. they returned to their homes. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases.²person. Three properties belong to wisdom. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. the enemy of the living. I. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. and the possessive. the objective. 1. 3. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. completing a verb. when asked unawares. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words.

the word toward which the preposition points. how have I frighted thee? II. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object.Save." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. and tell which use each has:² 1." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. .6. they are sands of precious gold. and makest a calm. distance. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due." (4) As the second object. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. 3. and meaning calmest." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. measure. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. 4. sword in hand and visor down." "Thou makest the storm a calm. (in the older stages of the language. good Heaven. 9. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. oh save me from the candid friend! 7." Exercise. etc. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. thy wrath can send. completing the verb. 68. and landlord of the inn. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. They charged. taking the object enemies. wounded lies. and being equivalent to one verb. taking the object storm. But of all plagues. 59. (5) As the object of a preposition. 8. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. Set a high price on your leisure moments." (3) Adverbially. her first law broken. Conscience. 2. a patriarch of the village. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. as will be seen in Sec. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. But the flood came howling one day. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. save. Uses of the Objective. reconciles.

the equivalent phrase being used in prose. 60.5. (2) Objective possessive. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.²BYRON. And whirling plate. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. 10. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. from day to day. the most common of all. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.²SHELLEY. It is a poetic expression. 7. 8. The possessive case always modifies another word.His winter task a pastime made.²ADDISON. the Great Stone Face. as. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. 61. and forfeits paid.e. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. 9. tempests that .² The unwearied sun.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. as in these expressions. (3) Subjective possessive.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. The noblest mind the best contentment has.Does his Creator's power display. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.And gave the leper to eat and drink. 6. or in writing yesterday's elegy. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. III. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. Uses of the Possessive.. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. as shown in the sentences. expressed or understood. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example.²HAWTHORNE. Possession in some sense is the most common. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.

lady Poss. and Obj. 62. As said before (Sec. 56). Case Inflection. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. and Obj." "mannes herte [heart]. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i.. How the possessive is formed. "From every schires ende. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his.. the panther which the forest hides). Nom. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. Nom. 63. however. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. in Chaucer. Declension or inflection of nouns. as schoolboys sometimes write. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses)." "at his beddes syde. 62.e. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. A suggestion. "George Jones his book. child NOTE. 64. there are only two case forms." etc. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s.e. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. making the possessive singular. PLURAL. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. growth which several days had developed). . "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. The use of the apostrophe. 1. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR.winter is likely to have). Poss. To form the possessive plural.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. One is the simple form of a word. A false theory." Use of the apostrophe.

" Possessive with compound expressions. James's. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. 65. know the amount of my income. being understood with it: for example. I remember him in his cradle at St."²DE QUINCEY. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. in the name of the emperor their master." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter.. some such word as house. as.²THACKERAY. for goodness' sake. and from a desire to have distinct forms. as.²CARLYLE. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. Captain Scrapegrace's. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. as by the countess's command. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. the items of my son's.²RUSKIN. Cervantes' satirical work." "A postscript is added. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. containing words in apposition. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. instead of the emperor their master's name. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. the possessive sign is usually last. 67. In compound expressions. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. Kate saw that. a word with a phrase. etc. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike.. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. and she walked off from the don's. stands up for God's truth one man. store.² LOWELL. 66.Though this opinion was untrue. dwelling. my neighbors. etc. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. Peter's. Possessive and no noun limited.²HOLMES. church.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. though instances are found with both appositional words marked.²SWIFT. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. .²DE QUINCEY. but to the ear all may be alike.

The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. If. as one modifier. this. For example. (b) Rewrite the sentence. especially when used with this or that. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. (1) When a word is modified by a. 1. etc. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. Both of these are now used side by side. E. In most cases. the statement clearly means only one thing.²FROUDE. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. however. making a double possessive. Exercises. A peculiar form. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. we use the phrase of Atterbury.. 87. objective. and at the same time by a possessive noun. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.²E. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. Emphasis. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. Clearness. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. corresponding to 's.²CARLYLE. a double possessive. each. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. 2. that. every.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. and tell whether each is appositional.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. any.²the introduction which Atterbury made. the sentence might be understood as just explained.The double possessive. ill-lighted except where she stands. Blair). or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. (3) It prevents ambiguity. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. no. sometimes they are used together. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. or subjective. (See also Sec. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. in such a sentence as. 68. the. HALE. and I used to like whatever they bade me like.

² . My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 9. we state.A weary waste expanding to the skies. it seemed. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 70. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. I must not see thee Osman's bride. 8. 15. 10. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. 14. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 7. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 13. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son.Comes dancing from the East. 69. In parsing.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 5. day's harbinger. At lovers' perjuries. 4. Now the bright morning star. some idioms²the double possessive. with every garland crowned. and destroy the other. Nature herself. in parsing a noun. Friend. 6. therefore.3. let him seasonably water the one. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 11. 12. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. Jove laughs.They say. Hence. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. There Shakespeare's self.

hence objective case. and relations. 2. if the latter. therefore neuter. masculine. a fresh tapster.²common. a withered serving man. it is the object of the preposition by. .(1) The class to which it belongs. but is the adverbial objective. Thief is a common class noun. etc. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. it has no sex. is a common class noun.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. NOTE. which gender. therefore singular number. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. as to case. like miller's. and number. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. determining its case. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. and therefore nominative case. inflections. That in the captain's but a choleric word. it expresses time. 4. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. hence it is a common noun. therefore masculine gender. therefore singular number. (4) Its office in the sentence. Exercise. subject of the verb is understood. hence it is objective case. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. has no governing word. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. object of the verb takes. Neckcloth. In parsing any word. it denotes only one person. (3) Whether singular or plural number. MODEL FOR PARSING. the connection shows a male is meant. names one thing. proper. and to have it found out by accident. Throat is neuter. hence it is a gender noun. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. 68). therefore possessive case. gender. it expresses possession or ownership. it is the name of a male being. 3. and limits neckcloth. The correct method. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. singular number. 71.

11. (2) Interrogative pronouns. 72. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun.5. Now. 76). were natives of Geneva. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. or for a person or thing. all in one. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. where the Rhone enters the lake." Again. from a necessity for short. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns.. and prison. Jarley's back being towards him. 8. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. instead of saying. 7. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. Classes of pronouns. 73. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. He giveth his beloved sleep. or for a group of persons or things. . "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious.And hated her for her pride. 10. Mrs. PRONOUNS. For instance.. A pronoun is a reference word. A few miles from this point. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name.. sleep! 6. and his daughter. Time makes the worst enemies friends. but by a question we say.²palace. definite. 9. Definition. castle. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. The need of pronouns. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. blessings light on him that first invented . Necker. standing for a name. Madame de Staël. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. and representative words. financial minister to Louis XVI. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. which are used to ask questions about persons or things." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus.

even if it had a special form." Person of nouns. Singular. standing for a person or thing spoken of. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. "the distinction of person. which cannot be used as adjectives. I Poss. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. they are said to have person by agreement. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. my Plural.(3) Relative pronouns.. words. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. This gives rise to a new term. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. Person in grammar. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. which relate or refer to a noun. the person or thing spoken to. (2) Second person. pronoun. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. and the person or thing talked about. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. ours . 75. representing the person speaking. (4) Adjective pronouns. we our. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. representing a person or thing spoken to. From analogy to pronouns. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. or other word or expression. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. 74. as nouns have the same form. 77. Three persons of pronouns. mine. primarily adjectives. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. that is. 76. (3) Third person. Nom. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. which have forms for person. they must represent the person talking. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. (5) Indefinite pronouns.

It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Poss. of all Three. Old Form Common Form. Obj. yours you THIRD PERSON. thou thee ye you you your. Nom.Obj. First and second persons without gender. 78.. neuter hit. But the third person has. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. thy Remarks on These Forms. Third person singular has gender. theirs them Neut. Obj. in the singular. namely. your. so also with the person or thing spoken to. The speaker may be either male or female. yours you Plural. SECOND PERSON. Nom. she her. Obj. Masc. thine. and also for the neuter. Obj. or. yours Poss. Old forms. Singular. feminine h o. Poss. masculine h . they their. hers her Plur. by personification. he his him Fem. Nom. you your. it its it Poss. Nom. neuter. a separate form for each gender. me us Singular. .

"I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. We use it with a plural verb always. just as we now say. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. 81. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. two modern uses of thou. thy. in Old English. it. (2) In addressing the Deity. as. The plurals were h . the forms they. for example. as in prayers.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. heora. thou Shepherd of Israel. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children.²SHELLEY. Two uses of the old singulars. and sometimes its. In spoken English. Second person always plural in ordinary English. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). them." As shown above. however. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. which was often sounded with the h silent. 80. that didst comfort thy people of old. especially in poetry. thee. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. etc. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them.² Oh. This is of comparatively recent growth. etc. etc.. their.. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. The form its. Thou.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. heom.Thou lovest. to thy care we commit the helpless. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). 82.:² (1) In elevated style.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. which is a neuter noun. .²BEECHER. The consequence is. 79. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. as possessive of it. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. There are. even when referring to a single object.

he. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. when they occur in the predicate position. and has been slave to thousands. The forms my. their. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. theirs. thine. yours. us. him. That is. and not make more classes. II. ye. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. and sometimes in ordinary speech.²BULWER. thou. The forms mine. they." the literary language would require he after was. note the following:² 'Twas mine. Old use of mine and thine. 85. him. to personify objects (Sec. 84. or. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. in such a sentence as. for. though ye is occasionally used as objective. some say. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. In spoken English. though those named in Sec. ²SHAKESPEARE. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. 58). 86.²COWPER. 84 are always subjects. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. I spare thee mine. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. her. Absolute personal pronouns. them. The Possessive. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. besides a nominative use. I The Nominative. sometimes his and its. 34). and follow the usage of literary English. And since thou own'st that praise. have a peculiar use. your. The words I. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. Not a separate class. Nominative forms. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. 'tis his.Use of the pronouns in personification. them. . thy. our. its. me. they have a nominative form. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. her. his. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. she. however. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. 83. we. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. her. "I am sure it was him.²LANDOR. hers. Yet careful speakers avoid this. Additional nominatives in spoken English. us.

Long Allen. his. thus. we have. it tells of good old times. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. we find.²ID."²SCOTT. for example.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham.²THACKERAY. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. anger. Besides this. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. theirs.²BIBLE. Double and triple possessives. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection.² CARLYLE. This ancient silver bowl of mine.²ID. This usage is still preserved in poetry. "Hold thy peace.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. sometimes its. The forms hers. in that old Edinburgh house of his. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.²CARLYLE." said Henry Woodstall. commenting upon a letter of mine.²SWIFT.²J. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. ours. pluck it out. and with mine.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. yours. theirs.²THACKERAY. or satire.²J. as in nouns. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. T. Like the noun possessives. but few thy voice. If thine eye offend thee. thine. are really double possessives. FIELDS. ours. COOPER. ²HOLMES. yours. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. (3) To express contempt. Give every man thine ear. (2) To bring emphasis. 87.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. thus. F. Their uses. hers. .

for whose benefit. was marked by a separate case. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. but the form is the same as the objective. 86: mine stands for my property. 88.²BIBLE." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. or use in a sentence. but nominative or objective in use. but not in form." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. 20. and mine in the second has an objective use. his for his property. Both joined in making him a present. as it is called. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. In pronouns. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. "The good alone are great. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. 89. The Objective. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. this dative use.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. Curse me this people. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. as shown in Sec. They all handled it. but expresses for whom. Besides this use of the objective. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. They may be spoken of as possessive in form.²ID. 90.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. But the first two have a nominative use. The old dative case. In such sentences as.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. the thing is done. In their function. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray." "None but the brave deserves the fair. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. Now the objective. in the first sentence. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. III. .²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. mine stands for my praise in the second.

why. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar." (3) As a grammatical subject. like Chinese skill.Time is behind them and before them. Indefinite use of you and your. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. and they cry. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. as. The word you. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. 92. you must condense there.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it.² NEWMAN. which follows the verb. WEBSTER. or that he has not a great deal more. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. 91. in this century. logical subject.²BACON. ²EMERSON. you sneeze. as in the sentences. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. as. Your mere puny stripling. or to the idea. to stand for the real.²D.²CARLYLE. thus. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to.²ADDISON. Society.²BULWER. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.²EMERSON. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²DE QUINCEY. (3) In apposition. has not made its progress.² .²IRVING To empty here. was passed by with indulgence. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. It is a pity that he has so much learning.

Of the two forms in parentheses. It was late and after midnight. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. and its plural selves. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. as. farms it. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. (ourself)." etc. herself. "I found me a good book. For example. A sturdy lad . since firstThe flight of years began.It is finger-cold.. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. have laid them downIn their last sleep. but seldom in prose. (thyself).²EMERSON. itself. ourselves. keeps a school. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. it rained. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.²HAWTHORNE. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. yourselves. we use such expressions as." and there is an end of it. 94.²COLERIDGE.²HOLMES. . (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. the second is the old form of the second person. 93. as they are also called. who teams it. when they are direct objects. I made up my mind to foot it. peddles it." "He bought him a horse. I set me down and sigh.² Now I lay me down to sleep. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. they dropped their arms. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively.²IRVING. This occurs in poetry.²ID. There was nothing for it but to return. however. who in turn tries all the professions.²DE QUINCEY. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. yourself. They are myself.²BUNYAN. And millions in those solitudes. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. that is.²SCOTT.²BRYANT.. or COMPOUND PERSONAL."²IRVING. Poor Christian was hard put to it. themselves. And when I awoke. For when it dawned.²BURNS. -selves. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. himself.²ANON. used in poetry.²THOREAU. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.

²MILTON. Origin of these reflexives.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. and build the lofty rhyme. as.²E.²WORDSWORTH. and the others were formed by analogy with these. to us. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.²SHAKESPEARE. shall dissolve.. were changed into the possessive myself. as in vulgar English.² . etc.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. theself.²EMERSON.²ID. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. I shrink with pain. In Middle English the forms meself. BROWNING. as. thyself. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. for example. Held dead within them till myself shall die. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. especially in the speech of rulers. Threats to all.As girls were once. not the possessive forms.. ourselves.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. NOTE. for example.² TENNYSON. B. as we ourself have been. 95.² The great globe itself . The question might arise. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. As if it were thyself that's here. to every one. with self. 96. after the analogy of myself. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.To you yourself. Use of the reflexives. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.

(a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. Years ago.² THACKERAY. fight it out. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. Come and trip it as we go. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. 5.On the light fantastic toe. 10. 2.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. feminine. 8. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. some of them being double possessives. father. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). all conform to it. let him lowly confess it. 3. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. some each of masculine. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. And it grew wondrous cold. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. . and what. One obsolete. and how to do it. 9. 6. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. Infancy conforms to nobody.²DE QUINCEY. 7. Three now in use. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive.²B. but it is the soonest spoiled. FRANKLIN. To know what is best to do. which. and neuter. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. Courage. 97. 4. is wisdom. where the word is one with that it tells of.

From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. it is selective. etc.. . Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. As shown here. whether. referring to things. but now obsolete. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. actions. but for case alone. the gold. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. methought. 100. that it is always singular and neuter. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. whispering sweet. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. What wouldst thou do. it refers to either persons or things. it is always third person. not to persons. number. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. ideas. that. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. 98. Whose was that gentle voice. shall we say. These show that what is not inflected for case. which is not inflected for gender. Use of which. as it always asks about somebody. that is. with its possessive and objective. Use of what.There is an old word. that it is not inflected for gender or number. Which of you.Promised. or case. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. 99. Use of who and its forms. used formerly to mean which of two. having three forms. The use of who.

²by the use of the words. and so to make smoother discourse.² . objective in the last. which. for which the pronoun stands. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. It usually precedes the pronoun. which and what. which and what are sometimes adjectives. 99. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. being the direct object of the verb shall take.² "The last of all the Bards was he. who? Poss. AND PLUR. 105.101. "The last of all the Bards was he. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. AND PLUR.Who sung of Border chivalry. or other word or expression. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. SING. subject of doth love. For instance. and also in having a conjunctive use. what may be an adverb in some expressions. since it is subject of the verb had. Who. SINGULAR Nom. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. Thus we may say. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. whose? Obj. who evidently refers to Bards. which is called the antecedent of the relative. nominative in the second also. and what are also relative pronouns. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. who is used as objective instead of whom. Function of the relative pronoun. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. 102. as. 103. pronoun. Further treatment of who." In the latter sentence. which is nominative in the first sentence. The antecedent. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. 104. in Sec. it may be shortened into. 127). especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec." Or. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. as. These bards sang of Border chivalry. as they take the place usually of a word already used.

Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.. .²MILTON. are the men and women who bless their species. the women whom women approve. WHITNEY. 3. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. For her enchanting son.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. 2. 108. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. that.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. 3. a thousand years. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.²PARTON Which and its forms.² COX.²W. Generally speaking. 106.²SCOTT. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.²LOWELL In this. 4. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.Whose flag has braved. The origin of language is divine. in the same sense in which man's nature.²DR JOHNSON. both his and who have the antecedent priest. a simple relative is meant. Two kinds...Whom universal nature did lament. but the look which is not of the earth. Ye mariners of England.²BYRON.That guard our native seas. 5. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. The men whom men respect. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. what. 2. Indefinite relatives.²THACKERAY. The nurse came to us. which. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. Who and its forms. will be discussed further on. with all its capabilities . 4. 107. D. When the word relative is used. 6. is a divine creation. They had not their own luster.

²EMERSON. else this description will seem exaggerated. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. which it certainly is not. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.5. Already done is all that he would do.. The judge . W. you will not be angry with me for telling you. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. Reader. Examples of the relative that:² 1. The Tree Igdrasil. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. 4.²DE QUINCEY. For what he sought below is passed above.²MARGARET FULLER.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. The man that hath no music in himself. 2. and spoils.. 110. BEECHER 5. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.²H. ought to be kept in view. 111. no bad type of what often happens in that country..Is fit for treasons. 107.²IRVING. stratagems. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. (a) This gradation . 109.²BURKE.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. What. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. That.²GOLDSMITH.² SHAKESPEARE 2.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 6. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . 3. bought up all the pigs that could be had.²LAMB 3. Who..

Smollett. and so on. whose.²DR. The little gorilla. in 5. that man.²who. Witness the following examples:² And you.. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. 2. .²LEIGH HUNT. The robins. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. in the second. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. the relatives are singular.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. The sentences in Sec.. Examples of whose. whom. things. whom. Gibbon.. 96).²THACKERAY. Who referring to animals.²IRVING. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. 112. in the third. whose is second person. who is first person.who. and 6. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Sec. whose for the possessive. who. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.. 113. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. in the first sentence. possessive case of which.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. in 4. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. seemed as much excited as myself. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent.²which for the nominative and objective. a man.whose. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. 5.²LOWELL. (3) It is nearly always third person. not persons. (4) It has two case forms. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. In sentence 4.. flung its arms around my neck.. Kingsley. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Cooper. Which. In 1. and others. 107.²SWIFT. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. It has been seen (Sec. (2) It has three case forms. the others are all third person. referring to animals. son. Scott. JOHNSON. whose wound I had dressed. and 3. p. or ideas. they are plural. My horse.

and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. and things. too. The last two sentences in Sec. Primarily.²first. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. and to persecute without pity.²SHAKESPEARE. and numerous others. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. So in Matthew Arnold. This moribund '61.² MCMASTER.² I swept the horizon. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds.²BEECHER. secondly (which made her stare). Which and its antecedents. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. 109. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. (2) It has only one case form. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. Sometimes. 116. Kingsley. Burke. That. the antecedent follows which. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. . In the sentences of Sec.² And. Men may be ready to fight to the death. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. and third persons. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. which is worse. let us enter the church itself. second. animals. which is very notable and curious. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY.²RUSKIN. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. thus."²RUSKIN. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. 115.114. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. This often occurs. no possessive. (3) It is the same form for first.

Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. What a man does. plural number. what we said?²CARLYLE. Who plainly stands for those or the people. who Poss. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. and is emphatic. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. The sentences of Sec. as in sentence 6. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. 118. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. third person." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. for example. that men must needs abide. 109. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed.²BIBLE What fates impose. third person. that do I. we can. ." That evidently refers to truths. whose Obj. that do I not. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. it usually follows.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. by taking them out. What. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. either of which would be neuter. that he has. as." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent.²SHAKESPEARE. The gender.²EMERSON. Sec.² What I would. but what I hate. is always neuter. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things." (3) "These people heard him. plural number. Nom. 117. number. and person of the relatives who. 119. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. consequently is neuter. For example. When expressed.

Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. 4. so is in the objective case. the simple relative.. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. What can't be cured. in the following sentences:² 1."²EMERSON." Here the subject of is. 3. In the sentence. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. 6. Truths in sentence (2). the highest result of all education. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. What must be endured? Answer. 7. In the same way who. then parse the relatives.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. nobler souls with that which they are. is subject of the verb can't be cured. and hence is in the nominative case. As shown by the following sentences. in (1). but of this. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. people is the object of the preposition of. First find the antecedents. subject of heard. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. Now. it is object of uttered. I think they are trying to outwit nature. . it is subject of the verb heard. In (2). Another way. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. standing for the people understood. who is sure to be cunninger than they. that takes the case of the truths in (2). "What can't be cured must be endured. however. neuter. 8. but is singular. third person. after all. The word what. The relative what is handled differently. is in the nominative case. because it has usually no antecedent. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. etc. is subject of wrought upon and molded. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. Parsing what. in (3). How superior it is in these respects to the pear. which is. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. we is the subject. The whole expression is its subject. and what is the direct object of the verb call. 120. above. Exercise. 5. Some prefer another method of treatment. is what we call nature.

God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. no particular thing. 2.²BURKE. to everything that. summer will have its flies. 123. . whatever is equivalent to all things which. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. whosoever. 6. whatsoever. that nothing else can stand in their presence. It is clear that in 1. Hence some take what as a double relative. whatsoever. Death is there associated. 121. Meaning and use. being referred to. 5.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. not as direct as the simple relatives. whichever. and parse that in the first clause. 7. or what else soever. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. and which in the second clause. that is. Do what we can. which. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases.²BURKE. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. less common are whoso." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. 4. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. They are whoever. whichsoever. and in 2. The simple relatives who. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. List and examples. 2. whatever. object of with] which [singular. "common souls pay with that [singular. 122.²MACAULAY. So with the other indefinites. Take which you please. It is no proof of a man's understanding. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. in a new and original way. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. 3. by meaning and use. object of do] they do. or stand on their head. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. no certain antecedent. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. Only itself can inspire whom it will. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. and his friend a fool.²you cannot have both.

OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. whereby. as was used just as we use that or which. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. but and as.² some particular thing. Two words. 2. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works.. for example. the conjunctions wherein. etc. 4.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. whereupon. has been my heaviest affliction. for example. Proof that they have the force of relatives.²EMERSON.. not following the word such. everything that (or everything which).² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 417). 125. 121. by which. but which only wealth could have purchased. etc. either one that. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. Former use of as. 121.²HAWTHORNE. In early modern English. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. 124. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. upon which. . Other substitutes. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. nothing that does not interest us. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. what means anything that. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. This.² 1. are used. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed.As shown in Sec.²DE QUINCEY. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. 126. But and as. but mean any one whom. thus. Instead of the phrases in which. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. 120. and that as after such is equivalent to which. etc. Sec. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. There is nothing but is related to us.

(2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. In studying such sentences. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. Another caution. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. 3. no antecedent is expressed.. "Who stood behind? We knew. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. second. the full expression being. (b) Well we knew who stood behind." etc. 2 (b)." Likewise with which in 3 (b). In sentences 1 (a). (b) But what had become of them they knew not.²EMERSON. and whether what = that + which (if so. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. if not. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. what is interrogative. But in 1 (b). Thus. How to decide. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. "But what had become of them? They knew not. showing that who is plainly interrogative. which having the antecedent lines. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. So in 2 (b). it is an indefinite relative). 127.²WHITTIER. it is an interrogative.²ID. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. if expanded. a question is disguised in each sentence. 1 (b). would be. 2. and 3 (b). which would indicate that they are not relatives. if not. though the earthwork hid them. who having the antecedent gentleman. Special caution needed here. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. . it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). it is a simple relative.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide.

The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.128. Examine the following:² 1. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.²CARLYLE. which. The insect I am now describing lived three years. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. On the other hand. 129. 5. Put in the relatives who. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²SWIFT.²FORSTER 6. 3. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. 2. In the third. I visited many other apartments. ELIOT. Exercise. and asks no question. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1.²G.²HOLMES. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. In the first. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. whence is the interrogative word. but the life of man in England. and Court Calendars. In the second.²GOLDSMITH. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. which has the antecedent hue. 4.² THACKERAY. When Goldsmith died. Thus. the question is asked by the verb. . They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. Relative omitted when object. whose has the antecedent you.² These are the sounds we feed upon. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.²FLETCHER.

but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news.²SCOTT. Examples are.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.²SHAKESPEARE. 2.²Id. 3. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. and comparatively so in poetry. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. 6. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.² LOWELL. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. . And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. It is rare in prose. which was already proceeding. 5. that. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. simple relatives.²CAMPBELL.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. which. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. There was such a crowd went. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. Also in literary English we find the same omission. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.Ne'er looks upon the sun. the house was full. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. or indefinite relatives:² 1. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. 130. Function of adjective pronouns. who were to be rulers over whom. The nobles looked at each other. Relative omitted when subject. He went on speaking to who would listen to him.7. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. and what.

but in this function. which we have seen in such expressions as. It must come under the requirement of pronouns." "Where two men ride on a horse. in order to be an adjective pronoun. and on each is written. few. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. Adjectives. any. in letters of gold. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. or they may stand for nouns. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. 132." that is. in the first. a word. etc.²IRVING." in the others. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. . For instance. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. all." "one man.131. etc.²BRYANT. none." Classes of adjective pronouns. must not modify any word." in the second. or use. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. such as this. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. not pronouns. neither. either. "The dead are there. that. expressed or understood. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. such as each. or an argument in a paragraph. and stand for a noun.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. or may be the whole of a sentence. necessarily thought of: thus." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. and another to get cool under. as some. many. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. "these pranks. 133. etc. the former. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. but have lost their adjective use. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. "each cube. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence.²EMERSON. "another bank. Primarily they are adjectives. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. For example.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. In the first use they are adjectives. Caution. 'Truth.

but these were of the best. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. Exercises. and they have well performed the other. Even as I have seen. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. A man inspires affection and honor. They have not shunned the one. 2. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. as seemed good to each.² They stood. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Their minds accorded into one strain.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. or reclined. or sat. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. Definition and examples. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. 3.²ID.²ID. when the latter was the King of Spain. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. 134.²EMERSON 4. NOTE. for example. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. 5. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. they that plow iniquity. Compound. because he was not lying in wait for these. and sow wickedness.All these he saw. Some of these are simple pronouns.²LOWELL. They had fewer books. Such are a few isolated instances. but what he fain had seen He could not see. . reap the same. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. accidentally preserved. Simple.

Exercise. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. Men take each other's measure when they react. such as one other.²HAWTHORNE. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. None shall rule but the humble.²each other. or melt for others' woe.²EMERSON. Much might be said on both sides. Another opposes him with sound argument. paused over a horoscope. with the superstitions of his time. as it were. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. we might the more easily discharge them. for example. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. you quickly come to the end of all. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. Definition and examples. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. Some inflected. The word one has a reflexive form.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. as most were. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. . NUMERAL PRONOUNS.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. imbued. as.²HOLMES. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. ²HAWTHORNE. They led one another. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. another. one another. 135. as some of the rangers had gone astray. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton.Two are compound pronouns. The Soldan.² One reflexive. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.²KINGSLEY.

Somebody.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues." It means something. unlike adjective pronouns. something. as. everybody. some one. anybody. also aught.. as shown in the words everybody's. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. etc. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. any one (or anyone). he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. . Exercise. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. naught. anybody else's. nothing. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered.Exercise. Every one else stood still at his post. 136. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. everything.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. they are never used as adjectives. and they. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. everybody else. every one (or everyone). Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. but. Jove laughs. 137. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. anyone else. somebody else. anything. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. nobody. and was indefinite in Old English. and somewhat. I tell you what. Definition and examples. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. every one else.² At lovers' perjuries.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. Now. what. no one. they say. etc. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. in building of chaises.²SHAKESPEARE. They indefinite means people in general.

Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 4. 16. 138. The table was good. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). I first found myself among the mountains. . 13. from my earliest days.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 14. and of no other. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. 17. Exercise. 10. to which. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 8. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 12. indeed. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. in his negotiations. All was now ready for action. 9. were suffered to depart. 5. Whoever deals with M. Others did the same thing. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. but not to quite so enormous an extent. For this did God send her a great reward. 2. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. Hutchinson tells us of herself. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 18. 7. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. O thou that rollest above.²a feature of natural scenery for which. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 6. 11. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. A reminder. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 3. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard.

34. Whatever he knows and thinks. I who alone am. 23. He sate him down. 31. 27. 35. that let him communicate. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24.Destroyer and preserver. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. well-oiled dispositions. eat white bread or brown. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. in all its height.19.Who knew thee too well. hear. They know not I knew thee. 29.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . who slept last night like a corpse? 22. behold now the semblance of my being. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. who take the world easy. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. 21. 30. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. 25. oh. variety. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. and seized a pen. These hopes are mine as much as theirs.And it would work 'em woe. thou rollest now. And I had done a hellish thing. 26. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. hear! 33. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. And will your mother pity me. 32.

adjectives are used. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. Who hears me. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. becomes mine. We need to add some words to tell its color. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. 38. so that no other will be mistaken for it." "some cities. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. As to the kind of words used." "that house. 40." The office of an adjective. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. such as in the expressions "this man. etc. 42." etc. who understands me. or liquid. brittle or tough. position. 44. We are by nature observers. that is our permanent state. if we wish to speak of a friend's house.36. 139. For example." "yonder hill. which was no bad step towards my liberation.. ADJECTIVES. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. 37. 45. Office of Adjectives. 41. as." "a hundred men. then. It may have this office alone. . Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. 43. Again. in pointing out an object. So with any object. etc. if we are at a distance. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. heavy or light. If a chemist discovers a new substance. size. and so he read. the number is limited by adjectives. or with persons. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. He teaches who gives. or gaseous. "one hat. white or red. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. He knew not what to do. Substantives. 39. and he learns who receives. and if we are near. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present.

divine. words primarily pronouns. (2) Adjectives of quantity. Nouns are not. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. or how much of a thing. used to tell how many things are spoken of.²POPE. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." they constitute all his connections. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives.² BACON. 142. 143." "this life-giving book. 141. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. and their trash. however." "half-dead traveler. If he be thankful for small benefits. derived from proper nouns. to forgive. etc.²COLERIDGE. such as. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. beautiful. "Heaven-derived power. Definition. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." "the Christian pearl of charity." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. fair. happy." "ivory-handled pistols." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES." "ice-cold water. (4) Pronominal adjectives." the "and there." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. Examples are. such as safe." and the still less significant "and so. to describe it or to limit its application. With exception of the "and then. To err is human." "the Roman writer Palladius. pointing out particular things. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. To make this clear. remotest." "next-door neighbor. "an old English manuscript. They include relative and interrogative words." . which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. deep. rash." "unlooked-for burden. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof.140. Classes of adjectives. terrible. it shows that he weighs men's minds. Infinitives.

(1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little." Caution." "The shattered squares have opened into line. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. Exercises. 'Tis midnight." "It came on like the rolling simoom. and accomplished is an adjective. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman." "an aged man. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. 144. having some of each subclass named in Sec. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted.But ever she looked on Mr. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. sometimes small. 1. considerable." "One is hungry. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished.²COLERIDGE.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit." was is the verb. some.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. 2." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. which are either pure participles used to describe. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. and another is drunken. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. in studying these last-named words. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. any. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. Care is needed. 143.²MACDONALD. Oxenham. 145." "trailing clouds. . much. For instance: in the sentence." was accomplished is a verb. Examples are." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. no." "The shattering sway of one strong arm.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." "a charming sight. but small thoughts have I of sleep. in this.

by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.²VAUGHAN. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. the former²the latter. yonder (or yon). former. Thus. Not primarily pronouns. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of.²KINGSLEY. Examples." "a dozen volunteers." "I have lost one brother. and with them a few negroes. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. instead of modifying them. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. its wake. that." "Then we wandered for many days. "one blaze of musketry. they come under the next division of adjectives. An arrow was quivering in each body. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "In came some five and twenty more.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. are used with plural nouns. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. any. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound." Single ones of any number of changes. but I have gained fourscore. those). The demonstrative adjectives are this." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. Exercise.²ID. 146.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. (plural these. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. as. no. How many." (b) Indefinite numerals. latter.²THACKERAY. The following sentences present some examples:² . When some.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. every village. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show." "He had lived by hunting for some months. The list. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS.² Every town had its fair.²CARLYLE." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head.

. tell how many things are meant. As has been said. The taking of which bark.²KINGSLEY.. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.²RUSKIN. These were thy charms. 148. Oxenham fought desperately.²ID. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. what revenues or garnitures. of equal skill. FRANKLIN. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. In which evil strait Mr. but.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives."²B. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. Exercise.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love.but all these charms are fled. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. Indefinite relative adjectives. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century.²ID. for example. like the other numerals.²D. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²WORDSWORTH. They are of two kinds. skill which was at pause. When we speak of the seventeenth century. 147. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. they are changed to adjectives.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.²BANCROFT. These do not.²GOLDSMITH. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. ²CARLYLE. Definition.. 149. just as the corresponding pronouns do. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.²BULWER. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.² It matters not what rank he has. skill which was progressive²in the other. I verily believe. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. but in the one case. Modify names of persons or things. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. WEBSTER. The silver and laughing Xenil.

you at least give him full authority over your son. as it rather seemed.²LAMB. which. . whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.150. which is selective among what is known. it is impossible to determine.And whichsoever way I turn. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. the debt to the rich.²ID. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. But when the Trojan war comes. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata..² EMERSON. whatever. and gaze.²AGASSIZ. proved not altogether displeasing to him. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. whichsoever. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. Examples of their use are. In indirect questions. New torments I behold. Was there. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. and new tormentedAround me.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. Adjective what in exclamations.²IRVING. 151. As in the pronouns. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. whatsoever. A lady once remarked. He was turned before long into all the universe. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. whichever. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.. or whether any. Whatsoever kind of man he is.²RUSKIN. what inquires about things or persons not known. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.²CARLYLE.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). In direct questions. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. whichsoever way I move. nature will be sure to bear us out in.

th s (modern those). But this had also another plural.. COMPARISON.152. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. Exercise.²This. Those borrowed from this. etc.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. It is neither relative nor interrogative. When we place two objects side by side. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. and those as the plural of that. we notice some differences between them as to size. History of this²these and that²those. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. 154. In exclamatory expressions.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU.² Oh.²but not the same degree. and when we compare the objects. or weight. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. And yet. That. which was fully inflected in Old English. or size. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. weight. 153 . INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. Meaning of comparison. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. color. or amount. The article that was used with neuter nouns.Adjectives have two inflections. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. Thus. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. those). 155. alas. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. All these have certain qualities. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. NUMBER. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this.²number and comparison. of the quality. This is the old demonstrative. etc. . as. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. the making of it right. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. we do so by means of their qualities. gold is heavier than iron.

Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. indomitable." "It is a nobler valor.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms." "the commonest speech.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. sufficient." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. easiest. 157. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. bluer. blue. or amounts in quantity. The two forms. to the simple form. red. but. indefatigable. supreme. 158. though the simple. universal institution. "untamed thought. "more matter. they are not compared.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. whether they attend their own affair or not. infinite. reddest. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. enormous. bluest. giant-like. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. great. easy. for example. and the superlative by adding -est. 156. 160. as. These are properly the only degrees. A main difference betwixt men is. easier. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. and the superlative. strictly considered. Definition. expressing the greatest degree of quality." "the largest soul. and many others. The comparative is formed by adding -er. redder. whose favorite pupil he was. .²SEWARD. These are called degrees of comparison. Freedom is a perpetual. with less wit. immemorial." "no fewer than a hundred. So with the words sole. They came into use about the thirteenth century. organic. Substitute for inflection in comparison. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. as.²THACKERAY. expressing a greater degree of quality." Words that cannot be compared. but were not common until a century later. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. 159.

To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. as. though born in no very high degree. and other words are preceded by more and most. etc. madam." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. These long.Which rule. indisputablest. who. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. and yet familiar.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. and patientest fusing." said Henry Esmond. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. 163.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. falling on his knees. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables.²ID. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. was most finished. honestest. These are adjectives irregularly compared." "distantest relationships. easy." "more austere and holy. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. "So help me God. admirablest. which hung behind in the queerest way.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. 162. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. harsh forms are usually avoided. strange. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. quiet. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. witty." "sorrowfulest spectacles. peaceablest.²The Nation. The following lists include the majority of them:² . polished. most small. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. The general rule is." Carlyle uses beautifulest. mournfulest." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries." "the wonderfulest little shoes. there needed to be a most genuine substance.²ID. Adjectives irregularly compared." "more odd. finest chiseling.² CARLYLE A gentleman. I will.

[Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. hindermost Much or many More Farther. There was an old comparative bet. as in Shakespeare.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. evil was the positive to worse. older Nigher Nearer Later. bad. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. [Out] Outer. 8. further Farthest. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. uttermost Upmost.² We have it in a much lesser degree. is often used. lesser. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. 6. 164. latter Hinder LIST II. last Hindmost. (3) Little is used as positive to less. 3. which has gone out of use. as in the sentence (14th century). These have no adjective positive:² 1. 1. next Nearest Latest. oldest Nighest. uppermost LIST III. List I. lesser Elder. 4. throw away the worser part of it.² O. innermost Outmost.²HAMLET.LIST I. Good or well Evil. as. furthest 10. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. 5. 2. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. utter 3. Hind 2. outermost Utmost. [In] Inner Inmost. Worser was once used. (2) In Old English. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). A double comparative. least. a double comparative. . 7. worst. 9. which has softened to the modern best. The superlative I form was betst. though from a different root.

but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. came into use. near. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. oldest.²ID. are shown in such phrases as. since the m is for -ma. and the superlative nearest. . farrest.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. there is scarcely any distinction. latest. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. as. first. muchel. The most part kept a stolid indifference. much. next. Since later. strenger. moche. except the form next.²KINGSLEY. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. farthest. but originally the comparison was nigh. to which is added -ost. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative.. strong. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. the old forms. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. for example. List II. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. greatest. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. etc. an old superlative ending. and refer to time. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. making the modern farther. The latter.² The more part being of one mind. doubling the inflection. a distinction has grown up between the two series. is quite common. but not in meaning. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. th came into the others. The meanings greater. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. (5) The forms elder. Between the two sets as they now stand.. to England we sailed. (4) The words much and many now express quantity.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. etc. are earlier than older. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional.²HAWTHORNE. furthest. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. "Many a little makes a mickle. latter and last are used in speaking of succession.²forth. meaning the largest part. great. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. First became entirely detached from the series. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. instead of lenger. eldest. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. as long. ²LAMB. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late." Its spelling has been micel. or series. In imitation of further. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. further.

on the very topmost twig." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man.²HAWTHORNE. Decidedly handsome." "The outer is of the day. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. The comparatives are so in form." -Most added to other words." "their utmost exertion. or each may modify a different word or group of words." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. was descried The royal banner floating wide. . are like the comparative forms in List II.²DE QUINCEY." "the innermost moral soul. but they have no adjective positives. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective.165. being merely descriptive. They have no superlatives. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. Think what each adjective belongs to. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. and have no comparative force. 168. The adjectives in List III.²DE QUINCEY. W. 166. Highest and midmost. Her bows were deep in the water. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. in having no adjective positives. the upper light of the world. by the by. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. but her after deck was still dry. List III. but not in their meaning. There. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. In List II. or have no comparative forms." "far-seeing as the sun. all may belong to the same noun. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection.²KINGSLEY. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. 167.²H. Her. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.²SCOTT. BEECHER. (Sec.²EMERSON.

bright." making then an adjective. therefore. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. rich. 7. in this sentence. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. and thine often infirmities. But in this sentence. deep. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. round. . it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. philosophical. H. the then and still owners.²A. The seldom use of it. and broken. deeply black eyes. Richard Hooker.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs.²NOAH PORTER. solid." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable.²TRENCH. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. usual modifies incomparable decision. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. 2. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. ²TROLLOPE. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. instead of saying. not decision alone.²BIBLE. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. 3. Exercise. now our queen. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. In the following quotations. This." in which then is an adverb. Other instances are. in prose. By a convenient brevity. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression.²HAWTHORNE. and moral truth. as." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. STOWE. A few improper jests and a volley of good. "the one who was then king.For example.²HAWTHORNE. we may say "the then king.²MRS.²HOLMES. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. our new government. 169.² My then favorite. May we not. 4. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. satisfactory. It may still be argued. and heaven-defying oaths. Bradbury and Evans. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. Our sometime sister.²RUSKIN. STEPHENS 5. 6. For thy stomach's sake.

this. if it has number. 4. Exercise. and I waited for none. compared by prefixing more and most. with awkward but rapid pace. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. and most astounding were those frightful yells. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. 6. 7. 2. person. (2) Its number. . 10. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. manly way. 3.What to tell in parsing. These points out what truths. across the plain. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. seventy-five drachmas. having a singular. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. 170. and very few have number. 5. not inflected for number. To every several man. (3) Its degree of comparison. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. therefore demonstrative. I ask nothing of you. if it can be compared. Unfamiliar describes truths. frank. modifies truths. In parsing an adjective. 8. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. the method of parsing is simple. modifies the word truths. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. This gave the young people entire freedom. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. MODEL FOR PARSING. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. Since adjectives have no gender. She made no reply. (4) What word or words it modifies. To every Roman citizen he gives. therefore descriptive. 9. positive degree. cannot be compared. plural number. then. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. or case.

during which time I waited. as for armies that were too many by half. those dogs in the yard. is the settlement of our own country. . Nearer to our own times. Like most gifted men. the same love to France would have been nurtured. Two hours elapsed. and many poles supported the lower ones. are immutably fishes. 18. 22. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 33. 23. To say what good of fashion we can. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. and dogs. 27. 28. he won affections with ease. oxen. it rests on reality. 20. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. In music especially. 14. it is so noble a fruit.11. suggests such thoughts as these. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 32. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 12. With every third step. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 19. growing in the most unfavorable position. 31. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. 29. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 25. 26. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. and therefore more interesting to us. 16. 21. the tomahawk fell. I know not what course others may take. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 24. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 13. not so much for travelers that were few. Here lay two great roads. yonder oxen in the pasture. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17.

." the words the and an belong to nouns.²BREWER. in vulgar English. that other. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. but the former is used. 172. An before vowel sounds. Their origin. In the sentence. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. Examples: "a house. later th . the latter is still preserved in the expression." "a European. An historian. or the tane. 35. even when not silent. with an ordinary little garden. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road.²MACAULAY. meaning one. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. a before consonant sounds. and a before consonant sounds. ARTICLES. 174. just as adjectives do." An with consonant sounds. these occurring as the tane." "an honor." "an orange. th o. he is no literary man. sometimes the tother. weary-hearted man was he. the tother. In Middle English the became an article. 37. A hard-struggling. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. 173. 171. Many writers use an before h. the tother." "a yelling crowd. for example. were formerly that one. An or a came from the old numeral n.²SCOTT. Two relics. that) which was also an article in Old English. s o. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. Our expressions the one. the tither. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words.34. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. the other.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. such as we have been attempting to describe. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. ðat.

and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. thus. the older n. which cannot be used alone. With names of rivers.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. as "the Mississippi.. as in the sentence.²This use is noticed when. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. and when the word river is omitted.²COLERIDGE. or any individual of a group or class." the article indicates clearly that a river.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. and not a state or other geographical division. Articles are either definite or indefinite. An and a are different forms of the same word. on opening a story. The is the definite article. Reference to a known object. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. 178. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. 176. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with.²G. Kinds. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.²HEROES OF ASGARD. 179. is referred to. since it points out a particular individual. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. An hereditary tenure of these offices. doubtless. NOTE. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.. a person is introduced by a. 177. The Dakota tribes. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing.² Don't you remember how. An article is a limiting word. not descriptive. To call attention to attributes. When the is prefixed to a proper name. or class..²THACKERAY. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. Definition. or a group or class of things. 175.² . because it refers to any one of a group or class of things." "the Ohio.²IRVING. or group. An or a is the indefinite article. BANCROFT. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE.

