roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. there is still much for the grammarian to do. their forms. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Surely our noble language. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. The work it will cover. Few inflections. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. with its enormous vocabulary. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. to those who have studied the language historically." and "Syntax. Making rules is risky. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. it will at the same time. Literary English. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). rightly considered. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. Authority as a basis. This will take in the usual divisions.The province of English grammar is. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. as compared with Latin or Greek. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. assist the classification of kindred expressions. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. but this is bad English now. from the question. and their uses and relations in the sentence. Mental training. A broader view. .² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. If. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). if rightly presented. Coming back." What grammar is. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. It is also evident. so that a small grammar will hold them all. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. its peculiar and abundant idioms." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. "Analysis. however. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. as. is worthy of serious study. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. and thus incite his observation. An æsthetic benefit. then.

or standard.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. . NOUNS. The following pages will cover. submission. which belongs to a people. besides this one. PART I. three divisions:² Part I. not objects. The plainest name is Arabs. the nation is free.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. The Uses of Words. as they stand for ideas. Part II. that is. and Inflections. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. In the more simple state of the Arabs. then. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. Occasionally. Part III. The Parts of Speech. and may belong to any of those objects. too. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 1. from the eighteenth century on. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. reference will be made to vulgar English. and the word nation stands for a whole group. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. the words sons and master name objects.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant.²GIBBON. The words state. Such words are called nouns. or Syntax. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. and will are evidently names of a different kind. by which is meant the free. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. but. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. Spoken English. Analysis of Sentences. Vulgar English. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself.

This does not imply. is from a Latin word which means general. as here used. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. 5. representing directly to the mind an object. (b) Common. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. the name of each is an individual or proper name. . animals. Individual. substance. Besides considering persons. 3. or a congress. men in groups may be called a crowd. or a council. ATTRIBUTE. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. We may say. A noun is a name word. or the man in front of you. Thus. Name for a group or collection of objects. or a mob. because each group is considered as a unit. Thus. a committee. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. reducing it to a narrow application. MATERIAL. however. whether person. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. Abstract.Definition. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. but Chicago names one city. Common. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. place. belonging to one. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. and appropriate names to the groups. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. Name for any individual of a class. animals. or thing. we may think of them in groups. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. etc. They properly belong under common nouns. or idea. Classes of nouns. Collective. the man here. (a) 4. and things separately. Proper. For instance. 2. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. possessed by all. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. or things.

celluloid. (3) Geological bodies: mud. and so on." 9. condition. or action. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. etc.²There are some nouns. 6. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. we may say. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. but which are not called proper names. expressing state. rubber. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). such as sun. Again. etc. considered abstractly. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. but in the words sun. Such are glass. sand. paint. rice. we speak of the wisdom of the man. 7. The quality is still there as much as before. iron. but it is taken merely as a name. earth. or that which shows a thing has been proved. stone. rain.. mist. instead of to each individual or separate object." "a man of understanding. potash. Words naturally of limited application not proper." "Learning is hard to acquire. . earth. wheat. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. wine. rock. NOTE. "Painting is a fine art. however. tea. wheat. there is no such intention. not things. expressing attributes or qualities. as in calling a city Cincinnati. When we speak of a wise man. sugar. platinum. clay. etc. frost. granite. snow. dew. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. etc. gold. conditions. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. etc. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. . etc. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. or actions. sugar. It may. They remain common class names. soap. or apart from their natural connection. frost. The reason is. etc. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. etc. world. cloud. and fasten a special name to the object considered.Names for things thought of in mass. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. moon. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. proof means the act of proving. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. Names of ideas.

273). as in the expressions. there is time for such reasonings. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. etc. the moon caused fearful forebodings. the rude drawings of the book. stupidity from stupid. lightning.. 10. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. action from act. in the beginning of his life. 272. Verbal abstract nouns. is used as a noun. hope. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. Caution. day. five proper. (1) prudence from prudent. NOTE. mastery from master. etc. shadow. The verb. the teachings of the High Spirit. hopeful²hope. They cannot govern a word. speech from speak. thunder. Such are beauty. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. They are only the husks of verbs." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. summer. redness from red. those opinions and feelings. and they cannot express action. Underived abstract nouns. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. Thus. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. ease. winter. "a long run" "a bold move. etc. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. (2) peerage from peer. To avoid difficulty. but are merely names of actions. 1. as glad²joy. five abstract. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. the well-being of her subjects. theft from thieve. night. by altering its function. childhood from child. II. kingship from king. the great Puritan awakening. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. joy. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. the main bearings of this matter.Attribute abstract nouns. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. etc. service from serve. Exercises. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. height from high." "a brisk walk. he spread his blessings over the land. her longing for their favor. 12.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. . a wedding or a festival. energy. as their name implies.

algebra. diphtheria. Using a dictionary. typhus. geology. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . as pneumonia. (b) branches of knowledge. mathematics? 3. as physics.2. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. catarrh. pleurisy.

in Portugal. and lo! a new system. levant and morocco (leather). arras. damask. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. as a davy. it imposes its classification on other men. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. from a town in France. but most of them are in the following groups. a Fourier. Material nouns may be used as class names. 13. etc. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. 14. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. Nouns change by use. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. from Damascus. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. the word port. a Hutton.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. above. Proper names transferred to common use. for example. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. from the name of Dr. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. Guillotin. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. a Locke. a Bentham. but we may say. currants. from China. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. or to go over to it entirely. the guillotine. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. "The cook made the irons hot." referring to flat- . 119). Sodom was famous for wickedness. 15. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. from Calicut.²EMERSON. port (wine).² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. from Corinth. Others of similar character are calico. We know a number of objects made of iron. a Lavoisier. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. who was its inventor. thus. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. from Oporto.

or used as class nouns. When it is said that art differs from science. but on dispositions which require to be created.²HAYNE. papers. Traffic has lain down to rest. A halfway class of words. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. a steel to whet a knife on. 16. 17. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. and only Vice and Misery. be spoken of. a rubber for erasing marks. which are made plural.In lightnings owned his secret stings. abstract in meaning.irons. Class nouns in use. clouds. purity. that disposition is the thing to be created. etc. They are not then pure abstract nouns. The words preceded by the article a.²BRYANT. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. are still names of abstract ideas.²PERCIVAL.²BYRON. Test this in the following sentences:² . For example. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. (3) By poetical use. are abroad. oils. mists. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. on fire. but differ in strength. paints. Next Anger rushed. Death. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. as stones. These are the same in material. From all around²Earth and her waters. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. nor are they common class nouns. though not confined to verse. This is a poetic usage. and say teas. etc. smiled. but in case an art or a science. his eyes. candies.²RUSKIN. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. or. clays. to prowl or to moan like night birds. that is. tobaccos. or the arts and sciences. and so on. or made plural. that the power of art is founded on fact.²COLLINS. the abstract idea is partly lost. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. Personification of abstract ideas. tins. slates.²CARLYLE. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. not material things. coals.

were mere terrors of the night. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. All these. if we must have great actions. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. as each repeated pleasure tired. they do not express quality. Nouns used as descriptive terms. But ah! those pleasures. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. as descriptive adjectives are.²IRVING." "a New York bank." "a morning walk.² GOLDSMITH.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. Conjunctions. sir?" and the "No. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. NOTE. 19. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. Every why hath a wherefore." "the State Bank Tax bill. a bank in New York. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. loves." which contains a pure adjective. the wealthy. Adverbs. however.²EMERSON. Adjectives. but is still a noun. Then comes the "Why.² BURNS. or from any expression. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen.Let us. they cannot be compared." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. meaning a walk in the morning. make our own so. And still. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. sir!" and the "What then. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. or describe it. which belongs to another word.²SHAKESPEARE. "a family quarrel. fear thy blow. When I was young? Ah.²SHAKESPEARE. for example. But it is better to consider them as nouns. a bill as to tax on the banks. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. 18. They are more like the possessive noun. By ellipses. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great.²BURNS. nouns used to modify. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. sir!"²MACAULAY . etc.The Solitary can despise.

also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. It is to be remembered. 1. too. Power laid his rod aside. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. in a sentence above. to such words as become pure nouns by use." or "legal. NOTE. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage.. 5. are spoken of as if pure nouns." and another of Dr. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. 7. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. of course."²B.Nor iron bars a cage. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. When. are used. so. 8. but have an adjectival meaning. the terms the great. that cobweb of the brain. Caution. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. etc. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. in speaking of the principal of a school. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. and tell to which class each belongs. 4. or a criminal." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. FRANKLIN.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. Learning. but as a figure of speech. . of words rather than of their meaning. 6. Now. The it. or a state secret. without reference to its function in the sentence. is the word "just. Stone walls do not a prison make.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. There are many of these. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. at the beginning. why and wherefore. is ambiguous.²These remarks do not apply. and Then. 2. 20. whether it mean the sun or the cold. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. or a faithful domestic. In the other sentences. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. the wealthy. 3. When. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. however. Exercise. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named.

All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 12. 15. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. And see. A fool speaks all his mind. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 19. What gender means in English. always masculine. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. the silver moon is gone. 16. There are exceptions even to this general statement. Male beings are. 10. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 21. Greek.9. for every dropHinders needle and thread. 23. A little weeping would ease my heart. 21. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. in English grammar.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 20. The fleet. its bloom is shed. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much.You seize the flower. It is founded on sex. 18. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. always feminine. 17. 13. and many other languages. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. GENDER. German. 22. he cried. In Latin. 24. 14. shattered and disabled.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. that waits you here. 11. and names of females are usually feminine. The hours glide by. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands.Fair guests. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. . the welcome. returned to Spain. female. but not so in English.

but are spoken of as neuter. der Tisch (table) is masculine. those which do not distinguish sex. 23. 24. according to their use. das Messer (knife) is neuter. inanimate things are spoken of. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. with its gizzard under its wing. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. in German..When. The great difference is. that pattern of a husband. however. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. "A little child shall lead them. clapping his burnished wings. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. in English. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. came to a stand just by the bridge. the sex being of no consequence.. No "common gender. those with which man comes in contact often. if there were any signs of life in it. are named by gender nouns... Other animals are not distinguished as to sex.²LAMB. then. Gender nouns.² IRVING. . according to use. Thus. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. or which arouse his interest most. corpus (body) is neuter. or names of things without life.. in other languages gender follows the form." .. For instance: in Latin. 22. and neuter nouns. the word child is neuter in the sentence. All nouns.²IRVING. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell.²masculine and feminine. the name of it is masculine. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. and consequently without sex. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects.²gender nouns." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. must be divided into two principal classes. if of the female sex. those distinguishing the sex of the object. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. mensa (table) is feminine. Gunpowder . He next stooped down to feel the pig. hortus (garden) is masculine. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. Hence: Definition. Of animals.² I have seenA curious child . the name of it is feminine. or additions to words. that is. Neuter nouns.

for from they said vram. domestic. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Gender shown by Suffixes. woman. cousin. Put in convenient form. I. (3) By using a different word for each gender. Native suffixes. 26. Very few of class I. of course. Hence vixen is for fyxen. though both words have lost their original meanings. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. . or the lack of it.. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. The inflections for gender belong. 28. the division of words according to sex. 27. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. teacher. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. generally to a masculine word. only to masculine and feminine nouns. For fox they said vox.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. is. These remain in vixen and spinster. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. Male nouns beings. Gender shown by Prefixes. puts a prefix before the masculine man. etc. (2) By adding a suffix. as in wine vat. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English.25. ruler. from the masculine fox. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. but spinster has now no connection with it. 29. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. If such words as parent. One feminine.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. According to the definition. servant. II. relative. and for the older word fat they said vat. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. he-bear²she-bear. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. as he-goat²she-goat. they are neuter words.

The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. song-str-ess. punster.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. 30. as. as. but in most cases it has not. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. Slightly changed and widely used. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. Unaltered and little used. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. executrix. These are attached to foreign words. and are never used for words recognized as English. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. Low Latin issa). as seam-stress. trickster. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. Ending of masculine not changed. it has none now in the words huckster. donna. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . -ess (French esse. gamester. señorita. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. the one most used. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. as czarina.

the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. others have in their origin the same root. editor. Some of them have an interesting history. teacher or lady teacher. frendesse. NOTE. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. from Latin imperatricem.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. we use the feminine. chairman. or servauntesse. from the French -esse. 32. as. Gender shown by Different Words. as was said in the sixteenth century. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. etc. In some of these pairs. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. wagoness. as in the fourteenth century. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. Instead of saying doctress. 31. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. neighbor (masculine and feminine). to represent persons of either sex.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). the ending -ess. Thus. we use the masculine termination. teacheresse." III. neighboresse. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Ending -ess less used now than formerly. fosteress. We frequently use such words as author. as.

or lauerd in Middle English. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. etc. widuwa²widuwe. though both are ultimately from the same root. Danish gaas. Personification. not immediately connected with witch. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. became identical. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. gand-ra. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king).² . the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. for example. The older forms. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. the old sign of the masculine. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. leaving our word drake. among others) to be from the same root word. probably meaning house dweller). The masculine was formed by adding -a. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). Three letters of ened have fallen away. in Old English mere. from Latin mea domina.). had the masculine mearh (horse). Besides gander and drake. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Two masculines from feminines. Madam is the French ma dame. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. It is not connected historically with our word duck. finally gander. lhauerd. 33. 16).y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). 34. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. but this has long been obsolete. Mare. Widower. as in many other words. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. written loverd. Icelandic gás. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Witch is the Old English wicce.

The -en inflection.²COLERIDGE. (2) By changing the root vowel. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. for instance. The first two methods prevailed.²singular and plural. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. In nouns. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England.No towers along the steep.Her home is on the deep."Now. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. 35. Definition. 36. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. I. Our language has two numbers.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. the engineer speaks so of his engine.²CAMPBELL. treen (trees). etc. 38. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible."²BYRON. and not by the form of the noun. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. Effect of personification. This is not exclusively a poetic use. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. . together with the third. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. more than one. Britannia needs no bulwarks. But other words were inflected afterwards. NUMBER.²KEATS. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. 39. (3) By adding -s (or -es). the plural. that is. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. in Old English. whenever we adopt a new word. shoon (shoes). eyen (eyes). 37.

head. Kine is another double plural.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. pair. Children has passed through the same history. etc. Other words following the same usage are. Examples of this inflection are.²THOREAU. that have the singular and plural alike. Instead of -s. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. etc. retain the same form for plural meaning. etc. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. after all. Akin to this class are some words."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. swine. such as deer. but they now add the ending -s. sheep. but has now no singular. II. by. The old plural was brothru. quartz.Horse and foot. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. wight. turf. as. people. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es.²WHITTIER.²Over the mountains winding down. and is still found in dialects.The horse are thousands ten.² "God bless me! so then. ditch. sail. when they mean soldiery. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. The words horse and foot. cannon. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. 41. and get settled. finally brethren.² The foot are fourscore thousand. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. Lee marched over the mountain wall. III. into Frederick town. or if preceded by the prepositions in. Such are box. . they add -s): also trout. lens. heathen. Brethren has passed through three stages. originally neuter. brace. salmon. folk. borough²formerly had the same inflection. then brothre or brethre. 40. as.-En inflection imitated by other words. cross. glass. after numerals (if not after numerals. 42. dozen.²MACAULAY.

physics. they lose their identity.²PROF. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. the Washingtons. summons.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. is both the science and the art of government. Formerly. mathematics. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). house²houses. negro²negroes. also news. When such words take a plural ending. as. molasses. etc. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. economics. some adding -s. Special Lists. So live.-Es added in certain cases. Two words. though they are plural in form.g. Means plural. chaise²chaises. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. hero²heroes. knife²knives. etc. daisies. a new syllable is made. etc. 15 and 17). The lilie on hir stalke grene. etc. 45.² Politics. however. and go over to other classes (Secs. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. optics. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. though this sound combines readily with -s. politics. Some words are usually singular. shelf²shelves. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. half²halves. these words ended in -ie. e. and many branches of learning. fairies. means: as.. and some -es. 44. fancies. allies. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . It served simply as a means of sight. DANA. pains (care). prize²prizes. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. niche²niches. and the real ending is therefore -s. in its widest extent. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. volcano² volcanoes. 43.. the Americas. race²races.²BRYANT. Words in -ies. Examples of these are. means and politics.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. quoth then that ladie milde.g. e. Proper nouns are regularly singular. that when thy summons comes.

Sometimes. W. however. Besides this. Now I read all the politics that come out. by those means which we have already mentioned.²G. CURTIS. Politics plural.² MACAULAY. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns.²MOTLEY. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.²IRVING. it is furnished with a forceps. by strongly conveying the passions. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. With great dexterity these means were now applied. By these means. A relic which. if I recollect right. 46. he pronounced to have been a tongs. L. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.Words. .²GOLDSMITH.²J.²GOLDSMITH. riches will accumulate. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words.²BURKE. LAUGHLIN.²GOLDSMITH. Some words have no corresponding singular. I say.

ways. or work in a bellows?²PROF.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. or copies.The air.²was it subdued when. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. making a double plural. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. shot²shot (collective balls). What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. eaves.. 48.. sixpence. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. . genius²geniuses (men of genius). 49. twopence.²POPE. the other unlike it.²one corresponding to the singular. fishes (individuals or kinds). y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. for the numbers came.²LONGFELLOW. Numbers also means issues. 50. (2) poetry. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). pea²peas (separately). brethren (of a society or church). two meanings. clothes (garments). two plurals. as two sixpences. Tell me not. In speaking of coins. riches. part²parts: (1) divisions. as in the lines. These make the last part plural. Two classes of compound words. shots (number of times fired). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. indices (signs in algebra). genii (spirits). One plural.).. trouble. pease (collectively). number²numbers: (1) figures. DANA. faculties. (2) care. in mournful numbers. index²indexes (to books). (2) abilities. etc.² I lisped in numbers. or epistles. In Early Modern English thank is found. dice (for gaming). etc. fish²fish (collectively). carry off chaff. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. (2) revenue duties. pence (collectively). of a periodical. die²dies (stamps for coins. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). Three words were originally singular. penny²pennies (separately). may add -s. (2) literature.

there is some disagreement among English writers. Brown. Two methods in use for names with titles. woman singer. but add -s. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. the Misses Rich. as man singer. Brahman.²DR. Allen. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. and Mrs. HOLMES. firman. 51. The title may be plural. The chief member adds -s in the plural. German. As to plurals of names with titles.² Then came Mr. as the Messrs. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. for example. then Silas Peckham. woman servant. manservant. 52. though the latter is often found. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Briggs. Norman. . the Drs. such as talisman. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. or the name may be pluralized. Mussulman. Ottoman.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man.

FROM THE GREEK. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. These are said to be domesticated. 53. They are then said to be naturalized. y y analysis antithesis . Others have been adopted. or Anglicized. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. and retain their foreign plurals. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.²GIBBON. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.²GOLDSMITH. Exercise. FROM THE LATIN. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II.²DICKENS. Du Maurier. or Englished. Domesticated words. The domesticated words may retain the original plural.²THE CRITIC. The Messrs. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh.

" "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). Words quoted merely as words. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. as. without reference to their meaning. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. cell has another relation. Letters." the word felon's modifies cell.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. etc." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). figures. In the general wearing-away of inflections. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. and expresses a relation akin to possession. When the foreign words are fully naturalized." CASE. also add -s or 's. they form their plurals in the regular way. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. 54. 55. figures. 56. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. In the sentence. as. .y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words.. etc. Only two case forms. Definition.

they returned to their homes. then. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words.²nature. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. 4." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. completing a verb. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. whether inflected or not.²person. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. Human experience is the great test of truth. and the possessive. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. 2. 1. may be said to have three cases. 57. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. and experience. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen.²the nominative. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. . learning. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. I." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Nouns.²one for the nominative and objective.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Three properties belong to wisdom. must be understood for purposes of analysis. fate. excessive grief." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. the objective. 5. the enemy of the living." (2) As a predicate noun. when asked unawares. 3. three things characterize man. and merit. Uses of the Nominative. Excuses are clothes which. 58.

Set a high price on your leisure moments. 4. 59. Uses of the Objective. taking the object enemies. reconciles. distance. 2." "Cowards die many times before their deaths." "Thou makest the storm a calm. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. 9. thy wrath can send. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. But the flood came howling one day. good Heaven." (3) Adverbially. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. taking the object storm. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. as will be seen in Sec. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. They charged. and makest a calm. But of all plagues. etc. the word toward which the preposition points. save. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. completing the verb. Conscience. (5) As the object of a preposition." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. how have I frighted thee? II. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. and landlord of the inn. (in the older stages of the language. measure. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. a patriarch of the village." (4) As the second object. . oh save me from the candid friend! 7. 8.Save. her first law broken.6. and being equivalent to one verb. 3." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. 68. they are sands of precious gold. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. sword in hand and visor down. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. wounded lies. and tell which use each has:² 1." Exercise. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. and meaning calmest.

The possessive case always modifies another word. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive.²HAWTHORNE. as in these expressions.Does his Creator's power display.² The unwearied sun. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. 6. and forfeits paid. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. from day to day.²SHELLEY. III.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. 60. Uses of the Possessive. The noblest mind the best contentment has.And gave the leper to eat and drink. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. expressed or understood. the Great Stone Face. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. tempests that . Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.²ADDISON. 8. 7. (3) Subjective possessive.e.His winter task a pastime made. And whirling plate.. 10. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. 9. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.²BYRON. (2) Objective possessive. the most common of all. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. as shown in the sentences. Possession in some sense is the most common. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. It is a poetic expression.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. or in writing yesterday's elegy. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. 61. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective.5. as.

. A false theory. child NOTE. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. 64." "at his beddes syde. and Obj.. How the possessive is formed. 62. there are only two case forms.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses).e. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. To form the possessive plural. Declension or inflection of nouns.winter is likely to have). the panther which the forest hides). As said before (Sec. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s.e. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. The use of the apostrophe. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. 63. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es." Use of the apostrophe. One is the simple form of a word. "George Jones his book." etc. growth which several days had developed). as schoolboys sometimes write. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. A suggestion. 62. Poss. Nom. 56)." "mannes herte [heart]. and Obj. "From every schires ende. lady Poss. Case Inflection. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. Nom. making the possessive singular. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2.. PLURAL. in Chaucer." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. however. 1. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe.

but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. my neighbors. 66. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. James's. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence..²CARLYLE. and she walked off from the don's. as. a word with a phrase.Though this opinion was untrue. the poor miner Hans Luther's son."²DE QUINCEY. Cervantes' satirical work. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. Captain Scrapegrace's. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. in the name of the emperor their master. as by the countess's command. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost.²THACKERAY.² LOWELL. but to the ear all may be alike." "A postscript is added. the possessive sign is usually last. instead of the emperor their master's name. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. etc. store.²HOLMES." Possessive with compound expressions. some such word as house. containing words in apposition. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. . I remember him in his cradle at St. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. In compound expressions.²SWIFT. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. stands up for God's truth one man.. for goodness' sake. know the amount of my income. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. church. Possessive and no noun limited. and from a desire to have distinct forms. etc. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows.²RUSKIN. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. 65. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. Peter's." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. as. being understood with it: for example. the items of my son's. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. dwelling. 67. Kate saw that. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign.²DE QUINCEY.

the sentence might be understood as just explained. no. this. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. For example. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. 68. the statement clearly means only one thing.. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. Exercises. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. 1. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. (See also Sec.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. objective. A peculiar form. a double possessive.²E. etc.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark.²FROUDE. as one modifier. or subjective. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. that.²the introduction which Atterbury made. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . HALE. Clearness. sometimes they are used together. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. the. however. we use the phrase of Atterbury. 2. each. and at the same time by a possessive noun. ill-lighted except where she stands. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. In most cases. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. especially when used with this or that. Emphasis. Both of these are now used side by side. corresponding to 's. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury.The double possessive. (3) It prevents ambiguity. every. 87. (1) When a word is modified by a. If. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. in such a sentence as. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. any. making a double possessive. and tell whether each is appositional. (b) Rewrite the sentence. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. E. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. Blair). "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive.²CARLYLE.

let him seasonably water the one. 70. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen.3. 10. with every garland crowned. 15. In parsing. 12. 8. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. Hence. therefore. we state. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. Jove laughs. and destroy the other.Comes dancing from the East. day's harbinger. 11.² .A weary waste expanding to the skies. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 13. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 6. in parsing a noun. 9. 14. it seemed. 7. 4. I must not see thee Osman's bride. There Shakespeare's self. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. Nature herself. 69. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. 5. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. Now the bright morning star. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. At lovers' perjuries. some idioms²the double possessive.They say. Friend.

the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. but is the adverbial objective. 3. hence it is a gender noun. it expresses possession or ownership. 71. hence it is objective case. subject of the verb is understood. inflections.(1) The class to which it belongs. and relations. Throat is neuter. hence it is a common noun.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. MODEL FOR PARSING. it is the name of a male being. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. etc. and limits neckcloth. it has no sex. The correct method. therefore neuter. determining its case. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. names one thing. it denotes only one person. 4. therefore possessive case. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. has no governing word. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. Thief is a common class noun. 2. (4) Its office in the sentence. and to have it found out by accident. NOTE. . which gender. a withered serving man. as to case. (3) Whether singular or plural number. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. therefore masculine gender. In parsing any word. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. gender. Exercise. Neckcloth. proper. it expresses time. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. singular number. hence objective case. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. is a common class noun. That in the captain's but a choleric word. it is the object of the preposition by. therefore singular number. therefore singular number. like miller's. if the latter.²common. object of the verb takes. and number. a fresh tapster. and therefore nominative case. the connection shows a male is meant. masculine. 68). An old cloak makes a new jerkin.

