roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. then.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. Authority as a basis. Surely our noble language. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar")." What grammar is.The province of English grammar is. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. A broader view. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. This will take in the usual divisions. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. If. Few inflections. there is still much for the grammarian to do. and thus incite his observation. and their uses and relations in the sentence. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. An æsthetic benefit. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. It is also evident. however. their forms. if rightly presented. to those who have studied the language historically. its peculiar and abundant idioms. is worthy of serious study." and "Syntax. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. as. . Making rules is risky. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Literary English. assist the classification of kindred expressions. but this is bad English now. from the question. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. as compared with Latin or Greek. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. Coming back. it will at the same time. rightly considered. Mental training. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. The work it will cover. with its enormous vocabulary. "Analysis. so that a small grammar will hold them all.

and will are evidently names of a different kind. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. NOUNS. or Syntax. that is. Part III. Spoken English. and may belong to any of those objects. besides this one. Vulgar English. by which is meant the free.²GIBBON. as they stand for ideas. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. 1. PART I. which belongs to a people. The Parts of Speech. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. from the eighteenth century on. Such words are called nouns. not objects. the nation is free. three divisions:² Part I. submission. In the more simple state of the Arabs. . When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. the words sons and master name objects.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. reference will be made to vulgar English. and the word nation stands for a whole group. The words state. then.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. too. The Uses of Words. The plainest name is Arabs. or standard.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. Part II. and Inflections. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. Analysis of Sentences. but. The following pages will cover. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. Occasionally.

These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. and things separately. Common. a committee. reducing it to a narrow application. Collective. (b) Common. 2. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. substance. Thus. but Chicago names one city. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. however. Thus. whether person. etc. because each group is considered as a unit. (a) 4. the man here. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. or thing. Name for any individual of a class. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. 3. Individual. representing directly to the mind an object. A noun is a name word. or a council. For instance. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. possessed by all. animals. is from a Latin word which means general. They properly belong under common nouns. ATTRIBUTE. or idea. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. or a mob. Besides considering persons. Name for a group or collection of objects. animals. Abstract. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. or a congress. the name of each is an individual or proper name.Definition. belonging to one. place. men in groups may be called a crowd. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. or the man in front of you. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. and appropriate names to the groups. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. 5. or things. This does not imply. as here used. Classes of nouns. We may say. we may think of them in groups. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Proper. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. MATERIAL. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. .

not things. mist.²There are some nouns. sugar. etc. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. etc. gold." 9. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. wheat. Such are glass. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. Again. instead of to each individual or separate object. rice. considered abstractly. earth. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. Names of ideas. earth. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. Words naturally of limited application not proper. or action. . for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance.Names for things thought of in mass. moon." "Learning is hard to acquire. etc. rain. expressing state. When we speak of a wise man. we may say. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. stone. paint. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). etc. NOTE. . The quality is still there as much as before. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. conditions. but in the words sun. sugar. we speak of the wisdom of the man. or apart from their natural connection. (3) Geological bodies: mud. wine. rubber. but it is taken merely as a name. They remain common class names. etc. condition. platinum. frost. celluloid. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. granite. clay. potash. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. as in calling a city Cincinnati.. and so on. sand. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. frost. The reason is. and fasten a special name to the object considered. wheat. world. dew. tea. rock. iron. but which are not called proper names. however. there is no such intention. proof means the act of proving. soap." "a man of understanding. expressing attributes or qualities. or that which shows a thing has been proved. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. etc. or actions. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. snow. 7. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. etc. "Painting is a fine art. such as sun. 6. It may. cloud. etc. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person.

speech from speak. joy. lightning. five abstract. II. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. NOTE. (1) prudence from prudent.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. he spread his blessings over the land. the rude drawings of the book.Attribute abstract nouns. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. Caution. kingship from king. . service from serve. theft from thieve. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. Verbal abstract nouns. night. Underived abstract nouns. etc. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. They cannot govern a word. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. by altering its function. there is time for such reasonings. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. redness from red. the teachings of the High Spirit. shadow. is used as a noun. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. the well-being of her subjects. stupidity from stupid. action from act. etc. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. 272. 273). etc. hopeful²hope. etc. in the beginning of his life. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. thunder. as glad²joy. height from high. the moon caused fearful forebodings. Thus. a wedding or a festival. as their name implies. The verb. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. five proper. Exercises. 12. 1. Such are beauty." "a brisk walk. "a long run" "a bold move." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. childhood from child. her longing for their favor. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. as in the expressions. (2) peerage from peer. summer. energy. winter. and they cannot express action. ease. the great Puritan awakening. mastery from master. those opinions and feelings. hope. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. 10. the main bearings of this matter. To avoid difficulty. day. They are only the husks of verbs.. but are merely names of actions.

2. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . Using a dictionary. pleurisy. (b) branches of knowledge. mathematics? 3. as physics. geology. algebra. typhus. diphtheria. as pneumonia. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. catarrh.

thus. from Calicut.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. a Locke. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. who was its inventor. from Oporto. the guillotine. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. port (wine). Proper names transferred to common use. a Hutton. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. "The cook made the irons hot. a Fourier. damask. from a town in France. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. We know a number of objects made of iron. or to go over to it entirely. the word port. from the name of Dr. from China. Others of similar character are calico. from Damascus. levant and morocco (leather). arras. above. but most of them are in the following groups. Guillotin. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. Material nouns may be used as class names. for example.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. and lo! a new system. 15. a Bentham. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. but we may say. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. etc. a Lavoisier. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. 13. Sodom was famous for wickedness. currants. 14. Nouns change by use. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. as a davy. from Corinth. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance.²EMERSON. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class." referring to flat- . The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. in Portugal. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. it imposes its classification on other men. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. 119).

examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. mists. and only Vice and Misery. nor are they common class nouns.²BYRON. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. From all around²Earth and her waters. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. or.irons. or made plural. Traffic has lain down to rest. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. tobaccos. Test this in the following sentences:² . paints. abstract in meaning. clouds. clays. etc. (3) By poetical use. purity. that is. coals. which are made plural. When it is said that art differs from science. oils. that the power of art is founded on fact. slates.²RUSKIN. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. a rubber for erasing marks. as stones. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. are abroad. to prowl or to moan like night birds. The words preceded by the article a.²COLLINS. A halfway class of words.In lightnings owned his secret stings. This is a poetic usage.²PERCIVAL. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. candies. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. but in case an art or a science. Personification of abstract ideas. not material things. etc. Death. but differ in strength. or the arts and sciences. are still names of abstract ideas. 17. though not confined to verse. papers. Next Anger rushed. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. and so on. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. be spoken of. on fire. or used as class nouns. 16. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. but on dispositions which require to be created. that disposition is the thing to be created. For example. smiled. his eyes.²CARLYLE. These are the same in material. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. a steel to whet a knife on. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. the abstract idea is partly lost. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. and say teas. They are not then pure abstract nouns.²HAYNE. Class nouns in use.²BRYANT. tins.

meaning a walk in the morning." "a morning walk. nouns used to modify. loves." "a New York bank. however. But ah! those pleasures. they do not express quality. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms.²BURNS. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. they cannot be compared. etc. or describe it.²SHAKESPEARE. make our own so. When I was young? Ah. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns.Let us. Nouns used as descriptive terms.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. were mere terrors of the night. NOTE. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. But it is better to consider them as nouns. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. Conjunctions. and joysWhich I too keenly taste.²IRVING.²EMERSON. or from any expression. a bill as to tax on the banks. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. Every why hath a wherefore. sir!" and the "What then. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. They are more like the possessive noun. Adverbs. All these. fear thy blow.² GOLDSMITH. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. Then comes the "Why.² BURNS. as descriptive adjectives are. as each repeated pleasure tired. 19." which contains a pure adjective. for example. By ellipses. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. but is still a noun. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. which belongs to another word. a bank in New York. 18." "the State Bank Tax bill. "a family quarrel. And still." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives.The Solitary can despise. Adjectives. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question.²SHAKESPEARE. sir!"²MACAULAY . sir?" and the "No. the wealthy. if we must have great actions.

or a faithful domestic. or a criminal. and Then. however. without reference to its function in the sentence. in speaking of the principal of a school."²B. are used. is the word "just. Hope springs eternal in the human breast.. 5. 20. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. Power laid his rod aside. but have an adjectival meaning. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns.²These remarks do not apply.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. 3." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. FRANKLIN. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. 8. Caution." or "legal. 1. Stone walls do not a prison make." and another of Dr. In the other sentences. or a state secret. Learning. The it. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. Now. why and wherefore. are spoken of as if pure nouns. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. . 7. to such words as become pure nouns by use. so. Exercise. is ambiguous. in a sentence above. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. of words rather than of their meaning. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. the terms the great. of course. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. When. 2. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. but as a figure of speech. whether it mean the sun or the cold. It is to be remembered. There are many of these.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage.Nor iron bars a cage. too. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. at the beginning. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. that cobweb of the brain. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. NOTE. etc. 6. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. and tell to which class each belongs. the wealthy. When. 4.²Dr BLAIR In this definition.

GENDER. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. The fleet. German. A fool speaks all his mind. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. A little weeping would ease my heart. But pleasures are like poppies spread. the welcome.Fair guests. for every dropHinders needle and thread. and names of females are usually feminine.9. Greek. 22. The hours glide by. And see. 11. What gender means in English. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 18. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. Male beings are.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. always feminine. but not so in English.You seize the flower. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. in English grammar. always masculine. 14. 23. 10. 19. 17. 20. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. . 15. that waits you here. 24. returned to Spain. 13. It is founded on sex. its bloom is shed. 21. 12. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. and many other languages. 21. There are exceptions even to this general statement. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. In Latin. female. he cried.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. the silver moon is gone. shattered and disabled. 16. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea.

and consequently without sex. Neuter nouns. Of animals.. No "common gender.² IRVING. Gender nouns. . Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words.. in English.. however. or names of things without life. came to a stand just by the bridge. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. then. those which do not distinguish sex. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. 24. the word child is neuter in the sentence. Hence: Definition. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. 23. mensa (table) is feminine. those distinguishing the sex of the object. clapping his burnished wings. For instance: in Latin." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth..²masculine and feminine. according to their use. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. the sex being of no consequence. the name of it is masculine.. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. those with which man comes in contact often. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. that is. if there were any signs of life in it. Some words either gender or neuter nouns." . das Messer (knife) is neuter. in German. corpus (body) is neuter. der Tisch (table) is masculine. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. The great difference is. All nouns.When. with its gizzard under its wing. Gunpowder .. "A little child shall lead them. that pattern of a husband. inanimate things are spoken of. or which arouse his interest most.²IRVING. are named by gender nouns. in other languages gender follows the form. according to use. or additions to words. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. hortus (garden) is masculine.² I have seenA curious child . these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words.²LAMB. must be divided into two principal classes. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. the name of it is feminine. Thus. 22.²gender nouns. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. and neuter nouns. He next stooped down to feel the pig. if of the female sex. but are spoken of as neuter.

as in wine vat. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. cousin. Very few of class I. only to masculine and feminine nouns. Gender shown by Prefixes. Male nouns beings.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. 27. puts a prefix before the masculine man.25. he-bear²she-bear. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. is. etc. (2) By adding a suffix. domestic. Put in convenient form. woman. as he-goat²she-goat.. or the lack of it. The inflections for gender belong. though both words have lost their original meanings. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. Gender shown by Suffixes. I. the division of words according to sex. 29. . These remain in vixen and spinster. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. ruler. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. from the masculine fox. and for the older word fat they said vat. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. for from they said vram. (3) By using a different word for each gender. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. 26. relative. but spinster has now no connection with it. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Hence vixen is for fyxen. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. For fox they said vox. Native suffixes. generally to a masculine word. servant. of course. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. II. 28. teacher. According to the definition. they are neuter words. One feminine. If such words as parent.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings.

Unaltered and little used. punster. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. gamester. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). -ess (French esse.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. señorita. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. song-str-ess. executrix. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. but in most cases it has not. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. These are attached to foreign words. as czarina. donna.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. as. as seam-stress. trickster. Slightly changed and widely used. Low Latin issa). as. 30. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. it has none now in the words huckster. the one most used. Ending of masculine not changed. and are never used for words recognized as English. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress .

When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. or servauntesse. Instead of saying doctress. teacheresse. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. from the French -esse. frendesse. Some of them have an interesting history. as. teacher or lady teacher. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. fosteress. 31. Thus. we use the feminine. the ending -ess. 32. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. chairman. neighbor (masculine and feminine). and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . from Latin imperatricem. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). editor. etc. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely." III. to represent persons of either sex. NOTE. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. wagoness. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. we use the masculine termination. as in the fourteenth century. In some of these pairs. We frequently use such words as author. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. others have in their origin the same root. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. as. Gender shown by Different Words. neighboresse. as was said in the sixteenth century.

King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. It is not connected historically with our word duck. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. not immediately connected with witch. though both are ultimately from the same root. Madam is the French ma dame. written loverd. Witch is the Old English wicce. Besides gander and drake. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. as in many other words. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe).). widuwa²widuwe. Personification. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Icelandic gás. among others) to be from the same root word. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). from Latin mea domina.² . but this has long been obsolete. 16). from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. had the masculine mearh (horse). The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Widower. Two masculines from feminines. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. in Old English mere. 34. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). lhauerd. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. 33. the old sign of the masculine. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). or lauerd in Middle English. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. for example. became identical.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. The masculine was formed by adding -a. probably meaning house dweller). gand-ra. Three letters of ened have fallen away. etc. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. The older forms. leaving our word drake. Mare. finally gander. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. Danish gaas. This gansa was modified into gan-ra.

39. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. But other words were inflected afterwards. . Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. we make its plural by adding -s or -es."Now. 38.²KEATS. shoon (shoes). This is not exclusively a poetic use. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible.Her home is on the deep."²BYRON. Effect of personification. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. The -en inflection. The first two methods prevailed. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. together with the third.²singular and plural. 37.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. that is. in Old English.No towers along the steep. eyen (eyes). for instance. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. the plural. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. In nouns. and not by the form of the noun. NUMBER. Definition. 35.²CAMPBELL. (2) By changing the root vowel. Our language has two numbers. 36. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. the engineer speaks so of his engine. Britannia needs no bulwarks. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. (3) By adding -s (or -es). And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne.Clustered around by all her starry Fays.²COLERIDGE. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. whenever we adopt a new word. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. etc. I. treen (trees). more than one. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way.

swine. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. but they now add the ending -s. Instead of -s. as.²MACAULAY.Horse and foot. dozen. but has now no singular. wight. 41. cannon. when they mean soldiery. Akin to this class are some words. quartz. etc. 42. Brethren has passed through three stages. cross. pair. into Frederick town. head. such as deer. then brothre or brethre. borough²formerly had the same inflection. as. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. after numerals (if not after numerals. or if preceded by the prepositions in. heathen. Children has passed through the same history. originally neuter.The horse are thousands ten.²Over the mountains winding down. sheep. The words horse and foot.²THOREAU.² "God bless me! so then. etc. turf. sail. 40. brace.-En inflection imitated by other words."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. The old plural was brothru. glass. ditch. . retain the same form for plural meaning. they add -s): also trout. Lee marched over the mountain wall. salmon. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. people. II.² The foot are fourscore thousand. etc. and get settled. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. Kine is another double plural. Examples of this inflection are. and is still found in dialects. lens.²WHITTIER. Such are box. folk. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. by. after all. that have the singular and plural alike. III. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. Other words following the same usage are. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. finally brethren.

etc. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . allies. Special Lists. 45. physics. Formerly. When such words take a plural ending. e. the Washingtons.² Politics. etc. 15 and 17). daisies. the Americas. means: as. It served simply as a means of sight. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). also news.. is both the science and the art of government. The lilie on hir stalke grene. some adding -s. though they are plural in form. and some -es. pains (care).-Es added in certain cases. Words in -ies. prize²prizes. that when thy summons comes.. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. negro²negroes. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. Proper nouns are regularly singular.²BRYANT. and the real ending is therefore -s. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. economics. 43. Two words.g. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. niche²niches. and many branches of learning. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. chaise²chaises. 44. means and politics. these words ended in -ie. e. summons. quoth then that ladie milde. race²races. though this sound combines readily with -s. hero²heroes. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. a new syllable is made. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. So live. half²halves. fancies. volcano² volcanoes. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class.g. and go over to other classes (Secs. etc. DANA. they lose their identity. in its widest extent. politics. however. Some words are usually singular. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. Examples of these are. mathematics. fairies. etc. shelf²shelves. molasses.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. Means plural. as.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. house²houses. optics.²PROF. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. knife²knives.

²MOTLEY. Some words have no corresponding singular. 46. Sometimes. if I recollect right. by those means which we have already mentioned. W. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. Politics plural. A relic which.²GOLDSMITH. however.²BURKE. By these means.²GOLDSMITH. With great dexterity these means were now applied.² MACAULAY. by strongly conveying the passions. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²IRVING. it is furnished with a forceps. L. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. Besides this. CURTIS. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²GOLDSMITH. I say. LAUGHLIN.²J.²G. Now I read all the politics that come out. . riches will accumulate.Words.

Other words have one plural form with two meanings. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). shots (number of times fired). in mournful numbers. indices (signs in algebra). (2) care. 48. fish²fish (collectively). etc. trouble. two meanings. or work in a bellows?²PROF. number²numbers: (1) figures. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. of a periodical. genii (spirits). pease (collectively). ways. In Early Modern English thank is found. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. for the numbers came.. twopence. as in the lines. Numbers also means issues.²LONGFELLOW.²one corresponding to the singular. Three words were originally singular. 50. index²indexes (to books).²was it subdued when. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). 49. carry off chaff.²POPE. two plurals. genius²geniuses (men of genius). pea²peas (separately). Two classes of compound words.² I lisped in numbers. These make the last part plural. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. part²parts: (1) divisions. . eaves. (2) poetry. pence (collectively). the other unlike it.. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. brethren (of a society or church). riches. etc. as two sixpences. In speaking of coins. (2) literature.The air. making a double plural. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. sixpence. fishes (individuals or kinds). die²dies (stamps for coins. shot²shot (collective balls). or copies. penny²pennies (separately).). Tell me not. One plural. or epistles.. dice (for gaming). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. (2) revenue duties. faculties. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. may add -s.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. (2) abilities. clothes (garments). DANA.

such as talisman. firman. for example. as man singer. The title may be plural. and Mrs. Brahman. Norman.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. woman singer. The chief member adds -s in the plural. 52. as the Messrs. Allen.²DR. there is some disagreement among English writers. Ottoman. German. Brown.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. . y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. woman servant. HOLMES. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. the Drs.² Then came Mr. Briggs. manservant. 51. Mussulman. Two methods in use for names with titles. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. then Silas Peckham. As to plurals of names with titles. and then the three Miss Spinneys. though the latter is often found. or the name may be pluralized. but add -s. the Misses Rich. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group.