If the good is there. BANCROFT. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. 180. With adjectives used as nouns. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. laid it on the miry spot. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. not into a particular virtue. One thing for its class.²ID. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. Schelling. as.The Bacon. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head.²MOTLEY.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.²GIBBON.²G.²ID. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. The. or a match put between the fingers. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. Half abstract. 1. and the redwing. His messages to the provincial authorities. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. her. NOTE. the Spinoza. the song sparrow. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. but into the region of all the virtues. The simple rise as by specific levity. 182. Common.² The faint. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. etc. the Hume. With plural of abstract nouns. Caution. the gallant. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. for example. 181.² As she hesitated to pass on. 183. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.²EMERSON. For possessive person pronouns.²EMERSON. would speedily extract the required information. Kant. 2.²SCOTT.²KINGSLEY. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. so is the evil. .

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. 200: In (1). endured what? anguish. as. the most astute. an article. can deceive has an object. b). in (3." put is the predicate. "Put money in thy purse."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. b). in (2. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. with some word understood. The nature of intransitive verbs. Each influences some object. 202. we consider a verb as one word. In giving a definition. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. "Put thou money in thy purse. but cannot be predicates. obeyed is a predicate. in this sentence from Bulwer. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. c). The nature of the transitive verb. Hence Definition. Definition and caution." Examine the sentences in Sec. for example. 203. in (b). In the sentence. to go is no predicate.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. and to receive the action expressed. the most penetrating. in (3. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. a). In the first. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. or the object. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. which may be a person. which means to go over. to say something to or about some person or thing. but fearing is not a predicate. and shame the most astute. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. hence is not a verb.²BULWER ." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. Now. All these are called transitive verbs. By examining a few verbs. or an idea. all do not express it in the same way. a noun. Has takes the object hypocrisy. from the Latin transire. 204. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. and not a verb.In (a). (can) shame also has an object. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. lone took what? answer. care. in (c). and a preposition unite as a verb. A verb is a word used as a predicate. or a material thing. an adverb. etc. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. representing something which it influences or controls. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. a verb. In each case. Of those expressing action. a preposition. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. and. the word following. 201. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. in (2. taking the staff which always guided her steps.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. Most excellent stranger. Condition or Supposition.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. I.²MACAULAY. Again. or be fulfilled.²FRANKLIN.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. the representative system ultimately fail. the first great founder of the Empire.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. If this be the glory of Julius. he will see the need of these ethics. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. as. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. the writer can make the statement following. for example. Ideal. . Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. WEBSTER.²SHELLEY. but.² Now. 215. in our case.²LONGFELLOW. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. ²EMERSON.²may or may not be true. Unreal²cannot be true. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. and may or may not be regarded true. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. 2). 222. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.I could lie down like a tired child.² If. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. popular government must be pronounced impossible. 221. the second founder. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. as.²BRYCE. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.²D. they were recorded in the Book of Life.

Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. might.²BAYNE. The subjunctive. may. etc. The voice. WILLIS. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. which cannot be true. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.²FRANKLIN. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. would have sat still with joy and peace.²MACAULAY. he supposed. that he might be strong to labor. if he was the man I take him for. NOTE. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. is of similar physiognomy. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. In the following conditional clauses. 4.² If these things were true. since he [Byron] was dead.²EMERSON... 3. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. But in no case could it be justified. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created..²FRANKLIN. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. II. if he speak to you. thus. and striven energetically to save Ney. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. 2. Subjunctive of Purpose. do you think. 7. though. . ²LOWELL. to drink strong beer. 5. if his lot had been mine. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. especially be. If he had reason to dislike him.² It was necessary. unless. 223.²CALHOUN. but when the verb precedes the subject.. 6.² CARLYLE. would you. as. is used to express purpose. that we cannot but regret its absence.²N.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. Epaminondas. except. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.²SWIFT. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. he had better not have written. and should. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. she was regarded as a prodigy. melodious. I told him. Exercise. and what kind of condition:² 1. society could not hold together. P. clear. the clause being introduced by that or lest. 8. and sonorous." etc. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.

lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. Rise up.²COLERIDGE.. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. the answer being regarded as doubtful. VI.²BRYANT.²SOUTHEY. The English subjunctive...And we. VII. like the Latin. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. WEBSTER. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. I've wished that little isle had wings. 225.²D.²DE QUINCEY. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. Expressing a Wish. V. 227. I would it were! ²EMERSON. III. So live. within its fairy bowers. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.²ID. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.²WORDSWORTH.. After a verb of wishing. To tell of what had passed. In Temporal Clauses. like the quarry-slave at night. In Indirect Questions. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan.Thou go not.I have been the more particular. In a Noun Clause. none of us could say.²CARLYLE.²MOORE. . Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. Let it rise. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. Subjunctive of Result.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. Ask the great man if there be none greater. 224. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. IV. 226.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.That vain it were her eyes to close. till it meet the sun in his coming.Were wafted off to seas unknown.

²WORDSWORTH. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. The noun clause. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. Concessive Clauses. 229. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. we'll turn aside. See that there be no traitors in your camp. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. Object. is the ultimate fact of man's life. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb.And see the Braes of Yarrow. VIII. .Subject.²COLERIDGE. The first merit. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.²DE QUINCEY.And look thou tell me true. Some might lament that I were cold. tell me all that thou hast seen. in apposition. etc. That hunger of applause.² Be the matter how it may. After verbs of commanding.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.²SCOTT. in its various uses as subject. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. 228.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. (b) Adjective. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.²CARLYLE.²TENNYSON. that everything be in its place. I have no thought what men they be. Come.²THOREAU.²SHELLEY.. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. of cash.²COLERIDGE. Complement. The essence of originality is not that it be new. often contains a subjunctive. for example. Whatever betide.² DICKENS. which may be (a) Pronoun. or whatsoever victual it may be. object. is.

230. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. (1) Command. In spoken English. and condition contrary to fact. point to their immortal works. 232. to express a wish. since commands are directed to a person addressed.²BRYANT.²CHANNING. 231. (2) Entreaty. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Definition. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. entreaties. for example. love all men. It must be remembered. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Q. or requests.²SHELLEY. (3) Request. At the present day. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. however. Oh. Honor all men. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. .(c) Adverb. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. fear none.The spirit he loves remains. we had found [should have found] a poem here. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream.²J.² CARLYLE. a concession. though. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. ADAMS. Usually second person. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person.

Whatever inconvenience ensue." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. Mark thou this difference. there will her heart and her prayers be. 3. nothing is to be preferred before justice. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. 2. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.And God forget the stranger!" .²SCOTT. etc. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. noble earl. Sometimes with first person in the plural. 7."²DICKENS Tell me. Quoth she. etc. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go.. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I.²SHAKESPEARE." Exercises on the Moods.²CAMPBELL. "Come along with me. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. Part we in friendship from your land. Oh." whispered Kit. request. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. or I + they.And. to you implied in it.One glance at their array! 5. 8. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. child of earth!While each performs his part. Break we our watch up. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. 6. we may use the imperative with we in a command.. receive my hand.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair."Hush! mother. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. lest we rust in ease. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. "The Devil take the goose. but I + you.

23. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. 19." cried he. Forget thyself to marble. 26. ruined. "Oh. my dear madam. . 13.High up in silver spikes! 22. in what pomps and prosperities he like. it would speak. 21. then.That they might answer him. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 14. That a man parade his doubt. will it not fall unbound. or do it at all. Think not that I speak for your sakes. "Mr. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote." 16. He." 25. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. Though abyss open under abyss. no literary man. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. as though an instrument. and opinion displace opinion. how he may do his work. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. "tell me where I may find my poor.Till you might faint with that delicious pain.Except. Well. she ought to have it. but repentant child.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. 10.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. 11.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. whether he do it right or wrong.9. 18. Marshall." continued Old Morgan. He is. That sheaf of darts. Though he were dumb. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. 20. let him live where else he like. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.

Tenses in English. Old English had only two tenses. as will be shown later on." present. called auxiliaries. such as Latin and Greek. have.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. When the older pronoun thou was in use. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. to direct his steps. or agree with it. 235.27. "Thou walkedst. which represented present and future time. The tenses in detail. past perfect. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. 28." past. as the classical languages have. PERSON AND NUMBER. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. will. and future. or whether it were as one member of a general party. Siddons.²the present tense." . as. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs.²nothing could exceed the amiable. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. Definition. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. tell him to wait." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. "Thou walkest. "It is not in man that walketh. "I go away tomorrow. by means of the present. as. and the past tense. five in the imperative. 233. a form ending in -eth. past.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. 234. whatever she did. in the conjugations. Meantime. TENSE." "If he comes. or future time. Tense means time. and the future tense. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. also. the past. such as be. past. in the third person singular. five in the subjunctive. shall. and future perfect tenses. kind. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages.² present. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses.

I be 2. PRESENT TENSE. walking. This is the third person. In classical languages. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. wert) 3. Few forms.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. for example. Singular 1. Indicative Mood. [He] is [They] are 3. You (thou) be 3." and this only in the present tense indicative. Singular 1. walked. The verb be has more forms. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. chose. chooseth. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. mood. etc. is. Definition. persons. and numbers. [He] were [They] were . but in English. etc. were. singular number. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. I were 2. PRESENT TENSE. walk has walk. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. 237. "He walks. choosing. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. been. as. chooses. chosest). tense. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. Such verbs as choose have five. chosen (old. moods. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. Singular 1.²am. Singular 1. CONJUGATION. tenses. walketh. You are 2. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. 238. walks. 236. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. are. since it is composed of several different roots.²choose. choosest. walkedst.

This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.²GOLDSMITH. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. as. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. condition. (2) As auxiliary verbs.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.²SCOTT. 239. The light that never was on sea and land. (b) With the past participle in -ed. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. -en. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.²WORDSWORTH. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.His infancy was nurtured. Instead of the plural are. though it is usually a dialect form. for example. is.. were. to form the passive voice. same as the German sind. in four ways.. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. Remarks on the verb be.²SHELLEY. (d) With the infinitive.²THACKERAY. (3) be.²ID.Imperative Mood. etc.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. which was now become an occasional banquet. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. (2) was. By solemn vision and bright silver dream.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.²BURKE . thus. 240. to express intention. etc. obligation.

I chose 2. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. past perfect. (2). You choose Plural. "I shall be. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. 1. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. 1. [He] choose [They] choose 3. "I have gone" (present perfect). We chose You chose 3. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. We chose You chose 3. PRESENT TENSE. Singular. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. I chose 2.241. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. 1. You choose Plural." (2) Present perfect. 1. You chose Plural. PRESENT TENSE. had. as. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. tenses. I choose 2. tenses. "I had gone" (past perfect). Singular. future perfect. You chose Plural. as. Machinery of a verb in the voices. by placing have. etc. In addition to the above inflected forms. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. . Singular. 240. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. Singular. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). Indicative Mood. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE." "He will choose. I choose 2. 242.

as. though." "They had been running. ACTIVE VOICE. " Be choosing. Present perfect. Past perfect definite. Present perfect. Past definite. Present perfect definite. He had been choosing. He has been choosing." "You are chosen. Same as indicative. Past perfect definite. He will he choosing. He will have chosen. Past definite. Indicative Mood. [If." (4) The passive forms. Only the third person. Imperative Mood. Past perfect. Future. Same as indicative. "I am running. He will have been choosing. Past.] he choose. He chose. he have chosen. " " " " " " " he be choosing. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. "I was chosen. lest. Future definite. . Present.) Choose. Past perfect. Subjunctive Mood. He chooses. Present perfect definite. Present definite. Present definite. Present definite. Future perfect." 243. Present. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). He is choosing. Past. as. Future perfect definite.(3) The definite form of each tense. He had chosen. He has chosen. singular number. Present. etc. will be given. (2d per. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. He was choosing. he have been choosing. he chose (or were to choose). He will choose. of each tense.

He will be chosen. "He does strike. Present tense.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Future perfect.²This table is not to be learned now. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms.. None. Present perfect. Present. Past. etc. 262). Past perfect. Past perfect definite. Present definite. they will be discussed later (Sec. He is chosen. Past definite.) Be chosen. None. PASSIVE VOICE. lest. Past perfect definite. He is being chosen. Subjunctive Mood. Future perfect definite. None. he had been chosen. Present definite. He will have been chosen. Present.NOTE. None. Future. though. (2d per. Past definite. Indicative Mood. he were being chosen. . He has been chosen. None. but verbals. Present perfect definite." [Note to Teacher. He was chosen. Exercises should be given. Past. Past Perfect. He was being chosen. if learned at all. however. " " " " " " " None." "He did strike. Future definite. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Present perfect definite. Imperative Mood. Also. in affirmative sentences. Present perfect. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). He had been chosen.] [If. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. as. None. he have been chosen.] he be chosen.

catch. caught. drive. sleep. bit blown broken chidden. drove. but adds no ending. 244. According to form. run. Some of these also have weak forms. begged. NOTE.[adj. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. beg. Past Tense.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. 245. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. lay. Kinds. ran. verbs are strong or weak. laid. bounden] bitten. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. as. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. and may or may not change the vowel: as. bid bound. Definition. slept. which are in parentheses Present Tense.

eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.

sunken] sat slain slidden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. trod worn woven won wound . stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden.

Sometimes in literary English. 246. . as. instead of ate and eaten." "the cloven hoof. and. especially in that of an earlier period. to split. and the latter." "a drunken wretch. "stricken with paralysis. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. The former used to be cleave. as (from Holmes).²IRVING. TAYLOR. and sometimes occurs in poetry.² Thou hast clomb aloft. ²THACKERAY. which always crew at eleven.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. for example.²B." Stricken is used mostly of diseases.²cleave. clave or clove.²COLERIDGE. cleft (to split). This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. cleaved.²TENNYSON." In this confusion of usage. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. cleft.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat.²MILTON. cloven. borne is also a passive.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. When it means to carry or to endure. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. only one set remains certain."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. and another (born) for the passive. but is much used in vulgar English.²as (from Shakespeare). cleaved. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. Our cock. as." "a sunken snag. cleave.²GOLDSMITH. now told us it was time for repose.² We had each drank three times at the well. The form clomb is not used in prose. the other.²one meaning to adhere or cling. Not a cock crew. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t)." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. nor a dog barked. probably to avoid confusion with this. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. "his bounden duty. Historically. as.

Find. Fling. Freeze. Usually shear is a weak verb. Exercises. Give. as "a shorn lamb. 6. Fall. Break. for example. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. broken. maiden. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs.The form gotten is little used.²TENNYSON. 8. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. fell.²WORDSWORTH. frozen. (a) From the table (Sec."²KINGSLEY.²SCOTT. begun. as. 245). 5. even in poetry. found. We usually say. threw. shaken. shook.² If. broke. One example out of many is. gave. Throw. given. The butler was hanged.²BIBLE. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective.²DE FOE. and grasping at his sword. 10. thrown. This heard Geraint. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. 7. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. flung. He sate him down. which is seldom used except in poetry. Shake. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.²BYRON." but not much as a participle. fallen. .² We had all got safe on shore.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. began. 2. 3. Drive. shore is rare.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. for example. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. driven. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. flung. Begin. 9. froze. found." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. 4. and seized a pen. drove.

" Must is present or past tense. according to the infinitive used. Ability. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. The same remarks apply to ought. "So mote it be.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. which survives in the sentence.. must have been an ocular deception. etc. as it sometimes does. Subjunctive use. 220.²SCOTT. The l in could did not belong there originally. 251. . 247. (See also Sec. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. They are as follows:² PRESENT. but came through analogy with should and would. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. 250. HAMILTON.²PAINE. as it has two meanings. PRESENT. of course. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. Can is used in the indicative only. as in Sec. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. It is indicative when it expresses permission.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. Must is historically a past-tense form. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive..[To the Teacher. Like must.²HAWTHORNE. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure..²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. PAST.²CHANNING This. or. purpose. from the obsolete verb motan. or when it expresses wish.. Could may be subjunctive. His superiority none might question. "far off his coming shines. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. as. it is used only in the indicative mood. Indicative Use: Permission."²WINIER.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. 249. PAST.²CHANNING. for full drill on the forms. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. Have we valuable territories and important posts. ability. 223.. etc. there is one general principle.

to use will and would. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. The sea shall crush thee.²COOPER. Second and third persons. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. WEBSTER. with pronouns of the first person. shall and should are used. (b) In questions asking for orders.² With respect to novels. MOULTON. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee.e. 252. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. . future action). the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. promise. she should ride like a queen. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. yea. "I think I will go.²THAXTER. as. for example. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday." Uses of shall and should. The following are examples:² Never mind. not plod along like apeasant. or confident prediction. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. and corn to hoe. shall and should are used. She should not walk. BROCKDEN BROWN. while ought always has to. C. as. he said.²MACAULAY. (b) In indirect quotations. I shall be gone.²IRVING.²LONGFELLOW.. what shall I say?²N. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.²BULWER. to the neglect of shall and should. Shall and Will. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. They shall have venison to eat.² The time will come full soon.² (a) To express authority.² Futurity and questions²first person. as.²L. especially in the United States. my lad. She rejects his suit with scorn.Nay. in the form of command.

when the answer expected would express simple futurity. BROWN. thus. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.²SWIFT.²H.²SCOTT. and is equivalent to ought.²A. JR. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.that I would do him justice.²CABLE. for example.²WORDSWORTH. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.²C. First. Disguising a command. etc. I never was what I should be. and will not return until all is finished.²BYRON. time. with the conviction that he should win in the end. purpose. LARNED.² I will go myself now. as..² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. 253. for example.²WORDSWORTH. . was to be expected. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. And promised. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.²WINTER. second and third persons. B. or a promise. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²WORDSWORTH. JAMES.²ROGERS. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.. as the sole inventor. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms.

To be sure.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. as if it were merely expected action. This puts the order more mildly. without regard to future time. The gift of Beauty. as. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. . and mark on the grounds the works. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). BROWN. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. Would thou hadst it not. etc. PASSIVE VOICE.²SCOTT.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE..²SCOTT.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.²IRVING. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.²War Records. Roland. will and would are used to express simple futurity.²BANCROFT. When I am in town. for example. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. Thine was a dangerous gift. B. for punishment or intimidation. In this stately chair would he sit. will and would often denote an action as customary. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C.²BURKE.² DICKENS.²the original meaning of the word will. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. will is used to express command. for example. action merely expected to occur. 254. and two of my people. AND THIRD PERSONS.. (4) With FIRST.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. through storms their brothers are afraid of. so you will.² Thou wilt take the skiff...²LANDOR. as.. They will go to Sunday schools. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. would is used to express a wish. SECOND. Mere futurity. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. when thou wast born.² Subject I omitted: often so.

:² ACTIVE VOICE. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. We will be chosen. 6. 1. 3. 4. [They] shall choose. You will choose. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. "I shall not run. [He] shall be chosen. I will choose. . Singular. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 1. 1. You shall choose. Thou shalt have a suit. 1. Singular. 3. Plural. You shall be chosen. Plural. 2. 3. We shall be chosen. I shall choose. 1. PASSIVE VOICE. You will be chosen. 5. 2. We shall choose. yet only seem." answered Herbert stubbornly. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. [He] will be chosen. 2. [He] shall choose.Singular. 2. [They] shall be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will. 3. 2. 2. Thou art what I would be. I will be chosen. He informed us. 3. and justify the use of shall and will. You shall be chosen. [He] will choose. You will be chosen. [They] will choose. You will choose. Singular. Plural. I shall be chosen. To express determination. [They] will be chosen. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. and that of the newest cut. We will choose. 252 and 253. 3. (a) From Secs. (b) Examine the following sentences. You shall choose. promise. Plural. etc. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you.

bereave beseech bereft. 12. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. bereaved besought . Present Tense. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries.²ID. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. Past Tense. and have no change of vowel. need some attention and explanation. 255. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. very anxious. 10.²Class I. 11. bereft.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. "I am a wayfarer.²CHAUCER. This ending has now dropped off. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. 256. put. Lucy stood still." 14. Irregular Weak Verbs. WEAK VERBS. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while.7. But the rest. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. was -de or -te.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. put. as. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics." the stranger said. Of smale houndes hadde she. The old ending to verbs of Class II. which may be called irregular weak verbs. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. 257. The beast made a sluggish movement. put. set. 13. set. or mylk and wastel breed. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. 9. and I have nothing to say. bereave besought Past Participle. as if he would have more of the enchantment. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. Without having attended to this. then. my son. No.

burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . spelt spilt staid. hid kept knelt laid leaned. leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Nothing of the kind having been done. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Imperfect. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. will (with should and would).. [To] have chosen. But later. Perfect. when inflections became fewer. try clemency. [To] choose. To with the infinitive. Perfect definite. INFINITIVES. ACTIVE VOICE. In Sec. Indefinite. formed a kind of bedstead. have no tense. [To] have been choosing. 266.. to express action unconnected with a subject. and a perfect definite form. 7. a perfect. 10.²the creature warring against the creating power. as in the Old English. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. they have an indefinite. [To] have been chosen. Cases when to is omitted. [To] be chosen. Indefinite..6. Perfect. 9. Three saplings. When active. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). expressing purpose. . Infinitives. I returned to reflection on my situation. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. and when passive. 267. 268. like participles. [To] be choosing. to was used before the infinitive generally. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. PASSIVE VOICE. 8. an indefinite and a perfect form. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. an imperfect.

do (as. please. and corn to hoe." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms.²TENNYSON. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. or the object of a verb or a preposition. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II.). 269.² What! doth she. feel.²E. (3) After had in the idiomatic use." etc. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. 270. too. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. E. "He will choose. and emphatic forms of the present and past. also let.²COOPER. see. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. as the credulous imagine. They shall have venison to eat.²IRVING.²GOLDSMITH.² She was a kind. The gerund is like the participle in form." "I shall have chosen. must. hear." (4) In exclamations. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. 271. bid (command). as. under "Analysis.(2) After the verbs may (might). "I do go" etc. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. it is often preceded by the definite article. as. liberal woman. can (could). She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. learn [doth learn is one verb. While the gerund expresses action.²DE QUINCEY.. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. negative. it has several attributes of a noun. "She ask my pardon. 272. make. HALE. also in the imperative.²MACAULAY. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). GERUNDS. . I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. poor woman!" cried Charles. as in the expression. watch. "a house to let.²it may be governed as a noun. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. sometimes need (as. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs." Examples are.²HOWELLS. But there was nothing to do. as. it may be the subject of a verb. and like a noun in use.

after examining the nest. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. Exercise. Words in -ing are of six kinds. to see the returning hope of the parents. 273. b). and five gerunds. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. 2.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. on your leaving the spot." "Certainly dueling is bad. Sec. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. but cannot govern. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. (2) Pure participles. (6) Verbal nouns." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. II). (4) Pure adjectives. but do not assert. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy.²Find sentences containing five participles. five infinitives. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. which express action. and has been put down. and wonderful store of learning! . Then how pleasing is it. which name an action or state. above." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. (5) Gerunds. according to use as well as meaning. (3) Participial adjectives. may govern and be governed. which express action. 4." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. which have lost all verbal force." also (2. making the definite tenses. What a vast. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun." Exercise. brilliant. which express action and also modify." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. when.

12. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 11.²active or passive.5. 9. 16. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. Thackeray did not. 13. The only means of ascending was by my hands. dictating from his chair.²strong or weak. bearing her national emblem. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. (4) Tense. I. What is dreaming? 8. 14. (5) Person and number. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. I suppose I was dreaming about it.²indicative. (3) Mood. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. or imperative. 7. he gave out sentence by sentence. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 234. 10. you must. slowly. VERBS. He spread his blessings all over the land. by object lessons. giving principal parts. 15. like Sir Walter Scott. In parsing verbs. write twenty pages without stopping. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. much corroded. give reality to your teaching. (2) Voice. subjunctive. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. (b) as to use. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking.²transitive or intransitive. round which is an iron railing. 275. Caution. but. 6. .²which of the tenses given in Sec.

and ends in -s.. III. can. may. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. we must beware of the rule. definite. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. (b) whether indefinite. indicative. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. intransitive. would. see Sec. 273). then parse it as an adjective. 3. (b) its use (Sec. If a participial adjective. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. intransitive. must. 2. (b) whether active or passive." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. in the world. It has been intimated in Sec. (a) From what verb derived. verbals. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. past tense. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. perfect. Take these examples:² 1. give points (a) and (b). etc. and parting day linger and play on its summit. till it meet the sun in his coming. has the subject government. followed by a pure infinitive without to. 278(2). 4. But unless the verb is present. might. VERB PHRASES. II. (3) Gerund. (1) Participle. indicative (as it means could). 277. Especially frequent are those made up of should. has for its subject Lee. Let it rise! let it rise. . 2. 235. call should a weak verb. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. etc. The government might have been strong and prosperous. VERBALS. active. past tense. You are gathered to your fathers. (2) Infinitive. imperfect. and not taken as single verbs. (c) to what word it belongs. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. usually it does not. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. perfect. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. In 2. call might a weak verb. Exercise. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived.276. and should always be analyzed as phrases. Parse the verbs. could. 278." Sometimes it does. In such sentences as 1. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. no sin nor sorrow. therefore active.

he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 12. 16. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing.5. With them.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 14. When he arose in the morning.Henceforth in me instill. and wondered if she were yet awake. leaving me upon the bed. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. 8. see that it is in good condition. a new bursting forth of the sun. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 13. 15." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. 17. 21. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. a sweet good will. from a sort of temporary death. as rolled from wing to wing. . He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. morning is not a new issuing of light. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. a deafening shout.Down all the line. 22. Right graciously he smiled on us. In going for water. as usual. 6. 9. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. 11. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. Whatever ground you sow or plant. So. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 23. or. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. he thought only of her. However that be.O God. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. 20. as the Hindoos say. 19. The soul having been often born. He passed across the room to the washstand. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 10. 24. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. 18. a new waking up of all that has life.

place.25."²DE QUINCEY. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. 279. Oh. and men of leisure and cultivation." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. or manner: as. as.²THACKERAY. Adverbs modify.²time. and limit adjectives or adverbs. "William's private life was severely pure. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. A verb. 26. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. and so on. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. And now wend we to yonder fountain." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. to consent.² The young man reveres men of genius. ." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. for example. for the hour of rest is at hand. 27. Nor was it altogether nothing. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. To the almost terror of the persons present. ADVERBS. Is it only poets. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way.²CARLYLE. The word adverb means joined to a verb. thou sayest. 29. and live ere life be spent. When action is expressed. Better it were. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. because. to speak truly. they are more himself than he is. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it.Feast while we may. who live with nature?²ID. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree." An adjective or an adverb." "He was absolute.²SHELLEY.²EMERSON. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend.

etc. Definition. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. NOTE. all wet and glossy.²TROLLOPE. but still with a rich bloom to it. I draw forth the fruit. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis.²LEIGH HUNT.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. Make music to the lonely ear. (2) according to their use in the sentence. hitherto. A clause or sentence. perhaps. ALDRICH. there are six classes:² (1) Time. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. which may qualify an action word or a statement. before. has induced some of us to attend it.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. ²IRVING. as. B. not simply the forms used in predication.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. not the noun. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. Thus considered. 169 are felt to be elliptical. like the light of heaven. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. 280. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. for example. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. lately. It may also modify a sentence.²These last differ from the words in Sec. being adverbs naturally and fitly. and that. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. is a modifying word.²BYRON. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. then.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. We are offered six months' credit. to-day. while those in Sec. or a word group used as such. thus. Surely happiness is reflective. An adverb. 169.²T. but really modifying. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. 281. A phrase. . ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING.He was incidentally news dealer. NOTE.² FRANKLIN. and half awfully. but some verb understood. 282. as now.²THOREAU. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb.² LOWELL. ever. as shown in the sentences.

partly. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. etc. as hither. as hence. 283.thence. whithersoever. slowly. at least. telling how anything is done. greatly. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. So also in Grote. [Sidenote The status of such. 283). I was. (6) Assertion. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.was for this once of her opinion. the more perfect will be their obedience. as perhaps.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.²BURKE. too. singly. as well. etc. telling how much.. especially the comparative of these words. probably. bravely. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. Death! To die! I owe that much To what.²HAWTHORNE. whencesoever. LOUIS STEVENSON. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.whence. thus. the more evidently they love liberty. slightly. White.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. or how far he believes it to be true. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.²LECKY. for example. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH.(2) Place. not. .²IRVING. two by two. and others.which gained him such universal popularity. (see also Sec.thither. surely. maybe.. etc.yonder. telling how many times: once. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. and not infrequently are found in literary English. Thackeray. Motley. while so precedes only the adjective usually. The more they multiply.²SHAKESPEARE. (3) Manner. (5) Degree. better.whither. Meekness.² The master.²BROWNING. as little. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. the more friends you will have.there. etc. much. above. very..near. beautifully. just.²R. as here. possibly. This long's the text.²DE QUINCEY. enough. etc.. Emerson. etc. that these adverbs form a very large class..where. (4) Number. twice.

the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Beau Fielding. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. for example. STOWE. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Defoe. 284. Pretty is also used by Prescott. . Again.²BAYNE.²THACKERAY. Kingsley. a mighty fine gentleman.²FIELDING. 282. Direct questions." said the king. for example." "That is positively untrue [assertion].² You are mighty courteous. "Peace. Some adverbs.²GOLDSMITH. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister." "He spoke positively [manner]. De Quincey. Aldrich. 286. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form.²HAWTHORNE. Mighty. Neville. have the additional function of asking a question. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Such are most of those given already in Sec. and other writers. and its lawn before [place].Pretty." "That were far better [degree]. 285. Notice meanings. Franklin." "The house.²"He walked too far [place]. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. Holmes. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. and art but a fool. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples." "I have seen you before [time].² KINGSLEY." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal."²SCOTT. Emerson. It is only occasionally used in literary English. A pretty large experience. Dickens.²THACKERAY. Simple. B. Burke.²BULWER.² "Mighty well. Interrogative. Hard blows and hard money. besides modifying.

²BULWER. (4) Degree. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. 287. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. (2) Place.²BYRON (3) Manner.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. CLAY. (5) Reason. When did this humane custom begin?²H.²BYRON. for example. I do not remember when I was taught to read. I will not ask where thou liest low. (2) Place. they smiled. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.²D. I hearkened. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. I know not why. (4) Degree. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²POE. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. . Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. WEBSTER. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time.

sooner. when.. not an adverb. Superlative. highest. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. representing four classes. furthest (rathe.eyes. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. when compared. Then must she keep it safelier. For further discussion.. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. The following. Many adverbs are compared.²EMERSON. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. Form vs. have the same inflection as adjectives. high." Exercise. use.²SHAKESPEARE. when does not express time and modify. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. but the whole clause.²TENNYSON. Its strings boldlier swept. Exercise. Many adjectives have the same ending. 290. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. further farthest. 288.But in reality. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. well much little far late Comparative. just as adjectives do. irregularly compared.²BYRON. as.²COLERIDGE. . Tell what each word in ly modifies.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. obs.) rather 289. only occasionally having -er and -est. higher. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. soon. soonest. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. see Sec. and. Only that we may wiselier see.

even. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields.And his mien of kingly state. kindly and good-natured in secret. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits.1. The reason is. hard. Not near so black as he was painted. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 3.²IRVING. instead of being used adverbially. With his proud. 2.²WORDSWORTH. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.² EMERSON. many words without -ly have the same form. merely introduces a sentence. 292. 2. . if it has the verb be.²THACKERAY. And all about. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. that in Old and Middle English. Again. to be sure. as. Special use of there. Frequently the word there. 4. or down the leaves laughed through. near. more courtly in their manners. but with a different meaning. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. hardly. Such are most. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. 5. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. 291.²CHAUCER. 8." Compare these:² 1. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. There are eyes. mostly. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face.²ID. curiously jolly. nearly. quick-flashing eye. But he must do his errand right. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. evenly. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. whether adverbs or adjectives. etc. He is inexpressibly mean.²TENNYSON. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. 6. 7. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly].

give² (1) The class. and always. at the regular wine-shop. 7. Thither we went. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. but from my fall? 6. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. 3. 15. The higher we rise in the scale of being. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. 5. . Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. is always politically unwise. Exercise. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. In parsing adverbs.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 9. 16. But a few steps farther on. (3) What word or word group it modifies. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. For the impracticable. but continually shifted. the Madonna is in great glory. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. however theoretically enticing. 2. 17. 10. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. burning in the center of the temple. if the word is compared. 18. It is the Cross that is first seen. 11. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. 293. and sate down on the steps of a house. 12. (2) Degree of comparison. according to meaning and also use. 4.

CONJUNCTIONS. But now the wind rose again. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. Unlike adverbs." Sentences. It was pretty bad after that. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words.19. or sentence groups. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. 20. sentences. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. 294." Paragraphs. . But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. but the student will readily find them. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. nor. etc. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. hence. however. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. word groups. 22. upon which the sun now shone forth. then. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. A conjunction is a linking word." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. connecting words. 295. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. Clauses. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. therefore. Definition. 21. but side by side within the American Union.

Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate.. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. Some of these go in pairs. had its weight.or. still. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks... the window being open. and. however. also. either. as but. (3) CAUSAL.. not only. moreover." Nevertheless.nor. etc.. nor.or. expressing a choice. "Howbeit. for. 298. but is emperor in his own right.. serves but to show their ignorance.. however. either. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE.. word groups. whether. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. Some go in threes. as and. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. answering to each other in the same sentence. either. usually between two things. Adversative. neither.... while.. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. Correlatives. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. They are or. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. only. nor. and not man corn.. as well as. (2) Subordinate.but. Your letter.. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. the bread was spent.and. etc... as. then.nor. both. . 296. as well as the room door. While the earth bears a plant..or.. as.. Alternative. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.or whether. yet. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. whether. introducing a reason or cause. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. (2) ADVERSATIVE.Classes of conjunctions.or. else. of the same rank.. The assertion. etc. hence.. therefore. not only. Nor mark'd they less. the butter too. joining words. Causal. The chief ones are.but (or but also). 297. likewise. (4) ALTERNATIVE.. neither.. neither.. or the sea rolls its waves. whether..

but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. (6) PURPOSE: that. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. (3) MANNER: how.²BIBLE.²BURKE. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. since. (7) RESULT: that. provided that. though.²WILSON. that. wherever. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject.²PAULDING.. QUINCY. whenever. whence. as. so that. especially that after so. as. ere.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. unless. Where the treasure is. although. however. etc. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. until. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. nor green leaf. except. He is not only bold and vociferous. so. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. in order that. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. It is. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. since. nor echo. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. as.. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. nor creeping thing. on condition that. lest. after. etc. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because.²COOPER. Time. sometimes if. howsoever. 299. in apposition. so. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. now. whether. provided. etc. so that. etc. in case.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.. whithersoever. there will the heart be also. even if. ²ALLSTON. seeing. whereas.²J. before.. . etc. Neither the place in which he found himself. (2) TIME: when.²IRVING. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place.²DE QUINCEY. nor wing of bird. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. so. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. whither. object. while.

a thousand bodies.²EMERSON.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²BURKE.So I behold them not. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. Now he is dead. but not so long but I held it out. Then Denmark blest our chief. Substantive.² EMERSON.²EMERSON.² HAWTHORNE. Manner.²DEFOE.² H. Purpose. We wish for a thousand heads.²IRVING.That vain it were her eyes to close. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.²AMES. I was again covered with water. Comparison. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.²EMERSON.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.²AMES.²CAMPBELL.²BYRON. JACKSON. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. As a soldier. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Let the world go how it will. H. Cause. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²AMES. Concession. reason. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²COLERIDGE. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Result. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.That he gave her wounds repose. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.² WORDSWORTH. . not as they were expected or intended. Condition. So many thoughts moved to and fro. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.

Besides. 10. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. as. while.Let us see whether the greatest. In what point of view. that. it will remain harmless. As will have been noticed. Crept under the leaf. No one had yet caught his character. 13. hold a subordinate rank. 2. 6. While patriotism glowed in his heart. 300. 5. some words²for example. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. While a faction is a minority. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. her real merit is known at home. 12. 7.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. and hid her there. And then recovering. however. . whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. etc.²RUSKIN. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. as he shot in air. 14. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. Exercises. 15. 3. He was brought up for the church. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. the lady called her servant. And they lived happily forever after. the wisest. she faintly pressed her hand. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. After he was gone. 9. 4. since. The moth fly. They. then. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions.

in this case.16. and the frame will suit the picture. expressing degree if taken separately. So silently we seemed to speak. 302. "We meet. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. If analyzed. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner.²IRVING.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. In poetry.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. for example. 301. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain..²BYRON. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. thus. (2) What words. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. as is shown by the use of as though. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. As for as if.. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.As though a rose should shut. 303. as is often equivalent to as if.²EMILY BRONTE. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. 304. As if. the expression would be. etc." as. word groups. and part as though we parted not. none of the lashings having given way." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. In parsing conjunctions. GREELEY. and be a bud again.So slowly moved about. SPECIAL REMARKS.Clouded. As though. In Emerson's sentence.²HOOD. His voice .As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. even as they would weep. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. they connect.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. . Consequently. And their orbs grew strangely dreary.

²is subordinate of condition.. such as nor." said his wife to Martin Luther. and its clause is independent. 6. but of the natural. that it might testify of that particular ray. others belong to several classes. . 11. or in the snow. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. Exercise. In classifying them. so they paddled on. and associates as happily. as beside his own chimneys. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. so that I could not stir abroad. when. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. 10. they are not known. He dismisses without notice his thought. so means therefore. so that expresses result. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. 7.²EMERSON 3. 2. Some conjunctions. 5. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. "Doctor. in 3. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. All the postulates of elfin annals. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. dines with as good an appetite. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. the Sphinx was slain.²DEFOE 2. For example. 12. he is also the correlative of nature. 13. If he could solve the riddle. 4. 9. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. He is the compend of time. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. and. 3.²I find them true in Concord. in 2. so it be faithfully imparted. are regularly of one particular class.²that the fairies do not like to be named. and its clause depends on the other. and the like. because it is his. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery.² 1.Caution. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. compare the sentences. etc. so means provided. or in the forest. he sleeps as warm. At sea. When the gods come among men. and very seldom?" 8. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. It continued raining. because. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. It may be safely trusted.

won't you lay on? 17. you must be. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. For. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. therefore. . I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 22. Goodness must have some edge to it. 23. she might have the family countenance.. PREPOSITIONS. 29. 15. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 30. 25. It is clear. 16. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 18. 27. of good novels only. when it was presented to them. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 28. 305.²else it is none. And whether consciously or not. 24. that both were wayward. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. in many a heart. Still. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. the whole conditions are changed. 26. however. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. save it were sinful like herself. 20.14. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 19. It may be so in the majority of cases. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. 21. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. There was no iron to be seen. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. enthroned. Now you have the whip in your hand. I speak. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. I rejoice to stand here no longer. whose names I omit. in this they agree.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

(4) Measure of excess. at random. expressing the degree of difference.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. by means near or close to. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. Like at. at most.²WARNER. Richard was standing by the window. At that time [the earth] was richer. By. at rest. at once. at naught. by the ruins of nations. For. at play. by the blessed memory of the departed. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.²ID. at war. at all.²SWIFT. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this.²COOPER.²M. D. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. Helena. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. At St. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. CONWAY.²R. ²PARTON.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. by many a million of acres. at one. Exercise.. STODDARD.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. She saw the boat headed for her. etc. at the best.²ALDRICH. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. at least. (3) Agency or means. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. at the worst. . Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. H. he stopped. at length. 321. 320.²B. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. Exercise. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. etc. at work. By my faith.² (1) The general meaning of place. as. the first port made by the ship.²DE QUINCEY. at peace.²EVERETT. (2) Time. at any rate. by the wrecks of time. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at first.

the Colonna motto would fit you best. ate her child. incitement to action."²SCOTT By my faith. or extent of space. (7) Concession. poor fellow.. . Still.²STODDARD. had a forest of poor relations.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. etc. cause. as being. (9) Motive." said the Lady of Lochleven. for all his title. (5) Reference. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. L. "For a fool. HALE This is very common with as²as for me." answered Master Brackett.²EMERSON. for the benefit of.²H.²PARKMAN. considering that etc.² RUSKIN.²E. "Nay.²HOLMES. as to. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. But the Colonel. for famine.²PARKMAN. but a few sunsets since.²HOOD. and leaped for joy.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. H. BANCROFT. he repented of his folly. respecting.²ID. meaning in the character of. "thou hast counseled wisely.²IRVING.(2) In favor of. meaning although. There are gains for all our losses.²W. An Arab woman. (4) Substitution or exchange.One of Eve's family. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. E. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. For him. etc. He and they were for immediate attack. etc. in behalf of. a person or thing. The twilight being. reason.²LAMB. for all slips of hers. if your worship can accomplish that. GARRISON. or in spite of. (6) Like as. they are now for us.. meaning with regard to. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. For the rest. (3) Duration of time.

.²Find sentences with three meanings of from.²HIGGINSON. Like boys escaped from school. (1) Origin or source. or reason. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.²HALE. nay. It was from no fault of Nolan's.²BANCROFT. From. (3) Time. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. (4) Motive. ceased to be merciful. The general idea in from is separation or source. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. Exercise. The From Relation.²HUXLEY. 322. The king holds his authority of the people.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. Exercise. if not a desperate man. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. (2) Origin. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. A distrustful. Of. The original meaning of of was separation or source. from a desire of seeming valiant. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.²DRYDEN. The young cavaliers. like from. 323.²MILTON. more. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. cause.²H. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.²HUME. From harmony.²ID. H.

free of. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. bound with thongs of boar's hide. deprivation. bare of. "I am glad of that. of his own knowledge. The hills were bare of trees."²E.. rob. deprive. wide of.²BANCROFT. cure. ²PARTON. there were only twenty-one members present. Back of that tree. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.²SCOTT Who formed. expressing a part of a number or quantity. ²GAVARRE. More than one altar was richer of his vows. He is away of his own free will. rid. that Cromwell once ruled England. etc. etc. relieve. weeds. Other Relations expressed by Of. etc. clear. (c) After nouns expressing lack. out of the most unpromising materials. especially out of. purge. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. (5) Expressing agency. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. or breastpin of native gold. (b) After some adjectives. as north of. Asked no odds of. he had raised a little Gothic chapel.²HIGGINSON. beg.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. etc. E. (3) With expressions of material.²clear of.²ID. You cannot make a boy know.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. White shirt with diamond studs. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.²LEW WALLACE.²PARKMAN. and grass. etc. disarm.² HUXLEY.²BAYARD TAYLOR. (d) With words expressing distance. demand. ask. HALE. reason. free. A singular want of all human relation. (6) Partitive.²DICKENS II. divest. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. . acquitted them of. motive. such as ease.²BOSWELL.²ALDRICH. south of. Sandals. Of the Forty.

And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. CHANNING. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. Idiomatic use with verbs. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. (c) Two nouns.²W. concerning. 309. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²COOPER. (9) Of time.. with regard to.²FROUDE. (8) Appositional. and the dignity of a queen. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. (7) Possessive. etc. The fair city of Mexico. of a sudden.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. being equivalent to an infinitive. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. ²IRVING. standing. equal to about. when the first is descriptive of the second.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it.²SWIFT.²ALDRICH. of is used in the sense of during. (10) Of reference. with its object. (b) Noun and gerund. The nation of Lilliput. E.²BANCROFT.He washed out some of the dirt.²ID.²HALLECK. of late. could give shelter from his contumely. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. Not even woman's love. Besides the phrases of old.²BANCROFT. See also Sec.²BANCROFT. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.²LOWELL.²LAMB. Such a book as that of Job. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. for the possessive. .²PRESCOTT.

consist. on the wing. on view.²PARKMAN. on high. (4) In adjurations. SIGOURNEY. Cannon were heard close on the left. Upon. ²BANCROFT.²BRYANT. It also accompanies the verbs tire. and not a day more. without adding to their meaning. allow. on trial. equal to about. permit. Upon is seldom used to express time. . 324. on board. Exercise. on the alert. The general meaning of on is position or direction. etc.²MRS. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians.²Find sentences with six uses of of. (3) Reference. such as admit. On my life. repent. and others.²ALDRICH.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. etc. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand.²PARKMAN. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. approve. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. on a sudden. (b) With motion. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. To. avail (one's self). complain. Exercise. you are eighteen.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.²EMERSON.²PARKMAN. accept. 325. Upon my reputation and credit. disapprove. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. On. (2) Time. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. concerning.²DE QUINCEY. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.