"The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. Necker.. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. or for a group of persons or things. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. Jarley's back being towards him. Time makes the worst enemies friends. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. and prison. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. 11. Definition.. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. For instance. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. (2) Interrogative pronouns. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. 72. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. where the Rhone enters the lake. were natives of Geneva. A few miles from this point. A pronoun is a reference word. instead of saying. Now. financial minister to Louis XVI. castle. 73. 8. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. from a necessity for short. Madame de Staël." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. He giveth his beloved sleep. PRONOUNS.. 7. or for a person or thing. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. The need of pronouns. but by a question we say. and representative words. Classes of pronouns. all in one. 10. 9. blessings light on him that first invented . if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. 76). definite. standing for a name. . and his daughter.5.And hated her for her pride. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name.²palace. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. sleep! 6. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. Mrs." Again. the military gentleman shook his forefinger.

From analogy to pronouns. This gives rise to a new term. even if it had a special form. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. ours . that is. I Poss. they must represent the person talking. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. which relate or refer to a noun. (3) Third person. which cannot be used as adjectives. they are said to have person by agreement.. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. representing the person speaking. Person in grammar. 77. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. we our. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. my Plural. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. mine. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. (2) Second person. Singular. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. 74. the person or thing spoken to. as nouns have the same form. and the person or thing talked about. or other word or expression." Person of nouns. primarily adjectives. (5) Indefinite pronouns. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. words. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. pronoun. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. 76. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Three persons of pronouns. which have forms for person. standing for a person or thing spoken of. (4) Adjective pronouns. 75.(3) Relative pronouns. "the distinction of person. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. representing a person or thing spoken to. Nom.

it its it Poss. so also with the person or thing spoken to. yours Poss. she her. neuter hit. yours you Plural. SECOND PERSON. and also for the neuter. Nom. Masc. Old Form Common Form. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. . in the singular. Nom. Old forms. hers her Plur. he his him Fem. namely. First and second persons without gender. Poss. 78. your. neuter.Obj. of all Three. thy Remarks on These Forms. theirs them Neut. me us Singular. Third person singular has gender. thou thee ye you you your. masculine h . Obj. Singular. by personification. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. The speaker may be either male or female. or. you your. thine. Nom. they their. yours you THIRD PERSON. But the third person has. Nom. Obj. Obj.. Poss. Obj. feminine h o. a separate form for each gender.

perhaps being from the English demonstrative. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). the Old English objective was hem (or heom). heora. etc. thy. There are. in Old English. 79. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. etc.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. We use it with a plural verb always. (2) In addressing the Deity. it.Thou lovest.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. heom. them.. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. The plurals were h . the forms they. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England.²BEECHER. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. 82.²SHELLEY. even when referring to a single object. as in prayers. thou Shepherd of Israel. for example. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them." As shown above. as. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. that didst comfort thy people of old. especially in poetry. and sometimes its. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. thee. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. .:² (1) In elevated style. however. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. The form its. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. 80. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century.. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. Thou. as possessive of it.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. which is a neuter noun. Two uses of the old singulars. etc. which was often sounded with the h silent.² Oh. The consequence is. to thy care we commit the helpless.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. just as we now say. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. Second person always plural in ordinary English. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. This is of comparatively recent growth. 81. their. In spoken English. two modern uses of thou.

²LANDOR. Old use of mine and thine. she. note the following:² 'Twas mine. some say. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. its. 34). 58). her. I spare thee mine. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. when they occur in the predicate position. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. and not make more classes. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. and follow the usage of literary English. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.²BULWER. 85. And since thou own'st that praise. theirs. us. though ye is occasionally used as objective. The forms my." the literary language would require he after was. That is. in such a sentence as. 'tis his. ²SHAKESPEARE. him. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. ye. 83. thou. have a peculiar use. 84 are always subjects. me. their. our. thine. them. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. or. In spoken English. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. The words I. The Possessive. II. us. sometimes his and its. hers. 86. Nominative forms. 84. Absolute personal pronouns. and sometimes in ordinary speech. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. The forms mine. they have a nominative form. however. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. "I am sure it was him. for. Additional nominatives in spoken English. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. we.Use of the pronouns in personification. them. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. thy. her. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. I The Nominative. her. him. to personify objects (Sec. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. Not a separate class. and has been slave to thousands. they. he. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. . his.²COWPER. your. Yet careful speakers avoid this. yours. though those named in Sec. besides a nominative use.

This usage is still preserved in poetry.²ID. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. ²HOLMES. Double and triple possessives. pluck it out. yours. .²J. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. ours. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. theirs. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. we have. Besides this. Long Allen. are really double possessives. "Hold thy peace.²THACKERAY. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes.²SWIFT.² CARLYLE. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. and with mine. COOPER. Give every man thine ear. as in nouns. Like the noun possessives. but few thy voice.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE.²J. we find. anger. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. thine. (4) To make a noun less limited in application."²SCOTT. thus. FIELDS. or satire. 87. thus. in that old Edinburgh house of his.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master." said Henry Woodstall.²ID.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham.²THACKERAY. sometimes its. it tells of good old times. his.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. (2) To bring emphasis. for example. yours. The forms hers. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. ours. theirs. This ancient silver bowl of mine. T. Their uses.²BIBLE.²CARLYLE. hers. If thine eye offend thee. (3) To express contempt. F. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. commenting upon a letter of mine.

in the first sentence. In their function. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. The old dative case. for whose benefit. In pronouns. but the form is the same as the objective. In Old English there was one case which survives in use.²ID. and mine in the second has an objective use. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. this dative use. 88. or use in a sentence. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. Both joined in making him a present.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. 86: mine stands for my property. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. In such sentences as." "None but the brave deserves the fair. Now the objective. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. "The good alone are great. but expresses for whom." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. was marked by a separate case.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. . the thing is done.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. as shown in Sec. But the first two have a nominative use. 20. Besides this use of the objective. III. but not in form. as it is called. 90. They all handled it." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force.²BIBLE. Curse me this people. but nominative or objective in use. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. 89. mine stands for my praise in the second. The Objective. his for his property.

She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. as in the sentences. was passed by with indulgence. Your mere puny stripling. which follows the verb. you must condense there. Indefinite use of you and your. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. and they cry. as. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. or to the idea. 92. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. which prick and scratch because they can do no other.²D.²BULWER. why. has not made its progress.²DE QUINCEY. to stand for the real.² NEWMAN. like Chinese skill.²ADDISON. (3) In apposition. WEBSTER." (3) As a grammatical subject. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. as. or that he has not a great deal more.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. It is a pity that he has so much learning. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.² . 91.²CARLYLE. thus. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.²BACON. Society.²EMERSON. you sneeze.²IRVING To empty here.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. in this century. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.Time is behind them and before them. ²EMERSON. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. logical subject. The word you.

"²IRVING. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. yourself. as. For example. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. Of the two forms in parentheses. have laid them downIn their last sleep. who teams it. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self." "He bought him a horse." etc. farms it.²BRYANT. This occurs in poetry. It was late and after midnight. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. we use such expressions as. Poor Christian was hard put to it." and there is an end of it. himself.²IRVING.²ANON. they dropped their arms. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. itself. that is. "I found me a good book. the second is the old form of the second person. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. when they are direct objects. 94. 93.²DE QUINCEY.²BURNS. as they are also called.. who in turn tries all the professions. however.²COLERIDGE. used in poetry. peddles it.It is finger-cold. (thyself). herself. There was nothing for it but to return. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. (ourself). referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.²HAWTHORNE. since firstThe flight of years began. They are myself. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. For when it dawned. themselves. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. yourselves. keeps a school. I made up my mind to foot it. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²BUNYAN.²SCOTT. -selves.²ID. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it.²EMERSON. . but seldom in prose. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. I set me down and sigh. A sturdy lad . it rained.² Now I lay me down to sleep. And when I awoke. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. ourselves. And millions in those solitudes.²HOLMES..²THOREAU. and its plural selves. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns.

I shrink with pain. as.²MILTON. Origin of these reflexives.²WORDSWORTH. theself.²SHAKESPEARE. As if it were thyself that's here. etc.As girls were once. shall dissolve. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.² TENNYSON. were changed into the possessive myself. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. especially in the speech of rulers. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. for example. Held dead within them till myself shall die. Use of the reflexives.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. NOTE. thyself. ourselves. as we ourself have been. not the possessive forms. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. to us.To you yourself. and the others were formed by analogy with these. to every one.² The great globe itself .² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. The question might arise. and build the lofty rhyme. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before.²ID. 96.²E. as. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. B. with self. Threats to all. 95.² . and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. for example.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.. In Middle English the forms meself.. after the analogy of myself. BROWNING. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.²EMERSON. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. as in vulgar English. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.

For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. One obsolete. but it is the soonest spoiled. feminine. 97. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 9. and what.²B. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. 7. 10. To know what is best to do. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. father. which. and how to do it. 5. . The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). where the word is one with that it tells of. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. is wisdom. and neuter. Infancy conforms to nobody. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. 4. some of them being double possessives. Biscuit is about the best thing I know.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. 2. Come and trip it as we go. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. Three now in use. all conform to it. And it grew wondrous cold. let him lowly confess it. 8. Years ago. Exercises on Personal Pronouns.²DE QUINCEY. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. fight it out. 6. Courage.On the light fantastic toe. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. some each of masculine. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. FRANKLIN. 3.² THACKERAY.

but for case alone. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. it refers to either persons or things. 98. These show that what is not inflected for case. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. The use of who. actions. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. ideas. it is always third person. that it is always singular and neuter. number. referring to things. but now obsolete. not to persons. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only.There is an old word.Promised. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. which is not inflected for gender.. whether. the gold. Use of which. Whose was that gentle voice. shall we say. with its possessive and objective. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. . that is. 100. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. methought. that. etc. What wouldst thou do. whispering sweet. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. or case. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. as it always asks about somebody. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. having three forms. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. Which of you. Use of what. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. As shown here. that it is not inflected for gender or number. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. used formerly to mean which of two. Use of who and its forms. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. it is selective. 99.

101. It usually precedes the pronoun. Further treatment of who. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. it may be shortened into. AND PLUR. 99. and what are also relative pronouns. Thus we may say. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. For instance. who evidently refers to Bards. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. which and what. SINGULAR Nom. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. subject of doth love. whose? Obj. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. pronoun. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. which is called the antecedent of the relative.²by the use of the words. and also in having a conjunctive use. what may be an adverb in some expressions. 103. Function of the relative pronoun. AND PLUR. SING. who is used as objective instead of whom. which. nominative in the second also. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. as. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. 104. for which the pronoun stands. as they take the place usually of a word already used. 105. 102.Who sung of Border chivalry.² . or other word or expression. 127). Who. being the direct object of the verb shall take. who? Poss. The antecedent. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. which is nominative in the first sentence.² "The last of all the Bards was he." Or. as. objective in the last. These bards sang of Border chivalry. which and what are sometimes adjectives. since it is subject of the verb had. "The last of all the Bards was he. and so to make smoother discourse." In the latter sentence. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. in Sec. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent.

4. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. 3. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. D. The nurse came to us. Generally speaking. 3. which.²MILTON. a simple relative is meant.² COX. Indefinite relatives.²DR JOHNSON.. They had not their own luster.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. but the look which is not of the earth. Who and its forms. 4..²W. will be discussed further on. The origin of language is divine. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.²THACKERAY. a thousand years. When the word relative is used. what. . is a divine creation.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. 2.. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. 108. 106. 6. Two kinds. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. the women whom women approve. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. 107. are the men and women who bless their species. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. WHITNEY.Whose flag has braved. 2. that. both his and who have the antecedent priest. The men whom men respect. 5. For her enchanting son.²SCOTT. Ye mariners of England.²LOWELL In this.²PARTON Which and its forms.That guard our native seas. with all its capabilities . in the same sense in which man's nature. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.Whom universal nature did lament. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE.²BYRON.

you will not be angry with me for telling you.²H.²MARGARET FULLER. Already done is all that he would do. 3. The man that hath no music in himself. Who. Reader.. ought to be kept in view. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.²DE QUINCEY.²BURKE. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to..²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. 107.. The judge .²IRVING. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. For what he sought below is passed above. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. BEECHER 5.²GOLDSMITH.²EMERSON. and spoils.. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . no bad type of what often happens in that country.5.² SHAKESPEARE 2.. 110. stratagems.Is fit for treasons. Examples of the relative that:² 1. which it certainly is not. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.. That. 111.. 2. else this description will seem exaggerated.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. W. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. (a) This gradation . Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. The Tree Igdrasil. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. bought up all the pigs that could be had.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. 6. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. 109.²LAMB 3. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. What. 4.

son. who is first person. and others. 2.who. whom.²who. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. Witness the following examples:² And you.whose. The little gorilla. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. 113. that man.²SWIFT. and 6. and 3. in 5.. The robins. seemed as much excited as myself. whose for the possessive. In sentence 4.²IRVING. (4) It has two case forms. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Scott. Gibbon. 107. things. .²DR.. whose. Sec. in the second. The sentences in Sec. 96). Who referring to animals. whose is second person. in the first sentence. possessive case of which. It has been seen (Sec. In 1. they are plural. whom. Cooper. Which.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. who. a man.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. My horse. whose wound I had dressed. referring to animals.²LOWELL. or ideas. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Kingsley...²THACKERAY. Examples of whose. JOHNSON. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo.²LEIGH HUNT. not persons. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature.. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.. p. the others are all third person. flung its arms around my neck. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. in 4. and so on.²which for the nominative and objective. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. 112. Smollett. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. (3) It is nearly always third person. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. 5. the relatives are singular. in the third. (2) It has three case forms. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent.

in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. and numerous others.²first. too. 116. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. Kingsley. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example.114. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. Sometimes. This often occurs. (3) It is the same form for first. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. The last two sentences in Sec. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. That."²RUSKIN. second. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. the antecedent follows which.²THACKERAY. let us enter the church itself.²RUSKIN. Primarily. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. which is very notable and curious. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. Which and its antecedents. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. and third persons.² And. secondly (which made her stare). whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens.²SHAKESPEARE. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. which is worse. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. Burke. Men may be ready to fight to the death. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. animals.² MCMASTER. So in Matthew Arnold. . I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. This moribund '61. 109. In the sentences of Sec. no possessive. and to persecute without pity.²BEECHER.²DE QUINCEY.²SCOTT. 115. thus. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent.² I swept the horizon. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. and things. (2) It has only one case form.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain.

What a man does.² What I would. consequently is neuter." Since the relatives hold the sentence together.²BIBLE What fates impose. and person of the relatives who. Who plainly stands for those or the people." That evidently refers to truths." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. number. 118." (3) "These people heard him. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. third person.²EMERSON. is always neuter. The gender. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. For example. 117. and is emphatic. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. whose Obj. but what I hate. 119. 109. we can.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. as in sentence 6. that he has.²SHAKESPEARE. as. plural number. Nom. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. that do I. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. Sec. it usually follows. plural number. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. that do I not. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. The sentences of Sec. which. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. for example. . third person. either of which would be neuter. who Poss. that men must needs abide. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. When expressed. by taking them out. What. what we said?²CARLYLE. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed.

it is subject of the verb heard. I think they are trying to outwit nature. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. third person. above. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. In (2). is what we call nature. so is in the objective case. The whole expression is its subject. In the sentence. etc. What can't be cured. Some prefer another method of treatment. 6. As shown by the following sentences. it is object of uttered. but of this. 7. which is. in (3). Parsing what. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. The relative what is handled differently. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences.. Truths in sentence (2). that takes the case of the truths in (2). Another way. 8. is in the nominative case. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. and what is the direct object of the verb call. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. subject of heard. who is sure to be cunninger than they. the highest result of all education. 5. people is the object of the preposition of. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. however. "What can't be cured must be endured. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. What must be endured? Answer. The word what. First find the antecedents. after all. standing for the people understood. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. In the same way who. is subject of the verb can't be cured. because it has usually no antecedent. the simple relative.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. in (1). but is singular. nobler souls with that which they are. . This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. neuter. Now. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. 4. we is the subject. is subject of wrought upon and molded. and hence is in the nominative case. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. 120. 3." Here the subject of is. Exercise. in the following sentences:² 1."²EMERSON. then parse the relatives.

whosoever.²BURKE." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. which. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. to everything that. Do what we can. being referred to. 121. not as direct as the simple relatives. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. What simple relative and what indefinite relative.²BURKE. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. 4. and parse that in the first clause. List and examples. no certain antecedent. 122. 3. 6. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. by meaning and use. that is. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. Only itself can inspire whom it will. Death is there associated. 123. in a new and original way.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. "common souls pay with that [singular. and his friend a fool.²MACAULAY. or what else soever. no particular thing. whatever is equivalent to all things which. that nothing else can stand in their presence. So with the other indefinites. and in 2. They are whoever. 2. object of do] they do. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. less common are whoso. . 7. whichever. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. Hence some take what as a double relative. It is no proof of a man's understanding. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. Take which you please. whatever. whatsoever.²you cannot have both. 2. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. whatsoever. 5. object of with] which [singular. Meaning and use. The simple relatives who. or stand on their head. whichsoever. and which in the second clause. summer will have its flies. It is clear that in 1. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative.

. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed.²HAWTHORNE. This.²EMERSON. 120.² 1. but which only wealth could have purchased. upon which. Sec. everything that (or everything which). There is nothing but is related to us.. has been my heaviest affliction. for example. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. 417). as what hardly ever has an antecedent. In early modern English..² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. as was used just as we use that or which. 2.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England.² some particular thing. either one that. Former use of as. and that as after such is equivalent to which. whereby. not following the word such. by which. whereupon. But and as. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works.²DE QUINCEY. what means anything that. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. Other substitutes. 126. nothing that does not interest us. 125. 121. etc. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. etc. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. Instead of the phrases in which. the conjunctions wherein. thus. are used. 121. Two words. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. 4. Proof that they have the force of relatives. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. but mean any one whom. etc. 124. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence.As shown in Sec. for example. but and as.

" etc. 127. it is a simple relative. But in 1 (b). (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. (b) But what had become of them they knew not.²ID. if not. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). "But what had become of them? They knew not. 2 (b). it is an interrogative. no antecedent is expressed. . But compare the following in pairs:² 1. In sentences 1 (a). which having the antecedent lines. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS." Likewise with which in 3 (b). a question is disguised in each sentence. would be. 1 (b). It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. "Who stood behind? We knew. showing that who is plainly interrogative. though the earthwork hid them. In studying such sentences. 2. it is an indefinite relative). In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. Thus. and whether what = that + which (if so. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form.²WHITTIER. if not. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. How to decide. the full expression being.. who having the antecedent gentleman. which would indicate that they are not relatives. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. Another caution. So in 2 (b). (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. 3. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. Special caution needed here. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. and 3 (b).²EMERSON. second. what is interrogative. if expanded. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does.

²SWIFT. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3.²FORSTER 6. 5. ELIOT. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. which. The insect I am now describing lived three years. Exercise. the question is asked by the verb. and Court Calendars. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. 129. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. whose has the antecedent you. In the third. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. 2. Put in the relatives who. .128. 4. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. whence is the interrogative word. which has the antecedent hue. and asks no question.²HOLMES. In the second.² These are the sounds we feed upon. Thus. Examine the following:² 1. I visited many other apartments. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences.²GOLDSMITH. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. In the first. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. When Goldsmith died. Relative omitted when object. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.² THACKERAY. 3. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence.²G. On the other hand.²FLETCHER.²CARLYLE. but the life of man in England.

There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. Also in literary English we find the same omission. who were to be rulers over whom. Examples are. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. Relative omitted when subject. 6. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. or indefinite relatives:² 1. simple relatives.²CAMPBELL. that. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. 5. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. 2. and what. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. 3. The nobles looked at each other.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case.Ne'er looks upon the sun. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. It is rare in prose.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.² LOWELL. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. There was such a crowd went. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen.7. Function of adjective pronouns.²SCOTT.²SHAKESPEARE. . 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. and comparatively so in poetry. which was already proceeding. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. the house was full. which.²Id. 130.

necessarily thought of: thus. many. in letters of gold.131. neither. and another to get cool under." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. etc. in the first.²BRYANT. etc." that is.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. "another bank. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. 133.²IRVING. expressed or understood. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. such as each. few. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. or use. For instance. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. any. as some. and stand for a noun. but in this function. not pronouns. or they may stand for nouns. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. a word. Primarily they are adjectives. "each cube. the former. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. which we have seen in such expressions as. all. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS." Classes of adjective pronouns. or may be the whole of a sentence.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. but have lost their adjective use. 132. that. . (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. "these pranks. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. none." in the second.²EMERSON." "one man. and on each is written. in order to be an adjective pronoun.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these." "Where two men ride on a horse. For example. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. such as this. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. In the first use they are adjectives. etc. Caution. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. 'Truth. Adjectives. or an argument in a paragraph." in the others. either. "The dead are there. must not modify any word.

They had fewer books.²LOWELL. or sat. Compound. Some of these are simple pronouns.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. or reclined. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. because he was not lying in wait for these. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. and sow wickedness.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. as seemed good to each. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. 3. Definition and examples. when the latter was the King of Spain. Their minds accorded into one strain. 5. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. 2. Simple.²EMERSON 4. for example. Exercises. 134. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. and they have well performed the other. NOTE.All these he saw. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. they that plow iniquity. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. A man inspires affection and honor. They have not shunned the one. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Such are a few isolated instances. accidentally preserved.²ID.²ID. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. .² They stood. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. reap the same. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Even as I have seen. but these were of the best.

we might the more easily discharge them. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. as. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. Another opposes him with sound argument.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. paused over a horoscope. one another.²KINGSLEY. ²HAWTHORNE. .It felt the guidance that it does not claim. The word one has a reflexive form. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. such as one other. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. Much might be said on both sides. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. another.²HAWTHORNE.Two are compound pronouns.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. you quickly come to the end of all. as some of the rangers had gone astray. for example. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. Definition and examples. Some inflected. as most were. They led one another. 135. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. The Soldan. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. as it were. None shall rule but the humble. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. Exercise. with the superstitions of his time.²each other. or melt for others' woe.² One reflexive. imbued. The lines sound so prettily to one's self.²EMERSON. Men take each other's measure when they react.²HOLMES.

what. They indefinite means people in general. Now. everybody. etc. I tell you what. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. they are never used as adjectives. anybody. as shown in the words everybody's. no one. Exercise. every one else. also aught. anybody else's. something. they say.There is always somewhere a weakest spot.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. every one (or everyone). That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. Definition and examples. everything. nobody. Every one else stood still at his post. as. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else.² At lovers' perjuries. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. everybody else. but.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.²SHAKESPEARE. naught. anything. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. in building of chaises. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences." It means something. 136. nothing. and was indefinite in Old English. Somebody. . William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. Jove laughs. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. some one. somebody else. and somewhat.Exercise. etc. any one (or anyone). unlike adjective pronouns. 137. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. anyone else. and they..

Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. but not to quite so enormous an extent. O thou that rollest above. to which. The table was good. 8. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 16. Others did the same thing. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. were suffered to depart. in his negotiations. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. I first found myself among the mountains. and of no other. 13. For this did God send her a great reward. 9. 10. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know.²a feature of natural scenery for which. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 14. 17. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. . Exercise. A reminder. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. Hutchinson tells us of herself. 4. indeed. 12. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 18. 11. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 5. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to.See also "Syntax" (Sec. from my earliest days. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 2. 7. Whoever deals with M. All was now ready for action. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. 138. 6. 3. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government.

I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. 21. that let him communicate. variety. behold now the semblance of my being. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. Whatever he knows and thinks.Who knew thee too well. He sate him down. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake.And it would work 'em woe. 23. 35. Who and what was Milton? That is to say.19. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. 34. They know not I knew thee. eat white bread or brown. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. And I had done a hellish thing. oh. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 29.Destroyer and preserver. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. 25. and seized a pen. 31. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. 30. in all its height. hear. well-oiled dispositions. These hopes are mine as much as theirs.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . 27. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. 32. I who alone am. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. who take the world easy. 26. hear! 33. And will your mother pity me. thou rollest now.

