roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. An æsthetic benefit.The province of English grammar is. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. however. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. their forms. so that a small grammar will hold them all. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. to those who have studied the language historically. Mental training. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. with its enormous vocabulary. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. is worthy of serious study. . and their uses and relations in the sentence. rightly considered. from the question. Literary English. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. Surely our noble language. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. The work it will cover. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). assist the classification of kindred expressions. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Making rules is risky. but this is bad English now. as. then. Coming back. "Analysis. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. This will take in the usual divisions. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. there is still much for the grammarian to do. If. it will at the same time. Authority as a basis." and "Syntax. and thus incite his observation." What grammar is. its peculiar and abundant idioms. as compared with Latin or Greek. It is also evident. if rightly presented. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. A broader view." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. Few inflections.

the words sons and master name objects. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names.²GIBBON. or Syntax. Part II. but.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. three divisions:² Part I. The Parts of Speech. 1.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. and Inflections. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Part III. Vulgar English. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. which belongs to a people. Occasionally. . or standard. NOUNS. the nation is free. Such words are called nouns. as they stand for ideas. reference will be made to vulgar English. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. besides this one. PART I. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. and will are evidently names of a different kind. The words state. and the word nation stands for a whole group. not objects. The following pages will cover. In the more simple state of the Arabs. that is. Spoken English. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. by which is meant the free. The plainest name is Arabs. and may belong to any of those objects. The Uses of Words. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. then. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. from the eighteenth century on. submission. Analysis of Sentences. too.

men in groups may be called a crowd. 5. reducing it to a narrow application. the man here. however. animals. because each group is considered as a unit. They properly belong under common nouns. we may think of them in groups. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. MATERIAL. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. Individual. and appropriate names to the groups. 3. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. the name of each is an individual or proper name. or idea. or a council. (b) Common. place. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. Common. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. Abstract. or the man in front of you.Definition. or things. but Chicago names one city. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. and things separately. Thus. or a mob. ATTRIBUTE. Proper. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. etc. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. or a congress. whether person. animals. Name for any individual of a class. We may say. A noun is a name word. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. or thing. Thus. representing directly to the mind an object. is from a Latin word which means general. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. Name for a group or collection of objects. Besides considering persons. belonging to one. (a) 4. This does not imply. substance. a committee. as here used. For instance. possessed by all. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Classes of nouns. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Collective. 2. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. . and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class.

rubber. wheat. etc. cloud. . etc. such as sun. etc. iron. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. NOTE. dew. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. They remain common class names. earth. sugar. clay. celluloid. and fasten a special name to the object considered. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. (3) Geological bodies: mud.Names for things thought of in mass. but which are not called proper names. The quality is still there as much as before. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person." "a man of understanding. world. instead of to each individual or separate object. condition. proof means the act of proving. or apart from their natural connection." "Learning is hard to acquire. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. potash. we may say. stone. frost. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class.. Words naturally of limited application not proper. Such are glass. but in the words sun. not things. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. conditions. granite. or action. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). frost. rock. 6. expressing state. mist. etc. 7. expressing attributes or qualities. soap. however. earth. The reason is. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. tea. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. gold. sand. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. or that which shows a thing has been proved. etc. paint. "Painting is a fine art. etc. we speak of the wisdom of the man. moon. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. When we speak of a wise man. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. platinum. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. wine. Names of ideas. It may. rain. Abstract nouns are names of qualities." 9. or actions. Again. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. rice. but it is taken merely as a name. . and so on. considered abstractly. snow. sugar. etc. etc. there is no such intention. wheat. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. as in calling a city Cincinnati.²There are some nouns.

ease. the rude drawings of the book. shadow. day. five proper. 273). energy. Caution. (2) peerage from peer. but are merely names of actions. lightning. and they cannot express action. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. the teachings of the High Spirit. in the beginning of his life. the well-being of her subjects. is used as a noun. service from serve. To avoid difficulty. etc. hopeful²hope. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. a wedding or a festival. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. Verbal abstract nouns. summer. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting.Attribute abstract nouns. The verb. height from high." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. Exercises. there is time for such reasonings. . The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. by altering its function. (1) prudence from prudent. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. redness from red. action from act. childhood from child. 12. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. kingship from king. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. the moon caused fearful forebodings. her longing for their favor. etc. hope. speech from speak. etc. They cannot govern a word. NOTE. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. mastery from master. 10. Thus. etc. "a long run" "a bold move. those opinions and feelings. as in the expressions. he spread his blessings over the land. Underived abstract nouns. the great Puritan awakening. thunder. as their name implies. theft from thieve. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. night. stupidity from stupid. winter.. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. five abstract. They are only the husks of verbs. Such are beauty. 1. 272. II." "a brisk walk. the main bearings of this matter. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. as glad²joy. joy.

as pneumonia. pleurisy. typhus. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. Using a dictionary. algebra. catarrh. (b) branches of knowledge. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . diphtheria. as physics.2. geology. mathematics? 3. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases.

arras. a Hutton. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china.²EMERSON. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Proper names transferred to common use. Material nouns may be used as class names. for example. from Calicut. from the name of Dr. Sodom was famous for wickedness. a Bentham. a Lavoisier. currants. who was its inventor. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. 14. but we may say. a Locke. the word port. damask. from a town in France. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. and lo! a new system. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. from Corinth. 15. a Fourier. but most of them are in the following groups. the guillotine. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. or to go over to it entirely. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. Others of similar character are calico. from Oporto. 119). it imposes its classification on other men. from Damascus. thus. port (wine). as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. etc. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. We know a number of objects made of iron. above. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. as a davy. in Portugal. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. "The cook made the irons hot. Guillotin." referring to flat- . 13. from China. Nouns change by use. levant and morocco (leather). If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is.

but differ in strength. on fire. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. but on dispositions which require to be created. are abroad. but in case an art or a science. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. abstract in meaning. a steel to whet a knife on. and say teas.²BRYANT. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. which are made plural. oils. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. (3) By poetical use. etc. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. purity.irons. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. Class nouns in use. For example. that is. to prowl or to moan like night birds. slates. coals. Test this in the following sentences:² .²HAYNE. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. candies. and so on. clays. tins. or made plural. paints. 17. smiled.²COLLINS.²PERCIVAL. 16. or. Personification of abstract ideas. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. as stones.In lightnings owned his secret stings. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings.²CARLYLE. be spoken of. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. The words preceded by the article a. From all around²Earth and her waters. papers. are still names of abstract ideas. that the power of art is founded on fact. clouds. though not confined to verse. the abstract idea is partly lost. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. not material things. tobaccos. his eyes. When it is said that art differs from science. that disposition is the thing to be created. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this.²RUSKIN. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. They are not then pure abstract nouns. a rubber for erasing marks. or used as class nouns. Next Anger rushed. Traffic has lain down to rest. These are the same in material. or the arts and sciences. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. A halfway class of words. and only Vice and Misery. mists.²BYRON. This is a poetic usage. Death. nor are they common class nouns. etc.

Then comes the "Why. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. for example. All these. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. or from any expression. if we must have great actions. nouns used to modify.² GOLDSMITH. they do not express quality.Let us. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. sir!" and the "What then." which contains a pure adjective. When I was young? Ah. but is still a noun. which belongs to another word. Every why hath a wherefore.²SHAKESPEARE. 18.²SHAKESPEARE." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. as descriptive adjectives are.²EMERSON. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. fear thy blow. the wealthy. they cannot be compared." "the State Bank Tax bill.The Solitary can despise. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. however. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. But ah! those pleasures. Adjectives. or describe it. meaning a walk in the morning. etc. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. NOTE. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. Nouns used as descriptive terms. 19. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. By ellipses. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning." "a New York bank. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. And still. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. sir!"²MACAULAY . loves.²IRVING. and joysWhich I too keenly taste.²BURNS. But it is better to consider them as nouns. sir?" and the "No. Conjunctions.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. They are more like the possessive noun." "a morning walk.² BURNS. make our own so. a bill as to tax on the banks. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. were mere terrors of the night. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. Adverbs. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. as each repeated pleasure tired. a bank in New York. "a family quarrel.

²These remarks do not apply. of words rather than of their meaning. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. When. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. etc. 4. are spoken of as if pure nouns. too. When.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. the terms the great. It is to be remembered. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. but as a figure of speech. or a state secret. is ambiguous." or "legal. FRANKLIN. Learning. at the beginning. . in a sentence above. however. are used. to such words as become pure nouns by use. NOTE. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. is the word "just. the wealthy. 1. whether it mean the sun or the cold. of course. without reference to its function in the sentence. Exercise. Caution. or a criminal. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named.Nor iron bars a cage. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. 6. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. 8. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. and tell to which class each belongs.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. The it. There are many of these. Stone walls do not a prison make. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. Now. that cobweb of the brain." finally to stand?²RUSKIN."²B. why and wherefore.. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. or a faithful domestic. 7. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. Power laid his rod aside. 5. but have an adjectival meaning. 2. 20. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. In the other sentences. 3. in speaking of the principal of a school. so." and another of Dr. and Then.

and names of females are usually feminine. 12. In Latin. female. 18. What gender means in English. 19. GENDER.9. Greek. the silver moon is gone. The hours glide by. 14.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. 20. he cried. 22.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 23. German. 11. 24. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. always masculine. 21. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. and many other languages. Male beings are. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. the welcome. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. returned to Spain. shattered and disabled. for every dropHinders needle and thread. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast.You seize the flower. A little weeping would ease my heart. that waits you here. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 16. always feminine. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. but not so in English. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. in English grammar. It is founded on sex. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 21. A fool speaks all his mind. its bloom is shed. The fleet. 10. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 15. There are exceptions even to this general statement. And see. 17. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much.Fair guests. . 13. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea.

Thus. He next stooped down to feel the pig. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. that is. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. der Tisch (table) is masculine.²IRVING. Neuter nouns..²gender nouns. the name of it is feminine. then. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. 23. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. according to use. according to their use. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. or additions to words. those distinguishing the sex of the object. the name of it is masculine. Hence: Definition. or which arouse his interest most. the word child is neuter in the sentence. or names of things without life.²LAMB. in German. if there were any signs of life in it. The great difference is.. those with which man comes in contact often. clapping his burnished wings. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. however.²masculine and feminine. the sex being of no consequence. hortus (garden) is masculine. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. 22. in English. No "common gender. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. if of the female sex. but are spoken of as neuter. must be divided into two principal classes..When." . and neuter nouns. that pattern of a husband. corpus (body) is neuter. Gunpowder . It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. 24. All nouns.² I have seenA curious child . gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. came to a stand just by the bridge. Of animals.. Gender nouns. and consequently without sex. For instance: in Latin... .² IRVING. das Messer (knife) is neuter. those which do not distinguish sex. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. in other languages gender follows the form. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. "A little child shall lead them. with its gizzard under its wing. inanimate things are spoken of. mensa (table) is feminine. are named by gender nouns.

or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. servant. teacher. etc. One feminine. 27. Very few of class I. or the lack of it. These remain in vixen and spinster. cousin. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. Gender shown by Suffixes. generally to a masculine word. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster.. domestic. Put in convenient form.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. According to the definition. for from they said vram. of course. woman. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. Hence vixen is for fyxen. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Gender shown by Prefixes. II. and for the older word fat they said vat. he-bear²she-bear. relative. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. Male nouns beings. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. as he-goat²she-goat. puts a prefix before the masculine man. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. but spinster has now no connection with it.25. 28. (3) By using a different word for each gender. The inflections for gender belong. they are neuter words. 29. only to masculine and feminine nouns. as in wine vat. though both words have lost their original meanings. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. from the masculine fox. 26.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. the division of words according to sex. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. If such words as parent. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. Native suffixes. I. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. ruler. . (2) By adding a suffix. is. For fox they said vox.

Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. trickster. executrix.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). as. as seam-stress.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. it has none now in the words huckster. gamester. -ess (French esse. as czarina. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. These are attached to foreign words. as. Unaltered and little used. but in most cases it has not. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. Slightly changed and widely used. punster. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . song-str-ess. the one most used. señorita. Low Latin issa). Ending of masculine not changed. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. 30. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. and are never used for words recognized as English.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. donna. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.

²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely." III. as was said in the sixteenth century. to represent persons of either sex. Some of them have an interesting history. We frequently use such words as author. the ending -ess. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. or servauntesse. Gender shown by Different Words. others have in their origin the same root. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. we use the masculine termination. we use the feminine. Instead of saying doctress. chairman. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. teacher or lady teacher. In some of these pairs. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. editor. from Latin imperatricem. from the French -esse. 32. as. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . neighbor (masculine and feminine). sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. frendesse. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. as. neighboresse. as in the fourteenth century. teacheresse. etc. 31. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. fosteress. Thus. wagoness. from the Old French maistre²maistresse.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. NOTE.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century).

and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Icelandic gás. as in many other words. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English.² . widuwa²widuwe. Husband and wife are not connected in origin.). or lauerd in Middle English. Two masculines from feminines. had the masculine mearh (horse). for example. Mare. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Madam is the French ma dame. Three letters of ened have fallen away. 34. but this has long been obsolete. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. finally gander. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. Witch is the Old English wicce. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Personification. written loverd. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Danish gaas. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. became identical. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). This gansa was modified into gan-ra. gand-ra. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Besides gander and drake. not immediately connected with witch. The masculine was formed by adding -a. leaving our word drake. etc. 33. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. from Latin mea domina. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. the old sign of the masculine. in Old English mere. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Widower. though both are ultimately from the same root. The older forms. It is not connected historically with our word duck. among others) to be from the same root word. probably meaning house dweller). and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). 16).y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. lhauerd.

number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. eyen (eyes). we make its plural by adding -s or -es. etc. more than one.²COLERIDGE. treen (trees). Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. In nouns. I. (3) By adding -s (or -es). that is. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. the engineer speaks so of his engine. for instance. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. Britannia needs no bulwarks. The first two methods prevailed. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. . in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way."²BYRON. 38. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Our language has two numbers. in Old English. Effect of personification. 39. whenever we adopt a new word.²KEATS. (2) By changing the root vowel.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. the plural.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. shoon (shoes).²singular and plural. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. The -en inflection. This is not exclusively a poetic use. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. together with the third.Her home is on the deep. But other words were inflected afterwards. 35. 36.No towers along the steep. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine."Now. Definition. NUMBER. and not by the form of the noun. 37.²CAMPBELL.

²Over the mountains winding down. Akin to this class are some words. ditch. borough²formerly had the same inflection."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. cannon. etc. salmon.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. as. The old plural was brothru. III.² "God bless me! so then. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. they add -s): also trout.² The foot are fourscore thousand. turf. heathen. after numerals (if not after numerals. Brethren has passed through three stages. after all. and get settled. dozen. but has now no singular.Horse and foot. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. folk. cross. into Frederick town. pair. quartz. by.²WHITTIER. sail. II. as. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. etc. glass.The horse are thousands ten. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. then brothre or brethre. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. 41.²MACAULAY. Lee marched over the mountain wall. and is still found in dialects. but they now add the ending -s. brace. or if preceded by the prepositions in. Examples of this inflection are. head. . such as deer. 42. Other words following the same usage are. etc. The words horse and foot. wight. sheep. retain the same form for plural meaning. originally neuter.-En inflection imitated by other words. finally brethren. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. when they mean soldiery. Such are box. 40. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. people. lens.²THOREAU. Instead of -s. that have the singular and plural alike. swine. Kine is another double plural. Children has passed through the same history.

physics. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. a new syllable is made. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . and many branches of learning.g. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. etc. means: as. some adding -s. It served simply as a means of sight. fairies. shelf²shelves. though they are plural in form. allies. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. that when thy summons comes. 45. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. 44. house²houses. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. negro²negroes. politics. the Americas. and some -es. fancies.. molasses. however. niche²niches.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe.-Es added in certain cases. pains (care). half²halves. economics. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. and the real ending is therefore -s.g. knife²knives. etc. Proper nouns are regularly singular. DANA. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. though this sound combines readily with -s. and go over to other classes (Secs. these words ended in -ie. summons. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. daisies. quoth then that ladie milde. When such words take a plural ending. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. Special Lists. So live.²BRYANT. they lose their identity. Formerly. e. Examples of these are. volcano² volcanoes.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. in its widest extent. is both the science and the art of government. chaise²chaises. Two words. etc. means and politics. Means plural. etc..²PROF. mathematics. race²races. The lilie on hir stalke grene. the Washingtons. Some words are usually singular. 15 and 17). prize²prizes. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). 43. as. hero²heroes. also news. optics. Words in -ies.² Politics. e.

by strongly conveying the passions.² MACAULAY. Some words have no corresponding singular. L. LAUGHLIN. Besides this. W.Words. it is furnished with a forceps. CURTIS. With great dexterity these means were now applied. . riches will accumulate. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. 46. if I recollect right. however.²BURKE. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. Now I read all the politics that come out. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.²MOTLEY.²GOLDSMITH.²G. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.²J. A relic which. Politics plural. I say. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. by those means which we have already mentioned. By these means.²IRVING. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other.²GOLDSMITH. Sometimes. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²GOLDSMITH.

Other words have one plural form with two meanings. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. genius²geniuses (men of genius). Two classes of compound words.²POPE. (2) poetry. part²parts: (1) divisions. pence (collectively). .The air. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. may add -s. or copies.² I lisped in numbers. eaves. Tell me not.. riches. brethren (of a society or church). in mournful numbers. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). In speaking of coins. dice (for gaming). as in the lines. These make the last part plural. One plural. etc.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. twopence. carry off chaff. trouble. shots (number of times fired). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. two plurals. sixpence. In Early Modern English thank is found. DANA. (2) care. faculties. (2) abilities. 49.). Numbers also means issues. die²dies (stamps for coins. genii (spirits). for the numbers came. or work in a bellows?²PROF.. pease (collectively). penny²pennies (separately). shot²shot (collective balls). clothes (garments). etc.²one corresponding to the singular. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. the other unlike it. or epistles. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). (2) literature.²was it subdued when. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. fishes (individuals or kinds). indices (signs in algebra). 48. two meanings. 50.. Three words were originally singular. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. fish²fish (collectively). number²numbers: (1) figures. (2) revenue duties. as two sixpences. pea²peas (separately). ways.²LONGFELLOW. of a periodical. making a double plural. index²indexes (to books). Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word.

² Then came Mr.²DR. for example. German. Two methods in use for names with titles. As to plurals of names with titles.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. though the latter is often found. Norman. the Misses Rich. Mussulman. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. Ottoman. 52. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. Briggs. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. there is some disagreement among English writers. The chief member adds -s in the plural. the Drs. firman. such as talisman. woman singer. Brahman. . The title may be plural. Allen. woman servant. as man singer. Brown. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. and then the three Miss Spinneys. but add -s. HOLMES. manservant. then Silas Peckham. or the name may be pluralized. as the Messrs. 51. and Mrs.

and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. Exercise. They are then said to be naturalized. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Du Maurier. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. FROM THE GREEK. 53. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. y y analysis antithesis .²GIBBON. Domesticated words. or Englished. and retain their foreign plurals. The Messrs. FROM THE LATIN. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. These are said to be domesticated. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. or Anglicized. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.²DICKENS.²GOLDSMITH. Others have been adopted.²THE CRITIC.

. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. Letters.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. without reference to their meaning. 55. and expresses a relation akin to possession." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). When the foreign words are fully naturalized. Only two case forms." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). Words quoted merely as words. as. as. cell has another relation. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. also add -s or 's." the word felon's modifies cell. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. In the sentence. figures. helping to express the idea of place with the word in.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. Definition. etc. etc. figures. 56. they form their plurals in the regular way. 54. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). In the general wearing-away of inflections." CASE..

" (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. and the possessive. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. whether inflected or not. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. may be said to have three cases. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. and merit. and experience. Nouns." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Human experience is the great test of truth. 2. Excuses are clothes which.²one for the nominative and objective. fate. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case." (2) As a predicate noun.²nature. they returned to their homes. learning. 1. 4. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. when asked unawares. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. 57. 58. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. completing a verb.²person. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. 5.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. excessive grief. the enemy of the living. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. Uses of the Nominative. I.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. 3.²the nominative. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. must be understood for purposes of analysis. three things characterize man. then. the objective. Three properties belong to wisdom. .

and being equivalent to one verb. (in the older stages of the language. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. her first law broken. 8. measure. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. thy wrath can send. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. completing the verb. 3. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. They charged. wounded lies. save. a patriarch of the village. 59. taking the object storm. But the flood came howling one day. sword in hand and visor down. 2." Exercise. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. the word toward which the preposition points. etc. they are sands of precious gold.6. and landlord of the inn. how have I frighted thee? II. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. as will be seen in Sec. taking the object enemies. . O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. and tell which use each has:² 1." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. and makest a calm. (5) As the object of a preposition. 4. 68. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. and meaning calmest." (3) Adverbially. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. But of all plagues. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences." "Thou makest the storm a calm. Conscience. good Heaven.Save. 9. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. reconciles. Uses of the Objective." (4) As the second object. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. Set a high price on your leisure moments. distance.

If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. The possessive case always modifies another word. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. 61.5. 6. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink.And gave the leper to eat and drink.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.His winter task a pastime made. from day to day. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. 10. (2) Objective possessive. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. expressed or understood. III. 9. (3) Subjective possessive. the Great Stone Face. Uses of the Possessive.²BYRON. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. It is a poetic expression. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. 7. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. as.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. 60.²ADDISON. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. as in these expressions.²SHELLEY. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay.Does his Creator's power display.. or in writing yesterday's elegy. Possession in some sense is the most common.e.² The unwearied sun. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. And whirling plate.²HAWTHORNE. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. the most common of all. and forfeits paid. tempests that . 8. as shown in the sentences. The noblest mind the best contentment has.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.

. To form the possessive plural. making the possessive singular. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR." "mannes herte [heart]. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s." etc. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. lady Poss. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. 1. The use of the apostrophe. however. child NOTE. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. How the possessive is formed. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. As said before (Sec." "at his beddes syde.e. A false theory. in Chaucer. 63. 56). . 64.. growth which several days had developed). In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. as schoolboys sometimes write.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. 62." Use of the apostrophe. and Obj. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. "George Jones his book. PLURAL. Case Inflection. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. Poss.e. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i.winter is likely to have). Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. Nom. the panther which the forest hides)." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. Nom. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. 62. One is the simple form of a word. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. "From every schires ende. there are only two case forms. A suggestion. Declension or inflection of nouns. and Obj.

The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. in the name of the emperor their master. and she walked off from the don's." Possessive with compound expressions." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. 67. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. 65. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. Kate saw that. In compound expressions. know the amount of my income. Possessive and no noun limited. Cervantes' satirical work. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows.. for goodness' sake. and from a desire to have distinct forms. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. as. the possessive sign is usually last. instead of the emperor their master's name. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. etc. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. store. but to the ear all may be alike. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. Captain Scrapegrace's.²HOLMES. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. 66. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. some such word as house. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. stands up for God's truth one man. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. I remember him in his cradle at St. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. as by the countess's command." "A postscript is added. being understood with it: for example.² LOWELL. church. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.. a word with a phrase.²DE QUINCEY.²SWIFT. and the connection must tell us what form is intended.²RUSKIN. my neighbors. etc. the items of my son's.²CARLYLE. dwelling. containing words in apposition. as. James's."²DE QUINCEY. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. .²THACKERAY.Though this opinion was untrue. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. Peter's.

sometimes they are used together. however. or subjective. any. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. corresponding to 's. as one modifier. For example. we use the phrase of Atterbury. E. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief.²E. making a double possessive. If. HALE.²FROUDE. 2. 68. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. In most cases.The double possessive.²CARLYLE. the. the statement clearly means only one thing.. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. etc. (3) It prevents ambiguity. and at the same time by a possessive noun. each. especially when used with this or that. a double possessive. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. in such a sentence as. every. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. 87. ill-lighted except where she stands. Blair). it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. this.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. objective. (b) Rewrite the sentence. (See also Sec. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears.²the introduction which Atterbury made. Exercises. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. (1) When a word is modified by a. Emphasis. Clearness.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. A peculiar form. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. no. Both of these are now used side by side. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. and tell whether each is appositional. that. the sentence might be understood as just explained. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . 1.

