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Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

Mental training. . Authority as a basis. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. there is still much for the grammarian to do. to those who have studied the language historically. Coming back. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. "Analysis. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. Making rules is risky. it will at the same time.The province of English grammar is. A broader view. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. is worthy of serious study. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. as. as compared with Latin or Greek. This will take in the usual divisions. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. and their uses and relations in the sentence. its peculiar and abundant idioms.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. however. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. but this is bad English now." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. with its enormous vocabulary. If. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. so that a small grammar will hold them all. Few inflections. Surely our noble language. and thus incite his observation. Literary English. then. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning." and "Syntax. An æsthetic benefit. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). It is also evident. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. rightly considered. if rightly presented. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). assist the classification of kindred expressions. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question." What grammar is. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. from the question. their forms. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. The work it will cover. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now.

three divisions:² Part I. submission. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. PART I. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Spoken English. The Uses of Words. Part III. as they stand for ideas. The Parts of Speech. In the more simple state of the Arabs. that is. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. Analysis of Sentences. and the word nation stands for a whole group. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. Vulgar English.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. NOUNS. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. but.²GIBBON. or standard. then. or Syntax. the nation is free. too. by which is meant the free. The following pages will cover. not objects. Occasionally. and will are evidently names of a different kind. Part II. which belongs to a people. 1. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. reference will be made to vulgar English. besides this one. The words state. and may belong to any of those objects. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. Such words are called nouns. and Inflections. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. from the eighteenth century on. The plainest name is Arabs. . the words sons and master name objects. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master.

reducing it to a narrow application. as here used. representing directly to the mind an object. Name for any individual of a class. . a committee. is from a Latin word which means general. the man here. Individual. or a council. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. Besides considering persons. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. ATTRIBUTE. Thus. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. place. (b) Common. Abstract. but Chicago names one city. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. or thing. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. MATERIAL. however. 2. or a congress. substance. or the man in front of you. (a) 4. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. We may say. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Thus. etc. we may think of them in groups. and appropriate names to the groups. They properly belong under common nouns. or idea. Common. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. and things separately. possessed by all. Name for a group or collection of objects. Proper.Definition. men in groups may be called a crowd. A noun is a name word. For instance. 5. or things. Classes of nouns. animals. animals. whether person. 3. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. Collective. This does not imply. because each group is considered as a unit. the name of each is an individual or proper name. belonging to one. or a mob.

sugar. instead of to each individual or separate object. however. and so on. soap. or apart from their natural connection. granite. platinum. rice. or actions. moon. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below." "a man of understanding. NOTE. rain. stone." "Learning is hard to acquire. wheat. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. (4) Natural phenomena: rain." 9. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. earth. expressing attributes or qualities. etc. etc. paint. It may. such as sun. considered abstractly. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. as in calling a city Cincinnati. tea. snow. etc. Words naturally of limited application not proper. 7. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. etc. iron. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. clay. world. etc. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. Names of ideas. earth. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). condition. sand. They remain common class names. wheat. proof means the act of proving. . we speak of the wisdom of the man. celluloid. etc. etc. gold. "Painting is a fine art. conditions. The reason is. but it is taken merely as a name. but in the words sun. there is no such intention. potash. and fasten a special name to the object considered. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. rock. or action.²There are some nouns. mist. rubber.Names for things thought of in mass. etc. When we speak of a wise man. 6. but which are not called proper names. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. cloud. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. Such are glass. The quality is still there as much as before. we may say. . (3) Geological bodies: mud. sugar. expressing state. wine. Again. or that which shows a thing has been proved. frost. not things. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. frost. dew..

is used as a noun. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. day. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. Underived abstract nouns. etc. he spread his blessings over the land. as in the expressions. Verbal abstract nouns." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. (2) peerage from peer. her longing for their favor. and they cannot express action. five proper. the well-being of her subjects. etc. the great Puritan awakening. but are merely names of actions. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. Caution. redness from red. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. etc. there is time for such reasonings. The verb. action from act. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. "a long run" "a bold move. To avoid difficulty. the teachings of the High Spirit. 12. They are only the husks of verbs. the moon caused fearful forebodings. by altering its function. etc.Attribute abstract nouns. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. hope. as glad²joy.. a wedding or a festival. service from serve. in the beginning of his life.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. theft from thieve. 273). height from high. NOTE. night. energy. the main bearings of this matter. joy. mastery from master. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. Thus. 10. stupidity from stupid. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. the rude drawings of the book. speech from speak. thunder. lightning. II." "a brisk walk. summer. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. 1. winter. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. hopeful²hope. ease. kingship from king. five abstract. as their name implies. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. (1) prudence from prudent. Exercises. those opinions and feelings. 272. Such are beauty. . They cannot govern a word. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. childhood from child. shadow.

tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. (b) branches of knowledge.2. diphtheria. geology. catarrh. mathematics? 3. algebra. pleurisy. as pneumonia. as physics. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. Using a dictionary. typhus.

Nouns change by use. from China. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Others of similar character are calico. 14. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. arras." referring to flat- . nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. from Corinth. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. above. a Locke. from Calicut. from a town in France. a Bentham. from Damascus. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. a Hutton. but we may say. it imposes its classification on other men. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. Material nouns may be used as class names. Proper names transferred to common use. as a davy. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. 119). levant and morocco (leather). and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. damask. from Oporto. etc. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. or to go over to it entirely. in Portugal. and lo! a new system. for example.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. from the name of Dr. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. currants. We know a number of objects made of iron. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. thus. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. a Lavoisier.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. Guillotin. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. the word port. a Fourier. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented.²EMERSON. but most of them are in the following groups. Sodom was famous for wickedness. port (wine). 15. who was its inventor. "The cook made the irons hot. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. the guillotine. 13.

not material things.²CARLYLE. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away.In lightnings owned his secret stings. Death. clays. or the arts and sciences. paints. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. etc. as stones. though not confined to verse. are abroad. Traffic has lain down to rest. etc. his eyes. but on dispositions which require to be created. that the power of art is founded on fact. 16. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. and say teas. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. They are not then pure abstract nouns. smiled.²COLLINS. be spoken of. coals. The words preceded by the article a. abstract in meaning. on fire. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. a steel to whet a knife on.²PERCIVAL. and only Vice and Misery. and so on. nor are they common class nouns. From all around²Earth and her waters. papers. clouds. mists. to prowl or to moan like night birds. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. Personification of abstract ideas. tobaccos. These are the same in material. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks.irons. This is a poetic usage. tins. A halfway class of words. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. 17. a rubber for erasing marks. When it is said that art differs from science.²RUSKIN. candies. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. that disposition is the thing to be created. Test this in the following sentences:² . slates. that is. (3) By poetical use. the abstract idea is partly lost. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. or made plural. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated.²BYRON. but in case an art or a science. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. or used as class nouns. are still names of abstract ideas.²BRYANT. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance.²HAYNE. Class nouns in use. oils. Next Anger rushed. which are made plural. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. purity. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. For example. or. but differ in strength.

Adjectives. But ah! those pleasures. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. Adverbs. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. 18. or describe it. as descriptive adjectives are. or from any expression.²SHAKESPEARE. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. they do not express quality. if we must have great actions. which belongs to another word. Nouns used as descriptive terms.²BURNS. nouns used to modify. 19. Every why hath a wherefore. sir!" and the "What then. Conjunctions. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. loves. for example.²EMERSON." "a New York bank. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. were mere terrors of the night. a bill as to tax on the banks. By ellipses. etc. and joysWhich I too keenly taste.²IRVING.² GOLDSMITH. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. "a family quarrel." "a morning walk. they cannot be compared. fear thy blow.The Solitary can despise. however.²SHAKESPEARE." "the State Bank Tax bill." which contains a pure adjective. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question.²If the descriptive word be a material noun." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns.Let us. make our own so. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. When I was young? Ah. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. meaning a walk in the morning. the wealthy. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns.² BURNS. All these. but is still a noun. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. Then comes the "Why. a bank in New York. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. They are more like the possessive noun. NOTE. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. And still. sir?" and the "No. sir!"²MACAULAY . as each repeated pleasure tired. But it is better to consider them as nouns. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired.

In the other sentences. 2. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. Stone walls do not a prison make. etc. without reference to its function in the sentence. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. When. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. is ambiguous." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. but as a figure of speech. . Learning. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. FRANKLIN. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. 20."²B. and Then. Caution." or "legal. or a faithful domestic. in speaking of the principal of a school. of course. but have an adjectival meaning. The it. When. Exercise.²These remarks do not apply. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. Now." and another of Dr.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. of words rather than of their meaning. NOTE. and tell to which class each belongs. 8. whether it mean the sun or the cold. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. is the word "just. 7. 1. the wealthy. or a criminal. the terms the great. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. so. 4. or a state secret. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. why and wherefore..²Dr BLAIR In this definition. There are many of these. are spoken of as if pure nouns. to such words as become pure nouns by use. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. It is to be remembered. too. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force.Nor iron bars a cage. 3. are used. in a sentence above.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. Power laid his rod aside. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. 6. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. however. 5. at the beginning. that cobweb of the brain.

All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. the welcome. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 17. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. 12. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy.You seize the flower. . INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. for every dropHinders needle and thread. 19. returned to Spain.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. 23. 14.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood.Fair guests. What gender means in English. The fleet. And see. The hours glide by. shattered and disabled. There are exceptions even to this general statement. its bloom is shed. GENDER. 15. In Latin. 13. 16. 18. A little weeping would ease my heart. the silver moon is gone. 21. A fool speaks all his mind. 22. 21. in English grammar. 10. and names of females are usually feminine. 11. But pleasures are like poppies spread. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. 24. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 20. and many other languages. It is founded on sex. he cried. Male beings are. always feminine. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. female. always masculine.9. that waits you here. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. but not so in English. German. Greek. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands.

the name of it is masculine. in other languages gender follows the form.When.² I have seenA curious child . For instance: in Latin. if of the female sex.. Gunpowder . All nouns. and neuter nouns. mensa (table) is feminine. according to use. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. No "common gender. der Tisch (table) is masculine. "A little child shall lead them. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. clapping his burnished wings.²IRVING. hortus (garden) is masculine. Some words either gender or neuter nouns." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. and consequently without sex. the name of it is feminine. 24. in English. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. if there were any signs of life in it. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. those which do not distinguish sex. the word child is neuter in the sentence. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. the sex being of no consequence. inanimate things are spoken of. that pattern of a husband. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns.. die Gabel (fork) is feminine." . that is. then. The great difference is. or names of things without life. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. are named by gender nouns.²LAMB. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. but are spoken of as neuter. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. 22. Hence: Definition. corpus (body) is neuter. must be divided into two principal classes. according to their use. however. in German. das Messer (knife) is neuter. came to a stand just by the bridge. those distinguishing the sex of the object. He next stooped down to feel the pig. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. Of animals. or which arouse his interest most. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.²gender nouns. Thus. or additions to words. Gender nouns.. Neuter nouns. 23.. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. .²masculine and feminine. those with which man comes in contact often. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals.. with its gizzard under its wing..² IRVING.

The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. domestic. from the masculine fox.. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. 28. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. but spinster has now no connection with it. 26. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. etc. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. Put in convenient form. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. 27. he-bear²she-bear. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. though both words have lost their original meanings. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. These remain in vixen and spinster. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. The inflections for gender belong. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. II. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. Hence vixen is for fyxen. and for the older word fat they said vat. they are neuter words. or the lack of it. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. According to the definition. Native suffixes. the division of words according to sex. servant. (3) By using a different word for each gender. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. .25. woman. One feminine. I. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. as he-goat²she-goat. puts a prefix before the masculine man. of course. is. Very few of class I.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. teacher. Gender shown by Prefixes.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. as in wine vat. only to masculine and feminine nouns. For fox they said vox. If such words as parent. generally to a masculine word. (2) By adding a suffix. ruler. Gender shown by Suffixes. Male nouns beings. 29. for from they said vram. relative. cousin.

Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. 30. Ending of masculine not changed. and are never used for words recognized as English. Unaltered and little used. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. gamester. punster.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. as. but in most cases it has not. -ess (French esse. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. as seam-stress. executrix. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. Low Latin issa). señorita.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. These are attached to foreign words. it has none now in the words huckster. the one most used. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. as. trickster. as czarina. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress .² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. song-str-ess. Slightly changed and widely used. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. donna. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or).

32. NOTE. as. to represent persons of either sex. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. Instead of saying doctress. teacheresse. In some of these pairs. we use the masculine termination. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. wagoness. Thus. We frequently use such words as author. or servauntesse. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. fosteress." III. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. from Latin imperatricem.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. editor. as. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. etc. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. as was said in the sixteenth century. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . as in the fourteenth century. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. 31. neighbor (masculine and feminine). neighboresse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. the ending -ess. others have in their origin the same root. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. teacher or lady teacher. chairman.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). we use the feminine. frendesse. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. from the French -esse. Gender shown by Different Words. Some of them have an interesting history.

33. written loverd. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. finally gander. Besides gander and drake. It is not connected historically with our word duck. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. or lauerd in Middle English. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. Madam is the French ma dame. Witch is the Old English wicce. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. gand-ra. Two masculines from feminines. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). widuwa²widuwe. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. 16). and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe).² . King and queen are said by some (Skeat. leaving our word drake. from Latin mea domina. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. etc. Danish gaas. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. among others) to be from the same root word. but this has long been obsolete. though both are ultimately from the same root. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. The older forms. probably meaning house dweller). had the masculine mearh (horse). but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). This gansa was modified into gan-ra. became identical. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Icelandic gás.). lhauerd. Mare. Personification. Widower. not immediately connected with witch. the old sign of the masculine. The masculine was formed by adding -a. 34. in Old English mere. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. for example. as in many other words. Three letters of ened have fallen away. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex.

35. in Old English."Now. 36. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. The first two methods prevailed. This is not exclusively a poetic use. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. whenever we adopt a new word. I. In nouns. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. we make its plural by adding -s or -es."²BYRON. But other words were inflected afterwards.Clustered around by all her starry Fays.²COLERIDGE.²singular and plural. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. treen (trees). and not by the form of the noun.Her home is on the deep. 39. for instance. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. shoon (shoes). The -en inflection. together with the third. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. (2) By changing the root vowel.No towers along the steep. the engineer speaks so of his engine.²KEATS. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. that is. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. Our language has two numbers. Britannia needs no bulwarks. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. . the plural. Effect of personification. eyen (eyes). 38. 37. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. (3) By adding -s (or -es). etc. more than one. NUMBER.²CAMPBELL. Definition. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch.

retain the same form for plural meaning. as.² "God bless me! so then. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. lens. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. glass. but they now add the ending -s. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. Such are box. Lee marched over the mountain wall. turf. etc. by.Horse and foot.-En inflection imitated by other words. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. cross. borough²formerly had the same inflection. Brethren has passed through three stages. Akin to this class are some words. heathen. that have the singular and plural alike. swine. Kine is another double plural.²MACAULAY. head. etc. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. 41. people. ditch. after numerals (if not after numerals. then brothre or brethre. as. 42. quartz.² The foot are fourscore thousand. folk.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. sheep. wight. pair. Instead of -s. Examples of this inflection are. 40. II. cannon. The old plural was brothru.²WHITTIER. such as deer. finally brethren. they add -s): also trout. when they mean soldiery.²THOREAU."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. Children has passed through the same history. . and is still found in dialects. salmon. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced.²Over the mountains winding down. after all. or if preceded by the prepositions in. dozen. and get settled. brace. sail. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. but has now no singular.The horse are thousands ten. The words horse and foot. originally neuter. III. etc. into Frederick town. Other words following the same usage are.

g. in its widest extent. the Americas. Proper nouns are regularly singular. Two words. e. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). summons. DANA. that when thy summons comes. fairies.²BRYANT. Formerly. quoth then that ladie milde. allies. means: as. The lilie on hir stalke grene. etc. 15 and 17). 44. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form.-Es added in certain cases. fancies. however. economics. Special Lists. daisies. a new syllable is made. etc. politics. the Washingtons. pains (care). negro²negroes. 45. optics. and go over to other classes (Secs. etc. these words ended in -ie. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. niche²niches. mathematics. house²houses.g. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. as. is both the science and the art of government. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. prize²prizes. etc.²PROF. Some words are usually singular.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. e. 43. Means plural. race²races. though this sound combines readily with -s. and some -es. molasses. Examples of these are.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. also news. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. Words in -ies. It served simply as a means of sight. physics. they lose their identity. some adding -s. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . and the real ending is therefore -s. shelf²shelves. knife²knives. So live.. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. hero²heroes.² Politics. and many branches of learning. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. When such words take a plural ending. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. chaise²chaises.. volcano² volcanoes.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. half²halves. though they are plural in form. means and politics.

With great dexterity these means were now applied. by strongly conveying the passions. A relic which.²BURKE. if I recollect right. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.²G.² MACAULAY. L. Sometimes. Some words have no corresponding singular. Now I read all the politics that come out.²GOLDSMITH. by those means which we have already mentioned. he pronounced to have been a tongs. W. Politics plural. I say. however. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. By these means. LAUGHLIN. it is furnished with a forceps.²J. 46.²IRVING. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.²GOLDSMITH. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. CURTIS. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. riches will accumulate.Words.²MOTLEY. Besides this. . y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.²GOLDSMITH.

as in the lines... pease (collectively). sixpence. two meanings. or copies. 49. faculties. 50. two plurals. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. penny²pennies (separately). etc. twopence. trouble. Two classes of compound words. carry off chaff. index²indexes (to books). (2) literature.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. riches. pea²peas (separately). brethren (of a society or church). DANA.²LONGFELLOW. the other unlike it. In Early Modern English thank is found. part²parts: (1) divisions. Tell me not. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning.² I lisped in numbers. These make the last part plural. shot²shot (collective balls). in mournful numbers.²POPE. dice (for gaming). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. die²dies (stamps for coins. making a double plural. for the numbers came. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). pence (collectively). fish²fish (collectively). of a periodical. number²numbers: (1) figures.The air. as two sixpences. eaves.²was it subdued when.. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. shots (number of times fired). genii (spirits). One plural. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. 48. (2) revenue duties. (2) poetry.). indices (signs in algebra). (2) care. clothes (garments). Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. fishes (individuals or kinds). may add -s. Numbers also means issues. etc. ways. (2) abilities.²one corresponding to the singular. . Three words were originally singular. or epistles. or work in a bellows?²PROF. In speaking of coins. genius²geniuses (men of genius). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection.

HOLMES. as the Messrs. as man singer. Two methods in use for names with titles. Allen. then Silas Peckham. 51. manservant. Brahman. there is some disagreement among English writers. and then the three Miss Spinneys. such as talisman. for example.² Then came Mr. Mussulman. Norman. 52. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. German. Brown. . The former is perhaps more common in present-day use.²DR. firman. The title may be plural. and Mrs. the Drs. though the latter is often found.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. As to plurals of names with titles. Ottoman. Briggs.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. The chief member adds -s in the plural. but add -s. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. or the name may be pluralized. woman singer. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. the Misses Rich. woman servant.

and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh.²GOLDSMITH.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Others have been adopted.²GIBBON. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Domesticated words. Du Maurier. or Anglicized. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. 53. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. y y analysis antithesis . and retain their foreign plurals. FROM THE GREEK. They are then said to be naturalized. FROM THE LATIN. The Messrs. Exercise. These are said to be domesticated. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. or Englished.²DICKENS.²THE CRITIC. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I.

" "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). 56. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. as. In the general wearing-away of inflections." CASE. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. Only two case forms. and expresses a relation akin to possession. Words quoted merely as words. etc. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s).. also add -s or 's. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. etc. without reference to their meaning. 54." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). as. Definition. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence." the word felon's modifies cell. Letters. figures.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. figures. . cell has another relation.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. 55. In the sentence. they form their plurals in the regular way.

Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. 58.²person. learning. 4. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. .There are now only two case forms of English nouns. 3." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. Uses of the Nominative. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. fate. 2. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. the objective.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. whether inflected or not. and merit." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. must be understood for purposes of analysis. three things characterize man. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. Excuses are clothes which. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. Three properties belong to wisdom. excessive grief. they returned to their homes. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. may be said to have three cases.²one for the nominative and objective. Human experience is the great test of truth. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. completing a verb. 1. and experience. 5. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. and the possessive. Nouns." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus.²the nominative. 57." (2) As a predicate noun. then. I. the enemy of the living.²nature. when asked unawares. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case.

Tender men sometimes have strong wills. measure. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. save. taking the object enemies. how have I frighted thee? II. reconciles. taking the object storm. . and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. But the flood came howling one day. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. 59. as will be seen in Sec. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. distance. (in the older stages of the language. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. and meaning calmest.6. a patriarch of the village. wounded lies. and makest a calm. But of all plagues. and landlord of the inn. (5) As the object of a preposition. 4." (4) As the second object. 68. 8. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. etc. Uses of the Objective. good Heaven. Conscience. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. They charged. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. sword in hand and visor down. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. Set a high price on your leisure moments. her first law broken. and being equivalent to one verb. 9." "Cowards die many times before their deaths.Save. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. 3." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. the word toward which the preposition points." "Thou makest the storm a calm. completing the verb. they are sands of precious gold. thy wrath can send. 2. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb." (3) Adverbially. and tell which use each has:² 1." Exercise." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun.

And whirling plate. It is a poetic expression. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. as in these expressions.5. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury.e.. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.²ADDISON. 8. as. 10. The possessive case always modifies another word. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. tempests that .²HAWTHORNE. Uses of the Possessive. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. and forfeits paid.²SHELLEY.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. 7. 9.And gave the leper to eat and drink. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. 61. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. expressed or understood. or in writing yesterday's elegy. III. The noblest mind the best contentment has. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.His winter task a pastime made. from day to day. (2) Objective possessive. (3) Subjective possessive. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.Does his Creator's power display. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. the Great Stone Face. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. Possession in some sense is the most common. 6.² The unwearied sun. as shown in the sentences.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. the most common of all. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. 60.²BYRON.

and Obj. "George Jones his book. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his." Use of the apostrophe. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. growth which several days had developed)." "at his beddes syde. lady Poss. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. Nom. "From every schires ende. Nom. How the possessive is formed. as schoolboys sometimes write. 62. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. Declension or inflection of nouns. there are only two case forms. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s.e. and Obj. As said before (Sec. Case Inflection. however." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. 64. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe." "mannes herte [heart]. the panther which the forest hides). By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general.. 1.. child NOTE. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. 63. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. One is the simple form of a word. To form the possessive plural. PLURAL. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. Poss. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). A false theory.winter is likely to have)." etc. in Chaucer.e. 62. 56). . only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. The use of the apostrophe. A suggestion. making the possessive singular.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec.

Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. Cervantes' satirical work. Peter's. instead of the emperor their master's name. I remember him in his cradle at St. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead.²HOLMES.." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. Possessive and no noun limited. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. Captain Scrapegrace's. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. 65.²DE QUINCEY. a word with a phrase." "A postscript is added. the possessive sign is usually last. Kate saw that. know the amount of my income. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. In compound expressions. church. containing words in apposition. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. my neighbors.² LOWELL. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. 66. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. as by the countess's command. They invited me in the emperor their master's name.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. some such word as house.²THACKERAY. and she walked off from the don's. store. 67.Though this opinion was untrue." Possessive with compound expressions. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. stands up for God's truth one man. the items of my son's. etc. for goodness' sake."²DE QUINCEY. etc. dwelling. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. in the name of the emperor their master. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. as. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. James's. but to the ear all may be alike.²RUSKIN. and from a desire to have distinct forms. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost.²SWIFT. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. being understood with it: for example.²CARLYLE.. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. as. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. .

for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. sometimes they are used together. HALE. the. making a double possessive. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. and tell whether each is appositional. A peculiar form. as one modifier. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. the statement clearly means only one thing. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. Emphasis. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. (See also Sec. that. this. especially when used with this or that. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . For example.²FROUDE.²CARLYLE. Blair). For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony.²E. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. E. etc. a double possessive. In most cases. 1. (3) It prevents ambiguity.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony.. every. and at the same time by a possessive noun. Both of these are now used side by side. corresponding to 's. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. If. 2. 68. we use the phrase of Atterbury. (1) When a word is modified by a. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. or subjective. the sentence might be understood as just explained. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. (b) Rewrite the sentence.The double possessive. objective.²the introduction which Atterbury made. however. each. 87. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. any. in such a sentence as. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. Exercises. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. no. ill-lighted except where she stands. Clearness.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr.