" etc. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. and if we are near. "one hat. ." The office of an adjective. 45." "yonder hill. white or red. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. He teaches who gives. He knew not what to do. or gaseous. For example. then. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. Again. etc. heavy or light. so that no other will be mistaken for it. which was no bad step towards my liberation. the number is limited by adjectives. 41. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. 139." "a hundred men. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. and he learns who receives. As to the kind of words used. who understands me. 44." "some cities. becomes mine." "that house. 43. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. 37. as. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. or with persons. If a chemist discovers a new substance. that is our permanent state. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. 38. or liquid. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. if we are at a distance. in pointing out an object. We are by nature observers. 39. 40. brittle or tough. adjectives are used. Who hears me. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. size. 42. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. We need to add some words to tell its color. and so he read. ADJECTIVES.36. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. Office of Adjectives. Substantives. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. position.. such as in the expressions "this man. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. So with any object. etc. It may have this office alone.

²COLERIDGE. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. To err is human. They include relative and interrogative words. rash. (4) Pronominal adjectives. to describe it or to limit its application. however." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. To make this clear. it shows that he weighs men's minds." and the still less significant "and so.140. Classes of adjectives." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof.² BACON. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." "half-dead traveler. or how much of a thing." "next-door neighbor. used to tell how many things are spoken of. beautiful. happy." "the Christian pearl of charity. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "unlooked-for burden." "ice-cold water. Infinitives. 143.²POPE. 142. to forgive." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. derived from proper nouns. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. With exception of the "and then. such as safe." they constitute all his connections. 141. Nouns are not. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. If he be thankful for small benefits." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. remotest. (2) Adjectives of quantity. divine. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive." "this life-giving book. words primarily pronouns. pointing out particular things. deep." "the Roman writer Palladius. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES." . Examples are. Definition. "an old English manuscript. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. fair." the "and there. and their trash. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. etc. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. such as." "ivory-handled pistols. "Heaven-derived power. terrible.

" was accomplished is a verb. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. For instance: in the sentence. no. and another is drunken. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.²MACDONALD. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. and accomplished is an adjective. Examples are." "trailing clouds. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. Oxenham. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality.²COLERIDGE.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. 'Tis midnight. sometimes small. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. much." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." "One is hungry." was is the verb. any. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. 144." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. which are either pure participles used to describe. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. 143." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. some.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting." Caution. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. . Care is needed. in studying these last-named words. in this.But ever she looked on Mr." "The shattered squares have opened into line. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. considerable." "an aged man." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. 2." "a charming sight. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. but small thoughts have I of sleep." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. 145." "It came on like the rolling simoom. 1. having some of each subclass named in Sec. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. Exercises.

the former²the latter. The following sentences present some examples:² .²KINGSLEY.²THACKERAY.²CARLYLE. When some. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time.²VAUGHAN." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. (plural these. The demonstrative adjectives are this." "In came some five and twenty more. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. those). and with them a few negroes. Examples.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. every village. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. "one blaze of musketry. are used with plural nouns. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives." "Then we wandered for many days. but I have gained fourscore. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. The list. any." (b) Indefinite numerals. latter." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head." "I have lost one brother. instead of modifying them. they come under the next division of adjectives. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. former." "He had lived by hunting for some months. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. Exercise." "a dozen volunteers.² Every town had its fair. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. An arrow was quivering in each body. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other." Single ones of any number of changes. 146. as. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. no. yonder (or yon). Not primarily pronouns. that. its wake. How many.²ID. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. Thus.

² It matters not what rank he has. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. they are changed to adjectives. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. Indefinite relative adjectives. Modify names of persons or things."²B. When we speak of the seventeenth century. for example.²RUSKIN. ²CARLYLE.²ID. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.²BANCROFT. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. FRANKLIN.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. Definition. The taking of which bark. The silver and laughing Xenil.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love.²WORDSWORTH. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator.²D. what revenues or garnitures. tell how many things are meant. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. WEBSTER..²BULWER. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course..²GOLDSMITH.but all these charms are fled. Exercise. like the other numerals. 148. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. skill which was progressive²in the other.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. .²ID. but in the one case. of equal skill.²KINGSLEY. In which evil strait Mr. 149. Oxenham fought desperately. These do not. As has been said. 147. skill which was at pause. These were thy charms. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. I verily believe. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. They are of two kinds. just as the corresponding pronouns do. but. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here.

²AGASSIZ. and gaze. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. In direct questions. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. New torments I behold. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. proved not altogether displeasing to him. . and new tormentedAround me.. or whether any. which is selective among what is known. whichsoever way I move. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.²RUSKIN.²IRVING.. Was there. as it rather seemed. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata.²LAMB. As in the pronouns.150. 151. whichsoever.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). it is impossible to determine.And whichsoever way I turn. you at least give him full authority over your son. In indirect questions. Whatsoever kind of man he is. what inquires about things or persons not known. Examples of their use are. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. where it was uncertain what game you would catch.² EMERSON. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. whatever. He was turned before long into all the universe. A lady once remarked. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. Adjective what in exclamations.²CARLYLE. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. the debt to the rich.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. which. But when the Trojan war comes. whatsoever. whichever. nature will be sure to bear us out in.²ID. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.

as. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this.² Oh. COMPARISON.152. 154. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. of the quality. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. weight. or amount. Exercise. The article that was used with neuter nouns. etc.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. It is neither relative nor interrogative.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. and those as the plural of that. History of this²these and that²those. And yet. which was fully inflected in Old English. NUMBER. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have.. the making of it right.²but not the same degree. That.²number and comparison. Thus. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. gold is heavier than iron. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. 155. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. Meaning of comparison. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. th s (modern those). Those borrowed from this. and when we compare the objects. we do so by means of their qualities. But this had also another plural. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. . gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. All these have certain qualities.²This. we notice some differences between them as to size. color. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. etc. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. those). When we place two objects side by side.Adjectives have two inflections. This is the old demonstrative. In exclamatory expressions. or size. alas. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. 153 . or weight.

and many others. and the superlative by adding -est. organic." Words that cannot be compared. supreme. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. great. expressing a greater degree of quality. but were not common until a century later. with less wit. strictly considered. Freedom is a perpetual.²THACKERAY. 160. giant-like. infinite. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. redder. bluest. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. . 156. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. These are called degrees of comparison. red. blue. to the simple form. indefatigable. 157." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. as. Substitute for inflection in comparison. universal institution.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. 159. enormous. easiest.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. easier." "the largest soul. easy. but. "more matter. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. The comparative is formed by adding -er. These are properly the only degrees. The two forms. indomitable. expressing the greatest degree of quality. sufficient." "no fewer than a hundred. "untamed thought. They came into use about the thirteenth century. Definition. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. they are not compared. bluer." "It is a nobler valor. though the simple. whose favorite pupil he was. or amounts in quantity. and the superlative. So with the words sole.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree.²SEWARD. reddest. whether they attend their own affair or not. as. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. for example. A main difference betwixt men is." "the commonest speech. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. immemorial. 158.

²ID. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning." "distantest relationships. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English." said Henry Esmond. strange." "more austere and holy. there needed to be a most genuine substance. indisputablest. These are adjectives irregularly compared. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est." "more odd. quiet. harsh forms are usually avoided. and yet familiar. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. falling on his knees. polished. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. as. honestest. most small. admirablest." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. which hung behind in the queerest way. madam. 163. and other words are preceded by more and most. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. I will.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. etc. easy. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. was most finished. mournfulest. The general rule is.² CARLYLE A gentleman. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck." Carlyle uses beautifulest." "the wonderfulest little shoes." "sorrowfulest spectacles.Which rule. witty." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. Adjectives irregularly compared. peaceablest. "So help me God. who. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. finest chiseling.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. 162. though born in no very high degree. The following lists include the majority of them:² . These long.²ID.²The Nation. and patientest fusing.

and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative.² We have it in a much lesser degree. 2. (3) Little is used as positive to less. Worser was once used. 9. though from a different root. Hind 2. older Nigher Nearer Later. These have no adjective positive:² 1. worst.² O. [In] Inner Inmost. 8. as in the sentence (14th century). as in Shakespeare. last Hindmost. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. uttermost Upmost. lesser. List I. as. oldest Nighest. is often used. next Nearest Latest. [Out] Outer. 3. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. The superlative I form was betst.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. innermost Outmost. uppermost LIST III. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. least. (2) In Old English. 5. A double comparative. 7. . 1. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). There was an old comparative bet. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. latter Hinder LIST II. hindermost Much or many More Farther. furthest 10. further Farthest. a double comparative. evil was the positive to worse. which has gone out of use. utter 3. which has softened to the modern best.²HAMLET. outermost Utmost. 6. bad. 164. lesser Elder.LIST I. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 4. Good or well Evil. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. throw away the worser part of it.

to which is added -ost. as. muchel. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. (5) The forms elder.. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. eldest. further. furthest. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. instead of lenger. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. farthest. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. a distinction has grown up between the two series. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. doubling the inflection. and refer to time. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. th came into the others. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. oldest. great. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. or series.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. near. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. First became entirely detached from the series. the old forms. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. is quite common. etc. latest. for example. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. next.²forth. as long. The latter.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. are shown in such phrases as. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. but not in meaning. meaning the largest part. an old superlative ending. much. moche. The most part kept a stolid indifference. List II. The meanings greater. since the m is for -ma. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. but originally the comparison was nigh. farrest. except the form next. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. came into use.. "Many a little makes a mickle. .² The more part being of one mind. strong. Between the two sets as they now stand. In imitation of further. making the modern farther. etc.²HAWTHORNE.²KINGSLEY. greatest. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. there is scarcely any distinction. strenger. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. ²LAMB." Its spelling has been micel. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. and the superlative nearest. to England we sailed. are earlier than older. first. Since later.²ID. (4) The words much and many now express quantity.

Decidedly handsome. . Her. the upper light of the world. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. was descried The royal banner floating wide. in having no adjective positives.²SCOTT. being merely descriptive. W.²KINGSLEY. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him." "the innermost moral soul. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. There. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. The comparatives are so in form. List III. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. by the by. (Sec. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. They have no superlatives.²EMERSON. BEECHER. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. but they have no adjective positives." -Most added to other words. 168.²HAWTHORNE. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain.²DE QUINCEY. on the very topmost twig. 167. Highest and midmost.²DE QUINCEY. Think what each adjective belongs to. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective." "their utmost exertion. are like the comparative forms in List II." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. Her bows were deep in the water. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. but her after deck was still dry. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. 166. all may belong to the same noun. or each may modify a different word or group of words.165." "far-seeing as the sun.²H. The adjectives in List III. or have no comparative forms. In List II. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. but not in their meaning. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. and have no comparative force." "The outer is of the day.

solid. Whenever that look appeared in her wild.²HAWTHORNE. 7. therefore.²NOAH PORTER. H. 3. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. the then and still owners.²TRENCH. But in this sentence. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. and moral truth. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. May we not. Other instances are. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. By a convenient brevity. in this sentence.²HAWTHORNE. This. 4. in prose." making then an adjective." in which then is an adverb. The seldom use of it. now our queen.For example. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. It may still be argued. 169. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. and heaven-defying oaths. STEPHENS 5. philosophical. round. we may say "the then king. Richard Hooker. ²TROLLOPE.² My then favorite. and broken. usual modifies incomparable decision. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. 2. satisfactory. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. Our sometime sister.²MRS. . bright.²A. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. STOWE. instead of saying. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID.²HOLMES. our new government. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. 6. deep.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. Bradbury and Evans." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. Exercise. In the following quotations. and thine often infirmities. "the one who was then king.²BIBLE. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. rich. as. deeply black eyes.²RUSKIN. not decision alone. A few improper jests and a volley of good. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. For thy stomach's sake.

cannot be compared. 8. Exercise. MODEL FOR PARSING. 2. positive degree. if it can be compared. seventy-five drachmas. modifies the word truths. She made no reply. compared by prefixing more and most. therefore demonstrative. with awkward but rapid pace. 5. In parsing an adjective. (4) What word or words it modifies. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. therefore descriptive. 6. and very few have number. . and most astounding were those frightful yells. plural number. To every Roman citizen he gives. 3. These points out what truths. person. To every several man. and I waited for none. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. not inflected for number. This gave the young people entire freedom. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. manly way. having a singular. the method of parsing is simple. modifies truths. (3) Its degree of comparison. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. 9. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. Unfamiliar describes truths. Since adjectives have no gender. 10. 4. 7. I ask nothing of you. or case. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. 170.What to tell in parsing. then. if it has number. (2) Its number. this. frank. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. across the plain. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way.

19. during which time I waited. . it rests on reality. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 25. 33. and many poles supported the lower ones. 16. not so much for travelers that were few. those dogs in the yard. oxen. 24. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. as for armies that were too many by half. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. Here lay two great roads. Nearer to our own times. the same love to France would have been nurtured. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 20. 28. growing in the most unfavorable position. 23. are immutably fishes. and therefore more interesting to us. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. yonder oxen in the pasture. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. suggests such thoughts as these. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. To say what good of fashion we can. 29. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. I know not what course others may take. 12. it is so noble a fruit. 32. 14. Like most gifted men. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 18. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 27. 13. With every third step. 26. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 21. Two hours elapsed. 31. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. In music especially. and dogs. the tomahawk fell. is the settlement of our own country. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. he won affections with ease. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge.11. 22.

would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. that other." "an orange. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. but the former is used. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant." the words the and an belong to nouns.² We ca' her sometimes the tane.34. An or a came from the old numeral n. Their origin. Our expressions the one. ARTICLES. even when not silent. or the tane. were formerly that one. An before vowel sounds. 37. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. the tother.²SCOTT. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. An historian. 35. In Middle English the became an article. the tother. ðat. a before consonant sounds. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. Many writers use an before h. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . the other. that) which was also an article in Old English." "a yelling crowd. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. and a before consonant sounds. Examples: "a house. 171. th o. Two relics." An with consonant sounds. s o. the latter is still preserved in the expression. 172. In the sentence. . with an ordinary little garden. 173. 174. meaning one. in vulgar English." "an honor. and that remained a demonstrative adjective.²MACAULAY. for example. A hard-struggling." "a European. later th . he is no literary man. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. these occurring as the tane. just as adjectives do. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. weary-hearted man was he. such as we have been attempting to describe. sometimes the tother. the tither. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road.²BREWER.

then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri... thus. since it points out a particular individual. The is the definite article. as "the Mississippi.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. a person is introduced by a. or a group or class of things. Articles are either definite or indefinite. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. Definition. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. as in the sentence." the article indicates clearly that a river. 179.² Don't you remember how. and when the word river is omitted. An article is a limiting word.²G. is referred to. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. or class. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images.²THACKERAY. 175. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.²IRVING. To call attention to attributes. doubtless. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. With names of rivers.. An hereditary tenure of these offices. BANCROFT. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. 176. Kinds.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. not descriptive." "the Ohio.²COLERIDGE. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. and not a state or other geographical division. An and a are different forms of the same word.²HEROES OF ASGARD. Reference to a known object. NOTE. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. When the is prefixed to a proper name. 178. 177.²This use is noticed when. The Dakota tribes. which cannot be used alone. An or a is the indefinite article.² . on opening a story. or group. or any individual of a group or class. the older n.

One thing for its class. so is the evil. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. would speedily extract the required information. With adjectives used as nouns. etc. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. The simple rise as by specific levity. Caution. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. the Hume.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. or a match put between the fingers. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. His messages to the provincial authorities. not into a particular virtue. NOTE. as. but into the region of all the virtues. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. With plural of abstract nouns. Half abstract.²ID. for example.² As she hesitated to pass on. her. 181. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. the Spinoza.The Bacon. Schelling.²MOTLEY.² The faint. For possessive person pronouns. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. Kant. 1.²GIBBON. laid it on the miry spot.²KINGSLEY.²G. . the gallant.²EMERSON. 182. the song sparrow. and the redwing. 183. If the good is there. 180. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. BANCROFT. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. marks it as half abstract or a common noun.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. Common. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head.²ID. The. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. 2.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

"Put money in thy purse. to go is no predicate. and not a verb. Of those expressing action. with some word understood. In giving a definition. c). In the first. endured what? anguish. a). but cannot be predicates. hence is not a verb. or an idea." put is the predicate. 201. Each influences some object. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. which means to go over. a preposition. in (2. but fearing is not a predicate. all do not express it in the same way." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. 202. or the object. The nature of the transitive verb. to say something to or about some person or thing. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. b). All do not express action: some denote state or condition. and shame the most astute. All these are called transitive verbs. we consider a verb as one word. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. which may be a person. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. representing something which it influences or controls. a noun. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. (can) shame also has an object. Definition and caution. a verb. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. 200: In (1). lone took what? answer. the most penetrating. or a material thing.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. and a preposition unite as a verb. from the Latin transire. in (3. can deceive has an object. A verb is a word used as a predicate."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. and to receive the action expressed. b). obeyed is a predicate. care. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. and. in (2. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. etc. in (c). as. In each case. the word following. an article. in this sentence from Bulwer. The nature of intransitive verbs. Hence Definition. By examining a few verbs. 203. Has takes the object hypocrisy. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb.²BULWER . in (b). 204. for example.In (a). an adverb. the most astute. in (3. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek." Examine the sentences in Sec. "Put thou money in thy purse. In the sentence. Now. taking the staff which always guided her steps. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

and may or may not be regarded true. Ideal.²LONGFELLOW. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.²D. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. or be fulfilled. 215. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. but.² If.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday].I could lie down like a tired child. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. Most excellent stranger. ²EMERSON. If this be the glory of Julius.²BRYCE. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.² Now. Condition or Supposition. in our case. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. he will see the need of these ethics. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. for example. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. 2). (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. I. 222. as. the second founder. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. Unreal²cannot be true. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds.²SHELLEY. they were recorded in the Book of Life. 221. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. the first great founder of the Empire. the writer can make the statement following. popular government must be pronounced impossible.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. . There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. the representative system ultimately fail. WEBSTER. Again. as.²FRANKLIN.²MACAULAY. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road.²may or may not be true. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition.

P. 6. would have sat still with joy and peace. II. melodious.²SWIFT. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. that he might be strong to labor." etc. In the following conditional clauses. would you. but when the verb precedes the subject. since he [Byron] was dead. might.. Subjunctive of Purpose. If he had reason to dislike him. and what kind of condition:² 1. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. be any the happier?²THACKERAY.² It was necessary. 7. I told him. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. 223.²BAYNE.²MACAULAY. 5. NOTE. 4. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. is of similar physiognomy. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. if he was the man I take him for. 2. society could not hold together. may.² CARLYLE. that we cannot but regret its absence.²CALHOUN. which cannot be true. thus. ²LOWELL. WILLIS.²FRANKLIN. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. the clause being introduced by that or lest. do you think. clear. is used to express purpose. if his lot had been mine. if he speak to you. especially be. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. The subjunctive.²FRANKLIN.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. unless. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. But in no case could it be justified. to drink strong beer. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. as.. .²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. 3. and striven energetically to save Ney. etc.²N. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE.. except. she was regarded as a prodigy. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. though. and should. 8. Epaminondas.² If these things were true. he had better not have written. The voice..²EMERSON. and sonorous. Exercise. he supposed.

V.²COLERIDGE. WEBSTER. Rise up. In a Noun Clause.Thou go not.. 226. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. Subjunctive of Result. After a verb of wishing. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. till it meet the sun in his coming. IV.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. In Indirect Questions. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. The English subjunctive..²D. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. I would it were! ²EMERSON.²ID. I've wished that little isle had wings. the answer being regarded as doubtful. .²CARLYLE. Expressing a Wish. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. So live. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.That vain it were her eyes to close.. 225. like the Latin. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.²WORDSWORTH.I have been the more particular.²SOUTHEY. within its fairy bowers.And we. 224. Let it rise. In Temporal Clauses..²MOORE. VII. 227.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. Ask the great man if there be none greater. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. like the quarry-slave at night.Were wafted off to seas unknown. VI. To tell of what had passed.²DE QUINCEY. none of us could say. III. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²BRYANT. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.

² DICKENS. tell me all that thou hast seen. in apposition. is the ultimate fact of man's life. object. See that there be no traitors in your camp. The first merit.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. often contains a subjunctive. or whatsoever victual it may be.²CARLYLE. VIII. The noun clause. Whatever betide.Subject.And see the Braes of Yarrow. Complement. Object. in its various uses as subject. I have no thought what men they be.. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. (b) Adjective. of cash. etc.²SHELLEY.²DE QUINCEY.²COLERIDGE. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. which may be (a) Pronoun. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. 228. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. Concessive Clauses. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. we'll turn aside. Come.And look thou tell me true. . After verbs of commanding. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.²SCOTT. for example. The essence of originality is not that it be new. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.²TENNYSON.²THOREAU. is. that everything be in its place.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. Some might lament that I were cold.²WORDSWORTH. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart.² Be the matter how it may.²COLERIDGE. 229. That hunger of applause.

for example. (1) Command. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. In spoken English. At the present day. 232. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood.(c) Adverb. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. . a concession. Oh. 231.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. entreaties. ADAMS. however. (3) Request. Honor all men. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. Q.²BRYANT. or requests. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. love all men. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. to express a wish. point to their immortal works. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English.²J.²SHELLEY. It must be remembered. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts.² CARLYLE. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Definition. though. Usually second person. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. since commands are directed to a person addressed. (2) Entreaty. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands.²CHANNING. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. 230. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought.The spirit he loves remains. fear none. and condition contrary to fact. we had found [should have found] a poem here.

lest we rust in ease. "Come along with me. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. etc. Meet is it changes should controlOur being.²SHAKESPEARE. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences.And God forget the stranger!" .²SCOTT. Sometimes with first person in the plural. we may use the imperative with we in a command. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. Oh. 6. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.One glance at their array! 5." whispered Kit." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Break we our watch up. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. but I + you. 7. "The Devil take the goose. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. receive my hand. there will her heart and her prayers be. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. noble earl."Hush! mother. or I + they. nothing is to be preferred before justice.."²DICKENS Tell me. Whatever inconvenience ensue. child of earth!While each performs his part.. to you implied in it.And. 2. request. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.²CAMPBELL. 3.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart." Exercises on the Moods. etc. Quoth she. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. Mark thou this difference. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. 8. Part we in friendship from your land.

Marshall. no literary man. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. 19.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. 11." 16. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. Though abyss open under abyss.High up in silver spikes! 22. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. That sheaf of darts. 23.Except. in what pomps and prosperities he like. "Mr. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. 21. then. That a man parade his doubt.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. Though he were dumb. "Oh. it would speak. but repentant child. Well. "tell me where I may find my poor. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. 26. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. and opinion displace opinion.9. will it not fall unbound. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. He is. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. Think not that I speak for your sakes. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot." continued Old Morgan. ruined. .Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. 20. my dear madam. 18. let him live where else he like. Forget thyself to marble.Till you might faint with that delicious pain." 25.That they might answer him. 14. as though an instrument. how he may do his work. whether he do it right or wrong. she ought to have it. 10." cried he. 13. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. or do it at all. He.

have. such as Latin and Greek. "It is not in man that walketh. and the future tense.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents.²nothing could exceed the amiable. to direct his steps. and future.²the present tense. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being." present. 234. Definition. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. called auxiliaries. the past." past. When the older pronoun thou was in use. will. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses.² present. PERSON AND NUMBER. or agree with it. or future time. Tense means time. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. 28. "Thou walkest. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. whatever she did. a form ending in -eth. "I go away tomorrow. Tenses in English. 233. Meantime. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. in the conjugations. five in the imperative.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. tell him to wait. such as be. as. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. past. as will be shown later on. also. and future perfect tenses. 235. and the past tense. "Thou walkedst. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. Old English had only two tenses. past.27. in the third person singular. as. by means of the present. which represented present and future time. kind. The tenses in detail." . (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. past perfect. shall. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. or whether it were as one member of a general party. Siddons. five in the subjunctive." "If he comes. TENSE. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. as the classical languages have.

[He] were [They] were . INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. Definition." and this only in the present tense indicative. is. You (thou) be 3. Singular 1. walketh. choosest. "He walks. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. Singular 1. as.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. Few forms. moods. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. walkedst. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. PRESENT TENSE. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. chooses. tenses. [He] is [They] are 3. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. Indicative Mood. etc. walked. I be 2. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. singular number. The verb be has more forms. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. chosest). PRESENT TENSE. but in English. chooseth. and numbers. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. walk has walk.²choose. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. for example. This is the third person. 236. 237. were. mood. chose. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. since it is composed of several different roots. tense. Singular 1. I were 2. 238. walking. been. etc. CONJUGATION. choosing. Such verbs as choose have five. persons. In classical languages. wert) 3.²am. You are 2. chosen (old. are. walks. Singular 1.