Others have been adopted. Exercise. or Anglicized. and retain their foreign plurals. The Messrs. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. FROM THE LATIN.²THE CRITIC. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. Du Maurier. These are said to be domesticated. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.²GIBBON.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh.²DICKENS. y y analysis antithesis . They are then said to be naturalized. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Domesticated words.²GOLDSMITH. FROM THE GREEK. 53. or Englished. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es.

Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. Letters. 55. In the sentence. they form their plurals in the regular way. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. 54. 56. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. figures.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. Definition. etc." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s)." CASE. etc. form their plurals by adding -s or 's." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). . Words quoted merely as words. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s).. as. without reference to their meaning. cell has another relation.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. In the general wearing-away of inflections. When the foreign words are fully naturalized." the word felon's modifies cell. and expresses a relation akin to possession. Only two case forms. figures. as. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. also add -s or 's.

²person. and merit. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. three things characterize man. whether inflected or not. the enemy of the living. Excuses are clothes which. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. 4. Nouns." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word.²nature. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. Three properties belong to wisdom. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. 3. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. 2. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. 1. Human experience is the great test of truth. . Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. learning. they returned to their homes. may be said to have three cases. fate. 5. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. completing a verb. excessive grief. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares.²one for the nominative and objective. then." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. Uses of the Nominative. and experience. when asked unawares. 57. the objective." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. must be understood for purposes of analysis." (2) As a predicate noun. and the possessive. 58.²the nominative. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. I.There are now only two case forms of English nouns.

Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. But the flood came howling one day. as will be seen in Sec. save. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. . the word toward which the preposition points. and landlord of the inn. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. (in the older stages of the language." (4) As the second object." "Thou makest the storm a calm. But of all plagues. sword in hand and visor down." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. 4. 2.Save. measure. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. wounded lies. (5) As the object of a preposition.6. a patriarch of the village. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb." Exercise. 8. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. taking the object enemies. They charged. 68. distance. Uses of the Objective. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. they are sands of precious gold. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. Conscience. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. and makest a calm. taking the object storm. etc. completing the verb. and meaning calmest. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due." (3) Adverbially. 9. and being equivalent to one verb." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. good Heaven. how have I frighted thee? II. 59. and tell which use each has:² 1. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. 3. Set a high price on your leisure moments. her first law broken. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. thy wrath can send. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. reconciles. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder.

Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. It is a poetic expression. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.²BYRON. (2) Objective possessive. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.² The unwearied sun. 6. 7. 10.Does his Creator's power display. the most common of all. and forfeits paid.5.And gave the leper to eat and drink. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. The possessive case always modifies another word. from day to day. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. (3) Subjective possessive. as.²ADDISON.²HAWTHORNE. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive.His winter task a pastime made. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. tempests that . He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink.. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.e.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. 8. the Great Stone Face. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i.²SHELLEY. 61. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. Possession in some sense is the most common. as shown in the sentences. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. III.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. And whirling plate. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. 9. 60. Uses of the Possessive. or in writing yesterday's elegy. The noblest mind the best contentment has.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. as in these expressions. expressed or understood.

64. How the possessive is formed. PLURAL.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his." etc. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es.. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. As said before (Sec. 63. One is the simple form of a word. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. Case Inflection. in Chaucer. 62." Use of the apostrophe. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. making the possessive singular." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. A suggestion. Poss. . and Obj. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. "George Jones his book." "mannes herte [heart]. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). as schoolboys sometimes write. A false theory. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i.. Nom.winter is likely to have). Nom. lady Poss. The use of the apostrophe. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. child NOTE.e. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. "From every schires ende." "at his beddes syde. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. 56). there are only two case forms. 1. 62. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. and Obj. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case.e. Declension or inflection of nouns. the panther which the forest hides). however. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. growth which several days had developed). To form the possessive plural.

In compound expressions. containing words in apposition. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. Captain Scrapegrace's." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. I remember him in his cradle at St. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. stands up for God's truth one man.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. 65. some such word as house.²CARLYLE. and from a desire to have distinct forms. as. and she walked off from the don's. a word with a phrase. as. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead.²RUSKIN. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. store. To the eye all the forms are now distinct."²DE QUINCEY.. the possessive sign is usually last. 67. as by the countess's command.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY.²HOLMES. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. etc. They invited me in the emperor their master's name.Though this opinion was untrue." Possessive with compound expressions. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. James's. Cervantes' satirical work. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. my neighbors.²SWIFT. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. instead of the emperor their master's name. but to the ear all may be alike. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. Kate saw that. . being understood with it: for example. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. in the name of the emperor their master. Possessive and no noun limited. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience.. etc. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows." "A postscript is added. know the amount of my income. for goodness' sake. dwelling. Peter's. the items of my son's. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. 66.² LOWELL. church.

E. in such a sentence as. we use the phrase of Atterbury.²E. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . and I used to like whatever they bade me like. Exercises. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. corresponding to 's. (3) It prevents ambiguity.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. (1) When a word is modified by a. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. Both of these are now used side by side. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object.²the introduction which Atterbury made.. as one modifier. If. the.²FROUDE. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. ill-lighted except where she stands. HALE. every. etc. Blair). or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. 1.The double possessive. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. (See also Sec. the sentence might be understood as just explained. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. A peculiar form. this. 87. and tell whether each is appositional. or subjective. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. 2. no. sometimes they are used together. that. any.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. a double possessive. and at the same time by a possessive noun.²CARLYLE. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. especially when used with this or that. each. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. however. (b) Rewrite the sentence. making a double possessive. In most cases. 68. Emphasis. the statement clearly means only one thing. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. For example. objective. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. Clearness.

10. Hence. 7. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. There Shakespeare's self. 4. some idioms²the double possessive.A weary waste expanding to the skies. 8. Friend. therefore. 12. it seemed. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence.They say. 69. Jove laughs. In parsing. in parsing a noun. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. day's harbinger. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. and destroy the other. At lovers' perjuries. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. we state.Comes dancing from the East. 13. 11. 14. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. with every garland crowned. let him seasonably water the one. 70. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 15.3. 9.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 6. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 5. Now the bright morning star. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.² . I must not see thee Osman's bride. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. Nature herself.

An old cloak makes a new jerkin. 3.(1) The class to which it belongs. (3) Whether singular or plural number. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. 68). names one thing. That in the captain's but a choleric word. Throat is neuter. therefore possessive case. inflections. Thief is a common class noun. it expresses possession or ownership. therefore neuter. is a common class noun. gender. In parsing any word. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. 2. therefore masculine gender. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. determining its case. MODEL FOR PARSING. Exercise. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. (4) Its office in the sentence. which gender. therefore singular number. subject of the verb is understood. it has no sex. hence objective case. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. singular number. but is the adverbial objective. masculine. as to case. object of the verb takes. and limits neckcloth.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. hence it is a common noun.²common. and to have it found out by accident. therefore singular number. has no governing word. 71. it expresses time. and therefore nominative case. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. proper. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. hence it is objective case. and number. etc. and relations. . 4. The correct method. Neckcloth. a withered serving man. NOTE. if the latter. hence it is a gender noun. the connection shows a male is meant. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. it denotes only one person. it is the name of a male being. it is the object of the preposition by. like miller's. a fresh tapster.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy.

instead of saying. sleep! 6. 7. all in one. A pronoun is a reference word. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. castle. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. (2) Interrogative pronouns.. 11. 72.. from a necessity for short. PRONOUNS. and prison. blessings light on him that first invented .²palace. and his daughter. but by a question we say. The need of pronouns. Madame de Staël. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally.And hated her for her pride. Classes of pronouns. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. where the Rhone enters the lake. Time makes the worst enemies friends. Necker. A few miles from this point. 10. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. and representative words. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. Definition. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. Jarley's back being towards him. or for a group of persons or things. standing for a name. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. or for a person or thing. 8. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious." Again.5. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. For instance. financial minister to Louis XVI. 9. Now. . 76). definite. Mrs.. 73. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. were natives of Geneva. He giveth his beloved sleep.

Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. (5) Indefinite pronouns. Three persons of pronouns. and the person or thing talked about. they must represent the person talking.. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. 75. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns.(3) Relative pronouns. 74. as nouns have the same form. This gives rise to a new term." Person of nouns. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. Person in grammar. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. which have forms for person. ours . (2) Second person. From analogy to pronouns. which cannot be used as adjectives. even if it had a special form. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. which relate or refer to a noun. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. 77. 76. they are said to have person by agreement. "the distinction of person. representing the person speaking. (3) Third person. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. the person or thing spoken to. we our. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. my Plural. (4) Adjective pronouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. standing for a person or thing spoken of. Singular. pronoun. I Poss. words. primarily adjectives. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. mine. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. or other word or expression. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. Nom. representing a person or thing spoken to. that is. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things.

Nom. masculine h . neuter hit. SECOND PERSON. of all Three. me us Singular. First and second persons without gender. .Obj. neuter. Singular. thou thee ye you you your. feminine h o. so also with the person or thing spoken to. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. they their. a separate form for each gender. 78. you your. Nom. Obj. The speaker may be either male or female. Old forms. Obj.. Poss. hers her Plur. Obj. it its it Poss. and also for the neuter. theirs them Neut. thine. yours Poss. yours you Plural. Third person singular has gender. But the third person has. Nom. Poss. Masc. yours you THIRD PERSON. or. your. in the singular. he his him Fem. by personification. Nom. Obj. Old Form Common Form. she her. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. thy Remarks on These Forms. namely.

this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. The form its. 82. Two uses of the old singulars.² Oh. that didst comfort thy people of old. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. There are. 81. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. the Old English objective was hem (or heom)." As shown above.Thou lovest. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. especially in poetry. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. it. etc. 79. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). (2) In addressing the Deity. which is a neuter noun. We use it with a plural verb always. two modern uses of thou. even when referring to a single object. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. thee. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. which was often sounded with the h silent. and sometimes its. as. heom. Second person always plural in ordinary English.. thou Shepherd of Israel. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. just as we now say. their.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. in Old English. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. for example. thy. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms.²BEECHER. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. however. as in prayers.²SHELLEY. Thou. The consequence is. to thy care we commit the helpless. as possessive of it. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels.:² (1) In elevated style. the forms they.. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. etc.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. In spoken English. . 80. This is of comparatively recent growth. them. etc.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. The plurals were h . heora. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic.

some say. theirs. though those named in Sec. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. 85. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. they have a nominative form. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. have a peculiar use.Use of the pronouns in personification. 84 are always subjects. in such a sentence as.²LANDOR. yours. The forms my. II. and follow the usage of literary English. . 34). Nominative forms. him. thine. thou. ye.²BULWER. 84. and sometimes in ordinary speech. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. 86. And since thou own'st that praise. us. she. their. ²SHAKESPEARE. its. The forms mine. Not a separate class. Old use of mine and thine. note the following:² 'Twas mine. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. or. your. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. I The Nominative. 58). Yet careful speakers avoid this. The words I. and not make more classes. them. we. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. his. sometimes his and its. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. though ye is occasionally used as objective. "I am sure it was him. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. our. when they occur in the predicate position. me. them. her. her. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. to personify objects (Sec. hers. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. I spare thee mine. 'tis his. besides a nominative use. and has been slave to thousands. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. That is. The Possessive. Absolute personal pronouns. 83. he. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. Additional nominatives in spoken English. however. for. her.²COWPER. us. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns." the literary language would require he after was. thy. In spoken English. they. him.

T. COOPER.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. Give every man thine ear. FIELDS. it tells of good old times. thus. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. Besides this.²THACKERAY. Their uses. "Hold thy peace. (2) To bring emphasis. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. Long Allen.² CARLYLE. as in nouns. . This ancient silver bowl of mine. hers. for example.²J. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. ²HOLMES.²CARLYLE. 87.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE.²BIBLE. ours." said Henry Woodstall. his. F. If thine eye offend thee. or satire. sometimes its. we have. thus. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. yours. anger. in that old Edinburgh house of his. ours. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict.²THACKERAY. yours. theirs.²J.²SWIFT. Like the noun possessives. but few thy voice. Double and triple possessives. pluck it out.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day.²ID. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee.²ID. This usage is still preserved in poetry. commenting upon a letter of mine. thine. we find. The forms hers. and with mine. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. (3) To express contempt. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent."²SCOTT. are really double possessives. theirs. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.

or use in a sentence. 89. as it is called. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. "The good alone are great. but expresses for whom. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. the thing is done.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. In their function. 90. in the first sentence. But the first two have a nominative use. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. The old dative case. 88. Now the objective. In pronouns." "None but the brave deserves the fair. but not in form. The Objective.²BIBLE. 20. III. but the form is the same as the objective. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. his for his property. mine stands for my praise in the second. this dative use. as shown in Sec. for whose benefit." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. They all handled it. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. Besides this use of the objective. 86: mine stands for my property.²ID. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. In such sentences as. Both joined in making him a present. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. Curse me this people.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. . but nominative or objective in use. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. was marked by a separate case. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. and mine in the second has an objective use.

The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. Society. 92. as.Time is behind them and before them. 91.²D.²CARLYLE. was passed by with indulgence. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber.²DE QUINCEY.² . (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. thus. you sneeze.² NEWMAN. WEBSTER.²BACON. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. The word you.²IRVING To empty here. or to the idea." (3) As a grammatical subject. has not made its progress. you must condense there. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. why. as. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. It is a pity that he has so much learning.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.²BULWER. logical subject. (3) In apposition. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. and they cry. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. Your mere puny stripling.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.²ADDISON. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. to stand for the real. in this century. ²EMERSON. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. like Chinese skill. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. or that he has not a great deal more.²EMERSON. Indefinite use of you and your. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. which follows the verb. as in the sentences. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.

(5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. when they are direct objects. 93. herself. we use such expressions as. they dropped their arms. ourselves.. -selves. who teams it.²EMERSON. A sturdy lad .²DE QUINCEY. have laid them downIn their last sleep. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.²HOLMES. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. yourself. This occurs in poetry. and its plural selves.²ID.²BRYANT. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined.²HAWTHORNE. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.²SCOTT. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. For when it dawned. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. 94. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.² Now I lay me down to sleep. themselves.. . Of the two forms in parentheses." and there is an end of it." "He bought him a horse. himself. however. farms it. (ourself). that is.It is finger-cold. used in poetry. "I found me a good book. but seldom in prose. peddles it. For example. since firstThe flight of years began.²BUNYAN."²IRVING.²ANON. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. (thyself). yourselves. as. the second is the old form of the second person. as they are also called." etc.²THOREAU. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. I set me down and sigh. it rained. who in turn tries all the professions.²COLERIDGE. I made up my mind to foot it. keeps a school.²BURNS. And millions in those solitudes. itself. It was late and after midnight. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. There was nothing for it but to return. Poor Christian was hard put to it. They are myself. And when I awoke.²IRVING. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw.

for example.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.²SHAKESPEARE. 96.² The great globe itself . My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. Use of the reflexives. Origin of these reflexives.²WORDSWORTH. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition.To you yourself. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. Held dead within them till myself shall die.²MILTON. thyself. not the possessive forms. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. to us.²ID. as we ourself have been.As girls were once.² . B. as in vulgar English. The question might arise. ourselves. after the analogy of myself. as.²E. I shrink with pain.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. Threats to all. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. NOTE.² TENNYSON.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. were changed into the possessive myself. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. for example. and build the lofty rhyme. In Middle English the forms meself. theself. 95. as. to every one. etc. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. As if it were thyself that's here. BROWNING. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. and the others were formed by analogy with these. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. with self. shall dissolve.²EMERSON.. especially in the speech of rulers. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.

some each of masculine. let him lowly confess it. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. fight it out. which. and neuter. Come and trip it as we go. all conform to it. where the word is one with that it tells of. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Years ago. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. To know what is best to do. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. .²DE QUINCEY. And it grew wondrous cold. some of them being double possessives. 4. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. One obsolete. feminine. 2.On the light fantastic toe. is wisdom. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. 8.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. and what. FRANKLIN. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.²B. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. but it is the soonest spoiled. Courage. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. Infancy conforms to nobody. and how to do it. 97. 3. 9. 10. father. 7. 5. Exercises on Personal Pronouns.² THACKERAY. Three now in use. 6. But if a man do not speak from within the veil.

or case. that it is not inflected for gender or number. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. What wouldst thou do. .There is an old word. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. methought. etc. As shown here. but for case alone. with its possessive and objective. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer.Promised. it is always third person. 99. Use of who and its forms. but now obsolete. used formerly to mean which of two. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. The use of who. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. referring to things. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. actions. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. Use of what. whether.. as it always asks about somebody. that is. Whose was that gentle voice. 98. that it is always singular and neuter. not to persons. it is selective. that. 100. the gold. Which of you. ideas. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. These show that what is not inflected for case. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. having three forms. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. it refers to either persons or things. shall we say. number. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. which is not inflected for gender. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. Use of which. whispering sweet.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT.

² "The last of all the Bards was he. For instance. "The last of all the Bards was he. 102. 127)." Or. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. who is used as objective instead of whom. SINGULAR Nom.²by the use of the words. and what are also relative pronouns. subject of doth love. for which the pronoun stands. AND PLUR. which is nominative in the first sentence. Who. AND PLUR. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. being the direct object of the verb shall take. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent.Who sung of Border chivalry. Thus we may say. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. 103. pronoun. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. as they take the place usually of a word already used. what may be an adverb in some expressions. who? Poss. and so to make smoother discourse. which. or other word or expression. SING. It usually precedes the pronoun. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. as. nominative in the second also. RELATIVE PRONOUNS.101. in Sec. since it is subject of the verb had. who evidently refers to Bards. whose? Obj.² . it may be shortened into. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. The antecedent. 104. 105. and also in having a conjunctive use. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. Further treatment of who." In the latter sentence. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. which and what. Function of the relative pronoun. as. which and what are sometimes adjectives. which is called the antecedent of the relative. 99. objective in the last. These bards sang of Border chivalry.

The nurse came to us. 2.Whom universal nature did lament. what.. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. 2. Indefinite relatives. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. 4.. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE.²SCOTT. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. both his and who have the antecedent priest. are the men and women who bless their species. that. They had not their own luster. but the look which is not of the earth.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. Two kinds. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. 3.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.. Generally speaking. When the word relative is used. a thousand years. For her enchanting son.That guard our native seas. a simple relative is meant. Who and its forms. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.² COX.²DR JOHNSON. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. in the same sense in which man's nature. 5.²PARTON Which and its forms.²MILTON. Ye mariners of England. 106. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. is a divine creation.²LOWELL In this. 6. will be discussed further on. 3. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. D. 108. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites.²BYRON. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. 4. The origin of language is divine. 107.²W.Whose flag has braved. . WHITNEY. The men whom men respect.²THACKERAY. which.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. the women whom women approve. with all its capabilities .