11. At lovers' perjuries. 4. 12. and destroy the other. Hence.They say.Comes dancing from the East. with every garland crowned. some idioms²the double possessive. Friend. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 5. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. Nature herself.3. 8. 69. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. never in the tongueOf him that makes it.² . day's harbinger. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 10. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 9. Jove laughs. There Shakespeare's self. Now the bright morning star. let him seasonably water the one. it seemed. 14.A weary waste expanding to the skies. therefore. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. In parsing. 70. 7. 15. in parsing a noun. 6. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. we state. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. I must not see thee Osman's bride. 13.

a withered serving man. That in the captain's but a choleric word. determining its case. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. MODEL FOR PARSING. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. it is the object of the preposition by. The correct method. and relations. it is the name of a male being. singular number. inflections. has no governing word. and number. (3) Whether singular or plural number.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. as to case.(1) The class to which it belongs. and limits neckcloth. subject of the verb is understood. like miller's. 3. (4) Its office in the sentence. hence it is a common noun. Exercise. therefore singular number. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. hence objective case. names one thing. In parsing any word. 71.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. 2. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. if the latter. proper. but is the adverbial objective. Neckcloth. a fresh tapster. Thief is a common class noun. and to have it found out by accident. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. Throat is neuter. masculine. 4. therefore neuter. etc. hence it is objective case.²common. the connection shows a male is meant. it has no sex. it expresses time. NOTE. hence it is a gender noun. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. . gender. is a common class noun. it expresses possession or ownership. therefore singular number. it denotes only one person. which gender. 68). The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. therefore possessive case. object of the verb takes. therefore masculine gender. and therefore nominative case.

" Again. sleep! 6. The need of pronouns. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. 11. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. He giveth his beloved sleep. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name.. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. 73. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns.And hated her for her pride. 76). where the Rhone enters the lake. or for a group of persons or things. blessings light on him that first invented . all in one. Time makes the worst enemies friends. Necker. standing for a name. or for a person or thing.. A pronoun is a reference word. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. from a necessity for short.²palace. Classes of pronouns. . and his daughter. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. Now. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. were natives of Geneva. Definition. 7. instead of saying. Mrs. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. Madame de Staël. PRONOUNS. financial minister to Louis XVI. we evidently cannot state the owner's name.. 9. connected with the shore by a drawbridge.5." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. Jarley's back being towards him. 8. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. 10. 72. and prison. definite. For instance. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. and representative words. but by a question we say. A few miles from this point. castle. (2) Interrogative pronouns.

words. (2) Second person. primarily adjectives.. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. Nom. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. 77." Person of nouns. (4) Adjective pronouns. they are said to have person by agreement. 75. which cannot be used as adjectives. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. I Poss. This gives rise to a new term. representing the person speaking. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. as nouns have the same form. which relate or refer to a noun. mine. (3) Third person. that is. 74. Three persons of pronouns. (5) Indefinite pronouns. From analogy to pronouns. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. we our. which have forms for person. standing for a person or thing spoken of. they must represent the person talking. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. ours . the person or thing spoken to. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. even if it had a special form. or other word or expression. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. "the distinction of person. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. 76. Singular. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. representing a person or thing spoken to. pronoun. and the person or thing talked about. my Plural.(3) Relative pronouns. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Person in grammar.

he his him Fem.Obj. Nom. Obj. Poss. SECOND PERSON. Third person singular has gender. Old Form Common Form. Obj. feminine h o. Singular. yours you Plural. in the singular. Nom. thine. or. Poss. Obj. thou thee ye you you your. of all Three. you your. thy Remarks on These Forms. But the third person has. 78. your. namely. yours Poss. a separate form for each gender. . neuter. she her. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. The speaker may be either male or female. theirs them Neut. Masc. Obj. by personification. they their. it its it Poss. hers her Plur. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. me us Singular.. Nom. and also for the neuter. Nom. First and second persons without gender. neuter hit. Old forms. masculine h . yours you THIRD PERSON. so also with the person or thing spoken to.

just as we now say. In spoken English. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. as. The consequence is. Thou. as possessive of it. two modern uses of thou. (2) In addressing the Deity. We use it with a plural verb always.Thou lovest. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. their. however.²BEECHER. heom. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety.²SHELLEY. etc. thee. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. 82. it. Second person always plural in ordinary English. especially in poetry. etc. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose.² Oh. to thy care we commit the helpless. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). which is a neuter noun. and sometimes its. thy.:² (1) In elevated style. The form its. 80. the forms they. etc. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. 79. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. 81. This is of comparatively recent growth. in Old English. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. There are. even when referring to a single object.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. thou Shepherd of Israel. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee." As shown above. as in prayers.. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. them. . The plurals were h . heora. which was often sounded with the h silent.. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. for example. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). that didst comfort thy people of old. Two uses of the old singulars.

there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. to personify objects (Sec. have a peculiar use. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. and has been slave to thousands.²BULWER. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. your. sometimes his and its. ye. us. 34). but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. And since thou own'st that praise. our. when they occur in the predicate position. Thine are the city and the people of Granada.²LANDOR. him. ²SHAKESPEARE. he. though those named in Sec. him. "I am sure it was him. 84. II. I The Nominative. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. 83. 58). however. or. The Possessive. Absolute personal pronouns. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. for. though ye is occasionally used as objective. yours. thou. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. Old use of mine and thine. 85. besides a nominative use. them. his. its. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. hers.Use of the pronouns in personification. them. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. The words I. Nominative forms. in such a sentence as. The forms mine. her." the literary language would require he after was. In spoken English. That is. their.²COWPER. I spare thee mine. 84 are always subjects. thy. they have a nominative form. and not make more classes. Yet careful speakers avoid this. us. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. some say. Additional nominatives in spoken English. The forms my. 86. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. her. Not a separate class. note the following:² 'Twas mine. theirs. thine. and sometimes in ordinary speech. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. we. she. 'tis his. and follow the usage of literary English. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. . ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. me. her. they.

Besides this. it tells of good old times. (3) To express contempt. hers. but few thy voice. yours.²THACKERAY.²THACKERAY. Long Allen. are really double possessives. Give every man thine ear. COOPER.²J.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. and with mine. ours. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.²ID. Like the noun possessives. his. yours. we find. pluck it out. Double and triple possessives.²SWIFT. . a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. we have. F. thus.²ID."²SCOTT. as in nouns. sometimes its. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. ours. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection." said Henry Woodstall. or satire. theirs. If thine eye offend thee. (2) To bring emphasis. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee.²CARLYLE.²BIBLE. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. "Hold thy peace. T.²J. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. commenting upon a letter of mine. anger. FIELDS. thus. in that old Edinburgh house of his. theirs. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens.² CARLYLE. Their uses. for example. 87. This ancient silver bowl of mine. This usage is still preserved in poetry.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. ²HOLMES. The forms hers.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. thine. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.

and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns.²BIBLE. but not in form. In pronouns. Besides this use of the objective. his for his property. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. 89. Both joined in making him a present. was marked by a separate case. Curse me this people." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. but the form is the same as the objective. but nominative or objective in use. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. The Objective. The old dative case. III. this dative use.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. or use in a sentence.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. Now the objective. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns." "None but the brave deserves the fair. 90. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. But the first two have a nominative use. In such sentences as. mine stands for my praise in the second. . the thing is done. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. but expresses for whom. for whose benefit. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. and mine in the second has an objective use. They all handled it. "The good alone are great. 88. 86: mine stands for my property.²ID. in the first sentence. 20.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. as shown in Sec. as it is called. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. In their function." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb.

you sneeze. which follows the verb. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.²BACON. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature." (3) As a grammatical subject.²BULWER.Time is behind them and before them. WEBSTER.²D. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²DE QUINCEY. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. ²EMERSON.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. like Chinese skill. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. has not made its progress. was passed by with indulgence.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. and they cry. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.² NEWMAN. in this century. or that he has not a great deal more. Society.²CARLYLE. to stand for the real. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.² . It is a pity that he has so much learning.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. or to the idea. (3) In apposition. you must condense there. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. logical subject. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. as. 91. The word you. why. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.²EMERSON. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. thus. as. 92. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. as in the sentences. Indefinite use of you and your.²IRVING To empty here. You have oaten cakes baked some months before.²ADDISON. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. Your mere puny stripling. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.

For example. they dropped their arms. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 93.²EMERSON. peddles it. herself. as. farms it. himself.²IRVING. For when it dawned. the second is the old form of the second person. And when I awoke. yourself.² Now I lay me down to sleep.²SCOTT.²COLERIDGE. Of the two forms in parentheses. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²BUNYAN. There was nothing for it but to return. since firstThe flight of years began. who in turn tries all the professions. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. however. yourselves. or COMPOUND PERSONAL.²HAWTHORNE."²IRVING. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. Poor Christian was hard put to it.²BRYANT.²BURNS. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns.. who teams it. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw.²HOLMES. 94. itself. It was late and after midnight. we use such expressions as." etc. as they are also called. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. that is. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively..²ANON.²ID." "He bought him a horse. And millions in those solitudes. This occurs in poetry. They are myself. "I found me a good book. (ourself). The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.It is finger-cold. -selves. it rained. but seldom in prose. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. A sturdy lad . I made up my mind to foot it. themselves. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.²THOREAU. when they are direct objects. . keeps a school. have laid them downIn their last sleep." and there is an end of it. used in poetry. (thyself). who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. I set me down and sigh. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. ourselves. and its plural selves.²DE QUINCEY.

²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. As if it were thyself that's here. were changed into the possessive myself.As girls were once. I shrink with pain. 95. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. after the analogy of myself. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. with self. especially in the speech of rulers.² . 96.²MILTON. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. In Middle English the forms meself. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. as.. not the possessive forms. Threats to all. for example.To you yourself. Origin of these reflexives. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. as in vulgar English.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.²E. for example. theself.²SHAKESPEARE. etc.²EMERSON. to us..Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. shall dissolve.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.² TENNYSON. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. as.² The great globe itself . and the others were formed by analogy with these. B. as we ourself have been. The question might arise. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. ourselves. NOTE. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.²WORDSWORTH. BROWNING. Held dead within them till myself shall die. Use of the reflexives. to every one.²ID. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. and build the lofty rhyme. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. thyself.

(a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. Come and trip it as we go. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. And it grew wondrous cold. fight it out. which. 2. Infancy conforms to nobody. Courage. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. 4. father. 97. Three now in use. 3.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. FRANKLIN. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. all conform to it.²B. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 6. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. 9.²DE QUINCEY. but it is the soonest spoiled. 7. some each of masculine. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. is wisdom. feminine. and neuter. One obsolete. some of them being double possessives.On the light fantastic toe. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. But if a man do not speak from within the veil.² THACKERAY. and what. . (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. Years ago. 10. and how to do it. let him lowly confess it. 8. where the word is one with that it tells of. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. To know what is best to do. 5. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it.

ideas. it refers to either persons or things. the gold. 98. which is not inflected for gender. it is selective. As shown here. Whose was that gentle voice. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. Use of which. it is always third person. actions. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. that it is always singular and neuter. etc. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. Which of you. 99. whispering sweet. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. These show that what is not inflected for case. referring to things. as it always asks about somebody.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. The use of who. with its possessive and objective. but for case alone. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. whether. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. number. 100. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.There is an old word.Promised. not to persons. that is. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. or case.. having three forms. but now obsolete. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. . methought. used formerly to mean which of two. that. What wouldst thou do. shall we say. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. Use of what. that it is not inflected for gender or number. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Use of who and its forms. old man?²SHAKESPEARE.

² . which and what are sometimes adjectives. whose? Obj. AND PLUR. which. Thus we may say. which and what.² "The last of all the Bards was he. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. being the direct object of the verb shall take. These bards sang of Border chivalry. 127). as. since it is subject of the verb had. it may be shortened into. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. 103. nominative in the second also. 104. objective in the last. subject of doth love." In the latter sentence. who evidently refers to Bards. pronoun. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. AND PLUR. Who. who is used as objective instead of whom. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. for which the pronoun stands. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. 99. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. which is called the antecedent of the relative. and also in having a conjunctive use. as they take the place usually of a word already used. or other word or expression. which is nominative in the first sentence.Who sung of Border chivalry. Function of the relative pronoun. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. It usually precedes the pronoun. 105. 102. what may be an adverb in some expressions. "The last of all the Bards was he. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. The antecedent. SINGULAR Nom. SING. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.101. and what are also relative pronouns. who? Poss. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. in Sec. Further treatment of who. as." Or. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. For instance. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. and so to make smoother discourse.²by the use of the words.

107. in the same sense in which man's nature. They had not their own luster. are the men and women who bless their species. Indefinite relatives.²DR JOHNSON.²W. The origin of language is divine.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. which. both his and who have the antecedent priest. a simple relative is meant. the women whom women approve.²LOWELL In this. Two kinds. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. 2. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.²THACKERAY. but the look which is not of the earth.² COX. what. The men whom men respect.²SCOTT.Whom universal nature did lament. 4. 108. 5. Who and its forms. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. 4. For her enchanting son. .. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.²PARTON Which and its forms. When the word relative is used.²BYRON.That guard our native seas. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. 3. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. a thousand years. is a divine creation. with all its capabilities . WHITNEY. 3. Ye mariners of England. The nurse came to us. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. 6.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. 106.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. that. D. Generally speaking.Whose flag has braved. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following..²MILTON. 2. will be discussed further on..

Who. Reader.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. BEECHER 5.² SHAKESPEARE 2. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . 3. you will not be angry with me for telling you. else this description will seem exaggerated. The Tree Igdrasil. That. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. The judge . Examples of the relative that:² 1.²MARGARET FULLER. 4. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. bought up all the pigs that could be had. stratagems.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.²BURKE. 109.. which it certainly is not.Is fit for treasons. Already done is all that he would do. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.²GOLDSMITH. (a) This gradation . The man that hath no music in himself.²IRVING.²LAMB 3. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. 107.. 2. What. no bad type of what often happens in that country. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. and spoils.. 110.²H. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. 111. W.²DE QUINCEY. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.5.. For what he sought below is passed above.. ought to be kept in view.. 6.²EMERSON.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher..

under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. whose is second person. in the third. whose.. in 5. in the first sentence. not persons. My horse.. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. and 3. and others. and 6. . Scott. referring to animals. whom.²who. In 1. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. possessive case of which. that man. seemed as much excited as myself.who. 96). whose wound I had dressed. who. 2. (4) It has two case forms.²LEIGH HUNT. The sentences in Sec.²IRVING. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. they are plural. the relatives are singular. 5.²THACKERAY. 113.. and so on.. (2) It has three case forms. in 4.²LOWELL. or ideas. Which. The robins. Kingsley.²DR. in the second. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. In sentence 4. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Smollett. (3) It is nearly always third person. things. Sec. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. JOHNSON. 112.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.²SWIFT. whose for the possessive. p. who is first person. 107. Examples of whose. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. It has been seen (Sec. the others are all third person. Who referring to animals. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature.whose. Cooper. son. flung its arms around my neck. Gibbon. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. The little gorilla...²which for the nominative and objective. a man. Witness the following examples:² And you. whom.

animals. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. and things. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.²RUSKIN. and to persecute without pity. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural."²RUSKIN. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. secondly (which made her stare). Kingsley. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.²THACKERAY.²BEECHER. That. thus. This often occurs.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain.²SHAKESPEARE. second. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. (3) It is the same form for first. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. (2) It has only one case form. The last two sentences in Sec. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. . which is worse. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.² And. 116. too. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. let us enter the church itself. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. the antecedent follows which. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. In the sentences of Sec.²first. for a religion whose creed they do not understand.²SCOTT. Men may be ready to fight to the death.114. which is very notable and curious. This moribund '61.²DE QUINCEY. Burke. Sometimes. So in Matthew Arnold. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. Primarily.² MCMASTER. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. Which and its antecedents. no possessive. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. and numerous others. 109. 115.² I swept the horizon. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. and third persons. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.

as in sentence 6. The gender. who Poss. . and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. What a man does. Nom. either of which would be neuter. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. 119. 117. whose Obj. plural number." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. is always neuter. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. by taking them out.²EMERSON. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. that do I. plural number. Sec." That evidently refers to truths. which. consequently is neuter.²BIBLE What fates impose. we can. it usually follows. for example. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. For example. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and person of the relatives who. 109. third person. When expressed. 118. what we said?²CARLYLE." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. that do I not.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. as. number. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular." (3) "These people heard him. that he has. and is emphatic. The sentences of Sec. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. Who plainly stands for those or the people. third person. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause.²SHAKESPEARE. but what I hate. What. that men must needs abide. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent.² What I would. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL.

120. the simple relative. we is the subject. 5. is in the nominative case. so is in the objective case. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. standing for the people understood. but of this. the highest result of all education. In the same way who. but is singular.. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. is subject of the verb can't be cured. What can't be cured. in (1). nobler souls with that which they are. it is subject of the verb heard. In (2). 4. however."²EMERSON. The whole expression is its subject. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. 8. Truths in sentence (2). Exercise. In the sentence. "What can't be cured must be endured. and hence is in the nominative case. that takes the case of the truths in (2). 3. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. is what we call nature. because it has usually no antecedent. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. Now. Some prefer another method of treatment. is subject of wrought upon and molded. Another way. in the following sentences:² 1. third person. which is. people is the object of the preposition of. it is object of uttered.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. The relative what is handled differently. subject of heard. who is sure to be cunninger than they. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. The word what. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. Parsing what. etc. As shown by the following sentences. in (3). and what is the direct object of the verb call. then parse the relatives. above. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. What must be endured? Answer. First find the antecedents. neuter. I think they are trying to outwit nature." Here the subject of is. after all. ." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. 6. 7. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking.

"common souls pay with that [singular. and his friend a fool. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. The simple relatives who. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. whatsoever. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. to everything that. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. not as direct as the simple relatives. that is.²BURKE. by meaning and use. What simple relative and what indefinite relative.²MACAULAY. in a new and original way. 5. Hence some take what as a double relative. and in 2. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. 6. whatever is equivalent to all things which. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. object of with] which [singular. Only itself can inspire whom it will. . being referred to. whichever. and parse that in the first clause. 121. 7. 4. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. and which in the second clause. Take which you please. It is clear that in 1. no certain antecedent.²you cannot have both. 122. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. summer will have its flies. 123. whosoever. 2. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. Meaning and use. which. They are whoever. whatsoever. whichsoever. less common are whoso. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. Death is there associated. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 3. 2. So with the other indefinites. It is no proof of a man's understanding. object of do] they do. no particular thing. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. Do what we can. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. List and examples. whatever.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil." INDEFINITE RELATIVES.²BURKE. or what else soever. or stand on their head.

for example. 126.. But and as. by which. whereupon. upon which. There is nothing but is related to us.²HAWTHORNE. and that as after such is equivalent to which. Other substitutes. but and as. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. either one that.. Former use of as. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. the conjunctions wherein. what means anything that. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. as shown by the last sentence in Sec.² some particular thing. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence.²DE QUINCEY. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. has been my heaviest affliction. nothing that does not interest us. etc. Instead of the phrases in which. 4. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. etc. 124. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. thus. for example.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. not following the word such. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 121. 125. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. Two words. but which only wealth could have purchased.² 1. . This. 121. In early modern English. Proof that they have the force of relatives. Sec.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore.As shown in Sec. are used. everything that (or everything which). 2. whereby. etc. 417). OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. 120. as was used just as we use that or which.²EMERSON. but mean any one whom.

and whether what = that + which (if so.²ID. no antecedent is expressed. it is an interrogative.. 1 (b). if expanded. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. what is interrogative. if not. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. it is an indefinite relative). 3. second. "Who stood behind? We knew. 127.²EMERSON. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. Thus. who having the antecedent gentleman. would be. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. a question is disguised in each sentence.²WHITTIER. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. In sentences 1 (a). How to decide. which having the antecedent lines. showing that who is plainly interrogative. which would indicate that they are not relatives. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first." etc. Special caution needed here. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. "But what had become of them? They knew not. the full expression being. it is a simple relative. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. 2. though the earthwork hid them. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. and 3 (b). (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. So in 2 (b)." Likewise with which in 3 (b). so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. 2 (b). it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. Another caution. In studying such sentences. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. if not. . But in 1 (b).

Relative omitted when object. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.² THACKERAY. 4. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. 129. 3. In the third. The insect I am now describing lived three years.²G. I visited many other apartments. whence is the interrogative word. Put in the relatives who.² These are the sounds we feed upon. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. ELIOT. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. whose has the antecedent you. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. Examine the following:² 1. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. In the first. which has the antecedent hue. and Court Calendars. 2. When Goldsmith died. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. In the second. Thus. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. the question is asked by the verb.²FLETCHER. .²SWIFT.²CARLYLE.128. but the life of man in England. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr.²FORSTER 6. On the other hand. and asks no question. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.²HOLMES. Exercise. which. 5.²GOLDSMITH.

²Id.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.² LOWELL. 3. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. It is rare in prose. . 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. that.7.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. 130. 5. and comparatively so in poetry. Also in literary English we find the same omission.²CAMPBELL. Relative omitted when subject. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.²SHAKESPEARE. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. the house was full. 6. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. Function of adjective pronouns. or indefinite relatives:² 1. and what. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. There was such a crowd went. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.²SCOTT. simple relatives. who were to be rulers over whom. which. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. Examples are. The nobles looked at each other. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives.Ne'er looks upon the sun. 2. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. which was already proceeding. He went on speaking to who would listen to him.

'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. any. which we have seen in such expressions as.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. and on each is written. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. "another bank. or an argument in a paragraph. etc. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. "these pranks. . In the first use they are adjectives.131. in order to be an adjective pronoun. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words.²IRVING. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. expressed or understood. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. 'Truth. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. "each cube. such as each. "The dead are there." that is. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. 132. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. Caution. but in this function. either. all. that." in the second. a word. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. 133. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. and stand for a noun. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. For instance. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. Primarily they are adjectives. none. the former. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. It must come under the requirement of pronouns." "Where two men ride on a horse. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. as some. or use. neither.²BRYANT. Adjectives. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence." "one man. must not modify any word. in letters of gold. or may be the whole of a sentence." Classes of adjective pronouns." in the others. and another to get cool under. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. in the first. few. etc. etc. not pronouns. or they may stand for nouns.²EMERSON. such as this. necessarily thought of: thus. but have lost their adjective use. For example. many.

and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. and sow wickedness. 3. they that plow iniquity. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. for example.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.²LOWELL. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Simple. or reclined. 134. and they have well performed the other. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. Some of these are simple pronouns. Compound.All these he saw. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. They had fewer books. but these were of the best. when the latter was the King of Spain. They have not shunned the one.²EMERSON 4. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. because he was not lying in wait for these.²ID. Their minds accorded into one strain.² They stood. accidentally preserved. reap the same. Even as I have seen. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. A man inspires affection and honor. 5. Definition and examples. as seemed good to each. or sat. 2. .²ID. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Exercises. Such are a few isolated instances. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. NOTE.

It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. as most were. one another. ²HAWTHORNE. Another opposes him with sound argument. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. Definition and examples. 135. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. another. . with the superstitions of his time. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. you quickly come to the end of all.² One reflexive. Some inflected.²each other. The word one has a reflexive form. Much might be said on both sides. such as one other. imbued. paused over a horoscope. or melt for others' woe. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. for example. as some of the rangers had gone astray. Men take each other's measure when they react. The Soldan.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.²KINGSLEY. as. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. Exercise. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay.²HAWTHORNE. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. If hand of mine another's task has lightened.Two are compound pronouns.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. They led one another. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. as it were.²HOLMES.²EMERSON.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. None shall rule but the humble. we might the more easily discharge them. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with.

They indefinite means people in general. Jove laughs. every one else. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. they are never used as adjectives. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case.Exercise. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. 136. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. in building of chaises. . and was indefinite in Old English. 137. anything. etc. and they. but. nothing." It means something. they say. everybody. some one. naught. Definition and examples. somebody else. no one. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. etc. as. anyone else. Now. anybody. any one (or anyone). Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. something. every one (or everyone). as shown in the words everybody's. everything.²SHAKESPEARE. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. I tell you what. also aught. nobody. what. everybody else. Exercise. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America.² At lovers' perjuries. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List.. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. Somebody. and somewhat.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. unlike adjective pronouns. anybody else's. Every one else stood still at his post. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. These other souls draw me as nothing else can.

6. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. I first found myself among the mountains. 13. in his negotiations. 10. 11. to which. 3. Hutchinson tells us of herself. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 7. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. O thou that rollest above. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. indeed. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. . 18. and of no other. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 9. 12.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 5. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 8. Others did the same thing. were suffered to depart. A reminder. from my earliest days. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. 2. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost.²a feature of natural scenery for which. Whoever deals with M. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. Exercise. All was now ready for action. 17. 4. 138. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). For this did God send her a great reward. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. The table was good. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 16. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 14.