This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.²WORDSWORTH. The light that never was on sea and land. (2) As auxiliary verbs. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. were. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. thus.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. -en.His infancy was nurtured. 240. as. etc. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. condition.²SCOTT.²SHELLEY. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. is. in four ways. 239.²ID.. though it is usually a dialect form. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. Instead of the plural are. (3) be. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. (2) was.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. (b) With the past participle in -ed. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.²THACKERAY.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. for example.Imperative Mood. (d) With the infinitive. obligation. to express intention. which was now become an occasional banquet. etc.²GOLDSMITH.²BURKE . to form the passive voice. Remarks on the verb be. same as the German sind.

1. past perfect. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. You choose Plural. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. (2). as. Machinery of a verb in the voices. I chose 2. I choose 2. PRESENT TENSE. Singular.241." (2) Present perfect. I chose 2. You chose Plural. 1. 1. Singular. Singular. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb." "He will choose. 240. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. Singular. as. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. We chose You chose 3. You chose Plural. by placing have. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. had. You choose Plural. etc. In addition to the above inflected forms. We chose You chose 3. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. future perfect. tenses. 242. 1. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). "I shall be. "I had gone" (past perfect). I choose 2. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. tenses. Indicative Mood. [He] choose [They] choose 3. . "I have gone" (present perfect). We choose You choose PAST TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose.

Past definite. Indicative Mood. He had chosen. he have chosen. Imperative Mood. He will choose. He has been choosing. He was choosing. "I am running." 243." "You are chosen. Present perfect definite. Same as indicative. He chose. Present perfect. he have been choosing. lest. . Present.) Choose. Present. he chose (or were to choose). will be given. Future. Past perfect." (4) The passive forms. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Present definite.] he choose. as. Past perfect definite. of each tense. " Be choosing. [If. ACTIVE VOICE. Past. Present perfect definite. Present. "I was chosen. Subjunctive Mood. Present definite. etc. Past. Present definite. as. He will have been choosing. He will have chosen. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Only the third person. Future definite. Present perfect. though. He chooses. He has chosen. Past perfect definite. singular number." "They had been running. Future perfect definite. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Past definite. He will he choosing.(3) The definite form of each tense. Future perfect. Past perfect. Same as indicative. (2d per. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. He had been choosing. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. He is choosing.

Past Perfect. Present. in affirmative sentences. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). . Past definite. he were being chosen." "He did strike.NOTE. Present perfect. Future perfect. but verbals. He was being chosen. he had been chosen. Past. they will be discussed later (Sec." [Note to Teacher. None. lest. He will be chosen. etc.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. He will have been chosen. None. Past perfect definite.. None. None. Past. (2d per. Future definite. Indicative Mood. None. None. Past perfect. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. however. Past perfect definite.] [If. Present perfect definite. Subjunctive Mood. Present definite.) Be chosen. Past definite. Present perfect definite. Future.²This table is not to be learned now. 262). though. Imperative Mood. Future perfect definite. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. He is chosen. Exercises should be given. He had been chosen. Also. Present tense. he have been chosen. He has been chosen. He is being chosen. He was chosen. Present. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. " " " " " " " None. PASSIVE VOICE. Present definite. "He does strike. as. if learned at all. Present perfect.] he be chosen.

bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. sleep. 245. slept. drive. Some of these also have weak forms. laid. as. and may or may not change the vowel: as. According to form.[adj. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. ran. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. Definition. bounden] bitten. beg. drove. NOTE. bid bound. begged.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. Past Tense. bit blown broken chidden. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . caught. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. Kinds. which are in parentheses Present Tense. catch. 244. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. lay. verbs are strong or weak. but adds no ending. run.

eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate.

stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. trod worn woven won wound . sunken] sat slain slidden.

and the latter. The form clomb is not used in prose. only one set remains certain. for example. nor a dog barked. cleft. "his bounden duty. instead of ate and eaten. Our cock."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. cleave.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. cleaved.²as (from Shakespeare). This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. the other. as. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. cloven. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. . Historically." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²B. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. Not a cock crew. Sometimes in literary English. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro.²IRVING. The former used to be cleave. especially in that of an earlier period.² We had each drank three times at the well. When it means to carry or to endure. and sometimes occurs in poetry. but is much used in vulgar English. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. cleaved.²cleave. which always crew at eleven. and. TAYLOR. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb.²COLERIDGE.²TENNYSON. 246. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. "stricken with paralysis. as." "a sunken snag. borne is also a passive. now told us it was time for repose. clave or clove. cleft (to split). as (from Holmes). it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t)." Stricken is used mostly of diseases.²one meaning to adhere or cling. as.²GOLDSMITH. Crew is seldom found in present-day English." In this confusion of usage." "the cloven hoof. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. and another (born) for the passive.² Thou hast clomb aloft.²MILTON. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance." "a drunken wretch. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). probably to avoid confusion with this. to split. ²THACKERAY.

found. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate.²SCOTT. driven. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. 3. even in poetry. flung.²BIBLE. as "a shorn lamb. fell. given. for example. began. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. 4. shore is rare. (a) From the table (Sec. and grasping at his sword.²DE FOE. 8. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. Throw. 245). thrown. 2. Freeze. which is seldom used except in poetry.The form gotten is little used. drove. and seized a pen." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. Usually shear is a weak verb. frozen. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Begin. Find.² We had all got safe on shore.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. for example. gave. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. fallen. Exercises. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. 5. Drive. maiden. This heard Geraint. We usually say. begun. threw.² If. flung. Fall. shaken. Fling.²BYRON. The butler was hanged. found. . froze. One example out of many is. broken. He sate him down." but not much as a participle. Give."²KINGSLEY.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. as. 6. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. shook. 9.²WORDSWORTH. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. 7. Shake. broke. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Break. 10.²TENNYSON.

etc. The l in could did not belong there originally. Could may be subjunctive. .²PAINE. "far off his coming shines.²HAWTHORNE. (See also Sec.. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. there is one general principle. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. The same remarks apply to ought.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. 220. must have been an ocular deception. as it sometimes does. PAST. as.²SCOTT. They are as follows:² PRESENT. PAST. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action."²WINIER. Must is historically a past-tense form. 251. from the obsolete verb motan. purpose. HAMILTON. "So mote it be. but came through analogy with should and would. of course. for full drill on the forms.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. Ability.. Subjunctive use. it is used only in the indicative mood...[To the Teacher. Can is used in the indicative only. 223.²CHANNING This. according to the infinitive used. as in Sec. PRESENT. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. or when it expresses wish. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. 250. etc. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. 249. His superiority none might question. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. as it has two meanings. It is indicative when it expresses permission.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. ability.²CHANNING. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. or. 247.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A." Must is present or past tense. Have we valuable territories and important posts. Like must. which survives in the sentence. Indicative Use: Permission..

with pronouns of the first person. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. The sea shall crush thee." Uses of shall and should. as. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.²THAXTER. for example. my lad. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.²L. to the neglect of shall and should. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.² The time will come full soon. I shall be gone. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.² With respect to novels. shall and should are used. what shall I say?²N. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. promise. She rejects his suit with scorn. while ought always has to. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. She should not walk.²MACAULAY. as. especially in the United States. 252.² (a) To express authority. she should ride like a queen. BROCKDEN BROWN.² Futurity and questions²first person. yea. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. The following are examples:² Never mind.²IRVING. "I think I will go.²LONGFELLOW. or confident prediction. future action). (b) In questions asking for orders. Second and third persons. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. Shall and Will. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. as. in the form of command. . MOULTON. shall and should are used.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. WEBSTER.Nay. and corn to hoe. he said. (b) In indirect quotations.e. C. to use will and would. not plod along like apeasant.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.. They shall have venison to eat.²BULWER.²COOPER.

as.²BYRON.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.²CABLE. second and third persons.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. LARNED. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. JAMES.. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. purpose. 253. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²WORDSWORTH.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH. time. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. etc.. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. thus. Disguising a command. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.²ROGERS. I never was what I should be. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. and is equivalent to ought. with the conviction that he should win in the end. as the sole inventor.²WORDSWORTH.that I would do him justice.²SWIFT. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. JR.²C.² I will go myself now.²WINTER.²H. B. and will not return until all is finished. or a promise.. for example.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.²A. was to be expected. BROWN. for example. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. And promised. First. . He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.

would is used to express a wish. for example. etc. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. The gift of Beauty. This puts the order more mildly. without regard to future time. In this stately chair would he sit.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. as if it were merely expected action. so you will. action merely expected to occur. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. and mark on the grounds the works. They will go to Sunday schools...²SCOTT. and two of my people. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. as. .. Mere futurity. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. (4) With FIRST. will and would often denote an action as customary. When I am in town.²LANDOR. Roland.²BANCROFT. for example. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.²SCOTT. AND THIRD PERSONS. when thou wast born. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE.² Thou wilt take the skiff. as. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE.. Would thou hadst it not.²War Records. through storms their brothers are afraid of. Thine was a dangerous gift. SECOND.² Subject I omitted: often so. will is used to express command.² DICKENS. PASSIVE VOICE.²BURKE.. will and would are used to express simple futurity.. B. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. shaking his right knee with a constant motion.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). you'll always have somebody to sit with you. BROWN.²the original meaning of the word will.²IRVING. 254. for punishment or intimidation.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. To be sure.

3. 5. 3. We shall be chosen. 3. 2. [They] shall be chosen. Exercises on Shall and Will. Singular. [He] will be chosen. . You shall be chosen.:² ACTIVE VOICE. Thou shalt have a suit. 1. You shall choose. We will be chosen. 2. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. You will be chosen. 2. 6. Plural. Plural. yet only seem. [He] shall be chosen. 1." answered Herbert stubbornly. 1.Singular. (b) Examine the following sentences. etc. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. [They] will choose. 2. We shall choose. I shall be chosen. and that of the newest cut. [They] shall choose. 1. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. To express determination. 3. PASSIVE VOICE. I will choose. Thou art what I would be. [He] shall choose. 4. You shall be chosen. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 1. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. [They] will be chosen. Plural. He informed us. I will be chosen. 3. You will be chosen. 3. I shall choose. Singular. [He] will choose. You will choose. and justify the use of shall and will. promise. 2. 2. You shall choose. (a) From Secs. "I shall not run. Plural. We will choose. Singular. 252 and 253. You will choose.

Present Tense. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. Of smale houndes hadde she." the stranger said. bereaved besought . and have no change of vowel. or mylk and wastel breed. Lucy stood still. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. 13. put.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. 9. "I am a wayfarer. The beast made a sluggish movement. But the rest. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes." 14. bereave beseech bereft. 10. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. set.7. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. as if he would have more of the enchantment. bereave besought Past Participle. very anxious.²ID. 256. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. This ending has now dropped off. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. was -de or -te. and I have nothing to say. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. 12. bereft. then. 255. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. put. which may be called irregular weak verbs. WEAK VERBS. as. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs.²CHAUCER.²Class I. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. 11. No. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. Without having attended to this. The old ending to verbs of Class II. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. my son. put. Irregular Weak Verbs. Past Tense. need some attention and explanation. set. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. 257. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. and wondering whether she should see anything alive.

leant leaped. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. spelt spilt staid. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. leant leaped. leapt left lost meant paid penned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

When active.. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. I returned to reflection on my situation. . and a perfect definite form. Indefinite. have no tense. [To] be choosing. 7. an imperfect. Perfect. [To] be chosen. formed a kind of bedstead. PASSIVE VOICE. a perfect. will (with should and would). This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. try clemency. In Sec. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. they have an indefinite. an indefinite and a perfect form. Perfect. like participles. But later. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Perfect definite. 9. INFINITIVES..6. 268. Indefinite. 10. as in the Old English. [To] have been choosing. expressing purpose. to was used before the infinitive generally. Nothing of the kind having been done. To with the infinitive.. 267. ACTIVE VOICE. Infinitives. [To] have been chosen. [To] have chosen. Three saplings. 266. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted.²the creature warring against the creating power. Imperfect. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). [To] choose. when inflections became fewer. 8. and when passive. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. to express action unconnected with a subject. Cases when to is omitted.

as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. can (could). poor woman!" cried Charles.²MACAULAY. negative. feel.²it may be governed as a noun. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II.²TENNYSON. The gerund is like the participle in form." etc. They shall have venison to eat.²COOPER." (4) In exclamations. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. .²IRVING.²GOLDSMITH. and corn to hoe. as.²DE QUINCEY. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. 272. 269. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. E. also in the imperative.²HOWELLS. "He will choose.(2) After the verbs may (might). She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches.²E. as. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. please." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. it is often preceded by the definite article. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. must.² She was a kind. or the object of a verb or a preposition. too. 271. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. "I do go" etc. While the gerund expresses action. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. GERUNDS.² What! doth she. as the credulous imagine. sometimes need (as. watch. bid (command). HALE. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. "She ask my pardon." "I shall have chosen. and like a noun in use. and emphatic forms of the present and past. liberal woman. it has several attributes of a noun.. under "Analysis. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. it may be the subject of a verb. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. do (as. But there was nothing to do.). (3) After had in the idiomatic use. also let. "a house to let. make. 270. learn [doth learn is one verb. as. as in the expression. see." Examples are. hear.

they find the nurslings untouched! 3. 4.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. brilliant. which express action. when. after examining the nest." "Certainly dueling is bad. What a vast. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. Then how pleasing is it." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. Exercise. which name an action or state." "He could not help holding out his hand in return." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. (6) Verbal nouns. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. but cannot govern. but do not assert. on your leaving the spot. according to use as well as meaning. may govern and be governed. which have lost all verbal force. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. b). The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. to see the returning hope of the parents." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. and five gerunds. and has been put down. and wonderful store of learning! . five infinitives. above. II). (5) Gerunds. (2) Pure participles." also (2. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. Words in -ing are of six kinds. 273. (4) Pure adjectives.²Find sentences containing five participles. making the definite tenses. (3) Participial adjectives." Exercise. 2. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. which express action and also modify. Sec. which express action.

²active or passive. 275. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. He spread his blessings all over the land. (5) Person and number. VERBS.²transitive or intransitive. In parsing verbs.5.²which of the tenses given in Sec. much corroded. 11. 10. Caution. he gave out sentence by sentence. write twenty pages without stopping. dictating from his chair. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. 7. like Sir Walter Scott.²strong or weak. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. (4) Tense. 234. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. slowly. Thackeray did not. (3) Mood.²indicative. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. 12. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. 13. (b) as to use. round which is an iron railing. give reality to your teaching. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. but. What is dreaming? 8. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 15. you must. The only means of ascending was by my hands. 16. I suppose I was dreaming about it. I. 14. . 9. or imperative. by object lessons. 6. subjunctive. giving principal parts. (2) Voice. bearing her national emblem.

in the world. definite. perfect. VERBALS. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive.276. (b) its use (Sec. indicative. and should always be analyzed as phrases. perfect. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. . may. 278. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. we must beware of the rule. VERB PHRASES. then parse it as an adjective. The government might have been strong and prosperous. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. intransitive. till it meet the sun in his coming.. Let it rise! let it rise. has the subject government. etc. Exercise. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. III. (a) From what verb derived. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. In 2. (1) Participle. Take these examples:² 1. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. followed by a pure infinitive without to. could. II. give points (a) and (b). "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. (c) to what word it belongs. no sin nor sorrow. 2. past tense. (b) whether active or passive. call should a weak verb. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. imperfect. would. If a participial adjective. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. But unless the verb is present. 4. can. Parse the verbs. active. might. call might a weak verb. (2) Infinitive. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. intransitive. usually it does not. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. and not taken as single verbs. (3) Gerund. indicative (as it means could). and ends in -s. 2. In such sentences as 1." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. 3. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. etc. You are gathered to your fathers. It has been intimated in Sec. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. (b) whether indefinite. verbals. Especially frequent are those made up of should. 235. and parting day linger and play on its summit. must. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. 277. 278(2)." Sometimes it does. 273). has for its subject Lee. past tense. therefore active. see Sec.

However that be. .²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 13.Henceforth in me instill. With them. 22. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. 11. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. 19. as rolled from wing to wing. He passed across the room to the washstand. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 10. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. a sweet good will. So. 17. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. leaving me upon the bed. Whatever ground you sow or plant. 12. In going for water. 16. a deafening shout. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. and wondered if she were yet awake. The soul having been often born. 15. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. When he arose in the morning. 20. 14. 24. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. from a sort of temporary death." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. 8. he thought only of her. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. as the Hindoos say. 6.Down all the line.O God. see that it is in good condition. a new bursting forth of the sun. as usual. or. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. 9.5. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. 21. 18. 23. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. morning is not a new issuing of light. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. Right graciously he smiled on us. a new waking up of all that has life. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor.

and limit adjectives or adverbs. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it.²THACKERAY. for example. Is it only poets." "He was absolute.²EMERSON. 26. A verb. Nor was it altogether nothing. and live ere life be spent. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. thou sayest." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. To the almost terror of the persons present. 29. they are more himself than he is. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. Oh. for the hour of rest is at hand. and so on. Better it were.²SHELLEY.² The young man reveres men of genius. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. and men of leisure and cultivation." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly." An adjective or an adverb. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. place. 279." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place].25. who live with nature?²ID. And now wend we to yonder fountain. The word adverb means joined to a verb. 27.²time. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner.Feast while we may. or manner: as."²DE QUINCEY. . Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. Adverbs modify. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. "William's private life was severely pure.²CARLYLE. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. to speak truly. to consent. as. ADVERBS. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. because. When action is expressed. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time].

A phrase. then.²TROLLOPE.²THOREAU. or a word group used as such. hitherto.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. 169.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. ²IRVING. (2) according to their use in the sentence.²T. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. not the noun.²BYRON. before. while those in Sec. and half awfully. Thus considered. Make music to the lonely ear. but really modifying. but still with a rich bloom to it. Surely happiness is reflective. . emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. not simply the forms used in predication. etc.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. like the light of heaven. An adverb. Definition. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. all wet and glossy. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. lately. and that. NOTE.² FRANKLIN. I draw forth the fruit. perhaps. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. 280. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. being adverbs naturally and fitly. but some verb understood. It may also modify a sentence. as. as now. has induced some of us to attend it. to-day.²These last differ from the words in Sec. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it.²LEIGH HUNT. We are offered six months' credit. which may qualify an action word or a statement. for example.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. there are six classes:² (1) Time. NOTE. 169 are felt to be elliptical. is a modifying word. B. as shown in the sentences. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. 281. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. thus. 282. A clause or sentence. ever. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. ALDRICH.He was incidentally news dealer.² LOWELL. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words.

] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. as here.was for this once of her opinion. much. for example. I was. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. just. enough. thus. etc.near. etc.. greatly. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. the more evidently they love liberty. while so precedes only the adjective usually..(2) Place.whence. (see also Sec. [Sidenote The status of such. telling how anything is done. especially the comparative of these words. etc.²LECKY. telling how many times: once. as little.²HAWTHORNE.which gained him such universal popularity. The more they multiply. possibly. two by two. etc. whencesoever. Emerson. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations.thence. or how far he believes it to be true. This long's the text. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. 283). White..²DE QUINCEY. maybe. partly. whithersoever. (5) Degree.. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. as hither.²BURKE. that these adverbs form a very large class. the more perfect will be their obedience. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. probably. surely.² The master. beautifully. and others.. bravely. (4) Number. Motley. (6) Assertion. Thackeray.where. at least. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. very.whither. and not infrequently are found in literary English. . Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. too. Meekness. as hence. etc. twice. singly. slightly. So also in Grote.²IRVING. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. (3) Manner.²R.²BROWNING.there. as well. the more friends you will have.yonder. as perhaps. LOUIS STEVENSON. above. slowly. better. telling how much. not. 283. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English.thither. etc.²SHAKESPEARE.

A pretty large experience. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Interrogative. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English." "He spoke positively [manner]. besides modifying. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. and other writers. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Franklin. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. . have the additional function of asking a question. 282. Notice meanings."²SCOTT. Pretty is also used by Prescott. Simple.²GOLDSMITH. Kingsley.²"He walked too far [place]. and art but a fool. Defoe. Holmes. a mighty fine gentleman. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. STOWE. It is only occasionally used in literary English. Some adverbs.² You are mighty courteous.²THACKERAY. Dickens.² "Mighty well. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Beau Fielding. for example. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Such are most of those given already in Sec. 286." "The house." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Mighty. 285. "Peace. Burke. Emerson. for example.²FIELDING. and its lawn before [place]. B. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived.²BULWER. Neville. De Quincey. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister.²THACKERAY.²HAWTHORNE.Pretty.² KINGSLEY. Hard blows and hard money. Aldrich." "I have seen you before [time]." said the king. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs." "That were far better [degree].²BAYNE. Again. 284. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. Direct questions.

(4) Degree. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. CLAY. for example. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. I know not why. 287.²BULWER.²POE. (2) Place. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²BYRON. they smiled. I do not remember when I was taught to read. When did this humane custom begin?²H. I will not ask where thou liest low. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses.²D. (5) Reason. (4) Degree. (2) Place.²BYRON (3) Manner. I hearkened. WEBSTER. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. .

Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. have the same inflection as adjectives. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. irregularly compared. For further discussion. Exercise. Only that we may wiselier see.. sooner. when. Superlative. higher. as. obs. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb.. Many adjectives have the same ending. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. 290.) rather 289. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. soon. Then must she keep it safelier.But in reality. when compared. Tell what each word in ly modifies.²SHAKESPEARE. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. highest. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.²COLERIDGE.eyes.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. high. Form vs. representing four classes. furthest (rathe. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. when does not express time and modify." Exercise. . just as adjectives do. further farthest. Many adverbs are compared. 288. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. soonest.²EMERSON. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. and when has simply the use of a conjunction.²TENNYSON. see Sec. only occasionally having -er and -est. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.²BYRON. not an adverb. and. use. well much little far late Comparative. but the whole clause. Its strings boldlier swept. The following.

And his mien of kingly state. 3. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. or down the leaves laughed through. nearly.²TENNYSON.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. There are eyes. curiously jolly. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. instead of being used adverbially. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. 6. even. He is inexpressibly mean. etc. 7. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits." Compare these:² 1. evenly. But he must do his errand right.²THACKERAY. The reason is. 292. more courtly in their manners. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. 2.² EMERSON.²CHAUCER. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. Not near so black as he was painted.1. hardly. Such are most.²ID. Again. that in Old and Middle English. Frequently the word there.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face.²IRVING. merely introduces a sentence. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. but with a different meaning. mostly. to be sure. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. With his proud. if it has the verb be. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. . This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. kindly and good-natured in secret. 4. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. 5. hard.²WORDSWORTH. And all about. Special use of there. near. whether adverbs or adjectives. as. 2. many words without -ly have the same form. quick-flashing eye. 291. 8.

whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. In parsing adverbs. however theoretically enticing. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. at the regular wine-shop. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 7. and sate down on the steps of a house. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. but from my fall? 6. burning in the center of the temple. 10. . It is the Cross that is first seen. 11. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. if the word is compared. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. 2. is always politically unwise. For the impracticable. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 9. give² (1) The class. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. the Madonna is in great glory. (2) Degree of comparison. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. But a few steps farther on. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. and always. Thither we went. 3. The higher we rise in the scale of being. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 15. (3) What word or word group it modifies. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. 16. according to meaning and also use. but continually shifted. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. 17. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 12. 4. Exercise. 5. 18. 293.

295. etc. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. But now the wind rose again. then. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority." Paragraphs. 21. It was pretty bad after that. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. 294. .19. connecting words." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. but the student will readily find them. A conjunction is a linking word. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. upon which the sun now shone forth. nor. Clauses. CONJUNCTIONS. 20. word groups. sentences. hence. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. or sentence groups. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. Definition. but side by side within the American Union. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. however. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames." Sentences. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. Unlike adverbs. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. therefore. 22. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting.

had its weight. Alternative. etc.. "Howbeit. Your letter. as well as. (4) ALTERNATIVE.or.. either. either. answering to each other in the same sentence. They are or. the butter too. (2) Subordinate." Nevertheless.nor. Causal. serves but to show their ignorance. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. hence. as.. etc.nor. The assertion. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. either. of the same rank. 298.. not only. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. however. Nor mark'd they less. The chief ones are. both.and. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. (3) CAUSAL. only. as and. and.. the window being open.or whether. whether. Correlatives. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. neither... While the earth bears a plant. for. else. the bread was spent.. yet.... as but. still.Classes of conjunctions. Some of these go in pairs. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. neither. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man..or.. whether. and not man corn.. 297.. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. as. therefore.. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. nor. or the sea rolls its waves. not only. usually between two things. likewise. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. introducing a reason or cause. then. Some go in threes.but (or but also). Adversative. expressing a choice....or. etc. (2) ADVERSATIVE.. nor. whether. also. while. neither.. but is emperor in his own right.or. joining words. however..but. as well as the room door. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. moreover... word groups. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair.. . 296.

etc.²PAULDING. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. Where the treasure is. . nor creeping thing. 299. except. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. etc. there will the heart be also. so. He is not only bold and vociferous. as. as. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. in order that.. after. since. before. whither. that. nor echo. (3) MANNER: how. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. etc. though.. although.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. nor green leaf. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject.²BURKE. whence.²BIBLE. (2) TIME: when. especially that after so. etc. so. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. QUINCY. etc.²IRVING. whenever. nor wing of bird. even if. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. whithersoever. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.. howsoever. ²ALLSTON. since. in case. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. until.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. object. Time. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. sometimes if. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. It is. on condition that. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. as. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. in apposition. provided that. (6) PURPOSE: whether. so.²COOPER. Neither the place in which he found himself. seeing. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place.²WILSON. wherever. lest. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. now.²J. unless. so that. ere. whereas. (7) RESULT: that.. provided. so that. whereto. however. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. while.²DE QUINCEY.

. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. Let the world go how it will. a thousand bodies.² HAWTHORNE.²BURKE.²BYRON. We wish for a thousand heads.²DEFOE. I was again covered with water. So many thoughts moved to and fro.²AMES. Cause. Condition. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Then Denmark blest our chief.² EMERSON.That he gave her wounds repose. H.²EMERSON. Concession. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.²CAMPBELL. Sparing neither whip nor spur. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. but not so long but I held it out.²EMERSON. JACKSON.² WORDSWORTH.That vain it were her eyes to close.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²IRVING.²AMES. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. Manner.So I behold them not.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²COLERIDGE. Now he is dead.² H. Purpose. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. not as they were expected or intended.²AMES. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.²EMERSON. Result. Substantive. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. Comparison. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. reason. As a soldier. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.

300. and hid her there. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. They. some words²for example. While patriotism glowed in his heart. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. No one had yet caught his character. 13. 5. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. however. then. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. while. 14. Besides. The moth fly. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. she faintly pressed her hand. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 4. 7. After he was gone. Exercises.Let us see whether the greatest. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. While a faction is a minority. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. 3. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. the lady called her servant. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. as. etc. 15. the wisest. it will remain harmless. As will have been noticed. He was brought up for the church.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. that. 10. 12. Crept under the leaf. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. since. And they lived happily forever after. as he shot in air. 2. hold a subordinate rank. 9. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. And then recovering. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie.²RUSKIN. her real merit is known at home. . (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. 6. In what point of view.

² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. thus. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. Consequently..²IRVING. even as they would weep. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. in this case.²BYRON." as. If analyzed.Clouded. (2) What words. the expression would be. So silently we seemed to speak. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. as is often equivalent to as if. 304. for example.. As for as if. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. and part as though we parted not. expressing degree if taken separately.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. .² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. In Emerson's sentence. His voice . As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. word groups. they connect.²HOOD. none of the lashings having given way.As though a rose should shut. 301. In poetry. 302. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if.So slowly moved about.. As if. and the frame will suit the picture. In parsing conjunctions. etc. as is shown by the use of as though. SPECIAL REMARKS. and be a bud again." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. As though. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.16. GREELEY. "We meet. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.²EMILY BRONTE.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. 303.

that it might testify of that particular ray. All the postulates of elfin annals. and the like. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. he is also the correlative of nature. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. because.²DEFOE 2. but of the natural. so that expresses result. so it be faithfully imparted. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. 7." said his wife to Martin Luther. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. when.²I find them true in Concord. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. etc. 12. 9. It may be safely trusted. In classifying them. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. as beside his own chimneys. He is the compend of time. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. 4. 10. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye.²is subordinate of condition. It continued raining. . however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. or in the forest. 5. Some conjunctions.² 1. 13. others belong to several classes. compare the sentences..²KINGSLEY In sentence 1.Caution. the Sphinx was slain. 6. they are not known. and its clause is independent. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery.²that the fairies do not like to be named. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. are regularly of one particular class. or in the snow. such as nor. When the gods come among men. so they paddled on. and very seldom?" 8. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. so means therefore. 2. At sea. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. and. dines with as good an appetite. 11. Exercise. he sleeps as warm. so means provided. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. 3. and its clause depends on the other. because it is his. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. and associates as happily. He dismisses without notice his thought. If he could solve the riddle. so that I could not stir abroad. in 3. "Doctor. For example.²EMERSON 3. in 2.

for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. It is clear. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 21. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. that both were wayward. 19.. enthroned. I speak. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. 15. 20. 305. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. whose names I omit. . Now you have the whip in your hand. 16. however. the whole conditions are changed. I never rested until I had a copy of the book.²else it is none. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. 25. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. PREPOSITIONS. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 30. when it was presented to them. won't you lay on? 17. For. in many a heart. you must be. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. And whether consciously or not. 27. 22. 24. There was no iron to be seen. save it were sinful like herself. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. she might have the family countenance. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. in this they agree. of good novels only. Still. It may be so in the majority of cases. 28. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 29. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 26. Goodness must have some edge to it. 18. 23. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. therefore.14.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

as.²B. Like at. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at least. By my faith. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this.²DE QUINCEY. at all. 321.²M. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. expressing the degree of difference. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. D. by the wrecks of time. at once. at any rate.²ID. he stopped. CONWAY.²SWIFT. by the blessed memory of the departed. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. At St..(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. at war. ²PARTON. By. at the worst. Exercise. Richard was standing by the window. (3) Agency or means.² (1) The general meaning of place. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. at peace. (2) Time.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by.²ALDRICH. (4) Measure of excess. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity.²EVERETT. etc. She saw the boat headed for her. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. H. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. at the best. the first port made by the ship. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. at one.²COOPER. at length. At that time [the earth] was richer. 320. at most. at play. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at random. at work. by many a million of acres. by the ruins of nations. STODDARD. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. etc.²R. For. at first. at rest. Exercise. at naught. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. by means near or close to. .²WARNER. Helena.

reason. he repented of his folly.²LAMB. for all his title. etc.²EMERSON. for all slips of hers.²PARKMAN. in behalf of. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. L. H. etc. cause. as being. meaning with regard to. or in spite of.²HOLMES. "Nay. as to. But the Colonel. An Arab woman. (4) Substitution or exchange.One of Eve's family.²H." answered Master Brackett. or extent of space. and leaped for joy. E.²ID. (9) Motive. meaning in the character of. for famine.²PARKMAN..²W. respecting. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. For him. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. they are now for us. poor fellow. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. incitement to action. He and they were for immediate attack.²E. (7) Concession. (6) Like as. The twilight being. but a few sunsets since. ate her child. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. For the rest.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. GARRISON. etc." said the Lady of Lochleven. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. "For a fool.(2) In favor of. BANCROFT. (3) Duration of time. (8) Meaning notwithstanding.²IRVING. meaning although. for the benefit of.. considering that etc. the Colonna motto would fit you best. Still. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity.² RUSKIN. had a forest of poor relations.²STODDARD. (5) Reference. "thou hast counseled wisely. There are gains for all our losses."²SCOTT By my faith. . if your worship can accomplish that.²HOOD. a person or thing.

H. From. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. Of. The original meaning of of was separation or source. cause. Like boys escaped from school. . (3) Time. (2) Origin.²HUXLEY. 322.²HALE. ceased to be merciful.²BANCROFT. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²HUME. The general idea in from is separation or source. or reason. The young cavaliers. from a desire of seeming valiant. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. Exercise. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. if not a desperate man.²H. more. It was from no fault of Nolan's. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.²DRYDEN. nay.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. like from. A distrustful. The From Relation. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. The king holds his authority of the people. 323.²MILTON.²HIGGINSON.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. Exercise. From harmony. It may be with regard to² (1) Place.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. (4) Motive. (1) Origin or source. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science.²ID.

² HUXLEY. etc. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. deprive. etc. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. expressing a part of a number or quantity. (3) With expressions of material. free of. rid. weeds.²ALDRICH. of his own knowledge. . reason. bare of. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. such as ease. More than one altar was richer of his vows. HALE. out of the most unpromising materials. bound with thongs of boar's hide. He is away of his own free will. ask. wide of. disarm. (6) Partitive. clear.²BANCROFT. as north of. that Cromwell once ruled England. Of the Forty. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. ²PARTON. Asked no odds of. cure. Back of that tree. ²GAVARRE. E. or breastpin of native gold. A singular want of all human relation.²ID. especially out of. there were only twenty-one members present.²clear of. The hills were bare of trees. and grass. motive. south of. he had raised a little Gothic chapel.²DICKENS II. purge. Sandals. relieve. You cannot make a boy know. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place.. etc. rob.²HIGGINSON. (d) With words expressing distance. "I am glad of that. demand. etc. etc. Other Relations expressed by Of. deprivation.²PARKMAN. (5) Expressing agency.²LEW WALLACE. beg.²SCOTT Who formed. divest.²BAYARD TAYLOR. free.²BOSWELL."²E. (b) After some adjectives. (c) After nouns expressing lack. White shirt with diamond studs. acquitted them of.

(10) Of reference.²COOPER. when the first is descriptive of the second.²HALLECK. (7) Possessive. of a sudden. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.²BANCROFT. 309..He washed out some of the dirt. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. The fair city of Mexico. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²PRESCOTT. with its object. etc.²SWIFT. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. concerning. for the possessive.²ID. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. .²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. (8) Appositional. being equivalent to an infinitive. CHANNING. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns.²BANCROFT. and the dignity of a queen. of is used in the sense of during.²W. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. of late. (c) Two nouns. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. equal to about. standing. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²BANCROFT. with regard to. (9) Of time.²ALDRICH. (b) Noun and gerund. Idiomatic use with verbs. could give shelter from his contumely. Not even woman's love.²FROUDE. Such a book as that of Job. See also Sec. E.²LOWELL.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. Besides the phrases of old. ²IRVING. The nation of Lilliput. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist.²LAMB.

The general meaning of on is position or direction. To. Exercise. SIGOURNEY. allow. Upon. (3) Reference. avail (one's self).²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. on board. on the wing. on view. It also accompanies the verbs tire. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. repent. On my life. (2) Time.²PARKMAN. Cannon were heard close on the left. Upon is seldom used to express time.²PARKMAN.²DE QUINCEY. Exercise. On. (b) With motion. accept. equal to about. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. consist. such as admit. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. etc. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.²Find sentences with six uses of of. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place.²EMERSON.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. (4) In adjurations. disapprove. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats.²MRS. Upon my reputation and credit. on a sudden. approve. without adding to their meaning. permit. ²BANCROFT.²ALDRICH. etc. and others. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. and not a day more. complain. on trial. 325. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. on the alert. on high. you are eighteen.²BRYANT.²PARKMAN. concerning. . 324.

With expresses the idea of accompaniment. 326. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²LANG. . interest. 268).. In Old English.²B..'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. gay Comedy appears. His brother had died. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. to my taste. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec..Come to the bridal chamber. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. unmasked. Exercise. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.²BENTON To our great delight. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. (2) Expressing result. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to be written over. To the few. to him. We cook the dish to our own appetite. Death!²HALLECK.²GOLDSMITH.²PARTON..²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. had ceased to be.²often to the loss of vigor. Revolutions.²IRVING. (5) Equivalent to according to. it may be genuine poetry.²BULWER. He usually gave his draft to an aid. Nor.²PARKMAN.²HALE. does the mere music.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. whose influence is felt to this hour.²BRYANT. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. But when. mid meant in company with. With. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. (b) Referring to time.

we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. felt it unsafe to trifle further. I think. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.²HALE. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. had already reached the defile. It seemed a supreme moment with him. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. with Heyward at its head. She seemed pleased with the accident.²DE QUINCEY. with all his boldness. or with the haunch of our near leader. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. He expired with these words.²HOWELLS.²SCOTT. he gave millions to the sword. as with you. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding.²DE QUINCEY. Messala. He was wild with delight about Texas. 327. to find the object of the preposition. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²HOWELLS. motive.The advance.²COLERIDGE. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. E.²EMERSON. "poetry is not a pursuit. opinion. first of all. With all his sensibility. Exercise. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. (2) Instrumentality. (3) Cause. reason. but with you. (5) Opposition. .²LANG. Either with the swingle-bar. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. transmitted from the beginning. (4) Estimation. but a pleasure"?²LANG.²CHANNING.²ALDRICH. in spite of.²Find sentences with four uses of with. it is necessary. HALE.²COOPER.²E.²WALLACE (7) Time.

shook it directly over my head. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1.²SWIFT 2. In (1). like the clapping of wings. the malicious rogue. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. (4) from the beginning. the phrase answers the question where. hence we say. I speak these things from a love of justice. or was. The guns were cleared of their lumber. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. which. telling what man. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. I heard a noise just over my head. 2. I looked towards my windows.²ID. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. To our general surprise. came tumbling about my ears.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. Whereupon. I called out several times. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. . beginning. he followed us one day into those gardens. of on. (3) without a country. 3. by which a dozen apples. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. 5. And so on. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. we met the defaulter here. In (3). each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. because I had given the provocation. In (2). The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. Be that as it will. of from. I remember. but all to no purpose. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. and knocked me down flat on my face. before the dwarf left the queen. country. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. 4. I felt my box raised very high in the air. without a country modifies man. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. The object of on board is ships. (2) on which. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. Exercises. of without. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. but I received no other hurt.

Without stop or stay. grasping at the child. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. to one dark and gloomy. 26. For my part. 23. plumed for battle. when. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. He locked his door from mere force of habit. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 17. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 16. 24. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 25. 14. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 20. The savage army was in war-paint. 10. in town. On all subjects known to man. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 15. 19. after a restful morning. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. The mother sank and fell. His breeches were of black silk. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine.He spurred his courser on. With all his learning. 12. 21. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. . The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 11. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 27. Carteret was far from being a pedant. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. I like to see the passing. 18. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. he favored the world with his opinions. 13. 7.6. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. in this respect. 9. 29. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. 22. 8.

Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. not merely by the amount of the tax. That was a dreadful mistake.²COLERIDGE. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.²WEBSTER. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. (3) As a relative pronoun. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. that you might behold this joyous day.That makes the heavens be mute.² JOHNSON.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (4) As an adverb of degree. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. That is what I understand by scientific education. (1) Relative pronoun. and be proud in the midst of its toil. That night was a memorable one. . (2) As an adjective pronoun. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. 330. (b) Of result. A few are discussed below. (a) Indefinite relative. WHAT.²STOCKTON. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²WEBSTER.²WEBSTER. And now it is like an angel's song. 328.²HUXLEY. (c) Substantive conjunction. 329. and not according to form.30. We wish that labor may look up here. THAT.²BEECHER. He will raise the price.

he knows what good people are to be found there. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. To say what good of fashion we can.S. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. (b) Indirect question.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. Cox. silent still.. What with the Maltese goats. BUT.. (9) As an is impossible to determine. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. (8) Conjunction.. or not only. What.. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.²EMERSON. but the result of calculation. partly. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. 331.. . (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question..but.these sounds are only to be heard.Those shadowy recollections.²S. (b) Indirect question. (7) Adverb of degree. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. after not only. "I'll tell you what.." (4) Relative adjective. (6) Exclamatory adjective. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.. and silent all!²BYRON.²ID. nearly equivalent to partly.² Pera. What.²WEBSTER. If he has [been in America].Which be they what they may. it rests on reality.²WORDSWORTH.²EMERSON.. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. to see what might be hidden.. At what rate these materials would be distributed.. (b) Copulative.²ID. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.

. but piercing cries. meaning except. towards order. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. sometimes same.²SHELLEY.. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (d) Of reason. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. (2) Relative pronoun. Who knows but. after such.. (b) Substantive. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²CARLYLE. after a negative. I shall see but little of it. meaning only. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. than.²EMERSON. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. or who .. . 332.. (e) Introducing an appositive word. (5) Adverb. AS. (c) Of degree.. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. Doing duty as a guard.²HAWTHORNE. To lead but one measure.. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. equivalent to that .²IRVING. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. (4) Relative pronoun. stands for that .He yearned to our patriot bands. meaning otherwise . ²CARLYLE. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. not. at all moments.²SCOTT. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU.²IRVING. (b) Of manner. (3) Preposition. on all sides. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.²MRS BROWNING.²LAMB. not. not.. like the dog.²FRANKLIN.Then arose not only tears.²IRVING.

They look.-SCOTT. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. this. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. Introduces a clause.² A timid. . No Emperor. In each case.²DARWIN.²ALDRICH. There is no statue like this living man. If the verb is expressed. Through which they put their heads. (1) An adjective. and as or as if takes its place. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. but its verb is omitted. ²PARKMAN. like summer ocean's.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following.LIKE. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. Give Ruskin space enough. and was clearly an adjective. staring like a bewildered man.²EMERSON. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. In this second use. and is followed by a dative-objective. like him awhile ago. 333. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village.²LAMB.² HAWTHORNE. like Martin was. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.²CASS. like a cook beating eggs.²HAWTHORNE. This follows a verb or a verbal. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. I do with my friends as I do with my books. That face.²HALLECK. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. Stirring it vigorously.²MAYHEW. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. indeed. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²EMERSON. nervous child. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. but this is not considered good usage: for example.²LONGFELLOW. like drops out.²ALDRICH. Note the difference between these two uses. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²SHAKESPEARE.²HIGGINSON. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. NOTE.

that is. as. etc. clauses introduced by conjunctions. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. in separating them into their component parts. 336. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. . it is necessary to become expert in analysis." PART II." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. What analysis is. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. Definition. subject and predicate. Value of analysis. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. tut! buzz! etc. Definition. pronoun. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb].: for example. 334. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell.INTERJECTIONS. but it still retains its identity as noun. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. entering into the structure of a sentence.. verb.²in determining case. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. that is. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. 335. Some of these are imitative sounds. etc.

338.²a subject and a predicate. 339. "Hath he not always treasures. but the sentence would still be declarative. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. (2) Interrogative. "Old year. (3) Imperative. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. 337." "What wouldst thou do. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. But now all is to be changed. A rare old plant is the ivy green. Division according to number of statements. 2.Kinds of sentences as to form. which puts the thought in a question. which expresses command. but according to how many statements there are. but by no means vulgar. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. or imperative. Examples of these three kinds are. or request. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. Definition: Predicate. entreaty. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. always friends?" imperative. Definition. not according to the form in which a thought is put. Every sentence must contain two parts. old man?" "Be thou familiar. according to form. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. you must not die!" interrogative. hence. This is the most common one. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. or command: for example. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. declarative. question. "Come to the bridal chamber. ." 340. "The quality of mercy is not strained. SIMPLE SENTENCES. interrogative.

In the interrogative sentence. But if we try this with the second sentence. thou. Listen. and the real subject is the latter. 3. 5. especially in poetry. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. or ye) is in most cases omitted. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 341. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. 2.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. adjective." Exercise. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. always reduce them to the order of a statement. we have some trouble. the subject is frequently after the verb. "[You] behold her single in the field. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. and is to be supplied. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. to an ignorant man. and our definition must be the following. . Slavery they can have anywhere. all. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. 8. Thus. 6. not of a rare old plant.²What is to be changed? Answer. the subject (you.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence.²What is the ivy green? Answer. or an interrogative pronoun. 7. as. In analyzing such sentences. 4. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. Consequently. or adverb that asks about the subject. we say all is the subject of the sentence. but about the ivy green. on the other hand. The last of all the Bards was he. to suit all cases:² Subject. a rare old plant.

and by object we mean the direct object. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (3) The object. The transitive verb often requires." Complement: 344. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. but of call chief. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. Indirect object. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. and means summoned. The subject and predicate have been discussed. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. (2) The predicate. direct. (6) Independent elements. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.10. (5) Modifiers. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. 342. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. "Ye call me chief. "Ye honor me. in addition to the object. but it is a true complement. 343. (4) The complements. for example. Of a transitive verb. and me here is not the object simply of call." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). just as if to say. Direct Object." indirect.²transitive and intransitive. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. or second object. but chief belongs to the verb. .

and. not containing a verb." 345. appear. 'Ay. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. "Brow and head were round. 347." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. 364." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. to the completion of this man of the world. See sentence 19. Phrases. above sixty. as in the sentence. 352. seem. introduced by a preposition: for example. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . taste. 346. in the original Opium Confessions. Complement of an intransitive verb. etc." (3) INFINITIVE. I mentioned a case of that nature." Things used as Subject. for instance. and of massive weight.. in exercise following Sec. but used as a single modifier." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. ay. more familiarly." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. sir!' rang out in response. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk." (2) PARTICIPIAL. and barring the door. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it." "He was termed Thomas. "A cheery." Also an expression used as a noun. Thom of the Gills." "The good man. An intransitive verb. especially the forms of be. or. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. A phrase is a group of words. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. 355. As to form. in the popular judgment. feel. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. become." All these complete intransitive verbs. as. 351." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. as in drowning. he was now getting old.

" (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. 341. was heard one syllable to justify. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject." 348.²the infinitive phrase." In this sentence." Things used as Complement. "Therein has been." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. Disguised infinitive subject. or the thundering of organs. or their religion from their sect." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." The for did not belong there originally." "Never. and by Saint George!' said the King. but obscures the real subject." "There are asking eyes. etc." "The dead are there." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. "'By God. but they will be given in detail here. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). (4) After "there introductory. for which see Sec. 349. ." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." etc. my deficiency. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. I saw the quick and the dead. (2) In interrogative sentences. but the real or logical subject is to print." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. prowling eyes.²the talent of starting the game. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." Things used as Direct Object. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. and ever will be. asserting eyes. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. from their lips.

" (4) Participle. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object.350." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. and the words italicized are still complements." "Their tempers.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. or Complement." "I hear the echoes throng." Modifiers." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. (3) Infinitive." "She asked her father's permission." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny.²heads or tails. 351. and.²completing the predicate. or the equivalent of the noun. doubtless." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. and whenever the complement is a noun. Modifiers of Subject. the shepherd girl. I. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. complements of the predicate." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. the object is made the subject by being passive. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. and explaining or modifying the subject. Like all the complements in this list." "Serving others is serving us. Of a transitive verb. Object. at the same time.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." In this last sentence. As complement of a transitive verb. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. As complement of an intransitive verb. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." . they are adjuncts of the object.

) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. Tells how.²proud. tell whether the subject." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. not with nature." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. and modify the predicate in the same way. the verb being omitted." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. interpreting for him the most difficult truths." Exercise. was now called upon for his defense. 357-363. and leading him from star to star. II. "He died like a God. Since the predicate is always a verb. object. austere. no sociable angel. 351." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. the prisoner at the bar." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. given at the request of a Dutch lady. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. Modifiers of the Predicate." "Him. but with other men." In such a sentence as. 352. or complement is modified. was the scene from King John. or . this young idolater." "Give them not only noble teachings. Retained with passive." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him." (For participial and infinitive phrases.²In each sentence in Sec. unforgiving." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. but noble teachers." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." "In the twinkling of an eye. but it is really a contracted clause. I have seasoned for thee. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. see further Secs.

When the verb is changed from active to passive. and the direct object is retained: for example. 4. and as many to oppose it." Exercises. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. no relief to the dead prosaic level. 5. . predicate. how far." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. no emotion. 3. according to old philosophers. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. is good in the making." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. 7." "One way lies hope." (6) Adverbial objective. 2. and. gives wonderful animation. Evil. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. and other measures of precaution. These answer the question when.. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. in this center? 4. 7. or how long. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. They do not wish to be lovely. But anger drives a man to say anything. 8. negative. to the animal strength and spirits. His books have no melody. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. 6. 5. (b) Pick out the subject. he liked. in regard to particulars. the indirect object is retained. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. I took. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. predicate. Why does the horizon hold me fast. On the voyage to Egypt. 3. no humor. 2. etc. with my joy and grief. after dinner. Fashion does not often caress the great. 6. This. but to be loved. (a) Pick out subject. To the men of this world. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. and (direct) object:² 1. a sort of personality to the whole writing. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. but the children of the great." "All such knowledge should be given her.

the present Archbishop of Dublin. viz. Their intention was to have a gay. 3. I promised her protection against all ghosts. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. To suffer and to do. I gave him an address to my friend. 3. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. 4. this imperial rider. 5. Unhorse me. this nun so martial. y y y y Compound Subject. then. this dragoon so lovely. 4. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. after their long confinement to a ship. Yes. A river formed the boundary. in little peaceful Easedale.. upwards. 2. . and a member of the world. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth.²the river Meuse. for the first time. the attorney. 4. burthened with the anxieties of a man. 2.y 8. that was thy portion in life. That night. 5. 2.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. etc. Compound Predicate. the blooming cornet. at length the warrior lady. I felt myself. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. then. downwards. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. to the right and to the left. 6. six children sat by a peat fire. Not the less I owe thee justice. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. Paint me. at the chief hotel. 3. a room seventeen feet by twelve. In one feature. must visit again the home of her childhood. happy dinner. expecting the return of their parents. Not compound sentences.