70. Friend. I must not see thee Osman's bride. At lovers' perjuries. 11.They say. day's harbinger. 8. therefore. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 12. and destroy the other. 9. 10. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. Nature herself. some idioms²the double possessive. Jove laughs. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. My quarrel and the English queen's are one.² .3. 15. 7. 69. There Shakespeare's self. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. In parsing. 5. with every garland crowned. 13. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow.A weary waste expanding to the skies. it seemed. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 4. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. we state. 14. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. let him seasonably water the one. Hence. Now the bright morning star. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience.Comes dancing from the East. in parsing a noun. 6. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS.

which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. 68).Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. as to case. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. which gender. Thief is a common class noun. is a common class noun. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. hence it is a gender noun.²common. etc. 2. 71. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. 3. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. determining its case. (4) Its office in the sentence. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. MODEL FOR PARSING. Throat is neuter. Exercise. like miller's. and therefore nominative case. the connection shows a male is meant. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. object of the verb takes. singular number. inflections. and to have it found out by accident. has no governing word. and number. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. it is the object of the preposition by. it denotes only one person. a fresh tapster. names one thing. hence objective case. it has no sex. therefore neuter. and relations. therefore singular number. subject of the verb is understood. therefore singular number. The correct method.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. a withered serving man. it is the name of a male being. Neckcloth. NOTE. In parsing any word. it expresses possession or ownership. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. masculine. and limits neckcloth. hence it is a common noun. therefore possessive case. it expresses time.(1) The class to which it belongs. That in the captain's but a choleric word. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. hence it is objective case. (3) Whether singular or plural number. proper. but is the adverbial objective. 4. therefore masculine gender. gender. . if the latter.

Madame de Staël. or for a person or thing. castle. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. blessings light on him that first invented . 76). Necker.5. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. standing for a name. or for a group of persons or things. For instance. and prison. and his daughter... 73. 9. 72. from a necessity for short. instead of saying. where the Rhone enters the lake." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. sleep! 6. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. Definition. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. (2) Interrogative pronouns. but by a question we say.²palace. The need of pronouns. definite. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. PRONOUNS. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. were natives of Geneva." Again. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. Mrs. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. A few miles from this point. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. He giveth his beloved sleep. Now. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns.. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. Jarley's back being towards him. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. financial minister to Louis XVI. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. Time makes the worst enemies friends. Classes of pronouns. . 10. 7. A pronoun is a reference word. 8. all in one. and representative words. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun.And hated her for her pride. 11.

(2) Second person. 75. (5) Indefinite pronouns. even if it had a special form.(3) Relative pronouns. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. that is. pronoun. From analogy to pronouns. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. they are said to have person by agreement. representing a person or thing spoken to. which have forms for person." Person of nouns. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. (3) Third person. standing for a person or thing spoken of. which cannot be used as adjectives. Person in grammar. primarily adjectives. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. ours . mine. representing the person speaking. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. which relate or refer to a noun. they must represent the person talking. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns.. "the distinction of person. Singular. 74. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. words. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. 76. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. we our. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. Nom. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. I Poss. the person or thing spoken to. as nouns have the same form. Three persons of pronouns. This gives rise to a new term. and the person or thing talked about. my Plural. or other word or expression. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. (4) Adjective pronouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. 77.

neuter. thy Remarks on These Forms. theirs them Neut. feminine h o. Nom. you your. Nom. thine. me us Singular. and also for the neuter. they their. Nom.. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. But the third person has. of all Three. in the singular. Nom. Masc. Obj. a separate form for each gender. it its it Poss. hers her Plur. namely. or. yours you THIRD PERSON. yours you Plural. so also with the person or thing spoken to. Singular. your. SECOND PERSON.Obj. by personification. masculine h . thou thee ye you you your. Poss. Obj. yours Poss. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Old forms. First and second persons without gender. The speaker may be either male or female. Old Form Common Form. 78. . neuter hit. Third person singular has gender. he his him Fem. Poss. Obj. Obj. she her.

the forms they. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. thee. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. . The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. heom.²SHELLEY. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. as possessive of it. Second person always plural in ordinary English. which was often sounded with the h silent. etc. We use it with a plural verb always. that didst comfort thy people of old." As shown above. (2) In addressing the Deity. heora. 82. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. The old form was his (from the nominative hit).. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. as in prayers. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. even when referring to a single object. especially in poetry.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. them. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. etc.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. There are. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. in Old English.²BEECHER.Thou lovest. 79. Thou. Two uses of the old singulars. two modern uses of thou. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. which is a neuter noun. to thy care we commit the helpless. This is of comparatively recent growth. The form its.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English.² Oh.. just as we now say. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. thy. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. The plurals were h . but make the plural you do duty for the singular. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. thou Shepherd of Israel. The consequence is.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. it. however. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. as. In spoken English. 80. their.:² (1) In elevated style. etc. for example. and sometimes its. 81.

just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. hers. we. and has been slave to thousands." the literary language would require he after was. The Possessive. That is.²COWPER. II. sometimes his and its. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. thy. I spare thee mine. "I am sure it was him. me. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. him. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. us. they have a nominative form.²BULWER. its. Additional nominatives in spoken English. Absolute personal pronouns. 'tis his. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. 58). and follow the usage of literary English. . 84. them. note the following:² 'Twas mine. 86. 83. In spoken English. thine. The forms mine. yours. ²SHAKESPEARE. they. for. ye. in such a sentence as. she. 34). he. her. thou. And since thou own'st that praise. Not a separate class. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. her. and not make more classes. her. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. our. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. and sometimes in ordinary speech. when they occur in the predicate position. besides a nominative use. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. though those named in Sec. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns.Use of the pronouns in personification. his.²LANDOR. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. theirs. 84 are always subjects. him. us. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. or. The words I. The forms my. your. them. however. Yet careful speakers avoid this. though ye is occasionally used as objective. have a peculiar use. Nominative forms. I The Nominative. some say. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. to personify objects (Sec. Old use of mine and thine. 85. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. their.

since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. theirs. pluck it out. as in nouns. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. and with mine. 87. Their uses. This ancient silver bowl of mine.²J. yours." said Henry Woodstall. F. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. we have. Double and triple possessives.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. yours. Long Allen.²THACKERAY. thus. are really double possessives. FIELDS.²THACKERAY. but few thy voice. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. If thine eye offend thee. . for example. commenting upon a letter of mine. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. thus. anger.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.²ID. T. (2) To bring emphasis. hers. "Hold thy peace. we find. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. Give every man thine ear. thine.²ID. in that old Edinburgh house of his. Besides this. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.²CARLYLE. Like the noun possessives.²BIBLE. (3) To express contempt. ours. sometimes its. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives."²SCOTT.² CARLYLE. ²HOLMES. The forms hers. COOPER. This usage is still preserved in poetry. his. it tells of good old times.²J.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. ours.²SWIFT. or satire. theirs.

" the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. 88. the thing is done. The old dative case. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. as it is called. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. . They all handled it. or use in a sentence. Besides this use of the objective. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. this dative use. In their function. But the first two have a nominative use. Now the objective. mine stands for my praise in the second. "The good alone are great. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. Curse me this people.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. In such sentences as. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. but the form is the same as the objective. 20. in the first sentence. III. his for his property." "None but the brave deserves the fair. The Objective.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. for whose benefit. 90. 86: mine stands for my property. In pronouns. was marked by a separate case. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. as shown in Sec. but nominative or objective in use.²BIBLE.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray.²ID. but not in form. but expresses for whom. Both joined in making him a present. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. and mine in the second has an objective use. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. 89.

or that he has not a great deal more.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.²DE QUINCEY. 91.²IRVING To empty here. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. why. The word you. in this century. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.² . which follows the verb. you must condense there. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it.²CARLYLE.²BULWER. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. as. ²EMERSON. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. you sneeze. like Chinese skill.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.²EMERSON. 92.²D. Indefinite use of you and your. as.Time is behind them and before them. as in the sentences. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. thus. was passed by with indulgence.²BACON. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature." (3) As a grammatical subject. (3) In apposition. logical subject. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.² NEWMAN. It is a pity that he has so much learning. or to the idea. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. Society.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. and they cry. to stand for the real. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. WEBSTER. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. Your mere puny stripling. has not made its progress.²ADDISON.

²HAWTHORNE. There was nothing for it but to return. themselves. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. yourselves. however. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. And when I awoke. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia.²BRYANT.²IRVING. I made up my mind to foot it. I set me down and sigh. A sturdy lad . The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively." "He bought him a horse. yourself. who teams it.. who in turn tries all the professions.²EMERSON. For when it dawned.²DE QUINCEY.It is finger-cold. that is. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. itself. the second is the old form of the second person. we use such expressions as. "I found me a good book.²THOREAU. (ourself). but seldom in prose. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. since firstThe flight of years began. -selves. as." etc. Poor Christian was hard put to it. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. used in poetry. when they are direct objects. . They are myself.²ID. and its plural selves. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²BURNS.²HOLMES. And millions in those solitudes. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. Of the two forms in parentheses.²BUNYAN. peddles it. they dropped their arms. For example. herself."²IRVING. have laid them downIn their last sleep.² Now I lay me down to sleep.²ANON. keeps a school. It was late and after midnight.²SCOTT. as they are also called.²COLERIDGE." and there is an end of it. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. 93. 94. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. This occurs in poetry. ourselves.. it rained. (thyself). The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. farms it. himself.

²WORDSWORTH. as. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. with self. Threats to all.²MILTON. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. shall dissolve. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. for example.² The great globe itself .As girls were once. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. B. Held dead within them till myself shall die. 96.² TENNYSON. Use of the reflexives. The question might arise. especially in the speech of rulers. to every one. theself. I shrink with pain.²ID. after the analogy of myself. as. thyself..² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. not the possessive forms. In Middle English the forms meself. for example. as in vulgar English. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. Origin of these reflexives.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.To you yourself. 95. and build the lofty rhyme.²EMERSON.² . etc.. as we ourself have been.²E. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. were changed into the possessive myself.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted.²SHAKESPEARE. As if it were thyself that's here. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. to us. and the others were formed by analogy with these. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. BROWNING. ourselves. NOTE.

why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. 3. Courage. 2.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. And it grew wondrous cold. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. 97. and neuter. fight it out. some of them being double possessives. 4.²DE QUINCEY. where the word is one with that it tells of. but it is the soonest spoiled. Years ago. all conform to it. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). 6. Infancy conforms to nobody. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. FRANKLIN. 9. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. and how to do it. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. 8. let him lowly confess it. To know what is best to do.On the light fantastic toe. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. some each of masculine. 7. feminine. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. is wisdom. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. Three now in use. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. Come and trip it as we go.²B. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1.² THACKERAY. . it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. and what. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. which. 5. 10. One obsolete. father.

it is always third person. What wouldst thou do. the gold. shall we say. having three forms. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. or case. as it always asks about somebody. As shown here. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. whispering sweet. actions. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. etc. that is. . but now obsolete. it refers to either persons or things. referring to things. 98. number. Which of you. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. whether. used formerly to mean which of two.Promised. but for case alone. These show that what is not inflected for case. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. that.. 100. which is not inflected for gender. Use of which. Whose was that gentle voice. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. methought. that it is not inflected for gender or number. that it is always singular and neuter. ideas. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. not to persons. The use of who.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. Use of what. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY.There is an old word. Use of who and its forms. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. 99. with its possessive and objective. it is selective. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects.

and so to make smoother discourse. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case.Who sung of Border chivalry. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. and also in having a conjunctive use. since it is subject of the verb had. or other word or expression. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. who? Poss. and what are also relative pronouns. Thus we may say. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. which and what are sometimes adjectives. which. it may be shortened into. 105. The antecedent. These bards sang of Border chivalry. as. which is called the antecedent of the relative. 127). in Sec. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. For instance." Or. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. being the direct object of the verb shall take." In the latter sentence. Further treatment of who. 99.² "The last of all the Bards was he. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. whose? Obj. what may be an adverb in some expressions. subject of doth love. objective in the last. as they take the place usually of a word already used. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. which and what. SINGULAR Nom. for which the pronoun stands. It usually precedes the pronoun. as. 103. nominative in the second also. who evidently refers to Bards. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun.² . AND PLUR. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. Function of the relative pronoun. which is nominative in the first sentence.101. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. 104. Who. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. SING. pronoun. who is used as objective instead of whom. "The last of all the Bards was he. AND PLUR. 102.²by the use of the words.

5. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.Whom universal nature did lament.²DR JOHNSON.²LOWELL In this. 4.. The nurse came to us.. Generally speaking. will be discussed further on. in the same sense in which man's nature. that.²W. Ye mariners of England. 6. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. 107. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. both his and who have the antecedent priest. Two kinds. what. For her enchanting son. .The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. The men whom men respect. WHITNEY. 2.Whose flag has braved. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. with all its capabilities . 4. D.That guard our native seas. a thousand years. 3. are the men and women who bless their species. Who and its forms. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. a simple relative is meant. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.²BYRON. When the word relative is used. 3. 2. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. Indefinite relatives. which. The origin of language is divine. They had not their own luster.²PARTON Which and its forms.. 108.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. the women whom women approve.²THACKERAY. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.²MILTON. 106. is a divine creation. and the indefinite use of simple relatives.² COX. but the look which is not of the earth. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.²SCOTT.

² SHAKESPEARE 2.²DE QUINCEY. For what he sought below is passed above.. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 107. and spoils. ought to be kept in view. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.²MARGARET FULLER.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. 110. BEECHER 5. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. Who. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²EMERSON.Is fit for treasons. What.²GOLDSMITH. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. you will not be angry with me for telling you.. bought up all the pigs that could be had.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. 109. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. 6.²IRVING. 4. which it certainly is not. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. Already done is all that he would do.²H. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. The man that hath no music in himself. 111.. no bad type of what often happens in that country. That.. 3. (a) This gradation . Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1.5. stratagems.. else this description will seem exaggerated. Reader. The judge ... Examples of the relative that:² 1.²BURKE. 2. The Tree Igdrasil. W.²LAMB 3.

a man. 5. (3) It is nearly always third person.²THACKERAY.²which for the nominative and objective. that man. Sec.who. Scott. In 1. (2) It has three case forms. and so on. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 2.. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. the others are all third person.. Witness the following examples:² And you. or ideas. in 4. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. in the first sentence. whose wound I had dressed.. things. the relatives are singular. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former.. son. 113. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. flung its arms around my neck. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. possessive case of which. whom. who. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. 96). 112. in 5.whose. seemed as much excited as myself. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. in the second.²LEIGH HUNT. Gibbon.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. in the third.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. JOHNSON. Kingsley. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Who referring to animals. It has been seen (Sec. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. they are plural. who is first person..²IRVING. (4) It has two case forms. whose. The little gorilla.²LOWELL. whose is second person. p. My horse. 107.²who. The sentences in Sec. In sentence 4. . Cooper. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. and others. and 6. Which. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. The robins. and 3. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. whom. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.. whose for the possessive. not persons.²SWIFT. Examples of whose.²DR. referring to animals. Smollett.

Kingsley. 109. secondly (which made her stare). and numerous others. Sometimes. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. Primarily. second. (3) It is the same form for first. Men may be ready to fight to the death.² MCMASTER. too. In the sentences of Sec. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. animals. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.²BEECHER. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. This moribund '61. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages.² And. 115. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. Which and its antecedents. and things. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. The last two sentences in Sec. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. the antecedent follows which.²first. That.²SHAKESPEARE. which is worse.²DE QUINCEY. (2) It has only one case form. 116. and to persecute without pity. Burke. which is very notable and curious.²RUSKIN. This often occurs.²THACKERAY.² I swept the horizon. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. . So in Matthew Arnold. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. and third persons. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations.114. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. no possessive. let us enter the church itself.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain."²RUSKIN. thus. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.²SCOTT. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light.

What. is always neuter. but what I hate. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. who Poss. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. that he has. The gender. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. as in sentence 6. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. number. it usually follows. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. The sentences of Sec. for example. we can. plural number. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. What a man does." (3) "These people heard him. For example. plural number. 117. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. consequently is neuter.²BIBLE What fates impose. whose Obj.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. 118. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. and is emphatic. Sec. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. third person. Who plainly stands for those or the people. what we said?²CARLYLE. that do I not. either of which would be neuter.²EMERSON. and person of the relatives who. that do I. Nom. by taking them out. 109. third person. which. as.² What I would. . that men must needs abide. 119.²SHAKESPEARE. When expressed. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent." That evidently refers to truths.

" Here the subject of is. 5. is subject of wrought upon and molded. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. is what we call nature."²EMERSON. Parsing what. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. 7. neuter. In the sentence. . In (2). 120. Truths in sentence (2).. etc. and what is the direct object of the verb call. which is. is in the nominative case. but is singular. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. 3. the simple relative. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. Exercise. who is sure to be cunninger than they. then parse the relatives. subject of heard. 4. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. What can't be cured. In the same way who. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. First find the antecedents. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. after all. standing for the people understood. nobler souls with that which they are. that takes the case of the truths in (2).We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. and hence is in the nominative case. in (3). The word what. Another way. people is the object of the preposition of. third person. but of this. I think they are trying to outwit nature. 6. "What can't be cured must be endured. Now. it is object of uttered. so is in the objective case. is subject of the verb can't be cured. we is the subject. it is subject of the verb heard. in the following sentences:² 1. 8. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. the highest result of all education. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. What must be endured? Answer. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. The whole expression is its subject. The relative what is handled differently. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. because it has usually no antecedent. Some prefer another method of treatment. however. in (1). above. As shown by the following sentences.

and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. Hence some take what as a double relative. not as direct as the simple relatives. that is.²MACAULAY. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. or stand on their head. 121. being referred to. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 2. Only itself can inspire whom it will. whatsoever. 3. 123. and his friend a fool. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. .That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror.²BURKE. summer will have its flies. object of do] they do. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. and in 2. 2. Take which you please. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. 7.²BURKE. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. and parse that in the first clause.²you cannot have both. no particular thing. whichever. Do what we can. to everything that. in a new and original way. So with the other indefinites. "common souls pay with that [singular. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. Death is there associated. whosoever. whatever is equivalent to all things which. by meaning and use. It is clear that in 1. which. no certain antecedent. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. It is no proof of a man's understanding. whatsoever. or what else soever. List and examples. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. whatever. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. Meaning and use. 6. 5. and which in the second clause. object of with] which [singular. 122. The simple relatives who. whichsoever. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. 4. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. less common are whoso. They are whoever.

Proof that they have the force of relatives. the conjunctions wherein. This. etc. for example. etc. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. are used. what means anything that.² some particular thing. but mean any one whom. Former use of as. by which. 417). Two words. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. 2. 4.² 1.. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. . thus. and that as after such is equivalent to which. 121. But and as. whereupon. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. as what hardly ever has an antecedent.²EMERSON.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. 121. In early modern English. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed.As shown in Sec. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. Instead of the phrases in which. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. whereby. as shown by the last sentence in Sec.²HAWTHORNE. upon which. has been my heaviest affliction.. for example.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. 124. Sec. etc. either one that. but which only wealth could have purchased. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. nothing that does not interest us. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. everything that (or everything which). are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. 120. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life.²DE QUINCEY. but and as. as was used just as we use that or which. not following the word such. 126. 125. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. There is nothing but is related to us. Other substitutes.

²EMERSON." etc. no antecedent is expressed.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. it is an indefinite relative). and 3 (b). which would indicate that they are not relatives. a question is disguised in each sentence. (b) But what had become of them they knew not.. "Who stood behind? We knew. But in 1 (b). (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. showing that who is plainly interrogative. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first.²ID. In sentences 1 (a). So in 2 (b). if expanded. which having the antecedent lines. and whether what = that + which (if so.²WHITTIER. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. would be. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. How to decide. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. Another caution. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. what is interrogative. "But what had become of them? They knew not. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. the full expression being. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. it is an interrogative. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). it is a simple relative. 1 (b). second. if not. In studying such sentences. . Special caution needed here. 2. who having the antecedent gentleman." Likewise with which in 3 (b). 3. though the earthwork hid them. Thus. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. if not. 127. 2 (b).

²CARLYLE. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. and Court Calendars. whose has the antecedent you. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. Thus.²HOLMES. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question.128. and asks no question. whence is the interrogative word. which.² These are the sounds we feed upon. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.²FLETCHER. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences.²GOLDSMITH. ELIOT. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1.²FORSTER 6. Examine the following:² 1. the question is asked by the verb. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. .²SWIFT. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. 4. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. Put in the relatives who. On the other hand. I visited many other apartments. The insect I am now describing lived three years. 2.²G. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. In the first. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. Relative omitted when object. When Goldsmith died. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of.² THACKERAY. In the third. 129. Exercise. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. 3. but the life of man in England. In the second. which has the antecedent hue. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. 5.

which. The nobles looked at each other. that.²SHAKESPEARE. and comparatively so in poetry. or indefinite relatives:² 1.7. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. Also in literary English we find the same omission. Examples are. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. which was already proceeding. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. 130.²SCOTT.² LOWELL. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. the house was full. 2. Function of adjective pronouns. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. . simple relatives. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. and what. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. 3. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.² The silent truth that it was she was superior.²Id. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. 6. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. Relative omitted when subject. There was such a crowd went. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. It is rare in prose. who were to be rulers over whom.²CAMPBELL.Ne'er looks upon the sun. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. 5. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.

"Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. and stand for a noun. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns." "one man. and another to get cool under. such as each. necessarily thought of: thus. such as this. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. or an argument in a paragraph." in the others. and on each is written. "another bank. in letters of gold. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. must not modify any word.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. few.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. etc. in the first. "each cube. in order to be an adjective pronoun. but in this function." Classes of adjective pronouns. "The dead are there. 132. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. any. but have lost their adjective use. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. either. which we have seen in such expressions as. not pronouns. the former. all. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. a word. Primarily they are adjectives. For example. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. many. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. neither. "these pranks.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. in the second they retain an adjective meaning.²IRVING. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. etc. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. Caution. or use. 133. or they may stand for nouns. none. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples." in the second. 'Truth. that. For instance. In the first use they are adjectives.²BRYANT. expressed or understood. etc. Adjectives." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. . or may be the whole of a sentence. It must come under the requirement of pronouns." "Where two men ride on a horse. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. as some. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence." that is.131.²EMERSON.

or sat. A man inspires affection and honor.²ID. but these were of the best. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. . Compound. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. but what he fain had seen He could not see. reap the same. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. as seemed good to each. 5. Some of these are simple pronouns. They have not shunned the one. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. Definition and examples. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns.²ID.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. when the latter was the King of Spain. they that plow iniquity.² They stood. They had fewer books. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. 3. 134.All these he saw. Even as I have seen.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. for example. and they have well performed the other. Simple. Their minds accorded into one strain. Such are a few isolated instances. Exercises. 2. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.²LOWELL. accidentally preserved. and sow wickedness. or reclined. NOTE.²EMERSON 4. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. because he was not lying in wait for these.

They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.²HOLMES. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. The lines sound so prettily to one's self.² One reflexive.Two are compound pronouns. Some inflected. They led one another.²EMERSON. as some of the rangers had gone astray. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. 135. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. . with the superstitions of his time. or melt for others' woe. one another. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. another. ²HAWTHORNE.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. NUMERAL PRONOUNS.²each other. The word one has a reflexive form. Men take each other's measure when they react. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. paused over a horoscope.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. for example. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. as it were. Another opposes him with sound argument. If hand of mine another's task has lightened.²HAWTHORNE. None shall rule but the humble. as. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. imbued. such as one other. Definition and examples. Much might be said on both sides. as most were.²KINGSLEY. The Soldan. Exercise. we might the more easily discharge them. you quickly come to the end of all.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.

and they. everybody. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case." It means something. Now. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. they are never used as adjectives. Somebody. Every one else stood still at his post. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. they say. every one else. everybody else.. anyone else. some one.² At lovers' perjuries. but. as shown in the words everybody's. nobody. 137. somebody else. anything. I tell you what. anybody. what. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. no one. and was indefinite in Old English. in building of chaises. naught. and somewhat. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. also aught. They indefinite means people in general. etc. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. any one (or anyone).²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. 136.²SHAKESPEARE. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. Definition and examples. unlike adjective pronouns. Exercise.Exercise. every one (or everyone).There is always somewhere a weakest spot. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. everything. . etc. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. nothing. anybody else's. Jove laughs. as. something. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues.

Whoever deals with M. . from my earliest days.See also "Syntax" (Sec. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. 12. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. A reminder. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. indeed. Others did the same thing. The table was good. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. 5. in his negotiations. 14. but not to quite so enormous an extent. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 13. 9. 10. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours.²a feature of natural scenery for which. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. All was now ready for action. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). O thou that rollest above. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. to which. 6. 16. 17. 18. I first found myself among the mountains. were suffered to depart. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 138. For this did God send her a great reward. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 7. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. and of no other. 3. 4. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 11. Hutchinson tells us of herself. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 2. Exercise. 8.

A smile of hers was like an act of grace. 27. I who alone am. that let him communicate. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning.And it would work 'em woe. behold now the semblance of my being. And will your mother pity me. 34. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 32. who take the world easy. in all its height. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. eat white bread or brown. He sate him down. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. 29. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. 31. hear! 33.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. 26.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. 21. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . well-oiled dispositions. variety. oh. And I had done a hellish thing. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. They know not I knew thee. Whatever he knows and thinks. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. thou rollest now.Who knew thee too well.19.Destroyer and preserver. 35. 30. and seized a pen. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. 23. hear. 25. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake.