31. 21. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. 27. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. and tracedWords which I could not guess of.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. thou rollest now. 30. And will your mother pity me. 35.Destroyer and preserver. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. They know not I knew thee. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble.And it would work 'em woe. in all its height. 25. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form.Who knew thee too well. eat white bread or brown. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . behold now the semblance of my being.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. And I had done a hellish thing.19. 32. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. 34. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. oh. variety. hear. that let him communicate. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. who take the world easy. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. I who alone am. hear! 33. He sate him down. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. 29. 26. Whatever he knows and thinks. and seized a pen. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 23. well-oiled dispositions.

in pointing out an object. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. We are by nature observers. the number is limited by adjectives. 40. or with persons." "a hundred men. as. if we are at a distance. and he learns who receives. So with any object. 41. 139. then. ADJECTIVES." "some cities. 43. brittle or tough. 42. He teaches who gives. such as in the expressions "this man.. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. 45. or liquid. 44. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. 39. and if we are near." The office of an adjective. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. so that no other will be mistaken for it. As to the kind of words used. He knew not what to do.36. becomes mine. size. which was no bad step towards my liberation. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. Substantives. position." "that house. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit." etc. etc. For example. . If a chemist discovers a new substance. heavy or light. 37. or gaseous. etc. and so he read. Office of Adjectives. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. that is our permanent state. It may have this office alone. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. Who hears me. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. Instead of using nouns indefinitely." "yonder hill. 38. white or red. Again. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. We need to add some words to tell its color. who understands me. "one hat. adjectives are used. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house.

notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. such as safe. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. derived from proper nouns. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. remotest. To make this clear. deep. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES." "half-dead traveler. 141. happy. divine." ." "the Roman writer Palladius. rash. (2) Adjectives of quantity. With exception of the "and then. To err is human.²POPE. or how much of a thing. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them." the "and there. to forgive." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. etc. terrible. "an old English manuscript. If he be thankful for small benefits. however. 143." "ice-cold water. Infinitives. Nouns are not." "this life-giving book. Definition. it shows that he weighs men's minds. 142. beautiful. Examples are. to describe it or to limit its application." "unlooked-for burden. words primarily pronouns." "next-door neighbor. used to tell how many things are spoken of." "ivory-handled pistols. fair. (3) Demonstrative adjectives.140. They include relative and interrogative words.² BACON." and the still less significant "and so." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. pointing out particular things. such as." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. and their trash." they constitute all his connections.²COLERIDGE. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. "Heaven-derived power. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "the Christian pearl of charity. Classes of adjectives. (4) Pronominal adjectives." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof.

²MACDONALD.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting." "The clearness and quickness are amazing.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. Oxenham.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." "The shattered squares have opened into line.But ever she looked on Mr." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. but small thoughts have I of sleep." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. 144." was accomplished is a verb. much. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. . and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. sometimes small. having some of each subclass named in Sec. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. For instance: in the sentence." "a charming sight.²COLERIDGE. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. 145." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. any. Exercises. which are either pure participles used to describe. considerable. Examples are. some. no." "an aged man. and another is drunken. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. in this." Caution. 143. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. and accomplished is an adjective. 'Tis midnight. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. 1. Care is needed. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "One is hungry." was is the verb. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. in studying these last-named words. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little." "It came on like the rolling simoom." "trailing clouds. 2.

that. every village. as." "He had lived by hunting for some months. Examples. former. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. instead of modifying them." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. How many. the former²the latter. latter. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. but I have gained fourscore. An arrow was quivering in each body. any. When some. its wake." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show." "I have lost one brother. yonder (or yon). no. and with them a few negroes. (plural these.² Every town had its fair." "In came some five and twenty more. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of.²THACKERAY. they come under the next division of adjectives." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense.²KINGSLEY. are used with plural nouns. "one blaze of musketry." (b) Indefinite numerals. The demonstrative adjectives are this. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. 146. those). Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. The following sentences present some examples:² .²VAUGHAN." "a dozen volunteers. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. The list." Single ones of any number of changes.²ID. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. Not primarily pronouns. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives." "Then we wandered for many days. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. Thus.²CARLYLE. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.

² It matters not what rank he has. what revenues or garnitures. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator.²BULWER. of equal skill.²BANCROFT.."²B.²WORDSWORTH. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. ²CARLYLE. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. WEBSTER. When we speak of the seventeenth century. 147.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. . These do not. They are of two kinds.. Oxenham fought desperately. Indefinite relative adjectives. Definition. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. 148. they are changed to adjectives. The silver and laughing Xenil.²KINGSLEY. The taking of which bark.²D. In which evil strait Mr.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. These were thy charms.²GOLDSMITH. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. but.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.but all these charms are fled. As has been said. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. but in the one case. like the other numerals. for example. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. 149. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. skill which was progressive²in the other. Exercise.²ID. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. I verily believe. just as the corresponding pronouns do. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. skill which was at pause. FRANKLIN. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course.²ID. Modify names of persons or things.²RUSKIN. tell how many things are meant.

² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. He was turned before long into all the universe. New torments I behold. whichever. 151. Examples of their use are. Adjective what in exclamations. as it rather seemed.²ID. whatever. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. In indirect questions.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). In direct questions. it is impossible to determine. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.²LAMB.²IRVING. which. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. what inquires about things or persons not known.. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.² EMERSON.. the debt to the rich. nature will be sure to bear us out in. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. which is selective among what is known. and gaze. As in the pronouns. or whether any. A lady once remarked. whichsoever way I move. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.150. you at least give him full authority over your son. and new tormentedAround me. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.And whichsoever way I turn. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. . whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. whatsoever. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. Whatsoever kind of man he is.²RUSKIN. Was there.²AGASSIZ. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. proved not altogether displeasing to him. whichsoever. But when the Trojan war comes.²CARLYLE. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.

of the quality. or weight. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. and those as the plural of that.² Oh. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness.²This. When we place two objects side by side. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. COMPARISON. It is neither relative nor interrogative. This is the old demonstrative. etc.²but not the same degree.. Meaning of comparison. Those borrowed from this. which was fully inflected in Old English. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. That. color.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives.Adjectives have two inflections. the making of it right.152. we notice some differences between them as to size. we do so by means of their qualities. or size. In exclamatory expressions. But this had also another plural. gold is heavier than iron. 155. . All these have certain qualities. 153 . alas. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. etc. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. 154. and when we compare the objects. as.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article.²number and comparison. History of this²these and that²those. those). th s (modern those). what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. or amount. And yet. weight. Exercise. Thus. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. The article that was used with neuter nouns. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. NUMBER. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES.

These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. The comparative is formed by adding -er. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. universal institution.²THACKERAY. The two forms. whose favorite pupil he was. . 160. and many others. bluer. as. bluest. redder. for example. infinite. 159. red. with less wit. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. Definition. easier. but. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. expressing a greater degree of quality. reddest." "It is a nobler valor. immemorial. and the superlative. These are properly the only degrees. easy.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE.²SEWARD. as. Freedom is a perpetual. 156." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. whether they attend their own affair or not.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. expressing the greatest degree of quality." "the largest soul. "more matter. and the superlative by adding -est. blue. easiest. "untamed thought. sufficient. organic. 157. or amounts in quantity. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. 158. They came into use about the thirteenth century. enormous. to the simple form. So with the words sole. though the simple. A main difference betwixt men is. indomitable." "no fewer than a hundred. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. strictly considered." Words that cannot be compared. indefatigable. but were not common until a century later. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. These are called degrees of comparison. Substitute for inflection in comparison. they are not compared. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality." "the commonest speech. great. giant-like. supreme.

" "the immensest quantity of thrashing. Adjectives irregularly compared." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. 162. and patientest fusing. honestest. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives.²The Nation. peaceablest. harsh forms are usually avoided.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. and other words are preceded by more and most. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. polished. though born in no very high degree.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. I will. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning." said Henry Esmond. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. These are adjectives irregularly compared. witty. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. and yet familiar.² CARLYLE A gentleman. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most.²ID. as. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. which hung behind in the queerest way." Carlyle uses beautifulest." "distantest relationships. These long. most small. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English." "sorrowfulest spectacles. The general rule is. "So help me God.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. strange. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. etc. The following lists include the majority of them:² . mournfulest." "more austere and holy. was most finished. falling on his knees. who. there needed to be a most genuine substance. easy. quiet. admirablest. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. 163. finest chiseling. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by.Which rule." "the wonderfulest little shoes.²ID. indisputablest. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. madam." "more odd.

uttermost Upmost. as. (3) Little is used as positive to less. as in Shakespeare. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. 9. oldest Nighest. hindermost Much or many More Farther. There was an old comparative bet.LIST I. 2. outermost Utmost. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. 7. older Nigher Nearer Later. List I. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. A double comparative. evil was the positive to worse. [Out] Outer. Good or well Evil. lesser. 4. which has softened to the modern best.² We have it in a much lesser degree. 164. 8. worst. Hind 2. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. least. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse.² O. 6. throw away the worser part of it. innermost Outmost. [In] Inner Inmost. furthest 10. 5. a double comparative. These have no adjective positive:² 1. utter 3. last Hindmost. The superlative I form was betst. further Farthest. lesser Elder. is often used. (2) In Old English. as in the sentence (14th century). and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. latter Hinder LIST II. uppermost LIST III. next Nearest Latest. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). Worser was once used. which has gone out of use. though from a different root.²HAMLET. .²MATTHEW ARNOLD. 1. bad. 3.

Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force.. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. the old forms. muchel. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. are shown in such phrases as. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. an old superlative ending. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. etc. and refer to time. etc. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. great. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. but originally the comparison was nigh. and on it were built a double comparative nearer.²HAWTHORNE. further. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. are earlier than older. . the parallel form mickle being rarely used. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. and the superlative nearest. moche. making the modern farther. greatest. strong. to which is added -ost. furthest. instead of lenger. First became entirely detached from the series. th came into the others. (5) The forms elder. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte." Its spelling has been micel. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. to England we sailed. since the m is for -ma.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. strenger. Between the two sets as they now stand.. farrest. came into use.²KINGSLEY. is quite common. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. farthest.² The more part being of one mind. eldest. "Many a little makes a mickle. The meanings greater. but not in meaning. Since later. In imitation of further.²ID. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. or series. much. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form.²forth. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. near. first. The most part kept a stolid indifference. as. latest. for example. next. there is scarcely any distinction. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. except the form next. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. meaning the largest part. List II. a distinction has grown up between the two series. The latter. ²LAMB. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. oldest. doubling the inflection. as long. (10) Hinder is comparative in form.

sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. but not in their meaning. the upper light of the world." "the innermost moral soul. 166. List III. Her. 167. The adjectives in List III. BEECHER. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. being merely descriptive. They have no superlatives. Her bows were deep in the water.165. Highest and midmost. and have no comparative force.²H.²KINGSLEY." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. Think what each adjective belongs to. The comparatives are so in form. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. in having no adjective positives. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. There." "their utmost exertion. was descried The royal banner floating wide. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. all may belong to the same noun." -Most added to other words. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. by the by. or each may modify a different word or group of words. W. In List II. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. or have no comparative forms." "far-seeing as the sun. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. but her after deck was still dry.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. . (Sec. Decidedly handsome. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. but they have no adjective positives. are like the comparative forms in List II. on the very topmost twig.²SCOTT." "The outer is of the day. 168.²EMERSON.²HAWTHORNE.

²HOLMES.²HAWTHORNE. usual modifies incomparable decision. H. . STEPHENS 5. rich.²MRS. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. the then and still owners. Richard Hooker. 7. satisfactory. 3. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. in prose. our new government.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. ²TROLLOPE. But in this sentence. The seldom use of it. Exercise. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. 4. A few improper jests and a volley of good. It may still be argued. "the one who was then king. as. we may say "the then king. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. Bradbury and Evans. round. 169. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. This. in this sentence. For thy stomach's sake. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. instead of saying." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. 6.² My then favorite. therefore. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. and thine often infirmities.²A. not decision alone. bright.²NOAH PORTER." making then an adjective.²RUSKIN. In the following quotations. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. solid. deeply black eyes. 2.²HAWTHORNE. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. Other instances are. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.²BIBLE. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. By a convenient brevity." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice.²TRENCH. philosophical. now our queen. deep. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID.For example. and heaven-defying oaths. and moral truth. May we not. Our sometime sister. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision." in which then is an adverb. STOWE. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. and broken.

and most astounding were those frightful yells. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. plural number. 5. 7. and I waited for none. (2) Its number. modifies the word truths. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. cannot be compared. compared by prefixing more and most. frank. not inflected for number. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. positive degree. 170. . if it has number. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. MODEL FOR PARSING. Unfamiliar describes truths. having a singular. 8. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. 9. 2. and very few have number. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. or case. This gave the young people entire freedom. if it can be compared. (4) What word or words it modifies. 4. (3) Its degree of comparison. Exercise. These points out what truths. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. 10.What to tell in parsing. To every Roman citizen he gives. seventy-five drachmas. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. 6. with awkward but rapid pace. therefore descriptive. person. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. In parsing an adjective. manly way. this. I ask nothing of you. 3. Since adjectives have no gender. the method of parsing is simple. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. therefore demonstrative. To every several man. then. across the plain. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. modifies truths. She made no reply.

33. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 25. 27. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. Here lay two great roads. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. and dogs. growing in the most unfavorable position. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. suggests such thoughts as these. 32. 21. it rests on reality. he won affections with ease. as for armies that were too many by half. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. Two hours elapsed. it is so noble a fruit. 28. To say what good of fashion we can. are immutably fishes. is the settlement of our own country. 16. 26. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. and therefore more interesting to us. 24. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. the same love to France would have been nurtured. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. during which time I waited. not so much for travelers that were few. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 23.11. 14. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. In music especially. those dogs in the yard. . I know not what course others may take. oxen. 22. With every third step. Nearer to our own times. 12. 20. 18. Their name was the last word upon his lips. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. yonder oxen in the pasture. 29. Like most gifted men. 31. and many poles supported the lower ones. 13. the tomahawk fell. 19.

The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . 173. even when not silent.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. A hard-struggling. later th . or the tane. s o. in vulgar English. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. were formerly that one.34. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36." "a European.²SCOTT. An before vowel sounds. just as adjectives do. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. Their origin. ." An with consonant sounds. meaning one. An historian. these occurring as the tane. In the sentence. weary-hearted man was he. the tother. ARTICLES. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. the tother. he is no literary man. 171. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. In Middle English the became an article. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. such as we have been attempting to describe. Our expressions the one. 174.²BREWER. the tither. Two relics. that) which was also an article in Old English. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy." "an orange. the other. Examples: "a house. th o." "a yelling crowd. but the former is used." "an honor. that other. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. a before consonant sounds. sometimes the tother. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. and a before consonant sounds. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds.²MACAULAY. 35. the latter is still preserved in the expression. 172. for example. ðat. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. with an ordinary little garden. An or a came from the old numeral n. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words." the words the and an belong to nouns. Many writers use an before h. 37.

177. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. doubtless. An and a are different forms of the same word. as "the Mississippi. Kinds. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. When the is prefixed to a proper name.²HEROES OF ASGARD. and not a state or other geographical division." "the Ohio." the article indicates clearly that a river. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me.²This use is noticed when. Reference to a known object.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. To call attention to attributes.²THACKERAY. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north.. The is the definite article. a person is introduced by a. on opening a story. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon.² .²IRVING. or a group or class of things. BANCROFT. Articles are either definite or indefinite. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. 176. or class. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. or any individual of a group or class. not descriptive.² Don't you remember how. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. 178. With names of rivers. NOTE.²COLERIDGE. 175. An article is a limiting word. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. since it points out a particular individual.. and when the word river is omitted. the older n. Definition. 179. which cannot be used alone. as in the sentence. or group. An or a is the indefinite article. thus. is referred to. An hereditary tenure of these offices.²G.. The Dakota tribes.

as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. For possessive person pronouns. or a match put between the fingers.²GIBBON. the Spinoza. the song sparrow. so is the evil. Half abstract. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. the gallant.²ID. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. and the redwing. the Hume. Caution. for example. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. laid it on the miry spot. Kant. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. not into a particular virtue. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird.²EMERSON. NOTE. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons.²KINGSLEY.²MOTLEY.² As she hesitated to pass on. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. With adjectives used as nouns. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head.²SCOTT. The.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. Common.² The faint. etc. 1. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. .The Bacon.²ID. 2. BANCROFT. her. 181. as. 180.²EMERSON. If the good is there. would speedily extract the required information. 182. 183. One thing for its class. With plural of abstract nouns. His messages to the provincial authorities. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. but into the region of all the virtues.²G. Schelling. The simple rise as by specific levity. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

but fearing is not a predicate. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. an adverb. In the first. Now. care. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. (can) shame also has an object. the most astute. the most penetrating. 204. Hence Definition. and a preposition unite as a verb. to go is no predicate. c). that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. which may be a person. Has takes the object hypocrisy. the word following. and. In the sentence." Examine the sentences in Sec. 200: In (1). to say something to or about some person or thing. obeyed is a predicate. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. for example. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. and to receive the action expressed. as. 203. in (3."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. and shame the most astute. The nature of the transitive verb.In (a). In giving a definition. a preposition. we consider a verb as one word. and not a verb. "Put thou money in thy purse. By examining a few verbs. but cannot be predicates. or the object.²BULWER . Of those expressing action. hence is not a verb. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. A verb is a word used as a predicate. in (c). in this sentence from Bulwer. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. in (3. in (b). lone took what? answer. a noun. or an idea. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. taking the staff which always guided her steps. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. b). in (2. 201." put is the predicate. a). 202. etc. Definition and caution. "Put money in thy purse. which means to go over. Each influences some object. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. endured what? anguish. in (2. In each case. from the Latin transire. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. can deceive has an object. a verb. All these are called transitive verbs. all do not express it in the same way. The nature of intransitive verbs. representing something which it influences or controls. an article. with some word understood. or a material thing. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. b).

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

for example. as. I. as. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. the first great founder of the Empire. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.²MACAULAY. 222. . 2). the writer can make the statement following. popular government must be pronounced impossible.²may or may not be true. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.I could lie down like a tired child. Most excellent stranger. the second founder. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. Unreal²cannot be true. If this be the glory of Julius. but.²SHELLEY. Again. or be fulfilled.² If. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. Condition or Supposition. Ideal.²BRYCE.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. ²EMERSON. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.²LONGFELLOW. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. 221.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. 215.² Now. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. WEBSTER.²FRANKLIN. the representative system ultimately fail.²D. and may or may not be regarded true. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. they were recorded in the Book of Life. in our case. he will see the need of these ethics. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of.

since he [Byron] was dead. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. except. to drink strong beer.² If these things were true. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.²BAYNE. 3. which cannot be true. and what kind of condition:² 1. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. may. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. I told him. do you think. Subjunctive of Purpose. especially be.²FRANKLIN. if he speak to you.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. The subjunctive. unless. clear. But in no case could it be justified. that we cannot but regret its absence. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories.. WILLIS. 7.. would you. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. Exercise. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. 2. and should. would have sat still with joy and peace. she was regarded as a prodigy.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. P. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. the clause being introduced by that or lest.. is used to express purpose. as. if he was the man I take him for. Epaminondas. if his lot had been mine. .²FRANKLIN. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. he supposed. might. society could not hold together. but when the verb precedes the subject.² It was necessary. though.²SWIFT. and sonorous. II.²EMERSON.² CARLYLE. 8. and striven energetically to save Ney. is of similar physiognomy. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. NOTE. 5. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand.²N. thus." etc. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. 223.²CALHOUN. ²LOWELL. he had better not have written.. that he might be strong to labor. etc.²MACAULAY. melodious. In the following conditional clauses. 6. The voice. 4. If he had reason to dislike him.

. Subjunctive of Result.²COLERIDGE.²CARLYLE. After a verb of wishing.²MOORE.That vain it were her eyes to close. VII. . WEBSTER. III. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. IV. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. like the Latin.²WORDSWORTH.²ID. I would it were! ²EMERSON. Expressing a Wish. V. In Indirect Questions. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. like the quarry-slave at night. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. Rise up. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. I've wished that little isle had wings. 226. The English subjunctive.Were wafted off to seas unknown. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. 224. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. till it meet the sun in his coming.Thou go not.I have been the more particular. 227.²DE QUINCEY. the answer being regarded as doubtful. To tell of what had passed.²SOUTHEY. 225..that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. none of us could say. In a Noun Clause.²D. So live. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. Ask the great man if there be none greater.. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. within its fairy bowers.²BRYANT. VI.And we. Let it rise.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.. In Temporal Clauses.

²SHELLEY. is the ultimate fact of man's life. That hunger of applause. 229.²DE QUINCEY. that everything be in its place.²TENNYSON.²THOREAU.² Be the matter how it may. 228. Concessive Clauses. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.And see the Braes of Yarrow.. is. which may be (a) Pronoun.²WORDSWORTH.² DICKENS. (b) Adjective. The first merit. we'll turn aside. . or whatsoever victual it may be. The noun clause. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. of cash. etc. in apposition. for example. Some might lament that I were cold. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. tell me all that thou hast seen. in its various uses as subject.Subject. VIII.²COLERIDGE.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.And look thou tell me true. Complement. I have no thought what men they be. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.²COLERIDGE. The essence of originality is not that it be new. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.²CARLYLE.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. See that there be no traitors in your camp. often contains a subjunctive. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. Come. Whatever betide.²SCOTT. Object. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. object. After verbs of commanding. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.

or requests. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. 230. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative.The spirit he loves remains. for example. a concession. love all men. In spoken English. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. however. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. Oh. IMPERATIVE MOOD. 232. to express a wish. (2) Entreaty. (3) Request. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine.²SHELLEY. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words.²BRYANT. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. At the present day. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. ADAMS. 231.²CHANNING.(c) Adverb. . we had found [should have found] a poem here. Usually second person. (1) Command. fear none. though. point to their immortal works. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. It must be remembered. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. and condition contrary to fact. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. Q. since commands are directed to a person addressed. Honor all men. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are.² CARLYLE.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English.²J. entreaties. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Definition.

Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. receive my hand. Sometimes with first person in the plural." Exercises on the Moods. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled.And. "The Devil take the goose. but I + you. 6. Meet is it changes should controlOur being.And God forget the stranger!" .²SCOTT. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.. "Come along with me. etc. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.One glance at their array! 5. we may use the imperative with we in a command. or I + they. etc. Oh. Quoth she."²DICKENS Tell me."Hush! mother. Mark thou this difference. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Whatever inconvenience ensue. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. 7. there will her heart and her prayers be. child of earth!While each performs his part.." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.²SHAKESPEARE. to you implied in it. 8. 2. noble earl. Part we in friendship from your land. nothing is to be preferred before justice. 3. request. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go.²CAMPBELL. Break we our watch up. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart." whispered Kit. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. lest we rust in ease.

my dear madam. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 10. "Mr.9. how he may do his work. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. That sheaf of darts. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17." 16. Well. no literary man. 19. 20. but repentant child. Though he were dumb.That they might answer him. 11.Except. 14. then. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. That a man parade his doubt.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. whether he do it right or wrong. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. or do it at all. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. Forget thyself to marble. 26." continued Old Morgan. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. it would speak. . alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. He. Think not that I speak for your sakes. 21. Marshall. Though abyss open under abyss." cried he. "Oh. 23. 13.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. ruined. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12.High up in silver spikes! 22. in what pomps and prosperities he like.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. as though an instrument. "tell me where I may find my poor." 25. will it not fall unbound. let him live where else he like. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. He is. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. and opinion displace opinion. 18. she ought to have it.

five in the imperative. by means of the present. which represented present and future time. When the older pronoun thou was in use. such as be. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. as will be shown later on. PERSON AND NUMBER. tell him to wait. Meantime." ." "If he comes. Old English had only two tenses. in the conjugations. past perfect. will. or whether it were as one member of a general party. called auxiliaries.27. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. whatever she did. past. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. and future. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. as." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. a form ending in -eth. "It is not in man that walketh. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. "Thou walkedst. 233. or agree with it. such as Latin and Greek.²the present tense. Tenses in English. past. TENSE. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person." past." present. the past. to direct his steps. Tense means time.²nothing could exceed the amiable. Definition. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. or future time.² present. shall. and the future tense. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. and the past tense. 28. five in the subjunctive. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. as. kind. The tenses in detail. as the classical languages have. also. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. 234. "Thou walkest. and future perfect tenses. in the third person singular. Siddons. have. 235. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. "I go away tomorrow.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents.

as. for example. singular number." and this only in the present tense indicative. is. chooseth. In classical languages. etc. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. walketh. [He] were [They] were . I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. You (thou) be 3. mood. Such verbs as choose have five.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. are. but in English. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. You are 2. and numbers. I were 2. walk has walk. chose. Singular 1. I be 2. Singular 1. persons. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. Few forms.²choose. wert) 3. were. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. since it is composed of several different roots. choosest. 237. Singular 1. moods. walked. chooses. walks. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. walkedst. 238. tenses. 236.²am. etc. This is the third person. CONJUGATION. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. tense. PRESENT TENSE. been. The verb be has more forms. "He walks. walking. Indicative Mood. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. Definition. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. [He] is [They] are 3. chosest). PRESENT TENSE. Singular 1. chosen (old. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. choosing.

and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.²SCOTT. etc.. (3) be. 239. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. same as the German sind. in four ways.²GOLDSMITH. (b) With the past participle in -ed. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. which was now become an occasional banquet. is. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. (d) With the infinitive. to form the passive voice. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. were.²SHELLEY. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. (2) was. Remarks on the verb be.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. -en. condition. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. Instead of the plural are.Imperative Mood. to express intention. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. The light that never was on sea and land.²WORDSWORTH. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. 240. as. etc.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. though it is usually a dialect form.²ID. for example.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. (2) As auxiliary verbs. obligation.²BURKE . (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.²THACKERAY. thus.His infancy was nurtured.