²BRYANT. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. To the few.²BULWER. We cook the dish to our own appetite. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. He usually gave his draft to an aid. (b) Referring to time. does the mere music. In Old English.²IRVING. gay Comedy appears.²often to the loss of vigor. Exercise. 326. Death!²HALLECK. But when. to my taste. to him. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. His brother had died.²PARKMAN. interest. whose influence is felt to this hour..²PARTON.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. Nor. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. unmasked.²HALE.²LANG.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. (2) Expressing result.Come to the bridal chamber. (5) Equivalent to according to. mid meant in company with.²B. Full of schemes and speculations to the be written over.²BENTON To our great delight. Revolutions. . Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. had ceased to be. 268). it may be genuine poetry. With.. With expresses the idea of accompaniment..²GOLDSMITH.

to find the object of the preposition. motive. With all his sensibility. I think. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. HALE. Either with the swingle-bar. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. as with you.²CHANNING. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²HOWELLS. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. but a pleasure"?²LANG. He was wild with delight about Texas. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. felt it unsafe to trifle further. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. with Heyward at its head. Exercise. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.²WALLACE (7) Time.²DE QUINCEY. opinion. He expired with these words.²ALDRICH.²E. Messala.²LANG. first of all. She seemed pleased with the accident. or with the haunch of our near leader. (3) Cause.²SCOTT. reason. in spite of.²Find sentences with four uses of with. he gave millions to the sword.²HALE.²EMERSON.²COLERIDGE. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²DE QUINCEY. (2) Instrumentality. it is necessary. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. with all his boldness. (5) Opposition. (4) Estimation.The advance. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. but with you. It seemed a supreme moment with him. had already reached the defile. "poetry is not a pursuit. transmitted from the beginning.²COOPER. E.²HOWELLS. . 327.

shook it directly over my head. (3) without a country. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. by which a dozen apples. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. Whereupon. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. the phrase answers the question where. The guns were cleared of their lumber. 2. 4. the malicious rogue. The object of on board is ships.²SWIFT 2. (4) from the beginning. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. I speak these things from a love of justice. but I received no other hurt. and knocked me down flat on my face. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. but all to no purpose. 3. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. Be that as it will. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. without a country modifies man. I called out several times. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. like the clapping of wings. To our general surprise. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. I remember. of on. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. beginning. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. or was. I heard a noise just over my head. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. he followed us one day into those gardens. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. In (3). Exercises. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. which. telling what man. And so on. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. In (1). that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. before the dwarf left the queen. we met the defaulter here. 5. country. came tumbling about my ears. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. In (2).²ID. . of without. I felt my box raised very high in the air.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. because I had given the provocation. I looked towards my windows. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. of from. hence we say. (2) on which.

A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. He locked his door from mere force of habit. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. . They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 13. 22. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 26. Carteret was far from being a pedant. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 14. grasping at the child. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. to one dark and gloomy. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 7. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 16.He spurred his courser on. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. On all subjects known to man. 25. The savage army was in war-paint. 8. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 10. 24. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 19. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes.Without stop or stay. 21. 29. 15. in town. 12. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. His breeches were of black silk. plumed for battle. when. I like to see the passing. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 17. The mother sank and fell.6. 11. after a restful morning. in this respect. With all his learning. 9. For my part. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 20. he favored the world with his opinions. 23. 27. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 18. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent.

(5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. 329. 330.30. That is what I understand by scientific education.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.That makes the heavens be mute. And now it is like an angel's song. THAT. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. 328. We wish that labor may look up here. (a) Indefinite relative. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. and not according to form. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.²WEBSTER. (c) Substantive conjunction. That night was a memorable one. . (b) Of result. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. A few are discussed below.²WEBSTER. (1) Relative pronoun. That was a dreadful mistake.²BEECHER. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech.²STOCKTON.² JOHNSON. (2) As an adjective pronoun. (4) As an adverb of degree. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING.²WEBSTER.²COLERIDGE. and be proud in the midst of its toil. not merely by the amount of the tax.²HUXLEY. WHAT. He will raise the price. (3) As a relative pronoun. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. that you might behold this joyous day.

after not only. What.²ID. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage..Are yet the fountain light of all our day. "I'll tell you what.. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. (b) Copulative. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. What. To say what good of fashion we can. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.these sounds are only to be is impossible to determine. it rests on reality. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct Pera..but. and silent all!²BYRON.. partly. nearly equivalent to partly.²THACKERAY.²WEBSTER. (b) Indirect question. (6) Exclamatory adjective. (7) Adverb of degree. BUT. What with the Maltese goats.. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.²WORDSWORTH.²ID.. At what rate these materials would be distributed.S..²S. 331. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. . (b) Indirect question. to see what might be hidden..Those shadowy recollections. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY.. but the result of calculation. Cox. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.²EMERSON. or not only..²EMERSON. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. he knows what good people are to be found there.Which be they what they may. silent still." (4) Relative adjective. (9) As an exclamation. (8) Conjunction. If he has [been in America]. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.

The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.²IRVING. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.. (c) Of degree. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. (5) Adverb. towards order.. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.He yearned to our patriot bands. (2) Relative pronoun. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.. (3) Preposition. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. AS. ²CARLYLE. meaning otherwise . like the dog. As orphans yearn on to their mothers.²HAWTHORNE. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. after such. after a negative. sometimes same. on all sides.²LAMB.²FRANKLIN. equivalent to that . meaning only.²SHELLEY. not.²MRS BROWNING. but piercing cries. than. . Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (4) Relative pronoun. I shall see but little of it.. (e) Introducing an appositive word. (d) Of reason.²EMERSON. not. Who knows but. Doing duty as a guard.. at all moments. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²IRVING. or who .²IRVING. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.Then arose not only tears. meaning except. (b) Of manner.. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. stands for that .²SCOTT. not.²CARLYLE. (b) Substantive. To lead but one measure. 332...

-SCOTT. this. Modifier of a noun or pronoun.²LAMB. Through which they put their heads. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.² HAWTHORNE. This follows a verb or a verbal. but this is not considered good usage: for example. (1) An adjective. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. and as or as if takes its place.²DARWIN. but its verb is omitted. and is followed by a dative-objective. staring like a bewildered man. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. Introduces a clause. If the verb is expressed. In each case.²CASS. like a cook beating eggs. .²EMERSON.²SHAKESPEARE. like summer ocean's.²EMERSON. There is no statue like this living man. Give Ruskin space enough. 333. That face. No Emperor. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.²HAWTHORNE.LIKE. like him awhile ago.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²HIGGINSON. indeed. NOTE. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village.² A timid. and was clearly an adjective.²ALDRICH. Note the difference between these two uses.²HALLECK. Stirring it vigorously. I do with my friends as I do with my books. like drops out. ²PARKMAN. In this second use.²MAYHEW. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. like Martin was. They look.²ALDRICH. nervous child.²LONGFELLOW.

etc. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Some of these are imitative sounds. etc. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell." "Up! for shame! [adverb]." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. that is.: for example. tut! buzz! etc. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. Definition.²in determining case. but it still retains its identity as noun. Value of analysis. that is. as." PART II. clauses introduced by conjunctions.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. Definition. What analysis is.. 336. subject and predicate. verb. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. 334.INTERJECTIONS. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. in separating them into their component parts. 335. entering into the structure of a sentence. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. . And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. pronoun. Not all exclamatory words are interjections.

but according to how many statements there are. hence. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. you must not die!" interrogative. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. 337. which puts the thought in a question. or imperative. But now all is to be changed. entreaty." 340. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. "Old year. SIMPLE SENTENCES. . but the sentence would still be declarative. 339. Definition. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. Every sentence must contain two parts. not according to the form in which a thought is put.Kinds of sentences as to form.²a subject and a predicate. Definition: Predicate. 338. question. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. interrogative. A rare old plant is the ivy green. always friends?" imperative. old man?" "Be thou familiar. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. Division according to number of statements. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. or command: for example. but by no means vulgar. This is the most common one." "What wouldst thou do. or request. (3) Imperative. "Come to the bridal chamber. according to form. (2) Interrogative. declarative. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. "The quality of mercy is not strained. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. which expresses command. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. "Hath he not always treasures. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. 2. Examples of these three kinds are.

Listen. or adverb that asks about the subject. "[You] behold her single in the field. and our definition must be the following. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. In analyzing such sentences. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. always reduce them to the order of a statement. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. as. and the real subject is the latter. thou. 6. all. Consequently. we say all is the subject of the sentence. 5. but about the ivy green. In the interrogative sentence. 7. not of a rare old plant. and is to be supplied. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. especially in poetry. we have some trouble. or an interrogative pronoun. 341. . What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. 4. on the other hand. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. adjective. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. Slavery they can have anywhere." Exercise. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. the subject is frequently after the verb. or ye) is in most cases omitted. the subject (you. a rare old plant.²What is the ivy green? Answer. 3. 2. 8.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence.²What is to be changed? Answer. Thus.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. to an ignorant man. The last of all the Bards was he. to suit all cases:² Subject. But if we try this with the second sentence.

but it is a true complement. (4) The complements. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object." Complement: 344. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. Indirect object. (2) The predicate. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. direct. just as if to say. .²transitive and intransitive. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. (5) Modifiers. (6) Independent elements. "Ye call me chief." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. or second object. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. "Ye honor me. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. 342. but chief belongs to the verb. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. but of call chief." indirect. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. and means summoned.10. 343. for example. (3) The object. Of a transitive verb. and me here is not the object simply of call. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. in addition to the object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. and by object we mean the direct object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. The subject and predicate have been discussed. The transitive verb often requires. Direct Object.

"A cheery. A phrase is a group of words. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. 'Ay. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it." (3) INFINITIVE. as in the sentence." Also an expression used as a noun. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. Phrases. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. in the popular judgment. sir!' rang out in response. See sentence 19." "He was termed Thomas. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. Complement of an intransitive verb. and barring the door.. As to form. to the completion of this man of the world. and of massive weight." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. more familiarly. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. feel. but used as a single modifier. in exercise following Sec." Things used as Subject. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. 347." 345. 355. An intransitive verb." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. seem. and. ay." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. 351. especially the forms of be. 352." All these complete intransitive verbs." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . he was now getting old. I mentioned a case of that nature. taste. etc." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. as. not containing a verb." (2) PARTICIPIAL." "The good man. in the original Opium Confessions. appear. or. 364. above sixty. Thom of the Gills. as in drowning. introduced by a preposition: for example. become. for instance. "Brow and head were round. 346.

and by Saint George!' said the King." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. my deficiency." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. but obscures the real subject." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. "'By God. ." "The dead are there. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. Disguised infinitive subject." Things used as Complement. or their religion from their sect. for which see Sec." etc. (4) After "there introductory." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. or the thundering of organs." Things used as Direct Object. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive.²the talent of starting the game." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." "Never. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject.²the infinitive phrase. "Therein has been. 341. and ever will be." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. prowling eyes.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." In this sentence. but they will be given in detail here. I saw the quick and the dead. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. was heard one syllable to justify. 349." The for did not belong there originally. asserting eyes. from their lips. etc." "There are asking eyes." 348. but the real or logical subject is to print. (2) In interrogative sentences. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party.

" (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. As complement of a transitive verb. and the words italicized are still complements." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. or the equivalent of the noun." (4) Participle. the shepherd girl. or Complement." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. the object is made the subject by being passive. I. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale." "Serving others is serving us.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. 351. As complement of an intransitive verb. (3) Infinitive.350. they are adjuncts of the object. trusting the hearts of his countrymen.²heads or tails. and. Like all the complements in this list. Object. Modifiers of Subject." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. Of a transitive verb. at the same time." In this last sentence. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this.²completing the predicate. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. doubtless. and whenever the complement is a noun." "She asked her father's permission. and explaining or modifying the subject." "I hear the echoes throng." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." . complements of the predicate." "Their tempers." Modifiers.

and leading him from star to star." "Give them not only noble teachings. and modify the predicate in the same way. see further Secs." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. object. "He died like a God. tell whether the subject." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. 351. 352. but it is really a contracted clause. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. but noble teachers. unforgiving. the verb being omitted. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. Since the predicate is always a verb. no sociable angel. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. or complement is modified. was now called upon for his defense. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. the prisoner at the bar." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. or . 357-363." "Him.²proud." "In the twinkling of an eye. I have seasoned for thee." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. Tells how. Modifiers of the Predicate." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. given at the request of a Dutch lady." Exercise. this young idolater. austere. II." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. but with other men." In such a sentence as. was the scene from King John. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." (For participial and infinitive phrases. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. Retained with passive. not with nature.²In each sentence in Sec." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written.

A merciless oppressor hast thou been. no relief to the dead prosaic level. predicate. Why does the horizon hold me fast. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. a sort of personality to the whole writing. no emotion. and the direct object is retained: for example.When the verb is changed from active to passive." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 3. 7. 6. They do not wish to be lovely. (a) Pick out subject." "All such knowledge should be given her. On the voyage to Egypt. is good in the making. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. 2." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. predicate. To the men of this world. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. to the animal strength and spirits. 5. This. etc. 4. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. in this center? 4. no humor. Evil. 2. These answer the question when. 7. But anger drives a man to say anything. according to old philosophers. 3. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. he liked. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. and (direct) object:² 1. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. 6. 5. gives wonderful animation. and other measures of precaution." (6) Adverbial objective. Fashion does not often caress the great. with my joy and grief. and as many to oppose it. 8. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. negative. and. but the children of the great. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. but to be loved." "One way lies hope. (b) Pick out the subject. or how long. how far." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. His books have no melody. I took. after dinner. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. in regard to particulars. the indirect object is retained.." Exercises. .

. 4. 4. I gave him an address to my friend. the present Archbishop of Dublin. happy dinner. 5. viz. 6. Not the less I owe thee justice. six children sat by a peat fire.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. in little peaceful Easedale. upwards. the attorney. I felt myself. Unhorse me. the blooming cornet. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. Compound Predicate. y y y y Compound Subject. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. then. 5. In one feature. To suffer and to do. then.y 8. at length the warrior lady. must visit again the home of her childhood. expecting the return of their parents. that was thy portion in life. 2. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. A river formed the boundary. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. 3. 3. at the chief hotel. for the first time. 2. and a member of the world. etc. That night. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. . to the right and to the left. 2. Not compound sentences. 3. after their long confinement to a ship. this nun so martial. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. a room seventeen feet by twelve. I promised her protection against all ghosts. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. 4. Paint me. burthened with the anxieties of a man. this dragoon so lovely. downwards. Their intention was to have a gay. this imperial rider.²the river Meuse. Yes.

²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. ulcer. same as (1). etc. Independent Elements of the Sentence. etc. two or more subjects of the same predicate. the air of the mother. the verb). shouldered the rusty firelock. the simple subject is situation. complements. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. "Ah. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. modifiers. and the rest is the logical predicate. turned his steps homeward. I'm with you once again. the predicate. 355. For example. several modifiers. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them.353. in the sentence. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. forming a sentence: "Oh." "He shook his head. exposes." "The name of the child. together with its modifiers. together with all its modifiers. may be the person or thing addressed." "Voyages and travels I would also have. but it is to be noticed that. the object. above: thus. Examples of compound subjects are. Bishop. the tone of her voice. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. "The company broke up. The exclamatory expression. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is." Sentences with compound predicates are. in all such sentences as we quote below." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. that is. and. my brave young man!" ." And so with complements. hurry. and returned to the more important concerns of the election." "Ye crags and peaks. hurry. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms.. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. then the grammatical subject and predicate. however. 354. and its object or complement. Of this. etc. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. they are not a necessary part. Larger view of a sentence.

etc. 3. this story runs thus. therefore. then. etc. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. moreover. let him perish. such as however." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. see Sec. besides. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. These need close watching. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. really. 357. 4)." "Well. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. modifying a noun. 352. instances of which were seen in Sec. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. 355. yes! everybody knew them. 350.. he was a conscientious man. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb." (5) Participial phrase: "But. (1) Adjectival. how you're winking!" "Now. that have an office in the sentence." (6) Single words: as. and so on. The words well. object. "Oh. such as perhaps. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. truly. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. In their use. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. why." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. There are some adverbs." "No. he somehow lived along. already noticed." "At all events. 4). or word used as a noun: for example. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. her noticing even this is creditable. now. (b) As a modifier of subject. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. the company broke up. grandma." Another caution. nevertheless.. to the best of my remembrance. 351. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. see Sec. undoubtedly. y (2) The adverbial use. and some conjunctions." "Truth to say. modifying the predicate. he closed his literary toils at dinner." (2) Adverbial. six quill-driving gentlemen. generally speaking. prepositional phrases may be. 6)." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. 356. or complement (see Sec.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. . pronoun." "Why." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat." (3) Independent.

358. ought.seem. my dear. "Because I was. and they will be presented here in full." (b) With the forms of be. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. or as nearly so as the student will require. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule.should." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. Wilt thou." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor." In this sentence. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. y (a) With may (might). the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. This case excepted." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. was speedily run through. 355. "The letter of introduction.: as in the sentences. and hence is adverbial. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES." "There. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15.would. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . (5). I. he should not have known them at all." etc. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. etc.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. and teach her how to be happy and good.]." (c) With the definite forms of go. but having no other office than a verbal one. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. containing no matters of business. The verbal use. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. therefore. thus. modifying was speedily run through. being equivalent to a future with obligation. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. See Sec. but require somewhat closer attention. etc. necessity.can (could).

361 are used adverbially. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. complement. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. result. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. hang the idiot. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. the Scotch fighting all the battles." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. II. and the eyes to fill?" 359. 362. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. etc.: for example. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." "To teach is to learn." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. The adverbial use. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry.²both purpose clauses.. The adjectival use. 351. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. "But there was no time to be lost." "To say what good of fashion we can. III." "He insisted on his right to forget her." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. notice the following:² In (1). was to have the foe's life at their mercy." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. To test this. etc. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French." 360. above. already examined. The substantive use. modifying a noun that may be a subject. 5). to hear McOrator after dinner." "Are you mad. to please is equivalent to that he may please. 361." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. . (4) In apposition. IV.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). object." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. to look means that he might look. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. Don Guzman. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive).

This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. The independent use. 355).In (2). but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 351). give the complement (Secs. 363. In (5). and to betray and to bring express the reason. 352).²both expressing condition. (5) The subject (Sec. (3). Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. and to say is equivalent to if we say. 355. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. object. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. V. 3. In (3). 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. which is of two kinds. Our life is March weather. to part means because I part. 268. must be in a life.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. (7) Independent elements (Sec. to find shows the result of the return. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. In (4). 4. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. 2. . 351).. If it is an incomplete verb. In analyzing simple sentences. 364. etc. equivalent to that you betray. 349). to hear means if you should hear. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. give² (1) The predicate. etc. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. savage and serene in one hour. 351). (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 347)." (See also Sec." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. etc.. as in Sec. not in a book.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. I will try to keep the balance true. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these.

Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 5. 16. an accomplished scholar. a graceful dancer. like a witch's oils. 6. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 12.²to preserve her throne. Through the years and the centuries. nor troops. 18. with eager energy. two stricken hours. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 24. . Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. to the moral sphere. 21. is to have no political system at all. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. to keep England out of war. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. We are always in peril. a skilled musician. through toys and atoms. 11. and spared nothing. The whole figure and air. just on the edge of destruction. neither ammunition. The water. through evil agents. 10.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 8.Burnt green and blue and white. and every moment discover something new. nor money. 14. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. The word conscience has become almost confined. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 15. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest.He sat in the shower. 23. nor himself.4. I have heard Coleridge talk. 13. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. He risked everything. to restore civil and religious order. in popular use. Her aims were simple and obvious. always in a bad plight. You may ramble a whole day together. 20.The old crow of Cairo. 17. 19. His opinion is always original. the carrion crow. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 22. might be called flabby and irresolute. 7. and to the purpose. good and amiable otherwise. Old Adam. nor generals. To be hurried away by every event. 9. a good shot. To these gifts of nature.

in front of all this mighty crowd. 30. upon my own ground. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. it would not have been filial or ladylike. Of the same grandeur. and the why. the ship was in an uproar. 35. 31.Distant.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. Upon this shore stood. 26. Now. The cry. still. But yield. secluded. I dare this. the same Condé Olivarez. 32. This amiable relative. The villain. 27. In the Acadian land. in this world. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. proud foe. Fair name might he have handed down. Must we in all things look for the how. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. ready to receive her. an elderly man. 33. haply. 36. time-honored. 40. and no provisions but wild berries. Oxford. to bid you leave the place now and forever. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. and the wherefore? . 39. 37. 38. or perhaps one virtue. on the shores of the Basin of Minas.25. and. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 34. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history.Effacing many a stain of former crime. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. had but one foible. to be a reproach to such goodness. She had made a two days' march. 41. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. Few in number. the present capital of New England. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. baggage far in the rear. in less heroic and poetic form. I hate him and myself. Supposing this computation to be correct. 29. the prime minister of Spain. and in my own garden. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28.

" Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. if they were expanded." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. 333). which is the unit of speech." To show that these words are really omitted. The simple sentence the basis. 365. as.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. thus. but. made merely for convenience and smoothness.From her own loved island of sorrow. As shown in Part I. though often treated as phrases.² "She is like some tender tree. (Sec. the pride and beauty of the grove." Sentences with like. however. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. are really contracted clauses. COMPLEX SENTENCES.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. the expressions of manner introduced by like. Words left out after than or as. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. 367. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences." This must. 366. as would be the connective instead of like. .