Is fit for treasons. 4. Already done is all that he would do.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. bought up all the pigs that could be had. The judge . the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. 111. no bad type of what often happens in that country. 109.5.²GOLDSMITH. else this description will seem exaggerated.²EMERSON. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 107. which prevented him from taking his usual ride.²LAMB 3. stratagems. 3.²DE QUINCEY.² SHAKESPEARE 2. 6.. For what he sought below is passed above. The Tree Igdrasil.²H. (a) This gradation . Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. 110.. and spoils. That. Who. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²MARGARET FULLER. BEECHER 5.²BURKE. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. Examples of the relative that:² 1.. W... and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. ought to be kept in view.. which it certainly is not. What.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Reader. 2. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.²IRVING. The man that hath no music in himself.. you will not be angry with me for telling you.

in the third. 112. 107. whom. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. flung its arms around my neck.. Examples of whose.²IRVING. a man. whose is second person. and 3. in 4. who is first person. In sentence 4.²which for the nominative and objective. Kingsley. Smollett.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. and so on.who. 96). Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals.²who. in the second. The robins. the relatives are singular.²LEIGH HUNT. (2) It has three case forms. whose wound I had dressed. The sentences in Sec. not persons. Gibbon.²SWIFT. who. My horse. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. The little gorilla.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. 5. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. (4) It has two case forms.²LOWELL.whose. seemed as much excited as myself. JOHNSON. Scott. and 6. (3) It is nearly always third person. Who referring to animals.²THACKERAY. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. It has been seen (Sec. Witness the following examples:² And you. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. In 1. Sec. whose.. in 5. Cooper. things... or ideas. in the first sentence. 113. possessive case of which. Which. . the others are all third person. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. p. that man. whom. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. referring to animals.. son. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. they are plural. and others. 2. whose for the possessive.²DR.

That. second. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. Primarily.²first. 116. (2) It has only one case form. and things."²RUSKIN. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. no possessive. This often occurs. secondly (which made her stare).² MCMASTER.²BEECHER. Men may be ready to fight to the death. 115. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. and to persecute without pity.²SHAKESPEARE. for a religion whose creed they do not understand.²THACKERAY. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. . we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. which is worse.²DE QUINCEY. Kingsley. So in Matthew Arnold. and numerous others. The last two sentences in Sec. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. This moribund '61.²SCOTT. let us enter the church itself. Which and its antecedents. (3) It is the same form for first. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. 109. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest.114. Burke.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. animals. which is very notable and curious.² I swept the horizon.² And. thus. too. and third persons. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. Sometimes. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.²RUSKIN. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. the antecedent follows which. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. In the sentences of Sec.

for example. 118. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. 119. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. which. either of which would be neuter. third person. that do I not. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. Nom. as. consequently is neuter. whose Obj. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL.² What I would.²BIBLE What fates impose. What. that do I. number. When expressed. as in sentence 6. Sec. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. The gender. but what I hate. What a man does. who Poss. and is emphatic." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. it usually follows. plural number." That evidently refers to truths. plural number. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent.²EMERSON. we can. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. that men must needs abide. . third person. and person of the relatives who. that he has. by taking them out." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. Who plainly stands for those or the people. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. The sentences of Sec.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. 117." (3) "These people heard him. For example.²SHAKESPEARE. what we said?²CARLYLE. 109. is always neuter.

which is. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. then parse the relatives. and hence is in the nominative case. subject of heard. neuter. we is the subject. is subject of the verb can't be cured. it is subject of the verb heard. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. Another way. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. in (3). not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case." Here the subject of is. the simple relative."²EMERSON. in the following sentences:² 1. I think they are trying to outwit nature. after all.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. 3. people is the object of the preposition of. First find the antecedents. 5. 7. but is singular. and what is the direct object of the verb call. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. who is sure to be cunninger than they. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. in (1). What must be endured? Answer. 120. Truths in sentence (2). I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. but of this. Parsing what. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. Exercise. 6. is subject of wrought upon and molded. What can't be cured. is what we call nature. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. it is object of uttered. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. is in the nominative case. etc. because it has usually no antecedent. nobler souls with that which they are. Now. The relative what is handled differently. In the sentence. As shown by the following sentences. The whole expression is its subject. standing for the people understood. 4. above. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. In (2). 8. however. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. . third person. "What can't be cured must be endured. so is in the objective case. that takes the case of the truths in (2). Some prefer another method of treatment. The word what. In the same way who.. the highest result of all education." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something.

God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. whatsoever. object of with] which [singular. 121. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. 2. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases.²MACAULAY. The simple relatives who. Only itself can inspire whom it will. Meaning and use. no particular thing. that nothing else can stand in their presence. It is clear that in 1. "common souls pay with that [singular. 5. by meaning and use. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. . There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe.²BURKE. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. or what else soever. 3. So with the other indefinites. 4. to everything that. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. List and examples. whatsoever. and his friend a fool. that is. 123. which. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. whichsoever. whatever. and in 2. 6. 7. Take which you please. Hence some take what as a double relative. or stand on their head. It is no proof of a man's understanding. Death is there associated. in a new and original way. no certain antecedent. 2. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. whichever. Do what we can. less common are whoso. object of do] they do." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. 122. being referred to. whatever is equivalent to all things which. and which in the second clause.²you cannot have both. not as direct as the simple relatives. and parse that in the first clause. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. whosoever. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. summer will have its flies.²BURKE. They are whoever. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. What simple relative and what indefinite relative.

Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. not following the word such.² 1. by which.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore.As shown in Sec. Two words. 125. what means anything that. Other substitutes. either one that. Proof that they have the force of relatives. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. etc. 126.²EMERSON. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. 121. 120. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. etc. are used. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. upon which. the conjunctions wherein. But and as. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. 121. everything that (or everything which). The examples in sentences 5 and 6.² some particular thing.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. for example. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. 124. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.²HAWTHORNE. but mean any one whom. for example. There is nothing but is related to us. thus. Former use of as.. as was used just as we use that or which. Sec. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. In early modern English.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. . 4. 2. This. whereupon. etc.. has been my heaviest affliction. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. whereby. 417). but and as.²DE QUINCEY. but which only wealth could have purchased. nothing that does not interest us. and that as after such is equivalent to which. Instead of the phrases in which. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which.

it is a simple relative. 1 (b). Special caution needed here. it is an indefinite relative). 2. 127. would be.. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. In sentences 1 (a). The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS." Likewise with which in 3 (b). and 3 (b). if not. if expanded. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. no antecedent is expressed. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form.²WHITTIER. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. 3. showing that who is plainly interrogative. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. which would indicate that they are not relatives. what is interrogative. "But what had become of them? They knew not. But in 1 (b). though the earthwork hid them. . the full expression being. Thus. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. second. a question is disguised in each sentence.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. it is an interrogative. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by.²EMERSON. In studying such sentences. Another caution. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. "Who stood behind? We knew. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. How to decide. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. if not." etc. So in 2 (b). and whether what = that + which (if so. which having the antecedent lines. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. 2 (b). there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. who having the antecedent gentleman. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak.²ID.

129. and asks no question. Put in the relatives who. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.²CARLYLE. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. 4. In the second. ELIOT.²SWIFT.²FORSTER 6. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. . The insect I am now describing lived three years. Relative omitted when object. and Court Calendars. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. When Goldsmith died. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. but the life of man in England. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.² THACKERAY.128.² These are the sounds we feed upon. In the first. Thus. On the other hand.²FLETCHER. 5. which. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. whence is the interrogative word. whose has the antecedent you. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. I visited many other apartments. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2.²GOLDSMITH. the question is asked by the verb. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. which has the antecedent hue. Exercise. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. 2. 3.²G. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. Examine the following:² 1. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.²HOLMES. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. In the third.

ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. which was already proceeding. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news.²SHAKESPEARE. There was such a crowd went. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. and what. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. Relative omitted when subject.Ne'er looks upon the sun. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun.7. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. which. Examples are. . who were to be rulers over whom. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. and comparatively so in poetry. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. Function of adjective pronouns. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude.²SCOTT. simple relatives.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. 3. that. 130. It is rare in prose.² LOWELL. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. Also in literary English we find the same omission. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. the house was full. or indefinite relatives:² 1.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. 2. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. 6. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. He went on speaking to who would listen to him.²Id. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. The nobles looked at each other. 5. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower.²CAMPBELL.

all. necessarily thought of: thus. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. a word." "one man. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. in the first. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. as some. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. such as each. 133.²EMERSON. any. etc." in the second. few. . Caution. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. "these pranks. in order to be an adjective pronoun. either. etc. 'Truth. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. which we have seen in such expressions as." Classes of adjective pronouns. or may be the whole of a sentence. none. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. and another to get cool under. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. the former. in letters of gold. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence.131. In the first use they are adjectives. For example. but have lost their adjective use.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. or use. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. but in this function. Primarily they are adjectives. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. or an argument in a paragraph. Adjectives. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. "The dead are there. that. "each cube. must not modify any word. and stand for a noun. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. such as this." that is. etc.²IRVING. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. 132. expressed or understood. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death." "Where two men ride on a horse. many." in the others. and on each is written. or they may stand for nouns. neither." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon.²BRYANT. For instance.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. "another bank. not pronouns.

Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Such are a few isolated instances. A man inspires affection and honor. 5. They had fewer books. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Definition and examples. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly.² They stood. because he was not lying in wait for these. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. Souls such as these treat you as gods would.²EMERSON 4. and sow wickedness.²ID. . Compound. or reclined.All these he saw. they that plow iniquity. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. 2. They have not shunned the one. 134. and they have well performed the other. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. 3. accidentally preserved. as seemed good to each. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. but these were of the best. Even as I have seen.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. reap the same. Simple. Their minds accorded into one strain. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. when the latter was the King of Spain. NOTE. for example. Some of these are simple pronouns. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. or sat.²ID.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number.²LOWELL. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Exercises.

Two are compound pronouns. or melt for others' woe. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. as it were. ²HAWTHORNE. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. Men take each other's measure when they react. as. paused over a horoscope. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. we might the more easily discharge them. imbued.²KINGSLEY.²HOLMES. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. 135. None shall rule but the humble.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. . you quickly come to the end of all. as some of the rangers had gone astray. Exercise. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. 'Tis of no importance how large his house.²EMERSON. Much might be said on both sides. The Soldan. one another. such as one other. with the superstitions of his time. The word one has a reflexive form. Definition and examples. Another opposes him with sound argument. another.² One reflexive. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. Some inflected. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.²HAWTHORNE. as most were. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. They led one another.²each other. for example.

Exercise. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. anybody.. Now. . somebody else. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. and was indefinite in Old English. something. 137. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. Every one else stood still at his post. naught. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. any one (or anyone). Jove laughs. every one (or everyone). everybody. as. anything. and somewhat. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. etc. Exercise.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. anyone else. etc. they say. 136. everybody else.² At lovers' perjuries. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. anybody else's. unlike adjective pronouns. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. They indefinite means people in general. also aught. some one.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. nothing. as shown in the words everybody's.²SHAKESPEARE. everything. I tell you what. and they. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Definition and examples. Somebody. they are never used as adjectives. what. but. in building of chaises. nobody. no one. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. every one else." It means something. These other souls draw me as nothing else can.

Our readers probably remember what Mrs. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 8. . 13. 14. Others did the same thing. 12. For this did God send her a great reward. Exercise. round as the shield of my fathers! 15.See also "Syntax" (Sec. Whoever deals with M. 16. 18. O thou that rollest above. 5. in his negotiations. 11. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. 6. I first found myself among the mountains. 10. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. The table was good. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. indeed. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. 17. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). and of no other. Hutchinson tells us of herself. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. were suffered to depart. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. from my earliest days. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. 4. A reminder. All was now ready for action. 9. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard.²a feature of natural scenery for which. 2. 7. 138. to which. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. but not to quite so enormous an extent. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 3.

that let him communicate. Whatever he knows and thinks. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. hear. in all its height. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 34. oh. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere.And it would work 'em woe.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . eat white bread or brown.19. 27. They know not I knew thee. 21. He sate him down. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. 35. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. and seized a pen. 25. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. And I had done a hellish thing. 29. behold now the semblance of my being. I who alone am. well-oiled dispositions. thou rollest now. variety.Destroyer and preserver. 30. 31. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. 26. who take the world easy. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. And will your mother pity me. These hopes are mine as much as theirs.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. hear! 33. 32.Who knew thee too well. 23. Who and what was Milton? That is to say.

Instead of using nouns indefinitely. or with persons. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. So with any object. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. then. as. Substantives. We need to add some words to tell its color. so that no other will be mistaken for it. We are by nature observers. As to the kind of words used. adjectives are used. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. Again. 44. 45.36. such as in the expressions "this man. in pointing out an object." The office of an adjective. Office of Adjectives. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. ." "some cities. etc. ADJECTIVES. and he learns who receives. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. 41. 43. 37." "that house. the number is limited by adjectives. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. white or red. who understands me. which was no bad step towards my liberation. heavy or light. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. 39. It may have this office alone. He teaches who gives. If a chemist discovers a new substance. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. brittle or tough. 38. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. that is our permanent state. or gaseous. becomes mine. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. He knew not what to do. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. and if we are near. size." "a hundred men. 40. For example. Who hears me. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun." etc." "yonder hill. 42. or liquid. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. etc. 139. and so he read. if we are at a distance. position. "one hat..

" "unlooked-for burden. To make this clear. (4) Pronominal adjectives. deep. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. They include relative and interrogative words. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. "Heaven-derived power. 141.140. Examples are. divine.² BACON. to forgive. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES." and the still less significant "and so. or how much of a thing. 143." "the Christian pearl of charity. fair. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. Nouns are not. remotest." "this life-giving book." "half-dead traveler.²POPE." the "and there. such as safe. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression.²COLERIDGE." "ivory-handled pistols." "ice-cold water. such as. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. however. If he be thankful for small benefits. beautiful." "the Roman writer Palladius. Definition. Infinitives. it shows that he weighs men's minds." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. and their trash. "an old English manuscript. terrible. etc. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. pointing out particular things. To err is human. 142. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. happy." they constitute all his connections. rash. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. used to tell how many things are spoken of." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof." "next-door neighbor. Classes of adjectives." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. (2) Adjectives of quantity. With exception of the "and then. words primarily pronouns." . derived from proper nouns." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. to describe it or to limit its application.

143. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little." "One is hungry. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. 2." "trailing clouds. and accomplished is an adjective. in this." "It came on like the rolling simoom.²COLERIDGE.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. much." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. Exercises. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. any. Oxenham. Examples are." was accomplished is a verb. 1. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. . 'Tis midnight. and another is drunken. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. 145." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." was is the verb. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun." "The shattered squares have opened into line. sometimes small. no." "an aged man. considerable.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. 144. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.²MACDONALD. which are either pure participles used to describe. having some of each subclass named in Sec.But ever she looked on Mr." "a charming sight.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. Care is needed. in studying these last-named words. some. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted." Caution. For instance: in the sentence. but small thoughts have I of sleep. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many.

" "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. Not primarily pronouns. 146. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. the former²the latter. former. and with them a few negroes. instead of modifying them. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. yonder (or yon). (plural these. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. "one blaze of musketry. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted." "I have lost one brother." "In came some five and twenty more. Thus.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. any. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. but I have gained fourscore. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection.²VAUGHAN. its wake.²ID. The demonstrative adjectives are this.²CARLYLE.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. they come under the next division of adjectives. as. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. Examples.²THACKERAY." "Then we wandered for many days. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER." "a dozen volunteers. The list.²KINGSLEY. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. When some." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. no. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. Exercise. An arrow was quivering in each body. are used with plural nouns.² Every town had its fair." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards." (b) Indefinite numerals. that. The following sentences present some examples:² . those)." "He had lived by hunting for some months. every village. latter. How many." Single ones of any number of changes. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it.

They are of two kinds. of equal skill. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century.²WORDSWORTH. Modify names of persons or things. skill which was at pause. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.²BANCROFT. 148. As has been said.²ID. Definition. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. but in the one case.²GOLDSMITH.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. Oxenham fought desperately. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. skill which was progressive²in the other. These were thy charms. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. what revenues or garnitures.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. I verily believe. FRANKLIN. In which evil strait Mr.² It matters not what rank he has. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²BULWER. The silver and laughing Xenil.. These do not.. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. The taking of which bark. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.²RUSKIN. When we speak of the seventeenth century. like the other numerals. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. they are changed to adjectives. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. 147. but.²ID. 149. tell how many things are meant. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. . Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.²D. ²CARLYLE.but all these charms are fled. Exercise. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives."²B.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. Indefinite relative adjectives.²KINGSLEY. for example. WEBSTER. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. just as the corresponding pronouns do. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you.

The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). whichsoever way I move. what inquires about things or persons not known. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. In direct questions.²ID. whichsoever.And whichsoever way I turn.² EMERSON. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.²IRVING. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. 151. proved not altogether displeasing to him. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. New torments I behold.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor.²AGASSIZ. As in the pronouns.²LAMB. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. the debt to the rich.²CARLYLE. Examples of their use are. as it rather seemed. and points to yonder glade?² POPE.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. and gaze. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. In indirect questions. Was there. But when the Trojan war comes. nature will be sure to bear us out in. you at least give him full authority over your son. ..²RUSKIN. which is selective among what is known. whichever. He was turned before long into all the universe. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. and new tormentedAround me. which. Adjective what in exclamations. A lady once remarked. whatsoever. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. it is impossible to determine.150. Whatsoever kind of man he is. or whether any. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.. whatever.

or weight. those). INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. we notice some differences between them as to size. This is the old demonstrative. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. and when we compare the objects. And yet. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this.. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. 153 . color. the making of it right. Those borrowed from this. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness.² Oh. When we place two objects side by side. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. 154. which was fully inflected in Old English. gold is heavier than iron. In exclamatory expressions. as. 155. . The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. of the quality. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. All these have certain qualities.Adjectives have two inflections. COMPARISON. alas. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. But this had also another plural. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. NUMBER. th s (modern those).²number and comparison.²but not the same degree. It is neither relative nor interrogative. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. Thus. The article that was used with neuter nouns. That. History of this²these and that²those. Exercise. or amount. and those as the plural of that. we do so by means of their qualities. weight. etc.152. etc. or size.²This. Meaning of comparison.

Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. as. blue. Definition. bluer. So with the words sole. easier. though the simple. A main difference betwixt men is. indefatigable.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. The two forms. whether they attend their own affair or not. "more matter. but. easiest. "untamed thought. They came into use about the thirteenth century." "the largest soul. easy. red. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. as.²SEWARD." "the commonest speech. to the simple form. or amounts in quantity. 160. with less wit." Words that cannot be compared. redder." "It is a nobler valor. 159. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. 157. whose favorite pupil he was.²THACKERAY. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. Substitute for inflection in comparison. universal institution. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. they are not compared. strictly considered. but were not common until a century later. giant-like. These are properly the only degrees. great. and many others. enormous." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. 158. These are called degrees of comparison. and the superlative by adding -est." "no fewer than a hundred. Freedom is a perpetual. The comparative is formed by adding -er. expressing a greater degree of quality. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. and the superlative. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. infinite. supreme. 156. bluest. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. expressing the greatest degree of quality. . indomitable. immemorial. organic.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. reddest. for example. sufficient.

² CARLYLE A gentleman. and yet familiar.²ID. and other words are preceded by more and most." "sorrowfulest spectacles. The general rule is. was most finished. as.²The Nation." "more austere and holy. The following lists include the majority of them:² . mournfulest. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. polished. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. witty. honestest. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning." said Henry Esmond. peaceablest. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. 162." Carlyle uses beautifulest.²ID. Adjectives irregularly compared. finest chiseling. I will. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. most small. which hung behind in the queerest way. and patientest fusing. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. quiet. there needed to be a most genuine substance. etc.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. These long. easy.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. madam." "distantest relationships." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. admirablest. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. though born in no very high degree. indisputablest.Which rule. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. "So help me God. 163." "more odd. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. strange. who. harsh forms are usually avoided." "the wonderfulest little shoes. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. falling on his knees.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. These are adjectives irregularly compared.

Hind 2. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). hindermost Much or many More Farther. A double comparative. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. oldest Nighest. as in Shakespeare. which has softened to the modern best. 6. List I. (2) In Old English. is often used. as in the sentence (14th century). and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. Good or well Evil. 164.² O. last Hindmost.² We have it in a much lesser degree. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. lesser. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. evil was the positive to worse. 3. uttermost Upmost. 2. worst. a double comparative. furthest 10. There was an old comparative bet. [In] Inner Inmost. . which has gone out of use. uppermost LIST III. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. as. further Farthest. though from a different root. 5. [Out] Outer. bad. 8. 7. 1. latter Hinder LIST II. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. outermost Utmost. (3) Little is used as positive to less. 4. next Nearest Latest. least. innermost Outmost. 9. These have no adjective positive:² 1.²HAMLET. lesser Elder. The superlative I form was betst.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. utter 3. older Nigher Nearer Later.LIST I. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. throw away the worser part of it. Worser was once used.

(6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. furthest. Between the two sets as they now stand. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. The latter. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. oldest. since the m is for -ma. and the superlative nearest. for example. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. farthest. further. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. as long.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. came into use. great. meaning the largest part. to England we sailed. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. first. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. but not in meaning. except the form next. eldest. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. doubling the inflection. the old forms. First became entirely detached from the series. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. "Many a little makes a mickle. to which is added -ost. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form.²HAWTHORNE. moche. there is scarcely any distinction.. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. List II. and refer to time. making the modern farther.. instead of lenger. greatest. (5) The forms elder.²forth. a distinction has grown up between the two series. etc. near." Its spelling has been micel. muchel. as.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. The meanings greater. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. In imitation of further. are shown in such phrases as. are earlier than older. strenger.²KINGSLEY. farrest. latest. etc. an old superlative ending. or series. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. strong. much.² The more part being of one mind. next.²ID. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. ²LAMB. is quite common. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. Since later. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. but originally the comparison was nigh. The most part kept a stolid indifference. th came into the others. .

are like the comparative forms in List II. 167. by the by. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. but her after deck was still dry. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. W. 166.²HAWTHORNE. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. 168." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing.165. Her bows were deep in the water. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence.²DE QUINCEY. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective.²EMERSON." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. or each may modify a different word or group of words. was descried The royal banner floating wide. being merely descriptive. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. Think what each adjective belongs to." -Most added to other words. but not in their meaning. BEECHER. on the very topmost twig." "The outer is of the day. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives." "the innermost moral soul. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. Highest and midmost. The adjectives in List III. They have no superlatives.²KINGSLEY. in having no adjective positives." "far-seeing as the sun. the upper light of the world. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. The comparatives are so in form. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. all may belong to the same noun. There. Her. . Over is rarely used separately as an adjective. and have no comparative force." "their utmost exertion.²SCOTT.²H. List III. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. (Sec.²DE QUINCEY. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. Decidedly handsome. In List II. but they have no adjective positives. or have no comparative forms.

²HAWTHORNE. and broken. Other instances are. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. now our queen. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. instead of saying. therefore. 169. deep. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. our new government. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. the then and still owners. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. H.²NOAH PORTER.²RUSKIN. and heaven-defying oaths. deeply black eyes. and moral truth. By a convenient brevity. solid. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation.²MRS. Richard Hooker.²TRENCH. in this sentence." in which then is an adverb. ²TROLLOPE.² My then favorite. STOWE. May we not. STEPHENS 5. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. bright. and thine often infirmities. 7." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. satisfactory. 2. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID.²BIBLE. 4." making then an adjective. It may still be argued.For example. 3. Exercise. In the following quotations. Bradbury and Evans. . A few improper jests and a volley of good. Our sometime sister. 6. round. This.²HOLMES. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. But in this sentence. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. philosophical. The seldom use of it. as. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. "the one who was then king.²A. not decision alone. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. in prose.²HAWTHORNE. rich." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. usual modifies incomparable decision. For thy stomach's sake. we may say "the then king.

seventy-five drachmas. positive degree. and most astounding were those frightful yells. therefore demonstrative. modifies truths. and very few have number.What to tell in parsing. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. She made no reply. manly way. These points out what truths. this. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. 5. I ask nothing of you. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. Unfamiliar describes truths. To every Roman citizen he gives. (3) Its degree of comparison. (4) What word or words it modifies. if it has number. 4. compared by prefixing more and most. 10. then. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. with awkward but rapid pace. and I waited for none. Exercise. 9. the method of parsing is simple. . and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. therefore descriptive. 2. 170. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. plural number. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. across the plain. Since adjectives have no gender. In parsing an adjective. This gave the young people entire freedom. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. cannot be compared. or case. person. 8. if it can be compared. MODEL FOR PARSING. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. modifies the word truths. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. frank. 6. To every several man. not inflected for number. 7. (2) Its number. 3. having a singular.

Like most gifted men. it rests on reality. 26. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. is the settlement of our own country. 33. 32. those dogs in the yard. 19. I know not what course others may take. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. To say what good of fashion we can. and therefore more interesting to us. Nearer to our own times. and dogs. 21. during which time I waited. yonder oxen in the pasture. 12. are immutably fishes. In music especially. 25. Two hours elapsed. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. growing in the most unfavorable position. not so much for travelers that were few. With every third step. 27. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 31. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 28.11. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. 23. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 16. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. the same love to France would have been nurtured. oxen. he won affections with ease. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 29. Here lay two great roads. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 14. and many poles supported the lower ones. 20. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 13. as for armies that were too many by half. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 22. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. 24. it is so noble a fruit. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. . Their name was the last word upon his lips. 18. the tomahawk fell. suggests such thoughts as these.

would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. 37. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. 174. or the tane. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. the latter is still preserved in the expression.34. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. ARTICLES. for example. the other. weary-hearted man was he. th o. he is no literary man. Two relics. 172. An or a came from the old numeral n. such as we have been attempting to describe. but the former is used. the tither. that other. sometimes the tother. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. An before vowel sounds. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. . a before consonant sounds.²MACAULAY. the tother. even when not silent. with an ordinary little garden. 173. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . s o. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road." An with consonant sounds. 35. these occurring as the tane." "a European. 171. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. A hard-struggling.²SCOTT. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. just as adjectives do. Many writers use an before h. Examples: "a house. Our expressions the one." "a yelling crowd. An historian." the words the and an belong to nouns. later th .² We ca' her sometimes the tane. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized." "an orange. In the sentence. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. the tother. were formerly that one. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. that) which was also an article in Old English. In Middle English the became an article. ðat. in vulgar English. Their origin.²BREWER. meaning one." "an honor. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. and a before consonant sounds.

²HEROES OF ASGARD. thus. since it points out a particular individual. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. and not a state or other geographical division.. 176." the article indicates clearly that a river. The is the definite article.²COLERIDGE. or any individual of a group or class." "the Ohio. as "the Mississippi. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon.² . The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair.. or class. NOTE. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images.² Don't you remember how. To call attention to attributes. a person is introduced by a.²THACKERAY. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. 178. or group. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. Reference to a known object. on opening a story. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. is referred to. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. BANCROFT. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY.²IRVING. the older n.²This use is noticed when. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. as in the sentence. When the is prefixed to a proper name.. An article is a limiting word. not descriptive. 177. With names of rivers. Definition.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. and when the word river is omitted. doubtless. or a group or class of things. An and a are different forms of the same word. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. 175.²THOMAS JEFFERSON. An hereditary tenure of these offices. Kinds. Articles are either definite or indefinite. An or a is the indefinite article.²G. 179. which cannot be used alone. The Dakota tribes.

marks it as half abstract or a common noun.²KINGSLEY. Common. With plural of abstract nouns. The simple rise as by specific levity. but into the region of all the virtues. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²G. 2. The. Kant. BANCROFT. Half abstract. and the redwing. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. laid it on the miry spot. Schelling. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. 1. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.²EMERSON. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. With adjectives used as nouns. the gallant. NOTE. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. so is the evil. her.²GIBBON. the Spinoza.²ID. 181. His messages to the provincial authorities. as. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.²MOTLEY.² As she hesitated to pass on. throwing his cloak from his shoulders.² The faint. One thing for its class. the song sparrow. If the good is there. for example. not into a particular virtue. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. or a match put between the fingers. 183. . as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. etc.²SCOTT. Caution. would speedily extract the required information.²EMERSON. 182.²ID. For possessive person pronouns. the Hume. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 180.The Bacon. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

from the Latin transire. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. Each influences some object. and not a verb. the most penetrating. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis." put is the predicate. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. The nature of the transitive verb. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. 200: In (1). to go is no predicate. and. or the object. endured what? anguish. but cannot be predicates. etc. 201. b). or a material thing. as. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. a verb. representing something which it influences or controls. in (b). with some word understood."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. In the sentence. Hence Definition. and to receive the action expressed. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. an article." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. All these are called transitive verbs. "Put money in thy purse. a). to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. in (3. taking the staff which always guided her steps. in (2. Now. 204. A verb is a word used as a predicate. b). "Put thou money in thy purse. to say something to or about some person or thing. which may be a person. we consider a verb as one word. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. in (3. can deceive has an object. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. the most astute. Of those expressing action. hence is not a verb. for example. In giving a definition. which means to go over. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. the word following. care. Definition and caution. an adverb. The nature of intransitive verbs.In (a). all do not express it in the same way. obeyed is a predicate. By examining a few verbs. in (c). c). and shame the most astute. but fearing is not a predicate. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. a noun. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. 203. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii.²BULWER . may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. In the first. or an idea. a preposition. in (2. Has takes the object hypocrisy." Examine the sentences in Sec. (can) shame also has an object. In each case. lone took what? answer. 202. and a preposition unite as a verb. in this sentence from Bulwer.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. they were recorded in the Book of Life. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. as. I.²MACAULAY.²may or may not be true. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. 222. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. Condition or Supposition. Most excellent stranger.² Now. the writer can make the statement following. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. Ideal. the first great founder of the Empire.²FRANKLIN. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same.²BRYCE. 221. 2).I could lie down like a tired child. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. ²EMERSON. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same.²LONGFELLOW. 215.² If. and may or may not be regarded true.²D. . might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. Unreal²cannot be true. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. he will see the need of these ethics. popular government must be pronounced impossible.²SHELLEY. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. or be fulfilled. WEBSTER. in our case. Again. If this be the glory of Julius. but. for example. as. the representative system ultimately fail.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. the second founder.

²SWIFT. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. NOTE. II. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. 223. 6. In the following conditional clauses. but when the verb precedes the subject. is of similar physiognomy. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. 3. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. as. Exercise. melodious. 7. The subjunctive.²CALHOUN. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. thus.² If these things were true.²BAYNE. Subjunctive of Purpose. is used to express purpose. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. especially be. and what kind of condition:² 1. to drink strong beer. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. since he [Byron] was dead. Epaminondas. may. If he had reason to dislike him. and should. the clause being introduced by that or lest. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. and striven energetically to save Ney. 4. if his lot had been mine.. that he might be strong to labor. if he was the man I take him for. WILLIS. etc. which cannot be true.² CARLYLE. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.²EMERSON. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed.²MACAULAY. 2.. But in no case could it be justified. . Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. and sonorous. The voice. 5. 8.²FRANKLIN.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. would have sat still with joy and peace. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. would you.²N. do you think. he had better not have written..²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. clear. P. that we cannot but regret its absence. he supposed. except. ²LOWELL. unless. society could not hold together. if he speak to you." etc. though. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. I told him. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. she was regarded as a prodigy.²FRANKLIN.² It was necessary. might..

V. like the Latin. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.Thou go not..²SOUTHEY. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro.²WORDSWORTH.²CARLYLE. 226. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. 224. Subjunctive of Result. .²ID. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.²BRYANT.²DE QUINCEY. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. Rise up. Let it rise.²COLERIDGE.I have been the more particular.. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. The English subjunctive. In Indirect Questions.. In a Noun Clause. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. within its fairy bowers. WEBSTER. like the quarry-slave at night.²D. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.And we. till it meet the sun in his coming. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. III. the answer being regarded as doubtful. I would it were! ²EMERSON. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. VII. 227. IV. In Temporal Clauses. To tell of what had passed. Ask the great man if there be none greater. After a verb of wishing. Expressing a Wish.That vain it were her eyes to close.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.²MOORE. VI. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there.. none of us could say.Were wafted off to seas unknown. So live. 225. I've wished that little isle had wings.

To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. object.Subject. Object.²THOREAU. often contains a subjunctive. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. 228. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. VIII. Concessive Clauses.²DE QUINCEY. The essence of originality is not that it be new. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.² DICKENS. we'll turn aside. Complement. in apposition.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. is.And see the Braes of Yarrow.²COLERIDGE.²TENNYSON. etc. which may be (a) Pronoun. After verbs of commanding. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. That hunger of applause. Come. (b) Adjective.²CARLYLE.And look thou tell me true.² Be the matter how it may.²SCOTT. The noun clause. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. . Some might lament that I were cold. is the ultimate fact of man's life.²SHELLEY. 229. The first merit. Whatever betide.²WORDSWORTH. I have no thought what men they be.²COLERIDGE. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. for example.. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. tell me all that thou hast seen. of cash. or whatsoever victual it may be. that everything be in its place.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. in its various uses as subject. See that there be no traitors in your camp.

entreaties. Definition. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine.(c) Adverb. a concession.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. In spoken English. and condition contrary to fact. 231. point to their immortal works.²BRYANT. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. It must be remembered.²SHELLEY. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. ADAMS. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. 232.The spirit he loves remains. IMPERATIVE MOOD.²J.² CARLYLE. since commands are directed to a person addressed. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Q. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. to express a wish. love all men. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. 230. (1) Command. At the present day. Usually second person. Oh. (2) Entreaty. however. Honor all men. though. fear none. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. (3) Request. or requests. . for example. we had found [should have found] a poem here. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected.²CHANNING.

we may use the imperative with we in a command.. Whatever inconvenience ensue. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Sometimes with first person in the plural. lest we rust in ease.And God forget the stranger!" . This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Quoth she.²CAMPBELL. 2." whispered Kit.One glance at their array! 5. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4."²DICKENS Tell me.²SCOTT.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Oh. etc. "Come along with me. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. 6. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. there will her heart and her prayers be. Part we in friendship from your land. nothing is to be preferred before justice. noble earl. receive my hand.And. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. 8."Hush! mother. Break we our watch up." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. to you implied in it. Mark thou this difference. or I + they." Exercises on the Moods. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. 7. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID.. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. 3. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. etc. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. child of earth!While each performs his part. request. "The Devil take the goose. but I + you.²SHAKESPEARE.

my dear madam. Though abyss open under abyss. Marshall. "Oh. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. ruined. He is. in what pomps and prosperities he like. no literary man. God send Rome one such other sight! 24.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. 21. 26. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. whether he do it right or wrong. That sheaf of darts. then.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. 11. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot." cried he. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause.High up in silver spikes! 22. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12." 25. as though an instrument. but repentant child.9. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. she ought to have it." continued Old Morgan. 13. 19. how he may do his work. will it not fall unbound.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. and opinion displace opinion. let him live where else he like.That they might answer him. Think not that I speak for your sakes.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. 10." 16. or do it at all. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. 14. Though he were dumb. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.Except. 20. He. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. Well. it would speak. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. 18. "Mr. That a man parade his doubt. 23. "tell me where I may find my poor. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. Forget thyself to marble. .

The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. 234. Siddons. past. and future perfect tenses. or whether it were as one member of a general party. Old English had only two tenses. called auxiliaries. which represented present and future time. as will be shown later on.²nothing could exceed the amiable." . The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. past perfect. and future. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. shall. or future time. a form ending in -eth.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages." present. 233. "Thou walkedst. Meantime. in the conjugations. have. TENSE. whatever she did. tell him to wait. will. five in the imperative. 235. or agree with it. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. the past. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. PERSON AND NUMBER. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. Tenses in English. "It is not in man that walketh. kind. as the classical languages have. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. Tense means time. in the third person singular." "If he comes. to direct his steps. 28. "I go away tomorrow. by means of the present. "Thou walkest. Definition. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. such as Latin and Greek.² present.27.²the present tense. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. past. as. such as be." past. When the older pronoun thou was in use. and the future tense. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. also. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. as. The tenses in detail. and the past tense. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. five in the subjunctive.

Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. etc. You (thou) be 3. Singular 1. and numbers. singular number. 236. been. is. moods. [He] is [They] are 3. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. "He walks. Such verbs as choose have five. choosest. as. tense. Few forms.²choose. chooseth. Singular 1. 237. wert) 3. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. PRESENT TENSE.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. 238. Indicative Mood. for example. walkedst. The verb be has more forms. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. You are 2. Definition. chosen (old. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. tenses. since it is composed of several different roots. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. walking. chosest)." and this only in the present tense indicative. persons. walketh. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. Singular 1. walks. Singular 1. chooses. were. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. I were 2. walk has walk. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. CONJUGATION. mood. but in English. walked. are. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. chose. choosing. PRESENT TENSE. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. [He] were [They] were . etc. In classical languages.²am. This is the third person. I be 2.

though it is usually a dialect form. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. same as the German sind. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. (d) With the infinitive. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.²WORDSWORTH.²SHELLEY. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. to form the passive voice. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.²BURKE . Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. etc. etc.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light.. (2) As auxiliary verbs.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. (3) be.²ID.²THACKERAY. (b) With the past participle in -ed. The light that never was on sea and land. obligation. 240. in four ways. were. 239. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be.Imperative Mood.His infancy was nurtured. thus.. Instead of the plural are. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²SCOTT. condition. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. is.²GOLDSMITH. to express intention. Remarks on the verb be. (2) was. for example. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. which was now become an occasional banquet. -en. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. as.

tenses. as. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. PRESENT TENSE. "I had gone" (past perfect). INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. You chose Plural. Singular. Indicative Mood. tenses. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. by placing have. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. 1. 240. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). . [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. (2). 1. 1." (2) Present perfect. Machinery of a verb in the voices. Singular. I chose 2. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. Singular. had. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. etc. "I shall be." "He will choose. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. as. 1. You choose Plural. I choose 2. past perfect. I choose 2. future perfect. Singular. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. You choose Plural. We chose You chose 3. We chose You chose 3. I chose 2.241. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. [He] choose [They] choose 3. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. You chose Plural. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. In addition to the above inflected forms. PRESENT TENSE. "I have gone" (present perfect). 242.

The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Present. Present perfect. (2d per. Present perfect definite. Present perfect definite. Future. Present definite. Present. he have chosen. Past. Past definite." "They had been running." (4) The passive forms. "I am running. lest. of each tense. Past definite. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. as. "I was chosen. He is choosing. He has chosen. Indicative Mood. Present perfect. He has been choosing. Past perfect definite. He will have chosen. Past perfect. He will choose. Imperative Mood." 243. etc. " " " " " " " he be choosing. he were choosing (or were to be choosing).(3) The definite form of each tense.] he choose. " Be choosing. He will he choosing. Future perfect. will be given. He chooses. Past. he have been choosing. he chose (or were to choose). He was choosing. Only the third person. Subjunctive Mood. . [If. ACTIVE VOICE. Same as indicative. He had been choosing. Present definite. Future definite. He chose. Present. He had chosen. He will have been choosing. singular number." "You are chosen. Past perfect. as. Present definite. Same as indicative.) Choose. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Future perfect definite. though. Past perfect definite.

He was chosen. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Future. "He does strike. None. (2d per. None. " " " " " " " None. None. He is chosen. lest. None. Present. Past definite. None. Imperative Mood.. PASSIVE VOICE." [Note to Teacher. he were being chosen. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Past. 262). Present perfect." "He did strike. he had been chosen. None. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Subjunctive Mood. but verbals. however. Future perfect definite. Past Perfect. he have been chosen. Indicative Mood. etc. Past perfect definite. .²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. as. He has been chosen. Future definite. He will be chosen. Present tense. Exercises should be given. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. He will have been chosen. Present. Also.) Be chosen. Past. He had been chosen. they will be discussed later (Sec.] he be chosen.] [If.NOTE. Future perfect. Present perfect. Present perfect definite. Past perfect. though.²This table is not to be learned now. Present definite. in affirmative sentences. Present definite. if learned at all. He was being chosen. He is being chosen. Past definite. Past perfect definite. Present perfect definite.

Some of these also have weak forms. but adds no ending. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. bounden] bitten. slept. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. as. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. 244. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. Kinds. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. verbs are strong or weak. catch. According to form. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. drive. laid. run. Definition. ran. drove. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . bit blown broken chidden. which are in parentheses Present Tense.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. and may or may not change the vowel: as. lay. Past Tense. 245.[adj. sleep. bid bound. caught. begged. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. NOTE. beg.

eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drunken] driven eaten.

sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. sunken] sat slain slidden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. trod worn woven won wound . slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.

and. only one set remains certain. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. cloven. and another (born) for the passive.²COLERIDGE.²MILTON. nor a dog barked. Historically. . it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). Not a cock crew.²B. Sometimes in literary English. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. How fairy Mab the junkets eat."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. Crew is seldom found in present-day English.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated).²one meaning to adhere or cling.²IRVING.²TENNYSON. probably to avoid confusion with this.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. cleaved. Our cock. TAYLOR.²cleave. cleaved. The form clomb is not used in prose." "the cloven hoof. as. "his bounden duty. as. as. The former used to be cleave. cleave. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. but is much used in vulgar English. instead of ate and eaten. now told us it was time for repose. as (from Holmes). clave or clove. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. which always crew at eleven. 246.²as (from Shakespeare).²GOLDSMITH." "a drunken wretch. to split. the other. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. "stricken with paralysis. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as.² Thou hast clomb aloft. ²THACKERAY." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. and sometimes occurs in poetry." In this confusion of usage.² We had each drank three times at the well." "a sunken snag. for example. borne is also a passive. When it means to carry or to endure. especially in that of an earlier period.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. and the latter. cleft (to split). cleft.

²SCOTT.²BIBLE. Shake.² We had all got safe on shore. 9. and seized a pen. Freeze.²WORDSWORTH. Usually shear is a weak verb. 10. One example out of many is. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. . Fling. shaken. Fall. Drive. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. frozen. broke.²TENNYSON. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. froze. even in poetry.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. Begin. as "a shorn lamb. fell. begun. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. fallen. 4. given. 7. Exercises. threw. 8.² If. flung. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. The butler was hanged.²DE FOE. gave. for example. shook.The form gotten is little used. 3. Give. maiden. 2. flung. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town."²KINGSLEY. found. 5. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Throw. Break. drove. thrown." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. which is seldom used except in poetry. as. We usually say. began. broken. He sate him down. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. 6. found. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Find. for example. This heard Geraint. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. driven.²BYRON. and grasping at his sword." but not much as a participle. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. shore is rare. 245). (a) From the table (Sec.

Like must. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. His superiority none might question. Can is used in the indicative only. (See also Sec. must have been an ocular deception. "far off his coming shines. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. there is one general principle.²PAINE. Must is historically a past-tense form. Ability.²CHANNING. for full drill on the forms. . but came through analogy with should and would.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE.. etc. ability. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. as it sometimes does. The l in could did not belong there originally. Could may be subjunctive. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. which survives in the sentence. as in Sec. They are as follows:² PRESENT. 250. It is indicative when it expresses permission. "So mote it be. or. 251. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. Indicative Use: Permission. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed.²SCOTT.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. of course. etc.. 249. PAST.[To the Teacher. according to the infinitive used. as it has two meanings.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. 223.²CHANNING This. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. Have we valuable territories and important posts." Must is present or past tense. from the obsolete verb motan. as.²HAWTHORNE. The same remarks apply to ought.. 220. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. purpose. it is used only in the indicative mood. Subjunctive use. PAST. or when it expresses wish. PRESENT. 247.. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. HAMILTON.."²WINIER.

(b) In questions asking for orders.² With respect to novels. The sea shall crush thee.. not plod along like apeasant.²THAXTER. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. and corn to hoe. shall and should are used. The following are examples:² Never mind. to use will and would. She rejects his suit with scorn.² (a) To express authority. WEBSTER. for example. what shall I say?²N.e. she should ride like a queen. Second and third persons. She should not walk. I shall be gone. shall and should are used. BROCKDEN BROWN. while ought always has to. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. especially in the United States. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C.² Futurity and questions²first person. as." Uses of shall and should. They shall have venison to eat.²COOPER. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. (b) In indirect quotations. with pronouns of the first person.²L. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. he said. .²LONGFELLOW. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. future action). through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. promise.Nay.² The time will come full soon. C.²IRVING. in the form of command. "I think I will go.²BULWER.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. MOULTON. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. my lad. as. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. to the neglect of shall and should. Shall and Will.²MACAULAY. as. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. or confident prediction.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. yea. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. 252.

²A. And promised. Disguising a command.²H. when the answer expected would express simple futurity... BROWN. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. JR.²BYRON. or a promise.² I will go myself now. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. and will not return until all is finished.²SCOTT. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition.that I would do him justice. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. with the conviction that he should win in the end. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. as.. . Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. was to be expected. for example. time.²SWIFT. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. (c) With direct questions of the second person. 253.²CABLE. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution.²WINTER.²C. second and third persons.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation.²WORDSWORTH. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. as the sole inventor.²WORDSWORTH. etc. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. First. and is equivalent to ought.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. for example. JAMES.²WORDSWORTH. thus. purpose. LARNED. I never was what I should be.²ROGERS. B. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.

Mere futurity.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. and fetch off certain plate and belongings.²LANDOR. as. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE.² Thou wilt take the skiff. In this stately chair would he sit. B. for example. To be sure. when thou wast born.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). PASSIVE VOICE. will and would are used to express simple futurity. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. and two of my people. This puts the order more mildly. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. as.²BANCROFT. through storms their brothers are afraid of. action merely expected to occur.. BROWN.²SCOTT. will is used to express command. will and would often denote an action as customary. The gift of Beauty.. (4) With FIRST..² DICKENS. .²IRVING. as if it were merely expected action. 254.. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.²SCOTT.²the original meaning of the word will.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. Would thou hadst it not.. would is used to express a wish. Thine was a dangerous gift. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. They will go to Sunday schools. for punishment or intimidation.. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. and mark on the grounds the works. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. etc. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. Roland. without regard to future time.² Subject I omitted: often so. AND THIRD PERSONS. for example.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.²War Records. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. When I am in town. so you will. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked.²BURKE. SECOND. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.

write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will." answered Herbert stubbornly. etc. [He] will choose. 6. 1. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. You shall be chosen. 2. You shall choose. Plural. PASSIVE VOICE. To express determination. 4. 3. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. You shall choose. I will be chosen. You will choose. 2. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. Exercises on Shall and Will. Thou shalt have a suit. (b) Examine the following sentences. 3. [They] shall be chosen. 2. 2. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. (a) From Secs. You will be chosen. "I shall not run. We will be chosen. 3. Singular. . You will choose.:² ACTIVE VOICE. [They] shall choose. 1. 3. We shall be chosen. [He] will be chosen. promise. 1. Plural. yet only seem. [They] will be chosen. and justify the use of shall and will. 3. 2. Plural. Singular. Singular. [He] shall choose. He informed us. Thou art what I would be. and that of the newest cut. You shall be chosen. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. I shall choose. I will choose. [They] will choose. We will choose. 3. 252 and 253. Plural. 1. I shall be chosen. You will be chosen. 2. We shall choose. 5. [He] shall be chosen.Singular. 1.

256. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. 10.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. 257.²Class I. Irregular Weak Verbs. set. as. bereaved besought . stirred her slightly with his muzzle. 255.²ID. very anxious. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. bereave beseech bereft. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this.²CHAUCER. put. 9. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. bereave besought Past Participle. Lucy stood still. WEAK VERBS. No. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. then. as if he would have more of the enchantment. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. and I have nothing to say. or mylk and wastel breed." 14. Without having attended to this. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. bereft. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. put. 12. But the rest. Past Tense. set. put. This ending has now dropped off." the stranger said. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. was -de or -te. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. my son. "I am a wayfarer. Present Tense.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. which may be called irregular weak verbs. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries.7. The old ending to verbs of Class II. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. need some attention and explanation. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. and have no change of vowel. 13. Of smale houndes hadde she. The beast made a sluggish movement. 11.

pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leapt left lost meant paid penned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. hid kept knelt laid leaned. leant leaped. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

ACTIVE VOICE. 10. [To] be chosen. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. In Sec.. to was used before the infinitive generally. Perfect. INFINITIVES. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. 268. 8. when inflections became fewer.. 9. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. and a perfect definite form. try clemency. But later. [To] have been chosen. I returned to reflection on my situation. expressing purpose. . like participles. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Imperfect. [To] be choosing. an indefinite and a perfect form. have no tense. PASSIVE VOICE. To with the infinitive. and when passive. Cases when to is omitted. will (with should and would). [To] have been choosing. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Indefinite. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. [To] have chosen. Nothing of the kind having been done. a perfect. to express action unconnected with a subject. Infinitives. 7. 266. 267. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). as in the Old English. Three saplings. Indefinite. When active. an imperfect.. Perfect definite. Perfect. formed a kind of bedstead.²the creature warring against the creating power. [To] choose.6. they have an indefinite. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends.

.²IRVING. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win.²GOLDSMITH. sometimes need (as. 271. But there was nothing to do. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.²MACAULAY. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. can (could). must. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. as in the expression. hear. "He will choose." etc.. 272. GERUNDS. poor woman!" cried Charles. "He need not go") and dare (to venture).²TENNYSON. HALE. and like a noun in use. negative. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. it is often preceded by the definite article.²it may be governed as a noun. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning.²COOPER. too. watch. feel." (4) In exclamations. They shall have venison to eat.²DE QUINCEY. do (as. "I do go" etc. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. as. "a house to let. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. or the object of a verb or a preposition." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. under "Analysis. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. see. and emphatic forms of the present and past. E. While the gerund expresses action. also let. and corn to hoe. "She ask my pardon. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. bid (command). 270.(2) After the verbs may (might). learn [doth learn is one verb.² What! doth she.²E. it may be the subject of a verb.).² She was a kind. please. liberal woman. as. also in the imperative. as the credulous imagine. The gerund is like the participle in form. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. make.²HOWELLS. it has several attributes of a noun." "I shall have chosen. as. 269." Examples are.

Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. Then how pleasing is it. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. above. making the definite tenses. and wonderful store of learning! . (2) Pure participles. What a vast. but do not assert. (3) Participial adjectives. 273. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. on your leaving the spot. 4. to see the returning hope of the parents." "Certainly dueling is bad. (6) Verbal nouns. 2. which express action. (4) Pure adjectives." also (2. which express action and also modify. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. Exercise. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. which name an action or state. II). brilliant. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. five infinitives. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. which express action. and has been put down. after examining the nest. may govern and be governed. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. but cannot govern. which have lost all verbal force." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274.²Find sentences containing five participles. and five gerunds." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. Sec. Words in -ing are of six kinds. b)." Exercise." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. when. according to use as well as meaning. (5) Gerunds." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun.

but. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. Caution. he gave out sentence by sentence. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. by object lessons. 14. VERBS. 16. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. (b) as to use. bearing her national emblem. . (2) Voice. What is dreaming? 8. much corroded.5.²transitive or intransitive.²strong or weak. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 7. round which is an iron railing. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. slowly.²which of the tenses given in Sec. 275. I suppose I was dreaming about it. or imperative. The only means of ascending was by my hands. write twenty pages without stopping. give reality to your teaching. 13. In parsing verbs. 9. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. like Sir Walter Scott.²indicative. He spread his blessings all over the land. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature.²active or passive. 15. 12. 10. I. 6. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. (4) Tense. (5) Person and number. (3) Mood. 234. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. subjunctive. dictating from his chair. giving principal parts. you must. Thackeray did not. 11.

(a) From what verb derived. till it meet the sun in his coming. (b) whether indefinite. indicative. has for its subject Lee. active. (b) whether active or passive. ." Sometimes it does. In such sentences as 1. 235. The government might have been strong and prosperous. call should a weak verb. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. Take these examples:² 1. followed by a pure infinitive without to. therefore active. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. and parting day linger and play on its summit. may. might. III. past tense. Parse the verbs. In 2. (c) to what word it belongs. past tense. (1) Participle. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. indicative (as it means could). verbals. etc. 2. VERBALS. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. has the subject government. If a participial adjective. then parse it as an adjective. Especially frequent are those made up of should. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth.. 278. etc. 278(2). The verb be has more forms than other verbs. imperfect. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. no sin nor sorrow. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. can. perfect. Exercise. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. definite. 4. and should always be analyzed as phrases. But unless the verb is present. we must beware of the rule. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. 277. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance.276. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. call might a weak verb. would. in the world. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. It has been intimated in Sec." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. usually it does not. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. You are gathered to your fathers. must. 2. VERB PHRASES. 273). intransitive. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. give points (a) and (b). and ends in -s. see Sec. II. and not taken as single verbs. 3. (2) Infinitive. perfect. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. Let it rise! let it rise. could. (3) Gerund. (b) its use (Sec. intransitive.

He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. morning is not a new issuing of light. 9. However that be. 24. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. see that it is in good condition. a new waking up of all that has life. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 17. In going for water. as usual. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. Whatever ground you sow or plant. 10. He passed across the room to the washstand. Right graciously he smiled on us. 16.O God. as rolled from wing to wing. a new bursting forth of the sun. 20. 13. 11. 15. So. 21. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. When he arose in the morning. 23. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. a deafening shout.Down all the line. 14. 19. 18. . or. The soul having been often born. 8. 6. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. 22. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. he thought only of her. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. as the Hindoos say. With them. leaving me upon the bed. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. "God save our Lord the King!" 7.Henceforth in me instill. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. and wondered if she were yet awake. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things.5. 12." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. from a sort of temporary death. a sweet good will.

"William's private life was severely pure. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. 27. as. place." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. and live ere life be spent. 29. 279. Is it only poets. and men of leisure and cultivation. . and limit adjectives or adverbs. The word adverb means joined to a verb. to consent. to speak truly.²EMERSON.²THACKERAY. Adverbs modify." An adjective or an adverb.²CARLYLE."²DE QUINCEY. Better it were. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. And now wend we to yonder fountain. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. ADVERBS." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. for example. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. and so on. thou sayest. When action is expressed." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. or manner: as. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28.Feast while we may. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. who live with nature?²ID.25. because.²SHELLEY. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. A verb. Oh." "He was absolute. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. 26.² The young man reveres men of genius.²time. they are more himself than he is. To the almost terror of the persons present. for the hour of rest is at hand. Nor was it altogether nothing.

and rather forced into the service of adjectives.² LOWELL. 169 are felt to be elliptical. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. etc. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. . which may qualify an action word or a statement. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. B. there are six classes:² (1) Time. not simply the forms used in predication. not the noun. Surely happiness is reflective. is a modifying word.²LEIGH HUNT. has induced some of us to attend it.² FRANKLIN. 280. Thus considered. Make music to the lonely ear. 169. as shown in the sentences.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. ²IRVING. all wet and glossy. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. NOTE.²These last differ from the words in Sec. for example. 281.²T. An adverb. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. A clause or sentence. but really modifying. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. NOTE. I draw forth the fruit. and half awfully. thus. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. A phrase. (2) according to their use in the sentence. before. then. It may also modify a sentence. We are offered six months' credit. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. being adverbs naturally and fitly. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. lately. and that. but some verb understood. Definition. or a word group used as such. as now. while those in Sec.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past.²BYRON. to-day. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING.He was incidentally news dealer.²THOREAU. ALDRICH.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. as.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. 282. perhaps. but still with a rich bloom to it.²TROLLOPE. hitherto. ever. like the light of heaven.

etc.yonder. 283).²R. (see also Sec. partly. and others. while so precedes only the adjective usually.thither. enough.whence. etc. that these adverbs form a very large class. bravely. telling how anything is done. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. slightly.was for this once of her opinion. not. especially the comparative of these words.²LECKY.²IRVING.. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.where. (4) Number. much.²SHAKESPEARE. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. as perhaps. 283. greatly. the more friends you will have. This long's the text. [Sidenote The status of such. as little. The more they multiply. etc. at least. probably. as hence. maybe. Thackeray.whither. singly.. just. slowly. telling how many times: once. the more perfect will be their obedience.²HAWTHORNE. (3) Manner. for example.. White. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. the more evidently they love liberty.near. two by two. surely. LOUIS STEVENSON.there. as well. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE.which gained him such universal popularity. Meekness. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English.² The master. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. better.²BURKE.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. very. . (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. etc. too. So also in Grote.(2) Place.²DE QUINCEY.thence. etc.. or how far he believes it to be true. possibly. as here. twice. telling how much. Motley.. etc. I was. whithersoever. as hither. beautifully. above. thus. (6) Assertion.²BROWNING. whencesoever.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. Emerson. (5) Degree. and not infrequently are found in literary English.

for example. Such are most of those given already in Sec. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. 282.² KINGSLEY.² "Mighty well. Neville. Beau Fielding.²THACKERAY. and art but a fool. Direct questions. De Quincey. besides modifying. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. for example. A pretty large experience." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Emerson."²SCOTT. It is only occasionally used in literary English." said the king. Pretty is also used by Prescott.²FIELDING." "The house. Defoe. "Peace. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. Some adverbs.²"He walked too far [place]. Kingsley.²THACKERAY. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now." "He spoke positively [manner]. Franklin. Notice meanings. 284. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Hard blows and hard money. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Dickens. Burke.²BAYNE. Aldrich.²GOLDSMITH.² You are mighty courteous. Again. Holmes. STOWE. Simple. 286.Pretty. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Interrogative. 285." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE.²HAWTHORNE. and other writers." "I have seen you before [time]. B. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Mighty. . All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. have the additional function of asking a question." "That were far better [degree].²BULWER. a mighty fine gentleman. and its lawn before [place].