The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. In addition to the above inflected forms. "I shall be. PRESENT TENSE. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. Singular. I choose 2. 1. had. Machinery of a verb in the voices. tenses. (2). by placing have. You chose Plural. future perfect. You choose Plural. . Singular. "I have gone" (present perfect). I chose 2. 1.241. 1. as. 240. Singular. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. PRESENT TENSE. I chose 2. You chose Plural." "He will choose. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. past perfect. etc. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. tenses. 1. 242. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. I choose 2. We chose You chose 3. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. Singular. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. "I had gone" (past perfect)." (2) Present perfect. [He] choose [They] choose 3. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. We chose You chose 3. as. You choose Plural. Indicative Mood.

Future perfect. lest. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Same as indicative. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Imperative Mood. Present perfect. Present definite.(3) The definite form of each tense. Present. Same as indicative. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Future. "I am running. Past. Present perfect definite. singular number. as." "You are chosen. ACTIVE VOICE. Present." (4) The passive forms. Present perfect. Future perfect definite. He had chosen. [If. etc." 243. Indicative Mood. Subjunctive Mood. He has chosen. Past definite. He chooses. Present definite. Present. will be given. Future definite. He will have chosen. Present definite. he have been choosing. He will have been choosing." "They had been running. He was choosing. He has been choosing. He had been choosing. he chose (or were to choose). of each tense. though. "I was chosen. Past perfect definite.] he choose. Past. as. He chose. Present perfect definite. Past perfect. He will he choosing. Past perfect. " Be choosing. Only the third person. Past perfect definite. (2d per. He will choose.) Choose. Past definite. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). . He is choosing. he have chosen.

he had been chosen. He will be chosen. Present definite. "He does strike. None. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. he were being chosen. (2d per. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. He was being chosen. He will have been chosen. None. Present perfect. however. Past. if learned at all. he have been chosen.] [If. Imperative Mood. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). None. Past perfect definite. Also. Past perfect definite." [Note to Teacher. Present perfect definite. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Subjunctive Mood. 262). Past Perfect." "He did strike. lest. Exercises should be given. None. Future.²This table is not to be learned now. Future perfect. Present definite. Past. He had been chosen. though. PASSIVE VOICE.] he be chosen. He is being chosen. Past perfect. " " " " " " " None. Future perfect definite. . Past definite. Present perfect. but verbals. None. in affirmative sentences. He is chosen.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs.) Be chosen.NOTE. Present. Present. as. Indicative Mood.. Present perfect definite. Past definite. None. He has been chosen. etc. Future definite. He was chosen. they will be discussed later (Sec. Present tense.

sleep. lay. 245. bid bound. beg. drove. Kinds. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. 244. which are in parentheses Present Tense. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. as. catch. but adds no ending.[adj. laid.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. and may or may not change the vowel: as. According to form. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. Past Tense. caught. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. bit blown broken chidden. ran. Definition. NOTE. begged. run. slept. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. Some of these also have weak forms. bounden] bitten. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. verbs are strong or weak. drive. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle.

drunken] driven eaten. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drank[adj.

sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. sunken] sat slain slidden. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. trod worn woven won wound . stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang.

²GOLDSMITH. cloven. especially in that of an earlier period. to split. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. clave or clove. When it means to carry or to endure. "stricken with paralysis. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. Our cock. now told us it was time for repose." In this confusion of usage. Sometimes in literary English. the other. . as.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.² We had each drank three times at the well. as (from Holmes).²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. Not a cock crew. But drunk is very much used as an adjective." Stricken is used mostly of diseases.²as (from Shakespeare). This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English.²MILTON." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. for example. cleft. but is much used in vulgar English. which always crew at eleven.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. and. only one set remains certain. TAYLOR. cleft (to split). Crew is seldom found in present-day English. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.²COLERIDGE. 246. as. The form clomb is not used in prose. cleaved. probably to avoid confusion with this. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as.² Thou hast clomb aloft.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. nor a dog barked. instead of ate and eaten. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro.²cleave. borne is also a passive." "a drunken wretch. and the latter." "the cloven hoof." "a sunken snag. ²THACKERAY. and sometimes occurs in poetry. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). and another (born) for the passive. as.²B. "his bounden duty.²one meaning to adhere or cling.²TENNYSON.²IRVING. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. cleaved. The former used to be cleave. cleave. Historically.

shore is rare. for example.²TENNYSON. Begin. found." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. for example. 9.The form gotten is little used. 7. . got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. frozen. 8." but not much as a participle. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. 3. flung. 245). shaken.²WORDSWORTH. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. This heard Geraint. fallen. broke. Give. Drive. as "a shorn lamb.²DE FOE. thrown.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. maiden. Throw. 4. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. 2. Fall. even in poetry. found. drove.²BIBLE. Shake. given.²BYRON. and grasping at his sword. 10.²SCOTT. One example out of many is.² We had all got safe on shore. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs."²KINGSLEY. broken. froze. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Fling. (a) From the table (Sec. driven. begun. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. shook. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. He sate him down. Find. which is seldom used except in poetry. The butler was hanged. Usually shear is a weak verb. Freeze. We usually say. Exercises. 6. fell. began.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. gave. as. flung.² If. threw. Break. and seized a pen. 5.

"far off his coming shines.. as in Sec. which survives in the sentence. Have we valuable territories and important posts. "So mote it be. 249.²HAWTHORNE. etc.²CHANNING. PAST.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. as. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. according to the infinitive used. 223. purpose. or. or when it expresses wish. Like must. etc.. It is indicative when it expresses permission. PAST. of course.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. there is one general principle. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. it is used only in the indicative mood. PRESENT. from the obsolete verb motan.²CHANNING This. but came through analogy with should and would. They are as follows:² PRESENT. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. 220. Must is historically a past-tense form. All must concede to him a sublime power of action.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. HAMILTON. Can is used in the indicative only.²SCOTT."²WINIER.²PAINE. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. Ability. Indicative Use: Permission. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. 250. as it sometimes does. His superiority none might question. must have been an ocular deception.. Could may be subjunctive.. The same remarks apply to ought. 247.[To the Teacher. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. .. The l in could did not belong there originally. (See also Sec. Subjunctive use. as it has two meanings. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe." Must is present or past tense.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. 251. for full drill on the forms. ability.

² With respect to novels. "I think I will go. promise.e. shall and should are used. The sea shall crush thee.² Futurity and questions²first person. in the form of command. to the neglect of shall and should.² (a) To express authority. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. to use will and would. The following are examples:² Never mind. Second and third persons. She should not walk. (b) In indirect quotations.Nay. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. She rejects his suit with scorn. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. he said.²LONGFELLOW. for example. my lad. especially in the United States.² The time will come full soon." Uses of shall and should. and corn to hoe. .²L. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.²MACAULAY. as.²THAXTER. (b) In questions asking for orders. yea. They shall have venison to eat. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. while ought always has to. as. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. not plod along like apeasant. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. Shall and Will. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. with pronouns of the first person.²COOPER. what shall I say?²N. future action). WEBSTER. BROCKDEN BROWN. I shall be gone. or confident prediction. 252. C.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to..²BULWER. as.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. MOULTON. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.²IRVING. shall and should are used. she should ride like a queen.

That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.² I will go myself now. 253.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.²WORDSWORTH.²BYRON. LARNED.²SWIFT. as the sole inventor. I never was what I should be.. B. Disguising a command. JAMES. (c) With direct questions of the second person.. time. And promised.²C. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.²WINTER. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. First. or a promise.²A. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. purpose. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²SCOTT. etc.. for example.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. BROWN. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.that I would do him justice.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.²CABLE.²ROGERS. was to be expected. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. as. with the conviction that he should win in the end. thus. second and third persons. for example. .Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.²WORDSWORTH. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. JR.²WORDSWORTH. and is equivalent to ought.²H. and will not return until all is finished.

² Thou wilt take the skiff.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. for example. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. would is used to express a wish. This puts the order more mildly. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). 254. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. B. will and would often denote an action as customary. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.²BURKE. ..² Subject I omitted: often so.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. without regard to future time. SECOND. as..²War Records.. When I am in town.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion.²SCOTT.²the original meaning of the word will. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. will is used to express command.²BANCROFT. AND THIRD PERSONS. (4) With FIRST. through storms their brothers are afraid of. will and would are used to express simple futurity.² DICKENS.. Thine was a dangerous gift. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. etc. and two of my people. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.. and mark on the grounds the works. for example. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.²SCOTT. The gift of Beauty. shaking his right knee with a constant motion.²IRVING. as if it were merely expected action. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. Mere futurity. so you will. action merely expected to occur. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.²LANDOR. for punishment or intimidation. Roland. Would thou hadst it not. when thou wast born. To be sure. BROWN.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. PASSIVE VOICE. as. In this stately chair would he sit. They will go to Sunday schools.

1. (b) Examine the following sentences. 6. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. You shall be chosen. You shall be chosen. Thou art what I would be. [They] will choose. I shall be chosen. [He] will be chosen. Plural. 2. and justify the use of shall and will. I shall choose. You will be chosen. 3. 1. You will be chosen. He informed us. 3. You shall choose. Singular. 5. I will be chosen. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. . 3. 3. promise. [He] shall be chosen. 4. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 3. [They] will be chosen. 2. Plural." answered Herbert stubbornly. You will choose. 2. You shall choose. We shall choose. Singular.:² ACTIVE VOICE. [He] will choose. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. PASSIVE VOICE. Thou shalt have a suit. (a) From Secs. "I shall not run. 1. 2. 3. Plural. 2. I will choose. 2. etc. 252 and 253. 1. We will be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will.Singular. Plural. [He] shall choose. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. Singular. 1. To express determination. [They] shall be chosen. yet only seem. We shall be chosen. [They] shall choose. and that of the newest cut. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. You will choose. We will choose.

with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. Without having attended to this. Lucy stood still. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. Of smale houndes hadde she. as if he would have more of the enchantment. 256. or mylk and wastel breed.7. 13. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. bereave beseech bereft. need some attention and explanation." the stranger said. WEAK VERBS. This ending has now dropped off. and I have nothing to say. 12. Present Tense. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. 257. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. put.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. was -de or -te. put. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. "I am a wayfarer." 14. which may be called irregular weak verbs. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. The beast made a sluggish movement. 11.²CHAUCER. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. Irregular Weak Verbs. 10. as. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment.²ID. Past Tense. No. 9. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. bereft. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. then. bereave besought Past Participle. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. set. The old ending to verbs of Class II. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. 255. But the rest. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. bereaved besought .²Class I. my son. and have no change of vowel. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. very anxious. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. set. put.

leant leaped. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leant leaped. hid kept knelt laid leaned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

Infinitives. have no tense. and a perfect definite form. In Sec. Perfect. an imperfect. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Indefinite.²the creature warring against the creating power. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. when inflections became fewer. Imperfect.6. expressing purpose. [To] have been choosing. Perfect definite. [To] have been chosen. 267. 268. . I returned to reflection on my situation. 7. like participles. 8. 10... [To] have chosen. to express action unconnected with a subject. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. PASSIVE VOICE. [To] be choosing. Indefinite. ACTIVE VOICE. When active. Cases when to is omitted. Nothing of the kind having been done. 9. they have an indefinite. To with the infinitive. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. [To] choose. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. 266. Three saplings. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive.. will (with should and would). " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. and when passive. an indefinite and a perfect form. [To] be chosen. formed a kind of bedstead. INFINITIVES. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. to was used before the infinitive generally. a perfect. try clemency. But later. Perfect. as in the Old English.

as the credulous imagine. as in the expression. But there was nothing to do. "a house to let. While the gerund expresses action. sometimes need (as. 272. see.²HOWELLS. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb.. bid (command). and emphatic forms of the present and past. poor woman!" cried Charles. GERUNDS. liberal woman. as." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms.² What! doth she." Examples are. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. 269. it is often preceded by the definite article. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. as.²IRVING. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. E. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). also let. make.²GOLDSMITH. 271. as.²COOPER. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. it may be the subject of a verb. too.²E. (3) After had in the idiomatic use." "I shall have chosen. or the object of a verb or a preposition. negative. also in the imperative.²TENNYSON.(2) After the verbs may (might). She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. it has several attributes of a noun." (4) In exclamations. The gerund is like the participle in form. hear. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. "I do go" etc. watch.²DE QUINCEY. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER.²it may be governed as a noun. "He will choose.² She was a kind.²MACAULAY. feel. please." etc. HALE. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. must.). under "Analysis. and like a noun in use. "She ask my pardon. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. can (could). 270. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. . They shall have venison to eat. learn [doth learn is one verb. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. do (as. and corn to hoe.

Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. and wonderful store of learning! . What a vast. making the definite tenses. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. Exercise. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. Words in -ing are of six kinds. and five gerunds. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. (3) Participial adjectives.²Find sentences containing five participles. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. and has been put down. after examining the nest. which name an action or state. above. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. on your leaving the spot." "Certainly dueling is bad. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. but do not assert. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. which express action." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. but cannot govern." also (2. when." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. brilliant. may govern and be governed. Sec. (4) Pure adjectives. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. (5) Gerunds. II)." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. which have lost all verbal force. they find the nurslings untouched! 3." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. which express action. (6) Verbal nouns. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action." Exercise. Then how pleasing is it. b). to see the returning hope of the parents. five infinitives. according to use as well as meaning. 4. 273. 2. which express action and also modify. (2) Pure participles. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek.

7. I suppose I was dreaming about it. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. subjunctive. . 9. much corroded. I. round which is an iron railing. you must. VERBS. Caution. (b) as to use.²strong or weak. give reality to your teaching. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. (3) Mood. bearing her national emblem. 15. (4) Tense. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. He spread his blessings all over the land. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. In parsing verbs. 275. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. The only means of ascending was by my hands. 16. giving principal parts. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS.²indicative. slowly. but. 14. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. write twenty pages without stopping. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 10.5.²which of the tenses given in Sec. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. What is dreaming? 8. he gave out sentence by sentence. 11. Thackeray did not. 6. 12. (2) Voice.²active or passive. 13. by object lessons. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 234. (5) Person and number.²transitive or intransitive. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. or imperative. like Sir Walter Scott. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. dictating from his chair.

For fuller parsing of the infinitive. II. 278(2). till it meet the sun in his coming. Exercise." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. imperfect. VERBALS. give points (a) and (b). past tense. call might a weak verb. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. indicative (as it means could). But unless the verb is present. VERB PHRASES. may. has the subject government. You are gathered to your fathers. (b) whether active or passive. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. and parting day linger and play on its summit. . usually it does not. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. active. 273). see Sec. verbals. In such sentences as 1. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. It has been intimated in Sec. 235. indicative. (b) whether indefinite. then parse it as an adjective. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. 2. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. and should always be analyzed as phrases. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. and ends in -s. etc. Let it rise! let it rise. (2) Infinitive. intransitive. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. in the world. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. perfect. 2. definite. can. must. perfect. we must beware of the rule. (a) From what verb derived. would. (3) Gerund. Take these examples:² 1. might. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. 3. 278. no sin nor sorrow. has for its subject Lee. (b) its use (Sec. followed by a pure infinitive without to. etc. Especially frequent are those made up of should. and not taken as single verbs. therefore active." Sometimes it does. (c) to what word it belongs. III. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived.. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. past tense. 277. intransitive. Parse the verbs.276. In 2. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. 4. could. If a participial adjective. (1) Participle. The government might have been strong and prosperous. call should a weak verb.

24. However that be. 21. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. Whatever ground you sow or plant. as usual. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. as rolled from wing to wing. He passed across the room to the washstand. 10. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. 15. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. morning is not a new issuing of light. Read this Declaration at the head of the army.Henceforth in me instill. a sweet good will. 19. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. and wondered if she were yet awake. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. 16. 22. When he arose in the morning. In going for water.O God. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation.5. 17. With them. 12. a new bursting forth of the sun. 14. . or. 8. 6.Down all the line. a deafening shout. 18." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. leaving me upon the bed. So. from a sort of temporary death. 13. The soul having been often born. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. as the Hindoos say. 20. Right graciously he smiled on us. 23. a new waking up of all that has life. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 9. he thought only of her. see that it is in good condition. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 11.

25. they are more himself than he is."²DE QUINCEY." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. 279. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. Better it were.²SHELLEY. Is it only poets. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. . "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. Adverbs modify.²CARLYLE. Oh. thou sayest. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. place. To the almost terror of the persons present. "William's private life was severely pure. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.²THACKERAY. for example." "He was absolute. ADVERBS. And now wend we to yonder fountain.² The young man reveres men of genius. When action is expressed. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. or manner: as. Nor was it altogether nothing." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. 29. and men of leisure and cultivation. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. The word adverb means joined to a verb.Feast while we may. and so on. for the hour of rest is at hand. and limit adjectives or adverbs. and live ere life be spent. because. as. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. who live with nature?²ID. to speak truly. 27.²EMERSON.²time. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. to consent. A verb." An adjective or an adverb. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. 26." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.

280.² LOWELL. not simply the forms used in predication. but some verb understood. NOTE.²LEIGH HUNT. 169.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. ALDRICH.²These last differ from the words in Sec. ever. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. 169 are felt to be elliptical. . Surely happiness is reflective. (2) according to their use in the sentence. B.²BYRON. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. Definition. ²IRVING. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. I draw forth the fruit. 282. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. like the light of heaven. not the noun. or a word group used as such. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. as. An adverb. and half awfully. has induced some of us to attend it. for example. A phrase. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. 281. etc. It may also modify a sentence.²T.²TROLLOPE.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. A clause or sentence. We are offered six months' credit.²THOREAU. thus. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. all wet and glossy. before.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. Thus considered. hitherto. to-day. as now. then. lately. perhaps. while those in Sec. NOTE. but still with a rich bloom to it.He was incidentally news dealer. and that. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. is a modifying word.² FRANKLIN. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. being adverbs naturally and fitly. there are six classes:² (1) Time. as shown in the sentences. Make music to the lonely ear.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. but really modifying. which may qualify an action word or a statement. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.

whence. the more friends you will have. Meekness. much. White. So also in Grote. too. whencesoever. probably. surely.which gained him such universal popularity. at least. [Sidenote The status of such. or how far he believes it to be true. not. especially the comparative of these words. as perhaps. 283). as little.²BURKE. (5) Degree. the more evidently they love liberty.²HAWTHORNE.²BROWNING.. whithersoever. partly. etc. the more perfect will be their obedience.thither. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English.(2) Place. . etc. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. beautifully. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. Motley. (see also Sec.near. etc. for example. as well. thus. Thackeray.²LECKY. LOUIS STEVENSON. better. slowly. two by two.where.was for this once of her opinion. that these adverbs form a very large class. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. twice.. (4) Number. Emerson..² The master. and not infrequently are found in literary English.there. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. etc. and others.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. as hence. just.²DE QUINCEY.²SHAKESPEARE. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. 283. greatly. telling how many times: once.. as hither. maybe. while so precedes only the adjective usually. above.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations.whither. The more they multiply. etc. as here. slightly. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. telling how anything is done. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. I was. possibly.²R.. This long's the text.²IRVING. singly. (3) Manner. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.yonder. telling how much. (6) Assertion. very. etc. enough.thence. bravely.

. Pretty is also used by Prescott. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Interrogative. 285. Holmes. Hard blows and hard money.²BULWER." said the king." "The house.²HAWTHORNE. Again. Defoe. Emerson.Pretty.²FIELDING. Franklin. Burke.²THACKERAY. Simple.² You are mighty courteous. a mighty fine gentleman. De Quincey. Dickens. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Beau Fielding. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now.² KINGSLEY." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Notice meanings. for example. 284. Such are most of those given already in Sec." "He spoke positively [manner]. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. for example. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. besides modifying. Mighty. Aldrich. and other writers. and its lawn before [place]. have the additional function of asking a question. 286. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. B." "I have seen you before [time]. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived.²"He walked too far [place]. Direct questions. "Peace.²BAYNE.²THACKERAY. A pretty large experience. I perceived his sisters mighty busy."²SCOTT." "That is positively untrue [assertion]." "That were far better [degree].²GOLDSMITH. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. Neville. Kingsley. and art but a fool.² "Mighty well. It is only occasionally used in literary English. 282. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Some adverbs. STOWE.

as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. WEBSTER.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. they smiled. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.²POE.²BYRON. I will not ask where thou liest low. I hearkened. . Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. (4) Degree. 287. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. (2) Place.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. I do not remember when I was taught to read. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. I know not why. (4) Degree. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.²BULWER. (2) Place. (5) Reason. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²BYRON (3) Manner. CLAY.²D. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. When did this humane custom begin?²H. for example.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.

) rather 289. . when. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. Superlative. Many adjectives have the same ending.. see Sec. highest. as.But in reality. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.eyes.²BYRON. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. further farthest.²SHAKESPEARE. well much little far late Comparative. Exercise. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Form vs. high. furthest (rathe. have the same inflection as adjectives. obs. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.. just as adjectives do. but the whole clause." Exercise. higher. 288. soonest.²EMERSON. only occasionally having -er and -est. Only that we may wiselier see.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs.²TENNYSON. Then must she keep it safelier.²COLERIDGE. use. Its strings boldlier swept. For further discussion. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. representing four classes. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. 290. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. Many adverbs are compared. sooner. not an adverb. and. when does not express time and modify. soon. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. irregularly compared. The following. when compared. Tell what each word in ly modifies.

The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. And all about. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly.²ID. 3. but with a different meaning. quick-flashing eye. . to be sure. The reason is. merely introduces a sentence. With his proud. mostly.²TENNYSON. But he must do his errand right. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. There are eyes. kindly and good-natured in secret. that in Old and Middle English. 2. 292. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields.1. hardly." Compare these:² 1. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. 8.²CHAUCER. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. 6. or down the leaves laughed through. 291. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. It is true he was rarely heard to speak.²THACKERAY. if it has the verb be. hard. evenly. 4. Again. nearly.And his mien of kingly state. 7.²IRVING. many words without -ly have the same form. He is inexpressibly mean. more courtly in their manners. etc.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. whether adverbs or adjectives. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. 2. Such are most. Special use of there. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. even. 5. instead of being used adverbially. This e dropping off left both words having the same form.² EMERSON. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. Not near so black as he was painted. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face.²WORDSWORTH. curiously jolly. as. Frequently the word there. near.

whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. 11. but continually shifted. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. The higher we rise in the scale of being. and sate down on the steps of a house. (3) What word or word group it modifies. 18. at the regular wine-shop. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. and always. however theoretically enticing. the Madonna is in great glory. But a few steps farther on. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 16. 7. 2. 10. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. but from my fall? 6. For the impracticable. if the word is compared. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. 4. 293. burning in the center of the temple. is always politically unwise. (2) Degree of comparison. Exercise. It is the Cross that is first seen. 3. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 15.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 5. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. Thither we went. 12. 17. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. give² (1) The class. 9. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. according to meaning and also use. In parsing adverbs. . The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion.

Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. 22. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. A conjunction is a linking word. 20.19. It was pretty bad after that. 21. Definition. connecting words. but the student will readily find them. But now the wind rose again. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. nor." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. Clauses. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. then. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. Unlike adverbs. word groups. or sentence groups. but side by side within the American Union. sentences." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. etc. however. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. hence. therefore. 294. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. upon which the sun now shone forth. 295. CONJUNCTIONS." Sentences. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. ." Paragraphs.

as but.or.or.. as... joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. of the same rank.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. Causal. the window being open. not only. hence. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. etc. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE.. whether. while. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. "Howbeit. expressing a choice. not only.. While the earth bears a plant.and. Correlatives.. only.Classes of conjunctions. yet. (4) ALTERNATIVE. etc. either. 296. serves but to show their ignorance. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. nor. as well as. but is emperor in his own right. The chief ones are.. however. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. therefore. had its weight. whether.but.. etc.but (or but also).. then. else.. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. as and." Nevertheless... I have nothing to do with the governor and council.. 297.or whether.. introducing a reason or cause. word groups. or the sea rolls its waves. the bread was spent. joining words. nor. Adversative. (2) Subordinate. neither. as. Your letter. Nor mark'd they less. (2) ADVERSATIVE.nor. neither.. whether... and. neither. 298. however. usually between two things. also.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. likewise. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. the butter too. either..or. They are or. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. as well as the room door. Alternative. either. and not man corn. still. both. (3) CAUSAL. The assertion.. . for.nor..or. Some of these go in pairs. moreover. answering to each other in the same sentence... Some go in threes.

nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. nor creeping thing. in case. since. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. lest.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. (2) TIME: when. while. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. Time. (3) MANNER: how. whereas. QUINCY. before. so. (7) RESULT: that.²WILSON. Where the treasure is. as. although. until. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. nor wing of bird.. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. etc. so that. sometimes if. in order that.. there will the heart be also. though. 299. provided that. as. etc.²BURKE. howsoever. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. whence. etc.²J. object. that. ere. etc.as. wherever. even if.. whithersoever. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. whereto. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. however. as. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. etc. except. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life.²BIBLE. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.²COOPER. He is not only bold and vociferous. ²ALLSTON. whether.. nor green leaf.²PAULDING. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. provided. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. especially that after so. seeing. since.²IRVING.²DE QUINCEY. on condition that. unless. after. whither. so that. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. now. nor echo. whenever. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. in apposition.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. (6) PURPOSE: that. . Neither the place in which he found himself. so. It is. so.