" "some cities. 38. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. For example. adjectives are used. or with persons. Again. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. 39. "one hat. or gaseous. He knew not what to do. If a chemist discovers a new substance. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. As to the kind of words used. position. 37. so that no other will be mistaken for it. He teaches who gives. then. Instead of using nouns indefinitely.. 45. size. and he learns who receives. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. which was no bad step towards my liberation. 139. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. It may have this office alone." "yonder hill. and if we are near. brittle or tough. etc. as. We need to add some words to tell its color. Office of Adjectives. etc." "a hundred men. heavy or light. 40. Who hears me. . is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun." etc. 44. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. who understands me. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. 42. in pointing out an object. ADJECTIVES. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun.36. white or red. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. 43." The office of an adjective." "that house. such as in the expressions "this man. So with any object. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. if we are at a distance. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. Substantives. and so he read. We are by nature observers. that is our permanent state. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. becomes mine. 41. or liquid. the number is limited by adjectives.

it shows that he weighs men's minds. or how much of a thing." "ice-cold water." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES.²POPE. such as." "the Christian pearl of charity. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. 143.140. remotest. If he be thankful for small benefits. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them." . (3) Demonstrative adjectives. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. divine." the "and there. to forgive. "an old English manuscript. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive." they constitute all his connections. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. however. Examples are. derived from proper nouns. Classes of adjectives. rash." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. fair. (2) Adjectives of quantity." "ivory-handled pistols. "Heaven-derived power. deep. (4) Pronominal adjectives. used to tell how many things are spoken of." "the Roman writer Palladius. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. words primarily pronouns." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. Nouns are not. To err is human. To make this clear. 142. Definition. such as safe." "half-dead traveler." "unlooked-for burden. Infinitives. etc. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. They include relative and interrogative words. to describe it or to limit its application.²COLERIDGE. With exception of the "and then. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. pointing out particular things.² BACON. and their trash." and the still less significant "and so." "next-door neighbor. terrible. beautiful. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. 141." "this life-giving book. happy." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof.

joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. Oxenham. but small thoughts have I of sleep. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction." was is the verb." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds.²MACDONALD. sometimes small. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. and accomplished is an adjective." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. considerable. much. 2. For instance: in the sentence. They have these three subdivisions:² How much.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah.But ever she looked on Mr." "It came on like the rolling simoom." Caution. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. in this. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." was accomplished is a verb. 145.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. and another is drunken." "a charming sight. 'Tis midnight. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.²COLERIDGE. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. no. . any. in studying these last-named words. some.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting." "trailing clouds. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." "One is hungry." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. 1. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. Exercises. Care is needed. 144. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. which are either pure participles used to describe. Examples are." "The shattered squares have opened into line." "an aged man. having some of each subclass named in Sec. 143.

also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards.²VAUGHAN. latter. instead of modifying them. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence.² Every town had its fair.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. (plural these. yonder (or yon). any. former. that." "Then we wandered for many days." "He had lived by hunting for some months." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals." (b) Indefinite numerals. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. Not primarily pronouns. the former²the latter. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.²CARLYLE." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. Examples. Exercise. The list. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. every village. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. but I have gained fourscore. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. as. those). Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound.²ID. Thus. An arrow was quivering in each body. are used with plural nouns. The demonstrative adjectives are this. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. 146. "one blaze of musketry. they come under the next division of adjectives. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. The following sentences present some examples:² ." "I have lost one brother.²KINGSLEY. no. When some. and with them a few negroes." Single ones of any number of changes. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER." "a dozen volunteers.²THACKERAY." "In came some five and twenty more. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. its wake. How many.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity.

²RUSKIN. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. but. These do not. 149.²ID. . The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course.but all these charms are fled.²BANCROFT. I verily believe. what revenues or garnitures. 148. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.²GOLDSMITH.²KINGSLEY.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. FRANKLIN. ²CARLYLE. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. just as the corresponding pronouns do. The silver and laughing Xenil. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. As has been said. When we speak of the seventeenth century. for example. but in the one case. 147.²BULWER. Modify names of persons or things. These were thy charms. skill which was at pause.. In which evil strait Mr. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. The taking of which bark.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.² It matters not what rank he has. they are changed to adjectives.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. They are of two kinds. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art.²ID. Indefinite relative adjectives. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.²D. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents.²WORDSWORTH."²B.. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. Exercise. tell how many things are meant. of equal skill. skill which was progressive²in the other. like the other numerals.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. Definition. WEBSTER. Oxenham fought desperately.

²IRVING.²RUSKIN. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. New torments I behold. as it rather seemed. In direct questions. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. whatsoever. Was there. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. you at least give him full authority over your son. and gaze. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. He was turned before long into all the universe. proved not altogether displeasing to him.²CARLYLE..² EMERSON.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. Whatsoever kind of man he is. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. and new tormentedAround me. which is selective among what is known. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. . Adjective what in exclamations.²ID.. In indirect questions. the debt to the rich. it is impossible to determine. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. But when the Trojan war comes. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity.150.And whichsoever way I turn. whatever. whichsoever way I move. A lady once remarked. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. Examples of their use are. which. what inquires about things or persons not known. or whether any.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. As in the pronouns. nature will be sure to bear us out in.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 151. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.²LAMB. whichever.²AGASSIZ. whichsoever. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.

and when we compare the objects. which changed its spelling to the modern form these.152.²This. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. color. weight. Those borrowed from this. we notice some differences between them as to size. In exclamatory expressions. we do so by means of their qualities. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. It is neither relative nor interrogative. This is the old demonstrative. When we place two objects side by side. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. But this had also another plural. . that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. gold is heavier than iron. 154. 153 . or weight. etc. And yet. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. Exercise. the making of it right. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. and those as the plural of that. That.²but not the same degree. NUMBER. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. th s (modern those).. or amount. History of this²these and that²those. Thus. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. etc. of the quality. as. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. those). All these have certain qualities. Meaning of comparison. COMPARISON. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. The article that was used with neuter nouns. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. alas.²number and comparison. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. or size.Adjectives have two inflections.² Oh. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. which was fully inflected in Old English. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. 155.

Substitute for inflection in comparison. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. and the superlative. "more matter." "It is a nobler valor. bluer. indomitable.²THACKERAY.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. 156. indefatigable. The two forms. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. They came into use about the thirteenth century. immemorial. and many others.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. These are properly the only degrees. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree.²SEWARD. with less wit. expressing the greatest degree of quality. A main difference betwixt men is. Definition. blue. The comparative is formed by adding -er. supreme. 160. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. easiest. So with the words sole. whether they attend their own affair or not." Words that cannot be compared. bluest. as. strictly considered. for example. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. or amounts in quantity. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. reddest. enormous. 159.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. Freedom is a perpetual. they are not compared. . red." "no fewer than a hundred." "the largest soul. redder. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. expressing a greater degree of quality. as. to the simple form. great. 157. These are called degrees of comparison. and the superlative by adding -est. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. easier. but. "untamed thought. infinite. though the simple. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. organic. giant-like. 158. universal institution." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. easy. sufficient." "the commonest speech. but were not common until a century later. whose favorite pupil he was.

The following lists include the majority of them:² . strange." "more odd. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. indisputablest. mournfulest. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. and yet familiar.²ID." "sorrowfulest spectacles. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English." said Henry Esmond. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. finest chiseling. polished. which hung behind in the queerest way. 162.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. These are adjectives irregularly compared. Adjectives irregularly compared. most small. honestest. who. though born in no very high degree. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. and patientest fusing. "So help me God. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. 163. quiet. easy. The general rule is. I will. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. admirablest." "distantest relationships. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress." Carlyle uses beautifulest. as." "the immensest quantity of thrashing." "more austere and holy.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. madam. witty. and other words are preceded by more and most. was most finished. harsh forms are usually avoided. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est.² CARLYLE A gentleman.²ID." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. there needed to be a most genuine substance. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. falling on his knees. These long. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by.Which rule.²The Nation.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. peaceablest. etc. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative." "the wonderfulest little shoes.

innermost Outmost. The superlative I form was betst. 3. though from a different root. [In] Inner Inmost. which has gone out of use. worst. lesser.LIST I. oldest Nighest. . but takes the place of a positive to better and best. is often used.² O. (3) Little is used as positive to less. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less.²HAMLET. 6. 8. 164. outermost Utmost. 2. Good or well Evil. (2) In Old English. bad. furthest 10. older Nigher Nearer Later. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 9. next Nearest Latest. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. These have no adjective positive:² 1. 1. 5. [Out] Outer. latter Hinder LIST II.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. lesser Elder. utter 3. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. as. uttermost Upmost. evil was the positive to worse. throw away the worser part of it. hindermost Much or many More Farther. a double comparative. Hind 2. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). There was an old comparative bet. List I. last Hindmost. Worser was once used. further Farthest. as in the sentence (14th century). 7. least. 4.² We have it in a much lesser degree. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. uppermost LIST III. A double comparative. which has softened to the modern best. as in Shakespeare. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative.

but originally the comparison was nigh. farrest. th came into the others. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. the old forms. or series. are shown in such phrases as. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. to England we sailed. farthest. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. doubling the inflection. first. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. "Many a little makes a mickle. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. . The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. an old superlative ending. greatest. latest. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. as long. but not in meaning. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional.² The more part being of one mind. great." Its spelling has been micel. strong. as.²KINGSLEY. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms.²HAWTHORNE.²ID. except the form next. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. (5) The forms elder. etc.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. since the m is for -ma. In imitation of further. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. a distinction has grown up between the two series. near. is quite common. muchel.. there is scarcely any distinction. List II. to which is added -ost. instead of lenger. and refer to time. came into use. etc.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. next. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. for example. The latter.²forth. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. First became entirely detached from the series. The most part kept a stolid indifference. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form.. strenger. much. The meanings greater. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. Since later. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. meaning the largest part. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. furthest. moche. ²LAMB. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. are earlier than older. making the modern farther. eldest. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. and the superlative nearest. Between the two sets as they now stand. oldest. further.

but not in their meaning.165. was descried The royal banner floating wide." -Most added to other words. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. BEECHER. on the very topmost twig. being merely descriptive. Decidedly handsome. . They have no superlatives.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. and have no comparative force.²EMERSON. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. Think what each adjective belongs to." "far-seeing as the sun." "the innermost moral soul. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. The adjectives in List III. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. Her bows were deep in the water. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain.²HAWTHORNE. The comparatives are so in form. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace." "The outer is of the day. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence.²DE QUINCEY. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. all may belong to the same noun. 167. but her after deck was still dry. but they have no adjective positives." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. in having no adjective positives.²H. or each may modify a different word or group of words. W. 166. Highest and midmost. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. 168." "their utmost exertion. List III. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. by the by. or have no comparative forms. the upper light of the world. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. are like the comparative forms in List II.²KINGSLEY. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. There. (Sec. In List II. Her. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove.

By a convenient brevity. 2. satisfactory. usual modifies incomparable decision. 3. therefore. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation.²TRENCH. deeply black eyes. philosophical. STOWE.²MRS. not decision alone. But in this sentence. as. and heaven-defying oaths. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. 6. STEPHENS 5. and moral truth. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. solid. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES." making then an adjective.²A. 169. Bradbury and Evans. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. 7. "the one who was then king. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility." in which then is an adverb. Other instances are. This. and broken. in prose.²HAWTHORNE. Our sometime sister. In the following quotations. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. instead of saying. For thy stomach's sake. bright. May we not. The seldom use of it.²HOLMES. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. and thine often infirmities. rich. our new government.For example. ²TROLLOPE.²HAWTHORNE. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. Exercise. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. 4. now our queen.²RUSKIN. . Richard Hooker. the then and still owners. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart.²BIBLE. A few improper jests and a volley of good.² My then favorite. It may still be argued. round. we may say "the then king. H. deep.²NOAH PORTER. in this sentence." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank.

and most astounding were those frightful yells. modifies truths. then. and very few have number. manly way. 5. (3) Its degree of comparison. 4. Exercise. seventy-five drachmas. These points out what truths. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. MODEL FOR PARSING. To every Roman citizen he gives. therefore demonstrative. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. this. compared by prefixing more and most. 7. She made no reply. In parsing an adjective. 9. (4) What word or words it modifies. 8. not inflected for number. plural number. if it can be compared. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. across the plain. and I waited for none. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. I ask nothing of you. cannot be compared. 10. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. therefore descriptive. . the method of parsing is simple. positive degree. 3. (2) Its number. Unfamiliar describes truths.What to tell in parsing. person. frank. if it has number. 6. 2. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. modifies the word truths. To every several man. having a singular. with awkward but rapid pace. 170. This gave the young people entire freedom. Since adjectives have no gender. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. or case.

yet are remarkably self-forgetful. 23. 25.11. he won affections with ease. Nearer to our own times. 28. 16. 27. those dogs in the yard. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. Here lay two great roads. 18. 14. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 13. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. and many poles supported the lower ones. 19. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. oxen. 33. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. Like most gifted men. . not so much for travelers that were few. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. it is so noble a fruit. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 21. To say what good of fashion we can. 12. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. the tomahawk fell. 31. With every third step. 24. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 26. growing in the most unfavorable position. Their name was the last word upon his lips. yonder oxen in the pasture. In music especially. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 29. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. are immutably fishes. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. and dogs. it rests on reality. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. during which time I waited. and therefore more interesting to us. 20. suggests such thoughts as these. 22. I know not what course others may take. Two hours elapsed. is the settlement of our own country. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 32. as for armies that were too many by half.

" "a European. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. a before consonant sounds. that other. in vulgar English. sometimes the tother. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. .² We ca' her sometimes the tane. the tother. later th ." "an orange. ðat. 171. he is no literary man. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. meaning one. or the tane. 172." the words the and an belong to nouns. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. Two relics. that) which was also an article in Old English. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. In Middle English the became an article. Their origin. th o. An historian. Our expressions the one. and a before consonant sounds." "a yelling crowd. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . the tither." "an honor. s o. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. such as we have been attempting to describe. Many writers use an before h. even when not silent. with an ordinary little garden. the latter is still preserved in the expression. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. Examples: "a house. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. these occurring as the tane. 35. In the sentence. An or a came from the old numeral n. the other. An before vowel sounds. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. weary-hearted man was he. 37. were formerly that one.²MACAULAY. ARTICLES. but the former is used. just as adjectives do. 173. the tother. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general.²SCOTT.²BREWER. for example. A hard-struggling.34. 174." An with consonant sounds.

USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. 179. An and a are different forms of the same word. on opening a story. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. The Dakota tribes. An article is a limiting word. is referred to. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. 178. BANCROFT.. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. Definition.²THACKERAY. Articles are either definite or indefinite. or any individual of a group or class. or a group or class of things. doubtless. 175. or class. thus.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. Kinds. a person is introduced by a. To call attention to attributes.²This use is noticed when. not descriptive. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.²COLERIDGE. the older n. as in the sentence. and when the word river is omitted. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri.² . When the is prefixed to a proper name. Reference to a known object. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. The is the definite article. or group. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images." the article indicates clearly that a river." "the Ohio.²IRVING. An or a is the indefinite article. which cannot be used alone. as "the Mississippi. NOTE. 176. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north.² Don't you remember how.. An hereditary tenure of these offices. and not a state or other geographical division. since it points out a particular individual.²HEROES OF ASGARD.²G.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. With names of rivers. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing.. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. 177. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.

not into a particular virtue. For possessive person pronouns.²ID. The. Half abstract. NOTE. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. 180. but into the region of all the virtues. 183. and the redwing. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. Kant.²MOTLEY. 1. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. If the good is there. as. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. Common. 182.²KINGSLEY. the Spinoza. the song sparrow. the gallant. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. the Hume.²G. or a match put between the fingers. One thing for its class. Caution. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird.²EMERSON.The Bacon. With adjectives used as nouns. The simple rise as by specific levity. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. would speedily extract the required information. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. Schelling. With plural of abstract nouns. His messages to the provincial authorities.²ID. for example.²GIBBON. her. 2.²EMERSON. so is the evil.² The faint. . In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift.²SCOTT. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. BANCROFT. etc. laid it on the miry spot.² As she hesitated to pass on. 181.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. Now. c). 202. the most astute. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. which means to go over. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. b). The nature of intransitive verbs. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. 204. but cannot be predicates. and to receive the action expressed. etc. for example. a). and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. (can) shame also has an object. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought.²BULWER . Definition and caution. an article. in (3. 200: In (1). 203. in (c). A verb is a word used as a predicate. which may be a person. we consider a verb as one word." Examine the sentences in Sec. obeyed is a predicate. to say something to or about some person or thing. Each influences some object. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. and a preposition unite as a verb."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. 201. and not a verb. in (2. Of those expressing action. the most penetrating. taking the staff which always guided her steps. In each case. Hence Definition. lone took what? answer. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. with some word understood." put is the predicate. can deceive has an object. b). an adverb. or the object. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. and shame the most astute. all do not express it in the same way." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. a preposition. as. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. from the Latin transire. The nature of the transitive verb. care. a noun. or a material thing.In (a). representing something which it influences or controls. the word following. in this sentence from Bulwer. in (2. In the sentence. a verb. By examining a few verbs. All these are called transitive verbs. in (b). and. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. or an idea. endured what? anguish. hence is not a verb. to go is no predicate. Has takes the object hypocrisy. In the first. "Put thou money in thy purse. In giving a definition. in (3. "Put money in thy purse. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. but fearing is not a predicate.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. popular government must be pronounced impossible. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same.² Now. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. and may or may not be regarded true. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. Ideal. I. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. ²EMERSON. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear.²SHELLEY. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. he will see the need of these ethics. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. as.I could lie down like a tired child. for example. they were recorded in the Book of Life. in our case.²LONGFELLOW. Unreal²cannot be true. 221. WEBSTER. the representative system ultimately fail. the writer can make the statement following. If this be the glory of Julius.²D.²may or may not be true. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. as. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. Again. Condition or Supposition. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.²BRYCE. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds.²FRANKLIN. 215. Most excellent stranger. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. 222.²MACAULAY. . Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. the first great founder of the Empire. 2). If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. or be fulfilled. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. the second founder. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY.² If. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. but.

the clause being introduced by that or lest. unless..²SWIFT. and sonorous." etc. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE.. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. may. is of similar physiognomy. and striven energetically to save Ney.²MACAULAY. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive.. would you. especially be. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. if his lot had been mine. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. melodious. 6. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. I told him. though. NOTE. if he speak to you. except. is used to express purpose. 223. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. ²LOWELL. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. 7. and what kind of condition:² 1. as. etc. 2. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. he supposed. 5. she was regarded as a prodigy. 8. Subjunctive of Purpose. Epaminondas.² CARLYLE.² If these things were true. Exercise. to drink strong beer. 3.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. society could not hold together. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. clear.² It was necessary. would have sat still with joy and peace. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors.²N. and should. which cannot be true. that he might be strong to labor. but when the verb precedes the subject. . if he was the man I take him for. he had better not have written. 4. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. might. do you think. thus. II. P. WILLIS.²FRANKLIN. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. If he had reason to dislike him. since he [Byron] was dead. be any the happier?²THACKERAY..²BAYNE.²CALHOUN. that we cannot but regret its absence.²FRANKLIN. But in no case could it be justified. The subjunctive. In the following conditional clauses.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact.²EMERSON. The voice.

that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. Rise up. Let it rise. 227. Ask the great man if there be none greater. like the Latin..Were wafted off to seas unknown.²SOUTHEY. within its fairy bowers.²MOORE. IV. In Temporal Clauses.²DE QUINCEY.That vain it were her eyes to close. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. .Thou go not. So live. The transmigiation of souls is no fable.And we. VII. The English subjunctive. 224. After a verb of wishing. till it meet the sun in his coming.²WORDSWORTH. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. To tell of what had passed.²D. the answer being regarded as doubtful. I would it were! ²EMERSON.. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.²ID.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. In a Noun Clause. Expressing a Wish.. 226. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. VI. Subjunctive of Result. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. none of us could say. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. like the quarry-slave at night. WEBSTER.²COLERIDGE. III. V. I've wished that little isle had wings.I have been the more particular. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon..²BRYANT. In Indirect Questions. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. 225.²CARLYLE. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.

That hunger of applause. Complement. tell me all that thou hast seen.² DICKENS. Some might lament that I were cold.²CARLYLE. . or whatsoever victual it may be. 229. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. 228.² Be the matter how it may. that everything be in its place. which may be (a) Pronoun. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. object. The first merit. Object. Concessive Clauses. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.And look thou tell me true. The noun clause. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. for example. often contains a subjunctive.And see the Braes of Yarrow. of cash. The essence of originality is not that it be new. in its various uses as subject. I have no thought what men they be. is.²TENNYSON. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. See that there be no traitors in your camp. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.²SHELLEY. etc. After verbs of commanding. is the ultimate fact of man's life. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.²COLERIDGE. (b) Adjective. Whatever betide. Come. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.²WORDSWORTH. in apposition.Subject.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. VIII.²THOREAU.²COLERIDGE. we'll turn aside.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject..

The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. love all men.²BRYANT. It must be remembered. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. and condition contrary to fact. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. fear none.²J. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. Oh.(c) Adverb. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. (3) Request. entreaties. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. a concession. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. to express a wish. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. (1) Command. 231. Usually second person.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. 230. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. At the present day. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. Q. . The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. Definition. we had found [should have found] a poem here. (2) Entreaty. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. Honor all men. In spoken English. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. point to their immortal works. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. 232. however.²CHANNING. ADAMS.² CARLYLE. though.²SHELLEY. or requests. for example. IMPERATIVE MOOD. since commands are directed to a person addressed.The spirit he loves remains.

The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. Break we our watch up. Mark thou this difference. 6.²SCOTT. nothing is to be preferred before justice. noble earl. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. Quoth she." Exercises on the Moods. we may use the imperative with we in a command.. but I + you. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. Part we in friendship from your land. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. lest we rust in ease." whispered Kit."²DICKENS Tell me. 7.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. or I + they. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. "The Devil take the goose. Whatever inconvenience ensue.And God forget the stranger!" .One glance at their array! 5. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. request. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person.And. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. Oh. 2.. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4."Hush! mother. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. child of earth!While each performs his part. 8. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry.²SHAKESPEARE. to you implied in it. receive my hand. 3. Sometimes with first person in the plural. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. etc.²CAMPBELL. "Come along with me. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. etc. there will her heart and her prayers be.

then. 19. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. "Oh. 13. Though abyss open under abyss.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. Well. how he may do his work. 11. my dear madam. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. but repentant child. Though he were dumb.High up in silver spikes! 22." continued Old Morgan. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. He. and opinion displace opinion. . she ought to have it. "tell me where I may find my poor.9. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. as though an instrument. it would speak. 14. That a man parade his doubt. 23. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 18. will it not fall unbound.That they might answer him. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. let him live where else he like. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. Forget thyself to marble. "Mr. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of.Except. 26. whether he do it right or wrong." 16.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. Think not that I speak for your sakes." cried he.Till you might faint with that delicious pain.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. no literary man. or do it at all." 25. ruined. Marshall. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. 10. in what pomps and prosperities he like. 21. 20. He is. That sheaf of darts.

Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. as. also. When the older pronoun thou was in use. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. and the future tense. shall. TENSE. kind. 28. or future time. tell him to wait. Old English had only two tenses. have." . It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. five in the subjunctive. such as be. "Thou walkest. and future. such as Latin and Greek.²the present tense. a form ending in -eth. the past. Meantime. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. which represented present and future time. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. in the third person singular. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. PERSON AND NUMBER. The tenses in detail. in the conjugations. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. "Thou walkedst. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present.² present." "If he comes." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. to direct his steps. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. will. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. Tense means time. "It is not in man that walketh." past. as the classical languages have. 235. by means of the present. five in the imperative. and the past tense." present. or whether it were as one member of a general party. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. past. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. past. "I go away tomorrow. and future perfect tenses. called auxiliaries. Tenses in English.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. 234. as will be shown later on. Siddons. past perfect. as.²nothing could exceed the amiable. Definition. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. or agree with it.27. whatever she did. 233.

chooseth. for example. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. PRESENT TENSE. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. but in English. since it is composed of several different roots. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. chosen (old. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. Definition. choosing. This is the third person. In classical languages. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. walks. 237. as. walkedst. walketh. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. walk has walk. walked. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. wert) 3. Such verbs as choose have five. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. 236. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. are. mood. chosest). moods. Singular 1. The verb be has more forms. Singular 1. chooses. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. Singular 1. 238. CONJUGATION. singular number. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. "He walks. Indicative Mood. been. and numbers. chose. tenses.²am. is. [He] is [They] are 3." and this only in the present tense indicative. You are 2. You (thou) be 3. etc. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. PRESENT TENSE. tense. were. I be 2. I were 2.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. persons. [He] were [They] were . walking. Few forms. choosest. etc. Singular 1.²choose. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast.