" The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint.. and the last. complement. and modifier. containing a verb with its subject. as in this sentence. suffering. complements. and the next one. Definition.²the backbone.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. we are aware. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. 370. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. etc. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. modifiers.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. is taken in. object. how great .. then we recognize this as the main statement. each clause has its subject... that is. .²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. or it may be applied to the others. which are so united that one member is the main one. A clause is a division of a sentence.²the other members subordinate to it. murmur. main. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. or dependent on it. object. Hence the following definition:² Definition. Independent clause.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. 371. CLAUSES. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. predicate. that . But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. A principal. 368. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. logically depends on suffering. 369.

'I know that he can toil terribly.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences.. put an end to my fancies. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. As to their office in the sentence. for example.. for a hundred years. night or day. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. for example.. etc. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. 372. 352. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. and ADVERB clauses. attention is called to them here. infinitive. But since they are complex in form. We ourselves are getting .. thus. . "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. so the object clause is retained." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. verbal. ADJECTIVE. and it is ." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. Noun Clauses. 5)." (2) Object of a verb. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. for a time. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. (b) that are . but logically the sentence is. over which the torrent came tumbling. Kinds. with a noun clause in apposition with it. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. impertinences²would be grammatical." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials.. clauses are divided into NOUN." Just as the object noun. pronoun. impertinences.' is an electric touch. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs.Dependent clause. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories.. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. 373. (a) Ordinary apposition. and the whole clause is not.." 374." (4) Apposition. or adverbs." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition." "I was told that the house had not been shut. adjectives." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause.

. As the office of an adjective is to modify. still remains reasonable. that. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. where." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. he would repent it. a falsehood incarnate.² "It is on the understanding. 375. 8. What history it had. Adjective Clauses. which. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. as.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. etc. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. whereby. 4. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. whether he should choose one or not. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. that. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. 10. whence. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. how it changed from shape to shape. But the fact is. Except by what he could see for himself. 5. 9. 2. but. that he was a scheming impostor. he could know nothing. I was napping. Examples of adjective clauses. that all safe legislation must be based. 3. 7. Such a man is what we call an original man. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. sometimes by the conjunctions when. of a nation. no man will ever know." Exercise. wherein. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. Other examples of this construction are. and not on the sentiment. a relative pronoun being understood. The reply of Socrates. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Frequently there is no connecting word. in the sentence. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. 6. whither. or equivalent of a noun. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense.

i. 1. or that essence we were looking for. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. 2. and tell what each one modifies. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. which Rowena tasted. . he begins to help us more as an effect.376. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. which formed the center of the mansion. object. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities.. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. whether subject. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. 10. Adverbial Clauses. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. 6. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. Pick out the adjective clauses." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. No man is reason or illumination. all is vacancy. I walked home with Calhoun. 11. 8. 7. 9.e. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. etc." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 5. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 3. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. 4." Exercise. the champions advanced through the lists.

Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. or an adverb." (3) REASON. and what it modifies:² . etc. etc. to make up our shortcomings. shaping our actions. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." "The broader their education is. however good she may be as a witness. etc." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. whatever. it takes precedence of everything else. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. so far as we can." (5) DEGREE." "After leaving the whole party under the table." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. the wider is the horizon of their thought. an adjective." "The right conclusion is. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. however." "When he was come up to Christian." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent." "Who cares for that." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. since he was too great to care to be original." (9) CONCESSION. a verbal.377. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. tell what kind each is. with examples. he goes away as if nothing had happened. the milestones are grave-stones. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb.. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming.² whoever. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. Joanna is better. and adverbial conjunctions." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. Exercise.: "But still. that we should try." (7) RESULT. but they require careful study. no matter what remains." "He went several times to England. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. introduced by indefinite relatives. and will be given in detail. expressing the degree in which the horizon. adverbs. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. is wider. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. 378." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome." These mean no matter how good." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand.

" and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. etc. as they sometimes did. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. its object is that Odin was a reality. with shrill. to tell the truth. of which clause Odin is the subject. howling and whistling. then treat noun clauses as nouns. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. on a dark wintry night. so as to picture the parts and their relations. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. 379. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. in the sentence. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. banging about doors and windows. 'Well. find the principal subject and principal predicate. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. predicate. If the children gathered about her. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. and modifiers. when the wind was unruly. and twirling weathercocks. For example. incoherent exclamations. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. snatching up stones to fling at them.1. we are a little disappointed. 3. they might perhaps say of their visitors. object." 2. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. 380. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ .

d. 364. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much.. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. . as seen in the "map" (Sec. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 364. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. 3. 380). True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere.. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 2. (1) Find the principal clause. Exercises. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and .

6. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. . 24. He was what our country people call an old one. 9. Had they been better chemists. Here lay two great roads. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 10. But now that she has become an establishment. or whether any. the flower should revive for us. the mixed result. had we been worse. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. Whether she said the word is uncertain. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 11. 8. 14. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. M. for yours. This is she. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 23. not so much for travelers that were few. 21. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. if applied to the Bible. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. counselor that had none for herself. 22. 5. 13. that. And those will often pity that weakness most. the shepherd girl. dying for them. bishop. 18. 20. Now. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. could not have been effected.4. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. which. 19. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. The deep eyes. The night proved unusually dark. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. 15. 7. whom I choose. that pressed her with an objection. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. Next came a wretched Dominican. 17. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. as for armies that were too many by half. namely. 16. I like that representation they have of the tree. 12. who would yield to it least. of a light hazel. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature.

He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 26. (b) First analyze. 5. and not from his heart. and temper. if continuously extended. 2. and stamped with his right number. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. if there be one to whom I am not equal. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. 3. "was ever written down by any but itself. 6. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. is to speak and write sincerely. These things we are forced to say. 383.25. 382. that it was no more than his daily walk. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. "No book. though we may repeat the words never so often. . We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. 7. would easily reach. and what content I can find in conversing with each. That which we do not believe. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained.² Definition. the following complex sentences:² 1. How formed. 27. we cannot adequately say. questions. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 380. Hence the definition. or commands. The writer who takes his subject from his ear." 4. then map out as in Sec. but above it. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. 30.²which will not be disposed of. speed. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. COMPOUND SENTENCES." said Bentley. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. 28.

But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses.. while (whilst). and none but he knows what that is which he can do. he dilates. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. and nor the second and third complex members. 385. as in Sec. in (3). Thus in (1). others sometimes coördinate. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. from the second. yet. etc. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. a simple member. Another example is. and connects the first and second complex members. nor. moon-like ray" (adversative). the semicolons cut apart the independent members. tell which are compound. the planet has a faint. and not the form of the connective. and which complex:² 1. 383 (1). a complex member. and it shall be the universal sense. The division into members will be easier. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. 297). Exercise. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3)." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. he is twice a man. for. whereas. Some of these are now conjunctions. in (2). Examples of compound sentences:² Examples." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. the waving grass. nor does he know until he has tried. . he walks with arms akimbo. the semicolon separates the first. he soliloquizes.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. Speak your latent conviction. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. if there are any." 384. however. which are simple statements. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. etc. The coördinate conjunctions and. or but. Of the following illustrative sentences. Study the thought. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. now adverbs or prepositions. Connectives. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. "Only the star dazzles. as but. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. 386.

Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. 3. yield to them heart and life. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 4. passed in that time. to find a pot of buried gold. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. The gain is apparent. Whilst the world is thus dual. 364. that it was Easter Sunday. 14. In this manner. and thou shalt be loved. 381. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. the tax is certain. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. and for everything you gain. he grew up to be a mild. is particular. 387. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 3. all pain. quiet. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. so is every one of its parts. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 9. 4. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 10. unobtrusive boy. 6. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. you have gained something else. 5. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. you lose something. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 7. (i) Separate it into its main members. I can yet love. All loss. 12. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men.2. 8. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. Love. and not by what each is. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. However some may think him wanting in zeal. 13. Exercise. 2. 11. for example. however. from a happy yet often pensive child. and as yet very early in the morning. For everything you have missed. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. nay. . or. I can still receive. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. Man does not stand in awe of man.

or we pursue persons. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. or we read books. Come into port greatly. and each shows only what lies at its focus. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. and they will be true to you. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. "as nigh the scythe as you can. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. let them mount and expand. and not an emotion of bravery. which always make the Actual ridiculous. 21. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax.5. crook and hide. . as children. and he learns who receives. and the peace of society is often kept." 13. 11. 7. treat them greatly. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. 18. 9." "keep the rake. only that they may brag and conquer there. They will shuffle and crow. "the iron is white. and they will show themselves great." says the haymaker. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. 20. give those merits room. We see the noble afar off. Whatever he knows and thinks. We go to Europe. 16. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. and the other dares not. 6. and they repel us. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. abide by it. or men will never know and honor him aright. When you have chosen your part. 19. "Strike. if you rip up his claims. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. one is afraid. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. Stand aside. and you are without effort impelled to truth. or sail with God the seas. why should we intrude? 10. modesty. 17. feign to confess here. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. whilst frankness invites frankness. puts the parties on a convenient footing. because. He teaches who gives. and the cart as nigh the rake. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. 15." says the smith. or hope. is as thin and timid as any. that let him communicate. 14. Trust men. 8. and makes their business a friendship. and not a thought has enriched either party.

but its leading characteristic is. 23.²agreement and government. We see young men who owe us a new world. So does culture with us. so readily and lavishly they promise. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. Do not craze yourself with thinking. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. it never was known to fall into the rear. INTRODUCTORY. 390. adjective and noun. but they never acquit the debt. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. PART III. 380. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. but go about your business anywhere. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. By way of introduction. or. and dodge the account. they lose themselves in the crowd. Ground covered by syntax. if they live. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. the department of syntax will be a small affair. SYNTAX. Essential point in English syntax. Following the Latin method. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. it ends in headache.22. 25. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. 388. pronoun and antecedent. they die young. 24. verb and subject.

and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. Why study syntax? 391. or when they exist side by side in good usage. or the same writer will use both indifferently. In some cases. also expressing a possessive relation. some of which conform to classical grammar. and imitate it. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. the sentence. "None remained but he. and added to it the preposition of. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English." In this there is a possessive form. the order being inverted. In Latin. and nothing but important points will be considered. pronoun and antecedent. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. Also in the sentence. There is.² First. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. and whose judgment. "The savage here the settler slew. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. therefore. but are not now. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. When usage varies as to a given construction. Some rules not rigid. as to study inflected forms. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. both forms will be given in the following pages." is ambiguous. good English. Savage may be the subject. take the sentence. distinct forms would be used. then. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. For example. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund." that is. sometimes verb and subject. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. 392.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. authorities²that is. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). As an illustration of the last remark. Second. The basis of syntax. following the regular order of subject. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. etc. This is not logical." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. . writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. or settler may be the subject. 393. and it would not matter which one stood first.

but imply separate possession or ownership. 395. Putting Mr.²RUSKIN. . and Harley's. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. or indicate joint ownership or possession.²MCCULLOCH. 396. sense and nature's easy fool. 408).² He lands us on a grassy stage. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. and Paul's. and Pope's. Swift did not keep Stella's letters.²MACAULAY. Mill's and Mr. for example. 394. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. and Peterborough's. Woman.²MILTON. as.NOUNS. 397.²EMERSON. the antechamber of the High Priest. the shore of Galilee. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. Joint possession.²ROWE. ²ID.²BYRON. etc.²THACKERAY." Juletta tells.² Live your king and country's best support.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. Use of the possessive. and Peter's. the possessive sign is used with each noun. PRONOUNS. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. Separate possession. Bentham's principles together. He kept Bolingbroke's.

NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. General rules. for example. the last expression has the support of many good writers. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.²SOUTHEY. Still. whom is the complement after the verb am. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. I. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. there are two general rules that require attention.) "The young Harper. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. Objective for the nominative. Some of the violations are universally condemned. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. together with the relative who. the real thought being forgotten. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. if not universally.²WHITCHER.²BYRON.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. This should be "as she.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. as.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. No mightier than thyself or me. the true relation of the words is misunderstood." 400. thus. who. But he must be a stronger than thee. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). Since most of the personal pronouns. Not to render up my soul to such as thee.²TROLLOPE. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. . (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. others are generally.²POPE.²THACKERAY. 399.²SHAKESPEARE. Bedott Papers. and should be the nominative form. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. 398. sanctioned.

²MACAULAY.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. The usage is too common to need further examples. they are yet holier than we. Patrick the Porter. "Who's there?"²"Me. One exception is to be noted. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²FIELDING. is. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who."²WM.² For there was little doubt that it was he. on the other hand." 401. are. In spoken English. it will not be me. the objective form is regularly found. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. both in England and America.²PARTON.²COLERIDGE. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. But still it is not she. namely. I have no other saint than thou to pray to.²RUSKIN. A safe rule. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²THACKERAY.²LONGFELLOW. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. BLACK.²KINGSLEY. . and the other forms of the verb be.²SCOTT. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable."²WINTHROP. "If there is any one embarrassed. And it was heThat made the ship to go. "Than whom. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. unless a special. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. but such is the fact." There is no special reason for this. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe."²KINGSLEY.² One I remember especially. as. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. for example. The camp of Richard of England.

as this from Shakespeare." the word being in apposition with murderer). or this. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. Truth is mightier than us all. You know whom it is that you thus charge. 403. but not he" (he should be him. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. it is me. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 8. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. you or me. 3. Me in exclamations." 6. Nominative for the objective. and prepositions. (3) By forgetting the construction. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. 5. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. Whom they were I really cannot specify. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. . We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. verbals. or us). as.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. as. "Ask the murderer. used after verbs. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. If there ever was a rogue in the world. now. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. object of saw). 11. 2. 9. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 404. I speak not to" (he should be him. verbal. the object of to). It is not me you are in love with. 10. 4. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 7.Exercise. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. or preposition which governs it.²MILTON. as.

Exception 1. Exercise. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. as.²KINGSLEY. for example. 406. I've sworn. but he. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. save thou and thine. .²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.²BYRON.²STEELE. etc. for they say there are none such in the world. Thy shores are empires. Nature. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.²KINGSLEY. all but he.²BYRON. "Who were they talking to?" etc. We regularly say.² All were knocked down but us two.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. "Who did you see?" or. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.²GOLDSMITH. Let you and I look at these. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. Exception 2. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Who have we here?²ID. 405. and is usually avoided. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. changed in all save thee. as well as the objective. None. partial Nature. Thou.²KINGSLEY. who interrogative. as. 2. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. I arraign. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.Shall be left upon the morn.

We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room.²SCOTT.²MACAULAY." 4. 5. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. Preceding a gerund.²C. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. BROWN. and they know that as well as me. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach.²possessive. Markland. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear.3. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.²THACKERAY. B. 8. with Jortin and Thirlby.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. They crowned him long ago. 9. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. 407. 11. This usage is not frequent. 6. II.²RUSKIN. Bartholomew. POSSESSIVE FORMS. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. As antecedent of a relative. 10. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. who. or objective? . Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. 7. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 12.²DE QUINCEY. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.Ye I salute.

²DICKENS. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. Possessive. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. The use of the objective is older. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.²DE QUINCEY. that the bitterness of death was past. object of heard of. and asked why it was not made. We heard of Brown. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.² CARLYLE. [who was] studying law. both are gerunds.408. But in common use there is no such distinction. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.² IRVING. Why both are found.²CARLYLE. sometimes it has the objective. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.²BREWER.²MACAULAY." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. as he turned away from his wife. Objective. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. In the examples quoted.² SCOTT. The last incident which I recollect. Both types of sentences are found. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. etc. studying is a gerund. and that in the second. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. .² THACKERAY. Here I state them only in brief." That is. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. and the meaning is.²RUSKIN.

Watch for the real antecedent. and ought to agree with them in person. or is a distributive word. Every city threw open its gates. preceded by a distributive.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²DE QUINCEY. . In such a case as the last three sentences. the pronoun will be neuter singular. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. BROCKDEN BROWN. 410.²DEFOE. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²THACKERAY. taking in each of many persons.²CABLE. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.² BRYANT. and gender. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. if the antecedent is neuter. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²AUDUBON. number. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. in one person.²EMERSON III. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. it was his own fault.²when the antecedent. Examples of these constructions are.²HUXLEY. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. where there were examinations.²DE QUINCEY. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²HOLMES. The pale realms of shade. 409. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. If any one did not know it.²C.²RUSKIN. Everybody had his own life to think of. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²THOREAU.

²PALEY. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²EMERSON. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. till they have lost him. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²ID. If the part deserve any comment.²PAULDING.²SCOTT. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. The sun.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. This is not considered the best usage. for example.²BYRON. By using the plural pronoun. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. let them break it off.²AUSTEN.²FIELDING.²ID.²THACKERAY. . Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. 411. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²HUXLEY. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.Avoided: By using both pronouns.²RUSKIN. Struggling for life.²PALGRAVE. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. not a mowing idiot.²DEFOE. Whosoever hath any gold. and giving them means of being so. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Every one must judge of their own feelings.²BIBLE. as anybody in their senses would have done. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.² Not the feeblest grandame.

which. It adds a new statement to what precedes. 413. who went away. . "I gave it to the beggar. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. Exercise. etc. according to the practice of every modern writer." This means. that being considered already clear. but. but. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one].²ID. no one could take upon them to say.²In the above sentences." A relative. What these terms mean. and that always restrictive. which. and he went away. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. As to their conjunctive use." It defines beggar. or unrestrictive. 1. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. In the following examples. or what was become of her. That is in most cases restrictive. 2. tell whether who. in each instance:² Who. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate.²ADDISON. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. because. when coördinating.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise. and that are restrictive or not. 412. when restrictive.) and a personal pronoun.Where she was gone.² SHERIDAN. the definite relatives who. unless both genders are implied. and does not add a new statement. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. as. A relative. I.

There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. The general rule is. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced.. that were often vicious. because of its antecedent. With narrow shoulders. BEECHER 5. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. etc. A grizzly-looking man appeared. That. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. which Mr. and it is called logic. W. and over England are saying. these or that which.²ID. etc. she agreed to join the party. long arms and legs.3. II.² IRVING. he. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. in the sentence.²HOLMES. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. However. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. which was to go over the Cordilleras.²ADDISON.²ID.²DE QUINCEY. who. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. We say I. So different from the wild. but. as that does not vary for person or number. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. 13. 4. 12. Which.²H. down. 7. 10. 414. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. Hare has printed.² CARLYLE. 6. The rule. 8. it makes the verb third person singular.²THOREAU. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.² NEWMAN. you.² MOTLEY. 9. 11. For example. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. Yet how many are there who up. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. On hearing their plan." that is invariable as to person and number. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. etc. In what sense true. they. 14. . hard-mouthed horses at Westport.²DE QUINCEY.

What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. when he derided the shams of society. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. . but speaks of him as that sort.. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. 415... "one of the finest books that has been published... but myself. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. and write the verb in the plural. He is one of those that deserve very well. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. [singular or plural. French literature of the eighteenth century. ARNOLD. Singular. the true antecedent.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. in winning a battle. A disputed point. The latter is rather more frequent. with one as the principal word.²BOWLES.] Both constructions are frequently found. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. Let us be of good cheer. etc. but the former has good authority. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.²J. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. The fiery youth .²ADDISON.²ADDISON.²M. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. [plural] that who. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived..²whether we should say.²LOWELL. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. JR.²LOWELL. others regard books as the antecedent.²HOLMES. etc. T. or which . and in improving a victory. who rarely speak at all." One of . Franklin..²HOWELLS. MORSE." or. "one of the finest books that have been published.²LECKY.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT.

And. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²VAUGHAN.²ADDISON. or where] he died.²ID.²BURNS. 417. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²SWIFT. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²DEFOE. IV.²SCOTT. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.² THACKERAY. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers."²DICKENS. return. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²IRVING. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²EMERSON. 416. where. Exercise.A rare Roundabout performance. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.² RUSKIN." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. The same day I went aboard we set sail. object of a preposition understood. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts." "India is the place [in which. and such like: as.² . Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.In that same state I came.²In the above sentences.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. I could see nothing except the sky. III. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.²GOLDSMITH. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²EMERSON.²CARLYLE. But I by backward steps would move. when the relative word is a pronoun. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. when this dust falls to the urn. whence. that is.

² MACAULAY. with Turner. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. and working in the same spirit. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. boats.²R. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. The regular construction.²ADDISON.²WORDSWORTH. I might as well have staid at home. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. Which. was a discoverer. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. ²GOLDSMITH. Caution. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. but. if same is followed by a complete clause. as is not as his apprentice. as of knives. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. looking-glasses.He considered. but which is usually carefully avoided. They believe the same of all the works of art. which. . Mr.² BURKE... V. he. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. for example. 418.² THACKERAY. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²SWIFT. CHURCH. she passed the lamp over her face and person. Anacoluthic use of which. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.² Which. if I had resolved to go on with. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. or that. but we find the relative who. etc. That. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. W.²FRANKLIN. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.²SCOTT.

Exercise. or. who are now thrown." etc. Express both relatives. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors.She'd come again. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. 1. or omit the conjunction. and which. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty.²HAWTHORNE. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. As the sentences stand. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. 2. (2) "Among the poorer sort. which when Mr. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. 419. But who.²GOLDSMITH. He delivered the letter.²THACKERAY. and who are now. but. 4. 3. le Conte. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. And who.²DE QUINCEY. etc. This was a gentleman.. .²SHAKESPEARE. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. and who are now thrown upon their compassion.. (3) "Among the poorer sort. (1) "Among those who are poor. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.² Direction for rewriting." etc. That is. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. or leave out both connective and relative. etc. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.²SCOTT. he said that all submission was now too late.²which if they once heard. but none is expressed. once a great favorite of M. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort." etc.. now thrown upon their. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. After this came Elizabeth herself. Thornhill had read. Exercise.²RUSKIN.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. and this be placed in the proper clause.

Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man.²SCOTT. "A mockery. That . and which. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. 11.²IRVING. 6. and which may even be heard a mile off. who. Akin to the above is another fault.²HAWTHORNE. But which. 9. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. and repeat this for any further reference. Or who.²SCOTT. 12. I saw upon the left a scene far different. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. "What knight so craven. Exercise. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. I shall have complete copies. . which the Scotch had learned.. the French. either from imitation of their frequent allies. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. 7. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. 420. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. 1. which is likewise a variation from the best usage.²DE QUINCEY. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . as a false and astucious mark. 10. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE.5. Dr. Or which.² MOTLEY. and to whom no door is closed. And which.." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. 13. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. etc.²PEARSON. one of signal interest. 8. and which has never been described. etc..²DE QUINCEY.. then. English by name. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. indeed. like that spoken in the towns. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house.