That he gave her wounds repose.That vain it were her eyes to close.²AMES. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. Manner. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²COLERIDGE. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.² H. but not so long but I held it out.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.²AMES.²CAMPBELL.²EMERSON.²IRVING. Comparison.² WORDSWORTH. Substantive. So many thoughts moved to and fro.²EMERSON. Cause.²DEFOE. reason. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.²BYRON.²BURKE. Condition. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. Now he is dead. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.²AMES.So I behold them not.² EMERSON. Concession. H. Purpose. Let the world go how it will. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. As a soldier.² HAWTHORNE. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. not as they were expected or intended. We wish for a thousand heads. Result. . I was again covered with water. a thousand bodies. JACKSON. Sparing neither whip nor spur.²EMERSON. Then Denmark blest our chief.

Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. And then recovering. the lady called her servant. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. 7. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. etc. He was brought up for the church. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. And they lived happily forever after. 14. 4. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. while. 3. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. 5.Let us see whether the greatest. however. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions.²RUSKIN. Besides. 2. 13. After he was gone. and hid her there. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. No one had yet caught his character. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. since. 10. it will remain harmless. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. some words²for example. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. In what point of view. While patriotism glowed in his heart. as. The moth fly. Crept under the leaf. As will have been noticed. 300. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. she faintly pressed her hand. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. Exercises. 6. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. that. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 12. They. her real merit is known at home. 15. the wisest. 9. hold a subordinate rank. as he shot in air. While a faction is a minority. then. . (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions.

² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. in this case.²EMILY BRONTE. As though. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. even as they would weep. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. In poetry. none of the lashings having given way. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. In Emerson's sentence. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. If analyzed. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. the expression would be. . In parsing conjunctions. 303. As if. expressing degree if taken separately.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. and part as though we parted not.. and the frame will suit the picture. SPECIAL REMARKS.. and be a bud again. (2) What words. they connect.²IRVING. etc." as. GREELEY. for example. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.As though a rose should shut. as is shown by the use of as though. The raft and the money had been thrown near her.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors.²HOOD. 302. 301.16.²BYRON. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. As for as if. word groups. as is often equivalent to as if. Consequently. "We meet. His voice . But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing..Clouded. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. 304. thus. So silently we seemed to speak.So slowly moved about. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain.

The eye was placed where one ray should fall. as beside his own chimneys. It may be safely trusted. and very seldom?" 8. and associates as happily. so that I could not stir abroad. compare the sentences. so it be faithfully imparted. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. the Sphinx was slain. "Doctor. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. If he could solve the riddle. 6. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1.² 1. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. and. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. or in the snow. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. he sleeps as warm. so that expresses result. 3.²EMERSON 3. so means therefore. are regularly of one particular class.²that the fairies do not like to be named.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. He is the compend of time. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. and its clause depends on the other. or in the forest. because." said his wife to Martin Luther. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. In classifying them. He dismisses without notice his thought. .²DEFOE 2. others belong to several classes. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. in 3. etc. and the like. All the postulates of elfin annals. in 2. so they paddled on. and its clause is independent.²is subordinate of condition. dines with as good an appetite. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. At sea. 5. 13. 9. When the gods come among men. he is also the correlative of nature. 7.. they are not known. For example. but of the natural.²I find them true in Concord. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. 4.Caution. such as nor. Some conjunctions. that it might testify of that particular ray. Exercise. It continued raining. because it is his. so means provided. 11. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. when. 10. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. 12. 2.

24. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. of good novels only. 305. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. enthroned. 21. when it was presented to them. save it were sinful like herself. whose names I omit. And whether consciously or not. therefore. in many a heart. PREPOSITIONS. 27. that both were wayward. It is clear. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge..²else it is none. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. There was no iron to be seen. I speak. 18. 30. 20. the whole conditions are changed. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 19. won't you lay on? 17. 22. she might have the family countenance. in this they agree. 28. 29. For. you must be. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. Still. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. however. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 15. 23. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 26. It may be so in the majority of cases. I rejoice to stand here no longer. . seeing that it behooves me to hasten. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 25. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 16. Now you have the whip in your hand. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. Goodness must have some edge to it.14.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at first.²WARNER. Helena. at rest. at play. at the best.²R. etc. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. At that time [the earth] was richer. by the ruins of nations. For. he stopped. Exercise. at the worst. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. Exercise. Like at. at war. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside.²ID. at length. at most. CONWAY.²COOPER. at all.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. (4) Measure of excess. 320.²ALDRICH. by the wrecks of time. by means near or close to. ²PARTON. at naught. at any rate. etc. At St.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. By my faith. at random. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. at peace. 321. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation..(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. D. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. Richard was standing by the window. by the blessed memory of the departed. (3) Agency or means. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. the first port made by the ship.²B. She saw the boat headed for her. at one. at work. . The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.²SWIFT. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. By.² (1) The general meaning of place. (2) Time. by many a million of acres.²DE QUINCEY. TAYLOR The angel came by night. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at least. H. expressing the degree of difference. as. at once.²M.²EVERETT. STODDARD.

in behalf of.²PARKMAN. There are gains for all our losses. considering that etc. The twilight being. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. for famine. a person or thing. For him. "For a fool.²E.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. (4) Substitution or exchange. meaning with regard to. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland."²SCOTT By my faith. incitement to action. and leaped for joy.²IRVING. for all slips of hers.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. BANCROFT.²HOOD.²STODDARD. etc. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline..² RUSKIN." answered Master Brackett. if your worship can accomplish that. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. the Colonna motto would fit you best. etc. An Arab woman. GARRISON. for the benefit of. H. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. ate her child. respecting. (6) Like as..²LAMB.²PARKMAN. "Nay. cause. meaning although.²EMERSON. meaning in the character of. or in spite of. "thou hast counseled wisely. as to.²ID. (7) Concession." said the Lady of Lochleven. For the rest.One of Eve's family. . they are now for us. L. reason. He and they were for immediate attack. or extent of space.²HOLMES. But the Colonel. (5) Reference. (9) Motive. as being. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. Still. etc. (3) Duration of time. had a forest of poor relations. but a few sunsets since.²W. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.²H. E. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. he repented of his folly. poor fellow.(2) In favor of. for all his title.

like from.²HUME. It was from no fault of Nolan's. From harmony. ceased to be merciful. cause.²HIGGINSON.²ID. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies.²HUXLEY. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. more. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. The original meaning of of was separation or source.²BANCROFT. The young cavaliers. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. The king holds his authority of the people. 323. H. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. .²HALE.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. A distrustful. The general idea in from is separation or source. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. (4) Motive. From. 322.²DRYDEN. (3) Time. Of. or reason.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Exercise.²MILTON. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. if not a desperate man. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. (2) Origin. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. Exercise. nay. Like boys escaped from school.²H. from a desire of seeming valiant.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. (1) Origin or source. The From Relation.

(3) With expressions of material. bare of. of his own knowledge. deprive. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. expressing a part of a number or quantity. Sandals. that Cromwell once ruled England. E. The hills were bare of trees. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. (5) Expressing agency.²PARKMAN.²BAYARD TAYLOR. He is away of his own free will. ²PARTON. weeds.²ALDRICH. free of. and grass. Of the Forty.. demand.²BANCROFT. deprivation. acquitted them of. reason. divest. More than one altar was richer of his vows. HALE. A singular want of all human relation. etc. wide of. etc. south of. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. etc. "I am glad of that. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. (b) After some adjectives. (6) Partitive. Other Relations expressed by Of. (c) After nouns expressing lack. relieve.²HIGGINSON. . rid. such as ease.²LEW WALLACE. (d) With words expressing distance. there were only twenty-one members present."²E. White shirt with diamond studs.²clear of. You cannot make a boy know.²ID. Back of that tree. as north of. purge.²SCOTT Who formed.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. motive. rob. free. disarm. Asked no odds of.²DICKENS II. etc.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. beg.² HUXLEY. especially out of. out of the most unpromising materials. clear. etc. cure. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. or breastpin of native gold. ²GAVARRE. bound with thongs of boar's hide.²BOSWELL. ask.

could give shelter from his contumely. Besides the phrases of old.²BANCROFT. and the dignity of a queen. concerning.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²ALDRICH. equal to about. with its object.²BANCROFT. (b) Noun and gerund. The fair city of Mexico. See also Sec. (7) Possessive. when the first is descriptive of the second. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. (c) Two nouns. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it.²COOPER. with regard to. (8) Appositional. 309.²SWIFT. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. standing. (10) Of reference. Such a book as that of Job. etc.. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. for the possessive. of a sudden. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. Not even woman's love.²HALLECK. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.He washed out some of the dirt.²PRESCOTT. being equivalent to an infinitive. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. of is used in the sense of during.²LAMB. Idiomatic use with verbs. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns.²LOWELL.²ID. The nation of Lilliput. ²IRVING. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive.²W. CHANNING. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. E.²BANCROFT.²FROUDE. of late. (9) Of time. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. .

²DE QUINCEY. 324. On my life. disapprove. on view.²PARKMAN. on board.²EMERSON. Cannon were heard close on the left.²PARKMAN. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. etc. The general meaning of on is position or direction. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. you are eighteen. permit. equal to about. (b) With motion. 325. concerning. avail (one's self). (4) In adjurations. Upon my reputation and credit. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. On. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.²ALDRICH. on high. repent. complain. without adding to their meaning. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. (3) Reference. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. Exercise. SIGOURNEY.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. on the alert. and not a day more. such as admit.²MRS.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. etc.²BRYANT. To. on trial. ²BANCROFT. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. consist. and others. .²Find sentences with six uses of of.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. accept. Upon is seldom used to express time.²PARKMAN. Exercise. approve. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. It also accompanies the verbs tire. Upon. allow. (2) Time. on a sudden. on the wing.

²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. His brother had died. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.²PARKMAN. (2) Expressing result.²B. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. had ceased to be.²BRYANT.²HALE.Come to the bridal chamber. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. (b) Referring to time.. With. to him. Full of schemes and speculations to the last..²BULWER. gay Comedy appears. it may be genuine poetry.. Death!²HALLECK.²IRVING.²BENTON To our great delight. 326. whose influence is felt to this hour.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears.²often to the loss of vigor.to be written over. Nor. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.²PARTON. Exercise.²Find sentences containing three uses of to.²LANG. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. 268). Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. To the few. In Old English. (5) Equivalent to according to. mid meant in company with. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. does the mere music.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. . unmasked. He usually gave his draft to an aid. But when. We cook the dish to our own appetite. Revolutions.²GOLDSMITH. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.. to my taste. interest.

opinion. (3) Cause.²CHANNING. transmitted from the beginning. (2) Instrumentality.²EMERSON. With all his sensibility. Messala. I think. but with you. but a pleasure"?²LANG. in spite of. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl.²HOWELLS. Either with the swingle-bar. it is necessary.²DE QUINCEY. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. had already reached the defile.²WALLACE (7) Time. (4) Estimation. to find the object of the preposition.²ALDRICH. He expired with these words. "poetry is not a pursuit. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. or with the haunch of our near leader. motive. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. It seemed a supreme moment with him. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. (5) Opposition. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea.²E. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. with Heyward at its head. reason. with all his boldness. . The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. as with you.²LANG.²COOPER.²SCOTT.²Find sentences with four uses of with.²HOWELLS.²HALE.²DE QUINCEY. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. Exercise. he gave millions to the sword. She seemed pleased with the accident.The advance. HALE. E. He was wild with delight about Texas. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²COLERIDGE. felt it unsafe to trifle further. 327. first of all.

I heard a noise just over my head. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. or was. . The guns were cleared of their lumber. I felt my box raised very high in the air. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. 2. by which a dozen apples. because I had given the provocation. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. the phrase answers the question where. 5. the malicious rogue. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. which. And so on. In (2). though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. but all to no purpose. In (3). To our general surprise. telling what man. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. I remember.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. country. I looked towards my windows. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. without a country modifies man. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring.²SWIFT 2. we met the defaulter here. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. shook it directly over my head. came tumbling about my ears. of on. and knocked me down flat on my face. but I received no other hurt.²ID. (3) without a country. I called out several times. (2) on which. of from. he followed us one day into those gardens. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. like the clapping of wings. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. Be that as it will. (4) from the beginning. Exercises. beginning. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. 3. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. before the dwarf left the queen. of without. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. The object of on board is ships. hence we say. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. I speak these things from a love of justice. 4. In (1). that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. Whereupon.

26. 27. in this respect. The savage army was in war-paint. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. He locked his door from mere force of habit. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 15. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 17. On all subjects known to man. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. to one dark and gloomy. 10. grasping at the child. 9. His breeches were of black silk.Without stop or stay. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. plumed for battle. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 21. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 19. 14. after a restful morning. 25. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. For my part. 11. 12. I like to see the passing. 20.He spurred his courser on. 22. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. With all his learning. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. 29. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. 23. Carteret was far from being a pedant. 24. in town. The mother sank and fell.6. 18. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. he favored the world with his opinions. . 7. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. 13. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 8. 16. when.

That night was a memorable one. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. and be proud in the midst of its toil. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. 330. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. (1) Relative pronoun.²WEBSTER. 329.²WEBSTER. not merely by the amount of the tax. That was a dreadful mistake. that you might behold this joyous day. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. 328. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.²HUXLEY.²WEBSTER. . WHAT.² JOHNSON. (a) Indefinite relative.²STOCKTON. (3) As a relative pronoun.That makes the heavens be mute.²COLERIDGE. (c) Substantive conjunction.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (2) As an adjective pronoun. and not according to form.²BEECHER. (4) As an adverb of degree. (b) Of result. THAT. He will raise the price. That is what I understand by scientific education.30. And now it is like an angel's song. A few are discussed below. We wish that labor may look up here. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech.

and silent all!²BYRON.²ID. .. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.in Pera. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. after not only.." (4) Relative adjective. "I'll tell you what.Those shadowy recollections. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.²WORDSWORTH. (9) As an exclamation. partly... What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. What.. (b) Indirect question.. If he has [been in America]. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. nearly equivalent to partly.²EMERSON. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. silent still. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.these sounds are only to be heard..but. or not only.²EMERSON. (b) Indirect question. (6) Exclamatory adjective.²ID. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. What. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. Cox.²THACKERAY.it is impossible to determine. it rests on reality. At what rate these materials would be distributed. 331.. he knows what good people are to be found there. (7) Adverb of degree. What with the Maltese goats.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. To say what good of fashion we can. but the result of calculation.S.. (8) Conjunction. BUT. to see what might be hidden..²WEBSTER.²S. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.Which be they what they may. (b) Copulative...

on all sides. (c) Of degree.He yearned to our patriot bands. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. but piercing cries..²LAMB. (b) Substantive.²SCOTT. after such. not. (4) Relative pronoun.. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. or who . (5) Adverb.²IRVING. AS. meaning otherwise . Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. meaning except.²FRANKLIN. at all moments.. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²MRS BROWNING. stands for that . after a negative. than. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. ²CARLYLE. (e) Introducing an appositive word.²EMERSON. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. sometimes same. As orphans yearn on to their mothers.. (2) Relative pronoun. (b) Of manner. equivalent to that . Doing duty as a guard. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.²CARLYLE. not.²IRVING. (d) Of reason. . meaning only. 332.²IRVING.Then arose not only tears. towards order. (3) Preposition.. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village.²SHELLEY. Who knows but.. To lead but one measure.²HAWTHORNE. not. I shall see but little of it. like the dog.

Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. nervous child. No Emperor. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. Stirring it vigorously. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. and is followed by a dative-objective. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village.²DARWIN. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. 333. Introduces a clause.²HIGGINSON. but its verb is omitted. In each case. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.²LONGFELLOW.²ALDRICH. like him awhile ago. staring like a bewildered man.²SHAKESPEARE.² HAWTHORNE. If the verb is expressed. indeed. like Martin was. NOTE. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.²ALDRICH. I do with my friends as I do with my books.²HAWTHORNE.²CASS.²EMERSON.LIKE. There is no statue like this living man. this. like summer ocean's. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. like a cook beating eggs. Give Ruskin space enough. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative.²LAMB. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. That face. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. This follows a verb or a verbal. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. like drops out.²EMERSON. They look. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. ²PARKMAN. and as or as if takes its place. and was clearly an adjective. Note the difference between these two uses. (1) An adjective. In this second use.² A timid. Through which they put their heads.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.²MAYHEW.-SCOTT.²HALLECK. . but this is not considered good usage: for example.

that is. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. subject and predicate. 335. but it still retains its identity as noun. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. as.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. tut! buzz! etc. ." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. etc." PART II.. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. in separating them into their component parts. etc. Some of these are imitative sounds. pronoun. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. entering into the structure of a sentence. verb. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation.: for example." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Value of analysis. What analysis is.²in determining case. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. 334." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. Definition. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. Definition. clauses introduced by conjunctions. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. 336. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. that is.INTERJECTIONS.

The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. entreaty. (2) Interrogative. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. A rare old plant is the ivy green." "What wouldst thou do. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. or request. but the sentence would still be declarative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. but by no means vulgar. not according to the form in which a thought is put. Every sentence must contain two parts. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. (3) Imperative. but according to how many statements there are. . 339. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. hence. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. Definition. question. SIMPLE SENTENCES. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. always friends?" imperative. "Hath he not always treasures. Definition: Predicate. or imperative. which expresses command. which puts the thought in a question. But now all is to be changed. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative.Kinds of sentences as to form. "Come to the bridal chamber. "Old year. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. old man?" "Be thou familiar. 337." 340. 338. "The quality of mercy is not strained.²a subject and a predicate. or command: for example. This is the most common one. according to form. interrogative. Examples of these three kinds are. declarative. you must not die!" interrogative. 2. Division according to number of statements.

the subject is frequently after the verb.²What is the ivy green? Answer. we have some trouble. 2. we say all is the subject of the sentence. or an interrogative pronoun. a rare old plant. 5. 8. and is to be supplied. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. thou. Listen. all. 3. Consequently. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. But if we try this with the second sentence. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence." Exercise. or ye) is in most cases omitted. adjective.²What is to be changed? Answer. as. and the real subject is the latter. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. and our definition must be the following.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. especially in poetry. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. Slavery they can have anywhere. to an ignorant man. Thus. not of a rare old plant. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. In the interrogative sentence. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. 4. to suit all cases:² Subject. 7. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. 6. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. . In analyzing such sentences. on the other hand. the subject (you. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. The last of all the Bards was he. but about the ivy green. or adverb that asks about the subject. always reduce them to the order of a statement. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. "[You] behold her single in the field. 341.

A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. and by object we mean the direct object. The subject and predicate have been discussed. Indirect object. (5) Modifiers. (6) Independent elements. in addition to the object. just as if to say. and me here is not the object simply of call. and means summoned. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. direct. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. but it is a true complement. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. but chief belongs to the verb. Direct Object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. "Ye honor me. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. "Ye call me chief.10. Of a transitive verb. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. Examples of direct and indirect objects are." Complement: 344. or second object. (2) The predicate." indirect. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. for example. but of call chief.²transitive and intransitive. 342. . 343. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. (3) The object. (4) The complements." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. The transitive verb often requires." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds.

more familiarly." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . ay.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. but used as a single modifier. 'Ay. etc. feel. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. "A cheery. Thom of the Gills." (3) INFINITIVE." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. in the original Opium Confessions." "The good man." 345. 355. seem. A phrase is a group of words. Complement of an intransitive verb.. not containing a verb." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. 352. See sentence 19. as in the sentence." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. 351. 347. as. become. taste. above sixty. to the completion of this man of the world. appear. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." Also an expression used as a noun." (2) PARTICIPIAL. sir!' rang out in response. he was now getting old. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." "He was termed Thomas. and of massive weight." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. and. An intransitive verb. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. as in drowning. 364. I mentioned a case of that nature. in exercise following Sec. 346. in the popular judgment. especially the forms of be. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. As to form. "Brow and head were round. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. or." All these complete intransitive verbs." Things used as Subject. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. Phrases. and barring the door. introduced by a preposition: for example. for instance.

for which see Sec." "There are asking eyes." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. and by Saint George!' said the King." Things used as Complement. "Therein has been. was heard one syllable to justify. 341.²the talent of starting the game. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. but obscures the real subject.²the infinitive phrase. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. but the real or logical subject is to print." In this sentence. or their religion from their sect. and ever will be." "The dead are there. . or the thundering of organs. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. etc. from their lips. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. asserting eyes. Disguised infinitive subject. 349. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral." Things used as Direct Object. my deficiency. prowling eyes." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." The for did not belong there originally." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. (2) In interrogative sentences." "Never. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. "'By God. but they will be given in detail here. (4) After "there introductory." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." etc." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. I saw the quick and the dead." 348.

I. Object." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. Modifiers of Subject. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. the shepherd girl." "Serving others is serving us.350. 351." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. (3) Infinitive." In this last sentence. they are adjuncts of the object.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." (4) Participle." "I hear the echoes throng. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. complements of the predicate." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot." . the object is made the subject by being passive.²heads or tails." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. doubtless.²completing the predicate. and the words italicized are still complements. at the same time. As complement of an intransitive verb." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." Modifiers. or the equivalent of the noun. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. and explaining or modifying the subject." "Their tempers. As complement of a transitive verb. and whenever the complement is a noun. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. Like all the complements in this list. and." "She asked her father's permission. Of a transitive verb. or Complement. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous.

(3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. II. or . at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. tell whether the subject. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. I have seasoned for thee." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter.²In each sentence in Sec. the verb being omitted. and modify the predicate in the same way." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. was now called upon for his defense. and leading him from star to star." In such a sentence as." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. the prisoner at the bar." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. see further Secs. object. Retained with passive. or complement is modified. but it is really a contracted clause." "Give them not only noble teachings. no sociable angel. Since the predicate is always a verb." "Him. Tells how.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down.²proud. given at the request of a Dutch lady. but with other men. austere. Modifiers of the Predicate." Exercise. this young idolater. not with nature." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. 357-363." "In the twinkling of an eye. unforgiving. but noble teachers." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." (For participial and infinitive phrases. 351. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. "He died like a God. was the scene from King John. 352.

" "All such knowledge should be given her. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. to the animal strength and spirits. (a) Pick out subject. 7. Why does the horizon hold me fast. is good in the making. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. or how long. 8. in this center? 4. This. the indirect object is retained. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. but the children of the great. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause." (6) Adverbial objective. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. On the voyage to Egypt. I took. and as many to oppose it. 5. a sort of personality to the whole writing." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 2. 4. etc. no emotion." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. To the men of this world.When the verb is changed from active to passive. after dinner." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. They do not wish to be lovely. he liked. His books have no melody. 6. predicate. with my joy and grief. 3. no relief to the dead prosaic level. according to old philosophers." Exercises. and. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. Evil. and (direct) object:² 1. 2. 6. and the direct object is retained: for example. Fashion does not often caress the great." "One way lies hope. gives wonderful animation. no humor. 5. These answer the question when. negative. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. 3. (b) Pick out the subject. predicate. But anger drives a man to say anything. how far. . 7. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. and other measures of precaution.. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. in regard to particulars. but to be loved. A merciless oppressor hast thou been.

3. viz. 2.. I gave him an address to my friend. y y y y Compound Subject. downwards. after their long confinement to a ship. burthened with the anxieties of a man. . I felt myself. A river formed the boundary. to the right and to the left. and a member of the world. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. 2. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. the attorney.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. a room seventeen feet by twelve. for the first time. Paint me. upwards. the blooming cornet. Not the less I owe thee justice. then. To suffer and to do. at length the warrior lady. 3. this dragoon so lovely. must visit again the home of her childhood. That night. this nun so martial. Their intention was to have a gay. the present Archbishop of Dublin. 5. Not compound sentences. I promised her protection against all ghosts. 3. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. 5. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. expecting the return of their parents. that was thy portion in life. then. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth.y 8. this imperial rider. 4. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. Yes. happy dinner.²the river Meuse. 4. Unhorse me. six children sat by a peat fire. etc. 6. at the chief hotel. in little peaceful Easedale. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. In one feature. 4. 2. Compound Predicate.