" "The name of the child.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. etc. the object. the air of the mother. and. the predicate. hurry. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. my brave young man!" . do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. several modifiers. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. complements. I'm with you once again. however. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. "The company broke up. Bishop." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. shouldered the rusty firelock. they are not a necessary part." Sentences with compound predicates are." And so with complements. in the sentence. the tone of her voice. The exclamatory expression. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. may be the person or thing addressed. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. turned his steps homeward. ulcer. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. 355." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. then the grammatical subject and predicate. forming a sentence: "Oh. together with its modifiers. and its object or complement. etc." "He shook his head. the simple subject is situation. modifiers. two or more subjects of the same predicate. Independent Elements of the Sentence. in all such sentences as we quote below. same as (1). with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. the verb)." "Ye crags and peaks. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. "Ah. Larger view of a sentence. hurry. that is.353. exposes. above: thus. together with all its modifiers. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. Examples of compound subjects are." "Voyages and travels I would also have. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence.. For example. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. 354. and the rest is the logical predicate. etc." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. but it is to be noticed that. Of this.

4). such as perhaps. moreover. such as however. see Sec." (5) Participial phrase: "But. 351." "Truth to say. how you're winking!" "Now. and so on. then." (6) Single words: as. the company broke up. modifying a noun. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES." (2) Adverbial. he was a conscientious man. that have an office in the sentence. modifying the predicate.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short." "Why.. therefore. besides. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. grandma. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. 352. why. generally speaking." "No." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. 350. "Oh.. y (2) The adverbial use. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. . 357. prepositional phrases may be. pronoun. now. 356. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. undoubtedly. object. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. or complement (see Sec. see Sec. (1) Adjectival. he closed his literary toils at dinner. already noticed. nevertheless. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. etc." Another caution. he somehow lived along. 3. (b) As a modifier of subject. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. her noticing even this is creditable. and some conjunctions. yes! everybody knew them. truly." "At all events. instances of which were seen in Sec. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. really." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. or word used as a noun: for example. The words well. six quill-driving gentlemen. 355. These need close watching. There are some adverbs. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. 6)." (3) Independent. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. In their use. etc. this story runs thus." "Well. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. to the best of my remembrance. 4). let him perish.

" "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. or as nearly so as the student will require. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. but require somewhat closer attention." In this sentence.would. and they will be presented here in full.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. This case excepted." etc. (5). etc." (c) With the definite forms of go.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. The verbal use. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. "Because I was. thus. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. 355.]. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business.: as in the sentences." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. being equivalent to a future with obligation. etc. 358." "There.can (could). the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. therefore. containing no matters of business. y (a) With may (might). equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. he should not have known them at all. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. my dear. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. (1) Completing an incomplete verb.seem.should. "The letter of introduction. modifying was speedily run through. See Sec. I. and hence is adverbial. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. was speedily run through. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. necessity. but having no other office than a verbal one. Wilt thou." (b) With the forms of be. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . and teach her how to be happy and good. ought.

to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. To test this. 351. notice the following:² In (1). to hear McOrator after dinner." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. The substantive use. 361. . but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. "But there was no time to be lost. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. etc. to look means that he might look. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. object." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. to please is equivalent to that he may please." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. III. above. already examined. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. is evident from the meaning of the sentences." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again.²both purpose clauses. and the eyes to fill?" 359." "He insisted on his right to forget her." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. etc." "Are you mad. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. complement.: for example." "To teach is to learn. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. was to have the foe's life at their mercy." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). the Scotch fighting all the battles. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. 361 are used adverbially. explanatory of a noun preceding: as.. (4) In apposition. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause." "To say what good of fashion we can. IV. 5). The adjectival use." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. The adverbial use." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. modifying a noun that may be a subject.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. Don Guzman. hang the idiot." 360. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. 362. result. II. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. "Do they not cause the heart to beat.

give the complement (Secs. 2. savage and serene in one hour. V. to find shows the result of the return. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions.²both expressing condition. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. In (3). equivalent to that you betray. (3). 351). and to betray and to bring express the reason. etc.. which is of two kinds. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. Our life is March weather." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence." (See also Sec. 3.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS.In (2). 349).. . to hear means if you should hear. as in Sec. object. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. (5) The subject (Sec. 363. to part means because I part. The independent use. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 347). I will try to keep the balance true. In (4). (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 352). not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. etc. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. If it is an incomplete verb. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. 268. etc. 351). and to say is equivalent to if we say. must be in a life. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. 351). (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. give² (1) The predicate. In analyzing simple sentences. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. (7) Independent elements (Sec. 355. 4. In (5). not in a book. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 355). 364.

16.4. in popular use. nor himself. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men.He sat in the shower. 22. 6. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. 12. 8. He risked everything. Her aims were simple and obvious. always in a bad plight. to keep England out of war.Burnt green and blue and white. a good shot. We are always in peril.The old crow of Cairo. 19. with eager energy. The word conscience has become almost confined. His opinion is always original. 18.²to preserve her throne. 11. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. just on the edge of destruction. To these gifts of nature. 17. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. nor troops. and to the purpose. Through the years and the centuries. 9. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. neither ammunition. I have heard Coleridge talk. nor generals. 14. to the moral sphere. 10. 7. an accomplished scholar.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. through toys and atoms. a graceful dancer. You may ramble a whole day together. 21. the carrion crow. 23. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. two stricken hours. a skilled musician. like a witch's oils. 13. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. To be hurried away by every event. 5. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. . and every moment discover something new. 20. nor money. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. The water. might be called flabby and irresolute. is to have no political system at all. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 24. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 15. through evil agents. and spared nothing. to restore civil and religious order. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. good and amiable otherwise. Old Adam. The whole figure and air.

²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. I dare this. Upon this shore stood. 27. Few in number. 38. 37. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground.25. in this world. 34. 29. haply. and in my own garden. ready to receive her. 33.Distant. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. and. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 39. to be a reproach to such goodness. the ship was in an uproar. The cry. 41. Supposing this computation to be correct. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. 40. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. upon my own ground. 26. or perhaps one virtue. in front of all this mighty crowd. still. In the Acadian land. Of the same grandeur. This amiable relative. it would not have been filial or ladylike. Must we in all things look for the how. in less heroic and poetic form.Effacing many a stain of former crime. an elderly man. proud foe. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. the prime minister of Spain. time-honored. Oxford. 36. 31. and no provisions but wild berries. Now. the same Condé Olivarez. She had made a two days' march. But yield. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. 30. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. the present capital of New England. 32. and the wherefore? . Fair name might he have handed down. secluded. and the why. had but one foible. to bid you leave the place now and forever. The villain. 35. I hate him and myself. baggage far in the rear.

be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement.² "She is like some tender tree." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. The simple sentence the basis." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences." Sentences with like. 367. are really contracted clauses. the expressions of manner introduced by like. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. as would be the connective instead of like. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. . (Sec.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. the pride and beauty of the grove. COMPLEX SENTENCES. Words left out after than or as. 366. 365." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. As shown in Part I. 333)." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities." This must. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country.From her own loved island of sorrow. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. however. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. if they were expanded. made merely for convenience and smoothness.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. which is the unit of speech. though often treated as phrases. thus. as. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity." To show that these words are really omitted. but.

that is. object." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. murmur. and the next one. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. etc. 370.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. Independent clause. complements.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. 371. and the last. and modifier. which are so united that one member is the main one.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. containing a verb with its subject. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. object. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware.²the other members subordinate to it. logically depends on suffering. Definition. A principal. then we recognize this as the main statement. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind.. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. how great . The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. Hence the following definition:² Definition. 368. is taken in. complement.²the backbone. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). . that . we are aware. or it may be applied to the others. predicate. CLAUSES. modifiers. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence.. or dependent on it. A clause is a division of a sentence. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur.²the dependent or subordinate clauses.. 369. main. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. suffering. as in this sentence.. each clause has its subject.

. Kinds. infinitive. for example. and it is . that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. impertinences. or adverbs." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. ADJECTIVE.. and ADVERB clauses. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. . or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. (a) Ordinary apposition. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. We ourselves are getting ." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. But since they are complex in form.' is an electric touch. thus. clauses are divided into NOUN. and the whole clause is not." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. attention is called to them here. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise.. Noun Clauses. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. for a hundred years. impertinences²would be grammatical. so the object clause is retained." Just as the object noun. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. etc.." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. put an end to my fancies. pronoun.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences.. (b) that are . for a time." 374. As to their office in the sentence." (2) Object of a verb. with a noun clause in apposition with it. 5)." "I was told that the house had not been shut." (4) Apposition. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. night or day. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. 373. for example. but logically the sentence is. adjectives. over which the torrent came tumbling. verbal. 372.Dependent clause." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend.. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. 'I know that he can toil terribly. 352.

Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. how it changed from shape to shape. of a nation. 10. 3. 375. 4. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. where. Frequently there is no connecting word. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. which. he could know nothing. he would repent it. whither. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. and not on the sentiment. What history it had. But the fact is.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. a relative pronoun being understood." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. that he was a scheming impostor. or equivalent of a noun. Examples of adjective clauses. 7. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. in the sentence." Exercise. 9. a falsehood incarnate. etc. Such a man is what we call an original man. As the office of an adjective is to modify. I was napping. that all safe legislation must be based. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. Adjective Clauses. wherein. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. Other examples of this construction are. whether he should choose one or not. The reply of Socrates. sometimes by the conjunctions when. no man will ever know. still remains reasonable. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. . that.² "It is on the understanding. 2. as. whence. that. 8. whereby. 6. but. Except by what he could see for himself. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. 5.

Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. 2.e. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. he begins to help us more as an effect. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. ." Exercise. I walked home with Calhoun. and tell what each one modifies." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. Adverbial Clauses. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. the champions advanced through the lists. all is vacancy. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. 4. whether subject. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 1. which Rowena tasted. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. 6. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements.376. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. 3. 5. No man is reason or illumination.." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. or that essence we were looking for. 10. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. i. 7. object. One of the maidens presented a silver cup." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. 9. etc. 11. 8. which formed the center of the mansion. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. Pick out the adjective clauses.

since he was too great to care to be original." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. no matter what remains. but they require careful study. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go." (7) RESULT. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly." These mean no matter how good. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. etc. and will be given in detail." "He went several times to England. shaping our actions. to make up our shortcomings. tell what kind each is." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. Joanna is better." (5) DEGREE. introduced by indefinite relatives. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. etc." "When he was come up to Christian. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. is wider. it takes precedence of everything else. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. he goes away as if nothing had happened. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." "The right conclusion is. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church." (3) REASON. an adjective." (9) CONCESSION." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. the milestones are grave-stones. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. or an adverb. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. adverbs." "Who cares for that. and adverbial conjunctions. whatever." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. the wider is the horizon of their thought. expressing the degree in which the horizon. that we should try. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. 378. however. etc." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion.. Exercise. and what it modifies:² .² whoever. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. however good she may be as a witness.: "But still." "The broader their education is.377." "After leaving the whole party under the table. a verbal." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. with examples. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. so far as we can." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification.

howling and whistling. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. when the wind was unruly." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. on a dark wintry night. incoherent exclamations. to tell the truth. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . (2) First take the sentence as a whole. as they sometimes did. banging about doors and windows. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. etc." 2. they might perhaps say of their visitors. 'Well. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. of which clause Odin is the subject. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. If the children gathered about her. find the principal subject and principal predicate. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. 380. 3. and twirling weathercocks. and modifiers. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. in the sentence. For example. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. its object is that Odin was a reality. snatching up stones to fling at them. then treat noun clauses as nouns. predicate. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit.1. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. with shrill. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. we are a little disappointed. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. object. 379. so as to picture the parts and their relations.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air.

. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. as seen in the "map" (Sec.. d. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. Exercises. 3. 364. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381.. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 2. (1) Find the principal clause.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. 364. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. 380). This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses.

She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 13. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. of a light hazel. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 18. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. But now that she has become an establishment. 14. 10. could not have been effected. that. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. or whether any. counselor that had none for herself. 5. that pressed her with an objection. 16. the flower should revive for us. which. 6. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. Whether she said the word is uncertain. the mixed result. not so much for travelers that were few. for yours. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident.4. 22. The deep eyes. 12. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 7. namely. 8. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. if applied to the Bible. The night proved unusually dark. 17. 9. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. Now. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 24. had we been worse. M. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. . I like that representation they have of the tree. Had they been better chemists. as for armies that were too many by half. 21. 15. 19. And those will often pity that weakness most. 23. bishop. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 20. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. dying for them. whom I choose. This is she. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. 11. the shepherd girl. He was what our country people call an old one. Here lay two great roads. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. Next came a wretched Dominican. who would yield to it least.

until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. 6. 383. 2. we cannot adequately say. . "was ever written down by any but itself." 4. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. if there be one to whom I am not equal. 27. and stamped with his right number. speed. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. That which we do not believe. These things we are forced to say. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. that it was no more than his daily walk. and not from his heart. the following complex sentences:² 1. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. 382. questions. if continuously extended. 3. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. 30. How formed. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. 7. Hence the definition. The writer who takes his subject from his ear.25." said Bentley.² Definition. 28. but above it. would easily reach. COMPOUND SENTENCES. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 26. 380. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 5. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. then map out as in Sec. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. is to speak and write sincerely. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. though we may repeat the words never so often. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. and temper. or commands. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. (b) First analyze. "No book. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. and what content I can find in conversing with each.²which will not be disposed of. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained.

and not the form of the connective. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite.. and it shall be the universal sense. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. as but. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. however. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). whereas. Study the thought. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. in (3). 297). and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. moon-like ray" (adversative). a simple member. "Only the star dazzles. Speak your latent conviction. others sometimes coördinate. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. etc. 383 (1). and none but he knows what that is which he can do. nor does he know until he has tried. nor. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. Of the following illustrative sentences. 386. while (whilst). (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. yet. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. . and nor the second and third complex members. and which complex:² 1. he is twice a man. if there are any. or but. he soliloquizes. Some of these are now conjunctions. a complex member. in (2). which are simple statements. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. the semicolon separates the first. etc." 384. 385. as in Sec. Another example is. he walks with arms akimbo. he dilates. the waving grass." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. for. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. the semicolons cut apart the independent members." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. tell which are compound. from the second. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. Connectives. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. the planet has a faint. The division into members will be easier. now adverbs or prepositions. Exercise. Thus in (1). and connects the first and second complex members. The coördinate conjunctions and.

the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 364. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. Love. In this manner. he grew up to be a mild. 3. however. for example. and as yet very early in the morning. . 387. all pain. 4. passed in that time. 381. or. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 8. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. I can still receive. is particular. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. you have gained something else. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. I can yet love. 14. the tax is certain. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 3. All loss. Man does not stand in awe of man. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. that it was Easter Sunday. yield to them heart and life. Exercise. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. unobtrusive boy. and thou shalt be loved. (i) Separate it into its main members. quiet. 13.2. 4. 2. 11. 5. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. you lose something. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. and for everything you gain. 12. 7. 10. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 6. The gain is apparent. to find a pot of buried gold. so is every one of its parts. and not by what each is. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. For everything you have missed. 9. However some may think him wanting in zeal. from a happy yet often pensive child. nay. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. Whilst the world is thus dual. yet when the devout motions of the soul come.

only that they may brag and conquer there. and he learns who receives. is as thin and timid as any. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. 9. We see the noble afar off. and they repel us. puts the parties on a convenient footing. or men will never know and honor him aright. that let him communicate. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. Stand aside. 14. or we read books. as children. one is afraid. Trust men. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and they will be true to you. and each shows only what lies at its focus. whilst frankness invites frankness. and makes their business a friendship. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves." says the haymaker." "keep the rake. and the peace of society is often kept. if you rip up his claims. abide by it. 16. He teaches who gives. 11. or sail with God the seas. and not an emotion of bravery. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. 17. 15. and not a thought has enriched either party. because. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow.5. and the other dares not. 18. 7. ." says the smith. "as nigh the scythe as you can. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. and they will show themselves great. and the cart as nigh the rake. which always make the Actual ridiculous. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. 6. why should we intrude? 10. modesty. give those merits room. crook and hide. "the iron is white. let them mount and expand. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. 8. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. Come into port greatly." 13. or hope. treat them greatly. 20. Whatever he knows and thinks. or we pursue persons. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. 19. feign to confess here. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. We go to Europe. "Strike. 21. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. When you have chosen your part. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. They will shuffle and crow. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies.

388. INTRODUCTORY.22. 25. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . So does culture with us. Essential point in English syntax. 380. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. 23. so readily and lavishly they promise.²agreement and government. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. the department of syntax will be a small affair. We see young men who owe us a new world. pronoun and antecedent. adjective and noun. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. but they never acquit the debt. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. By way of introduction. SYNTAX. Following the Latin method. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. or. 24. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. but go about your business anywhere. Do not craze yourself with thinking. if they live. they die young. verb and subject. it ends in headache. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. 390. but its leading characteristic is. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. and dodge the account. it never was known to fall into the rear. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. Ground covered by syntax. they lose themselves in the crowd. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. PART III.

Some rules not rigid. Why study syntax? 391. also expressing a possessive relation. and whose judgment. therefore. but are not now. As an illustration of the last remark. 393. This is not logical. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. In some cases. For example. When usage varies as to a given construction. Also in the sentence. authorities²that is. both forms will be given in the following pages. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used.² First. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. distinct forms would be used. "None remained but he. the order being inverted. There is. The basis of syntax. and it would not matter which one stood first. or settler may be the subject. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. then. or when they exist side by side in good usage. and added to it the preposition of. Second. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. Savage may be the subject. "The savage here the settler slew. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. as to study inflected forms. 392." is ambiguous. pronoun and antecedent. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. In Latin. or the same writer will use both indifferently. some of which conform to classical grammar. . etc.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. sometimes verb and subject. following the regular order of subject. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. take the sentence." In this there is a possessive form. and nothing but important points will be considered. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms." that is. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. and imitate it. good English. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). the sentence. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition.

the shore of Galilee. but imply separate possession or ownership.²EMERSON. Mill's and Mr. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. Bentham's principles together.NOUNS. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom." Juletta tells. 397. and Pope's. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. for example.²ROWE. and Harley's. 408).²BYRON. the antechamber of the High Priest. 394. or indicate joint ownership or possession. and Peterborough's.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Woman. Joint possession.²MACAULAY. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. the possessive sign is used with each noun.²MILTON. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. .²RUSKIN. Separate possession. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. and Paul's. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. He kept Bolingbroke's. Use of the possessive. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. 395. sense and nature's easy fool. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. etc. and Peter's.² Live your king and country's best support. PRONOUNS. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. Putting Mr.²THACKERAY.²MCCULLOCH. as. 396. ²ID.

²POPE. the real thought being forgotten. others are generally. there are two general rules that require attention.) "The young Harper.²BYRON. Bedott Papers. I. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.²SOUTHEY. together with the relative who. Since most of the personal pronouns. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. 398.²TROLLOPE. . "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. Objective for the nominative. But he must be a stronger than thee. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.²SHAKESPEARE.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. as. the true relation of the words is misunderstood." 400. and should be the nominative form. thus." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. General rules. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. who. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. for example. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. the last expression has the support of many good writers. Some of the violations are universally condemned. 399. whom is the complement after the verb am. No mightier than thyself or me.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. sanctioned.²WHITCHER. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all.PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²THACKERAY. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. This should be "as she. if not universally. Still.

is. . One exception is to be noted. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance."²WM. are. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. BLACK. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.²FIELDING.²PARTON. But still it is not she.² One I remember especially. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS."²WINTHROP." 401.²MACAULAY. In spoken English. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was." There is no special reason for this.²SCOTT. "Who's there?"²"Me. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. namely.²RUSKIN. both in England and America. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. A safe rule. on the other hand.²KINGSLEY. The camp of Richard of England. it will not be me.²THACKERAY. "If there is any one embarrassed. as. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.² For there was little doubt that it was he. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who.²LONGFELLOW. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. the objective form is regularly found. unless a special. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. for example. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. Patrick the Porter. "Than whom. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. The usage is too common to need further examples. but such is the fact."²KINGSLEY. and the other forms of the verb be.²COLERIDGE. And it was heThat made the ship to go.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. they are yet holier than we.

object of saw). It is not me you are in love with. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. . 8. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. If there ever was a rogue in the world. but not he" (he should be him. or us). Whom they were I really cannot specify. I speak not to" (he should be him. and prepositions. (3) By forgetting the construction.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. 404. as this from Shakespeare. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). Me in exclamations. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. or this.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. now. verbal. 7.Exercise. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. 10. "Ask the murderer. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 3. as. 2. it is me. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. as. 11." the word being in apposition with murderer). 5. or preposition which governs it. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. the object of to). you or me. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. Truth is mightier than us all. verbals." 6. as. 403. 4. 9. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. Nominative for the objective. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. You know whom it is that you thus charge. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women.²MILTON. used after verbs. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me.

"Who did you see?" or. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. who interrogative. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. I arraign. partial Nature. but he. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. 406.²BYRON. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Who have we here?²ID. all but he. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. for example. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. as. "Who were they talking to?" etc.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. I've sworn. . Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. as well as the objective.²BYRON. Thy shores are empires. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²KINGSLEY.Exception 1. as. Let you and I look at these. We regularly say.²STEELE.²GOLDSMITH.²KINGSLEY. and is usually avoided. etc. None.Shall be left upon the morn. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Nature. changed in all save thee.²KINGSLEY. after the preposition but (sometimes save). It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Thou. Exception 2. for they say there are none such in the world. 405.² All were knocked down but us two. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. save thou and thine. 2. Exercise. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following.

²SCOTT. 11. 12. and they know that as well as me. POSSESSIVE FORMS. This usage is not frequent. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. 5. Preceding a gerund. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. or objective? . "Nonsense!" said Amyas. BROWN.²THACKERAY. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. who. 10. with Jortin and Thirlby. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea." 4. 9.²DE QUINCEY.²MACAULAY. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 6. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear.3. As antecedent of a relative. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. They crowned him long ago. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach.²RUSKIN.²possessive. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.²C. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. 7. Bartholomew. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 407. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. B. Markland. II. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.Ye I salute. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. 8. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.

sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.² SCOTT. and the meaning is. We heard of Brown. object of heard of. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. The use of the objective is older. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. Both types of sentences are found. both are gerunds. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. Here I state them only in brief. Why both are found. [who was] studying law. and that in the second. Possessive.²MACAULAY." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. as he turned away from his wife. Objective. In the examples quoted. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. The last incident which I recollect.²DICKENS. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair." That is. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. . There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.²RUSKIN. and asked why it was not made. that the bitterness of death was past. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.²BREWER. etc. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him.² THACKERAY. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind.²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house.² CARLYLE. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted.² IRVING. sometimes it has the objective.408. studying is a gerund. But in common use there is no such distinction. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.

The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²DEFOE.²CABLE. and ought to agree with them in person.²RUSKIN. . 409.²DE QUINCEY. or is a distributive word.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. the pronoun will be neuter singular.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²when the antecedent. Every city threw open its gates. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. BROCKDEN BROWN. preceded by a distributive.² BRYANT. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²AUDUBON. Watch for the real antecedent. If any one did not know it. and gender. it was his own fault. 410. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. taking in each of many persons. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. Everybody had his own life to think of. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. The pale realms of shade.²HOLMES.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²HUXLEY. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²DE QUINCEY. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender.²EMERSON III. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²THACKERAY. if the antecedent is neuter.²THOREAU.²C. In such a case as the last three sentences. Examples of these constructions are. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. number. in one person. where there were examinations.

Whosoever hath any gold.²HUXLEY.²PALGRAVE. let them break it off.²EMERSON.²SCOTT.²THACKERAY. By using the plural pronoun. 411.²PALEY. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²DEFOE. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²PAULDING. This is not considered the best usage. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. . Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²ID. and giving them means of being so. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²BIBLE. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Struggling for life.²BYRON.²ID. for example. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there.²FIELDING.²RUSKIN. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.Avoided: By using both pronouns. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. The sun. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. till they have lost him. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. not a mowing idiot.²AUSTEN.² Not the feeblest grandame. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. If the part deserve any comment. as anybody in their senses would have done. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.

who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side.²ID. What these terms mean.² SHERIDAN. and that are restrictive or not. tell whether who. In the following examples. or what was become of her." A relative.Where she was gone. Exercise. etc. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. or unrestrictive. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. that being considered already clear. As to their conjunctive use. because." It defines beggar. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as.²In the above sentences.) and a personal pronoun. when restrictive. 412. no one could take upon them to say. but. That is in most cases restrictive. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. "I gave it to the beggar. 2. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers." This means. unless both genders are implied. It adds a new statement to what precedes. who went away. and that always restrictive. A relative. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. 1. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. and does not add a new statement. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. which. but. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. which. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. as. in each instance:² Who. . and he went away. 413. according to the practice of every modern writer. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. Exercise. I.²HAWTHORNE. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²ADDISON. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. when coördinating. the definite relatives who. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate.