Instead of the plural are.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades..²SHELLEY. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.²WORDSWORTH. obligation. is.²ID.²SCOTT. which was now become an occasional banquet. (3) be. etc. were.²BURKE . being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. to express intention.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. for example. etc. 239. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. The light that never was on sea and land. (2) As auxiliary verbs. (d) With the infinitive. (2) was. Remarks on the verb be.. -en. thus. By solemn vision and bright silver dream.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea.²THACKERAY. though it is usually a dialect form. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light.Imperative Mood. condition. 240.²GOLDSMITH. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. (b) With the past participle in -ed. same as the German sind. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. to form the passive voice. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. in four ways. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. as.His infancy was nurtured. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature.

had. "I have gone" (present perfect). You chose Plural. I chose 2. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. . [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb.241. You chose Plural. future perfect. 242. tenses. as. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). I chose 2. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. 1. I choose 2. (2). "I had gone" (past perfect). INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. You choose Plural. 1. In addition to the above inflected forms. [He] choose [They] choose 3. by placing have." "He will choose. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. tenses. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. PRESENT TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. 1. past perfect. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. We chose You chose 3. as. Singular. 240. I choose 2. Singular. Indicative Mood. We chose You chose 3. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. etc. Machinery of a verb in the voices. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. You choose Plural. Singular. Singular. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense." (2) Present perfect. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. "I shall be. 1.

He chose. He had chosen. he have been choosing.] he choose. " Be choosing.(3) The definite form of each tense. though. Present definite. Present. He has chosen." "They had been running." "You are chosen. He is choosing. "I am running. Future. Indicative Mood. He has been choosing. Past perfect definite. He will choose. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. [If. Present perfect. Past perfect definite. Present. . he chose (or were to choose). Past. lest. Same as indicative. of each tense. Future definite. Subjunctive Mood. He will have been choosing." (4) The passive forms. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Past definite. Present." 243. Only the third person. Future perfect. singular number. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Present definite. Present perfect. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. (2d per. Present perfect definite. Future perfect definite. ACTIVE VOICE. will be given. Past. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). He had been choosing. Past perfect. Present perfect definite. He was choosing. Same as indicative.) Choose. as. He will he choosing. Imperative Mood. Past perfect. "I was chosen. he have chosen. He chooses. Present definite. He will have chosen. Past definite. as. etc.

. Past. but verbals. He has been chosen. Present tense. lest. etc. Past definite. they will be discussed later (Sec. in affirmative sentences. Past definite. "He does strike. . Past Perfect. Future. if learned at all. None. None. Future perfect. None. though." [Note to Teacher. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms.NOTE. Future perfect definite. 262). " " " " " " " None. Present perfect. Present perfect definite. Also. (2d per. He was chosen. Present perfect. Imperative Mood.] he be chosen. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. PASSIVE VOICE. Present definite. he had been chosen. He was being chosen. Subjunctive Mood. Present perfect definite. He is being chosen.²This table is not to be learned now.] [If. Past perfect definite. however. Present. as." "He did strike. Present definite. He had been chosen. he have been chosen. Past. None. He will be chosen. Future definite. Indicative Mood. he were being chosen. None. Past perfect definite. None. Past perfect. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Exercises should be given. He is chosen. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Present. He will have been chosen.) Be chosen.

chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. lay. Past Tense. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. catch. but adds no ending. 245. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. sleep. which are in parentheses Present Tense. begged. laid. bounden] bitten. ran. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . beg. bid bound. Kinds. Definition. drive. Some of these also have weak forms. run. 244.[adj. verbs are strong or weak. slept.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. as. According to form. NOTE. bit blown broken chidden. and may or may not change the vowel: as. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. drove. caught.

drunken] driven eaten.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drank[adj.

sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. trod worn woven won wound . stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang.

This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. 246." "a drunken wretch.²IRVING.² We had each drank three times at the well. TAYLOR. cleft (to split). nor a dog barked. which always crew at eleven." "the cloven hoof. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. cloven. Historically. The form clomb is not used in prose. and the latter. clave or clove.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms.² Thou hast clomb aloft. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. cleft. and another (born) for the passive. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated)." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. the other. only one set remains certain. When it means to carry or to endure. cleaved. now told us it was time for repose.²cleave. cleave.²B. as.²one meaning to adhere or cling. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.²MILTON.²TENNYSON. borne is also a passive. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. cleaved. ²THACKERAY. for example.²GOLDSMITH. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. Our cock. Not a cock crew. How fairy Mab the junkets eat.²COLERIDGE. "stricken with paralysis. to split.²as (from Shakespeare). "his bounden duty." "a sunken snag. instead of ate and eaten." In this confusion of usage. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. but is much used in vulgar English. .² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. probably to avoid confusion with this. Sometimes in literary English. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. and.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. and sometimes occurs in poetry. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). as. as (from Holmes). especially in that of an earlier period.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. The former used to be cleave. as.

The butler was hanged." but not much as a participle. Throw. 6."²KINGSLEY. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. 9. Fall. as.The form gotten is little used.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow.²BIBLE. begun. We usually say. He sate him down. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.²TENNYSON. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. drove. and grasping at his sword. thrown. . This heard Geraint. Break. Shake. found. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. 2. for example. fell. fallen. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. Give. 8. Find. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. frozen. gave. Freeze. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. broke. flung. shaken. and seized a pen. (a) From the table (Sec. shore is rare. 4. 245). Exercises. for example. driven.²DE FOE. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging.² We had all got safe on shore. as "a shorn lamb. threw.²SCOTT. 10.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. Fling. Usually shear is a weak verb. broken. maiden.² If. which is seldom used except in poetry. 7. found.²WORDSWORTH. 3. One example out of many is. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. began. flung. shook. froze." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. even in poetry. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. Drive. 5. given.²BYRON. Begin.

"²WINIER. "So mote it be. or when it expresses wish. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. Indicative Use: Permission. 251. The l in could did not belong there originally.²SCOTT.. etc. Must is historically a past-tense form. PAST. HAMILTON. but came through analogy with should and would. .²CHANNING.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. ability. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. according to the infinitive used. "far off his coming shines. it is used only in the indicative mood.²HAWTHORNE.. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. must have been an ocular deception. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. PRESENT. (See also Sec. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure.. as it has two meanings. It is indicative when it expresses permission. Ability.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. Have we valuable territories and important posts.. of course. or. PAST. His superiority none might question. as it sometimes does. for full drill on the forms. purpose. Can is used in the indicative only. from the obsolete verb motan.²PAINE.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. which survives in the sentence. The same remarks apply to ought. 247.. They are as follows:² PRESENT. Could may be subjunctive. Like must. etc. Subjunctive use. 249. as. 220. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. 223. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. as in Sec. 250." Must is present or past tense.[To the Teacher. there is one general principle.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.²CHANNING This.

she should ride like a queen. Second and third persons. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.e. he said. in the form of command. to the neglect of shall and should. for example. or confident prediction. .²L. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. She should not walk.²COOPER. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. as. (b) In questions asking for orders.²THAXTER.² (a) To express authority. shall and should are used. not plod along like apeasant. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. Shall and Will.Nay. as. They shall have venison to eat. The sea shall crush thee.²IRVING. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. MOULTON." Uses of shall and should. BROCKDEN BROWN. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. promise. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave.. (b) In indirect quotations. yea. while ought always has to. and corn to hoe. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. my lad. to use will and would.²MACAULAY. The following are examples:² Never mind. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. WEBSTER. "I think I will go. what shall I say?²N.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. especially in the United States.²LONGFELLOW.²BULWER. C. shall and should are used. with pronouns of the first person.² The time will come full soon. future action). as.² With respect to novels.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. She rejects his suit with scorn.² Futurity and questions²first person. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. I shall be gone. 252.

Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.²A. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.²WORDSWORTH. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. second and third persons. First. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. Disguising a command.² I will go myself now. or a promise. .²CABLE. (c) With direct questions of the second person. 253...that I would do him justice. And promised. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²WINTER. B. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. thus. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. LARNED. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.²SWIFT. as the sole inventor. etc. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. with the conviction that he should win in the end. BROWN.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.²H.²WORDSWORTH. was to be expected. and will not return until all is finished.²C.²SCOTT. JR.²BYRON. time.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. JAMES.²ROGERS. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. as. for example.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. and is equivalent to ought.²WORDSWORTH. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. for example. I never was what I should be. purpose..² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms.

² Subject I omitted: often so.²BURKE. SECOND.²the original meaning of the word will. They will go to Sunday schools. through storms their brothers are afraid of. for example. (4) With FIRST.²SCOTT..²War Records.²BANCROFT. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives..² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. To be sure. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. and mark on the grounds the works. Mere futurity. would is used to express a wish. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.² DICKENS.²IRVING. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. as if it were merely expected action. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked..(2) With the SECOND PERSON. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. for punishment or intimidation. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. will and would often denote an action as customary. 254.²SCOTT. as. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. Thine was a dangerous gift. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. for example.²LANDOR. and two of my people. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. when thou wast born. The gift of Beauty. action merely expected to occur. will is used to express command. . This puts the order more mildly. B. AND THIRD PERSONS. PASSIVE VOICE...²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. Would thou hadst it not. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. so you will. When I am in town. will and would are used to express simple futurity. BROWN. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. Roland.² Thou wilt take the skiff. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. etc.. In this stately chair would he sit. without regard to future time. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. as.

Exercises on Shall and Will. 2.:² ACTIVE VOICE. . 2. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. You shall choose. You will choose. 3.Singular. 2. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. etc. You will choose. You shall choose. 252 and 253. and that of the newest cut. 3. 3. promise. 2. [They] shall choose. 4. 1. 1. [He] shall be chosen. (a) From Secs. 3. Singular. Singular. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 2. I will be chosen. You will be chosen. [They] shall be chosen. He informed us. 1. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. and justify the use of shall and will. 1. (b) Examine the following sentences. Plural. I shall be chosen. We shall choose. 6. [He] shall choose. Plural. yet only seem. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. PASSIVE VOICE. Plural. [They] will be chosen. We will be chosen. 5. To express determination. [He] will be chosen. You shall be chosen. I will choose. 3. Thou shalt have a suit. 1. You will be chosen. I shall choose. We shall be chosen. Thou art what I would be. We will choose." answered Herbert stubbornly. [He] will choose. You shall be chosen. Plural. "I shall not run. Singular. 3. [They] will choose. 2. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so.

10. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. Past Tense. then. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. 255. But the rest. need some attention and explanation.²CHAUCER. 11. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. put. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. Of smale houndes hadde she. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. Without having attended to this. very anxious. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. bereave beseech bereft. WEAK VERBS. as.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. Lucy stood still. bereaved besought .7. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. "I am a wayfarer. The beast made a sluggish movement.²ID. Irregular Weak Verbs. and have no change of vowel. or mylk and wastel breed. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. my son. bereave besought Past Participle." 14. and I have nothing to say. The old ending to verbs of Class II. set. Present Tense. 9. put. 256. put. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace.²Class I. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. This ending has now dropped off. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. 13. as if he would have more of the enchantment. No. bereft. 12. was -de or -te. 257. which may be called irregular weak verbs. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. set." the stranger said.

pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. leant leaped. leant leaped. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

like participles. Perfect. they have an indefinite. Cases when to is omitted. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive.²the creature warring against the creating power. to was used before the infinitive generally. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. 268. When active. 10. . Indefinite. an indefinite and a perfect form. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. But later. [To] have chosen. 8. Three saplings. formed a kind of bedstead. Indefinite. as in the Old English. In Sec.. [To] have been chosen. an imperfect. try clemency. [To] choose. INFINITIVES. [To] be chosen. 267. and a perfect definite form. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. [To] be choosing.. Nothing of the kind having been done. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. when inflections became fewer.. To with the infinitive. ACTIVE VOICE.6. [To] have been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. 266. Imperfect. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. Perfect definite. will (with should and would). Infinitives. and when passive. have no tense. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. to express action unconnected with a subject. expressing purpose. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. 9. I returned to reflection on my situation. Perfect. 7. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. a perfect.

feel.²HOWELLS. poor woman!" cried Charles." (4) In exclamations. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs.. negative. see. under "Analysis. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. 270. please. They shall have venison to eat. do (as. liberal woman. E. . watch. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. HALE.² She was a kind. sometimes need (as. as. too. it is often preceded by the definite article. and corn to hoe.² What! doth she. also let. "She ask my pardon.). 269. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). as. it may be the subject of a verb.²GOLDSMITH. The gerund is like the participle in form.²TENNYSON. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride.²it may be governed as a noun.²COOPER. as in the expression.²IRVING. or the object of a verb or a preposition. "a house to let. 271." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. While the gerund expresses action. it has several attributes of a noun. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. can (could). "He will choose. 272. hear.²E. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. make. as the credulous imagine. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II.(2) After the verbs may (might)." etc. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. GERUNDS." Examples are. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. must. as. and emphatic forms of the present and past." "I shall have chosen. But there was nothing to do. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. "I do go" etc.²DE QUINCEY. bid (command). but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. also in the imperative.²MACAULAY. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. and like a noun in use. learn [doth learn is one verb. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.

" (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. above. after examining the nest. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability." "He could not help holding out his hand in return." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. Sec. which have lost all verbal force.²Find sentences containing five participles." also (2. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. II). to see the returning hope of the parents. but cannot govern. (6) Verbal nouns." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. when." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. 273. and has been put down. b). according to use as well as meaning. (4) Pure adjectives. Words in -ing are of six kinds." "Certainly dueling is bad." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. (5) Gerunds. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. Exercise. which express action and also modify. and wonderful store of learning! . 4. What a vast. which express action. 2. which express action. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. (3) Participial adjectives. Then how pleasing is it. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. which name an action or state. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. and five gerunds. on your leaving the spot." Exercise. may govern and be governed. five infinitives. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. but do not assert. making the definite tenses. (2) Pure participles. brilliant.

A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 9. (4) Tense. bearing her national emblem. 11. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 14.²transitive or intransitive. What is dreaming? 8. 15. but. subjunctive. In parsing verbs.²strong or weak. dictating from his chair. by object lessons. he gave out sentence by sentence. I. He spread his blessings all over the land. I suppose I was dreaming about it. 234. VERBS. (2) Voice. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. much corroded. round which is an iron railing. write twenty pages without stopping. 13.²which of the tenses given in Sec. 16. 10. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. (b) as to use. (3) Mood. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. slowly.²active or passive. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. . (5) Person and number. Caution. giving principal parts.²indicative. Thackeray did not. 6.5. like Sir Walter Scott. give reality to your teaching. you must. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. 12. or imperative. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. 7. 275. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. The only means of ascending was by my hands.

could. 278(2). must. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. definite. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. (2) Infinitive. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. (a) From what verb derived.. You are gathered to your fathers. past tense. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. 2. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. VERBALS. indicative (as it means could). active. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. 278. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 273). followed by a pure infinitive without to. no sin nor sorrow. But unless the verb is present. etc. intransitive. has for its subject Lee. II. Take these examples:² 1. therefore active. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. If a participial adjective. indicative. Parse the verbs. III. may. and should always be analyzed as phrases. (c) to what word it belongs. in the world. see Sec. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. Let it rise! let it rise. imperfect. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. VERB PHRASES." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. perfect. call might a weak verb. In such sentences as 1. 3. (b) whether active or passive. (3) Gerund. we must beware of the rule. 4. In 2. etc. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. till it meet the sun in his coming. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. Exercise. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. has the subject government. . 277. give points (a) and (b). and parting day linger and play on its summit." Sometimes it does. past tense. might. (b) whether indefinite. perfect. It has been intimated in Sec. (1) Participle. can. would. 2. and not taken as single verbs. Especially frequent are those made up of should. (b) its use (Sec. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. 235. and ends in -s. usually it does not.276. intransitive. verbals. then parse it as an adjective. The government might have been strong and prosperous. call should a weak verb.

He passed across the room to the washstand. With them. 8.5. When he arose in the morning. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 6. 15. and wondered if she were yet awake.Henceforth in me instill. a new waking up of all that has life. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. see that it is in good condition. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. from a sort of temporary death. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. . 23. leaving me upon the bed. 24. a new bursting forth of the sun. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. a sweet good will. 19. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. as usual. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. 22. 9. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 10. 16. he thought only of her. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. So. 21. 13. morning is not a new issuing of light. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 17. Right graciously he smiled on us. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. 14.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Whatever ground you sow or plant. In going for water. as the Hindoos say.Down all the line. a deafening shout. 11. as rolled from wing to wing. However that be. or. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. 18.O God. 20. The soul having been often born." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 12. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing.

And now wend we to yonder fountain.25. and men of leisure and cultivation. place. for the hour of rest is at hand. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Nor was it altogether nothing." Sometimes a noun or pronoun.² The young man reveres men of genius. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. as. or manner: as.Feast while we may. Better it were. The word adverb means joined to a verb. thou sayest.²THACKERAY."²DE QUINCEY. Adverbs modify. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. who live with nature?²ID. and live ere life be spent. for example. they are more himself than he is.²time. 279. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road." An adjective or an adverb. to consent. A verb. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. When action is expressed. Oh. . The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. 29.²CARLYLE. because. 27. "William's private life was severely pure. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend." "He was absolute. 26.²EMERSON. and so on. To the almost terror of the persons present. Is it only poets. ADVERBS." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. and limit adjectives or adverbs. to speak truly. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].²SHELLEY." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly.

²THOREAU. is a modifying word. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. ALDRICH. (2) according to their use in the sentence. but still with a rich bloom to it. but some verb understood. like the light of heaven. Definition. hitherto. Surely happiness is reflective. 282.²These last differ from the words in Sec. NOTE. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. and half awfully. . to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. as. 280. then. NOTE.²BYRON. which may qualify an action word or a statement. A clause or sentence. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.² LOWELL. 169. It may also modify a sentence. as shown in the sentences. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. there are six classes:² (1) Time. to-day.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. lately.²LEIGH HUNT. A phrase. ²IRVING. or a word group used as such. 169 are felt to be elliptical. B.²TROLLOPE. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. before. 281. all wet and glossy. Make music to the lonely ear. An adverb. Thus considered.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near.He was incidentally news dealer. etc. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. We are offered six months' credit.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. not the noun. I draw forth the fruit. but really modifying. thus.²T. has induced some of us to attend it. not simply the forms used in predication. while those in Sec. ever. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. perhaps. being adverbs naturally and fitly.² FRANKLIN. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. for example.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. as now. and that.

as hither.whence. (3) Manner. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.² The master. etc. slowly. partly.. etc.yonder. very. as little. (4) Number. etc.thither. etc. enough. Meekness. telling how many times: once. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. possibly.²BURKE. or how far he believes it to be true.²DE QUINCEY. at least. This long's the text. not. etc. twice. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. . slightly.thence. the more perfect will be their obedience.²IRVING. probably. too.(2) Place.near.there. 283). surely. whithersoever. bravely.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.which gained him such universal popularity.²R. that these adverbs form a very large class. Motley. much.whither. maybe. better. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. the more evidently they love liberty. as here.was for this once of her opinion. and others. and not infrequently are found in literary English.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. (5) Degree. LOUIS STEVENSON. White. two by two. as hence. singly. above. while so precedes only the adjective usually. thus. the more friends you will have.²HAWTHORNE. (see also Sec. just. etc. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.. The more they multiply. [Sidenote The status of such. telling how much. for example. 283. as perhaps. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. especially the comparative of these words. (6) Assertion. greatly. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. beautifully.²SHAKESPEARE. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. So also in Grote. I was.. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. whencesoever. Emerson.where. telling how anything is done.²LECKY..²BROWNING. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. Thackeray. as well..

² KINGSLEY. a mighty fine gentleman.² "Mighty well. 284. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. besides modifying. Notice meanings. Dickens. Beau Fielding. Mighty. Direct questions. Franklin.²THACKERAY. Some adverbs.Pretty. 282. Holmes. Aldrich. for example. Burke." "He spoke positively [manner]." said the king. Such are most of those given already in Sec." "The house. B. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. and art but a fool.²GOLDSMITH. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. Neville. STOWE. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. and its lawn before [place]. . Hard blows and hard money. Again. Simple.²BULWER." "I have seen you before [time]. A pretty large experience. have the additional function of asking a question. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Pretty is also used by Prescott." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. De Quincey." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Interrogative. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs.²THACKERAY.² You are mighty courteous.²BAYNE. 285.²HAWTHORNE. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise."²SCOTT." "That were far better [degree]. It is only occasionally used in literary English.²"He walked too far [place]. "Peace. Kingsley. Defoe. Emerson. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. 286. for example. and other writers.²FIELDING.

When did this humane custom begin?²H. I hearkened. they smiled. WEBSTER.²BULWER. (4) Degree. (5) Reason. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. . (4) Degree. (2) Place. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time.²D. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. 287. I will not ask where thou liest low. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.²POE. CLAY.²BYRON (3) Manner.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. I do not remember when I was taught to read. I know not why. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. (2) Place. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. for example.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason.²BYRON.

. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form.²TENNYSON. . I should freelier rejoice in that absence. Tell what each word in ly modifies. just as adjectives do. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. only occasionally having -er and -est. and. when. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb.eyes. For further discussion. 288. obs. soon. as.²COLERIDGE. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. highest. Superlative. The following. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.. Exercise. further farthest. higher. when does not express time and modify.) rather 289. 290. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. well much little far late Comparative. use.But in reality. Form vs. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. Then must she keep it safelier. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. see Sec.²SHAKESPEARE. not an adverb. have the same inflection as adjectives. high. Its strings boldlier swept. but the whole clause. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative.²BYRON." Exercise. Many adverbs are compared. soonest. furthest (rathe.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. when compared. representing four classes. Only that we may wiselier see. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.²EMERSON. sooner. Many adjectives have the same ending. irregularly compared. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest.

O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. . Again. many words without -ly have the same form. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. even. And all about. 3. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. 6. But he must do his errand right.1.²TENNYSON.²THACKERAY. whether adverbs or adjectives.²ID. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. Special use of there. 8. hardly. 292. There are eyes. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. Frequently the word there. curiously jolly. to be sure. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. merely introduces a sentence. He is inexpressibly mean. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. 2. as.² EMERSON. With his proud.And his mien of kingly state. Such are most. 2. 291. nearly. or down the leaves laughed through.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly].²CHAUCER. quick-flashing eye. mostly.²IRVING. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. but with a different meaning. evenly. Not near so black as he was painted. kindly and good-natured in secret. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. more courtly in their manners. near. 4. 7. instead of being used adverbially. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang." Compare these:² 1. hard. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.²WORDSWORTH.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. etc. The reason is. if it has the verb be. 5. that in Old and Middle English. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly.

It is the Cross that is first seen. Thither we went. at the regular wine-shop. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. (3) What word or word group it modifies. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. But a few steps farther on. Exercise. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. burning in the center of the temple. 15. 12. according to meaning and also use. In parsing adverbs. 293. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. 7. is always politically unwise. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. 5. 9. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 11. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. the Madonna is in great glory. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. For the impracticable. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. 4. (2) Degree of comparison. . however theoretically enticing. 17. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. and always. 3. 10. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. but from my fall? 6. 18. give² (1) The class. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. and sate down on the steps of a house. The higher we rise in the scale of being. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. 2. but continually shifted. if the word is compared. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 16.

should be omnipotent for evil? 24. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. Unlike adverbs. CONJUNCTIONS. Clauses. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. 20. word groups. 22. then. but the student will readily find them. sentences. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. or sentence groups. 294. A conjunction is a linking word. But now the wind rose again. It was pretty bad after that. upon which the sun now shone forth." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. connecting words." Sentences. however. 295." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. therefore. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. she would undoubtedly have succumbed." Paragraphs. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. . Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. Definition. hence. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. but side by side within the American Union. 21.19. nor. etc.

word groups. for.nor. as and... Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate.or. I have nothing to do with the governor and council.. introducing a reason or cause.. Your letter. The chief ones are. (3) CAUSAL. as. the window being open.or. neither... 298. answering to each other in the same sentence.but (or but also).nor.or.or whether. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. not only. 297. however. likewise. of the same rank. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. While the earth bears a plant.. either. (2) Subordinate. neither. also.. nor..and.Classes of conjunctions.. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. either. both. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. Correlatives.. (2) ADVERSATIVE. only. else.. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought.. however. therefore. the bread was spent.. as but. Some of these go in pairs.but. neither. etc." Nevertheless. moreover. Some go in threes.or. joining words. Adversative. the butter too.. as well as the room door. whether. whether.. as. usually between two things. serves but to show their ignorance.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. and. either. expressing a choice. while. 296. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. but is emperor in his own right. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. They are or. or the sea rolls its waves. and not man corn. then.. etc.. nor.. still. Alternative. hence... The assertion. . yet. not only.. whether.. had its weight. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. "Howbeit. Causal. etc. (4) ALTERNATIVE. as well as.. Nor mark'd they less.

whither. now.²BIBLE. (2) TIME: when. etc. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. however. especially that after so.²J. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. It is. there will the heart be also. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. although. lest. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. so that. even if. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. so. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. as. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. whence. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. so. since. (7) RESULT: that. etc. He is not only bold and vociferous. whithersoever. QUINCY.. as. Neither the place in which he found himself. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. until. unless. in case. though.. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. sometimes if.²DE QUINCEY. provided that. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. howsoever. etc. since. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. seeing. while. whereas. (5) COMPARISON: than and as.²IRVING. nor wing of bird.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. (3) MANNER: how. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. Where the treasure is. (6) PURPOSE: that. provided. etc. on condition that. that. nor echo. etc. object. whenever.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. nor creeping thing. so that.²COOPER. except. 299.. whereto. after. . as.²WILSON. whether. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. nor green leaf. before. in apposition. so. in order that. ²ALLSTON. Time. wherever.²BURKE.²PAULDING.