11. Such as . and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. such as they have very probably been bred to. G. 5.. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. CHANNING. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. the dime. That .²BEECHER. that . 12. I give to such men as do not belong to me. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. Which ..²EMERSON. He flung into literature. was hung in air.²W. In my native town of Salem.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. half a century ago. 7..²HOWELLS. SIMMS. but which.. 9. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. 13.. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. which.²HALLAM. 14. Such as . in his present condition.. 15. E. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.²SCOTT That which .2. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.²HAWTHORNE. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours.²DEFOE. I grudge the dollar. It rose into a thrilling passion. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.. but which is perhaps not so different from it..²W. The Tree Igdrasil. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. 10. what. the cent. . and to whom I do not belong. He. was a bustling wharf. at the head of what. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. which.²DE QUINCEY. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. I recommend some honest manual calling.²EMERSON.²HOLMES.. 4. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. whom. 3. 6. 8. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. in his Mephistopheles. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.. that.. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. and whose examples and principles we inherit.²SCOTT.

²RUSKIN. England was then divided between kings and Druids.² Some one must be poor. Distributives either and neither.²HAWTHORNE. 421. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. in which case any should be used instead. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²RUSKIN. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. one another. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.²ID. We call ourselves a rich nation. as it were.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. for example. always at war with one another. By their original meaning. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT.²MACAULAY. whether or not the two are equivalent. Assume that no one is in want of either. 422. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. Each other. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. .²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²DICKENS. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. as. Use of any. that not all combined. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. as.² HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. into the high pavilion of their thoughts.²GOLDSMITH. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. and in want of his gold²or his corn. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.

. any was often singular. Any usually plural. in the prose of the present day. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. even in Bettine. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).² If any..²THACKERAY.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . etc. as none of the French philosophers were. then in Plutarch. Do you think. let him ask of God. if ever man was. at one time in Bacon.²SHAKESPEARE. None of Nature's powers do better service. Do you think. None usually plural. The adjective pronoun none is.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.. which is plural as often as singular. I beseech you. and is isolated. Caution.² In earnest. for him have I offended.²PROF..²STIRLING. in Shakespeare. 424.²BIBLE. usually plural.² EMERSON. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.²EMERSON. then in Plotinus.²BURKE. 423. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. Examples of its use are. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY.²SCOTT. If any of you lack wisdom.²CARLYLE. during his stay at Yuste.²FRANKLIN. whilst I still cherish their genius. that I know of. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. any of his friends had died. afterwards in Goethe. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. speak. when any of them are so good as to visit me. as.²BEECHER Whenever. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. as. before that. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. In earlier Modern English.

²THOREAU.² PEARSON. or somebody else's? 426..²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. etc. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. any one else. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. Somebody's else..²SCOTT Like the use of any. nobody else.² None of them was cleansed. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. as. that all was lost. which is used absolutely..²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. for example.² Singular. and Ford has nobody's else. The light troops thought .²NAPIER Plural. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. and less rarely in poetry. saving Naaman the Syrian. are treated as units. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. 425. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. The compounds somebody else. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. the plural. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. etc.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. fixing his eyes on the mace.²McMASTER.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. when it means all persons: for example. and all was lost on the other. When all were gone. etc. etc.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.

²in such as "these sort of books.²N.² These kind of knaves I know. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.² Saturday Review. .²G." the nouns being singular. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences." "all manner of men.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.²AUSTEN. London. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.²DICKENS. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. Again. 427."²MRS.²RUSKIN. Whitefield or Wesley.²MULOCH. WILLIS. all manner of. or those sort of people..²SWEET.² FIELDING. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. His hair.²RUSKIN. or some other such great man as a bishop. ADJECTIVES. etc. for example. ELIOT. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.²THACKERAY. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. etc. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural." "those kind of trees. unlike anybody else's in the world.SYDNEY SMITH. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). "Ye see.curled once all over it in long tendrils. STOWE.²SHERIDAN. the adjectives plural.. These sort. P.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.

more alarming than a total silence. gradually displacing the old. made to agree with it." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. According to the approved usage of Modern English. The result. Later form. Should we say. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. the victor or the vanquished. when the necessary dispositions concur. Consequently we have a confused expression. At the source. to express a higher degree of quality." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. in spoken English." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). "A sort of uncertain sounds are. . which accounts for the construction. with all manner of amusing books. 428. History of this construction.² PRESCOTT. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. "These kind of trees are best. such as. In Old and Middle English. not "all kinds of wild animals.² Which is the better able to defend himself. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. Burke's sentence." A question. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. or one object with a class of objects. "This kind of rules are the best. Of two such lessons. and the adjective is. "This sort of trees should be planted.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. they said. for example.²RUSKIN. and in this way may take a plural verb. or the nouns to the plural. Use of the comparative degree." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. as. This the modern expression reverses. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects.The library was open.

²LOWELL. Henry. To the man who plays well.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²HUXLEY. if not. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. has sanctioned. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. the highest stakes are paid. 5. Gary.²CARLYLE. 3.²HAWTHORNE. He is taller.²MACAULAY. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. 6. by almost the breadth of my nail. etc.²SCOTT. 429.²SWIFT. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. Use of the superlative degree.A braver ne'er to battle rode. 4.²TROLLOPE. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. than any of his court.²THACKERAY. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. Exercise. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. I am concerned to see that Mr. Superlative with two objects. .² THACKERAY. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold.²WIRT. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. would not have had the face. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. Even Dodd himself. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.²MACAULAY. 2. Other after the comparative form."²ID. 430.

There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. After the most straitest sect of our religion.. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. ha. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.²Bible.²SCOTT..²TEMPEST.²EMERSON.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²BEN JONSON. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²HAMLET."²HAWTHORNE. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. OLIPHANT. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. . Also from the same period. CÆSAR. Mary.²IRVING. These two properties seem essential to wit.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. In all disputes between States.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. The eldest. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. 1611. 431. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. Rip was one of those . The following examples are used purposely. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. and the other contains the best men.²J."²BULWER. not a bit of high life among them. "Ha. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²ADDISON. Examples from Shakespeare are. and differ only in form. Come you more nearer. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. I should say that one has the best cause."²GOLDSMITH. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.²RUSKIN. more particularly the last of them.²GOLDSMITH. Double comparative and superlative.²DR BLAIR. who eat white bread or brown.²MRS. whichever can be got easiest.

have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. etc. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. The merit of the Barb. Examples of this construction are. 433. . The delay in the first three lines. Instances of both are given below. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. Definite article.²DE QUINCEY. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.² SMOLLETT. not only so in popular speech.²PRESCOTT. As to these two expressions. jar upon us constantly. Three first. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.²RUSKIN.²GIBBON.²GIBBON. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. but in literary English. etc.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. and Secretary Walsingham also. First three.²KINGSLEY. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.² With a singular noun.²RUSKIN. and conceit in the last. The meaning intended is the same. These are the three first needs of civilized life. ²COWPER.²LAMB. the Spanish. ARTICLES.²ADDISON. The first five had specific names. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. For Carlyle.

433. With a plural noun. 433.²MACAULAY..²TAYLOR. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. having been arranged. were placed at a very tender age. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. the hour of parting came. however. with a plural noun. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. Here the youth of both sexes. as.²NEWMAN. but is used with one only.²TENNYSON. to distinguish clearly. I think. No. or to emphasize the meaning. melodious. the thought and the word. distinct. He is master of the two-fold Logos.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. the greatest poems.²SCOTT.²PRESCOTT. 434.²ID. The flowers. and the presents. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. with a singular noun. but inseparable from each other.² RUSKIN. One object and several modifiers. of the higher and middling orders. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . Origin of the Aryans. as in Sec.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. . The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.²CARLYLE. The lofty.. 1508.²THE NATION. and flexible language. Indefinite article. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.²THACKERAY. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. Frequently. as. 435. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. The not repeated.² MACAULAY. of the eighteenth century. Meaning same as in Sec. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.

²MACAULAY. For rhetorical effect. as. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind.² MACAULAY. like the definite article. JONSON. He saw him in his mind's eye. One article with several adjectives.²S. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. 437. a round and a square one alternately. . a murderer. 433 and 436. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. 435. But in the following sentences. interest.²MACAULAY. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.²DRYDEN.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.² BURKE. and a usurper. as in the first three of Sec. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. rich. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²BULWER. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns.²JOHNSON. T.²THACKERAY. one noun is expressed. and inexhausted vein. only one of which is expressed. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. 436). Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. Examples of this use are." and "a red and a white geranium.²B.An early.²DICKENS.²BEECHER. a collegian. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.436. The indefinite article (compare Sec.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. 438. to limit two or more modified nouns. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. COLERIDGE. or clearness to each of several nouns. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. In the sentences of Secs. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. a tyrant. The indefinite article is used.

² It is by no means sure that either our literature. all that academies can give. 440. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.²CARLYLE This usage. for example. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. Singular verb. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. In English.²AGASSIZ.²FROUDE. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. ARNOLD. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. was the earliest American land. This was spoken of in Part I.VERBS.²M. 276. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. He sees that it is better to live in peace. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. like some others in this series. Collective noun of singular meaning. as. A broad and loose rule. or the great intellectual life of our nation.²COOPER. .²The Nation. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit.²W. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. and the following illustrations prove it.²G. as. 439. has got already. without academies. Such. Singulars connected by or or nor. Another writer might. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. Sec. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.²GIBBON. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds.. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. ELIOT. then.

²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²J. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. for example. seems at the moment unpaid loss. is gone. and other singulars of plural form. nor Paul. but each one emphatic. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. A fever.²DE QUINCEY. nor John. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.² Politics is the only field now open for me.² The unbought grace of life. but considered as meaning about the same thing. a loss of friends. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.²GOLDSMITH.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. a mutilation. nor Mahomet. for example. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.²BURKE. as. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.² In a word. and every four hours. Between ourselves. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. ADAMS. No. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. a loss of wealth. the cheap defense of nations. Q.²EMERSON . (4) When the subject is plural in form.²CRITIC. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. a cruel disappointment.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. other names. that of a large town. ²EMERSON. as. Plural form and singular meaning.²WHITTIER. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.² GOLDSMITH.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²GIBBON. or considered as appositional.Jesus is not dead. or as making up one general idea.

²RUSKIN. 441.²MACAULAY. is a man of wit. For wide is heard the thundering fray. an agitated gesture.²LONGFELLOW.² There is a right and a wrong in them. the wit. does not take the place of the man. Every week. every valet. the fine gentleman.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. and such like adjectives.² Asia. a gorget. the ruin.²HAWTHORNE. the partisan. was listened to for five hours.²SCOTT.²ID. almost every day. a cuirass. each. thus. as well as Europe.²ID. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.²EMERSON. sir!" and the "What then. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.The author. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.²M ARNOLD. Subjects after the verb.²BUTLER. Every fop. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. was dazzled. and greaves.²PRESCOTT. as. in a judge. was punished. To receive presents or a bribe. Then comes the "Why. sir?" and the "No.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. as well as the newest. an impassioned countenance. sir!"²MACAULAY. no discontinuity. Here is no ruin. every boor. Her back. the dismay. every echo. There is a moving tone of voice. no matter if the second is plural). The oldest. no spent ball. Plural verb. was like to crack.²NEWMAN. Every sound.² . wineBegins to stir itself. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. as well as the Drama. The Epic. many a. no. as well as sides. as. nay.²MACAULAY. with death.²PRESCOTT.The rout.

the Duke of Berri. far away thy children leave the land. TAYLOR.²GOLDSMITH. making up a plural subject. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.²FROUDE. as in Sec. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²ADDISON. Conjunction omitted. A shady grove.²SWIFT.²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE But its authorship. were men of insignificant characters. as. as with a subject of plural form. Far.²THOREAU. but the verb is plural. for example.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. 440 (5. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. and its history are alike a mystery to us. A party of workmen were removing the horses.² GIBBON. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. a stream of fresh water. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. . are sufficient to attract a colony. of whom there were a number.²GIBBON.²B. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. The Dauphin.²FRANKLIN. All our household are at rest.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.²COLERIDGE.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.² A multitude go mad about it.²SCOTT. His clothes.²EMERSON.² One or two of these perhaps survive. The travelers. as.These bits of wood were covered on every square. Philip of Anjou. b). Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. shirt.²FROUDE. a green pasture. The conjunction may be omitted. its date.

"You would not be wiser.But notice the construction of this. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.²WHITTIER. we never talk politics. nor has she").² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. Not I. hadst been my lord.²D. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. of different persons. If she or you are resolved to be miserable." etc.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. nor should I.²LOWELL. Ah. 442. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²DE QUINCEY.²SMOLLETT.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. Second or third and first person in the subject.²M. ARNOLD.). "I have never said so. WEBSTER.²RUSKIN." "She or you may be sure. Pattison or I have said.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.²GOLDSMITH. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. that is.²THACKERAY. Exceptional examples. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. This construction is at the best a little awkward. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. as. Nothing which Mr.²THACKERAY. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. for example. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. When the subjects. but thou.²ROWE. Not Altamont. the verb takes the construction of the first person." or. You and I are tolerably modest people.²BYRON. "He or I can go. If there is only one person in the subject.²RUSKIN. You and I are farmers. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. . but thou. his blood dost shed. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. 444. General usage. the subject being really equivalent to we. 443.

12.445. BANCROFT. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.²EMERSON. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²SMOLLETT. Nor wood. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 3.²SCOTT. 440-444):² 1. 8. 6. 10. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Neither of them. 11. Both death and I am found eternal. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²ADDISON. 4.²MILTON. 9.²THACKERAY. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS).Her course to intercept.²G. 5. Also in verbals. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.That neither of their intellects are vast. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. as illustrated above (Secs. The following illustrate exceptional usage. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. In this sentence from Defoe. In the following sentence. In a word. in my opinion.²and.² TROLLOPE. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. How each of these professions are crowded. Exercise. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. 446. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. as we would hope. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze.²perhaps the devil.²BURKE. nor bush are there. which it is proper to mention. nor tree.²BYRON. 2. 7. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.²ID.²ADDISON. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.

Direct discourse²that is. It should be remarked. meaning. to have seen should be changed to to see.. 447.²KINGSLEY.²THACKERAY. Indirect discourse means reported speech. I gave one quarter to Ann. Exercise. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² .²FRANKLIN 6. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used." . The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.²R. to have divided with her whatever might remain. 448. Two samples of indirect discourse. The present rule is recent. as. CHURCH. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers.² PALGRAVE 5. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. 4. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. 3. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. on my return.²MACAULAY. if not.²DE QUINCEY 2. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. Definitions. But I found I wanted a stock of words. Of course.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. however.²IRVING.. change them to a better form:² 1. for exact connection. W.

"Safety there is none for me until I have laid.. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. and the indirect question by whether or if. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. Direct. etc. Oh.. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. Summary of the expressions. 1. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. The substance of his lamentation was. . Direct." etc. She thought to herself. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. "I cannot oblige you . Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. His exact words were. "Oh. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. interrogative adverbs. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis.. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St." etc. under interrogative pronouns. 2. This includes the auxiliaries be. will. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. Her prudence whispered eternally. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat.. or regular interrogatives. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. have. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. introductory verb is in the past tense. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. 449. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Sebastian's." Indirect. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead.

²GOLDSMITH.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. he assured me that nothing was more easy.²B. VERBALS.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.²ID. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.Exercise. and that he himself had heard.²ADDISON. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. one summer afternoon. in the sentences first quoted. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. handed down from his ancestor the historian. . FRANKLIN. like distant peals of thunder." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. my first observation will be found nearly true. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. Notice this. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. Careless use of the participial phrase. the sound of their balls. with his crew of the Half-moon. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. PARTICIPLES. 450. the first discoverer of the river and country. The trouble is." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. if this were expanded into a verb.

There are." Exercise. purposely or not. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.²ID. leaving the principal statement as it is. then.. either "As I was pleased.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.²LAUGHLIN. many things to be carefully considered. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . Consequently one of two courses must be taken. . That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them...²RUSKIN. This is the more common arrangement.²SCOTT. 3. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. For example. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.² HERBERT SPENCER." etc. INFINITIVES. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. 2. my first collection was. 451. Standard writers often use it..² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. if a strike is to succeed. It is a solemn.. In the following citations. the first sentence would be. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. and often. while defended or excused by others. avoid it. . or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.Correction.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. Exercise.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. Adverb between to and the infinitive. universal assertion.

Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. are used.² ADDISON. 6. 7. 5. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. Position of only. 11.²GOLDSMITH. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. china. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. etc. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. 9. Now. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. but they are often removed from the exact position.²RUSKIN. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . The rigid rule in such a case would be. 12. 8.. therefore.²SCOTT.²TROLLOPE. even. but it is placed before the infinitive. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.²BURKE." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. No.²The Nation. A little sketch of his. BLAIR. ADVERBS. this kind of grandeur. if they modify single words.²ID. 13. etc.² MACAULAY. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. which consists in multitude. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. is to be very cautiously admitted.4.²DR. I wish the reader to clearly understand. Exercise. 1533. and earthenware. The spirits. 452. etc.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. even. when such adverbs as only. 10. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. but cannot misunderstand the thought. In works of art.. from Irving.

Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. to avoid a crowd. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. were he never so old of yeares.²SWIFT. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. 12. 13. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. P.1. 3. He shouted in those clear. WILLIS.²CHAUCER. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 15.²ID.²N. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. During the whole course of his administration.²PALGRAVE. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. whence he was never destined to return.²RUSKIN.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 8.²MRS.²EMERSON.² THACKERAY. 14. 2.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. He could only afford to keep one old horse. 5. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.²ID. 6.²COOPER. 11.²HIGGINSON. 453. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²MOTLEY. 16.²SYDNEY SMITH. 9. 17. might not marry.²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. . My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. His last journey to Cannes. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 10.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. The old usage. for example. In relating these and the following laws. In Old and Middle English.²ID. Irving could only live very modestly. GROTE. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. 7. My master. No sonne. ²ASCHAM. 4. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.

5.² HAMILTON. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. In the latter case. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. etc. ²PAGE. nor never shall. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.²LOWELL."²MRS. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. if two negatives are found together. when one of the negatives is a connective. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. Therefore. In the execution of this task.²DE QUINCEY. I never did see him again. as.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man.²BURKE. This. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. 6. The prosperity of no empire. can so agreeably affect."²four negatives. denying each other.²BAYNE. nor the grandeur of no king. the usual way of regarding the question now is.²DEFOE. Exercise. STOWE. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. 2.²MRS.²HAWTHORNE. But.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. 7. one of the negatives is often a prefix. There weren't no pies to equal hers. as infrequent. I did not act so hastily. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. 4.²GROTE. under the influence of Latin syntax. . in Ole Virginia. and why:² 1. uncommon. and is still kept in vulgar English. Not only could man not acquire such information. however. 3. STOWE. who hadn't been to school for nothing. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. Regular law of negative in modern English. However. but ought not to labor after it. neither. Exceptional use.²HOLMES. is not common.

should be scrutinized... as well as of the pronoun." . 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. neither . And who."²SCOTT. Choice and proper position of correlatives. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.. not merely . even neither .8." both of the above requirements are violated. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. especially both .. or. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.. the first ought to be placed before a verb.. but to their own safety. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. the first should also. not only to the success of their common cause.²SCOTT." may be changed to "This loose .. as the use of the conjunction. nor. either. if the second precedes a phrase. 455.. and. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. if the last precedes a verb. and which. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. or. there we were..²PRESCOTT. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. The sentence..²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. CONJUNCTIONS. "well worthy to confer honor. Correction. not only ... but (also). a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. but.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. "A weapon.. or with advantage..²LOWELL.. 454. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. nor is often changed to not²either ... The sentences given in Secs. Things to be watched. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. not or is the proper correlative of neither." Besides neither . either ." said the King. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . In the sentence. or to reply to it. or to reply to it.

²RUSKIN. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. O. or the negative relative but. Now. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. 5. Exercise. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. But what.²S. 2." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. Try and for try to. Some exceptions. 3. too.² ADDISON. . we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²GIBBON. or but that for the words but what:² 1. 4. 6. as. Correct the following sentences:² 1. Try and avoid the pronoun. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun.²BAIN. as. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. In the following sentences. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. and I don't know but what he was right. substitute that. JEWETT. but. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. not merely interest children. but they will outrage. and chop up their own kin. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.²THACKERAY.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. or but that.²THACKERAY.²FRANKLIN. etc. 7. 457. murder. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. nor the disgrace of assailing him.Exercise. but. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.²ID.²GOLDSMITH. They will. but grown-up persons. 456. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. 8.²MACAULAY.

² SWIFT.²TROLLOPE. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²ADDISON. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. 305.²EMERSON. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. Between is used most often with two things only. as already seen in Sec.²SCOTT. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. . No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once.²BURKE. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. 313.²EMERSON. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. 458. 459. PREPOSITIONS.² BULWER. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. Between and among. 3. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. 5. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. 6.2. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. 4. no separation or division by twos being implied.²ADDISON. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. see Sec. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).

Different from. . And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Abhorrent to. averse. ²EMERSON. Affinity between. as. List I. correspond. Dependent on (upon). etc. and Coleridge. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. and philosophers like Locke. 460. Comply with. different. involve. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. and Stewart. Conversant with. Two groups or one and a group. Acquit of. Paley. Accord with. Bestow on (upon).²between philosophers like Spinoza.²RUSKIN What have I.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Derogatory to. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Dissent from. by custom. and another to convey a different meaning. Such are derogatory. 461.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. a soldier of the Cross. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. LIST I.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Mackintosh. or one object and a group. Averse to. confer. as. Such are absolve. Kant. Some of them have. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Conform to. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow.: Words with particular prepositions.²KINGSLEY.