When did this humane custom begin?²H. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. (4) Degree. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. I know not why. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. for example. WEBSTER. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. I do not remember when I was taught to read.²D. . while having the office of adverbs in modifying.²POE. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.²BULWER. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. (2) Place. I will not ask where thou liest low. they smiled.²BYRON.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. (5) Reason.²BYRON (3) Manner. CLAY. I hearkened. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. (2) Place.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. (4) Degree. 287. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.

representing four classes. obs. Many adverbs are compared. Tell what each word in ly modifies. 290.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. as. Many adjectives have the same ending. use. soon. further farthest.²EMERSON.²TENNYSON. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. . Superlative. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. when does not express time and modify.²SHAKESPEARE. only occasionally having -er and -est. have the same inflection as adjectives. highest. and. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence.²BYRON. well much little far late Comparative. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. not an adverb. For further discussion. soonest. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. when compared. higher. Then must she keep it safelier. The following." Exercise.. see Sec. Form vs. Only that we may wiselier see. irregularly compared.) rather 289. but the whole clause.But in reality. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. just as adjectives do. 288. sooner.²COLERIDGE. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. high. Exercise. furthest (rathe. when. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. Its strings boldlier swept..eyes.

292.And his mien of kingly state. mostly.²CHAUCER. Such are most. . This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. The reason is.²THACKERAY.²TENNYSON. hard. With his proud.²IRVING. evenly. 4. 2." Compare these:² 1.² EMERSON. or down the leaves laughed through.²ID. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. quick-flashing eye.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. instead of being used adverbially. Frequently the word there. 8. more courtly in their manners. He is inexpressibly mean. near. kindly and good-natured in secret. 6. as. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.²WORDSWORTH. many words without -ly have the same form.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. And all about. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. 7. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. There are eyes. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. curiously jolly.1. etc. 291. 2. merely introduces a sentence. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. but with a different meaning. Not near so black as he was painted. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. even. But he must do his errand right. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. Special use of there. nearly. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. Again. to be sure. 3. if it has the verb be. whether adverbs or adjectives. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. hardly. 5. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. that in Old and Middle English.

and sate down on the steps of a house. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. however theoretically enticing. It is the Cross that is first seen. is always politically unwise. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 2. . the Madonna is in great glory. 11. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. The higher we rise in the scale of being. at the regular wine-shop. For the impracticable. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. but from my fall? 6. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. (2) Degree of comparison. In parsing adverbs. if the word is compared. according to meaning and also use. Exercise. but continually shifted. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. (3) What word or word group it modifies. give² (1) The class. 7. 17. 16. 12. burning in the center of the temple. 5. Thither we went. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 9. 293. But a few steps farther on. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 3. 4. and always. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 15. 18. 10. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness.

" "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. however. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. or sentence groups. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. Clauses." Sentences. connecting words. nor. sentences. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. hence. It was pretty bad after that. 294. 21. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. 22. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause." Paragraphs. 20. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. Unlike adverbs. etc. 295. . in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. upon which the sun now shone forth. word groups. then. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. therefore. CONJUNCTIONS." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases.19. but side by side within the American Union. but the student will readily find them. But now the wind rose again. A conjunction is a linking word. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. Definition.

word groups. and. had its weight... while. Nor mark'd they less.. as but. the bread was spent. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.... 297. .or. Alternative. joining words.. The chief ones are. whether. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. also.. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate.. however.. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. either. of the same rank.. and not man corn. neither. then. (2) ADVERSATIVE. usually between two things. nor. 298.. only.. neither.Classes of conjunctions.and. as and. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. Adversative. (4) ALTERNATIVE. as. likewise. 296. nor... neither.nor...or. as.but (or but also)." Nevertheless. as well as. therefore. either. introducing a reason or cause. still.... I have nothing to do with the governor and council. whether. etc. whether. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. "Howbeit. however. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.or. the window being open. (2) Subordinate.but. as well as the room door.. Some of these go in pairs. Correlatives.. The assertion. not only.or whether. moreover. or the sea rolls its waves. yet.nor. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. both. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.. for. the butter too. While the earth bears a plant.. either. serves but to show their ignorance. else. etc. expressing a choice. etc. not only. Some go in threes. They are or. Your letter.. answering to each other in the same sentence. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. Causal.or. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. but is emperor in his own right. hence. (3) CAUSAL.

howsoever. etc. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. (3) MANNER: how. so. except. though.²PAULDING. He is not only bold and vociferous. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. so that. as.²IRVING. nor green leaf. whenever.²DE QUINCEY. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. seeing. provided. ²ALLSTON. until. while. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. whence. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. unless. since. etc. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. so that. although. so. in case.. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. there will the heart be also. whereto.²J.²WILSON.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. as. 299.. (6) PURPOSE: that. lest. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. provided that. whither. after. in order that. whereas. etc. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. It is.²BURKE. etc. object. especially that after so. as.²BIBLE. on condition that. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. in apposition. nor creeping thing. (2) TIME: when. Where the treasure is. so. even if. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. wherever. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. Time. whithersoever. whether. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. nor echo.. that.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. ere. . QUINCY. Neither the place in which he found An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. (7) RESULT: that.. before. nor wing of bird. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican.²COOPER. sometimes if. however. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. now. etc. since.

I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. Result.That he gave her wounds repose.²COLERIDGE.²CARLYLE Events proceed.² HAWTHORNE.²AMES. Comparison. Cause. Let the world go how it will.²EMERSON. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. So many thoughts moved to and fro.² WORDSWORTH. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. Now he is dead.²BURKE.²EMERSON.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.² EMERSON. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. Manner. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life.²CAMPBELL. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. Then Denmark blest our chief.²AMES. JACKSON. but not so long but I held it out. I was again covered with water.That vain it were her eyes to close. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. Purpose. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend.² H.²EMERSON. . We wish for a thousand heads. H.²BYRON. a thousand bodies.²DEFOE. reason. Sparing neither whip nor spur. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. Condition. As a soldier. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²AMES.²IRVING. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. not as they were expected or intended. Substantive.So I behold them not. Concession.

(d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. 3. as. In what point of view. The moth fly. 6. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war.Let us see whether the greatest. hold a subordinate rank. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. some words²for example. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 300. And then recovering. as he shot in air. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. And they lived happily forever after. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. Exercises. 14. 2. 5. and hid her there. that. she faintly pressed her hand. since. While a faction is a minority. 7. 9. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. Crept under the leaf. while. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 12. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. After he was gone. it will remain harmless. While patriotism glowed in his heart. etc. They. her real merit is known at home. As will have been noticed. then. No one had yet caught his character. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. He was brought up for the church. the lady called her servant. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. 4. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. however. Besides. 15. 10. 13. the wisest.²RUSKIN. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. .

If analyzed. they connect. as is shown by the use of as though. 301. In Emerson's sentence.Clouded. 302. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. none of the lashings having given way.²HOOD. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. for example.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. Consequently." as. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. . SPECIAL REMARKS.. His voice . and the frame will suit the picture.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H.. As for as if.16. and part as though we parted not. as is often equivalent to as if. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. and be a bud again.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. (2) What words. 303. thus. As if.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.So slowly moved about.²BYRON. in this case. the expression would be." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. "We meet. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. As though. So silently we seemed to speak. even as they would weep.²IRVING.. word groups. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. etc. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS.²EMILY BRONTE.As though a rose should shut. expressing degree if taken separately. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. In poetry. GREELEY. 304. In parsing conjunctions.

the Sphinx was slain. because. they are not known. etc. or in the forest. and its clause depends on the other. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. and very seldom?" 8.. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result.²DEFOE 2. 9. 12. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. he is also the correlative of nature. compare the sentences. 7. 5.Caution. so it be faithfully imparted. as beside his own chimneys. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. but of the natural. "Doctor. The eye was placed where one ray should fall.² 1. he sleeps as warm. 2." said his wife to Martin Luther.²I find them true in Concord. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. and.²that the fairies do not like to be named. 4. and associates as happily. 3. when. All the postulates of elfin annals. Exercise. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. 11.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. so means therefore. It may be safely trusted. such as nor. so that I could not stir abroad. 6. Some conjunctions. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. 13. because it is his. .²EMERSON 3. He is the compend of time. It continued raining. are regularly of one particular class. and its clause is independent. At sea.²is subordinate of condition. or in the snow. in 2. and the like. For example. so means provided. others belong to several classes. When the gods come among men. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. that it might testify of that particular ray. 10. dines with as good an appetite. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. If he could solve the riddle. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. In classifying them. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. in 3. so they paddled on. so that expresses result. He dismisses without notice his thought.

14. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. And whether consciously or not. 24. when it was presented to them. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. 305. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. 21. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. 28. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. 20. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. Now you have the whip in your hand. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. There was no iron to be seen. 15. Goodness must have some edge to it. the whole conditions are changed. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. Still. 29. in many a heart. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. 18. that both were wayward. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 19. 30. It is clear. 23. For. won't you lay on? 17. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. therefore. PREPOSITIONS. It may be so in the majority of cases. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 25. 27. whose names I omit. I rejoice to stand here no longer. 26. enthroned. you must be. however. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. 22. she might have the family countenance. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him.²else it is none. in this they agree. of good novels only. I speak.. 16. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. save it were sinful like herself. .

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

²M.. At that time [the earth] was richer.²WARNER. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at rest. at least. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. by the ruins of nations.²R. etc. At St.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. Helena. at all. at once.²SWIFT. by many a million of acres. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. etc. at first. at war.²ALDRICH.²EVERETT.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. H. She saw the boat headed for her. at play. expressing the degree of difference. at the best. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. Exercise. at work. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. TAYLOR The angel came by night. by the blessed memory of the departed. For. D. by means near or close to. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation.²ID. at peace.²Find sentences with three different uses of at.²COOPER. 320. Like at. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at naught. at any rate. Exercise. at the worst.²B.² (1) The general meaning of place. Richard was standing by the window. the first port made by the ship. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. (2) Time. at length. (4) Measure of excess. at one. at random. . he stopped. 321. CONWAY.²DE QUINCEY. ²PARTON. STODDARD. at most. (3) Agency or means. as. By my faith. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. by the wrecks of time. By.

as to. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. a person or thing. For him.²HOLMES. . He and they were for immediate attack. (5) Reference. and leaped for joy. H." answered Master Brackett.²E. for famine.²LAMB. E. meaning with regard to. considering that etc. "Nay. ate her child. cause. "For a fool. Still. GARRISON. if your worship can accomplish that. or in spite of. etc. had a forest of poor relations. or extent of space. There are gains for all our losses.. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.²W. (8) Meaning notwithstanding."²SCOTT By my faith. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. An Arab woman.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies.²PARKMAN. he repented of his folly. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. "thou hast counseled wisely. for all slips of hers. (9) Motive.²IRVING. poor fellow. but a few sunsets since. HALE This is very common with as²as for me.²ID. (7) Concession.²PARKMAN. reason.²EMERSON. in behalf of. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. (3) Duration of time.One of Eve's family.²HOOD. (4) Substitution or exchange." said the Lady of Lochleven. as being. For the rest. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. meaning although..²STODDARD. for all his title. incitement to action. L. But the Colonel.²H. (6) Like as. the Colonna motto would fit you best. etc.(2) In favor of. BANCROFT.² RUSKIN.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. etc. they are now for us. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. meaning in the character of. The twilight being. respecting. for the benefit of.

322. from a desire of seeming valiant. From harmony. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. Exercise. ceased to be merciful. (1) Origin or source. cause.²HUME. The From Relation. (4) Motive.²HUXLEY. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. or reason.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. more. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. Exercise. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. 323.²Find sentences with three meanings of from.²MILTON. The king holds his authority of the people. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. if not a desperate man. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.²HALE.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. . The original meaning of of was separation or source. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. From. A distrustful. (2) Origin. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies.²HIGGINSON. H. Of. Like boys escaped from school.²H. nay.²BANCROFT. It was from no fault of Nolan's.²DRYDEN. (3) Time. like from.²ID. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. The young cavaliers. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. The general idea in from is separation or source.

bound with thongs of boar's hide. Other Relations expressed by Of.²ID. ²PARTON.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. . the finest army that Europe had yet seen.²HIGGINSON.²BOSWELL. The hills were bare of trees. beg. south of. free of.² HUXLEY. etc. as north of. out of the most unpromising materials. clear. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. (6) Partitive.²ALDRICH. acquitted them of. reason. He is away of his own free will. Of the Forty. You cannot make a boy know.²DICKENS II. deprivation. rob. E. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. More than one altar was richer of his vows.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. wide of. (d) With words expressing distance. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. (5) Expressing agency. etc. motive. free. A singular want of all human relation. White shirt with diamond studs.²LEW WALLACE.²BAYARD TAYLOR. purge.²SCOTT Who formed. ask. (b) After some adjectives. such as ease. there were only twenty-one members present. etc. expressing a part of a number or quantity. Sandals. etc. "I am glad of that. especially out of. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. etc. bare of. that Cromwell once ruled England.²clear of. relieve. and grass. cure. HALE. demand. weeds. Back of that tree. (3) With expressions of material.²PARKMAN. rid."²E.. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. ²GAVARRE. disarm. divest. Asked no odds of. or breastpin of native gold.²BANCROFT. (c) After nouns expressing lack. of his own knowledge. deprive.

Idiomatic use with verbs.²BANCROFT. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. Besides the phrases of old. (b) Noun and gerund.²W. See also Sec. with its object.²SWIFT. when the first is descriptive of the second.²LAMB. CHANNING. with regard to. being equivalent to an infinitive. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. of late. (7) Possessive. concerning.. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. etc. equal to about. E. 309. (8) Appositional. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. ²IRVING. The fair city of Mexico. standing.He washed out some of the dirt. could give shelter from his contumely. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. (10) Of reference.²LOWELL.²BANCROFT. for the possessive. Not even woman's love.²ALDRICH.²ID. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. of is used in the sense of during. (c) Two nouns.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²HALLECK. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²PRESCOTT. (9) Of time.²FROUDE.²COOPER.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. and the dignity of a queen. The nation of Lilliput. of a sudden. Such a book as that of Job. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes.²BANCROFT. . I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.

Exercise. accept. you are eighteen. The general meaning of on is position or direction.²Find sentences with six uses of of. 324. on board. on a sudden. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. On my life. SIGOURNEY. on view. It also accompanies the verbs tire. on high.²ALDRICH. concerning. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. (2) Time.²BRYANT. To. ²BANCROFT. allow. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. approve. avail (one's self).²EMERSON. (b) With motion. Upon my reputation and credit. etc. 325. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs.²MRS. etc. complain.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. Exercise.²DE QUINCEY. on the alert. equal to about.²PARKMAN.²PARKMAN. permit. and others. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. consist. (3) Reference. repent. . On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. on trial. (4) In adjurations. and not a day more. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. without adding to their meaning. Upon is seldom used to express time. such as admit. Cannon were heard close on the left.²PARKMAN. On. Upon. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. disapprove. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. on the wing.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon.

²B.²LANG. unmasked. had ceased to be. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. (2) Expressing result.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. Nor. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. mid meant in company with.²GOLDSMITH. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.²PARKMAN. 326. does the mere music. His brother had died. it may be genuine poetry. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²PARTON. 268)..²Find sentences containing three uses of to. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. We cook the dish to our own appetite. (b) Referring to time. Death!²HALLECK.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. To the few. (5) Equivalent to according to.Come to the bridal chamber. gay Comedy appears. to him. be written over.²BULWER.. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.²IRVING. But when. interest. With. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²BENTON To our great delight. . Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. He usually gave his draft to an aid.. to my taste. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry..²BRYANT. In Old English. whose influence is felt to this hour.²HALE.²often to the loss of vigor. Revolutions.

reason. opinion.²COOPER. or with the haunch of our near leader. felt it unsafe to trifle further.²LANG. Exercise. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. motive. (3) Cause. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. Messala. E. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²EMERSON.²DE QUINCEY. HALE. It seemed a supreme moment with him.²ALDRICH. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. it is necessary. He expired with these words. as with you. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²SCOTT. he gave millions to the sword.²E. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. first of all.²HALE.The advance. He was wild with delight about Texas.²HOWELLS. (2) Instrumentality.²HOWELLS. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. 327.²COLERIDGE. Either with the swingle-bar. "poetry is not a pursuit. With all his sensibility. (4) Estimation.²DE QUINCEY. but with you. I think. .²Find sentences with four uses of with. but a pleasure"?²LANG. with all his boldness.²CHANNING. (5) Opposition. had already reached the defile. in spite of. with Heyward at its head. She seemed pleased with the accident. to find the object of the preposition. transmitted from the beginning.²WALLACE (7) Time. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.

that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. of from. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. and knocked me down flat on my face. Whereupon. because I had given the provocation. I looked towards my windows. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. shook it directly over my head. of without. In (1). Be that as it will. I remember. In (3). and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. the malicious rogue. And so on. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. I felt my box raised very high in the air. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. I heard a noise just over my head. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. like the clapping of wings. (2) on which. To our general surprise. hence we say. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. The object of on board is ships. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. of on. telling what man. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. by which a dozen apples. beginning. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. or was. In (2). The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. I called out several times. without a country modifies man. (4) from the beginning. came tumbling about my ears. 4. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. but I received no other hurt. but all to no purpose. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. he followed us one day into those gardens. 5. 3. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. we met the defaulter here. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. the phrase answers the question where. The guns were cleared of their lumber.²ID. (3) without a country. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. country. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. . and then borne forward with prodigious speed. which. I speak these things from a love of justice. Exercises.²SWIFT 2. before the dwarf left the queen. 2.

Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 8. grasping at the child. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 11. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service.He spurred his courser on. With all his learning. The savage army was in war-paint. 13. 17. 10. The mother sank and fell. 21. in this respect. On all subjects known to man. he favored the world with his opinions. plumed for battle. after a restful morning. 16.6. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 29. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 26. 22. 20.Without stop or stay. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. His breeches were of black silk. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. . 14. in town. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 9. to one dark and gloomy. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. I like to see the passing. For my part. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 24. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 18. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 19. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 7. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. 23. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. 27. 25. Carteret was far from being a pedant. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 12. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. He locked his door from mere force of habit. when. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. 15.

(2) As an adjective pronoun. (4) As an adverb of degree. (1) Relative pronoun.²WEBSTER. 330. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.30. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (b) Of result.²HUXLEY. 328. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.²WEBSTER. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. That night was a memorable one. (c) Substantive conjunction. And now it is like an angel's song. and not according to form.²WEBSTER. (a) Indefinite relative.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.That makes the heavens be mute. WHAT. THAT. He will raise the price. and be proud in the midst of its toil.²STOCKTON. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. 329. That is what I understand by scientific education. not merely by the amount of the tax. A few are discussed below.²BEECHER.² JOHNSON.²COLERIDGE. We wish that labor may look up here. that you might behold this joyous day. (3) As a relative pronoun. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. . That was a dreadful mistake.

His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. What.. (9) As an exclamation. (b) Indirect question. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. (b) Indirect question.but. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. and silent all!²BYRON. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.. (b) Copulative.. (7) Adverb of degree. BUT. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. At what rate these materials would be distributed. he knows what good people are to be found there. but the result of calculation. If he has [been in America]." (4) Relative adjective. partly.these sounds are only to be heard..²ID.²EMERSON. "I'll tell you what. to see what might be hidden. What.. (6) Exclamatory adjective. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.. after not Pera.²ID.²THACKERAY. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.. What with the Maltese goats. silent still. or not only. it rests on reality.. who go tinkling by to their is impossible to determine. To say what good of fashion we can.²S. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.. 331. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union.Those shadowy recollections.S.Which be they what they may.²EMERSON. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.²WEBSTER. . (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question.Are yet the fountain light of all our day..²WORDSWORTH. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. Cox. nearly equivalent to partly. (8) Conjunction...

. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven.²IRVING. equivalent to that . meaning otherwise . at all moments. ²CARLYLE. As orphans yearn on to their mothers.²SCOTT. (5) Adverb.²SHELLEY. after a negative. (3) Preposition..²IRVING. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.. (b) Of manner. (2) Relative pronoun. AS. not. sometimes same.He yearned to our patriot bands. Who knows but. but piercing cries. (e) Introducing an appositive word. To lead but one measure. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.. (4) Relative pronoun. (c) Of degree. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.²MRS BROWNING.²LAMB. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.²CARLYLE. like the dog. 332. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. not. meaning only. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village.²FRANKLIN. than. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. or who . (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. towards order..²EMERSON... I shall see but little of it. not. (b) Substantive. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.²IRVING. after such. meaning except. stands for that .Then arose not only tears..²HAWTHORNE. . Doing duty as a guard. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. (d) Of reason. on all sides. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction.

No Emperor. They look. (1) An adjective. . The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. I do with my friends as I do with my books.²SHAKESPEARE. indeed. There is no statue like this living man. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. In this second use. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time.²LAMB.²MAYHEW. Note the difference between these two uses.² HAWTHORNE. like him awhile ago. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark.²HAWTHORNE. 333.² A timid. Give Ruskin space enough. Stirring it vigorously. like Martin was.²HIGGINSON. but this is not considered good usage: for example.²EMERSON. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²ALDRICH. like a cook beating eggs.²DARWIN.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. like summer ocean's. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. staring like a bewildered man. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. this. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks.²HALLECK. NOTE. ²PARKMAN.²LONGFELLOW. and as or as if takes its place.²CASS. This follows a verb or a verbal.-SCOTT. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.LIKE. Through which they put their heads. If the verb is expressed. but its verb is omitted. Introduces a clause. That face.²ALDRICH.²EMERSON. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. and is followed by a dative-objective. nervous child. and was clearly an adjective. like drops out. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. In each case.

and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.. . etc." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. What analysis is." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb].INTERJECTIONS. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. as. clauses introduced by conjunctions. Value of analysis. in separating them into their component parts. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. tut! buzz! etc. 334. Some of these are imitative sounds. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. Definition. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM." PART II. 336. but it still retains its identity as noun. it is necessary to become expert in analysis." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. subject and predicate. that is. etc. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. 335.: for example. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. entering into the structure of a sentence. Definition. verb. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. pronoun.²in determining case. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. that is.

hence. always friends?" imperative. Definition: Predicate. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. but the sentence would still be declarative. interrogative. not according to the form in which a thought is put.Kinds of sentences as to form. (2) Interrogative." 340. This is the most common one. you must not die!" interrogative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. "Old year. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. according to form. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. . 337. which puts the thought in a question.²a subject and a predicate." "What wouldst thou do. "Come to the bridal chamber. A rare old plant is the ivy green. which expresses command. But now all is to be changed. 338. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. Definition. or command: for example. "The quality of mercy is not strained. Examples of these three kinds are. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. question. declarative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. Every sentence must contain two parts. old man?" "Be thou familiar. entreaty. "Hath he not always treasures. 2. or imperative. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. but by no means vulgar. but according to how many statements there are. Division according to number of statements. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. 339. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. or request. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. (3) Imperative.

The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. or adverb that asks about the subject. and our definition must be the following. to suit all cases:² Subject. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. not of a rare old plant. as. thou. the subject (you.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. Slavery they can have anywhere. Listen. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. 2. The last of all the Bards was he. "[You] behold her single in the field. 6. In analyzing such sentences. a rare old plant. In the interrogative sentence. 341. But if we try this with the second sentence. to an ignorant man.²What is to be changed? Answer. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made.²What is the ivy green? Answer. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. 5. we say all is the subject of the sentence. 7. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. we have some trouble. and the real subject is the latter. Thus. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. and is to be supplied.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. especially in poetry. all. or an interrogative pronoun. or ye) is in most cases omitted. 3. on the other hand." Exercise. the subject is frequently after the verb. Consequently. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. adjective. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. 8. always reduce them to the order of a statement. . 4. but about the ivy green.

but chief belongs to the verb. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. and me here is not the object simply of call. Of a transitive verb. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. The transitive verb often requires. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning." indirect. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. (2) The predicate. and by object we mean the direct object. "Ye call me chief. in addition to the object. for example. or second object. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. but it is a true complement." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). . (6) Independent elements. (5) Modifiers. "Ye honor me.²transitive and intransitive." Complement: 344. (3) The object. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. The subject and predicate have been discussed. just as if to say. direct. and means summoned. Indirect object. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance.10. "I give thee this to wear at the collar." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. 343. 342. but of call chief. (4) The complements. Direct Object.

ay. 347. A phrase is a group of words. Phrases. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. as in the sentence." Things used as Subject. in the original Opium Confessions.. sir!' rang out in response. 351. not containing a verb. "A cheery. above sixty. 346." Also an expression used as a noun. he was now getting old." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. 355. I mentioned a case of that nature. or." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. more familiarly. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. in exercise following Sec. but used as a single modifier.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. "Brow and head were round. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave." (3) INFINITIVE. to the completion of this man of the world. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. seem." (2) PARTICIPIAL. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. and. Thom of the Gills. as." 345. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. especially the forms of be. in the popular judgment. and barring the door. Complement of an intransitive verb. An intransitive verb. taste. become." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. 364." "The good man. 'Ay. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. appear. introduced by a preposition: for example." All these complete intransitive verbs. feel." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. as in drowning." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. etc." "He was termed Thomas. 352. for instance. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. As to form. and of massive weight. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. See sentence 19.

. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. 349. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. but the real or logical subject is to print. prowling eyes. from their lips. or their religion from their sect." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." 348." etc. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. etc. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. but they will be given in detail here. I saw the quick and the dead. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. was heard one syllable to justify." "Never.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office." Things used as Direct Object. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust).²the talent of starting the game. and ever will be. 341." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile." "There are asking eyes. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." In this sentence." The for did not belong there originally. and by Saint George!' said the King. but obscures the real subject. for which see Sec." Things used as Complement. Disguised infinitive subject." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. asserting eyes. (2) In interrogative sentences. my deficiency.²the infinitive phrase. "'By God." "The dead are there. or the thundering of organs. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. (4) After "there introductory. "Therein has been." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies.

" (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. or Complement.²completing the predicate.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. I." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. Modifiers of Subject." (4) Participle. (3) Infinitive.²heads or tails. and. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. As complement of a transitive verb. complements of the predicate. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. and whenever the complement is a noun. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. 351. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. Object. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. Of a transitive verb. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. doubtless." "Their tempers. As complement of an intransitive verb." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny. at the same time. the shepherd girl." In this last sentence." "Serving others is serving us. and explaining or modifying the subject." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." "She asked her father's permission." Modifiers. they are adjuncts of the object.350. the object is made the subject by being passive. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. Like all the complements in this list.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." "I hear the echoes throng." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. and the words italicized are still complements. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. or the equivalent of the noun." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." .

"He died like a God.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland.²proud." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. the prisoner at the bar. Modifiers of the Predicate." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." (For participial and infinitive phrases." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. this young idolater. was now called upon for his defense." "Him. Since the predicate is always a verb. 351." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. given at the request of a Dutch lady." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. object." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. Tells how. unforgiving." In such a sentence as. not with nature. 357-363. I have seasoned for thee.²In each sentence in Sec. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. or . (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. was the scene from King John." "Give them not only noble teachings. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." "In the twinkling of an eye." Exercise. but it is really a contracted clause. and modify the predicate in the same way. the verb being omitted. or complement is modified. but with other men. II. see further Secs." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. no sociable angel." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. and leading him from star to star." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. 352. austere. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. but noble teachers. Retained with passive." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. tell whether the subject.

8. is good in the making. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. and as many to oppose it. no humor. Why does the horizon hold me fast. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. and (direct) object:² 1. (a) Pick out subject. predicate. according to old philosophers. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. and the direct object is retained: for example. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. 6. or how long. but the children of the great. 5. with my joy and grief. but to be loved. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. A merciless oppressor hast thou been." "One way lies hope. gives wonderful animation. (b) Pick out the subject. 6. a sort of personality to the whole writing. negative. I took. to the animal strength and spirits. no relief to the dead prosaic level. in this center? 4." "All such knowledge should be given her. etc.. 2." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. 5. To the men of this world. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. predicate. But anger drives a man to say anything. 3. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. and other measures of precaution. in regard to particulars. His books have no melody. This.When the verb is changed from active to passive. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. Fashion does not often caress the great. and. after dinner. 4." (6) Adverbial objective. . Evil. They do not wish to be lovely. how far. These answer the question when. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. 7." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. the indirect object is retained. no emotion. On the voyage to Egypt. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. 2. 7. 3. he liked." Exercises." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster.

2. I promised her protection against all ghosts. for the first time. burthened with the anxieties of a man. 5. Not compound sentences. I felt myself. then. must visit again the home of her childhood. 5. viz. to the right and to the left. the attorney. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 6. Compound Predicate. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. the present Archbishop of Dublin. 4. etc. upwards. after their long confinement to a ship. Unhorse me. downwards. 3. 3. a room seventeen feet by twelve. expecting the return of their parents. I gave him an address to my friend. 3. happy dinner. Yes. in little peaceful Easedale. that was thy portion in life. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. the blooming cornet. 2.²the river Meuse. then.. Their intention was to have a gay. Not the less I owe thee justice. six children sat by a peat fire. 4. That night. A river formed the boundary. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. this imperial rider. To suffer and to do. this dragoon so lovely. at the chief hotel. this nun so martial. Paint me. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. .y 8. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. In one feature. 4. y y y y Compound Subject.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. and a member of the world. at length the warrior lady. 2. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott.

complements. above: thus." Sentences with compound predicates are. the verb). Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. the simple subject is situation. etc. two or more subjects of the same predicate. but it is to be noticed that.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind.. Examples of compound subjects are. Independent Elements of the Sentence. they are not a necessary part. The exclamatory expression. Bishop. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. exposes. forming a sentence: "Oh. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. same as (1). For example. modifiers. may be the person or thing addressed.353. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. my brave young man!" . It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. the air of the mother. and its object or complement. the predicate. "Ah. in the sentence. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." "The name of the child. that is." "Voyages and travels I would also have. together with its modifiers. the tone of her voice. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. 355. Larger view of a sentence. hurry. I'm with you once again. in all such sentences as we quote below. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. etc. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. ulcer. turned his steps homeward. and the rest is the logical predicate. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. several modifiers. hurry." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements." "Ye crags and peaks. shouldered the rusty firelock." "He shook his head. "The company broke up. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. Of this. then the grammatical subject and predicate. etc. 354. and." And so with complements. however. together with all its modifiers. the object. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence.

These need close watching. nevertheless. object. such as perhaps. he somehow lived along." "Truth to say. really. or complement (see Sec." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. see Sec. "Oh. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. let him perish. etc." (3) Independent. yes! everybody knew them. that have an office in the sentence. how you're winking!" "Now. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. 350. generally speaking. etc. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. prepositional phrases may be. y (2) The adverbial use. 351." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. he closed his literary toils at dinner. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. he was a conscientious man. 357. to the best of my remembrance.. undoubtedly. why. 4). and some conjunctions. 4). not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. 6). then. such as however. 3. (b) As a modifier of subject. 355. and so on. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES.. instances of which were seen in Sec. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. or word used as a noun: for example. see Sec. the company broke up. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES." Another caution." "At all events. moreover. truly. besides. The words well. modifying a noun. 352. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use." (2) Adverbial." "Why. six quill-driving gentlemen. now. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. therefore." "No. pronoun. her noticing even this is creditable." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. 356. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases." (6) Single words: as. this story runs thus. In their use. modifying the predicate. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. . (1) Adjectival." (5) Participial phrase: "But. already noticed. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. grandma." "Well. There are some adverbs.

Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. (1) Completing an incomplete verb.should. was speedily run through. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. 355." etc. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. etc. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts.would." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. necessity.]. being equivalent to a future with obligation.can (could). ought. 358. See Sec. he should not have known them at all. (5). "Because I was." (b) With the forms of be. modifying was speedily run through. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing." In this sentence.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. thus. I. therefore. Wilt thou.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. "The letter of introduction. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. and they will be presented here in full. or as nearly so as the student will require. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every .: as in the sentences. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. The verbal use. and hence is adverbial. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. but having no other office than a verbal one. etc. containing no matters of business. my dear." "There. y (a) With may (might). INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES.seem. but require somewhat closer attention. and teach her how to be happy and good." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. This case excepted.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially." (c) With the definite forms of go. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water.

" (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French.. 361 are used adverbially. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. 361.: for example. etc. 362. etc." "To teach is to learn. to hear McOrator after dinner. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. Don Guzman. explanatory of a noun preceding: as." "To say what good of fashion we can. The adjectival use. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. 351. . Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. III. already examined. To test this. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. IV. result. hang the idiot. 5). was to have the foe's life at their mercy. object. (4) In apposition. The adverbial use. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. "But there was no time to be lost. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. The substantive use." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." "Are you mad. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. II. to please is equivalent to that he may please. complement.²both purpose clauses." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. to look means that he might look. and the eyes to fill?" 359. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. modifying a noun that may be a subject. the Scotch fighting all the battles." "He insisted on his right to forget her." 360." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). above. notice the following:² In (1). sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you.

355). which is of two kinds. 268. 351). I will try to keep the balance true. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. (2) The object of the verb (Sec... In (4). 355. not in a book. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. savage and serene in one hour. If it is an incomplete verb. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 4. etc. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. give the complement (Secs." (See also Sec. 364. etc. 351). (7) Independent elements (Sec. 349). Our life is March weather. 347). to part means because I part. The independent use. must be in a life. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. to hear means if you should hear. In analyzing simple sentences. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. 351). 2. object. In (3). give² (1) The predicate. as in Sec. 363. (3). (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. V. . 3. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. equivalent to that you betray. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. etc.²both expressing condition. In (5). Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. to find shows the result of the return. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. and to say is equivalent to if we say. and to betray and to bring express the reason.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 352)." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have.In (2). (5) The subject (Sec.

It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. and only to be saved by invention and courage. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. just on the edge of destruction. The water. good and amiable otherwise. always in a bad plight. to the moral sphere. The word conscience has become almost confined. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 13. 16. 19. You may ramble a whole day together.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. through toys and atoms. I have heard Coleridge talk. to restore civil and religious order. 12. 18. two stricken hours. 11. The whole figure and air. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy.4. 7. We are always in peril. and spared nothing. Her aims were simple and obvious. a skilled musician. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 23. an accomplished scholar.²to preserve her throne. . is to have no political system at all. nor himself. neither ammunition. the carrion crow. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 21. in popular use. Old Adam. 6. To be hurried away by every event. nor generals. His opinion is always original. a graceful dancer.Burnt green and blue and white. and to the purpose. To these gifts of nature. 24. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. 5. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual.The old crow of Cairo. nor troops. to keep England out of war. 15. through evil agents. might be called flabby and irresolute. nor money. 9. 8. a good shot. 20. like a witch's oils. 14.He sat in the shower. 10. with eager energy. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. and every moment discover something new. Through the years and the centuries. 17. He risked everything. 22.

The cry. 41. the ship was in an uproar. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. Now. haply. ready to receive her. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. 36. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. Of the same grandeur. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. Few in number. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. I dare this. the same Condé Olivarez. 29. to be a reproach to such goodness. 26. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. 32. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 38. proud foe. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. 30. in front of all this mighty crowd. an elderly man. Supposing this computation to be correct.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. Fair name might he have handed down. But yield. in less heroic and poetic form. Must we in all things look for the how. the present capital of New England. This amiable relative. 40. or perhaps one virtue. and the wherefore? . The villain. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. She had made a two days' march. 31.Effacing many a stain of former crime. 34. to bid you leave the place now and forever. still. upon my own ground. Upon this shore stood. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 35. In the Acadian land. baggage far in the rear. I hate him and myself. had but one foible. and no provisions but wild berries.Distant. 37. Oxford. and. and in my own garden. the prime minister of Spain. secluded.25. it would not have been filial or ladylike. and the why. in this world. 39. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. time-honored. 33. 27.