. Substantive. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²EMERSON. I was again covered with water.²CARLYLE Events proceed. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. As a soldier.² WORDSWORTH. Result. We wish for a thousand heads. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.² EMERSON. Condition.²COLERIDGE.That he gave her wounds repose. not as they were expected or intended. reason. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.²EMERSON.² H.That vain it were her eyes to close. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.So I behold them not.²EMERSON.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. a thousand bodies. JACKSON.²AMES. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. Let the world go how it will. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Purpose. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Now he is dead. So many thoughts moved to and fro. H.²DEFOE. Sparing neither whip nor spur.²BURKE. Cause.² HAWTHORNE. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. but not so long but I held it out. Concession.²BYRON. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. Comparison. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²CAMPBELL.²IRVING.²AMES. Manner. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. Then Denmark blest our chief.²AMES.

Besides. etc. And they lived happily forever after. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11.²RUSKIN. her real merit is known at home. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 14. while. she faintly pressed her hand.Let us see whether the greatest. 12. The moth fly. hold a subordinate rank. In what point of view. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. 10. 3. Exercises. it will remain harmless. And then recovering. as he shot in air. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. 4. and hid her there. as. As will have been noticed. . classify them if conjunctions:² 1. 9. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. 13. 5. some words²for example. 15. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. however. After he was gone. then. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. that. No one had yet caught his character. While a faction is a minority. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. 300. Crept under the leaf. While patriotism glowed in his heart. since. 6. the wisest. They. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. the lady called her servant. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. 2.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. He was brought up for the church. 7.

His voice . GREELEY. Consequently.Clouded. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. 301. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. and the frame will suit the picture. "We meet. 302. As if. word groups. If analyzed. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17.²BYRON. 303. (2) What words. etc.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. the expression would be. for example. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. even as they would weep. In Emerson's sentence.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. and be a bud again. as is often equivalent to as if.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. they connect.. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. as is shown by the use of as though.²IRVING. in this case. thus. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.. SPECIAL REMARKS. As though. none of the lashings having given way. .So slowly moved about. expressing degree if taken separately.²EMILY BRONTE. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS." as.16. So silently we seemed to speak. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. and part as though we parted not. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. In poetry. The raft and the money had been thrown near her.As though a rose should shut.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors.. In parsing conjunctions.²HOOD." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. As for as if. 304.

²KINGSLEY In sentence 1.² 1. 10. or in the forest. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. he sleeps as warm. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. 13. so they paddled on. are regularly of one particular class. 5. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. compare the sentences. so means provided. It may be safely trusted. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. 3. and the like. in 3. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. so that expresses result. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. He is the compend of time. dines with as good an appetite. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. and very seldom?" 8. because it is his. that it might testify of that particular ray.²I find them true in Concord. 7. the Sphinx was slain. or in the snow." said his wife to Martin Luther. 9. so that I could not stir abroad. they are not known. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. as beside his own chimneys. etc. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. Some conjunctions. In classifying them. Exercise. 4. others belong to several classes. 12. When the gods come among men. he is also the correlative of nature. 11. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. For example.²is subordinate of condition. and associates as happily.Caution. such as nor. . Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower.²EMERSON 3. in 2.²DEFOE 2. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. when. so means therefore. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. 2. but of the natural. 6.. and its clause depends on the other. "Doctor. so it be faithfully imparted. He dismisses without notice his thought. and. because. All the postulates of elfin annals.²that the fairies do not like to be named. If he could solve the riddle. It continued raining. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. At sea. and its clause is independent. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries.

15. in many a heart. she might have the family countenance. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her.²else it is none. 30. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 29. that both were wayward. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. Goodness must have some edge to it. 24. Now you have the whip in your hand. It is clear. 20. won't you lay on? 17. enthroned. therefore. 19. 305. It may be so in the majority of cases. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. 18. 23. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter.14. save it were sinful like herself. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 28. in this they agree. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. There was no iron to be seen. 21. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. For. And whether consciously or not. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 16. PREPOSITIONS. you must be. 25. 27. 26. of good novels only. I speak. the whole conditions are changed. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. when it was presented to them. however.. Still. . 22. whose names I omit. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

321. etc. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. at the best. at length. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at most. at play.²WARNER. (2) Time. by many a million of acres. at once. At that time [the earth] was richer.²ID. at any rate. (3) Agency or means. For. By. at work.²B. by the ruins of nations. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. STODDARD. Exercise. expressing the degree of difference. at war. Helena. Richard was standing by the window. at random. by means near or close to. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. Like at.²M. Exercise. D. at one. 320.²EVERETT. at all.. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. ²PARTON. at rest. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. he stopped. at naught.²R. H. as. (4) Measure of excess. CONWAY.²ALDRICH.²SWIFT. She saw the boat headed for her. At St. by the wrecks of time. at first. at peace. the first port made by the ship.²COOPER.²DE QUINCEY.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. .(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. at the worst. at least. by the blessed memory of the departed. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. By my faith.² (1) The general meaning of place. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. TAYLOR The angel came by night. etc.

One of Eve's family. Still. "For a fool. The twilight being.(2) In favor of. GARRISON.²PARKMAN. For him.²LAMB. etc.. or in spite of. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster.²ID.²HOLMES. respecting. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE." said the Lady of Lochleven. . E.²PARKMAN. as to.²W. He and they were for immediate attack.²STODDARD. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. for all slips of hers. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. There are gains for all our losses.²H. (3) Duration of time. considering that etc. For the rest. (7) Concession. cause.²IRVING. he repented of his folly. (6) Like as. but a few sunsets since. in behalf of. for all his title. incitement to action. for the benefit of. An Arab woman. reason."²SCOTT By my faith. a person or thing. if your worship can accomplish that. L. BANCROFT. had a forest of poor relations. poor fellow. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. as being.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. for famine. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous.²HOOD.²E. meaning with regard to. "thou hast counseled wisely.² RUSKIN. meaning in the character of.²EMERSON. or extent of space. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. meaning although. But the Colonel. and leaped for joy. (9) Motive. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. (4) Substitution or exchange. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. H. the Colonna motto would fit you best. they are now for us.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. etc. "Nay. ate her child.. etc. (5) Reference." answered Master Brackett.

²HALE. like from. Exercise. Exercise. The From Relation. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. From.²BANCROFT. H.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. A distrustful. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I.²ID. or reason.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. more.²MILTON. ceased to be merciful. . The general idea in from is separation or source. Like boys escaped from school. nay. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. from a desire of seeming valiant. (2) Origin. 323. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. It was from no fault of Nolan's.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. The young cavaliers. (1) Origin or source. (3) Time. 322.²HIGGINSON. if not a desperate man. Of. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.²H. The king holds his authority of the people. cause. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.²HUME. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. The original meaning of of was separation or source.²DRYDEN. From harmony. (4) Motive.²HUXLEY.

"Good for him!" cried Nolan.²PARKMAN. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. ²PARTON. and grass. Asked no odds of. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. motive.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. free of.² HUXLEY. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. E. rob. free. clear.²BAYARD TAYLOR. etc. (3) With expressions of material. (6) Partitive. Back of that tree. "I am glad of that. relieve. cure. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. The hills were bare of trees. White shirt with diamond studs. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. . as north of. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. demand. disarm. of his own knowledge. weeds.²BANCROFT.²SCOTT Who formed. acquitted them of.²ID. especially out of. deprivation..²BOSWELL. (d) With words expressing distance.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. More than one altar was richer of his vows.²LEW WALLACE. out of the most unpromising materials. HALE. or breastpin of native gold. (c) After nouns expressing lack.²clear of. there were only twenty-one members present. ask. divest. etc. deprive. (b) After some adjectives. such as ease. etc. Of the Forty. purge."²E. A singular want of all human relation. You cannot make a boy know. (5) Expressing agency. beg.²HIGGINSON. reason. bare of.²DICKENS II. south of.²ALDRICH. etc. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. Other Relations expressed by Of. Sandals. expressing a part of a number or quantity. ²GAVARRE. etc. rid. bound with thongs of boar's hide. that Cromwell once ruled England. wide of. He is away of his own free will.

of is used in the sense of during.²SWIFT.²COOPER. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. (10) Of reference. CHANNING.²BANCROFT. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. (b) Noun and gerund. (c) Two nouns. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. being equivalent to an infinitive. (8) Appositional. E. concerning.He washed out some of the dirt. The fair city of Mexico.²LAMB. could give shelter from his contumely.²LOWELL. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. equal to about.²FROUDE. and the dignity of a queen. See also Sec. Besides the phrases of old. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. when the first is descriptive of the second. (7) Possessive. Idiomatic use with verbs. of a sudden.²HALLECK. for the possessive. (9) Of time. 309. ²IRVING. with regard to. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. with its object.²BANCROFT.²ALDRICH..²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. . etc.²PRESCOTT.²W.²ID.²BANCROFT. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. of late. The nation of Lilliput. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. Not even woman's love. standing. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. Such a book as that of Job.

on board. concerning. ²BANCROFT. Upon.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul.²DE QUINCEY. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. and not a day more. and others. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. on high. consist. etc. equal to about. repent.²PARKMAN. on the wing. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. on a sudden. on view.²EMERSON.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. such as admit. On. allow. on the alert. . Cannon were heard close on the left. disapprove. 325. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.²BRYANT. SIGOURNEY. The general meaning of on is position or direction. On my life.²Find sentences with six uses of of. To. you are eighteen. Upon is seldom used to express time. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. complain.²ALDRICH.²PARKMAN. 324.²PARKMAN.²MRS. (3) Reference. approve. without adding to their meaning. on trial. Exercise. Upon my reputation and credit. etc. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. permit. Exercise. (4) In adjurations. accept. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. (2) Time. avail (one's self). (b) With motion. It also accompanies the verbs tire.

Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²PARTON.²GOLDSMITH. whose influence is felt to this hour. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. We cook the dish to our own appetite. 326. had ceased to be.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. He usually gave his draft to an aid. His brother had died. mid meant in company be written over. Death!²HALLECK. 268).²Find sentences containing three uses of to.²B.. unmasked. Exercise.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern.²PARKMAN. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. to my taste.²BENTON To our great delight. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. gay Comedy appears. to him.²IRVING. Nor.²BULWER. (2) Expressing result.²BRYANT. With.. (5) Equivalent to according to. In Old English.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. But when. Revolutions.²HALE. To the few. . while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. interest.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them..Come to the bridal chamber. it may be genuine poetry.²LANG. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. does the mere music. (b) Referring to time.²often to the loss of vigor.

and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. but a pleasure"?²LANG. It seemed a supreme moment with him. or with the haunch of our near leader. (2) Instrumentality. (4) Estimation. with Heyward at its head.²EMERSON. reason.²COLERIDGE.²Find sentences with four uses of with.²WALLACE (7) Time. to find the object of the preposition. Either with the swingle-bar. had already reached the defile. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding.²E. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²ALDRICH. with all his boldness. he gave millions to the sword. felt it unsafe to trifle further. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him.²SCOTT. as with you. Exercise. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. first of all.The advance. With all his sensibility. opinion. I think. it is necessary. (5) Opposition. He was wild with delight about Texas. .²HOWELLS. motive. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things.²CHANNING. transmitted from the beginning. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. He expired with these words.²DE QUINCEY. but with you. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. She seemed pleased with the accident. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. (3) Cause. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was.²DE QUINCEY. Messala.²HALE.²LANG.²COOPER. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. "poetry is not a pursuit. in spite of. HALE. E.²HOWELLS. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. 327.

and then borne forward with prodigious speed. 4. And so on. I looked towards my windows. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. but I received no other hurt. of on. before the dwarf left the queen. country. he followed us one day into those gardens. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. Exercises. (2) on which. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. of without. of from. the phrase answers the question where. because I had given the provocation. hence we say. 2. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours.²ID. I speak these things from a love of justice.²SWIFT 2. came tumbling about my ears. 3. but all to no purpose. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. 5. we met the defaulter here.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. shook it directly over my head. I heard a noise just over my head. without a country modifies man. In (1). telling what man. The guns were cleared of their lumber. To our general surprise. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. Whereupon. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. (4) from the beginning. or was. which. The object of on board is ships. I remember. Be that as it will. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. and knocked me down flat on my face. the malicious rogue. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. by which a dozen apples. . watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. In (2). like the clapping of wings. I felt my box raised very high in the air. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. I called out several times. (3) without a country. beginning. In (3).

he favored the world with his opinions. to one dark and gloomy. 18. 25. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. in this respect. after a restful morning. 7. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 12. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 9. 8. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. 26. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. in town. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent.Without stop or stay. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 11. 10. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 15. . The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. The mother sank and fell. 20. I like to see the passing. plumed for battle. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. 21. 24. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. grasping at the child. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes.6. 17. 16. when. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 19. 29. The savage army was in war-paint. 27. With all his learning. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 13. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 14. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. For my part. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. Carteret was far from being a pedant. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. His breeches were of black silk.He spurred his courser on. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 23. On all subjects known to man. 22. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold.

(5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. and be proud in the midst of its toil.²WEBSTER.²COLERIDGE. (2) As an adjective pronoun. (b) Of result.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.² JOHNSON. 328. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. (3) As a relative pronoun. that you might behold this joyous day. (4) As an adverb of degree.²WEBSTER. THAT. 330.²STOCKTON. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. (1) Relative pronoun. He will raise the price. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. (c) Substantive conjunction. That is what I understand by scientific education.²BEECHER. not merely by the amount of the tax. We wish that labor may look up here. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.30.That makes the heavens be mute. That night was a memorable one. . (a) Indefinite relative. And now it is like an angel's song. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. A few are discussed below.²HUXLEY. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. WHAT.²WEBSTER. and not according to form. That was a dreadful mistake. 329. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech.

these sounds are only to be heard. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning.²THACKERAY.²S. Cox. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. (6) Exclamatory adjective. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.²EMERSON. What. . 331..Are yet the fountain light of all our day. nearly equivalent to partly.²ID. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. BUT.. and silent all!²BYRON.. he knows what good people are to be found there. partly.²ID. (8) Conjunction.Which be they what they may. (9) As an exclamation.. it rests on reality. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. (b) Indirect question. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.." (4) Relative is impossible to determine. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. but the result of Pera. to see what might be hidden...but. To say what good of fashion we can..²WORDSWORTH. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. after not only.Those shadowy recollections.²EMERSON. silent still. If he has [been in America]. (b) Copulative. or not only. (b) Indirect question. At what rate these materials would be distributed.S. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.²WEBSTER. "I'll tell you what. What with the Maltese goats... I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. (7) Adverb of degree. What.

(e) Introducing an appositive word. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.. on all sides. sometimes same. not. towards order.²LAMB. meaning except. Who knows but.He yearned to our patriot bands.²CARLYLE. ²CARLYLE. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village.. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. (4) Relative pronoun. meaning only.²MRS BROWNING.²FRANKLIN. I shall see but little of it. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. (c) Of degree.²SHELLEY. Doing duty as a guard. (5) Adverb. at all moments.. like the dog. (b) Substantive. not..²IRVING. stands for that . as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. after such.²SCOTT. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result.. but piercing cries. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.Then arose not only tears.²EMERSON. or who . after a negative. AS. . (2) Relative pronoun.²IRVING. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. (b) Of manner. than. 332. not. To lead but one measure. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction..²IRVING.²HAWTHORNE. meaning otherwise . it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU... (d) Of reason. equivalent to that . (3) Preposition.

I do with my friends as I do with my books. but this is not considered good usage: for example. like a cook beating eggs.²HALLECK.²HAWTHORNE.²ALDRICH. ²PARKMAN. indeed. In this second use. Stirring it vigorously.²MAYHEW. NOTE. nervous child. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks.²LONGFELLOW. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image.²ALDRICH. They look. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. like Martin was. and is followed by a dative-objective. That face.²HIGGINSON. and as or as if takes its place. There is no statue like this living man. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.²CASS. Through which they put their heads. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. (1) An adjective.² A timid.²EMERSON. like him awhile ago.²EMERSON. Introduces a clause. Note the difference between these two uses. 333. staring like a bewildered man. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. like drops out.-SCOTT.²SHAKESPEARE. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. .LIKE. This follows a verb or a verbal.²LAMB.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. No Emperor. but its verb is omitted. and was clearly an adjective. If the verb is expressed. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. like summer ocean's. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²DARWIN. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. In each case. this.² HAWTHORNE. Give Ruskin space enough.

A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. pronoun. subject and predicate. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. 336. etc. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. Not all exclamatory words are interjections.²in determining case. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. that is.: for example. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. entering into the structure of a sentence.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. Definition. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. 334. in separating them into their component parts. Some of these are imitative sounds." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. 335. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. tut! buzz! etc. What analysis is." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. as. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. clauses introduced by conjunctions. verb. Definition." PART II.. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. that is.INTERJECTIONS. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. . Value of analysis. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. but it still retains its identity as noun. etc.

2. but by no means vulgar. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. hence. question. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. declarative. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. (2) Interrogative. or request. old man?" "Be thou familiar. but according to how many statements there are. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division.Kinds of sentences as to form. Division according to number of statements. 337. which puts the thought in a question. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. which expresses command. (3) Imperative. Examples of these three kinds are. according to form. or command: for example. "The quality of mercy is not strained. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. Definition: Predicate.²a subject and a predicate. A rare old plant is the ivy green. or imperative. "Hath he not always treasures. But now all is to be changed. Every sentence must contain two parts. 338. 339. not according to the form in which a thought is put. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. you must not die!" interrogative. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. "Old year. but the sentence would still be declarative. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. Definition. SIMPLE SENTENCES. ." 340. interrogative. entreaty. always friends?" imperative. This is the most common one. "Come to the bridal chamber." "What wouldst thou do.

Listen. to an ignorant man. 4. 7. or adverb that asks about the subject. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. Slavery they can have anywhere. but about the ivy green. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. a rare old plant. or an interrogative pronoun. and our definition must be the following. But if we try this with the second sentence. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something.²What is to be changed? Answer. not of a rare old plant. always reduce them to the order of a statement. all. . 3. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 341. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. especially in poetry. thou. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. In analyzing such sentences. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions." Exercise. to suit all cases:² Subject. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. adjective. and the real subject is the latter. the subject (you. as. 5. In the interrogative sentence. or ye) is in most cases omitted. The last of all the Bards was he. we say all is the subject of the sentence. "[You] behold her single in the field. on the other hand. the subject is frequently after the verb. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9.²What is the ivy green? Answer.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. Thus. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. and is to be supplied. 2. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. we have some trouble. 6. 8. Consequently.

and me here is not the object simply of call." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.²transitive and intransitive. (4) The complements. (5) Modifiers. (3) The object. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. Indirect object. Of a transitive verb. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. but of call chief. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. just as if to say. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. (2) The predicate. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb." Complement: 344. in addition to the object. and by object we mean the direct object. but chief belongs to the verb. and means summoned. for example. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. 342. . but it is a true complement. or second object. The transitive verb often requires. Direct Object. "Ye honor me. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. direct.10. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. (6) Independent elements. 343." indirect. "Ye call me chief. The subject and predicate have been discussed.

as. 351." (2) PARTICIPIAL. and of massive weight. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . ay. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." Also an expression used as a noun. become. for instance. 355." (3) INFINITIVE. Complement of an intransitive verb. 364. in the original Opium Confessions. Thom of the Gills. 352..The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. See sentence 19. 'Ay. in the popular judgment. he was now getting old. introduced by a preposition: for example. and. 346. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. and barring the door. taste. appear. I mentioned a case of that nature. etc. Phrases." All these complete intransitive verbs. as in drowning. "Brow and head were round. as in the sentence. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. to the completion of this man of the world." 345." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk." "The good man. but used as a single modifier. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. 347. As to form. in exercise following Sec. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. An intransitive verb." Things used as Subject. above sixty." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. feel. seem." "He was termed Thomas. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. sir!' rang out in response. especially the forms of be. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. more familiarly. or. "A cheery." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. A phrase is a group of words." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. not containing a verb.

The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." "Never. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. I saw the quick and the dead. "'By God." 348. prowling eyes. (2) In interrogative sentences." "The dead are there. or the thundering of organs. "Therein has been." etc. etc. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." Things used as Direct Object. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. but they will be given in detail here." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. and ever will be. asserting eyes. ." The for did not belong there originally." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. Disguised infinitive subject.²the infinitive phrase. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. 341. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive." "There are asking eyes." In this sentence." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. but the real or logical subject is to print.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. (4) After "there introductory. and by Saint George!' said the King. my deficiency. was heard one syllable to justify. but obscures the real subject. for which see Sec." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. or their religion from their sect. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. from their lips.²the talent of starting the game." Things used as Complement. 349." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile.

351.350. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. and whenever the complement is a noun." (4) Participle. and explaining or modifying the subject. I. doubtless. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. the shepherd girl. (3) Infinitive." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. complements of the predicate. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. As complement of an intransitive verb. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. the object is made the subject by being passive." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. Like all the complements in this list.²heads or tails. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. As complement of a transitive verb." "Their tempers. and." "Serving others is serving us." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. or the equivalent of the noun." "She asked her father's permission.²completing the predicate." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. they are adjuncts of the object. Of a transitive verb. and the words italicized are still complements." In this last sentence. at the same time." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." .² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. Object.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. or Complement. Modifiers of Subject." "I hear the echoes throng." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." Modifiers.

Modifiers of the Predicate. but it is really a contracted clause. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. "He died like a God. see further Secs." "In the twinkling of an eye." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter." "Give them not only noble teachings. 357-363. II. Tells how. and modify the predicate in the same way. unforgiving. Retained with passive." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading." Exercise. 351. the verb being omitted." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." (For participial and infinitive phrases." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. given at the request of a Dutch lady." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. 352." In such a sentence as. was the scene from King John.²In each sentence in Sec. or . Since the predicate is always a verb. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." "Him. austere. or complement is modified. and leading him from star to star." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written.²proud. the prisoner at the bar." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. but noble teachers. no sociable angel. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. was now called upon for his defense.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. object." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. but with other men. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. tell whether the subject. I have seasoned for thee. not with nature. this young idolater.

2. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. predicate.. 2. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition.When the verb is changed from active to passive. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. and (direct) object:² 1. a sort of personality to the whole writing. Why does the horizon hold me fast. how far. Evil." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. This. 5. and. . 4. 7. These answer the question when. They do not wish to be lovely. His books have no melody. but to be loved. no humor." (6) Adverbial objective. predicate. and other measures of precaution. To the men of this world." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. in this center? 4. and the direct object is retained: for example. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. 6. On the voyage to Egypt. the indirect object is retained." Exercises. I took. etc. 6. he liked. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain." "One way lies hope. (b) Pick out the subject. gives wonderful animation. 3. 7. with my joy and grief. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. to the animal strength and spirits. (a) Pick out subject. but the children of the great. according to old philosophers. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. Fashion does not often caress the great. is good in the making. negative." "All such knowledge should be given her. 3. after dinner. or how long. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. no relief to the dead prosaic level. in regard to particulars. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. But anger drives a man to say anything. 8. no emotion. and as many to oppose it." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. 5. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive.

etc. Compound Predicate. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. this nun so martial. . must visit again the home of her childhood. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. downwards. Not compound sentences. at length the warrior lady. I promised her protection against all ghosts. 5. then. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. In one feature. the present Archbishop of Dublin. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. 4. 3. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. upwards. 6. I gave him an address to my friend. A river formed the boundary. for the first time. this dragoon so lovely. this imperial rider. Yes. y y y y Compound Subject. to the right and to the left. Their intention was to have a gay.y 8. 4. Paint me. 4. a room seventeen feet by twelve. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. that was thy portion in life. 3. after their long confinement to a ship. burthened with the anxieties of a man. in little peaceful Easedale. 2. I felt myself. To suffer and to do. 2. then. Unhorse me. six children sat by a peat fire. expecting the return of their parents. 3.²the river Meuse. 2. and a member of the world. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. the blooming cornet. That night. viz. Not the less I owe thee justice.. at the chief hotel. 5. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. the attorney. happy dinner.

the tone of her voice. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. etc. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. and. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution." "Voyages and travels I would also have. the air of the mother. above: thus. then the grammatical subject and predicate. together with its modifiers. may be the person or thing addressed. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. The exclamatory expression. however. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. hurry. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. and its object or complement. "Ah. the verb). but it is to be noticed that. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms..353. Of this. exposes. modifiers. etc. Examples of compound subjects are.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind." "The name of the child. shouldered the rusty firelock. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. same as (1). the object. together with all its modifiers." Sentences with compound predicates are. the predicate. 355. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. the simple subject is situation. that is. etc." "He shook his head." And so with complements. ulcer. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. complements. I'm with you once again. my brave young man!" . 354. in the sentence. Larger view of a sentence. two or more subjects of the same predicate. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. they are not a necessary part. hurry. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. forming a sentence: "Oh." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. turned his steps homeward. Independent Elements of the Sentence. and the rest is the logical predicate. Bishop. "The company broke up." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. For example." "Ye crags and peaks. in all such sentences as we quote below. several modifiers.

and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short.. 4). and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. already noticed. 352. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. 350. the company broke up. etc." (6) Single words: as. therefore. really. her noticing even this is creditable. object. this story runs thus." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon." "Well. etc. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES." (5) Participial phrase: "But. The words well. 6)." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. to the best of my remembrance." Another caution. such as perhaps. he was a conscientious man. nevertheless. or word used as a noun: for example. and so on. moreover. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. he closed his literary toils at dinner. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. modifying a noun. . 357." (3) Independent. such as however. grandma. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. 4). and some conjunctions. modifying the predicate. he somehow lived along. prepositional phrases may be. that have an office in the sentence. truly. six quill-driving gentlemen. see Sec. see Sec. y (2) The adverbial use. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. 355." "Why. (b) As a modifier of subject. let him perish. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. instances of which were seen in Sec. why. 3. These need close watching. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. then. yes! everybody knew them. "Oh." (2) Adverbial. how you're winking!" "Now. besides. now." "At all events. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. or complement (see Sec. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as." "No. (1) Adjectival. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES." "Truth to say. pronoun. There are some adverbs.. 351. In their use. 356. undoubtedly. generally speaking.

equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances." (c) With the definite forms of go.seem." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. being equivalent to a future with obligation. 358. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. The verbal use. modifying was speedily run through. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. etc.can (could). y (a) With may (might)." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. "The letter of introduction." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. See Sec.: as in the sentences. necessity. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.would. This case excepted. my dear. ought. thus. "Because I was. (5). "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing." "There. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. but having no other office than a verbal one. he should not have known them at all.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason.should. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business." In this sentence. and teach her how to be happy and good. I. 355. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. and they will be presented here in full." (b) With the forms of be. was speedily run through. containing no matters of business. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. or as nearly so as the student will require. and hence is adverbial. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. therefore. etc. Wilt thou.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. but require somewhat closer attention.]." etc.

III. to look means that he might look." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. the Scotch fighting all the battles.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). The substantive use. to hear McOrator after dinner.: for example. explanatory of a noun preceding: as.. The adverbial use. complement." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this." "He insisted on his right to forget her. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. The adjectival use. 361 are used adverbially." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. and the eyes to fill?" 359. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. II." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). 361. notice the following:² In (1). already examined." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. 351. object. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. result. above. "But there was no time to be lost. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. Don Guzman. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. etc. 362. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause.²both purpose clauses. (4) In apposition. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French." "To say what good of fashion we can. ." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories." 360. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. modifying a noun that may be a subject. etc. to please is equivalent to that he may please." "To teach is to learn. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." "Are you mad." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. hang the idiot. IV. To test this. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). 5).

and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. In (5). not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity.²both expressing condition. V. (7) Independent elements (Sec. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec.. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. The independent use. In (3). etc. 364. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. must be in a life. which is of two kinds. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. (3). to find shows the result of the return. 351). 351).In (2). Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. etc. 2. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. give² (1) The predicate. In analyzing simple sentences. 349). This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. etc. as in Sec. Our life is March weather. give the complement (Secs. equivalent to that you betray. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 3. object. 4. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. to hear means if you should hear. 363.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence." (See also Sec. and to say is equivalent to if we say.. . not in a book. I will try to keep the balance true. 355. to part means because I part. If it is an incomplete verb. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. 268.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. (5) The subject (Sec." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. savage and serene in one hour. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. In (4). 355). 351). and to betray and to bring express the reason. 352). 347). and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it.

might be called flabby and irresolute.4. Her aims were simple and obvious. 16. 21. an accomplished scholar. 17. 13. neither ammunition. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. You may ramble a whole day together. nor money. 20. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. two stricken hours. is to have no political system at all. To these gifts of nature. 8.He sat in the shower. and to the purpose. 7. 9. 22. 19. 18. to restore civil and religious order. Through the years and the centuries. He risked everything. The water. The whole figure and air. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. His opinion is always original. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 11. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 23. 10.²to preserve her throne. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual.The old crow of Cairo. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. nor himself. always in a bad plight. a graceful dancer. to keep England out of war. 5.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. a good shot. like a witch's oils. nor troops. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. good and amiable otherwise. nor generals. through evil agents. Old Adam. 14. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. The word conscience has become almost confined. 24. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. We are always in peril. to the moral sphere. and every moment discover something new. and spared nothing. 15. To be hurried away by every event. 12. through toys and atoms. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. I have heard Coleridge talk. 6. . just on the edge of destruction. the carrion crow.Burnt green and blue and white. a skilled musician. in popular use. with eager energy.

ready to receive her. and. the same Condé Olivarez. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. or perhaps one virtue. Oxford. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. it would not have been filial or ladylike. haply. Few in number. Supposing this computation to be correct. 27. 34. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. Must we in all things look for the how. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. Upon this shore stood. and no provisions but wild berries. an elderly man. 29. in front of all this mighty crowd. 33. She had made a two days' march. 37. But yield. and in my own garden. This amiable relative. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. in less heroic and poetic form. secluded.Effacing many a stain of former crime. Of the same grandeur.Distant. still. Fair name might he have handed down.25. to bid you leave the place now and forever. 35. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. time-honored. the ship was in an uproar. 39. upon my own ground. 26. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. The cry. had but one foible. in this world. and the wherefore? . and the why. 41. I dare this. 30. proud foe. 31. to be a reproach to such goodness. baggage far in the rear. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. The villain. 38. 36. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. 32. I hate him and myself. Now. In the Acadian land. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. the present capital of New England. the prime minister of Spain. 40.

the pride and beauty of the grove. (Sec. though often treated as phrases." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. 366." To show that these words are really omitted. but. 333). Words left out after than or as. ." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. as would be the connective instead of like. Some sentences look like simple ones in form." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. made merely for convenience and smoothness. As shown in Part I. if they were expanded. COMPLEX SENTENCES. however. which is the unit of speech. are really contracted clauses. the expressions of manner introduced by like. The simple sentence the basis." This must. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study].² "She is like some tender tree. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. as. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. 367. 365. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. thus." Sentences with like.From her own loved island of sorrow.

This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. complements. murmur. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause)." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. each clause has its subject. or it may be applied to the others.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. 370.. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. as in this sentence. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. A principal. and the next one. containing a verb with its subject.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. that . But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. and the last. CLAUSES. etc. and modifier. or dependent on it. which are so united that one member is the main one.²the other members subordinate to it. Definition. logically depends on suffering.. A clause is a division of a sentence. we are aware. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. that is. object. complement. 371. 368. main. Independent clause. then we recognize this as the main statement. how great . 369. modifiers..²the backbone.. is taken in. Hence the following definition:² Definition. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. object. . suffering. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. predicate.

373. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.' is an electric touch. put an end to my fancies. pronoun. (a) Ordinary apposition. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall.Dependent clause." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. etc. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living.." "I was told that the house had not been shut." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition... so the object clause is retained. As to their office in the sentence." (4) Apposition. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. thus. But since they are complex in form. 372. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. clauses are divided into NOUN. Noun Clauses. and the whole clause is not. ADJECTIVE. verbal. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. Kinds. for example. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. but logically the sentence is. night or day. adjectives. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. impertinences. for example. for a time." Just as the object noun.." 374.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. We ourselves are getting . and it is ." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. with a noun clause in apposition with it.. 'I know that he can toil terribly. . explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. infinitive." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs.." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. (b) that are . A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. 352. or adverbs." (2) Object of a verb. for a hundred years. attention is called to them here. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. and ADVERB clauses.. 5). impertinences²would be grammatical. over which the torrent came tumbling.

375. 7. etc. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. But the fact is. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. Other examples of this construction are. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. that. Such a man is what we call an original man.² "It is on the understanding. 5. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. where. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. of a nation. 2. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. which. 6. that he was a scheming impostor. that. whereby. 9. that all safe legislation must be based. a falsehood incarnate. a relative pronoun being understood. still remains reasonable. 4. Examples of adjective clauses. Adjective Clauses. As the office of an adjective is to modify. What history it had. whither. he could know nothing. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. 3. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. . whence. in the sentence. no man will ever know. or equivalent of a noun. as. wherein. Frequently there is no connecting word. I was napping. sometimes by the conjunctions when. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity." Exercise. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. he would repent it. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. 8. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. 10. whether he should choose one or not. how it changed from shape to shape.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. but. The reply of Socrates. Except by what he could see for himself. and not on the sentiment.

" "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. or that essence we were looking for. 10. 6. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. . object. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. which Rowena tasted. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture.e. i. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. whether subject." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. and tell what each one modifies.. 5. 8. 4. Adverbial Clauses." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. 2. 3. No man is reason or illumination. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character.376. the champions advanced through the lists. I walked home with Calhoun. 9." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. 7. etc." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. he begins to help us more as an effect." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. all is vacancy." Exercise. Pick out the adjective clauses. 1. which formed the center of the mansion. 11. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left.

that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. or an adverb." "After leaving the whole party under the table." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. he goes away as if nothing had happened. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. Joanna is better. and what it modifies:² . (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." "Who cares for that." "The broader their education is. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. an adjective. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. is wider. Exercise. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." "The right conclusion is. etc. adverbs." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. that we should try. introduced by indefinite relatives. expressing the degree in which the horizon." These mean no matter how good. etc. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. and adverbial conjunctions. with examples." "When he was come up to Christian. whatever. it takes precedence of everything else. shaping our actions. no matter what remains." "He went several times to England. however. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent..: "But still. to make up our shortcomings. the wider is the horizon of their thought." (7) RESULT. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. but they require careful study. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. the milestones are grave-stones.² whoever. so far as we can. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. since he was too great to care to be original. 378." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions.377. etc." (3) REASON. however good she may be as a witness." (5) DEGREE. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. a verbal. tell what kind each is." (9) CONCESSION. and will be given in detail.

and communicated itself to a thousand objects. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. etc. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. snatching up stones to fling at them. predicate. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. on a dark wintry night. 379. to tell the truth. 'Well. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ ." 2. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. 3. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. as they sometimes did. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. and twirling weathercocks. and modifiers. howling and whistling. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. If the children gathered about her. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. incoherent exclamations. banging about doors and windows. of which clause Odin is the subject. find the principal subject and principal predicate. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. in the sentence. 380. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death.1. For example. its object is that Odin was a reality. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. with shrill. then treat noun clauses as nouns. we are a little disappointed. they might perhaps say of their visitors. object. so as to picture the parts and their relations. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. when the wind was unruly.

This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses.. 364. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. 364. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us.. . 2. d. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. Exercises. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . as seen in the "map" (Sec. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. 3. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. (1) Find the principal clause. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. 380). | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381.

4. And those will often pity that weakness most. I like that representation they have of the tree. or whether any. counselor that had none for herself. whom I choose. 14. that. as for armies that were too many by half. Next came a wretched Dominican. 7. not so much for travelers that were few. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. He was what our country people call an old one. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 17. This is she. 11. M. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. had we been worse. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 19. 8. for yours. if applied to the Bible. 16. 15. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. 10. 24. . She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. 23. 21. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. of a light hazel. The night proved unusually dark. 6. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. The deep eyes. 12. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. Now. the mixed result. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 9. which. bishop. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. Here lay two great roads. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. that pressed her with an objection. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. who would yield to it least. But now that she has become an establishment. 5. namely. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. Whether she said the word is uncertain. the shepherd girl. 22. Had they been better chemists. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. could not have been effected. 20. 18. 13. the flower should revive for us. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. dying for them.

He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. 382. 5. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. 383. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. "No book. "was ever written down by any but itself. but above it. 6. though we may repeat the words never so often. then map out as in Sec. COMPOUND SENTENCES." said Bentley. It makes no difference how many friends I have. How formed. and what content I can find in conversing with each. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. or commands. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. would easily reach. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained.² Definition. and stamped with his right number. These things we are forced to say. we cannot adequately say. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. 3. if continuously extended. 30. and not from his heart. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will.25.²which will not be disposed of. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. . questions." 4. Hence the definition. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. 27. 28. that it was no more than his daily walk. 2. 26. (b) First analyze. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. 7. That which we do not believe. 380. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. and temper. is to speak and write sincerely. the following complex sentences:² 1. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. speed. if there be one to whom I am not equal.

The division into members will be easier. a complex member.. while (whilst). he is twice a man. "Only the star dazzles. . for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. he soliloquizes. nor. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. from the second. yet." 384. for. The coördinate conjunctions and. in (2). and which complex:² 1. or but. 386. moon-like ray" (adversative). Speak your latent conviction. the planet has a faint. the semicolon separates the first. Another example is. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. a simple member. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. and connects the first and second complex members. and nor the second and third complex members." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. now adverbs or prepositions. whereas. nor does he know until he has tried. Thus in (1). Exercise." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. etc. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). and not the form of the connective. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. tell which are compound. as in Sec. Study the thought. in (3). as but. he walks with arms akimbo. the waving grass. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. Of the following illustrative sentences. 297). (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. he dilates. if there are any. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. and it shall be the universal sense. others sometimes coördinate. however. etc.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. Connectives. 385. 383 (1). Some of these are now conjunctions. which are simple statements.

all pain. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 8. from a happy yet often pensive child. and for everything you gain. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. Love. passed in that time. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. is particular. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. All loss. 4. for example. I can yet love. he grew up to be a mild. 3. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. and thou shalt be loved. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. . The gain is apparent. or. 364. Man does not stand in awe of man. quiet. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 14. (i) Separate it into its main members. however. 387. I can still receive. nay. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 13. 11. you lose something. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. For everything you have missed. to find a pot of buried gold. 7. 381. 10. unobtrusive boy. However some may think him wanting in zeal.2. 2. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. you have gained something else. 12. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. that it was Easter Sunday. the tax is certain. In this manner. 5. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 6. and as yet very early in the morning. yield to them heart and life. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 4. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. Exercise. Whilst the world is thus dual. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. and not by what each is. so is every one of its parts. 3. 9. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none.

and not a thought has enriched either party. and they repel us. Stand aside. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. "as nigh the scythe as you can. 6. and the cart as nigh the rake. why should we intrude? 10." "keep the rake. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. and makes their business a friendship. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. feign to confess here. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. 9. and each shows only what lies at its focus. one is afraid. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. or we pursue persons. only that they may brag and conquer there. treat them greatly. They will shuffle and crow.5." says the haymaker. as children. crook and hide. that let him communicate. or hope. 17. 11. whilst frankness invites frankness. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. and not an emotion of bravery. modesty. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. "Strike. or men will never know and honor him aright. puts the parties on a convenient footing. or sail with God the seas. When you have chosen your part. We go to Europe. and they will be true to you. let them mount and expand. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. because. and he learns who receives. We see the noble afar off. or we read books. which always make the Actual ridiculous. if you rip up his claims. 15. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. give those merits room. Trust men. 18. and the peace of society is often kept. abide by it. . in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. 16. 20. Whatever he knows and thinks. He teaches who gives. and the other dares not. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. is as thin and timid as any. 21. and you are without effort impelled to truth." 13." says the smith. Come into port greatly. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. 19. 14. 7. and they will show themselves great. 8. "the iron is white.

but go about your business anywhere. Essential point in English syntax. so readily and lavishly they promise. they die young. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . but they never acquit the debt. So does culture with us. 24. verb and subject. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. 25. 390. PART III. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. Following the Latin method. 388. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. INTRODUCTORY. they lose themselves in the crowd. We see young men who owe us a new world. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. or. and dodge the account. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. 380. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. 23.22. SYNTAX. if they live. it never was known to fall into the rear. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. but its leading characteristic is. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. adjective and noun. pronoun and antecedent. Ground covered by syntax. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads.²agreement and government. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. it ends in headache. the department of syntax will be a small affair. By way of introduction. Do not craze yourself with thinking.

Second. but are not now.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English." In this there is a possessive form. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. therefore. The basis of syntax. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard.² First." that is. or settler may be the subject. or when they exist side by side in good usage. and imitate it. then. Also in the sentence. There is. pronoun and antecedent. good English. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. In some cases. following the regular order of subject. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. distinct forms would be used. Why study syntax? 391. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. This is not logical. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. and whose judgment. also expressing a possessive relation. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. "None remained but he. . 392. In Latin. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. For example. authorities²that is. take the sentence. and nothing but important points will be considered. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. some of which conform to classical grammar. and added to it the preposition of. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. sometimes verb and subject. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. As an illustration of the last remark. as to study inflected forms. the sentence." is ambiguous. Some rules not rigid. When usage varies as to a given construction. etc. the order being inverted. "The savage here the settler slew. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. 393. or the same writer will use both indifferently. both forms will be given in the following pages. Savage may be the subject. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. and it would not matter which one stood first.

Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.²MILTON.²THACKERAY. as. Oliver and Boyd's printing office.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Putting Mr. 396. sense and nature's easy fool. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. and Paul's. Joint possession. the shore of Galilee. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.²BYRON. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. ²ID. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.²MACAULAY. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. and Harley's.² Live your king and country's best support. and Pope's. 394. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only.NOUNS. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage.²MCCULLOCH.²RUSKIN.²ROWE. Use of the possessive. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. but imply separate possession or ownership. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. and Peter's. He kept Bolingbroke's. and Peterborough's. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays.²EMERSON. the possessive sign is used with each noun. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Bentham's principles together. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. the antechamber of the High Priest. etc.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. 408)." Juletta tells. . Mill's and Mr. Woman. Separate possession. 397. for example. 395. PRONOUNS.

together with the relative who. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. for example. there are two general rules that require attention.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. Objective for the nominative." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). This should be "as she.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. and should be the nominative form.²BYRON. sanctioned. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. No mightier than thyself or me. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. others are generally. Since most of the personal pronouns. who. Some of the violations are universally condemned. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. whom is the complement after the verb am. if not universally. General rules. I. 398. the real thought being forgotten. as. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. thus. the last expression has the support of many good writers.²THACKERAY.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.²TROLLOPE. 399." 400. But he must be a stronger than thee. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS.²WHITCHER.²SHAKESPEARE. Still.²POPE. Bedott Papers. . It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.) "The young Harper. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me.²SOUTHEY.

²MACAULAY. on the other hand.²LONGFELLOW.²COLERIDGE. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS."²WINTHROP.²PARTON.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. And it was heThat made the ship to go. it will not be me.²THACKERAY. namely. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage." There is no special reason for this. In spoken English. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. the objective form is regularly found. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. The usage is too common to need further examples. but such is the fact.² One I remember especially. One exception is to be noted. they are yet holier than we.²KINGSLEY. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. . are. Patrick the Porter."²WM. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. The camp of Richard of England. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. both in England and America. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. "Who's there?"²"Me. A safe rule.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. and the other forms of the verb be. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. is.²RUSKIN.²SCOTT.² For there was little doubt that it was he. "Than whom. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so."²KINGSLEY. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. "If there is any one embarrassed. unless a special. as. But still it is not she. BLACK.²FIELDING. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed." 401. for example.

3. but not he" (he should be him. as this from Shakespeare. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 10. 5. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger.Exercise. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. Whom they were I really cannot specify. 403. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. and prepositions. (3) By forgetting the construction. 11. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. as. Nominative for the objective. it is me.²MILTON. 7. as. It is not me you are in love with. you or me. the object of to). object of saw). They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. verbal. You know whom it is that you thus charge. now." the word being in apposition with murderer). Truth is mightier than us all. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). Me in exclamations. or this.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. in the case of words used in apposition with the object.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. I speak not to" (he should be him. or us). . It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. or preposition which governs it. 9. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. 404. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. as. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 4. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. used after verbs. 2." 6. "Ask the murderer. 8. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. verbals.

²KINGSLEY. None. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. changed in all save thee. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. Who have we here?²ID. save thou and thine. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. Thy shores are empires.²KINGSLEY. 406. 2.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who.²BYRON. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. for they say there are none such in the world. but he. as. We regularly say.²STEELE. I arraign. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. and is usually avoided. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. as. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Let you and I look at these. partial Nature. who interrogative. Exercise. I've sworn. Thou. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. etc.²BYRON. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. after the preposition but (sometimes save).²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. "Who were they talking to?" etc. 405. for example. as well as the objective.²KINGSLEY.Shall be left upon the morn. Exception 2. all but he. .Exception 1. "Who did you see?" or. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.²GOLDSMITH.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Nature.² All were knocked down but us two.

12.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know.²THACKERAY. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room.Ye I salute. They are coming for a visit to she and I. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. 10. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. 5. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. 6. Markland. Preceding a gerund. 7.²SCOTT. with Jortin and Thirlby. Bartholomew. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. and they know that as well as me. II. or objective? . POSSESSIVE FORMS." 4. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. This usage is not frequent. They crowned him long ago. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me.²MACAULAY. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.²DE QUINCEY. B. 11. BROWN. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. who. As antecedent of a relative. 407.²RUSKIN. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence.3. 8.²C.²possessive. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. 9. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates.

The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be.² THACKERAY. The use of the objective is older. sometimes it has the objective. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern.²CARLYLE. In the examples quoted.²RUSKIN. We heard of Brown. Objective. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning.² IRVING. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. as he turned away from his wife. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.²MACAULAY. and asked why it was not made. and the meaning is. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.²DE QUINCEY. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. . and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea.² CARLYLE. Why both are found. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. studying is a gerund.408. Both types of sentences are found. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. Here I state them only in brief. and that in the second. Possessive. etc. But in common use there is no such distinction. The last incident which I recollect." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass." That is. object of heard of. both are gerunds.² SCOTT. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.²DICKENS. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. [who was] studying law. that the bitterness of death was past.²BREWER.

it was his own fault. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²DE QUINCEY.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. The pale realms of shade.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS.²THACKERAY. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. or is a distributive word.²C.²DE QUINCEY. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. Watch for the real antecedent. taking in each of many persons. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.²RUSKIN. Everybody had his own life to think of. and gender.²THOREAU.²EMERSON III. 409. If any one did not know it.²DEFOE. in one person. Examples of these constructions are.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.² BRYANT. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. preceded by a distributive. 410.²AUDUBON. Every city threw open its gates. and ought to agree with them in person. if the antecedent is neuter. BROCKDEN BROWN.²CABLE. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²HOLMES. number. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. .²when the antecedent. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. In such a case as the last three sentences.²HUXLEY. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. where there were examinations.

²HUXLEY. Struggling for life. for example. The sun. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. If the part deserve any comment.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²EMERSON. not a mowing idiot. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. This is not considered the best usage. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous. and giving them means of being so. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²DEFOE.²BYRON.²AUSTEN.²PALEY. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. .²RUSKIN.²BIBLE. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. Whosoever hath any gold.²FIELDING.Avoided: By using both pronouns. By using the plural pronoun.²ID. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²ID. let them break it off.²PALGRAVE.²SCOTT. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. as anybody in their senses would have done. till they have lost him.²THACKERAY.² Not the feeblest grandame. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. 411.²PAULDING. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.