A taste of (food). Change to (become). etc. Confide in (trust in). and sometimes creeps into standard books.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings.). Differ with (note below)." also of persons. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. "The king is reconciled to his minister. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Independent of. Involve in. Reconcile to (note below). List II. LIST II. Change for (a thing). as. Differ from (note below)." List III. LIST III. Confer on (upon) (give to). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). as. Correspond with (write to). A taste for (art. as. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Confide to (intrust to). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Reconcile with (note below). as meaning to be in keeping with. Correspond to (a thing). 463. Agree to (a proposal). in the sense of making friends with. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. "The exile became reconciled to his fate.y y y Deprive of. ." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. Change with (a person). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Confer with (talk with). 462. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). but it is not good usage. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England.

and ill treatment. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. die from. part with.²ADDISON.²G. "Die with. He died at last without disease.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. "Die for. "Die for.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²BOSWELL. Part from. ²ATHENÆUM." She would have been ready to die with shame. Expect of.²SHAKESPEARE." (material cause. It would take me long to die of hunger. die with. Take thought and die for Cæsar.²GOLDSMITH. ELIOT. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire." "die from. as Cervantes informs us. they shall die by this hand. People do not die of trifling little colds." (because of). ²THACKERAY. She died of hard work.²FIELDING.y y y Die by." etc.²MACAULAY. Illustrations of "die of.²MACAULAY. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. simply from old age.²BURNETT. died for love of the fair Marcella.²POPE. "Die by. I am positively dying with hunger." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²G." (in behalf of). expect from. Who. No one died from want at Longfeld.²SCOTT. One of them said he would die for her. . die for.²BULWER." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. die of. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread.²GOLDSMITH. "Die from. instrument).:² "Die of. ELIOT.²MACAULAY. If I meet with any of 'em. It is a man of quality who dies for her. privation.

466.²BULWER.²WALPOLE. His precious bag.²AUSTEN. Illustrations of "part with.²MACAULAY.²G. That is more than I expected of you.²G. With words implying behavior or disposition. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. ELIOT. ELIOT. as my friend. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. I have long expected something remarkable from you. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. Kind in you.²POE.²WALLER. I have just seen her." To part from you would be misery.²G." She will expect more attention from you. I can part with my children for their good. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. Illustrations of "expect of. ELIOT. 465. just parted from her.²MARRYAT. kind of you. "Part from.²SHAW. .²BULWER. which he would by no means part from. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²SCOTT. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²DICKENS.²TROLLOPE. either of or in is used indifferently.²MACAULAY." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. Cleveland was sorry to part with him." "part from:"² "Part with. Of Doctor P." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. "Expect from. 464. I part with all that grew so near my heart. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. and hated to part with them.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. It was a little bad of you. nothing better was to be expected." "expect from:"² "Expect of.

Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. nor blue. 10. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. But this is idle of you.²DICKENS. It will be anything but shrewd in you. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. and ran up the alley. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. In. or that they are any way dependent on each other.²BULWER. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. 13. with seraphims. thunder. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. 9. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. 11. Very natural in Mr.²TENNYSON. Hampden.²CARLYLE. The noise of vast cataracts. This narrative. tedious perhaps. In the friction between an employer and workman. 6. nor of a pale red. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. the vast abyss. 15. 3.²BEACONSFIELD. 1. but which the story renders necessary. or artillery. 5. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean.²BULWER. . 14. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 7. it is commonly said that his profits are high. nor green. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. raging storms. 4. 8.He did not think it handsome of you. thrown it over Amyas's head. nor yellow. Thou tread'st.

but in the price paid to them. 29. You have seen Cassio and she together. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 33.) 34. That night every man of the boat's crew. 19. 35. and other angular figures. triangles. 23. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. Squares. 38. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. The effect of proportion and fitness. (Sec. Every one of these letters are in my name. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 31. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 26. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 30. 18. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. save Amyas. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. or what kind of life they are to lead in it.I would wish me only he. . 20. When the glass or liquor are transparent. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 411. and most of us do know. 24. 36. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 22. and almost as good as a pony. Friday. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. you or me. But every man may know. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 27. or how beautiful it is. 37.And were I anything but what I am. 16. the acquiescence of the understanding. 32. 17. were down with raging fever. 25. produce approbation. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 28. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 21. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. what is a just and unjust act. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough.

000 between them. 116. . 92. of. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 20. of. 107. from nominative clauses. of. pronouns. 40. A. 260. (2) Middle English. origin of. 119. 47. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. He had four children. INDEX. 89. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 102. of. nouns. nominative. 47. 98. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. from about 1500 to the present time. demonstrative. 133. Abstract with Active Address. of. syntax uses Absolute. as comparison definition demonstrative. 124. adverbs used complements. 25. 91. as. 124. numeral. voice. 90. 239. adjectives. Adjectives. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. article. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 310.39. (3) Modern English.

239. 191. 148. 242. 328. 184. adjectives. of. adjectives. to used of. 316. 194. 302. compared. 262. 275. clauses. 48. 42. 323. 115. with with with subject. 114. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 291. 303. of. of. 97. sentence. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. infinitive. form as as they to in as uses uses of. conjunction. and 185. 183. of. Agreement. modify. 27. 325. 27. 101. 187.from function how in not of of ordinal. adjectives. Against. parse. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. nouns. plural pronominal. 116. of. 207. 190. 195. quantity. predicate. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 190. 303. 194. of. 104. 103. 106. of. 116. 287. antecedent. quality. as nouns. antecedent. parse. . 109. nouns. 325. 99. 207. conjunctions. Alms. objective. between of. from to of.

127. 207. same. parse. which. 296. An. 49. definition of of of Any. in in. 275. of and pronoun of. 264. pronouns. definition how indefinite. it. sentences. 101. 79.Among. 271. A. though. 84. syntax. to of. possessive. of. 120. 231. Auxiliary if. 294. 331. of of of And Antecedent. 252. 198. 90. 51. of. 300. syntax As. adjective. 47. words between. which. 120. 208. which. 124. sentences. and. Agreement. 240. 74. of. Anacoluthon Analysis. Arrangement Articles. 67. of. agreement personal as pronoun. 150. uses As At. after of. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. sentences. derivation in definite. See with definition complex compound simple who. as uses verbs. of. 287. . 225. 148. 67. 295. 309. Are. See 74.

possessive. 278. adjective. conjunctions Cherub. 63. pronoun. of pronouns. of pronouns. number of. 195. 84. 39. of nouns. definition could. 64. uses Better. of. clauses of. in Old and Modern English. 210. of what. forms. 279. 262. 45. of pronouns. comparison conjugation of. Cause. See of. uses of. 149. 111. double possessive. . of nouns. 330. 224. 46. 150. of nouns. of pronouns. 47. 48. Between. 262. Children. 62. But. 46. of nouns. 283. Case. Bridegroom. Case. Be. plurals of. 37. of. nominative. adverb. 161.Bad. 39. 278. 194. best. 260. Brethren. 110. Can. syntax of. uses nominative of. 110. 279. 66. 49. of. Among. with But By. 54. objective. Clause.

nouns. of. of. of. of. 111. 248. predicate of and from from of. . 108. of. Cloths. 315. 271.definition kinds noun. 257. 307. verb. 113. 158. plural of. in analysis. 239. 23. 189. superlative. 268. double. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 18. proper. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. predicate. 264. material. of. 108. 257. and sentence. definition degrees irregular. 244. Cleave. 263. 258. 157. 43. English. 43. nouns. 110. 312. Clomb. 307. 24. analysis of. and forms of. clothes. 12. adjectives. 18. 305. 53. defective. adverbs. of. 257. 107. subject. of. infinitive. of. sentence. nouns.

143. analysis. 194. pronoun. 328. coördinate. correlative. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 196. 193. parse. in Old vs. . See English. 199. 66. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. conjunctions. 139. same words. adverbs. 207. interrogative pronouns. sentences. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 149. replaced by objective. 195. of of Conjunctions. pronoun.with Concord. subjunctive. See in subjunctive. conjunction. Dative Declarative Declension of case. 149. conjunctions. to of. 255. 73. 231. 194. verbs. and clause. 151. definition be. See analysis clauses. pronouns. other other parts of speech. Agreement. 194. of. Conjunctions. sentences. 263. 289. 195. of. Can. 138. definition how subordinate. 269. sentence. 188.

passive adjectives. 160. 102. article. indirect. 320. tenses. Subordinate clause. vs. 303. pronouns. 60. pronouns. adverbs See adjectives. Comparison. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 99. 51. comparative. 242. nouns. 43. Comparative. pronouns. Degrees. 80. of personal relative verbs. duck. with of. from. 333. possessive. 315. of. 90. 287. Articles. of. 26. 102. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. See 148. Case. use of dies. . for. nouns. 91. pronouns. by. See See 48. object. See adjectives. 300. of. 185. discourse. 35. 242. clause.Declension. of. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. 288. with. verb. 152.

62. 194. added suffix. 158. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. object. other. spoken. pronoun. another. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. -En. literary. 158. vulgar. 12. 300. 102. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. conjunction. Each. 40. ending. 240. 92. 90. the of sentence. 32. 33. original. 110. pronouns. to suffix. drunk. 280. predicate. plural. 92. 38. of subject. adjective. . Elements Ellipsis. Either. 90. 112. pronoun. in 'Em. 42. 33. 92. of. of. 51. of. 328. feminine plural English. error in sentence. 257. 39. 241. possessive suffix. older. one ( t). of. 234. complement. of. 255. 299. 34. of. syntax Each Eat Eaves. Empress. 287. adjective. suffix. 287.Drank.

32. Feminine. From. First. Gender. 148. Farther. two a further. 152. 110. from. 30. 30. modes "common goose. of. perfect. 319. 287. first. fishes. 36. 91. few." 31. First Fish. two. Future Future tense. Further. the. 102. expect gone. 211. with in sex. 152. nouns. 308. 43. etc. pronoun. uses redundant. adjective.Every. used of. 29. as of from compared marking. 212. with infinitive. . to of. uses Foreign Former. 126. 189. For. definition distinguished in English. 334. plurals. 102. of.. 112. 48. 235. have adjective. other languages. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. See Gander. 212. gender.. 112. 238. etc. 103. 147. 30. as a noun. 45. Few. of. object.

for before. of. from participle of. definition basis of. 80. 144. 60. 10.of of Genii. His Husband. on. 12. 159. 36. 35. of. 12. participle. distinguished syntax. and case verbal with. it. 13. 159. 285. 175. 231. . 176. first sentence. 120. I. 43. of. of. Government. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 145. 173. Gerund. 61. noun. 101. He. forms in Girl. 61. kinds of. 177. 60. person. possessive pronouns. its. pronouns. 275. rather. personal relative geniuses. she. Grammar. definition divisions opinions province H. adjective. an better. had hung. Had Hanged. pronoun. 9. Got.

188. 85. uses discourse. of. 176. 283. 73. mood. elements. 276. questions. summary See passive mood. See Articles. 131. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 43. 93. 231. 257. 110. See you. 105. 233. your. adjectives. a object. 153. indices. indirect of. words. 131. pronoun. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. of. meaning. of clause. 72. Direct object. . sentence. Questions. in compared syntax. adverbs. 323. 178. 67. 248. verbs. of. 319. pronouns. questions. with of. of. 136. adjectives.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. transitive. 320. 227. use article. 245. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active.

36. etc. in little. Last. Lady. adjective. latest. Lay. 303. 110. 36. 63. King." history etc. a vs. 226. 113. 102. 281. lesser. Lay. queen. 245. uses Literary Little. It. Like. these double kind. and See words in. was uses me. syntax.. 227. English. 170. Less. See Madam. Logic Logical Lord. Latter. Kind. predicate. of. syntax the. 12. 276. 39. Kine.adverbs. "It Its. lord.. of. pronoun. 67. of. subject form. 126. Lady. 190. -Ly. 61. 113. plural. 36. 91. Lie. . of. 189. lie. 110.

34. construction as of adverb. Much. 137.Manner. May. 194. 188. 326. of. See definition 136. nigh. Negative. . 64. of. syntax conjunction. superlatives. out of. of. of. 185. 112. Modifiers. conjunctions Many. 114. 112. sentences. comparison Near. 135.. Mighty Mine. might. mistress. Neither. 126. in adverbs comparison a. 195. double. adjective. position adverb. of. Master. 265. 112. Modifier. Must. 36. Enlargement. 137-144. Mood. indicative. imperative. 256. of. mine. 41. of. 187. syntax nearer. of. 328. 160. 189. 110. 102. Means. 287. etc. -Most. 189. 110. 110. subjunctive. 144. 113. 161. Many Mapping Mare. 325.

. syntax Neuter or two News. gender how kinds material. become become formation case collective. and figures. 19. half abstract. 125. 300. foreign. become neuter. 258. used as. 246. letters as 24. abstract. etc. proper. analysis. to of. number once other plural. 30. formed. 20. nouns. 41 43. class used singular. 26. 328. gender nouns. 18. parse. clause. definition descriptive. words how compound. None. 17. of. kinds 90. 46. 17 19. 92. No Nominative. of. 46. to use. 41.pronoun. 42. 32. of. material. 301. definition according of. 25. of. 38-41. 21. of. 30. syntax in gender nouns. See 194. 45. 41. 38. 126. of. 30. etc. 17. 27. abstract. of of of of of a. common. Case. in. now plural. 29. 25. nouns. Not Noun Nouns. of. 56. 124. Nor.

personal.of same two with proper. 41. with case. 282. singular. 42. Preposition. 195. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 66. 48. with with with Now Number. of. 60. indirect. 23. spoken of instead nouns. Numeral Object. 121. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 101. 41. 279. dative. definite. or plural. preposition. 242. article. verbs. pronouns. in nouns. 106. conjunction. passive adverbial. 48. 196. form. 39. indefinite. 41. plural no two singular construction. adjectives. 278. in article. Nouns. meaning. pronouns. 124. of. singular. 48. 148. meanings. etc. of different possessive definite of. 92. 18. 42. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. English. of. common. . of. 48. See verb. 48. 235. plural form. 240.. 101. 242. adverbial. and analysis. as forms titles. 42 44. 43. adjectives. nominative. of. 285. 102. 281. See in in in Numeral distributive. 278. of. plural.

as other. inverted. 117. . Pains. conjunction. a in adjectives. 91. 233. 101. Ordinal Other Ought. adjective. 293. as of. 38. part analysis. 237. Elder. of syntax. 216. 161. conjunctions. of. indefinite possessive One One as Only. Our. for. 87. 194. treatment comparatives. 325 275. 213. Oxen. 93 other. 56. Ourself. articles. adverbs. Each adjective. 115. another. nouns. 103. uses numeral pronoun. ours. 103.syntax Of. Omission On. 191. pronoun. 56. definite relative uses of. 64. 69. adverb. One. See the as of. of. 199. See pronoun. Older. of. 94. of of of of of models adjectives. 41. Parsing. with (the). 279. position Order. of upon. 116. 127. 306.

59. 172. . 281. 181. 100. 43. -ing words. Person. not is. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 69. 335. article 150. pronouns. in. reflexive. 287. pronoun. 179. nominative. used as voice. 95. possessive and of. and subject in. 317. of. of. 59. verb idioms it from. parsed.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 177. part adjective. 62. verbs. of. 148. phrases. pease. 59. absolute with of. predicate use of. pennies. of. included various. Pence. 134. from definition other of. 61. or of. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. speech. 43. verbals. 63. 28. 322. 27. 70. 56. 219. 56. 172. of. pronouns. agreement of verb nouns. with. 173. antecedent. 247. 180. of. of. 119. 64. 80. 174. 62. them. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. relatives. verbs. phrase.

nouns. 285. of. relative. of. 236. 53. antecedent of of pronouns. 245. simple. vs. 248. Place. 67. as double. English. singular degree. of. kinds infinitive. nouns. Personification. 303. of. 61. of. 236. pronouns. 188. prepositional. adjectives. or See of of See 185. 278. 25. Comparison. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 232. 41. 247. of nouns. of. See 60. 281. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. singular. complete. 37. 235. 106. Nouns. 245. adverbs of. 247. 206. of. participial. appositional. it. Positive Possessive. 52. 64. 278. double. pronoun. 49. noun nouns. 54. 241. 50. Personal subjective. 53. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. objects. spoken of. syntax of of Politics. omitted. of Phrase. 60. in of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 281. 's. 195. plural. nouns. 63. of. . 303. pronoun. 51.objective syntax table triple uses of.

105. any. by parts of of. plural.Prefixes. 59. 203. 95. of. 279. 331. 132. forms of. parse. exclamatory. all. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. words. 195. 333. 72. meaning. 283. plural. none. in exclamations. 105. 58. verbs. expressed as other of. by with shown certain of. speech. . 285. future. of. 301. another. 203. as antecedent of relative. usually to as than. 64. 282. 303. what. with tense certain. 287. same used as adjectives. each either. 219. 280. possessive nominative to of. 300. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. as 54. singular usually other. case. 208. 187. 32. and form form form form of. interrogative. of. 89. objective. neither. 104. plural. who personal. of. 58. 93. 332. adverb. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 206. 205. case. 283. and one with else's. 300. 186. 129. 302. 299. adjective. after but. for predicate nominative. of. 147. somebody definition how indefinite. Pronouns. 284. 281. parse. objective. 202. 207. by. interrogative. of. Prepositions. as. of.

to of. 74. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 286. of. conjunctions Quality. in. and antecedent. 263. Quantity. 58. with who. of. 295. 101. indirect compound. 84. agreement anacoluthon and as. pronominal pronouns indirect. 80. Rank. use in as. Questions. or of. parse. Nouns. nouns. Rather. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 105. pronoun. 69. 295. in. Direct same and different. 289. adverbs in. discourse.possessive relative. 99. of. with with gerund. 85. 69. in. 279. of. 189. 87. 293. that. of. and which. 188. 195. which. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. from and interrogative. 74. 296. 142. 68. 293. 83. indirect. See of. 289. 291. unrestrictive. 74. of. of. questions. of. personal pronoun. 87. 85. which after same. and relatives. 297. who. same antecedent. of. pronouns. . Quotations. use of history formed.

319. Sex Shall. 195. plural possessive as. 43. 'S. suffix. Shear. would. conjunctions Retained Riches. S. kinds Sequence Set. pronoun. 196. 252. of. complex. reflexive analysis of compound. 159. 51. of of of complex Sentences. 242. object. of. 74. clauses of. 196. 255. tenses. of sit. that. simple. of. 259. Seeing. forms shots. definition . Same Sat. and should. 42. 289. elliptical. 263. effect. 231. conjunction. 231. will. which. 29. 69. 170. in of. simple of. in form. See Sentences. Self Sentences. 162. Shot. sentence. who. 159. 294. gender. 26 271. of. ending. Simple in sate.syntax use Result. 40.

245. 260. of. 257. 258. these number. Split Spoken -Ster. Somebody Sort. 245.Singular Sir. English. 240. of. 33. in feminine suffix. 38. of. distinguish. -es. English. verbs. 233. . to of. 257. in Middle English. 138.. English. as. 144. sort. for. phonetic in infinitive. 257. Modern use becoming else's. 38. disuse in spoken complete. 33. vs. 137. adverb. 169. of. 323. 257. of. 303. 258. 258. English. names as a. other Such Such Suffix -s. 12. definition how kinds noun. 36. 303. used mood. Subject. 186. -en. 237. 126. Spelling Spinster. 270. definition 67. etc. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. adverb. of. 32. logical. See -En. of. 262. 144. literary clause.

148. Then. which. 309. this.Suffixes. 297. "the then foreign. English. as history syntax Their. Tenses. plural as adverb. coördinating. restrictive. 108.. degree. of.. 33. of. 116. 147. 186. of . 106. in Modern number sequence table Than That. syntax of. omission whom. meaning. of. adverbs. 120. as history The. 222. of. me. 109. 289. of. form. classical of. 189. 307. 275. 119. when as of. 87. of. 275. 123. article. 277. 61. 147. 106. of. 147. in double. 290. Kind. in comparison.. king. two basis not same definition definite. 306. subject. meaning made up in Old of. See etc. of languages. ." introductory. 186. 306. 191. not suggesting adjectives. objects. as adverbs. when relative. they. 280. definition in English Tense. adjectives. There These kind. and and of. auxiliaries. 88. of. 319. English. than of. 152. object. 107. that uses That. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax.

217. of. Utter. Thou. kinds participle. 322. other noun. 128. of. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. thy. in omitted uses T'other. . 181. 175. -ing 111. 180. 248. 175. Try Two Under. verbs. feminine and. of. thee. suffix. of.. 172. 61. gerund. words. See That. first. 330. 176. 247. phrases. infinitive. certain as the before with of. parse. Upon. first adjective. 114. 173. how infinitive. carelessly uses syntax this. used. 322. 114. 33. Time. 207. to. conjunctions prepositions To. 188. -Trix. 185. uses history of. 308. try two. of. Upper. from cleft to 174. 195. tother. 172. 323. adverbs those. in of. infinitive. 119. exclamations. 20. See On. 114. analysis. 175. preposition. of. etc. uttermost. 21.These. uses of. of.

voice of. mood of. 131. 151. retained object with passive. strong. agreement of. defective. Vixen. verbs by. how to parse. 133. 312-316. 150. What. person and number of.Verbs. auxiliary. syntax of. definition of. conjugation of. 155. of incomplete predication. active meaning. table of. 154. 39. with subject in number. of. 169. analysis. 154. 148. 159. verbs. 179. Vocative in Voice. change. 149. 129. 47. tense of. remarks on certain. 160. active. . weak. 317. intransitive. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. of English. 154. of. 312. made transitive. becoming irregular. definition of. 319. table of irregular. 330. 148. transitive and intransitive. 242. 12. regular. 133. past tense formed nominative. formed by. spelling of. 134. 130. in person. 135. 147. in indirect discourse. 245. phonetic. 169. 223. 157. definition of. 33. sequence of. passive form. 236. 167. 167. 320. but uses what. passive.

in in indefinite objective. 299. 75. whereto. relative indirect relative. 36.what Whereby. 37. 85. direct of. plural of in nouns -ing. questions. Woman. Yes ending analysis. 246. etc. spoken in of. worser. 83. antecedent adjective. conjunction. 85. 72. 85. 78. 296. wizard. 32. Will. 194. 72. 218. Words in Worse. 75.. a. Y. 105. relative. questions. 126. referring syntax Widower. 83. 73. questions. in -ly. 295-299. questions. 77. Whether. 111. of. 79. pronoun. 190. 105. Who. would. pronoun. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. . English. 104. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 72. Wife. of. 40. 36. in. interrogative Which. With. relative. animals. Witch. 178. uses See Shall.

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