The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. several modifiers. Examples of compound subjects are. together with all its modifiers. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. then the grammatical subject and predicate. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative." Sentences with compound predicates are. etc." And so with complements. The exclamatory expression. ulcer. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms.353. may be the person or thing addressed. modifiers. and. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. Larger view of a sentence. same as (1)." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. but it is to be noticed that. For example. Independent Elements of the Sentence. the simple subject is situation. 354. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences." "He shook his head.. and its object or complement. the air of the mother. "Ah. etc. and returned to the more important concerns of the election." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. complements. I'm with you once again. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. in all such sentences as we quote below. the tone of her voice. 355. the verb)." "Voyages and travels I would also have. they are not a necessary part. my brave young man!" . exposes. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. turned his steps homeward. hurry. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. the object. the predicate. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." "Ye crags and peaks. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. above: thus. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. and the rest is the logical predicate. forming a sentence: "Oh. etc." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. in the sentence." "The name of the child. hurry. however. two or more subjects of the same predicate. shouldered the rusty firelock. together with its modifiers. Bishop. "The company broke up. that is. Of this.

" (6) Single words: as. this story runs thus. besides. see Sec. such as however. already noticed. 4). limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. pronoun. 6). undoubtedly. generally speaking. 357. how you're winking!" "Now." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. and so on. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example." "Why. he somehow lived along... . 351. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. grandma.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. to the best of my remembrance. 356. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. object. prepositional phrases may be. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. 352. The words well. (b) As a modifier of subject. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. or word used as a noun: for example. he closed his literary toils at dinner. he was a conscientious man." Another caution." "Well. let him perish. see Sec. the company broke up. six quill-driving gentlemen. or complement (see Sec. 4)." "No. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. modifying the predicate. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. then. etc." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared." "Truth to say. yes! everybody knew them. truly. 350. y (2) The adverbial use. and some conjunctions. These need close watching." (5) Participial phrase: "But. now. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary." (2) Adverbial. 355. instances of which were seen in Sec. nevertheless." "At all events. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. her noticing even this is creditable. why. (1) Adjectival. modifying a noun. There are some adverbs. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb." (3) Independent. 3. etc. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. therefore. "Oh. In their use. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. that have an office in the sentence. such as perhaps. moreover. really." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes.

seem. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. "Because I was.: as in the sentences. Wilt thou. 355. I. and teach her how to be happy and good. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. "The letter of introduction. thus.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. and hence is adverbial. The verbal use. or as nearly so as the student will require.]." In this sentence.should. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. etc." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water." (b) With the forms of be. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. containing no matters of business." (c) With the definite forms of go. This case excepted. y (a) With may (might). 358." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes.would. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. (5). Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. my dear. etc. See Sec. necessity. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing." "There.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. modifying was speedily run through. and they will be presented here in full.can (could). the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. therefore. but having no other office than a verbal one. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business." etc. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. being equivalent to a future with obligation. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . ought." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. but require somewhat closer attention.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. was speedily run through. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. he should not have known them at all.

may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. 5). III.²both purpose clauses. modifying a noun that may be a subject. etc.. (4) In apposition." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). "Do they not cause the heart to beat." "Are you mad." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. object. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. Don Guzman. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. The substantive use. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. etc." 360.: for example." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. II. . was to have the foe's life at their mercy. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. 361 are used adverbially." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. and the eyes to fill?" 359. The adjectival use. To test this." "To teach is to learn. already examined.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). The adverbial use." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. above. to please is equivalent to that he may please. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. 351. result. complement." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. IV." "To say what good of fashion we can. 361. the Scotch fighting all the battles. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. to hear McOrator after dinner. notice the following:² In (1). 362. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. to look means that he might look. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. hang the idiot." (5) Condition: "You would fancy." "He insisted on his right to forget her." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. "But there was no time to be lost.

(4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. which is of two kinds." (See also Sec. and to say is equivalent to if we say. V.In (2). If it is an incomplete verb. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. equivalent to that you betray. and to betray and to bring express the reason. 351). 349). (3). Our life is March weather.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. must be in a life. etc." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 355). (5) The subject (Sec. (7) Independent elements (Sec. etc. 352). 364. In analyzing simple sentences. to hear means if you should hear. 3. 268. object. .. 2. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. savage and serene in one hour. give² (1) The predicate. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 363. not in a book. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. to part means because I part. In (4). give the complement (Secs. 351). not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. I will try to keep the balance true.. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 351). 347). to find shows the result of the return. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. In (3). 4. etc. The independent use. as in Sec. 355. In (5).²both expressing condition. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions.

13. to keep England out of war. You may ramble a whole day together. neither ammunition. a skilled musician.4. with eager energy. 10. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. 12. Her aims were simple and obvious. and spared nothing. The whole figure and air. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 20. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 11. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. good and amiable otherwise. To be hurried away by every event. like a witch's oils. 14. His opinion is always original. two stricken hours. 9. through toys and atoms. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. in popular use. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. To these gifts of nature. might be called flabby and irresolute. a graceful dancer. just on the edge of destruction.He sat in the shower. Through the years and the centuries. nor himself. 22. 7.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. The word conscience has become almost confined. and every moment discover something new. We are always in peril. 5. a good shot. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance.The old crow of Cairo. to the moral sphere. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning.Burnt green and blue and white. 15. 16. 17. 8. is to have no political system at all. nor money. 21. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 19. always in a bad plight. an accomplished scholar. Old Adam. through evil agents. 24. 23. 18. nor troops. .²to preserve her throne. and to the purpose. The water. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. I have heard Coleridge talk. the carrion crow. and only to be saved by invention and courage. nor generals. He risked everything. to restore civil and religious order. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. 6.

secluded. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 33. 35. Supposing this computation to be correct. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 29. to be a reproach to such goodness. and the wherefore? . and in my own garden. 27. in front of all this mighty crowd. The villain. 38. in this world. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. I dare this. She had made a two days' march. haply. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. 39. I hate him and myself. time-honored. But yield. and the why. Few in number. the prime minister of Spain. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 26. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history.Effacing many a stain of former crime. proud foe.Distant.25. Fair name might he have handed down. baggage far in the rear. and no provisions but wild berries. in less heroic and poetic form. upon my own ground. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. 32. 36. or perhaps one virtue. 40. Upon this shore stood. In the Acadian land. the ship was in an uproar. the same Condé Olivarez. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. The cry. an elderly man. ready to receive her. 31. 41. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. Must we in all things look for the how. Now. 30. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. 37. still. 34. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. This amiable relative. to bid you leave the place now and forever. the present capital of New England. had but one foible. and. Oxford. Of the same grandeur.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings.

" Sentences with like. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. thus. made merely for convenience and smoothness. (Sec.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. As shown in Part I. which is the unit of speech. 333)." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities." To show that these words are really omitted. Words left out after than or as. the pride and beauty of the grove. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. however. The simple sentence the basis. . if they were expanded. COMPLEX SENTENCES. Some sentences look like simple ones in form." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. the expressions of manner introduced by like. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. are really contracted clauses. 365. though often treated as phrases.² "She is like some tender tree.From her own loved island of sorrow. 367." This must. 366." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. but. as would be the connective instead of like." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. as.

369. 370. Hence the following definition:² Definition. object. modifiers. main. as in this sentence. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. then we recognize this as the main statement. and the last. complement. object. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. etc. Independent clause. predicate. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. and modifier. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. 371.²the other members subordinate to it. containing a verb with its subject. 368.." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. that is. which are so united that one member is the main one. and the next one. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. CLAUSES.. logically depends on suffering. or dependent on it.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. we are aware.. A clause is a division of a sentence.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. A principal. murmur. . suffering. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause.²the backbone.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. that . complements. is taken in. Definition.. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. how great . each clause has its subject. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). or it may be applied to the others.

ADJECTIVE.." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. with a noun clause in apposition with it." "I was told that the house had not been shut. (b) that are .. But since they are complex in form. for example. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. attention is called to them here." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. . that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. As to their office in the sentence. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences.. for example." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.' is an electric touch. thus. pronoun. 372.. verbal. (a) Ordinary apposition. and the whole clause is not. but logically the sentence is. so the object clause is retained. clauses are divided into NOUN." Just as the object noun. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. impertinences²would be grammatical. and it is . over which the torrent came tumbling. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause.. Noun Clauses." (4) Apposition. put an end to my fancies. or adverbs. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex." (2) Object of a verb. for a time. We ourselves are getting ." 374." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. for a hundred years.. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. and ADVERB clauses. Kinds. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. 'I know that he can toil terribly.." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. night or day. 5). impertinences. etc.Dependent clause.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. adjectives. 352. infinitive. 373.

It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. but. whereby. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who." Exercise. that he was a scheming impostor. he would repent it. no man will ever know. wherein. and not on the sentiment. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. I was napping. Frequently there is no connecting word. in the sentence. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. 375. still remains reasonable. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. as. 4. 8. a falsehood incarnate. whither. Other examples of this construction are. 2. Examples of adjective clauses. 3. of a nation. As the office of an adjective is to modify. how it changed from shape to shape. whether he should choose one or not. he could know nothing. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. 7. sometimes by the conjunctions when. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. Such a man is what we call an original man. that. that all safe legislation must be based. etc. that. 10. whence. The reply of Socrates. But the fact is. Adjective Clauses. Except by what he could see for himself. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. What history it had.² "It is on the understanding. 6.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. where. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. 5." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. which. 9. or equivalent of a noun. . a relative pronoun being understood. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife.

In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. Adverbial Clauses. 2." Exercise. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. or that essence we were looking for. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. I walked home with Calhoun. 5. whether subject." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. the champions advanced through the lists. i. 11. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. . 7. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats.. 6. 3. he begins to help us more as an effect. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. etc. which formed the center of the mansion. which Rowena tasted.376. Pick out the adjective clauses. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. object." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. 10.e. 9. 8." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 4." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. all is vacancy. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 1. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. and tell what each one modifies. No man is reason or illumination. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble.

" "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome.² whoever. with examples. whatever. is wider. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. expressing the degree in which the horizon." "The broader their education is. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." "He went several times to England. he goes away as if nothing had happened. it takes precedence of everything else.377. a verbal." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. Joanna is better. the wider is the horizon of their thought. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. 378. adverbs. however good she may be as a witness. to make up our shortcomings. but they require careful study." (3) REASON. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. etc. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go." "When he was come up to Christian. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself.. Exercise." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. and will be given in detail." These mean no matter how good. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. the milestones are grave-stones. or an adverb. an adjective." "The right conclusion is. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. however. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming." (7) RESULT." (5) DEGREE. and adverbial conjunctions. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]." "Who cares for that." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. introduced by indefinite relatives. that we should try. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." (9) CONCESSION. no matter what remains.: "But still. shaping our actions. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. etc." "After leaving the whole party under the table. so far as we can. tell what kind each is. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. etc. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. and what it modifies:² . since he was too great to care to be original.

For example. of which clause Odin is the subject. howling and whistling. we are a little disappointed. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. 379. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. 380. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. on a dark wintry night. they might perhaps say of their visitors. when the wind was unruly. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. find the principal subject and principal predicate. and twirling weathercocks. 'Well. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists.1. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. incoherent exclamations. snatching up stones to fling at them.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. 3. If the children gathered about her. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. etc. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. with shrill. to tell the truth." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. predicate. in the sentence. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. so as to picture the parts and their relations. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. and modifiers. banging about doors and windows. its object is that Odin was a reality. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ ." 2. as they sometimes did. object. then treat noun clauses as nouns. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES.

\ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . Exercises. Take the place and attitude which belong to you.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. 364. d. 2. as seen in the "map" (Sec. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses.. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 3. . 380). (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. (1) Find the principal clause. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. 364..

14. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. for yours. had we been worse. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 24. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. This is she. 18. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. Here lay two great roads. I like that representation they have of the tree. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. 8. Whether she said the word is uncertain. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. . He was what our country people call an old one. not so much for travelers that were few. namely. 16. 22. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 6. 7. or whether any. if applied to the Bible. who would yield to it least. which. 10.4. 17. But now that she has become an establishment. 11. the shepherd girl. And those will often pity that weakness most. the mixed result. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. could not have been effected. 5. that pressed her with an objection. that. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. of a light hazel. 12. The deep eyes. The night proved unusually dark. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 19. Now. Next came a wretched Dominican. the flower should revive for us. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 20. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. as for armies that were too many by half. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. Had they been better chemists. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. whom I choose. dying for them. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. bishop. 9. counselor that had none for herself. 15. M. 23. 21. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 13.

6. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. if there be one to whom I am not equal. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. though we may repeat the words never so often. 383.²which will not be disposed of. we cannot adequately say. 5. . and temper. That which we do not believe. "No book. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. (b) First analyze. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. Hence the definition. 2. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. "was ever written down by any but itself. but above it. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses.² Definition. and stamped with his right number.25. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. COMPOUND SENTENCES. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. 26. the following complex sentences:² 1. speed. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. 30. if continuously extended. then map out as in Sec." said Bentley. and not from his heart. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. These things we are forced to say. or commands. and what content I can find in conversing with each. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. that it was no more than his daily walk. 3. 382." 4. 28. 27. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 7. is to speak and write sincerely. How formed. 380. would easily reach. questions.

for. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. Connectives. from the second. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. moon-like ray" (adversative). whereas. he dilates. if there are any. . as but. others sometimes coördinate. now adverbs or prepositions. Of the following illustrative sentences. or but. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. in (2). sometimes subordinate conjunctions. and nor the second and third complex members. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. however. in (3). Study the thought. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. and it shall be the universal sense. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. he walks with arms akimbo. Another example is. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. as in Sec. and not the form of the connective. the planet has a faint. which are simple statements. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). he soliloquizes. etc. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. yet. 385. a complex member. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. the semicolon separates the first.. nor does he know until he has tried. Speak your latent conviction. he is twice a man. while (whilst). Exercise. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. "Only the star dazzles. 386. nor. The coördinate conjunctions and. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. tell which are compound. Thus in (1). 383 (1). a simple member. the waving grass. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. etc. The division into members will be easier." 384." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. Some of these are now conjunctions. and which complex:² 1. 297). and connects the first and second complex members.

and thou shalt be loved. (i) Separate it into its main members. and as yet very early in the morning. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. I can still receive. The gain is apparent. is particular. to find a pot of buried gold. unobtrusive boy. you lose something. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. 5. all pain. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. however. nay. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. and not by what each is. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. you have gained something else. 4. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. Exercise. for example. yield to them heart and life. 13. 10. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. quiet. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. All loss. and for everything you gain. Whilst the world is thus dual. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. the tax is certain. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. In this manner. 3. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. 387. 9. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 8. Love. For everything you have missed. I can yet love. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 6. 11. 12. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. Man does not stand in awe of man. However some may think him wanting in zeal. that it was Easter Sunday. passed in that time. 364. 7. so is every one of its parts.2. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. . We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. he grew up to be a mild. 2. 381. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. or. from a happy yet often pensive child. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 14. 4. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. 3.

A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. or we read books. and you are without effort impelled to truth. or we pursue persons. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. abide by it. . in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. 14. and they will be true to you. and the cart as nigh the rake. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. only that they may brag and conquer there. and he learns who receives. let them mount and expand. and not a thought has enriched either party. 17. Whatever he knows and thinks. that let him communicate. 20. if you rip up his claims. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and each shows only what lies at its focus. Trust men. whilst frankness invites frankness. as children. crook and hide. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. which always make the Actual ridiculous. and the peace of society is often kept. When you have chosen your part. 21. Come into port greatly. or sail with God the seas. 18. give those merits room. or hope. and makes their business a friendship. treat them greatly. We see the noble afar off. 8. and they will show themselves great. "Strike. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. 11. 9." says the smith. is as thin and timid as any. and they repel us. 7. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. "as nigh the scythe as you can." says the haymaker. one is afraid.5. because. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. or men will never know and honor him aright." 13. We go to Europe. Stand aside. "the iron is white. He teaches who gives. and not an emotion of bravery. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. 19. but the day never shines in which this element may not work." "keep the rake. They will shuffle and crow. puts the parties on a convenient footing. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. and the other dares not. modesty. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. why should we intrude? 10. 16. 15. feign to confess here. 6.

they die young. but they never acquit the debt. We see young men who owe us a new world. verb and subject. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . PART III. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. or. 380. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. Ground covered by syntax. By way of introduction. 388. 25. if they live. INTRODUCTORY. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. 390. the department of syntax will be a small affair. adjective and noun. so readily and lavishly they promise. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. and dodge the account. but its leading characteristic is. pronoun and antecedent. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. Essential point in English syntax. 23. but go about your business anywhere. 24. So does culture with us. Following the Latin method. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. they lose themselves in the crowd. it ends in headache. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax.22.²agreement and government. SYNTAX. Do not craze yourself with thinking. it never was known to fall into the rear. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition.

This is not logical. In Latin. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. Also in the sentence. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. or when they exist side by side in good usage.² First. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. also expressing a possessive relation. as to study inflected forms. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. and imitate it. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. therefore. the order being inverted. but are not now. authorities²that is. and nothing but important points will be considered. pronoun and antecedent. both forms will be given in the following pages. then. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. 392. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. As an illustration of the last remark. "None remained but he. When usage varies as to a given construction. and it would not matter which one stood first. Why study syntax? 391. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. In some cases. etc. following the regular order of subject. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior." In this there is a possessive form. some of which conform to classical grammar. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. The basis of syntax. and whose judgment.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. distinct forms would be used. "The savage here the settler slew. or the same writer will use both indifferently. good English. or settler may be the subject. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. the sentence. sometimes verb and subject. 393. . for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. and added to it the preposition of. take the sentence." is ambiguous. There is. Some rules not rigid. Savage may be the subject. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language." that is. Second. For example. and to think clearly of the meaning of words.

Bentham's principles together. the possessive sign is used with each noun. the shore of Galilee. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.²THACKERAY. Joint possession. Mill's and Mr. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. Woman. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. sense and nature's easy fool. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. 408). Separate possession. PRONOUNS. 394.²BYRON." Juletta tells. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. Putting Mr.² He lands us on a grassy stage. 395. the antechamber of the High Priest. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. and Peter's. for example.²ROWE.²MCCULLOCH. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.² Live your king and country's best support. etc. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. He kept Bolingbroke's. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. and Paul's. and Peterborough's.²RUSKIN. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.²EMERSON. or indicate joint ownership or possession.²MILTON. and Pope's. . Use of the possessive. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. 397.NOUNS. as. but imply separate possession or ownership. 396. ²ID. and Harley's.

Objective for the nominative. if not universally. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. who.²THACKERAY." 400. there are two general rules that require attention.²SOUTHEY. This should be "as she.²TROLLOPE. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. Bedott Papers.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. 398.) "The young Harper.²POPE. I. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. . It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. thus. Still. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. and should be the nominative form. Since most of the personal pronouns. No mightier than thyself or me. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. Some of the violations are universally condemned. 399. for example. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was).²BYRON. the real thought being forgotten. whom is the complement after the verb am. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this.²WHITCHER. But he must be a stronger than thee. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. as. sanctioned. others are generally.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. General rules. together with the relative who. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.²SHAKESPEARE." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. the last expression has the support of many good writers. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.

the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her." 401.²SCOTT. "If there is any one embarrassed. on the other hand.²THACKERAY. The camp of Richard of England. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. . Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS.²PARTON. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. but such is the fact. And it was heThat made the ship to go.²MACAULAY. The usage is too common to need further examples. it will not be me.²FIELDING.² For there was little doubt that it was he. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. the objective form is regularly found. In spoken English. is. for example. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. namely. are. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.² One I remember especially. BLACK. unless a special. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was.²RUSKIN. "Who's there?"²"Me. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. "Than whom. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule."²WINTHROP. One exception is to be noted. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402." There is no special reason for this.²LONGFELLOW. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. A safe rule.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.²COLERIDGE.²KINGSLEY. as. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. But still it is not she. they are yet holier than we. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. Patrick the Porter. both in England and America.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. and the other forms of the verb be."²KINGSLEY."²WM.

10. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. (3) By forgetting the construction. object of saw). as this from Shakespeare. now. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. Whom they were I really cannot specify. Truth is mightier than us all. Me in exclamations. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. Nominative for the objective. "Ask the murderer. 9. 3. or this. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 11." the word being in apposition with murderer). (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. and prepositions. or preposition which governs it. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. 8.Exercise." 6. . 2. or us). it is me. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 403. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. as. as. 404. the object of to). It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author.²MILTON. 5. verbals. as. you or me. You know whom it is that you thus charge. but not he" (he should be him. verbal. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. 4. 7. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. It is not me you are in love with. I speak not to" (he should be him. used after verbs.

None.²STEELE. save thou and thine.²KINGSLEY. as well as the objective. Exercise. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. but he. Nature. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. "Who did you see?" or. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. all but he. changed in all save thee. I've sworn. Thy shores are empires. . giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. who interrogative. etc. Exception 2.Shall be left upon the morn. for example. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.²KINGSLEY. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.²BYRON.Exception 1. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Who have we here?²ID. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.²KINGSLEY. "Who were they talking to?" etc. We regularly say. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. partial Nature. for they say there are none such in the world. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation.²GOLDSMITH. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. I arraign. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. after the preposition but (sometimes save).²BYRON. Thou. as. Let you and I look at these. 2.² All were knocked down but us two. 406. as.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. 405. and is usually avoided.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.

²THACKERAY.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. and they know that as well as me. Preceding a gerund. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. with Jortin and Thirlby. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. They are coming for a visit to she and I. They crowned him long ago. 12. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. 9.²SCOTT. 5.²possessive. POSSESSIVE FORMS.Ye I salute. 6.²RUSKIN. As antecedent of a relative. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.²DE QUINCEY. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. This usage is not frequent. 11.3. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. Markland.²MACAULAY." 4. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. or objective? . 8. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. BROWN. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. 407. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. B. 7. who. Bartholomew. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room.²C. 10. II.

studying is a gerund.²BREWER." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him." That is. Possessive. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. and asked why it was not made.² THACKERAY.² IRVING.² SCOTT. and the meaning is. In the examples quoted. We heard of Brown.²DICKENS. object of heard of. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. Objective. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted.²DE QUINCEY. that the bitterness of death was past.²CARLYLE. and that in the second. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. The use of the objective is older.² CARLYLE. [who was] studying law. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. Both types of sentences are found. Why both are found. The last incident which I recollect. . was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. etc. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. Here I state them only in brief. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. both are gerunds. as he turned away from his wife.²RUSKIN. sometimes it has the objective. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun.²MACAULAY. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.408. But in common use there is no such distinction. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.

the pronoun will be neuter singular. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²HUXLEY. number. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²CABLE. if the antecedent is neuter. and ought to agree with them in person. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²AUDUBON. taking in each of many persons. it was his own fault. Watch for the real antecedent. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. Examples of these constructions are.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²C. and gender. 409.²DE QUINCEY. preceded by a distributive.²THOREAU.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. . where there were examinations.²DE QUINCEY. or is a distributive word.²EMERSON III. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. The pale realms of shade. If any one did not know it. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. BROCKDEN BROWN.² BRYANT. 410. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. in one person. Everybody had his own life to think of.²when the antecedent. Every city threw open its gates.²RUSKIN.²HOLMES. In such a case as the last three sentences.²THACKERAY. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²DEFOE.

Every one must judge of their own feelings. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. as anybody in their senses would have done. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. and giving them means of being so. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. The sun. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²FIELDING.Avoided: By using both pronouns. for example. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²BIBLE.² Not the feeblest grandame.²ID.²SCOTT. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. If the part deserve any comment.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. By using the plural pronoun.²BYRON. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²RUSKIN.²EMERSON. 411. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²ID. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²PALGRAVE. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. This is not considered the best usage. let them break it off.²PAULDING. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²AUSTEN. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. .²HUXLEY. Whosoever hath any gold.²DEFOE. Struggling for life. not a mowing idiot.²THACKERAY. till they have lost him.²PALEY. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.

and he went away. who went away. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. the definite relatives who. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. and that are restrictive or not. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals.Where she was gone. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. It adds a new statement to what precedes.² SHERIDAN. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health.²ID. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. as. In the following examples. 413. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word." This means." It defines beggar. Exercise. Exercise. "I gave it to the beggar.) and a personal pronoun. 2. A relative. and that always restrictive. That is in most cases restrictive. when coördinating. and does not add a new statement. etc. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. when restrictive. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. . but. I. because. What these terms mean. 1.²HAWTHORNE. or what was become of her. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. which. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. or unrestrictive. As to their conjunctive use." A relative. unless both genders are implied. according to the practice of every modern writer. 412. but. which. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as.²In the above sentences. in each instance:² Who.²ADDISON. tell whether who. no one could take upon them to say. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. that being considered already clear.