What these terms mean. that being considered already clear. when restrictive. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. tell whether who. 412. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. and he went away. The clause is restricted to the antecedent.² SHERIDAN. when coördinating. or unrestrictive. and that are restrictive or not. . In the following examples. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. "I gave it to the beggar. A relative. That is in most cases restrictive.) and a personal pronoun. Exercise. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. in each instance:² Who. As to their conjunctive use." This means." It defines beggar. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. who went away. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide.²HAWTHORNE. but.²ADDISON. Exercise. 413. as. It adds a new statement to what precedes.Where she was gone. but. the definite relatives who. I. or what was become of her. because. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. and does not add a new statement. which. 1.²ID. etc. is equivalent to a conjunction (and." A relative. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. 2. no one could take upon them to say. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. according to the practice of every modern writer. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. and that always restrictive.²In the above sentences. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. unless both genders are implied. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. which.

and it is called logic. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. II. W. 6. who. In what sense true. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. 14.²THOREAU. that were often vicious. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. these or that which. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. you. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. but.²DE QUINCEY.²ID. The rule. 414. 11.²DE QUINCEY. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. as that does not vary for person or number.²HOLMES. For example. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun.. 12. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. long arms and legs.3. However.²H. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. etc. 8. 7. because of its antecedent. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. etc.² CARLYLE. That. down. he. Hare has printed. it makes the verb third person singular. and over England are saying. Which. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. With narrow shoulders.²ADDISON. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.²ID. 13.² IRVING. On hearing their plan. 4. We say I. 9. So different from the wild. etc. which Mr. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. hard-mouthed horses at Westport.² MOTLEY. Yet how many are there who up.² NEWMAN." that is invariable as to person and number. 10. which was to go over the Cordilleras. she agreed to join the party. in the sentence. . BEECHER 5. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. A grizzly-looking man appeared. The general rule is. they.

It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.²MACAULAY.²HOLMES.. He is one of those that deserve very well. etc. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.²M. 415. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest.. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. . T.²whether we should say. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. others regard books as the antecedent. French literature of the eighteenth century. Singular. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. the true antecedent. and write the verb in the plural." One of . O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.²SCOTT. in winning a battle. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.²LOWELL. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books.. but the former has good authority. [singular or plural.. but speaks of him as that sort. Franklin..²J.²LECKY.²LOWELL.²HOWELLS. Let us be of good cheer. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. who rarely speak at all.²BOWLES. A disputed point. JR..] Both constructions are frequently found. with one as the principal word. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.²ADDISON.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company." or. The latter is rather more frequent. when he derided the shams of society. and in improving a victory. "one of the finest books that have been published. The fiery youth . ARNOLD.²ADDISON. but myself. [plural] that who. "one of the finest books that has been published. or which . MORSE. etc..

or where] he died. I could see nothing except the sky." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. when this dust falls to the urn. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. 416. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. when the relative word is a pronoun.²BURNS."²DICKENS. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.²SCOTT.²VAUGHAN. But I by backward steps would move.²CARLYLE.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²EMERSON.²DEFOE. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²In the above sentences.²IRVING.A rare Roundabout performance. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. and see if the sentence is made clearer. that is.And.²ID.² THACKERAY.² RUSKIN. where. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²EMERSON. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. whence. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. III.²GOLDSMITH. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. The same day I went aboard we set sail. Exercise. object of a preposition understood. IV." "India is the place [in which. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation.In that same state I came. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.² . at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.²SWIFT.²ADDISON. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. return. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. and such like: as. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. 417. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.

looking-glasses. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² as his apprentice.²SCOTT. with Turner. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited.²FRANKLIN. V. They believe the same of all the works of art.² BURKE. Caution. which. I might as well have staid at home. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. Anacoluthic use of which. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. was a discoverer. if I had resolved to go on with.²ADDISON. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. but which is usually carefully avoided. she passed the lamp over her face and person. That. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.. if same is followed by a complete clause. ²GOLDSMITH. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin.²R. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.² Which.² THACKERAY. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. . 418. CHURCH.² MACAULAY. or that. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. Mr. W. as of knives. he. and working in the same spirit. for example.²SWIFT.. etc. The regular construction. but. boats. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.²WORDSWORTH. Which. as is not used.He considered. but we find the relative who.

" The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. And who.²GOLDSMITH.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch..²HAWTHORNE.²DE QUINCEY. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. which when Mr. 419. He delivered the letter. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. once a great favorite of M. etc.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. he said that all submission was now too late. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago." etc. Express both relatives. After this came Elizabeth herself. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.She'd come again.²SHAKESPEARE. now thrown upon their. Thornhill had read. or leave out both connective and relative. 3. (3) "Among the poorer sort.² Direction for rewriting. 2. or omit the conjunction. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. (2) "Among the poorer sort. 4." etc. but none is expressed.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. This was a gentleman. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. But who. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. and who are now." etc.²SCOTT. who are now thrown. (1) "Among those who are poor. As the sentences stand. and this be placed in the proper clause..²which if they once heard. etc. That is. Exercise.²RUSKIN. Exercise. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. but. . and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. 1.. le Conte. and which. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.²THACKERAY. or.

which the Scotch had learned. 420.. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. and which has never been described. Dr.²SCOTT. and which may even be heard a mile off. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. one of signal interest. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. . He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. That .²DE QUINCEY. I saw upon the left a scene far different. 11.²SCOTT. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. and to whom no door is closed. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. 8.5. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. 9.. I shall have complete copies.²IRVING. Or who. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. Exercise. as a false and astucious mark. either from imitation of their frequent allies.²PEARSON. who. And which. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That .. the French." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. etc.²DE QUINCEY. 10.²HAWTHORNE. English by name. indeed.. 7.² MOTLEY. Or which. But which. and repeat this for any further reference. etc. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. 6. Akin to the above is another fault. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. "A mockery. then. like that spoken in the towns. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. "What knight so craven. 13. 1. 12. and which.

4. that. SIMMS.²SCOTT. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus.²HOLMES.²EMERSON. 5. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. 10.²BEECHER. In my native town of Salem. 15. which. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love... He. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion.²HAWTHORNE.²W. the dime.. The Tree Igdrasil. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. It rose into a thrilling passion. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.²HOWELLS.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. CHANNING.. whom. 12.²W. and whose examples and principles we inherit. the cent. 11. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. was a bustling wharf. 3. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. in his Mephistopheles. but which is perhaps not so different from it. 8.²DEFOE... at the head of what. I grudge the dollar. Such as . was hung in air. 14. 9.²HALLAM. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart.²SCOTT That which . and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices... and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. E. 6. half a century ago. and to whom I do not belong. but which. G. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.²DE QUINCEY. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. which. I recommend some honest manual calling. that . He flung into literature. Which . such as they have very probably been bred to. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. what. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.²EMERSON. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 13. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity.2.. That .. in his present condition. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. Such as . but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. . 7.. I give to such men as do not belong to me.

²EMERSON.²DICKENS. as. as. whether or not the two are equivalent. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. By their original meaning. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. as it were. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. for example.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.²MACAULAY. 422.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. always at war with one another.²HAWTHORNE. one another. Distributives either and neither. We call ourselves a rich nation.²GOLDSMITH. 421.² Some one must be poor.²RUSKIN. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. that not all combined.²RUSKIN. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. Use of any.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. . The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²ID. and in want of his gold²or his corn. into the high pavilion of their thoughts.² HAWTHORNE. England was then divided between kings and Druids. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. Each other. Assume that no one is in want of either.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. in which case any should be used instead. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.

423.²BURKE. . he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. then in Plotinus. etc. whilst I still cherish their genius. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. in Shakespeare. If any of you lack wisdom.²BIBLE.²STIRLING. when any of them are so good as to visit me. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. None usually plural. any of his friends had died. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants.² In earnest.²CARLYLE. let him ask of God. 424. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.² If any.. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage..²BEECHER Whenever. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.. for him have I offended.² EMERSON. speak. and is isolated. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. In earlier Modern English. None of Nature's powers do better service. usually plural.²SHAKESPEARE. before that.²SCOTT. as none of the French philosophers were. as. The adjective pronoun none is.²FRANKLIN. in the prose of the present day. any was often singular. as. during his stay at Yuste. Do you think. which is plural as often as singular. if ever man was. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). I beseech you. Examples of its use are. even in Bettine. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. Any usually plural.²THACKERAY.²EMERSON. afterwards in Goethe. Do you think.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . that I know of. then in Plutarch. at one time in Bacon.²PROF. Caution.

nobody else.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. etc. fixing his eyes on the mace. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. or somebody else's? 426. When all were gone. the plural. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.²SCOTT Like the use of any. The light troops thought .²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.²THOREAU. etc.² None of them was cleansed.²NAPIER Plural. etc.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. Somebody's else. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. and hence is more likely to confuse the student.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. and Ford has nobody's else. and less rarely in poetry. that all was lost. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. 425.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. The compounds somebody else.² PEARSON.² Singular. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. as. saving Naaman the Syrian.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. and all was lost on the other.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. any one else.. for example.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. etc.. when it means all persons: for example. are treated as units. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²McMASTER. which is used absolutely. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.

² FIELDING.²DICKENS.. all manner of. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. unlike anybody else's in the world.² These kind of knaves I know. His hair. ELIOT. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. These sort. . etc. or some other such great man as a bishop. "Ye see. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. P.²SWEET." the nouns being singular. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case." "those kind of trees. Whitefield or Wesley.SYDNEY SMITH.²SHERIDAN. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. or those sort of people.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. ADJECTIVES. 427.²MULOCH. for example.²N. STOWE.. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. WILLIS. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences.² Saturday Review."²MRS.²AUSTEN. London. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.²THACKERAY. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). A suit of clothes like somebody else's.²in such as "these sort of books.²RUSKIN. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.curled once all over it in long tendrils. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.²RUSKIN." "all manner of men.²G. etc. Again. the adjectives plural. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.

or the nouns to the plural. According to the approved usage of Modern English. History of this construction. in spoken English. not "all kinds of wild animals. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. "This kind of rules are the best. such as. Should we say. .²a strong man with nothing but his fists.The library was open. made to agree with it." A question. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. At the source. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. or one object with a class of objects. gradually displacing the old." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. which accounts for the construction. Later form. they said. Use of the comparative degree. and in this way may take a plural verb. 428.² PRESCOTT. for example. the victor or the vanquished. as.²RUSKIN. when the necessary dispositions concur. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. to express a higher degree of quality. with all manner of amusing books. The result. In Old and Middle English. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. Burke's sentence. Of two such lessons. Consequently we have a confused expression. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared.² Which is the better able to defend himself. This the modern expression reverses. and the adjective is. "This sort of trees should be planted." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. "These kind of trees are best." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. more alarming than a total silence. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects.

Superlative with two objects. the highest stakes are paid.²MACAULAY.²SWIFT.²HUXLEY. etc. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. Henry. Use of the superlative degree. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. if not. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.²MACAULAY. 2. would not have had the face.²SCOTT. has sanctioned. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. Even Dodd himself. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator.²LOWELL.²THACKERAY. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²HAWTHORNE.A braver ne'er to battle rode. To the man who plays well. than any of his court.²TROLLOPE. by almost the breadth of my nail. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. He is taller. 3.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. 5. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. 429. 430.² THACKERAY. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. Exercise. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. 4.²CARLYLE. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. . This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. Other after the comparative form. I am concerned to see that Mr. Gary.²WIRT. 6."²ID. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.

Also from the same period. whichever can be got easiest. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. "Ha.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child.²Bible."²HAWTHORNE. In all disputes between States. Examples from Shakespeare are."²BULWER. After the most straitest sect of our religion.²RUSKIN. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. Mary. 431. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong.²GOLDSMITH. and differ only in form.²BEN JONSON. and the other contains the best men. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. more particularly the last of them. I should say that one has the best cause.. ha. The eldest.²MRS. 1611.²SCOTT. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them."²GOLDSMITH. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. Come you more nearer. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. Rip was one of those . who eat white bread or brown. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.²J.. . OLIPHANT. CÆSAR.²ADDISON. not a bit of high life among them.²IRVING.²DR BLAIR. The following examples are used purposely. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.²EMERSON. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. These two properties seem essential to wit. Double comparative and superlative.²HAMLET.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²TEMPEST.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.

For Carlyle. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. The meaning intended is the same.²RUSKIN. but in literary English. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. ARTICLES. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.²RUSKIN. 433. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. He has already finished the three first sticks of it.² With a singular noun. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. These are the three first needs of civilized life. the Spanish. Instances of both are given below. Three first. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. ²COWPER. The first five had specific names. jar upon us constantly.²KINGSLEY.²PRESCOTT. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. As to these two expressions. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.² SMOLLETT.²ADDISON. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs.²DE QUINCEY. Definite article. not only so in popular speech. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. The merit of the Barb. Examples of this construction are. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. . Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. and Secretary Walsingham also.²LAMB.²GIBBON. etc.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.²GIBBON. and conceit in the last. First three. etc. The delay in the first three lines.

distinct. With a plural noun. but is used with one only. with a singular noun.²PRESCOTT. 435. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone.²NEWMAN. Indefinite article. . The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. as. of the higher and middling orders. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. were placed at a very tender age. the greatest poems. however. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. to distinguish clearly. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . He is master of the two-fold Logos. or to emphasize the meaning. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. of the eighteenth century.²THACKERAY. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.² RUSKIN. No. The not repeated. but inseparable from each other.. 433. 434. The flowers.²THE NATION. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict.²MACAULAY.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.²TENNYSON. Frequently. I think.² MACAULAY. 433. melodious. Here the youth of both sexes. as. and flexible language. One object and several modifiers. 1508. the hour of parting came. Meaning same as in Sec. having been arranged.²ID. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume..²CARLYLE.²SCOTT. with a plural noun.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. and the presents. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. as in Sec. The lofty.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.²TAYLOR. the thought and the word. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. Origin of the Aryans.

a collegian. In the sentences of Secs. One article with several adjectives. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. For rhetorical effect. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. only one of which is expressed.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. to limit two or more modified nouns.² BURKE.²DICKENS. as. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps.²BULWER.An early. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. 436).²JOHNSON. The indefinite article (compare Sec.²S. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns.²BEECHER. 437.²MACAULAY. COLERIDGE.²B. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. or clearness to each of several nouns. as in the first three of Sec. 433 and 436. 435. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. like the definite article.²DRYDEN. and a usurper. 438. a tyrant. JONSON. Examples of this use are." and "a red and a white geranium. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium.436. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. The indefinite article is used. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. T." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. But in the following sentences. a murderer.²THACKERAY. one noun is expressed. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.² MACAULAY. rich. . a round and a square one alternately.²MACAULAY. interest.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. He saw him in his mind's eye. and inexhausted vein.

as. or the great intellectual life of our nation.²CARLYLE This usage. Singulars connected by or or nor.²The Nation. has got already. ELIOT. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. Sec. was the earliest American land. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. . PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER..²FROUDE. 439. for example. 276. all that academies can give. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form.²M. Another writer might.²GIBBON. This was spoken of in Part I. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. 440. Collective noun of singular meaning.²AGASSIZ.²G. In English.²W.VERBS. like some others in this series. and the following illustrations prove it.²COOPER. ARNOLD. then. as. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. without academies. A broad and loose rule. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. He sees that it is better to live in peace. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. Such. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. Singular verb.

²J. A fever.² GOLDSMITH. seems at the moment unpaid loss.²CRITIC. a cruel disappointment.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. and every four hours. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. nor John. (4) When the subject is plural in form.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. Plural form and singular meaning. the cheap defense of nations.² The unbought grace of life. for example. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. a loss of friends.²GIBBON.²BURKE.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. other names. or considered as appositional. is gone. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. Between ourselves. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. but each one emphatic. for example.²EMERSON .²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. No. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.² Politics is the only field now open for me. but considered as meaning about the same thing. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. or as making up one general idea. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and.² In a word. nor Mahomet.²DE QUINCEY. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. ²EMERSON. and other singulars of plural form.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. a loss of wealth.²WHITTIER. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. that of a large town. as.Jesus is not dead. Q. nor Paul. ADAMS. as. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²GOLDSMITH. a mutilation.

was listened to for five hours. For wide is heard the thundering fray.²MACAULAY. Her back. Every week. Every sound. sir?" and the "No. is a man of wit. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.² There is a right and a wrong in them. every echo. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. no. sir!" and the "What then. nay. To receive presents or a bribe. almost every day.²PRESCOTT.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. with death. the dismay. The oldest. the ruin.²MACAULAY. was dazzled. sir!"²MACAULAY. many a.²PRESCOTT. was like to crack. as well as the newest. every boor. no spent ball. The Epic. Every fop.²NEWMAN. every valet.²M ARNOLD. 441.²LONGFELLOW.²SCOTT. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. the fine gentleman. the wit. does not take the place of the man. as.²EMERSON. no discontinuity.The author. was punished.² Asia.²ID. and such like adjectives. thus. as well as the Drama. wineBegins to stir itself.²BUTLER. There is a moving tone of voice.²RUSKIN. Here is no ruin. Subjects after the verb. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. the partisan.² . as. an agitated gesture. an impassioned countenance. and greaves.²ID. Plural verb. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. in a judge.²HAWTHORNE. a cuirass. Every law and usage was a man's expedient.The rout. Then comes the "Why. as well as sides. a gorget. as well as Europe. no matter if the second is plural). each.

making up a plural subject. for example. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. were men of insignificant characters. His clothes.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. are sufficient to attract a colony. Far. as in Sec. and its history are alike a mystery to us.These bits of wood were covered on every square.²EMERSON. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. a stream of fresh water. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. far away thy children leave the land.²COLERIDGE.² GIBBON. the Duke of Berri. The travelers. A party of workmen were removing the horses. as with a subject of plural form.²DE QUINCEY.²GIBBON. b).²ADDISON.² A multitude go mad about it. Philip of Anjou. a green pasture. TAYLOR.²FRANKLIN. All our household are at rest. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²SWIFT. The Dauphin.²THOREAU. as. The conjunction may be omitted. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²B. shirt. .² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. Conjunction omitted. A shady grove. as.²FROUDE. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. but the verb is plural.²FROUDE. its date. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²GOLDSMITH. of whom there were a number. 440 (5. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²SCOTT.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.

the subject being really equivalent to we. Not I.). You and I are tolerably modest people.²SMOLLETT. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. his blood dost shed. but thou. hadst been my lord. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²ROWE. WEBSTER.²THACKERAY.²DE QUINCEY. When the subjects. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. Exceptional examples. Nothing which Mr. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now." or. we never talk politics. 444.²BYRON. nor should I.²RUSKIN. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and.²RUSKIN. Ah. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. General usage.²M.²THACKERAY. as. nor has she")." "She or you may be sure. of different persons. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject." etc. If there is only one person in the subject.²D. Not Altamont. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.But notice the construction of this. 442. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. Second or third and first person in the subject. for example. the verb takes the construction of the first person.²WHITTIER. 443. "He or I can go.²GOLDSMITH. You and I are farmers. . This construction is at the best a little awkward. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. "I have never said so. "You would not be wiser. but thou. that is.²LOWELL. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. ARNOLD. Pattison or I have said.

5. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. nor tree.²BURKE.² TROLLOPE. 8.²ADDISON. as we would hope. Nor wood.²BYRON. 9.²SCOTT. 3. In the following sentence. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. BANCROFT. Neither of their counselors were to be present. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 12." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² .²ADDISON. 6. Exercise.²perhaps the devil. 2. How each of these professions are crowded. In this sentence from Defoe.²THACKERAY. nor bush are there.²G. 10.Her course to intercept.²and.That neither of their intellects are vast. The following illustrate exceptional usage. which it is proper to mention. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. 446.²SMOLLETT. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. 11. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. Also in verbals. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. as illustrated above (Secs. 7. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.²MILTON. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²EMERSON.²ID. 440-444):² 1. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. Both death and I am found eternal. In a word. Neither of them. in my opinion. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits.445. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. 4.

² PALGRAVE 5.. 448.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. 447. to have divided with her whatever might remain. Definitions. It should be remarked.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.²FRANKLIN 6. INDIRECT DISCOURSE.²KINGSLEY. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing.²MACAULAY." . 3. Two samples of indirect discourse.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. 4. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.²DE QUINCEY 2. meaning. But I found I wanted a stock of words. The present rule is recent. if not. for exact connection. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . which I thought I should have acquired before that time. however. W. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.²IRVING.²R. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used. as. Exercise. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. Indirect discourse means reported speech. CHURCH. Direct discourse²that is. change them to a better form:² 1. to have seen should be changed to to see.²THACKERAY. I gave one quarter to Ann. Of course.. on my return. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.

(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs.. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. 1. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. "Oh. . Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. Her prudence whispered eternally." Indirect. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat.. Direct." etc. "I cannot oblige you . His exact words were. Summary of the expressions. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. Oh. Sebastian's. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. etc. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Direct. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. or regular interrogatives. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. She thought to herself. not attempting to follow the entire quotation.. have.. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. This includes the auxiliaries be. 2. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. interrogative adverbs. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. 449. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. introductory verb is in the past tense. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. will. under interrogative pronouns." etc. The substance of his lamentation was. and the indirect question by whether or if.

being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise.²ID. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. if this were expanded into a verb.²ADDISON. PARTICIPLES.Exercise. handed down from his ancestor the historian. 450. and that he himself had heard. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.²GOLDSMITH. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. one summer afternoon. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. The trouble is.²B. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. VERBALS. the first discoverer of the river and country. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. Notice this. FRANKLIN." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. the sound of their balls. my first observation will be found nearly true. Careless use of the participial phrase. like distant peals of thunder. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. with his crew of the Half-moon. he assured me that nothing was more easy. in the sentences first quoted. .

or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business.. if a strike is to succeed.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. and often." Exercise. Adverb between to and the infinitive.² HERBERT SPENCER. avoid it. 3.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. leaving the principal statement as it is.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. It is a solemn.. In the following citations. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.²RUSKIN. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . universal assertion. 2. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. .²ID. There are. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. . or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. This is the more common arrangement. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. while defended or excused by others. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. purposely or not. the first sentence would be. then.²SCOTT. 451.²LAUGHLIN.Correction. Exercise. For example. either "As I was pleased.. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. Standard writers often use it.." etc. many things to be carefully considered. my first collection was. INFINITIVES..

452. are used. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. 7. from Irving. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.²GOLDSMITH. 12. Now. No.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. A little sketch of his. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. etc. this kind of grandeur. china. I wish the reader to clearly understand.²The Nation.² MACAULAY. 1533. which consists in multitude. 13. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. 11.² ADDISON. is to be very cautiously admitted. but they are often removed from the exact position. 5. if they modify single words. Position of only. when such adverbs as only. ADVERBS. In works of art. 9. even.²DR..²RUSKIN.²BURKE. etc.²ID. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. 6. even. BLAIR. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . 10. but it is placed before the infinitive. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. therefore. The spirits. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up.²TROLLOPE. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. The rigid rule in such a case would be." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.4.. 8. etc. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another.²SCOTT. but cannot misunderstand the thought. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. and earthenware. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. Exercise.

17.²COOPER.²ID. 14. 453. His last journey to Cannes. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. No sonne.²MACAULAY.²THACKERAY. ²ASCHAM. 16.²PALGRAVE.²RUSKIN. P. My master. Irving could only live very modestly. GROTE.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²SYDNEY SMITH.1. The old usage.²SWIFT. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. 7.²N. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. 11. might not marry. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 3. 8. .² THACKERAY. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once.²MRS. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.²HIGGINSON.²CHAUCER. 15. He could only afford to keep one old horse.²ID. were he never so old of yeares. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.²MOTLEY.²EMERSON. He shouted in those clear. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. In relating these and the following laws. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 2. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. During the whole course of his administration. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. In Old and Middle English. 4. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²ID.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 9. WILLIS. to avoid a crowd. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. for example. 13. 5. whence he was never destined to return. 6. 12. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 10.

but ought not to labor after it. as. nor the grandeur of no king. I never did see him again. Not only could man not acquire such information. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. I did not act so hastily.²HOLMES. as infrequent. The prosperity of no empire. and is still kept in vulgar English. under the influence of Latin syntax. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. uncommon. and why:² 1. 2. 5.²LOWELL. . In the latter case. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. in Ole Virginia.²GROTE. STOWE. etc. In the execution of this task.²BURKE. one of the negatives is often a prefix. can so agreeably affect. But. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. This.²HAWTHORNE. the usual way of regarding the question now is. Regular law of negative in modern English. if two negatives are found together. however.²DE QUINCEY. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. Therefore.²DEFOE.²BAYNE.²MRS. Exercise. denying each other. 7.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man."²MRS.² HAMILTON. is not common. ²PAGE. STOWE. nor never shall. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. However. when one of the negatives is a connective. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. 4. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. neither. There weren't no pies to equal hers. 6. Exceptional use. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative."²four negatives. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. who hadn't been to school for nothing. 3.

nor is often changed to not²either ." .. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. CONJUNCTIONS.²LOWELL. "well worthy to confer honor. or to reply to it. and which. either . the first should also..... These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. or.... but to their own safety." said the King. The sentence. "A weapon. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. there we were. In the sentence. Choice and proper position of correlatives. but (also).. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. nor. 455. if the second precedes a phrase. but. Things to be watched. not only ... the first ought to be placed before a verb.. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. or. especially both .. or to reply to it. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. Correction. and. should be scrutinized. or with advantage.. as the use of the conjunction."²SCOTT.²PRESCOTT." may be changed to "This loose .. And who. either. not merely .. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. neither . A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. even neither . if the last precedes a verb. not or is the proper correlative of neither." Besides neither . 454.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . The sentences given in Secs. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. as well as of the pronoun. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. not only to the success of their common cause..8. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here...²SCOTT. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.." both of the above requirements are violated.