414. However. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. etc. We say I.3. A grizzly-looking man appeared. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. On hearing their plan. they. BEECHER 5. and it is called logic. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.²ID. these or that which. 13. Hare has printed. The rule. long arms and legs. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. that were often vicious. he. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. etc. W. 12. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. 4. 7. 9. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced.²ADDISON. In what sense true. . the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. in the sentence. That.²ID. you. 11. because of its antecedent. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.²H." that is invariable as to person and number. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. and over England are saying.² NEWMAN. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. Which.² IRVING. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. down. she agreed to join the party.²HOLMES. which Mr. who. etc. The general rule is. which was to go over the Cordilleras. it makes the verb third person singular. 14.²DE QUINCEY.² MOTLEY. 10.² CARLYLE. II.²DE QUINCEY. So different from the wild. With narrow shoulders. as that does not vary for person or number.²THOREAU. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. Yet how many are there who up. For example. but. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. 8.. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. 6.

[singular or plural." or. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come...²ADDISON.²BOWLES. the true antecedent. but the former has good authority. ARNOLD. MORSE. . This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. others regard books as the antecedent. etc.²LOWELL. 415.²LECKY. who rarely speak at all. The latter is rather more frequent.. etc.. "one of the finest books that has been published. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.²SCOTT. Singular. with one as the principal word.. but speaks of him as that sort. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound.²whether we should say. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. and in improving a victory.²HOLMES.²LOWELL. T.. Let us be of good cheer. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign.²ADDISON." One of .²HOWELLS.²MACAULAY. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. "one of the finest books that have been published. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. and write the verb in the plural. but myself. He is one of those that deserve very well. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. JR. French literature of the eighteenth century. Franklin. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.²J.²M. A disputed point. in winning a battle. [plural] that who. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. The fiery youth .Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.] Both constructions are frequently found. when he derided the shams of society.. or which .

²DEFOE.²IRVING. and see if the sentence is made clearer. when the relative word is a pronoun. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.²SWIFT. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²GOLDSMITH. that is. return." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.And.A rare Roundabout performance.In that same state I came.²CARLYLE.²EMERSON. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. whence.²EMERSON.²In the above sentences. 416. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. object of a preposition understood. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. But I by backward steps would move.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.² THACKERAY. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²BURNS." "India is the place [in which. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. when this dust falls to the urn. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.² RUSKIN. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. where. 417. and such like: as. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. III. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²ADDISON. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. IV. The same day I went aboard we set sail.²VAUGHAN. or where] he died. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race."²DICKENS. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.² .²ID. Exercise.²SCOTT. I could see nothing except the sky.

with Turner. or that. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. etc. if I had resolved to go on with. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.. I might as well have staid at as his apprentice. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²ADDISON. for example. They believe the same of all the works of art.²WORDSWORTH. she passed the lamp over her face and person. CHURCH. but which is usually carefully avoided. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. looking-glasses.He considered. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. if same is followed by a complete clause. but we find the relative who. That.²FRANKLIN. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.² BURKE. which. Which.² THACKERAY. Anacoluthic use of which. . The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. Mr. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. he. V.²R. as is not used. ²GOLDSMITH.² MACAULAY. and working in the same spirit. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. Caution. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. boats. W.² Which.. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. but. The regular construction. as of knives. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.²SWIFT. was a discoverer. 418.²SCOTT.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do.

once a great favorite of M. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. (2) "Among the poorer sort. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. After this came Elizabeth herself. etc.²DE QUINCEY. etc. 4. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. and who are now. 2. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. 419. (3) "Among the poorer sort.²THACKERAY.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each." etc. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.²RUSKIN. Exercise. That is. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. (1) "Among those who are poor. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.²which if they once heard. He delivered the letter." etc. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors.. . but none is expressed. This was a gentleman. he said that all submission was now too late. And who. which when Mr. Thornhill had read. now thrown upon their. and this be placed in the proper clause." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. Exercise.²HAWTHORNE. le Conte." etc.She'd come again. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. But who. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. and which.. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. Express both relatives. but. or leave out both connective and relative. 3. 1. or omit the conjunction. or..² Direction for rewriting. who are now thrown.²SHAKESPEARE.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. As the sentences stand.²GOLDSMITH.²SCOTT.

but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. But which.5. 1. which the Scotch had learned. and which. English by name. etc..²SCOTT.²SCOTT. 11." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. 420. That . 6. 9. the French.. "What knight so craven. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. 8. 7. who.² MOTLEY.²HAWTHORNE.. and which may even be heard a mile off. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary.²DE QUINCEY. and to whom no door is closed. and which has never been described. Akin to the above is another fault. and repeat this for any further reference.²IRVING. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. "A mockery. then. I saw upon the left a scene far different. Or which. Exercise. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. 13. Or who. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church.²PEARSON. as a false and astucious mark. Dr. which is likewise a variation from the best usage.. 10. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. 12. indeed. one of signal interest. And which. like that spoken in the towns. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. etc. either from imitation of their frequent allies. .²DE QUINCEY. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. I shall have complete copies. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity.

.²HAWTHORNE...²W. I give to such men as do not belong to me. He flung into literature. in his present condition. that . and to whom I do not belong. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. 15.. but which is perhaps not so different from it. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. 4. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. 6. 3...² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. and whose examples and principles we inherit.. which. SIMMS. but which.²DEFOE.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. I recommend some honest manual calling. 14. 5. 12. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. It rose into a thrilling passion. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. that.²BEECHER. 13. 8. 9. . the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.²EMERSON. I grudge the dollar. That . what. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.²HOLMES. The Tree Igdrasil. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death..²SCOTT That which .. In my native town of Salem. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. was a bustling wharf. He. Such as . such as they have very probably been bred to. CHANNING. Such as . 7. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. 11. which. in his Mephistopheles. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. was hung in air.²DE QUINCEY. G. 10.. the cent.2.²HOWELLS. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. half a century ago. E. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. the dime. at the head of what. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²HALLAM.²W. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. Which .. whom. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.

whether or not the two are equivalent.²ID. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. one another. England was then divided between kings and Druids.² HAWTHORNE. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. for example. 421. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. as.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. Distributives either and neither. in which case any should be used instead.²EMERSON. Assume that no one is in want of either. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. Each other. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. .²HAWTHORNE.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.²RUSKIN. We call ourselves a rich nation. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. that not all combined. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.²MACAULAY.²DICKENS.² Some one must be poor. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 422. as. always at war with one another. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²RUSKIN. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. Use of any. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. as it were. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. By their original meaning.²GOLDSMITH.

he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. if ever man was. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. as none of the French philosophers were. as.²EMERSON. afterwards in Goethe.²SHAKESPEARE. Examples of its use are.²FRANKLIN. whilst I still cherish their genius. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). Do you think. and is isolated.² In earnest. If any of you lack wisdom. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. as. in the prose of the present day. any of his friends had died. 424. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.² EMERSON.²BURKE. then in Plutarch. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. The adjective pronoun none is. . Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. when any of them are so good as to visit me. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. in Shakespeare.² If any. usually plural. Do you think.Once I took such delight in Montaigne ..²BIBLE. for him have I offended. speak. at one time in Bacon. during his stay at Yuste.²STIRLING. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. before that. let him ask of God. I beseech you. Caution.²THACKERAY.. 423.²BEECHER Whenever. which is plural as often as singular. any was often singular. then in Plotinus. that I know of. In earlier Modern English. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.²PROF. etc. None of Nature's powers do better service.²CARLYLE. None usually plural. Any usually plural. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. even in Bettine.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.²SCOTT. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours.

²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.² None of them was cleansed.² PEARSON. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. saving Naaman the Syrian. when it means all persons: for example. and less rarely in poetry.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. 425. etc. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. any one else.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.²McMASTER. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . and all was lost on the other.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. for example. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. or somebody else's? 426... and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. etc. When all were gone. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. etc.² Singular. as.²THOREAU. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. the plural.²SCOTT Like the use of any.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.²NAPIER Plural. etc. that all was lost.. and Ford has nobody's else.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. are treated as units. The compounds somebody else. The light troops thought . fixing his eyes on the mace. nobody else. Somebody's else. which is used absolutely. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.

Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's.. London. I hoped we had done with those sort of things."²MRS. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. . There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural." "all manner of men.²SHERIDAN. the adjectives plural. STOWE.² These kind of knaves I know. ADJECTIVES.²SWEET. or those sort of people. for example.²N. A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²G.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. all manner of. WILLIS. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. etc. ELIOT.²DICKENS. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).. Again. or some other such great man as a bishop.SYDNEY SMITH." the nouns being singular. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English.²RUSKIN.² Saturday Review." "those kind of trees.²in such as "these sort of books.²THACKERAY. P. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²MULOCH. etc.²RUSKIN. His hair. unlike anybody else's in the world. These sort. Whitefield or Wesley.² FIELDING. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. 427.curled once all over it in long tendrils. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. "Ye see.²AUSTEN.

"This sort of trees should be planted. Should we say.The library was open." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). At the source. The result. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. or one object with a class of objects.² Which is the better able to defend himself. According to the approved usage of Modern English. in spoken English. Consequently we have a confused expression. they said. "A sort of uncertain sounds are." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. "These kind of trees are best." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. and in this way may take a plural verb. with all manner of amusing books. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. which accounts for the construction. This the modern expression reverses. not "all kinds of wild animals." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular.² PRESCOTT. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. such as. and the adjective is. more alarming than a total silence. Burke's sentence. or the nouns to the plural. 428. . Use of the comparative degree. Of two such lessons. gradually displacing the old. Later form. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. as. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization." A question.²RUSKIN. "This kind of rules are the best. made to agree with it. History of this construction. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. the victor or the vanquished. In Old and Middle English. for example. to express a higher degree of quality. when the necessary dispositions concur.

5. than any of his court. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. 2. He is taller. if not. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. Superlative with two objects. 3. would not have had the face.²MACAULAY. Other after the comparative form. Gary.²SCOTT. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived.²TROLLOPE. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr."²ID. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. the highest stakes are paid.A braver ne'er to battle rode. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. etc. 430.²WIRT. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. Henry.²SWIFT. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.²MACAULAY.²HAWTHORNE. I am concerned to see that Mr. has sanctioned. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.²LOWELL. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.² THACKERAY. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. 429. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. 4. by almost the breadth of my nail. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. 6. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. Exercise.²THACKERAY. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. Even Dodd himself. Use of the superlative degree.²HUXLEY. .²CARLYLE. To the man who plays well.

In all disputes between States. Also from the same period. CÆSAR.²EMERSON. whichever can be got easiest."²BULWER. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. not a bit of high life among them. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²HAMLET. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. OLIPHANT. The eldest.²J.²MRS.²GOLDSMITH. 431."²GOLDSMITH. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen."²HAWTHORNE. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. The following examples are used purposely. 1611. "Ha.²ADDISON. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²TEMPEST. Come you more nearer. who eat white bread or brown. I should say that one has the best cause. Examples from Shakespeare are.²BEN JONSON. ha.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. These two properties seem essential to wit. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party..²DR BLAIR. Double comparative and superlative. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. . Mary. and differ only in form. After the most straitest sect of our religion. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. Rip was one of those .²Bible..²SCOTT. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. and the other contains the best men.²RUSKIN. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child.²IRVING. more particularly the last of them. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.

The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. etc. ARTICLES. As to these two expressions. Definite article. Three first.² SMOLLETT. The meaning intended is the same.² With a singular noun. 433. The first five had specific names. and conceit in the last. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. not only so in popular speech. .²DE QUINCEY.²LAMB. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. For Carlyle. These are the three first needs of civilized life. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.²RUSKIN. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. ²COWPER.²ADDISON. the Spanish.²KINGSLEY. Examples of this construction are. but in literary English. jar upon us constantly.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.²RUSKIN.²GIBBON. and Secretary Walsingham also. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.²GIBBON. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. etc. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. Instances of both are given below. The merit of the Barb. The delay in the first three lines. First three. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood.²PRESCOTT. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.

distinct. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. with a plural noun. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. Here the youth of both sexes.²TAYLOR. of the eighteenth century.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. of the higher and middling orders. He is master of the two-fold Logos. or to emphasize the meaning. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. and flexible language. .²CARLYLE. 433. however. as. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. but is used with one only.²ID. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. as in Sec. as. were placed at a very tender age. The lofty.²SCOTT. the greatest poems. melodious. and the presents.²PRESCOTT.²THE NATION. The not repeated.² RUSKIN.²NEWMAN. With a plural noun. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. with a singular noun.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. I think.² MACAULAY. to distinguish clearly. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.. having been arranged. One object and several modifiers. but inseparable from each other. the thought and the word. The flowers. Frequently. the hour of parting came..² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. Origin of the Aryans.²TENNYSON. Indefinite article. 1508. No. Meaning same as in Sec.²MACAULAY.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.²THACKERAY. 434. 435. 433.

²THACKERAY. and a usurper. to limit two or more modified nouns. But in the following sentences. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. One article with several adjectives.² MACAULAY.²BEECHER. In the sentences of Secs. The indefinite article (compare Sec. a collegian. 437. as in the first three of Sec. or clearness to each of several nouns. JONSON.²MACAULAY.²JOHNSON.²DRYDEN. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. as." and "a red and a white geranium. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. 438. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. . 435. and inexhausted vein. COLERIDGE.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.436. a murderer.²B. interest. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. one noun is expressed. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²S.An early.²DICKENS. Examples of this use are.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.²BULWER.²MACAULAY. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house.² BURKE. T. a tyrant. only one of which is expressed. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. For rhetorical effect. 433 and 436. The indefinite article is used. 436)." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. like the definite article. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. He saw him in his mind's eye. rich. a round and a square one alternately.

He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. then. has got already. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. A broad and loose rule. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.²COOPER.. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. 440. ELIOT.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. Sec. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. In English. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. Another writer might. was the earliest American land. He sees that it is better to live in peace. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. or the great intellectual life of our nation.²GIBBON.²W.²AGASSIZ. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. as. as. 439.VERBS. Such. for example. This was spoken of in Part I. . the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. ARNOLD. and the following illustrations prove it.²M. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby.²G. all that academies can give. without academies.²CARLYLE This usage. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form.²FROUDE. like some others in this series.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. Singular verb.²The Nation. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Collective noun of singular meaning. 276. Singulars connected by or or nor.

When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.Jesus is not dead. and every four hours. nor Paul. for example.² Politics is the only field now open for me. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. the cheap defense of nations.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. a loss of wealth. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. nor Mahomet. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.²BURKE.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. nor John. other names.² GOLDSMITH.²CRITIC. ADAMS. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.²J. that of a large town. Between ourselves. a loss of friends. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²DE QUINCEY.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.² The unbought grace of life. or considered as appositional. for example. but considered as meaning about the same thing. Plural form and singular meaning. seems at the moment unpaid loss. as. a mutilation.² In a word.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²EMERSON .²WHITTIER. or as making up one general idea.²GOLDSMITH. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. a cruel disappointment. and other singulars of plural form. as. is gone. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. but each one emphatic. (4) When the subject is plural in form. A fever. Q.²GIBBON. ²EMERSON. No. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.

The rout.² Asia.The author. with death. as well as the newest.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. each.²MACAULAY.²EMERSON.²PRESCOTT. in a judge. every valet. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. There is a moving tone of voice. The oldest. the partisan. as well as sides. wineBegins to stir itself. The Epic. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.²HAWTHORNE. was listened to for five hours. Every fop. as. no discontinuity.²ID. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. many a. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. every echo. no. Plural verb.²NEWMAN.²BUTLER.²PRESCOTT.² . the wit. For wide is heard the thundering fray. and such like adjectives. sir!"²MACAULAY. an agitated gesture. nay. Subjects after the verb. the dismay. thus. Her back. was punished. no matter if the second is plural). does not take the place of the man. no spent ball.²SCOTT. the fine gentleman.²MACAULAY.²RUSKIN. Every sound. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. as well as Europe. as. was dazzled.²M ARNOLD. Then comes the "Why. Here is no ruin. sir?" and the "No. 441. Every week. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor.²LONGFELLOW.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. To receive presents or a bribe.² There is a right and a wrong in them. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. as well as the Drama. is a man of wit. almost every day. every boor.²ID. a gorget. and greaves. a cuirass. an impassioned countenance. the ruin. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. was like to crack. sir!" and the "What then.

²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.²EMERSON.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.² One or two of these perhaps survive. The conjunction may be omitted. its date. a green pasture. the Duke of Berri. TAYLOR. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. Far.²FROUDE.²FRANKLIN.²B.²THOREAU. as in Sec. as with a subject of plural form.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²SWIFT. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. 440 (5.² A multitude go mad about it. as. but the verb is plural. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and.²FROUDE.²COLERIDGE.These bits of wood were covered on every square. of whom there were a number.²GIBBON. shirt. The travelers.²GOLDSMITH. A shady grove.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. as. The Dauphin. A party of workmen were removing the horses. b). for example.²DE QUINCEY.²ADDISON.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. a stream of fresh water. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²SCOTT. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. making up a plural subject. and its history are alike a mystery to us. Philip of Anjou. are sufficient to attract a colony. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. far away thy children leave the land. . One or two of the ladies were going to leave. His clothes.² GIBBON. All our household are at rest.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. Conjunction omitted. were men of insignificant characters.

²M. When the subjects. WEBSTER.²WHITTIER.²THACKERAY. 442. as.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²BYRON. You and I are farmers. Nothing which Mr. the verb takes the construction of the first person.²LOWELL. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. 443. but thou. the subject being really equivalent to we. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. Second or third and first person in the subject. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. You and I are tolerably modest people.²DE QUINCEY.²ROWE. General usage." etc.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision.But notice the construction of this.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. ARNOLD. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. Exceptional examples. nor has she"). This construction is at the best a little awkward. his blood dost shed. for example. Not Altamont. Pattison or I have said. of different persons. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. "You would not be wiser. that is. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. "He or I can go. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. but thou. Ah. .). Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²THACKERAY.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. hadst been my lord. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.²SMOLLETT." or. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. we never talk politics. Not I. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²RUSKIN.²D." "She or you may be sure. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.²RUSKIN. 444.²GOLDSMITH. If there is only one person in the subject. nor should I. "I have never said so.

²MILTON. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²EMERSON. 2. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.²ID. How each of these professions are crowded. 6. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. 8. Neither of them. 7. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc.That neither of their intellects are vast.²and. 11. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. as illustrated above (Secs. BANCROFT.²SMOLLETT. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.²THACKERAY.²BYRON. Exercise. Also in verbals. 9.445. 446. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²SCOTT. In a word.²G.² TROLLOPE. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. in my opinion. which it is proper to mention. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. Nor wood. as we would hope. Both death and I am found eternal.Her course to intercept. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. 3." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. nor bush are there. In the following sentence.²ADDISON.²perhaps the devil. 440-444):² 1. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. 5. 4.²BURKE. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 10. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . In this sentence from Defoe.²ADDISON. Neither of their counselors were to be present. nor tree. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. The following illustrate exceptional usage. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. 12.

Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. It should be remarked. 448.² PALGRAVE 5.²IRVING. change them to a better form:² 1.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Exercise.²MACAULAY. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.²THACKERAY. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. as. for exact connection. Direct discourse²that is. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. to have divided with her whatever might remain. Indirect discourse means reported speech. 4.²KINGSLEY. Definitions. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece.²R. however. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. if not." . Two samples of indirect discourse. CHURCH. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. INDIRECT DISCOURSE.. 447.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. 3. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.²DE QUINCEY 2. But I found I wanted a stock of words. on my return. Of course. I gave one quarter to Ann..²FRANKLIN 6. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. W. to have seen should be changed to to see. The present rule is recent. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. meaning.

or regular interrogatives. Direct. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. 1. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. and the indirect question by whether or if. etc. "I cannot oblige you . will. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. Her prudence whispered eternally. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. His exact words were. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. Direct.. and the subjunctive mood of verbs." etc. introductory verb is in the past tense.. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. The substance of his lamentation was. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. 2. Summary of the expressions. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. under interrogative pronouns. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. Sebastian's. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh.. have. This includes the auxiliaries be. .(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. "Oh. 449." etc.. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. She thought to herself. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. Oh." Indirect. interrogative adverbs. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that.

that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. VERBALS. 450. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle.Exercise.²ID. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. and that he himself had heard. The trouble is. in the sentences first quoted. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. Notice this. Careless use of the participial phrase. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. if this were expanded into a verb. handed down from his ancestor the historian. .²ADDISON.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. my first observation will be found nearly true. like distant peals of thunder. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. the first discoverer of the river and country. the sound of their balls. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact.²B. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. he assured me that nothing was more easy." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. PARTICIPLES. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. FRANKLIN.²GOLDSMITH. one summer afternoon. with his crew of the Half-moon.

For example. if a strike is to succeed.." etc. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible." Exercise. 3. while defended or excused by others. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. universal assertion. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage.²SCOTT.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. my first collection was. avoid it. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.²ID.. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. Exercise. the first sentence would be. Adverb between to and the infinitive.² HERBERT SPENCER. then. 451. Standard writers often use it. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. It is a solemn.. 2..Correction. purposely or not. . There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.²RUSKIN. INFINITIVES. many things to be carefully considered.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. and often.²LAUGHLIN. This is the more common arrangement. either "As I was pleased.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.. There are. leaving the principal statement as it is. . Consequently one of two courses must be taken. In the following citations.

6. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. The spirits. therefore. 8. I wish the reader to clearly understand. even.²GOLDSMITH. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. 5..²SCOTT. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. is to be very cautiously admitted.² ADDISON. 10. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. china. A little sketch of his. 452. 11. ADVERBS.²The Nation. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. The rigid rule in such a case would be. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. etc. even.² MACAULAY." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. In works of art. but cannot misunderstand the thought. which consists in multitude. Now. but it is placed before the infinitive. No. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. but they are often removed from the exact position. this kind of grandeur. when such adverbs as only.²TROLLOPE.4. 12. 7. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. 13.²RUSKIN.²DR. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. etc. if they modify single words. are used. 9.²ID.²BURKE.. etc. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. Exercise. Position of only. and earthenware. 1533. BLAIR. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . from Irving. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position.

He shouted in those clear.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 6. 13. 453.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 4.²SYDNEY SMITH.²COOPER.²MRS.²N. 17.²MOTLEY. The old usage.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. GROTE. . for example. P.²MACAULAY.²ID. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.²ID.1. 12. to avoid a crowd. My master. His last journey to Cannes. In Old and Middle English. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.² THACKERAY. 3. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²EMERSON. whence he was never destined to return. 15. No sonne. might not marry.²PALGRAVE. WILLIS. 9.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. 5. 8. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. 11. In relating these and the following laws. were he never so old of yeares. 7.²RUSKIN. Irving could only live very modestly.²CHAUCER.²THACKERAY. 10. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. ²ASCHAM. 14. 2. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²HIGGINSON.²SWIFT. During the whole course of his administration. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²ID. 16. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.

The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. in Ole Virginia. under the influence of Latin syntax. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. nor the grandeur of no king. Not only could man not acquire such information. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house."²four negatives. Exceptional use. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way.²MRS. In the latter case. neither. is not common. etc. who hadn't been to school for nothing. This. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements.²GROTE. In the execution of this task. the usual way of regarding the question now is. I did not act so hastily."²MRS. STOWE. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. and is still kept in vulgar English.²LOWELL. ²PAGE. and why:² 1. . but ought not to labor after it. if two negatives are found together. 4. There weren't no pies to equal hers. However. as infrequent.²DEFOE. I never did see him again. as. Regular law of negative in modern English. uncommon.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. STOWE. denying each other. 5. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities.²BURKE. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative.² HAMILTON. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. one of the negatives is often a prefix. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. Exercise. however. when one of the negatives is a connective.²HAWTHORNE. 2. Therefore. 6. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl.²HOLMES. 7. But. 3.²BAYNE. can so agreeably affect. The prosperity of no empire. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. nor never shall.²DE QUINCEY. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness.

. "well worthy to confer honor.. especially both . as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. The sentence. neither ... The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .. And who.. the first should also. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. or.²PRESCOTT. CONJUNCTIONS. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. not merely .. should be scrutinized.. and which. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.. but. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. as well as of the pronoun. and."²SCOTT.8. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is..²LOWELL.. Things to be watched. either . "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. or to reply to it. Choice and proper position of correlatives.. 455. as the use of the conjunction. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind." may be changed to "This loose .. or to reply to it. or with advantage." both of the above requirements are violated. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals." Besides neither .. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. but to their own safety. if the second precedes a phrase. the first ought to be placed before a verb..²SCOTT. there we were. Correction. nor is often changed to not²either . but (also). The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. not only to the success of their common cause. even neither . not only ... 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. The sentences given in Secs." . either. "A weapon. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. In the sentence. or. 454.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it." said the King. In these examples it will be noticed that nor.. nor... This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. not or is the proper correlative of neither. if the last precedes a verb.