13. 8. 12. etc. which Mr. she agreed to join the party. In what sense true. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. 4. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. these or that which. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. which was to go over the Cordilleras.²HOLMES. That. We say I. With narrow shoulders. long arms and legs. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. Which. 414.² CARLYLE. 10. 11. . The general rule is. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. BEECHER 5. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. 14.²H." that is invariable as to person and number. down. On hearing their plan. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. W. However. 9.² NEWMAN. Hare has printed. you. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. because of its antecedent.²ID. A grizzly-looking man appeared. they.²DE QUINCEY. and it is called logic. that were often vicious. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. in the sentence.²THOREAU.. II.²DE QUINCEY. it makes the verb third person singular. 7. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. For example. etc.² IRVING. and over England are saying.²ADDISON. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. The rule. Yet how many are there who up.3. 6. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first.² MOTLEY. as that does not vary for person or number.²ID. etc. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. he. who. So different from the wild. but.

French literature of the eighteenth century. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books..²M.²LOWELL.. [plural] that who. but speaks of him as that sort. but myself. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. JR. The fiery youth . Let us be of good cheer. etc. . or which . with one as the principal word. Singular..²HOWELLS. "one of the finest books that has been published. He is one of those that deserve very well. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²whether we should say. others regard books as the antecedent. A disputed point.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company." or. the true antecedent. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. and write the verb in the plural. and in improving a victory..²HOLMES. "one of the finest books that have been published. ARNOLD. The latter is rather more frequent. but the former has good authority. etc.²LOWELL. T. who rarely speak at all. in winning a battle." One of .] Both constructions are frequently found. MORSE. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest.²SCOTT.²ADDISON. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. 415.²ADDISON. Franklin.. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. when he derided the shams of society. [singular or plural. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural..²BOWLES. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.²MACAULAY. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²LECKY.²J.. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.

where. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. 416. when the relative word is a pronoun.²ID.²SWIFT.² RUSKIN. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.²BURNS.²In the above sentences.² THACKERAY. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. that is.²EMERSON. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. object of a preposition understood. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers." "India is the place [in which. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. whence.²SCOTT.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation."²DICKENS. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. when this dust falls to the urn.In that same state I came. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²EMERSON.A rare Roundabout performance. I could see nothing except the sky. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. III.²CARLYLE. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²ADDISON.²GOLDSMITH. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. or where] he died. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. But I by backward steps would move.And. Exercise. The same day I went aboard we set sail. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.² . This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. IV.²IRVING. and such like: as.²VAUGHAN." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. return. 417.²DEFOE. and see if the sentence is made clearer. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.

he. she passed the lamp over her face and person.² THACKERAY. That. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. but which is usually carefully avoided. CHURCH. looking-glasses. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. They believe the same of all the works of art.He considered.me as his apprentice.² Which. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. which. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. Anacoluthic use of which. 418. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Which. if I had resolved to go on with.²ADDISON.²SCOTT. for example. as is not used. I might as well have staid at home. and working in the same spirit. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. boats. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. ²GOLDSMITH. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. was a discoverer. V. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. but we find the relative who. W.. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. but. or that. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner..²SWIFT.²WORDSWORTH.² BURKE. as of knives. if same is followed by a complete clause.² MACAULAY. Mr. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. The regular construction. Caution. etc.²R. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.²FRANKLIN. with Turner. .

who are now thrown. Exercise. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.²SHAKESPEARE." etc. which when Mr. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.²HAWTHORNE..²which if they once heard. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. Exercise. and which. and who are now thrown upon their compassion.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. and in whom I myself was not a little interested..She'd come again." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. Express both relatives. (2) "Among the poorer sort. le Conte. 4.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort.. or leave out both connective and relative.² Direction for rewriting. This was a gentleman. (1) "Among those who are poor. once a great favorite of M." etc. And who. 1. but. and who are now. 419. or omit the conjunction.²GOLDSMITH. After this came Elizabeth herself. etc. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. That is. 2. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. He delivered the letter. but none is expressed. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. As the sentences stand. he said that all submission was now too late. (3) "Among the poorer sort. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.²RUSKIN. But who. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. now thrown upon their.²DE QUINCEY. etc. 3. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. and this be placed in the proper clause.²THACKERAY. . or." etc. Thornhill had read. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.²SCOTT.

. one of signal interest. 12. Or which. who. 6. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character.²SCOTT. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. indeed. then.. "What knight so craven. and which has never been described. . and which. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. Exercise. 420. which is likewise a variation from the best usage.²DE QUINCEY. English by name. 1. which the Scotch had learned. either from imitation of their frequent allies. 8. 10. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. as a false and astucious mark. like that spoken in the towns.. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. and to whom no door is closed.²IRVING." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. etc. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man.5. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. the French. And which. I shall have complete copies. 11.. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. 7. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony.² MOTLEY. 9.²HAWTHORNE. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy.²DE QUINCEY. Dr. "A mockery. 13. and which may even be heard a mile off. That . Or who.²SCOTT. But which. Akin to the above is another fault. etc. I saw upon the left a scene far different. and repeat this for any further reference.²PEARSON. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary.

but which is perhaps not so different from it. Which . 5. but which. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.²SCOTT That which . 15. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.²DE QUINCEY. the dime. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill.2. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. E. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. He.. G. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. I grudge the dollar. 9.²HOLMES. and to whom I do not belong. was hung in air. in his present condition. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. and whose examples and principles we inherit. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity.. 8. In my native town of Salem. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. which. 14. I recommend some honest manual calling. 4. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President..²DEFOE.²SCOTT..²W. 11. whom. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. It rose into a thrilling passion. 7. in his Mephistopheles. 12. CHANNING.²HALLAM.²BEECHER. That . the cent. such as they have very probably been bred to.²W.²HOWELLS. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with.²EMERSON.. was a bustling wharf..²HAWTHORNE. He flung into literature. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus.. 3. that . I give to such men as do not belong to me.. what... Such as . 10. half a century ago. at the head of what. Such as . and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. SIMMS. . Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. 6. The Tree Igdrasil. which.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. 13.²EMERSON. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear... that.

carrying off each other's cattle and wives. We call ourselves a rich nation. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. and in want of his gold²or his corn. always at war with one another. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. one another.²DICKENS.²EMERSON. into the high pavilion of their thoughts.²RUSKIN.²GOLDSMITH. as it were.²ID. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. Each other.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.² HAWTHORNE. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. as.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. that not all combined. in which case any should be used instead. Distributives either and neither. for example. as.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. England was then divided between kings and Druids. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. 422. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²RUSKIN. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. Assume that no one is in want of either. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. Use of any.² Some one must be poor. By their original meaning. whether or not the two are equivalent. . 421. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²MACAULAY.²HAWTHORNE.

424. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.²FRANKLIN. as. in Shakespeare.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . speak. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.²PROF. let him ask of God. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. as none of the French philosophers were. None usually plural..²BIBLE. Caution. etc.²THACKERAY. Do you think. . Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. during his stay at Yuste. as. Any usually plural.² If any.²SCOTT. that I know of. and is isolated. Examples of its use are. before that. I beseech you.²SHAKESPEARE.²CARLYLE. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. any was often singular. any of his friends had died. Do you think.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. If any of you lack wisdom. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²BEECHER Whenever.²BURKE.²STIRLING. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. whilst I still cherish their genius. if ever man was. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. In earlier Modern English. even in Bettine. afterwards in Goethe. usually plural. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. then in Plutarch.²EMERSON. in the prose of the present day.² EMERSON. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.² In earnest. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). then in Plotinus. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. The adjective pronoun none is. 423. None of Nature's powers do better service. when any of them are so good as to visit me.. at one time in Bacon. for him have I offended. which is plural as often as singular. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.

²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .² None of them was cleansed. Somebody's else. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. The light troops thought . and Ford has nobody's else. though none [no sky] was visible overhead.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. etc. or somebody else's? 426. nobody else. as.²NAPIER Plural. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. etc.² Singular.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell..²McMASTER. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.. and less rarely in poetry.. fixing his eyes on the mace. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. 425. The compounds somebody else.²THOREAU. for example. that all was lost.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. are treated as units. and all was lost on the other. any one else. which is used absolutely. When all were gone. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. etc. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. saving Naaman the Syrian.²SCOTT Like the use of any. when it means all persons: for example. the plural.² PEARSON. etc.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.

curled once all over it in long tendrils.SYDNEY SMITH. .. etc. London. His hair.²RUSKIN. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. unlike anybody else's in the world.² Saturday Review. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. These sort. for example. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural.² These kind of knaves I know. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. ELIOT. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.²N. 427.²RUSKIN.²in such as "these sort of books.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. etc. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.²G. and may be found not infrequently in literary English."²MRS. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. all manner of. Whitefield or Wesley. or some other such great man as a bishop.. WILLIS.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. Again. or those sort of people. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). "Ye see. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. STOWE. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. the adjectives plural.²SHERIDAN.²MULOCH. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots." "all manner of men.²SWEET.²DICKENS.² FIELDING." "those kind of trees. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.²AUSTEN." the nouns being singular. ADJECTIVES.²THACKERAY. P.

We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. or the nouns to the plural." A question. "These kind of trees are best. and the adjective is. At the source. . The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). "A sort of uncertain sounds are. History of this construction.²RUSKIN. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. not "all kinds of wild animals. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. and in this way may take a plural verb. This the modern expression reverses. the victor or the vanquished. Should we say. In Old and Middle English.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. gradually displacing the old. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. "This sort of trees should be planted. in spoken English. when the necessary dispositions concur.The library was open. or one object with a class of objects. 428." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. made to agree with it. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. more alarming than a total silence. Consequently we have a confused expression. "This kind of rules are the best. for example. Burke's sentence. Of two such lessons. Use of the comparative degree. The result." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. such as. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization.² Which is the better able to defend himself. they said. to express a higher degree of quality. with all manner of amusing books. According to the approved usage of Modern English. as.² PRESCOTT. which accounts for the construction. Later form. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms.

I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. Henry. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. than any of his court.²LOWELL. 429. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. by almost the breadth of my nail. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. I am concerned to see that Mr.²HUXLEY. has sanctioned. 5. 6. 430. the highest stakes are paid. if not. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold.²SWIFT. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. Exercise.²SCOTT. Use of the superlative degree. Other after the comparative form. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot.²WIRT.²HAWTHORNE.²CARLYLE. etc. 2. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. 3.²MACAULAY.²TROLLOPE. To the man who plays well. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr."²ID. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.²THACKERAY. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. Superlative with two objects. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. Even Dodd himself. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. 4. . The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things.A braver ne'er to battle rode. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. would not have had the face.² THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. He is taller. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. Gary.

Double comparative and superlative. 1611.²TEMPEST.²SCOTT. OLIPHANT.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. who eat white bread or brown. After the most straitest sect of our religion. more particularly the last of them. CÆSAR. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them."²GOLDSMITH. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. In all disputes between States. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. I should say that one has the best cause.²RUSKIN. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.²IRVING."²HAWTHORNE. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²HAMLET.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. Examples from Shakespeare are. The following examples are used purposely. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. The eldest."²BULWER. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.²GOLDSMITH.²Bible. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. . though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong.²DR BLAIR.²J. "Ha. Rip was one of those . These two properties seem essential to wit. not a bit of high life among them.²ADDISON. ha. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. 431. Mary.²EMERSON. whichever can be got easiest. and differ only in form. Come you more nearer. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.²MRS... and the other contains the best men. Also from the same period.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense.²BEN JONSON. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.

Three first. but in literary English. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. jar upon us constantly. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. First three. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. The first five had specific names. not only so in popular speech. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. and Secretary Walsingham also.²RUSKIN.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432.²GIBBON. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.²PRESCOTT. Definite article. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. These are the three first needs of civilized life.² With a singular noun.²KINGSLEY. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. etc. 433. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. the Spanish. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. The delay in the first three lines. As to these two expressions. ²COWPER. ARTICLES.²RUSKIN.²DE QUINCEY. Instances of both are given below. . He has already finished the three first sticks of it.² SMOLLETT.²ADDISON. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. and conceit in the last. Examples of this construction are. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both.²LAMB.²GIBBON. For Carlyle. The meaning intended is the same. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. The merit of the Barb. etc.

At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. or to emphasize the meaning. the thought and the word.²TAYLOR. The lofty.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.. to distinguish clearly. were placed at a very tender age. but is used with one only. Here the youth of both sexes.²TENNYSON. with a singular noun.²SCOTT. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. with a plural noun.² RUSKIN. however. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.²NEWMAN. 433.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. I think. With a plural noun.²PRESCOTT. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. Origin of the Aryans. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.. Frequently.² MACAULAY. Meaning same as in Sec. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. having been arranged.²THACKERAY.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. but inseparable from each other. 435. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . Indefinite article. as in Sec. 1508. The flowers. as. the hour of parting came. 434. and flexible language.²ID. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. melodious.²CARLYLE. the greatest poems. One object and several modifiers. as.²THE NATION. distinct. 433. . No.²MACAULAY. He is master of the two-fold Logos. and the presents. of the higher and middling orders. of the eighteenth century. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. The not repeated. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.

" Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. and a usurper. 435. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. as.²B. a collegian. or clearness to each of several nouns.²DICKENS.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. a tyrant. and inexhausted vein. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec.² BURKE.²BULWER.An early. COLERIDGE.²MACAULAY. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. one noun is expressed. 433 and 436. In the sentences of Secs. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. .436.²JOHNSON. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. For rhetorical effect. a round and a square one alternately. JONSON. Examples of this use are. interest. 437. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.² MACAULAY. a murderer.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.²S. The indefinite article is used. 438. One article with several adjectives. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.²DRYDEN. He saw him in his mind's eye. as in the first three of Sec." and "a red and a white geranium. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. to limit two or more modified nouns. only one of which is expressed. T. The indefinite article (compare Sec. 436). As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.²BEECHER.²MACAULAY. like the definite article. But in the following sentences. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. rich.²THACKERAY. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.

Such.²FROUDE. like some others in this series. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. 276. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Another writer might. without academies. has got already. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. .²W. Sec.²COOPER.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. Singulars connected by or or nor. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. all that academies can give. 439.²M. as. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment.VERBS. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. or the great intellectual life of our nation.²CARLYLE This usage.. In English. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. He sees that it is better to live in peace. A broad and loose rule. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number.²GIBBON. was the earliest American land.²G. as.²The Nation. and the following illustrations prove it. 440. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. Collective noun of singular meaning. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. then. This was spoken of in Part I.²AGASSIZ. for example.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. ELIOT. ARNOLD. Singular verb.

all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.² The unbought grace of life.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. as. other names. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. a mutilation. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. Several singular subjects to one singular verb.² Politics is the only field now open for me.²GIBBON. a loss of friends. Q.²J.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. and other singulars of plural form.Jesus is not dead. No. that of a large town.²BURKE.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. a loss of wealth.²WHITTIER. a cruel disappointment. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. for example.² GOLDSMITH. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. nor Mahomet. but each one emphatic.²GOLDSMITH. is gone.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. and every four hours. but considered as meaning about the same thing. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. ADAMS. nor Paul. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. as. (4) When the subject is plural in form. A fever.²CRITIC. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. or as making up one general idea.²DE QUINCEY. Between ourselves. nor John. the cheap defense of nations. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. ²EMERSON. or considered as appositional.² In a word. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. seems at the moment unpaid loss. for example.²EMERSON .²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. Plural form and singular meaning. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.

almost every day.²EMERSON.The author. was like to crack. does not take the place of the man.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece.² There is a right and a wrong in them. no discontinuity.²MACAULAY. as.²PRESCOTT. sir!" and the "What then. For wide is heard the thundering fray. Every week. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²SCOTT. Then comes the "Why. with death.²HAWTHORNE. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. as well as Europe. To receive presents or a bribe. wineBegins to stir itself.²RUSKIN. the ruin. Subjects after the verb. a gorget. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. is a man of wit. as well as sides. the dismay. Here is no ruin.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. sir!"²MACAULAY.The rout. was dazzled. every echo. every valet. in a judge. was listened to for five hours. many a. no spent ball. and such like adjectives. There is a moving tone of voice. each. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. Plural verb. thus.² Asia. was punished. as well as the newest. an agitated gesture. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²PRESCOTT.²NEWMAN. 441. nay. the wit. no matter if the second is plural). the fine gentleman. Her back. The Epic. no.²ID. a cuirass.²MACAULAY. Every fop. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. as.²ID. Every sound. as well as the Drama. the partisan. and greaves. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. every boor. The oldest. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.²M ARNOLD.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every.²BUTLER.²LONGFELLOW.² . an impassioned countenance. sir?" and the "No.

The Dauphin. were men of insignificant characters. All our household are at rest. the Duke of Berri.²FROUDE.²FRANKLIN. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.These bits of wood were covered on every square.² A multitude go mad about it.²CARLYLE But its authorship. far away thy children leave the land. its date. TAYLOR. a stream of fresh water.²EMERSON.²COLERIDGE. as.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. are sufficient to attract a colony. b). as in Sec. .²ADDISON. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. of whom there were a number. for example. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. 440 (5. The travelers.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²THOREAU. Philip of Anjou. and its history are alike a mystery to us. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.²GOLDSMITH. His clothes. as.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²DE QUINCEY. A party of workmen were removing the horses.² GIBBON. The conjunction may be omitted. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²FROUDE. A shady grove.²SWIFT. but the verb is plural. shirt. a green pasture. Far. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. as with a subject of plural form. making up a plural subject.²B.²GIBBON. Conjunction omitted.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²SCOTT.

Nothing which Mr. but thou. Pattison or I have said.²GOLDSMITH. WEBSTER.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. Exceptional examples. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.²M. of different persons. Second or third and first person in the subject.²RUSKIN. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²BYRON. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.²WHITTIER. Not Altamont.²THACKERAY. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and.²RUSKIN.²THACKERAY. the subject being really equivalent to we. Not I. hadst been my lord. "You would not be wiser. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives." etc. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. 443. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. as.²ROWE. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. for example.²LOWELL. If there is only one person in the subject. When the subjects. ARNOLD. "I have never said so.). but thou. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. . 442.²DE QUINCEY. we never talk politics. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. his blood dost shed.But notice the construction of this. nor has she"). are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. Ah. "He or I can go. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. nor should I.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.²SMOLLETT." "She or you may be sure.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. You and I are farmers. 444." or.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.²D. General usage. that is. You and I are tolerably modest people. the verb takes the construction of the first person.

Also in verbals.²BURKE. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. 7.²MILTON." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future.²SCOTT. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. nor tree.²SMOLLETT. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. BANCROFT. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. as illustrated above (Secs.²ADDISON. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. In a word. How each of these professions are crowded. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Both death and I am found eternal. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was.² TROLLOPE.²perhaps the devil. 8. 9. as we would hope. Nor wood. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 11. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² .445. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. 440-444):² 1. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. 446.²ID. In this sentence from Defoe. in my opinion. 12. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. Neither of them. Exercise. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. The following illustrate exceptional usage. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. nor bush are there. 2. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 5. 4.²and. 3.Her course to intercept.²ADDISON. which it is proper to mention.²BYRON. In the following sentence. 6. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses.That neither of their intellects are vast.²EMERSON.²THACKERAY. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²G. 10.

²R. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence.²MACAULAY.²THACKERAY.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. Exercise. as.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. meaning.. 4. 447. CHURCH.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. But I found I wanted a stock of words. Indirect discourse means reported speech. The present rule is recent. if not. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . 3. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. Definitions. however.. for exact connection. change them to a better form:² 1. Two samples of indirect discourse.² PALGRAVE 5. on my return. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers.²KINGSLEY.²DE QUINCEY 2. Of course. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. I gave one quarter to Ann.²FRANKLIN 6. 448." . Direct discourse²that is. to have divided with her whatever might remain. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. It should be remarked.²IRVING. W. to have seen should be changed to to see. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.

" Indirect. 1. Her prudence whispered eternally. Oh. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. have. under interrogative pronouns. 449. "I cannot oblige you .. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Direct. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. Sebastian's. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St." etc. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. The substance of his lamentation was.. Summary of the expressions.. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. She thought to herself. and the indirect question by whether or if. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. Direct. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. 2. "Oh. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. interrogative adverbs.. introductory verb is in the past tense. etc. will. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. This includes the auxiliaries be. His exact words were. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. or regular interrogatives. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that." etc. . (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. and the subjunctive mood of verbs.

being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. the first discoverer of the river and country. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. he assured me that nothing was more easy. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.Exercise. FRANKLIN. and that he himself had heard. my first observation will be found nearly true. Careless use of the participial phrase. Notice this. 450. PARTICIPLES. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. . Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. handed down from his ancestor the historian. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. VERBALS. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. like distant peals of thunder. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. the sound of their balls. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. one summer afternoon.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster.²GOLDSMITH. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill.²ID. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. in the sentences first quoted. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. The trouble is.²B. if this were expanded into a verb.²ADDISON. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. with his crew of the Half-moon.

2. avoid it.." Exercise.²ID. my first collection was. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. It is a solemn.. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. Exercise. leaving the principal statement as it is. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.." etc. INFINITIVES.² HERBERT SPENCER. then. purposely or not. There are. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.. while defended or excused by others. This is the more common arrangement.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. 451. For example. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . if a strike is to succeed. the first sentence would be.Correction.²LAUGHLIN.²RUSKIN. 3.. Standard writers often use it.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. many things to be carefully considered. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. either "As I was pleased. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. In the following citations. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.²SCOTT. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. and often. . . Adverb between to and the infinitive. universal assertion.

if they modify single words. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. this kind of grandeur. even. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. 7. are used. BLAIR. 13.²The Nation.²GOLDSMITH. even.²ID. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . when such adverbs as only. and earthenware. The rigid rule in such a case would be. which consists in multitude. 452. I wish the reader to clearly understand. china. A little sketch of his. is to be very cautiously admitted. Position of only.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. 9.²SCOTT.. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen.4.²TROLLOPE. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.²DR. but they are often removed from the exact position. etc. 8.² MACAULAY." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.² ADDISON. No.²BURKE. 10. therefore. 6.²RUSKIN. 11. Exercise. The spirits. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. 12. etc.. In works of art. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. but it is placed before the infinitive. 5. Now. from Irving. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. but cannot misunderstand the thought. etc. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 1533. ADVERBS. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.

Such disputes can only be settled by arms. ²ASCHAM. 4. His last journey to Cannes.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. My master. WILLIS.²N. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. to avoid a crowd.²MACAULAY. During the whole course of his administration. 14. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. GROTE. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 5. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 15.²ID. He could only afford to keep one old horse. 9. 8. 12. 17. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 16. 3. No sonne.1. 11.²THACKERAY. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. 13. 6. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. He shouted in those clear. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²RUSKIN. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²PALGRAVE.²HIGGINSON. for example.²SWIFT. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²MOTLEY. 2.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²COOPER. were he never so old of yeares. The old usage.²EMERSON. 7. Irving could only live very modestly. whence he was never destined to return.²CHAUCER.² THACKERAY. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. 453. might not marry.²ID.²ID. In relating these and the following laws.²MRS. In Old and Middle English. 10. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.²SYDNEY SMITH. .²WENDELL PHILLIPS. P.

and is still kept in vulgar English. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. neither. can so agreeably affect. The prosperity of no empire."²four negatives. In the latter case. nor the grandeur of no king. as. one of the negatives is often a prefix. In the execution of this task.²BURKE. is not common. Not only could man not acquire such information.²HOLMES. however. However. I did not act so hastily. as infrequent.²BAYNE.²HAWTHORNE.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. STOWE. but ought not to labor after it.²LOWELL. who hadn't been to school for nothing. 7. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. There weren't no pies to equal hers. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. denying each other."²MRS. But. Therefore. and why:² 1. 5. I never did see him again.²DE QUINCEY. 2. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. when one of the negatives is a connective. 4. STOWE. 6. Exercise. 3. etc.²MRS. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl.²GROTE. under the influence of Latin syntax. the usual way of regarding the question now is. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. uncommon. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort.²DEFOE. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. in Ole Virginia. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. nor never shall. if two negatives are found together. . Exceptional use.² HAMILTON. ²PAGE. Regular law of negative in modern English. This. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect.