²THACKERAY.Exercise. 6.²FRANKLIN. Correct the following sentences:² 1. .²BAIN. 7. JEWETT. but. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. Try and for try to. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. 4.²RUSKIN.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether.²GIBBON. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. 5. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. Try and avoid the pronoun. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. murder.²MACAULAY. 457.²S. as. In the following sentences." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.²THACKERAY.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. 8. Some exceptions. not merely interest children. but grown-up persons. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. O. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. 2. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. too. But what. Exercise. substitute that. or but that for the words but what:² 1.²GOLDSMITH. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. as. They will. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.² ADDISON. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. etc. Now. but they will outrage. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. and chop up their own kin. or but that. and I don't know but what he was right. nor the disgrace of assailing him. but. or the negative relative but.²ID. 3. 456.

²ADDISON. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. 305. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked.²ADDISON. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. 6.²SCOTT. Between and among. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.²EMERSON. no separation or division by twos being implied. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. . Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. 5.² BULWER.²TROLLOPE.²BURKE. see Sec. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.² SWIFT. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. 313. 459. PREPOSITIONS. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. as already seen in Sec. 4. 3. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.2. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). 458. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. Between is used most often with two things only. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.²EMERSON.

Bestow on (upon). Conform to. . Kant. a soldier of the Cross. and another to convey a different meaning. or one object and a group. Acquit of. correspond. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. 461. averse. as. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning.²between philosophers like Spinoza. Some of them have. Dissent from. different.²KINGSLEY. ²EMERSON. Such are derogatory. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. involve. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Averse to. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. etc. by custom. Dependent on (upon). Abhorrent to. as. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. LIST I. Mackintosh.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. 460. Paley. Accord with. Conversant with.: Words with particular prepositions. Comply with.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. List I. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Different from. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Such are absolve.²RUSKIN What have I. Two groups or one and a group. Affinity between. Derogatory to. and philosophers like Locke. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. and Stewart. and Coleridge. confer.

Change to (become). as meaning to be in keeping with. Involve in. as. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. 463. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). Differ from (note below). Agree to (a proposal). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. A taste for (art. Confide to (intrust to). Reconcile to (note below). LIST III.). as. A taste of (food). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). 462. Correspond to (a thing). as." also of persons. Reconcile with (note below).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Confer on (upon) (give to). . but it is not good usage. and sometimes creeps into standard books. etc. Correspond with (write to). List II." List III. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Change with (a person). "The exile became reconciled to his fate." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Confer with (talk with). Confide in (trust in). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. in the sense of making friends with. Independent of. Change for (a thing). Differ with (note below).y y y Deprive of.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. LIST II.

died for love of the fair Marcella.²BOSWELL. they shall die by this hand.²MACAULAY. One of them said he would die for her. If I meet with any of 'em." She would have been ready to die with shame. ELIOT. Expect of. instrument). I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. as Cervantes informs us.²ADDISON. Take thought and die for Cæsar. simply from old age." (material cause. privation. Who." etc. expect from. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. No one died from want at Longfeld.²FIELDING." (because of). People do not die of trifling little colds. She died of hard work. ELIOT. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. die from.²SCOTT." The author died of a fit of apoplexy." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger.²G." "die from. "Die by. It would take me long to die of hunger. "Die with. "Die for.²MACAULAY. It is a man of quality who dies for her. and ill treatment. "Die from.²GOLDSMITH. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. part with.²SHAKESPEARE.²MACAULAY. ²ATHENÆUM. "Die for.y y y Die by.²GOLDSMITH.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. die for. He died at last without disease. Part from.²POPE. die with." (in behalf of).²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²BULWER.:² "Die of. .²G. I am positively dying with hunger. die of. ²THACKERAY. Illustrations of "die of.²BURNETT.

²MACAULAY.²MARRYAT. 465.²G. Of Doctor P.²WALPOLE. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. Illustrations of "expect of. "Expect from.²BULWER. His precious bag." "part from:"² "Part with. "Part from. I part with all that grew so near my heart.²AUSTEN. either of or in is used indifferently." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. kind of you. It was a little bad of you. nothing better was to be expected. just parted from her. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man." She will expect more attention from you. as my friend. Cleveland was sorry to part with him." To part from you would be misery.²WALLER. which he would by no means part from. That is more than I expected of you. ELIOT. ELIOT.²G. I can part with my children for their good." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. and hated to part with them. I have just seen her.²MACAULAY. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²DICKENS. I have long expected something remarkable from you.²BULWER.²POE. 466.²G." "expect from:"² "Expect of. ELIOT. Burke parted from him with deep emotion.²SCOTT. Kind in you. . "Part with" is used with both persons and things. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. With words implying behavior or disposition. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²TROLLOPE. 464. Illustrations of "part with.²SHAW.

To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. 5. tedious perhaps. it is commonly said that his profits are high. nor of a pale red. 1. is not always the thing that most needs to be done.²CARLYLE. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. In. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 8. and ran up the alley. 11. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. 15.²BULWER. Very natural in Mr. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. with seraphims. 9. Hampden. or artillery. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak.²BEACONSFIELD. but which the story renders necessary. . The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. nor blue.²BULWER. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. It will be anything but shrewd in you. nor green. or that they are any way dependent on each other. thrown it over Amyas's head. raging storms. 10. the vast abyss. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. 6. nor yellow. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. The noise of vast cataracts. This narrative. 7.²TENNYSON. thunder. Thou tread'st. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. 3. 13. 4.He did not think it handsome of you. But this is idle of you. 14. In the friction between an employer and workman.²DICKENS. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. or which we are most imperatively required to do.

Friday. 28. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. You have seen Cassio and she together. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 33. 37. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 26.) 34. and most of us do know. That night every man of the boat's crew. 35. what is a just and unjust act. the acquiescence of the understanding. save Amyas. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. and almost as good as a pony. were down with raging fever. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 29. 27. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. triangles. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 17. 20. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 31. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. When the glass or liquor are transparent. 22. 38. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 25.I would wish me only he. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough.And were I anything but what I am. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. . These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 18. Squares. you or me. The effect of proportion and fitness. 24. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 19. or how beautiful it is. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. But every man may know. and other angular figures. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. Every one of these letters are in my name. but in the price paid to them. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 21. (Sec. 411. 32. 30. 36. 23. 16. produce approbation.

INDEX. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. nominative. He had four children. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. syntax uses Absolute. 40. Adjectives. from about 1500 to the present time. from nominative clauses. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 116. of. 25. 91. adverbs used complements. 133. of. 90. A. of. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. (3) Modern English. 310. 47. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 20. as. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 92.39. 89. 107. Abstract with Active Address. article. 239. of. of. origin of. demonstrative. 98. 260. (2) Middle English. voice.000 between them. adjectives. . THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. pronouns. nouns. 124. 102. as comparison definition demonstrative. 124. numeral. 119. 47.

Against. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 99. 27. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. infinitive. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 101.from function how in not of of ordinal. 287. 194. 325. 190. 109. with with with subject. of. nouns. 42. Agreement. 239. 183. 115. between of. 325. Alms. of. of. 104. as nouns. modify. nouns. conjunctions. 48. and 185. form as as they to in as uses uses of. objective. of. 291. quantity. 275. quality. 328. 106. of. of. antecedent. adjectives. 27. 195. 148. from to of. 242. 194. conjunction. of. adjectives. 316. predicate. 190. 187. 97. 191. . to used of. 303. antecedent. clauses. adjectives. sentence. 103. 302. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. plural pronominal. compared. parse. 114. 303. 207. 116. 207. 116. 323. 262. 184. parse.

148. 309. of and pronoun of. 275. after of. 240. 120. 127. 208. 124. uses As At. definition of of of Any. and. 120. 331. words between. . syntax As. possessive. 287. pronouns. 74. as uses verbs. of. of. Auxiliary if. 300. same. 231. parse. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. of. 47. of of of And Antecedent. 198. sentences. adjective. Anacoluthon Analysis. which. which. 67. 101. Arrangement Articles. in in. 225. Agreement. Are. 295. syntax. 84. of. 90. See with definition complex compound simple who. 271. it. to of. 252. 49. derivation in definite. 294. 51. 150. of. 67. sentences. 207. definition how indefinite. sentences. A. agreement personal as pronoun. An. 296. See 74. though. 264. which.Among. 79.

Bad. of. 262. 279. Case. 111. 283. Among. 330. 63. Can. objective. Children. 149. nominative. 48. 47. Bridegroom. forms. uses Better. 39. conjunctions Cherub. 46. syntax of. pronoun. 45. adjective. uses of. definition could. 39. 64. in Old and Modern English. of nouns. 46. best. possessive. 210. See of. 150. 194. of nouns. of nouns. 224. of pronouns. number of. comparison conjugation of. 62. But. 260. of nouns. 278. 110. of pronouns. uses nominative of. double possessive. of. Cause. Between. 279. of what. 262. plurals of. 66. of pronouns. 278. Be. with But By. 161. 49. 54. Clause. 84. Brethren. of pronouns. . 37. Case. clauses of. 110. adverb. 195. of.

nouns. in analysis. adjectives. 258. predicate. definition degrees irregular. double. plural of. clothes. of. 53. 271. Cleave. of. analysis of. adverbs. material. proper. nouns. verb. 189. 110. 263. 43. 248. of. sentence. 43. 18. 108. and forms of. defective. 108. of. Cloths. 158. 264. 111. 107. 157. 307. . of. 244. infinitive. 305. of. 18. of. 268.definition kinds noun. and sentence. of. Clomb. nouns. English. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 307. 257. of. 257. 24. subject. 312. 23. predicate of and from from of. 113. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 257. 315. 239. superlative. 12.

Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 269. interrogative pronouns. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. sentence. verbs. definition be. 199. 139. See English. 149. subjunctive. Dative Declarative Declension of case. of of Conjunctions. 149. of.with Concord. other other parts of speech. to of. . correlative. 231. same words. 194. 194. pronoun. definition how subordinate. 196. 289. 188. sentences. See in subjunctive. 73. 151. See analysis clauses. sentences. 195. Agreement. analysis. 138. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. conjunctions. coördinate. Can. parse. 263. 193. 255. conjunctions. 143. conjunction. 328. of. in Old vs. adverbs. 195. Conjunctions. 207. pronoun. replaced by objective. and clause. 194. pronouns. 66.

320. . 102. of. passive adjectives. from. pronouns. 91. Degrees. of personal relative verbs. pronouns. 333. with. 300. 287. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. pronouns. of. discourse. 185. 26.Declension. 43. 160. verb. Case. with of. Articles. Subordinate clause. by. nouns. 90. See See 48. Comparison. See adjectives. possessive. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. tenses. 60. of. article. 51. for. comparative. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. of. duck. 288. 80. 102. 152. 303. pronouns. indirect. 35. adverbs See adjectives. 242. use of dies. 99. Comparative. vs. See 148. nouns. clause. 315. object. 242.

literary. 92. predicate. syntax Each Eat Eaves. Either. of. pronoun. -En. of. 90. 39. 255. Each. added suffix. Elements Ellipsis. 158. 40. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. of. adjective. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. vulgar. . 280. 287. 92. 92. 299. 90. older. 42. plural. other. complement. of. object. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. pronouns. 240. possessive suffix. 62. 241. 34. 300. Empress. 287. of. another. ending. 257. 234. 158. conjunction. 51. 38. 32. suffix. spoken. to suffix. 194. drunk. original. error in sentence. feminine plural English. 33. of. 328. 12. 110. one ( t). pronoun. 102. the of sentence.Drank. 33. 112. adjective. in 'Em. of subject.

Future Future tense. from. Gender. 126. definition distinguished in English. 212. For. as a noun. to of. expect gone. 112. Further. as of from compared marking. From. 32. Feminine.. fishes. other languages. few. 45. 102. 103. first. 189.. 110. 43. of. 235. etc. plurals. two. pronoun. 48. of. 36. First Fish. two a further. adjective. 147. uses Foreign Former. of. gender. 30. Farther. 148. 29. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. with infinitive. Few. 334." 31. the. 112. etc. object. used of. 152. 30. 287. modes "common goose. . 308. perfect. 91. 212. 30. See Gander. have adjective. 211. with in sex. First. nouns. uses redundant. 102.Every. 319. 152. 238.

176. Had Hanged. distinguished syntax. rather. definition basis of. Government. person. had hung. 9. of. an better. for before. on. and case verbal with. 60. pronouns. from participle of. of. 159. Gerund. personal relative geniuses. 12. 35. 275. pronoun. possessive pronouns. He. . 60. of. 10. 101. noun. 80. 120. participle. 13. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. Got. I. 173. first sentence. 145. 175. 12. of. 159. it. its. forms in Girl. 61. she. adjective.of of Genii. 285. 36. 177. 43. 231. kinds of. 61. His Husband. 144. definition divisions opinions province H. Grammar.

320. Questions. 43. in compared syntax. indices. 153. pronoun. See you. 227. of. 233. adverbs. . 276.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 136. pronouns. use article. with of. 72. words. of. 93. sentence. 283. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. of. See Articles. elements. Direct object. 85. 188. 319. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. questions. a object. verbs. 131. 110. questions. of. adjectives. 73. 257. 131. 248. uses discourse. summary See passive mood. mood. 67. meaning. 231. 176. 245. transitive. your. indirect of. 323. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 178. adjectives. 105. of clause.

English. Lie. 67. 36. Lady. 276. Less. predicate. 63.. syntax. subject form.. King. "It Its. 189. 245. 39. of. 190. queen. these double kind. uses Literary Little. Lay. lesser. of. 110. Kine. Lay. 36. lord. . 91. 303. Last. etc. 126. 170. 226. Lady. latest. pronoun. of. 61. lie. Like. 113. Logic Logical Lord. 12. plural. in little. a vs. Kind." history etc. syntax the. Latter.adverbs. 36. -Ly. and See words in. 110. 102. adjective. 227. 113. See Madam. 281. of. It. was uses me.

might. Negative. 326. 110. 265. adjective. 112. of. Much. mistress. syntax nearer. 110. of. Enlargement. 144. superlatives. etc. 161. double. 110. out of. of. 188. 113. 137. of. -Most. 41. conjunctions Many. 287. 102. 194. of.. Neither. comparison Near. Means. . sentences. Many Mapping Mare. syntax conjunction. 189. 112. of. See definition 136. indicative. mine. 189. of. 185. position adverb. subjunctive. Mood. Mighty Mine. May. in adverbs comparison a. 195. 114. 137-144. nigh.Manner. Must. 34. imperative. of. 36. construction as of adverb. 160. 187. 126. 64. 135. 256. Modifier. 328. Modifiers. 112. Master. 325.

38. formed. to use. 41 43. etc. 25. Not Noun Nouns. kinds 90. 20. 17 19. abstract. syntax Neuter or two News. of. definition descriptive. syntax in gender nouns. 30. proper. 41. 38-41. 42. 328. nouns. clause. 29. etc. words how compound. definition according of. 32. 301. Nor. of. nouns. 246. 124. 18. 56. class used singular. become become formation case collective. abstract. 19. 17. of. 45. See 194. of of of of of a. and figures. become neuter. 27. of. analysis. used as. Case. letters as 24. number once other plural. 30. 46. foreign. 126. half abstract. No Nominative. of. in. 258. 46. gender nouns. of. 30. None. 300. parse. material. 26. 25. gender how kinds material. 21.pronoun. 125. 41. common. to of. now plural. 17. of. 92. .

285. of. 18. meaning. . Preposition. singular. 48. conjunction. 124. See verb. adjectives. and analysis. 43. in nouns. 101. passive adverbial. 282. of different possessive definite of. etc. 92. English. with with with Now Number. dative. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 278. 66. Numeral Object. 48. pronouns. common. 48. 242. as forms titles. in article. 23. become syntax use with with with Nouns. Nouns. 148. personal. definite. singular. 281. 235. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. plural. 42. or plural. form. nominative. 60. 41. 48. of. meanings. 42. 121. 42 44. 240. 196. 106. indefinite. article. adverbial. 41. of. plural form. See in in in Numeral distributive. adjectives. pronouns. 102. with case. 39. 48.of same two with proper. 278. 279. 41. 242.. of. verbs. spoken of instead nouns. 195. preposition. of. 101. plural no two singular construction. of. indirect.

conjunction. See the as of. inverted. One. 233. 325 275. 161. 191. as of. of. 69. of. adverb. of of of of of models adjectives. nouns. 93 other. part analysis. 279. 94. with (the). 194. treatment comparatives. 216. of upon. 306. adverbs. 91. ours. articles. Parsing. 117. uses numeral pronoun. 87. a in adjectives. 293. Elder. another. 127. pronoun. Omission On. definite relative uses of. adjective. 56. 101. . Each adjective. See pronoun. of syntax. of. Ourself.syntax Of. indefinite possessive One One as Only. conjunctions. Older. 38. Our. Pains. 199. 41. 56. 116. for. Ordinal Other Ought. 103. 213. as other. 237. position Order. Oxen. 115. 64. 103.

parsed. speech. 95. reflexive. -ing words. 59. 317. 281. pennies. 28. or of. from definition other of. of. pronouns. 27. of. nominative. 62. 177. of. pronoun. in. predicate use of. 100. 43. 134. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 59. with. article 150. verbals. pronouns. Pence. not is. 335. 180. used as voice. included various. 119. 69. 63. relatives. and subject in. absolute with of. of. 247. Person. 64. 80. 56. 181. 287. verbs.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 172. pease. 70. them. verbs. 172. 179. 43. 174. phrases. phrase. of. verb idioms it from. . of of of Personal agreement as case compound. of. 148. 173. antecedent. possessive and of. 59. 219. 56. part adjective. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. of. 322. agreement of verb nouns. 61. 62.

53. or See of of See 185. in of. adverbs of. 248. Place. 54. singular degree. of Phrase. complete. relative. of. 188. 60. double. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 236. of nouns. noun nouns. 25. 64. antecedent of of pronouns. 63. 53. vs. as double. omitted. 247. . 67. 195. kinds infinitive. of. of. of. 285. 52. 50. simple. 37. of. Personal subjective. 245. Comparison. 281. participial. Positive Possessive. 278. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. nouns. spoken of. syntax of of Politics. 235. of. 106. 41. it. 232. 206. prepositional. 241. Nouns. objects. 61. 51. nouns. of. pronouns. 303. appositional. 278. adjectives. 247. singular. conjunctions prepositions Plural. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of.objective syntax table triple uses of. of. 236. 281. 245. pronoun. See 60. English. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. pronoun. nouns. Personification. 49. 's. plural. 303.

of. speech. who personal. 332. 300. 281. objective. 285. Prepositions. Pronouns. for predicate nominative. none. adverb. 105. of. 283. 284. 205. 186. 333. . parse. 72. 104. and form form form form of. 59. of. 203. 105. 303. meaning. words. with tense certain. of. case. singular usually other. usually to as than. 32. objective. as 54. future. 195. 58. of. 279. plural. 187. 301. 89. 219. what. of. each either. same used as adjectives. any. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 93. 147. 206. forms of. 203. expressed as other of. adjective. possessive nominative to of. all. 283. as antecedent of relative. 64. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. of. parse. interrogative. in exclamations. 58. 331. 202. case. 132. by parts of of. by with shown certain of. another. 129. 208. plural. 299. exclamatory. and one with else's. plural. 287. by. 302. 280. as. somebody definition how indefinite. after but. verbs. interrogative. 282. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 300. 95. neither. 207.Prefixes.

use of history formed. 289. 87. 263. with with gerund. Rank. to of. 87. 189. of. Quantity. 74. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. discourse. indirect. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. . from and interrogative. 289. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. that. of. 105. of. of. Questions. 188. which. agreement anacoluthon and as. 69. Nouns. 74. use in as. and relatives. and which. unrestrictive. 83. 295. See of. Direct same and different. adverbs in.possessive relative. in. pronoun. conjunctions Quality. 297. 142. 85. pronouns. of. 101. of. of. 296. 293. with who. or of. 80. of. in. 279. questions. in. parse. 286. 291. Quotations. indirect compound. same antecedent. who. and antecedent. 69. 68. 295. personal pronoun. nouns. 293. 58. 99. 195. pronominal pronouns indirect. 85. which after same. 84. 74. Rather. of.

in form. of sit. of of of complex Sentences. 69. 162. clauses of. 43. 159. Shot. 74. 196. reflexive analysis of compound. 263. suffix. simple. 319. kinds Sequence Set. who. Simple in sate. and should. 26 271. of. Same Sat. 42. 29. of.syntax use Result. pronoun. forms shots. tenses. which. will. in of. effect. 259. Shear. object. 170. Self Sentences. definition . ending. Seeing. plural possessive as. 255. gender. See Sentences. 51. 195. 231. complex. S. 196. of. 252. simple of. conjunction. sentence. 294. that. conjunctions Retained Riches. 231. 40. Sex Shall. would. of. 'S. elliptical. 289. 242. 159.

257. 33. 323. Spelling Spinster. 237. 169. English. See -En. of. of. 240. 144. adverb. names as a. sort. etc. distinguish. logical. in Middle English. 262. other Such Such Suffix -s. of. 138. definition how kinds noun. 258. Somebody Sort. 36. 303. disuse in spoken complete. 258. 257. definition 67. 233.Singular Sir. in feminine suffix. Modern use becoming else's. -es. 126. verbs. for. 144. vs. these number. English. English. of. adverb. 245. Subject. 258. phonetic in infinitive. Split Spoken -Ster. to of. 12. 38. as. used mood. 32. literary clause. of.. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 260. 137. 186. 303. 38. of. 270. English. -en. of. 245. 257. . 257. 33.

106. adjectives. of . in comparison. when as of. 61. 309. . of. There These kind. Tenses.. 107." introductory. degree. 277. 147. 88. 290. adverbs. 116. auxiliaries. 87. 289. definition in English Tense. 275. 280. meaning. 148. 191. of. objects. 275. syntax of. 222. restrictive.Suffixes. 152. two basis not same definition definite. of. plural as adverb. as history The. 147. English. in double. 297. English. that uses That. See etc. coördinating. 123. which. and and of. they.. of. 189. 306. 186. king. of. Kind. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 306. not suggesting adjectives. form. omission whom. 108. Then. "the then foreign. 33. of languages. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. this. meaning made up in Old of. than of. 120. 307. 186. 147. 319. of. classical of. as history syntax Their. 119. article. of. subject. me. 109. 106. object. as adverbs. of. when relative..

-ing 111. Upper. carelessly uses syntax this. etc. feminine and. other noun. 128. uttermost. parse. tother. words. in omitted uses T'other.. 180. from cleft to 174.These. used. exclamations. 114. Try Two Under. of. See On. try two. 175. how infinitive. kinds participle. infinitive. 33. 172. 175. adverbs those. 175. 185. of. 119. thy. See That. 173. of. first. 188. of. Thou. conjunctions prepositions To. gerund. infinitive. 322. uses history of. of. 247. 195. Upon. 172. in of. 176. first adjective. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. 207. 322. 248. of. preposition. verbs. Utter. Time. 20. 217. suffix. phrases. 323. 181. of. 330. -Trix. analysis. 114. 61. 21. . certain as the before with of. thee. 308. to. uses of. 114.

with subject in number. 236. active. 129. 155. 33. 169. 147. regular. definition of. passive form. auxiliary. agreement of. how to parse. strong. 169. 167. 317. 242. passive. 135. 154. 157. 154. 149. becoming irregular. table of. change. 179.Verbs. of. conjugation of. 154. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. weak. 148. formed by. intransitive. 150. mood of. 151. 134. voice of. 47. spelling of. verbs by. syntax of. 160. active meaning. . past tense formed nominative. 223. 312-316. 148. verbs. Vocative in Voice. transitive and intransitive. 12. of. retained object with passive. 131. defective. phonetic. tense of. 330. What. 245. 133. sequence of. 312. of English. in indirect discourse. but uses what. remarks on certain. Vixen. of incomplete predication. definition of. person and number of. in person. 159. 167. analysis. table of irregular. 130. 320. made transitive. 133. 319. 39. definition of.

in -ly. 83. Wife. relative. in in indefinite objective. 194. 37. of. in. Words in Worse. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. conjunction. 218. relative. etc. 40. of. 178. 105. Will. 105. 296. 299. worser. 77. 32. 75. pronoun. Whether. would. Woman. 295-299. Yes ending analysis. With. 72. spoken in of. 36. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 85. pronoun. 85. 72. 73. questions. questions. 85.what Whereby. English. whereto. direct of. 83. interrogative Which. 246. . Witch. 104. 78. 190. animals. questions. 75. antecedent adjective. 72. 111. plural of in nouns -ing. Who. uses See Shall. referring syntax Widower. questions. relative indirect relative. 36. Y. a. 126. 79. wizard..

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