²MACAULAY.²GIBBON. Correct the following sentences:² 1. but. and I don't know but what he was right. 6. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. Try and avoid the pronoun. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. but grown-up persons. Now. 4.²THACKERAY. Try and for try to. and chop up their own kin. substitute that.²RUSKIN.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. or but that for the words but what:² 1. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. 457. not merely interest children. JEWETT.²BAIN. etc.²GOLDSMITH.² ADDISON. but. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. They will. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. too. Exercise. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. or the negative relative but. Some exceptions. or but that. In the following sentences. 2. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. as.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. as. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. 7.²FRANKLIN. nor the disgrace of assailing him. O. murder.²THACKERAY.²S. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. 3. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. . The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. We will try and get a clearer notion of them.²ID. 456. 5. but they will outrage. 8.Exercise. But what.

as already seen in Sec. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. 6.² BULWER.²EMERSON. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.² SWIFT. 313. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).2. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.²SCOTT. Between and among.²ADDISON. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. 458. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. see Sec. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. Between is used most often with two things only. 305. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.²EMERSON. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.²ADDISON. no separation or division by twos being implied. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. PREPOSITIONS. 459. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. 4. .²TROLLOPE. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. 5. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. 3.²BURKE.

and Coleridge. Paley. or one object and a group. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. LIST I. 461. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Acquit of. 460. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Comply with. Dependent on (upon).²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope.²RUSKIN What have I. Derogatory to. averse. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Conform to. Conversant with. correspond. Different from. Some of them have. ²EMERSON. etc. Bestow on (upon). and another to convey a different meaning. confer. a soldier of the Cross.²KINGSLEY. Two groups or one and a group. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. Such are derogatory. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. . Kant. Such are absolve. Dissent from. by custom. Affinity between. as. different. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. as. and philosophers like Locke. Mackintosh.: Words with particular prepositions. Abhorrent to. and Stewart. List I. involve. Averse to. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Accord with.²between philosophers like Spinoza.

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Involve in. Reconcile with (note below). Agree to (a proposal). in the sense of making friends with. 463. Confide to (intrust to). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained)." List III. Differ from (note below)." also of persons. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. A taste for (art. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. as. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. etc. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). as. LIST II. Reconcile to (note below). Differ with (note below). Change for (a thing). as meaning to be in keeping with. Correspond with (write to)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with.). and sometimes creeps into standard books. "The king is reconciled to his minister. . Change with (a person). LIST III. A taste of (food).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Independent of. List II. Confer on (upon) (give to).y y y Deprive of. Correspond to (a thing). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. Change to (become). as. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Confer with (talk with). Confide in (trust in). 462. but it is not good usage.

She died of hard work. expect from. died for love of the fair Marcella. One of them said he would die for her.²MACAULAY.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. It is a man of quality who dies for her. I am positively dying with hunger. Part from. simply from old age. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire.y y y Die by. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²MACAULAY. It would take me long to die of hunger. part with. Take thought and die for Cæsar. ²ATHENÆUM.:² "Die of.²ADDISON.²BOSWELL." (because of).²MACAULAY. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. "Die by. . "Die with. privation." etc. ²THACKERAY.²G. Who.²BURNETT. die of." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. "Die for. instrument). "Die from. as Cervantes informs us. People do not die of trifling little colds.²GOLDSMITH." She would have been ready to die with shame.²POPE.²FIELDING. and ill treatment." (material cause." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. die with.²GOLDSMITH.²G. "Die for.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL." "die from. No one died from want at Longfeld. ELIOT.²SCOTT. He died at last without disease." (in behalf of). If I meet with any of 'em. die for. ELIOT.²SHAKESPEARE. die from. Expect of. they shall die by this hand. Illustrations of "die of.²BULWER.

Burke parted from him with deep emotion. ELIOT.²AUSTEN.²POE. Kind in you. nothing better was to be expected. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. 466. ELIOT. Illustrations of "part with.²SCOTT. With words implying behavior or disposition.²BULWER." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²TROLLOPE. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.²G. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. "Part from. His precious bag. Of Doctor P.²MACAULAY.²BULWER.²WALPOLE. ELIOT. I can part with my children for their good. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.²SHAW.²WALLER. .²DICKENS. 464. That is more than I expected of you." To part from you would be misery. 465.²G. just parted from her.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²MARRYAT. It was a little bad of you. I part with all that grew so near my heart. and hated to part with them. either of or in is used indifferently." "expect from:"² "Expect of." She will expect more attention from you. as my friend. I have just seen her. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. kind of you." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. which he would by no means part from.²G. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. Illustrations of "expect of." "part from:"² "Part with.²MACAULAY. I have long expected something remarkable from you. "Expect from.

may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. In the friction between an employer and workman.²TENNYSON. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 10. But this is idle of you. and ran up the alley. thunder. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me.²BEACONSFIELD. or that they are any way dependent on each other. nor yellow. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. raging storms. but which the story renders necessary. nor blue. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 7. 1. 15. the vast abyss. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. The noise of vast cataracts.He did not think it handsome of you. it is commonly said that his profits are high. 3. 11. nor green. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 5. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. It will be anything but shrewd in you. Thou tread'st. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. 8.²DICKENS. 13. 9. nor of a pale red. Very natural in Mr.²BULWER. . In. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. or which we are most imperatively required to do. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 6. or artillery. This narrative. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. 4. thrown it over Amyas's head.²BULWER. tedious perhaps. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. Hampden. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief.²CARLYLE. with seraphims. 14. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss.

31. 23. 26. and other angular figures. But every man may know. you or me. or how beautiful it is. 18. 29. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. save Amyas. (Sec. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 32. 36. 35. Every one of these letters are in my name. 16. but in the price paid to them. . 27. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. The effect of proportion and fitness. 411. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough.And were I anything but what I am. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 30. 17. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 37.) 34. 38. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. what is a just and unjust act. 24. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 20. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 19.I would wish me only he. Friday. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. the acquiescence of the understanding. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. 33. produce approbation. and almost as good as a pony. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. When the glass or liquor are transparent. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. triangles. 28. were down with raging fever. You have seen Cassio and she together. 21. Squares. 22. and most of us do know. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. 25. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. That night every man of the boat's crew.

124. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. voice. 20.39. of. Abstract with Active Address. 98. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 119. 133. of.000 between them. 107. from about 1500 to the present time. (3) Modern English. of. 89. 91. 47. from nominative clauses. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. . the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 260. He had four children. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. demonstrative. INDEX. origin of. 124. numeral. Adjectives. 116. adverbs used complements. 92. 40. as. nouns. 25. 102. syntax uses Absolute. (2) Middle English. A. 310. nominative. 47. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 90. pronouns. of. as comparison definition demonstrative. article. 239. of. adjectives.

of. 116. 194. 27. 104. adjectives. 275. 302. 99. modify. clauses. 325. 291. 183. 328. from to of. sentence. antecedent. 114. plural pronominal. 103. to used of. 48. 191. Agreement. predicate. 287. 116. antecedent. 109. as nouns. 97. 190. 27.from function how in not of of ordinal. and 185. 207. parse. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. Alms. of. 239. parse. 115. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 42. adjectives. infinitive. 262. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. nouns. between of. objective. adjectives. 195. with with with subject. 303. . of. of. of. of. 184. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 106. 207. 187. compared. 325. 101. 148. 303. 242. Against. 323. conjunctions. 194. quality. conjunction. 190. 316. of. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. quantity. nouns.

though. Agreement. syntax. An. 198. which. definition of of of Any. 287. which. Arrangement Articles. which. 309. in in. 271. 264. 225. 124. 150. 51. 148. 49. 252. 231. of. agreement personal as pronoun. syntax As. of and pronoun of. uses As At. it. . of. as uses verbs. 67. of. 295. 300. Auxiliary if. Are. words between. 101. See with definition complex compound simple who. to of. parse. 207. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. sentences. Anacoluthon Analysis. of. 84. 331. of. 120. 120. 90. and.Among. 79. A. 127. pronouns. same. 275. derivation in definite. 296. 74. definition how indefinite. possessive. after of. 208. 47. See 74. sentences. sentences. 240. 67. adjective. 294. of of of And Antecedent.

of pronouns. adjective. of nouns. 279. of pronouns. 54. . plurals of. 46.Bad. Be. Clause. 66. 64. of what. of. of pronouns. 39. of. of nouns. definition could. 210. comparison conjugation of. 84. 48. 330. 47. 110. possessive. nominative. 39. of. uses Better. 62. uses nominative of. 262. 161. Case. 262. See of. 278. 45. adverb. 194. syntax of. number of. But. 111. 260. 37. uses of. 224. 278. Case. with But By. 149. pronoun. Among. double possessive. Children. Brethren. clauses of. Can. 283. 195. Bridegroom. of pronouns. 63. objective. 279. in Old and Modern English. 49. 46. Between. of nouns. Cause. of nouns. 150. 110. conjunctions Cherub. best. forms.

of. nouns. of. Cleave. 244. 264. of. 263. adverbs. adjectives. 307. 257. defective. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 23. verb. double. 157. 18. 108. 271. 307. 312. nouns. 257. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. material. 107. subject. 18. 43. of. 258. 111. plural of. 158. of. clothes. in analysis. 305. 239. Clomb. 315. sentence.definition kinds noun. 43. of. . 110. 24. and forms of. proper. 53. Cloths. and sentence. 268. 108. 257. 248. definition degrees irregular. of. analysis of. predicate. superlative. English. predicate of and from from of. 113. of. of. nouns. 189. 12. infinitive.

Dative Declarative Declension of case. 207. interrogative pronouns. 231. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 188. See in subjunctive. analysis. parse. sentences. 193. 194. 199. adverbs. 149. 289. 269. See analysis clauses. conjunctions.with Concord. of. 149. 151. pronoun. pronoun. and clause. Can. 143. definition be. Conjunctions. 194. other other parts of speech. See English. definition how subordinate. verbs. 138. 194. 66. 195. pronouns. 195. replaced by objective. 255. of of Conjunctions. of. 263. correlative. sentence. in Old vs. 139. sentences. Agreement. 73. 196. same words. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. conjunction. 328. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. coördinate. conjunctions. . to of. subjunctive.

use of dies. . 287. 242. Subordinate clause. 288. 102. of. 320. 43. 90. 51. pronouns. discourse. pronouns. Articles. object. 160. 303. of. See 148. of.Declension. 185. tenses. 99. article. adverbs See adjectives. 80. from. comparative. 35. nouns. 333. 300. 60. indirect. Comparative. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 152. pronouns. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. of. for. Degrees. 242. by. 91. of personal relative verbs. verb. clause. with of. nouns. vs. passive adjectives. See See 48. with. possessive. duck. See adjectives. 26. Case. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. Comparison. 315. 102. pronouns.

literary. 158. 92. pronoun. 90. the of sentence. of. 12. 158. pronouns. complement. spoken. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. Elements Ellipsis. 51. another. predicate. drunk. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. feminine plural English. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. plural. ending. of subject. of. suffix. 92. 300. 241. of. of. pronoun. 287. added suffix. to suffix. 33. Each. 234. 38. 62. 110. 34. of. 257. other. 42. 328. 194. 112. 32. possessive suffix. in 'Em. one ( t). vulgar. 280. error in sentence. adjective. Empress. older. adjective. 92. -En. 102. 287.Drank. 40. . of. 39. 299. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 240. original. 33. conjunction. Either. 90. object. 255.

the. . modes "common goose. 110. Further. as a noun. pronoun. 287. 126. Feminine. to of. two. 91. 102. two a further. expect gone. of. from. object. 189. Few. 102. nouns. with infinitive. Gender. 29.Every. 30. gender. etc. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 308. 30. 43. 48. 45. Farther. perfect. 235. From. 148. adjective. fishes. 32. definition distinguished in English. 238. of. 112. few. 212. First Fish. 212. with in sex. For. 152. First. 30... etc. of. plurals. Future Future tense. 152. first. 103. uses Foreign Former. have adjective. 319. as of from compared marking. See Gander." 31. 211. 112. uses redundant. other languages. 147. used of. 334. 36.

36. it. of. 60. noun. 159. 144. 101. and case verbal with. 43. 231. 175. 173. for before. an better. forms in Girl. pronouns. its. first sentence. kinds of. His Husband. . of. had hung. participle. 61. Got. 275. on. she. from participle of. person. definition basis of. Government. 120. 12. 61. 176. 12. 80. of. rather. 60. 159. Gerund. 177. definition divisions opinions province H. adjective. 285. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. of. possessive pronouns. Had Hanged. 9. Grammar. He. 10.of of Genii. pronoun. 13. I. 35. distinguished syntax. 145. personal relative geniuses.

93. 43. 231. adverbs. uses discourse. of. 188. indices. 136. See you. pronoun. 257. 245. 85. 233. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. of clause. of. 319. 227. use article. questions. 323. of. 67. 131. 105. summary See passive mood. 178. 283. 73. questions. 131. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. of. . 110. sentence. Questions. meaning. 248. transitive. adjectives. 276. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. verbs. See Articles. 176. indirect of. 72. elements. 320. Direct object. your. 153. in compared syntax. a object. pronouns. mood. words.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. adjectives. with of.

lord. in little. 226. 36. 67. 63. 245. -Ly..adverbs. 91. adjective. lie. Last. was uses me. Like. Kind. 110. Lady. 126. Kine. "It Its. plural. English. 102. . Less. Lay. 36. Logic Logical Lord. 303. predicate." history etc. 189. a vs. 170. It. of. 113. of. See Madam. lesser. 227. of. Lie. 276.. 36. queen. 281. 39. Lay. Lady. and See words in. these double kind. subject form. latest. Latter. 113. uses Literary Little. pronoun. 61. syntax the. of. 110. 190. etc. King. 12. syntax.

out of. Much. 135. 137-144. Modifiers. syntax nearer. 137. Must. Modifier. 265. 112. 189. -Most. mine. etc. See definition 136. of. 144. 187. might. 326. subjunctive. 112. position adverb. 110. imperative. double. 113. of. of. in adverbs comparison a. 41. May. conjunctions Many. 36. Many Mapping Mare. 102. Neither. 189. 112. comparison Near. Means. adjective. 256. 194. syntax conjunction. 188. 325. superlatives. 161. 328. 110. construction as of adverb. 126. 287. indicative. 64. Mighty Mine. sentences. 110. 195. . of. nigh. Negative. of.Manner. mistress. of. 34. Enlargement. 160. Mood. 114. Master. 185. of.. of.

definition descriptive. 300. abstract. Nor. material. 56. 41 43. 27. 258. 46. . number once other plural. kinds 90. 19. 17. in. 92. 26. No Nominative. clause. 32. 124. to of. definition according of. 17 19. letters as 24. now plural. See 194. None. etc. formed. 38-41. 18. of. common. 42. half abstract. become become formation case collective. 41. Not Noun Nouns. gender how kinds material. nouns. of. used as. 38. 20. 246. 25. of. syntax in gender nouns. of. Case. class used singular. 126. 46. and figures. parse. etc. of. abstract. gender nouns. 41. words how compound. proper. to use. 328. of of of of of a. 45. 29. 30. 21. nouns. 30. 25. syntax Neuter or two News. become neuter.pronoun. foreign. 301. analysis. 17. 30. of. 125. of.

124. See verb. of different possessive definite of. singular. of. adjectives. 106. common. 235. 18. 92. 196. 285. 101. verbs. 48. 281. conjunction. 48. 39. definite. in article. and analysis. 282. preposition. See in in in Numeral distributive. article. adverbial. plural form. 278. plural no two singular construction. . 195. indefinite. indirect. form. pronouns. Numeral Object. 60. 42. 43. spoken of instead nouns. with case. singular. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. of. 48. 148. meaning. adjectives. passive adverbial. of. become syntax use with with with Nouns. Preposition. nominative. in nouns. with with with Now Number. 48. personal.of same two with proper. 42. meanings. 42 44. 101. 48. 66. 23. English. 121. of. 102. pronouns. 242. of. as forms titles. 279. etc. of. 278. plural. 242. Nouns.. dative. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 41. 41. 240. 41. or plural.

117. 94. 41. pronoun. 116. Our. indefinite possessive One One as Only. . of. 87. articles. 213. Older. definite relative uses of. of of of of of models adjectives. adverbs. Pains. One. 93 other.syntax Of. See the as of. uses numeral pronoun. of. See pronoun. ours. treatment comparatives. Oxen. 194. Ordinal Other Ought. as of. 325 275. 56. 101. 127. of syntax. conjunction. with (the). as other. conjunctions. 161. of upon. 293. position Order. inverted. another. 56. 199. of. 233. 237. 103. 191. adverb. 216. 115. 279. part analysis. 91. for. 306. Each adjective. adjective. nouns. 64. Parsing. 69. a in adjectives. Ourself. Omission On. 38. Elder. 103.

absolute with of. 172. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 56. antecedent. pronouns. Pence. part adjective. of. 95. 70. -ing words. verbals. 179. 27. from definition other of. reflexive. 219. 62. used as voice. 69. 119. of. 80. phrases. 322. verbs. pronouns. of. of. pease. 63. or of. pronoun. with. 43. 173. 56.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 281. 100. and subject in. 59. agreement of verb nouns. of. 177. 335. verb idioms it from. relatives. phrase. 59. 62. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. parsed. 61. 134. predicate use of. Person. not is. nominative. verbs. included various. possessive and of. 174. 28. 181. . of. 64. of. pennies. 172. them. 59. article 150. 148. in. 247. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 43. speech. 180. 317. 287.

antecedent of of pronouns. 54. of nouns. nouns. in of. 236. 63. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. kinds infinitive. 188. 106. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. English. 247. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 245. pronouns. Place. nouns. vs. 248. 41. it. 64. Personification. 67. 53. appositional. 245. pronoun. 61. 278. double. . 232. 195. singular. noun nouns. of. 51. Personal subjective. relative. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. of. 206. simple. nouns. 49. omitted. syntax of of Politics. 60. participial. singular degree. 37. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. of. complete. prepositional. 303. adjectives. of. of. 285. spoken of. 281. 's. of. 236. of. Comparison. of.objective syntax table triple uses of. 50. of Phrase. 53. objects. See 60. as double. 241. pronoun. 281. Positive Possessive. Nouns. 247. 25. 235. or See of of See 185. adverbs of. plural. 278. 303. 52.

129. of. 195. 287. 58. 105. 203. as. parse. of. case.Prefixes. 280. meaning. singular usually other. 284. 72. as 54. 104. 283. plural. Prepositions. . by. adverb. somebody definition how indefinite. of. another. and form form form form of. possessive nominative to of. forms of. 332. adjective. words. 206. 132. expressed as other of. in exclamations. 208. 285. future. same used as adjectives. who personal. by with shown certain of. 207. 205. speech. 283. 303. 299. of. 95. 32. all. 279. 64. 203. 301. 282. with tense certain. plural. interrogative. 331. what. 93. by parts of of. 333. usually to as than. for predicate nominative. interrogative. and one with else's. 59. 58. 302. 202. 219. 300. objective. of. 187. exclamatory. verbs. 186. 300. 105. each either. any. 281. case. 89. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 147. of. plural. none. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. parse. as antecedent of relative. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. of. after but. Pronouns. objective. neither.

87. pronominal pronouns indirect. 84. 58. 297. of. of. and relatives. that. 291. Direct same and different. personal pronoun. use of history formed. pronoun. 296. 295. indirect compound. of. with who. 69. 293.possessive relative. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. from and interrogative. . 68. in. 293. 279. 289. 295. to of. 85. of. of. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. and antecedent. parse. with with gerund. 189. 85. Rank. 286. 188. 74. 69. of. pronouns. of. who. Quantity. use in as. 74. of. indirect. of. questions. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 105. or of. 142. Quotations. and which. 195. 80. agreement anacoluthon and as. adverbs in. 101. 99. 87. which after same. 263. same antecedent. unrestrictive. 289. Nouns. which. Questions. in. 83. in. See of. 74. discourse. nouns. conjunctions Quality. Rather.

Shot. Sex Shall. 231. See Sentences.syntax use Result. conjunction. sentence. Shear. clauses of. 195. would. complex. 252. and should. of sit. conjunctions Retained Riches. 294. 'S. of. 43. of. of of of complex Sentences. pronoun. simple. in of. 196. 74. plural possessive as. of. effect. Self Sentences. 259. kinds Sequence Set. 255. 170. definition . forms shots. will. 51. 40. 29. tenses. in form. object. S. simple of. reflexive analysis of compound. 162. 231. suffix. of. Same Sat. that. 289. 69. 42. elliptical. which. ending. gender. 159. 196. 319. 26 271. 242. Seeing. 263. who. Simple in sate. 159.

adverb. 262. distinguish. English. Split Spoken -Ster. English. . to of. 36. other Such Such Suffix -s. names as a. 144. these number. as. 169. in Middle English. Somebody Sort. 137. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 257. of. used mood. vs. 32. definition 67. 257. Spelling Spinster. 38. 258. phonetic in infinitive. 233. English. 245. 303. 245. 237. of. definition how kinds noun. 144. Subject. See -En. etc. 126. 257. 33. literary clause. -en. of. 258. for. of. adverb. logical. Modern use becoming else's. of.Singular Sir. 33. 270. 257. of. 12. 240. disuse in spoken complete. 186. 323. 138. 258. of. sort. 38. English. in feminine suffix. verbs.. -es. 303. 260.

and and of. Kind.. coördinating.Suffixes. 106. as history The. 107. definition in English Tense. of languages. as history syntax Their. 189. 319. 61. 147. form.. 106. There These kind. which. in double. in comparison. 289. See etc. object. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. than of. of. Tenses. classical of. 152. when relative. of. this. 191. meaning. omission whom. 148.. . 280. king. 275. 88. 309. 306. English. they. Then. adjectives. 186. article. auxiliaries. 109. as adverbs. 306. 119. syntax of. not suggesting adjectives. 186. adverbs. 120. two basis not same definition definite. "the then foreign. of. of. 307. plural as adverb. of . of. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 116. 297. 277. subject. 123. 87. degree. meaning made up in Old of. 222. of. me. 33. objects. 147. that uses That. 147. restrictive. of. 275." introductory. 108. of. English. 290. when as of.

parse. kinds participle. uses history of. uttermost. carelessly uses syntax this. 61. how infinitive. of. 114. used. 173. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. etc. preposition. adverbs those. 181. first adjective. -Trix. conjunctions prepositions To. 247. 248. verbs. in of. infinitive. 175. 185. gerund. 119. exclamations. 114. Try Two Under. Upper. 172.. 308. 188. certain as the before with of. 21. 176. of. -ing 111. 128. of. Utter. try two. Upon. 20. thy. of. from cleft to 174. 172. . words. 175. Time. 323. of. phrases. 322. uses of. 217. to. 175. 322. 33. See On. infinitive. suffix. of.These. analysis. 114. Thou. thee. first. 207. other noun. tother. feminine and. in omitted uses T'other. 195. of. 330. 180. See That.

phonetic. table of irregular. but uses what. verbs. analysis. 320. 330. definition of. 317. definition of. weak. active. active meaning. What. 147. of incomplete predication. sequence of. 319. with subject in number. 148. Vixen. . how to parse. 160. in indirect discourse. 159. 167. 133. of. 179. 223. 135. 169. tense of. 33. conjugation of. defective. 312-316. 236. becoming irregular. Vocative in Voice. 245. remarks on certain. person and number of. strong. transitive and intransitive. 129. past tense formed nominative. 242. 169. 148.Verbs. intransitive. agreement of. 131. 157. change. retained object with passive. 312. in person. made transitive. 154. passive. voice of. of. syntax of. 149. 154. 47. spelling of. passive form. 155. 130. 154. formed by. 133. table of. verbs by. auxiliary. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 134. mood of. regular. definition of. 39. 12. 150. 167. of English. 151.

75. 126. 36.what Whereby. 83. . Y. Yes ending analysis. 295-299. 178. plural of in nouns -ing. 32. relative indirect relative. of. a. 296. animals. etc. whereto. 72. spoken in of. Will. relative. worser. 105. questions. 111. direct of. in in indefinite objective. 194. in -ly. English. 246. 190. in. uses See Shall. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 104. Woman. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 299. Whether. 79. antecedent adjective. 75. questions. Wife. would. conjunction. Witch. 37. With. 72. Words in Worse. referring syntax Widower. 36.. 85. 85. 73. 105. wizard. relative. questions. 83. Who. of. pronoun. 77. pronoun. questions. interrogative Which. 218. 85. 78. 72. 40.

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