Correction." may be changed to "This loose .. especially both . as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs." both of the above requirements are violated.. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .²SCOTT.²LOWELL. should be scrutinized. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. nor." . but. Things to be watched.8. as the use of the conjunction. neither . "A weapon. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.. as well as of the pronoun. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. and which. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. if the second precedes a phrase. In the sentence. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.."²SCOTT.. Choice and proper position of correlatives." said the King. or to reply to it. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. not only . not merely . nor is often changed to not²either . if the last precedes a verb. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. even neither .... and. but to their own safety.. either.... or. there we were. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.. The sentence. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. 455. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. or. but (also).. "well worthy to confer honor. 454.²PRESCOTT. CONJUNCTIONS. either . This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. And who. not or is the proper correlative of neither.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. or to reply to it. the first should also. not only to the success of their common cause. The sentences given in Secs.. or with advantage. the first ought to be placed before a verb. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals." Besides neither .....

that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. Exercise.²MACAULAY. 4. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. and chop up their own kin. substitute that." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. nor the disgrace of assailing him.Exercise. Correct the following sentences:² 1. or but that. not merely interest children.² ADDISON. 8.²ID.²GIBBON. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. but. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. 6. JEWETT.²THACKERAY. In the following sentences. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. or the negative relative but. Some exceptions. 456. but they will outrage. 2. 7.²GOLDSMITH. but. They will. etc. Try and for try to. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. O. 3. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. 457. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. But what. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. or but that for the words but what:² 1. Now. as. and I don't know but what he was right. Try and avoid the pronoun. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.²S.²BAIN. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family.²THACKERAY. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. . "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed.²FRANKLIN.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. murder. but grown-up persons. too. as.²RUSKIN. 5.

several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. 3. see Sec.²ADDISON. 4. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.²SCOTT. 459.²BURKE. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. 313. PREPOSITIONS. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. as already seen in Sec.² SWIFT. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction.² BULWER. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. Between is used most often with two things only. 5. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY.²TROLLOPE. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. .²EMERSON. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. 305. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.²ADDISON.²EMERSON. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. 6. 458. no separation or division by twos being implied. Between and among.2.

²KINGSLEY. by custom. Comply with. Mackintosh. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Derogatory to.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Different from. involve. correspond. and philosophers like Locke. Averse to. Such are derogatory. as. a soldier of the Cross. Some of them have. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. different. Dependent on (upon). come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once.²between philosophers like Spinoza. and Stewart. Conversant with. or one object and a group.: Words with particular prepositions. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Abhorrent to. Accord with. and Coleridge. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Acquit of. confer. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Kant. LIST I. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Conform to. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Dissent from. etc. List I. Paley. ²EMERSON. Two groups or one and a group. 461. 460.²RUSKIN What have I. Affinity between. Bestow on (upon). . averse. and another to convey a different meaning. Such are absolve. as.

as. Differ with (note below). Change with (a person). and sometimes creeps into standard books. Agree to (a proposal). Differ from (note below). Involve in. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to." List III.y y y Deprive of. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. 463.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. as meaning to be in keeping with. List II.). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Confide in (trust in). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Reconcile to (note below)." also of persons. Change to (become). . Confer with (talk with). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. A taste for (art. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Correspond with (write to). A taste of (food). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Change for (a thing). Independent of. as. Reconcile with (note below). LIST II. as. Confide to (intrust to). etc." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. 462. in the sense of making friends with. "The king is reconciled to his minister. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. LIST III. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Confer on (upon) (give to). Correspond to (a thing). but it is not good usage.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning.

"Die by." "die from. privation.²SCOTT. ²ATHENÆUM. Part from. die with. ELIOT. "Die for. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread.²BOSWELL.:² "Die of. "Die from. and ill treatment. ELIOT.²MACAULAY.²BURNETT.²POPE. She died of hard work. If I meet with any of 'em. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. He died at last without disease.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. part with.²BULWER. ²THACKERAY. Who. die for. die of.²ADDISON. Take thought and die for Cæsar." (because of).²SHAKESPEARE. "Die for. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. died for love of the fair Marcella. Illustrations of "die of. . It is a man of quality who dies for her. People do not die of trifling little colds.²FIELDING.²MACAULAY. simply from old age. they shall die by this hand. Expect of. instrument). I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.y y y Die by. It would take me long to die of hunger.²G. "Die with." (material cause.²GOLDSMITH. expect from." etc." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. I am positively dying with hunger." (in behalf of). One of them said he would die for her." She would have been ready to die with shame. No one died from want at Longfeld.²G." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. as Cervantes informs us.²MACAULAY. die from.²GOLDSMITH.

Illustrations of "expect of. ELIOT. and hated to part with them. I have just seen her." She will expect more attention from you. as my friend. 465. "Expect from." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²MARRYAT. I part with all that grew so near my heart. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. His precious bag. Illustrations of "part with.²G." "expect from:"² "Expect of.²G. Of Doctor P. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.²SCOTT.²TROLLOPE. kind of you.²DICKENS.²POE. either of or in is used indifferently. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²SHAW. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²G.²BULWER. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²WALLER.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. . It was a little bad of you.²BULWER.²MACAULAY. which he would by no means part from. just parted from her.²WALPOLE. nothing better was to be expected. 466.²AUSTEN. That is more than I expected of you. I can part with my children for their good.²MACAULAY. Kind in you." To part from you would be misery. With words implying behavior or disposition. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. ELIOT. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. ELIOT. "Part from. I have long expected something remarkable from you. 464." "part from:"² "Part with." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.

tedious perhaps.²DICKENS. thrown it over Amyas's head. . To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. 10. nor of a pale red. The noise of vast cataracts.He did not think it handsome of you. or which we are most imperatively required to do. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. but which the story renders necessary. or that they are any way dependent on each other. it is commonly said that his profits are high.²BULWER. In the friction between an employer and workman.²BEACONSFIELD. 14. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. raging storms. nor blue. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 11.²BULWER. 9.²CARLYLE. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 3. 5. 6. with seraphims. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. Very natural in Mr. This narrative. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 7. the vast abyss. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. nor green. 15. nor yellow. 4.²TENNYSON. Hampden. 8. and ran up the alley. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. But this is idle of you. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 1. thunder. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. In. 13. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. Thou tread'st. or artillery. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss.

18. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 33. 26. But every man may know. and other angular figures. 38. Every one of these letters are in my name. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. . what is a just and unjust act. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 24. 29. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 17. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 22. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. the acquiescence of the understanding. You have seen Cassio and she together. 25. 20. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 37. 32. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. 31. 36. 28. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 30. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves.I would wish me only he. 19. you or me. 411. 23. but in the price paid to them. and most of us do know. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 16. Squares. Friday. 27. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. and almost as good as a pony. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. 35. That night every man of the boat's crew. The effect of proportion and fitness. (Sec. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. save Amyas. triangles. When the glass or liquor are transparent.) 34. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn.And were I anything but what I am. were down with raging fever. 21. produce approbation. or how beautiful it is.

THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 116. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. as. 40. adjectives. He had four children. 90. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. demonstrative. voice. INDEX. Abstract with Active Address. 47. of. 89. 91. from nominative clauses. 107. nominative. . 260. pronouns. from about 1500 to the present time. 239.000 between them. of. nouns. numeral. as comparison definition demonstrative. adverbs used complements.39. A. 124. 310. of. of. (2) Middle English. article. (3) Modern English. syntax uses Absolute. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 133. 119. Adjectives. of. 47. 102. 98. 25. 124. origin of. 92. 20.

325. 184. 101. quantity. form as as they to in as uses uses of. clauses. 207. . nouns. 190. infinitive. with with with subject. objective. to used of. 190. Alms. 115. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 191. 116. 48. 195. of. 242. sentence. of. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 183. 27. compared. as nouns. 116. Agreement. 207. of. 325. 262. 323. parse. 239. conjunction. 194. 97. predicate. 42. adjectives. 99. of. of. modify. 287. adjectives. of. 114. adjectives. antecedent. of. 302. conjunctions. from to of. Against. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. nouns. 328. 303. 316. 103. 109. between of. quality. 27. plural pronominal. 187. 291. 194. 275. 104. parse.from function how in not of of ordinal. 106. and 185. 303. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. antecedent. 148.

120. 120. 150. 207. 74. An. 148. of and pronoun of. of. of. which. of. uses As At. 264. 49. though. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. See 74. 51. Auxiliary if. adjective. 287. Are. which. in in. 300. to of. 294. of. 67. 127. as uses verbs. Arrangement Articles. See with definition complex compound simple who. 331. words between. . 275. 124. sentences. same. which. 208. 198. Agreement. 295. derivation in definite. 225. syntax As. parse. and. 67. definition how indefinite. agreement personal as pronoun. 252. 309. 240. 84. after of. A. 271. of. it.Among. 296. definition of of of Any. 79. sentences. syntax. pronouns. of of of And Antecedent. 90. sentences. 101. 47. 231. Anacoluthon Analysis. possessive.

195. 150. 279. Case. 45. 111. of nouns. 66. 49. nominative. of. of nouns. adjective. See of. of pronouns. possessive. number of.Bad. 330. 161. Cause. of. 54. 63. of pronouns. with But By. of nouns. definition could. Can. pronoun. Bridegroom. of pronouns. Between. of what. objective. But. uses of. in Old and Modern English. 48. 224. forms. 278. 260. Children. . 283. 47. 39. uses nominative of. plurals of. 39. Clause. 278. 110. 37. 110. 149. 262. of pronouns. Be. best. uses Better. Case. 46. 279. of. Among. of nouns. comparison conjugation of. double possessive. 262. 84. 210. adverb. Brethren. 194. 62. syntax of. 46. clauses of. conjunctions Cherub. 64.

of. 244. proper. of. nouns. of. 24. 257. English. 264. 43. 18. 257. 43. 315. of. of. 107. 113. 53. 157. double. nouns. 258. 23. 305. superlative. sentence. 257. infinitive. 239. subject. definition degrees irregular. analysis of. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. . 18. 307. Clomb. 268. 111. nouns. predicate. 312. plural of. 271. adverbs. defective. 108. clothes. 158. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. material. of.definition kinds noun. verb. 12. of. and sentence. 248. of. of. 110. Cloths. in analysis. adjectives. 263. 108. 189. Cleave. predicate of and from from of. and forms of. 307.

conjunctions. conjunction. same words. sentence. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could.with Concord. Agreement. interrogative pronouns. correlative. in Old vs. 195. 193. sentences. 66. parse. 269. pronoun. 195. definition be. of. verbs. 188. 73. 199. See analysis clauses. 194. sentences. 143. 138. 149. Conjunctions. 151. conjunctions. 207. 196. 289. replaced by objective. 231. analysis. to of. 255. See in subjunctive. . pronouns. Can. Dative Declarative Declension of case. of. and clause. 139. 194. subjunctive. 328. of of Conjunctions. 263. adverbs. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. definition how subordinate. pronoun. other other parts of speech. 149. coördinate. See English. 194.

nouns. See adjectives. verb. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 333. nouns. 43. 99. 102. 315. comparative. See See 48. of personal relative verbs. object. possessive. Degrees. 288. vs.Declension. by. discourse. 102. 185. See 148. duck. tenses. indirect. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. pronouns. 242. 320. 60. passive adjectives. 80. Articles. 35. . 51. of. clause. pronouns. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 90. with. of. pronouns. from. for. with of. 152. Comparative. 91. 300. 242. Subordinate clause. article. pronouns. 287. 160. adverbs See adjectives. of. 303. use of dies. Comparison. 26. Case. of.

328. syntax Each Eat Eaves.Drank. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 299. 62. to suffix. possessive suffix. Either. Each. 194. 33. -En. 90. ending. of. predicate. pronoun. 32. original. vulgar. plural. 158. 241. adjective. 12. of. pronouns. 38. 110. the of sentence. 280. Elements Ellipsis. one ( t). 255. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 257. another. 92. 112. literary. of. object. older. other. adjective. Empress. 42. 102. of. feminine plural English. 92. 34. 234. 300. in 'Em. 287. 92. 90. of subject. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. suffix. drunk. . 51. conjunction. pronoun. 240. 40. added suffix. complement. of. error in sentence. of. 158. 287. 33. spoken. 39.

102. Few. few. etc. 91. with in sex. expect gone. 148. 103. of. 112. 112. with infinitive. 102. 238. 189. 30. of. 334. 45. of. to of.. 29. First. 126. 110. uses Foreign Former. modes "common goose. have adjective. 287. 48. First Fish. 319. etc. 308. Future Future tense.. Feminine.Every. first. ." 31. 152. 30. See Gander. 211. gender. 235. uses redundant. Farther. two a further. perfect. 152. For. definition distinguished in English. Further. 147. as of from compared marking. other languages. 36. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. nouns. object. the. 30. adjective. Gender. 32. pronoun. from. plurals. two. 212. 43. as a noun. fishes. used of. From. 212.

10. 159. He. 275. noun. pronoun. 285. 36. .of of Genii. 61. Gerund. Had Hanged. 13. participle. I. for before. forms in Girl. had hung. 9. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. of. Government. 12. she. 145. possessive pronouns. adjective. an better. of. from participle of. 177. of. rather. 159. His Husband. 60. 176. 43. 144. its. definition basis of. 231. Grammar. it. pronouns. kinds of. personal relative geniuses. Got. first sentence. of. 35. 61. definition divisions opinions province H. person. 173. 101. 12. 60. on. 120. 175. distinguished syntax. 80. and case verbal with.

questions. 323. of clause. 188. 131. of. 257. a object. of. Direct object. sentence. in compared syntax. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. indices. of. verbs.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. questions. 319. 283. elements. 176. adverbs. 43. pronoun. adjectives. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 67. meaning. summary See passive mood. 320. mood. 248. . 178. 233. 276. with of. indirect of. uses discourse. 110. 245. 72. 131. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 85. 153. See you. 73. 136. pronouns. 231. adjectives. words. See Articles. 93. transitive. of. use article. 105. Questions. your. 227.

King. English. predicate. Less. Last. etc. syntax the. of. Lay. 170. 126. 281. 36. lie. 189. uses Literary Little. and See words in. . 36. subject form. It. Lady. pronoun. 39. Logic Logical Lord. Latter. 36." history etc. syntax. 63. 245. 91. "It Its. 110. a vs. these double kind. plural. Lay. Kine. 61.. of. of. in little. of.adverbs. 113. adjective. 303. 110.. Kind. -Ly. latest. 113. 276. Lie. Like. See Madam. was uses me. 102. 67. 226. queen. 190. lesser. 227. lord. Lady. 12.

syntax nearer. of. 326. construction as of adverb. mine. Negative. 287. syntax conjunction. 41. of. etc. of. out of. 195. 137. 64.. See definition 136. of. 325. nigh. double. of. Modifier. 112. conjunctions Many. 256. adjective. 189. Much. of. of. 112. position adverb. 185. 194. 112. of. 187. comparison Near. 328. 113. Mighty Mine. imperative. 114. superlatives. Neither. sentences. 102. Means. -Most. might. in adverbs comparison a. 110. Master. 36. Must. 160. 110. 144. 34. subjunctive. . 110.Manner. 189. Enlargement. Mood. 265. indicative. 137-144. mistress. 135. 126. 161. May. Modifiers. Many Mapping Mare. 188.

Nor. 25. of of of of of a. None. of. 17. become neuter. abstract. etc. to of. of. 125. 56. syntax in gender nouns. of. 32. nouns. become become formation case collective. 301. 300. of. words how compound. letters as 24. 19. 26. 41 43. 30. of. used as. proper. of. . now plural. kinds 90. number once other plural. of. foreign. No Nominative. 21. 45. definition according of. See 194. 38-41. 42. formed. 18. class used singular. 124. 20. etc. clause. in. material. 258. 30. 92. half abstract. 29. nouns. to use. gender nouns.pronoun. 17. 46. abstract. common. 38. 46. 328. Case. 17 19. syntax Neuter or two News. 126. 246. 27. and figures. parse. 30. definition descriptive. 25. analysis. gender how kinds material. 41. 41. Not Noun Nouns.

148. adverbial. 48. with case. 281.of same two with proper. passive adverbial. of. common. 41. 106. plural form. Numeral Object. spoken of instead nouns.. 60. etc. 66. plural. 42. as forms titles. 48. or plural. 278. 196. definite. nominative. indefinite. 242. article. 42. indirect. 240. Preposition. 41. 195. and analysis. plural no two singular construction. 102. of. of different possessive definite of. 124. pronouns. 39. 235. 92. dative. 42 44. of. Nouns. English. See in in in Numeral distributive. 43. 101. singular. meaning. conjunction. form. 41. 242. 18. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. pronouns. of. 23. with with with Now Number. 121. 48. 48. preposition. 101. 282. verbs. adjectives. See verb. in article. of. singular. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 285. become syntax use with with with Nouns. adjectives. meanings. 48. 279. in nouns. personal. of. . 278.

inverted. Ourself. Parsing. 306. 56. 117. See pronoun. Elder. See the as of. 38. pronoun. 194. of upon. 69. for. part analysis. adverbs. Our. of. uses numeral pronoun. 41. 56. definite relative uses of. articles. nouns. 116. a in adjectives. as of. 191. Oxen. of of of of of models adjectives. . conjunctions. Older. 279. 64. ours. indefinite possessive One One as Only. as other. 103. 199. adjective. of syntax. 237. 87. Ordinal Other Ought. 103. another. 115.syntax Of. position Order. conjunction. Each adjective. 213. 293. 101. Pains. adverb. One. 325 275. 216. 94. of. Omission On. treatment comparatives. 91. 233. of. 127. with (the). 161. 93 other.

-ing words. . Person. 317. parsed. not is. 63. 172. of. 174. 56. 43. possessive and of. 322. of. 247. used as voice. 287. verbs. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 95. 62. and subject in. 100. 43. absolute with of. 173. 70. included various. 148. Pence. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 172. pennies. 27. verbals. speech. part adjective.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. 281. 180. 59. of. pease. 56. them. 177. from definition other of. of. nominative. with. 61. pronoun. article 150. 28. or of. 134. 59. 62. pronouns. 335. 119. antecedent. pronouns. 69. in. 219. relatives. of. 179. phrase. 59. 80. verbs. 64. 181. of. predicate use of. agreement of verb nouns. reflexive. phrases. of. verb idioms it from.

double. 's. 236. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. See 60. 278. 248. pronoun. 61. 49. noun nouns. 54. of. nouns. 206. singular. English. 53. kinds infinitive. of nouns. Place. simple. 53. of Phrase. 247. 281. 245. it. in of. of. 278. 37. 51. 285. antecedent of of pronouns. 67. 50. as double. 63. participial. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. spoken of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. nouns. 303. 188. 64. Positive Possessive. appositional. 25. 106. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. or See of of See 185. 52. 281. of. of. omitted. syntax of of Politics. 232. plural. complete. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 247. pronoun. Nouns. 303. relative. . Personal subjective. 236. singular degree. 41. adjectives. prepositional. adverbs of. 195. of. vs. 245. Personification. nouns. 235. of. pronouns. of. 241. objects. of. Comparison.objective syntax table triple uses of. 60.

Pronouns. interrogative. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 279. 202.Prefixes. in exclamations. somebody definition how indefinite. meaning. 283. and one with else's. 89. as 54. verbs. 105. 303. 331. of. 300. by parts of of. expressed as other of. 58. after but. of. with tense certain. adjective. 333. parse. 280. usually to as than. interrogative. 64. parse. for predicate nominative. 301. 105. all. case. future. 208. exclamatory. 207. objective. 206. . another. of. 58. 285. 282. as antecedent of relative. by with shown certain of. singular usually other. forms of. 284. plural. plural. possessive nominative to of. who personal. words. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 129. of. what. none. 186. 147. of. objective. 219. 32. 59. neither. same used as adjectives. 287. speech. 203. 205. 302. 299. by. and form form form form of. as. of. 72. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 300. any. 283. Prepositions. 187. plural. 203. of. 93. 332. adverb. 95. 195. 104. 281. each either. 132. case.

87. of. discourse. 84. 85. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. 74. 142. of. pronouns. 87. parse. 293. and antecedent. 296. 286. Questions.possessive relative. 279. Quotations. of. same antecedent. 263. nouns. from and interrogative. of. 83. of. indirect. in. 293. in. 74. and relatives. with with gerund. 289. Quantity. 69. adverbs in. 69. use in as. 289. See of. Direct same and different. who. 68. 297. questions. which. indirect compound. which after same. of. 105. Nouns. 58. of. 101. 80. of. 195. in. pronoun. 99. conjunctions Quality. or of. . and which. Rank. 295. Rather. with who. personal pronoun. agreement anacoluthon and as. of. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 85. 188. 291. 189. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 295. that. use of history formed. unrestrictive. 74. pronominal pronouns indirect. to of.

of. ending.syntax use Result. Simple in sate. 231. 263. Shot. reflexive analysis of compound. complex. 196. and should. tenses. 29. 252. in of. that. of. would. 74. 69. simple of. Sex Shall. 319. clauses of. 196. 170. pronoun. object. 231. kinds Sequence Set. 51. of. who. Self Sentences. which. of sit. 259. 162. Shear. 43. definition . will. 42. in form. 242. of. simple. forms shots. S. gender. elliptical. Same Sat. 40. 255. conjunction. 195. conjunctions Retained Riches. See Sentences. of of of complex Sentences. plural possessive as. 289. 159. Seeing. effect. 26 271. 294. suffix. 159. sentence. 'S.

32. 257. 245. literary clause. 36. disuse in spoken complete. English. used mood. 245. 257. adverb. English. verbs. in feminine suffix. logical. -en. See -En. as. of. 38. 38. -es. 144. English.Singular Sir. 262. 138. 260. 33. of. sort. Split Spoken -Ster. other Such Such Suffix -s. distinguish. 258. 257. for. definition how kinds noun. of. 233.. 323. adverb. 144. definition 67. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 169. Spelling Spinster. 12. 237. Somebody Sort. of. 258. Modern use becoming else's. of. 33. 270. names as a. 303. of. 257. etc. . 126. phonetic in infinitive. 137. Subject. in Middle English. these number. to of. English. of. vs. 186. 258. 240. 303.

they. in Modern number sequence table Than That. plural as adverb. omission whom. not suggesting adjectives. as adverbs. 88. objects. 120. adverbs. classical of. 147. 147. of. as history syntax Their. 309. meaning made up in Old of. 119. object. 147. 186. king. when relative. 289. 191. 297. 107. Tenses. coördinating. auxiliaries. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. two basis not same definition definite. 106. 123. 306. as history The. 277. of. than of. in double. See etc. this. . Then. of. syntax of. 275. form.. English. and and of. which. "the then foreign. restrictive." introductory. 186. 222. 306. when as of. Kind. adjectives. 275. of. 109. of. definition in English Tense. English. that uses That. 189. 116. 152. degree. subject. of. 280. of . of languages. 319. 33. 106. 148. 87. 290.. me.. 307.Suffixes. There These kind. article. in comparison. of. meaning. 108. of. 61.

181. -Trix. 330. 308. 217. of. 248. 247. adverbs those. of. how infinitive. kinds participle. 207. carelessly uses syntax this. feminine and. Utter. try two. words. parse. See On. tother. first adjective. infinitive. verbs. infinitive. etc. 175. conjunctions prepositions To. Time. in of. Thou. 119. 173. 114. 176. 114. 61. 322. of. 172. -ing 111. 21. in omitted uses T'other. 188. 114. other noun. 175. of. preposition. See That. uses of. of. 185. 172. to. Try Two Under. suffix. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. of. used. exclamations. certain as the before with of. uses history of. thy. 195. 128.These. uttermost. from cleft to 174. analysis.. 180. phrases. gerund. of. . thee. 20. Upper. 175. 33. 322. first. Upon. 323.

change. how to parse. 167. but uses what. strong. of. definition of. 154. formed by. 39. 147. 149. 169. 242. auxiliary. retained object with passive. 312. regular. 160. in indirect discourse. remarks on certain. 155. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 167. 150. 236. 148. 157. past tense formed nominative. intransitive. 169. What.Verbs. . Vixen. 320. 317. tense of. 223. of incomplete predication. defective. Vocative in Voice. 154. active meaning. 135. 12. spelling of. 312-316. 130. person and number of. 179. analysis. phonetic. 151. 133. agreement of. of English. definition of. 47. passive. 33. table of irregular. 133. syntax of. weak. 319. passive form. 154. 159. sequence of. becoming irregular. active. conjugation of. table of. of. 129. verbs by. with subject in number. 148. transitive and intransitive. 134. voice of. 330. mood of. made transitive. verbs. 245. definition of. 131. in person.

questions. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 105. questions. direct of. of. in -ly. 83. 85. 79. 126. antecedent adjective. 72. Yes ending analysis. Y. Wife. 295-299. of. Witch. relative. 36. 178. 104. 32. 296. wizard. 75. 78. English. With. . 85. 190.. would. 83. 105. questions. referring syntax Widower. 77. a. uses See Shall. worser. relative. 36. 72. 218. 194. plural of in nouns -ing. 73. 111. Will. Words in Worse. in in indefinite objective. interrogative Which. animals. whereto. 246. questions. 299. conjunction. pronoun.what Whereby. Woman. Who. 40. 85. 72. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. etc. spoken in of. pronoun. Whether. 37. in. relative indirect relative. 75.

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