366.² "She is like some tender tree. 333). The simple sentence the basis. . which is the unit of speech.From her own loved island of sorrow. the pride and beauty of the grove. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. thus." This must. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country." Sentences with like. Words left out after than or as. but. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. as. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. are really contracted clauses. though often treated as phrases. if they were expanded. As shown in Part I." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. however." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. 367.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. the expressions of manner introduced by like. 365. (Sec. COMPLEX SENTENCES." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly." To show that these words are really omitted. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. made merely for convenience and smoothness. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. as would be the connective instead of like.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences.

each clause has its subject. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. and the next one. complements. main.²the other members subordinate to it. 369. which are so united that one member is the main one. containing a verb with its subject.²the dependent or subordinate clauses..² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. complement. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. 371.. object. A clause is a division of a sentence. 368. suffering. Independent clause. and modifier.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. and the last. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). as in this sentence. or dependent on it. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. how great . modifiers. etc. object. 370. predicate." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. then we recognize this as the main statement. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. A principal. that . The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. Hence the following definition:² Definition..²the backbone. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. CLAUSES.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. or it may be applied to the others. that is. . the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. logically depends on suffering. Definition. we are aware. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. is taken in. murmur..

We ourselves are getting . over which the torrent came tumbling.. 372. impertinences. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. and it is . put an end to my fancies." (2) Object of a verb. 352. (b) that are . according as they are equivalent in use to nouns.. 5)." "I was told that the house had not been shut. . and ADVERB clauses. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. (a) Ordinary apposition.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall.' is an electric touch. for example. for a time. etc. but logically the sentence is. thus. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. so the object clause is retained. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. verbal.. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. Noun Clauses. 'I know that he can toil terribly. night or day... As to their office in the sentence. and the whole clause is not." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend.. But since they are complex in form. attention is called to them here. or adverbs.Dependent clause." 374. for a hundred years." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. infinitive. for example." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. ADJECTIVE. adjectives. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living." Just as the object noun.. pronoun. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. 373. with a noun clause in apposition with it." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject." (4) Apposition." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. clauses are divided into NOUN." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. impertinences²would be grammatical. Kinds. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause.

Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. 8. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. no man will ever know. of a nation." Exercise. What history it had. wherein. 375. Adjective Clauses. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. The reply of Socrates.² "It is on the understanding. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. or equivalent of a noun. Examples of adjective clauses. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. that he was a scheming impostor. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. as. I was napping. which. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. Such a man is what we call an original man. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. a falsehood incarnate. etc. 3. whether he should choose one or not. that. whence. . whither. Other examples of this construction are. As the office of an adjective is to modify. 7. that. 9. he would repent it. a relative pronoun being understood. sometimes by the conjunctions when. where. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. how it changed from shape to shape. but. Frequently there is no connecting word. he could know nothing. 6. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. Except by what he could see for himself. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. 5. that all safe legislation must be based. still remains reasonable. 4.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. whereby. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. 2. 10. and not on the sentiment. But the fact is. in the sentence." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation.

Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. which formed the center of the mansion. ." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. Adverbial Clauses. 3. Pick out the adjective clauses. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. the champions advanced through the lists. 11. 7. 6. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle." Exercise." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. which Rowena tasted. 5.e. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. 2. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. all is vacancy. 4. I walked home with Calhoun. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. No man is reason or illumination." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. or that essence we were looking for.376. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. 10. etc. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. i. 1." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins.. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. he begins to help us more as an effect. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. object." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. whether subject. which could not be a prison whilst he was there. 9. 8. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. and tell what each one modifies. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements.

: "But still. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand." (9) CONCESSION." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. or an adverb. so far as we can." "When he was come up to Christian. whatever." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly." "The right conclusion is." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. etc. however good she may be as a witness. is wider. a verbal. tell what kind each is. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. however. etc.377.² whoever." "He went several times to England." "The broader their education is. with examples. no matter what remains. Shakespeare is our city of refuge." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. etc. that we should try. 378." (7) RESULT. adverbs. an adjective. since he was too great to care to be original. Joanna is better. shaping our actions. expressing the degree in which the horizon. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. but they require careful study." (3) REASON. the wider is the horizon of their thought. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself." "Who cares for that. he goes away as if nothing had happened. and adverbial conjunctions. and will be given in detail. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. and what it modifies:² .." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. it takes precedence of everything else. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. the milestones are grave-stones." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. introduced by indefinite relatives. Exercise. to make up our shortcomings." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." "After leaving the whole party under the table. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." (5) DEGREE." These mean no matter how good. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions.

The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit.1. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. with shrill. object. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . as they sometimes did. its object is that Odin was a reality. they might perhaps say of their visitors. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. so as to picture the parts and their relations. 'Well. 379. find the principal subject and principal predicate. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. banging about doors and windows. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. 380. on a dark wintry night. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. incoherent exclamations." 2. then treat noun clauses as nouns. etc. snatching up stones to fling at them. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. 3.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. predicate. and modifiers. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. in the sentence. If the children gathered about her. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. when the wind was unruly. of which clause Odin is the subject. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. howling and whistling. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. to tell the truth. and twirling weathercocks. For example. we are a little disappointed.

| r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 2. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. 364. Exercises.. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. 3.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. 364. 380). as seen in the "map" (Sec. . (1) Find the principal clause. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. d. (2) Analyze it according to Sec.. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and .

He was what our country people call an old one. bishop. the flower should revive for us. 15. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. 24. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. But now that she has become an establishment. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. whom I choose. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 21. 10. Whether she said the word is uncertain. 23. that pressed her with an objection. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. if applied to the Bible. Now. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. 22. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 11. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. namely. which. Here lay two great roads. the mixed result. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. as for armies that were too many by half. 19. that. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 12. The deep eyes. . The night proved unusually dark. And those will often pity that weakness most. 16. or whether any. 14. M. Had they been better chemists. 13. 5. for yours. I like that representation they have of the tree. 18. 8. of a light hazel. who would yield to it least. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. dying for them. 7. could not have been effected. This is she. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer.4. counselor that had none for herself. 17. 6. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. had we been worse. not so much for travelers that were few. 9. the shepherd girl. 20. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. Next came a wretched Dominican.

The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. then map out as in Sec.² Definition. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. would easily reach. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained." 4. 380. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. the following complex sentences:² 1. 382. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. "was ever written down by any but itself. if there be one to whom I am not equal. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. and stamped with his right number. though we may repeat the words never so often. These things we are forced to say. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. How formed. 7. COMPOUND SENTENCES. 2. questions. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. 30. 28. speed. but above it." said Bentley. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. and not from his heart. 383. 27. that it was no more than his daily walk. 3. if continuously extended. 5. 26.25. Hence the definition. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. we cannot adequately say. and what content I can find in conversing with each. and temper. (b) First analyze. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. . The writer who takes his subject from his ear.²which will not be disposed of. or commands. 6. is to speak and write sincerely. "No book. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. It makes no difference how many friends I have. That which we do not believe.

Connectives. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. "Only the star dazzles. however." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. 383 (1). Another example is. and it shall be the universal sense. the planet has a faint. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. in (2). he is twice a man.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. he walks with arms akimbo. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. a simple member. the waving grass. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. 386. etc. he dilates. Study the thought." 384. in (3). From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and nor the second and third complex members. which are simple statements. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. 297). for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. whereas. 385. as in Sec.. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. as but. and which complex:² 1. the semicolon separates the first. nor. and not the form of the connective. Speak your latent conviction. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3)." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. and connects the first and second complex members. Thus in (1). Some of these are now conjunctions. or but. etc. from the second. tell which are compound. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. nor does he know until he has tried. a complex member. moon-like ray" (adversative). Of the following illustrative sentences. The division into members will be easier. . The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. yet. others sometimes coördinate. now adverbs or prepositions. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. The coördinate conjunctions and. Exercise. for. while (whilst). he soliloquizes. if there are any.

and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 364. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. Man does not stand in awe of man. is particular. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. Exercise. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. 5. 387. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. and as yet very early in the morning. 8. I can yet love. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. that it was Easter Sunday. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. unobtrusive boy. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. 6. 13. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. 11. from a happy yet often pensive child. and for everything you gain. 12. the tax is certain. so is every one of its parts. or. for example. Love. 3. quiet. to find a pot of buried gold. All loss. Whilst the world is thus dual. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 4. you lose something. 10. passed in that time. In this manner. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. he grew up to be a mild. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. nay. 7. For everything you have missed. The gain is apparent. (i) Separate it into its main members. 3. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. yield to them heart and life. you have gained something else.2. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. I can still receive. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. and thou shalt be loved. . I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 381. 4. however. 9. However some may think him wanting in zeal. all pain. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. and not by what each is. 2. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 14.

8. He teaches who gives. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. Trust men. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. and makes their business a friendship. and not an emotion of bravery. let them mount and expand. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. and the peace of society is often kept. and they will show themselves great. or sail with God the seas. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. They will shuffle and crow. and they repel us. When you have chosen your part. 19. modesty. crook and hide. "as nigh the scythe as you can. Come into port greatly. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. 21." says the smith. but the day never shines in which this element may not work.5. or we read books. which always make the Actual ridiculous." says the haymaker. or hope. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 16. and they will be true to you. 11. and you are without effort impelled to truth. 20. . The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. 9. and not a thought has enriched either party." "keep the rake. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. that let him communicate. and the other dares not." 13. 6. and the cart as nigh the rake. "Strike. We go to Europe. 15. Stand aside. puts the parties on a convenient footing. as children. Whatever he knows and thinks. why should we intrude? 10. or men will never know and honor him aright. feign to confess here. whilst frankness invites frankness. only that they may brag and conquer there. or we pursue persons. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. one is afraid. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. give those merits room. if you rip up his claims. and each shows only what lies at its focus. 14. 17. and he learns who receives. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. because. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. "the iron is white. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. We see the noble afar off. abide by it. treat them greatly. 18. is as thin and timid as any. 7.

22. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. INTRODUCTORY. but go about your business anywhere. or. if they live. pronoun and antecedent. they lose themselves in the crowd. 388. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. it ends in headache. Essential point in English syntax. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . SYNTAX. but its leading characteristic is. and dodge the account. 23. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. 24. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. Ground covered by syntax. 25. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. So does culture with us. they die young. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. 380. so readily and lavishly they promise. verb and subject.²agreement and government. By way of introduction. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. but they never acquit the debt. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. adjective and noun. PART III. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. Do not craze yourself with thinking. the department of syntax will be a small affair. 390. it never was known to fall into the rear. We see young men who owe us a new world. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. Following the Latin method. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance.

" is ambiguous. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. the order being inverted. but are not now. good English. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. There is. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. and added to it the preposition of. also expressing a possessive relation. pronoun and antecedent. Savage may be the subject." In this there is a possessive form. and imitate it." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once.² First. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. In some cases. or when they exist side by side in good usage. When usage varies as to a given construction. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. 393. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. or the same writer will use both indifferently. Second. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. In Latin. authorities²that is. and it would not matter which one stood first. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. Also in the sentence. take the sentence. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. This is not logical. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. some of which conform to classical grammar. then. . as to study inflected forms. and nothing but important points will be considered. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). distinct forms would be used. "The savage here the settler slew. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. Some rules not rigid. For example. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. etc. both forms will be given in the following pages. Why study syntax? 391. or settler may be the subject. The basis of syntax. As an illustration of the last remark. "None remained but he. the sentence.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly." that is. sometimes verb and subject. following the regular order of subject. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. therefore. and whose judgment. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. 392.

Putting Mr. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. Bentham's principles together.²THACKERAY.²MCCULLOCH. He kept Bolingbroke's. the possessive sign is used with each noun. . and Peterborough's.NOUNS. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. the antechamber of the High Priest. the shore of Galilee. Separate possession. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. 408). Use of the possessive.²BYRON. Joint possession. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.² He lands us on a grassy stage.²ROWE. but imply separate possession or ownership. and Paul's. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. 395. and Harley's.²MACAULAY. 396. for example. ²ID. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. and Peter's.² Live your king and country's best support. and Pope's.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. PRONOUNS. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. sense and nature's easy fool. Mill's and Mr. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. 397. 394. Woman.²MILTON. etc. or indicate joint ownership or possession. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. as." Juletta tells. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.²EMERSON.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. the true relation of the words is misunderstood.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.²SHAKESPEARE. who. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. there are two general rules that require attention.) "The young Harper. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. No mightier than thyself or me. Still. if not universally. for example.²SOUTHEY." 400. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. together with the relative who.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville.²TROLLOPE. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. and should be the nominative form. the last expression has the support of many good writers. General rules.²THACKERAY." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. Since most of the personal pronouns. This should be "as she. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. others are generally. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. sanctioned.²WHITCHER. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. as. whom is the complement after the verb am. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. thus. 399. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. Bedott Papers.²BYRON.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. I. 398. Some of the violations are universally condemned. Objective for the nominative. . The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. But he must be a stronger than thee. the real thought being forgotten.²POPE.

One exception is to be noted. namely.²SCOTT. as.²KINGSLEY."²WINTHROP. But still it is not she. unless a special. "Than whom. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. they are yet holier than we.²FIELDING.²PARTON. "If there is any one embarrassed. And it was heThat made the ship to go. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance.²LONGFELLOW. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. on the other hand. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. Patrick the Porter."²KINGSLEY.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee." There is no special reason for this. both in England and America."²WM. for example.² One I remember especially. is. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. A safe rule. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. . and the other forms of the verb be. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. it will not be me. BLACK. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. The usage is too common to need further examples. are.²MACAULAY.²COLERIDGE.² For there was little doubt that it was he. the objective form is regularly found.²THACKERAY. The camp of Richard of England. In spoken English. but such is the fact.²RUSKIN.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage." 401. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. "Who's there?"²"Me. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was.

the object of to). You know whom it is that you thus charge. "Ask the murderer. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 10. 8. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. or us). it is me. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. 11. 7. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it." 6. Nominative for the objective.Exercise. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. 4. 404." the word being in apposition with murderer). (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). or this. 9. 3. 403. . The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. Truth is mightier than us all. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. now. It is not me you are in love with. 2. verbal. as. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. as. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences.²MILTON. or preposition which governs it. object of saw). (3) By forgetting the construction. verbals. as this from Shakespeare. as. you or me. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. 5. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. Me in exclamations. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. and prepositions.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. but not he" (he should be him. used after verbs. Whom they were I really cannot specify. I speak not to" (he should be him.

²GOLDSMITH. Who have we here?²ID. as. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.²KINGSLEY. . partial Nature.Shall be left upon the morn. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. We regularly say. changed in all save thee. and is usually avoided. Let you and I look at these. Exception 2.Exception 1.²BYRON. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. etc.²BYRON. Thy shores are empires. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. who interrogative.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. 2. as.² All were knocked down but us two. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. None. I arraign. after the preposition but (sometimes save). giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. for they say there are none such in the world. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. but he. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. "Who were they talking to?" etc. I've sworn. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT.²STEELE. Nature.²KINGSLEY. save thou and thine. Thou. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. all but he. Exercise.²KINGSLEY. for example. as well as the objective. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. "Who did you see?" or. 405. 406. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.

Preceding a gerund. 11. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. Bartholomew.²THACKERAY. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach.3. BROWN. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. 5. 407. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour.²SCOTT. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.Ye I salute. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St.²possessive. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. 7. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 9. 10. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. Markland. They crowned him long ago. As antecedent of a relative." 4. 6.²RUSKIN.²DE QUINCEY. and they know that as well as me. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. 12. II. or objective? . The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. with Jortin and Thirlby. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. This usage is not frequent. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. 8. who. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²C.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know.²MACAULAY. B. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.

² IRVING. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea.408. Objective. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. [who was] studying law. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. We heard of Brown. and asked why it was not made. as he turned away from his wife.² SCOTT.²RUSKIN. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. object of heard of.²MACAULAY. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.²BREWER. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. Here I state them only in brief. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.² CARLYLE. both are gerunds. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. studying is a gerund. that the bitterness of death was past. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.²DICKENS. The use of the objective is older. Possessive." That is. The last incident which I recollect. Both types of sentences are found.² THACKERAY.²CARLYLE. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.²DE QUINCEY. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. . sometimes it has the objective. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. and the meaning is. Why both are found. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. In the examples quoted. But in common use there is no such distinction. and that in the second." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. etc.

²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. In such a case as the last three sentences. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²EMERSON III. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. or is a distributive word. Examples of these constructions are. it was his own fault.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. if the antecedent is neuter. If any one did not know it.² BRYANT. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²HUXLEY. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²THACKERAY. the pronoun will be neuter singular. 410. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²when the antecedent. and gender. Every city threw open its gates. Everybody had his own life to think of.²HOLMES.²DEFOE.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY. number.²C. BROCKDEN BROWN. 409. .²THOREAU.²RUSKIN. in one person. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. and ought to agree with them in person. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²AUDUBON. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. where there were examinations.²CABLE. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. taking in each of many persons.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. The pale realms of shade. Watch for the real antecedent.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. preceded by a distributive.

till they have lost him. and giving them means of being so. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²PALGRAVE. is to use the plural of the pronoun following. The sun. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. let them break it off.²RUSKIN. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²EMERSON.²PAULDING.²AUSTEN. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.²SCOTT. Struggling for life.²HUXLEY. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²THACKERAY.²PALEY. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. By using the plural pronoun.²FIELDING. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.² Not the feeblest grandame. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. Every one must judge of their own feelings. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Whosoever hath any gold. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE.Avoided: By using both pronouns. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. . Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²BYRON.²BIBLE.²ID.²DEFOE. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. If the part deserve any comment. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. This is not considered the best usage. for example. as anybody in their senses would have done. 411. not a mowing idiot.²ID. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.

" This means. As to their conjunctive use. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated.²HAWTHORNE. as. 413. but. no one could take upon them to say. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. and that may be coördinating or restrictive.² SHERIDAN. the definite relatives who. and that always restrictive. when coördinating. . RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. unless both genders are implied. It adds a new statement to what precedes. or unrestrictive. when restrictive. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. according to the practice of every modern writer. In the following examples.) and a personal pronoun. which. in each instance:² Who.²ADDISON. that being considered already clear." It defines beggar. That is in most cases restrictive. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent.Where she was gone. Exercise. tell whether who. I. and he went away. or what was become of her.²In the above sentences. because. 412. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 2. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. and that are restrictive or not. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side." A relative. who went away. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. What these terms mean. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. A relative. etc. "I gave it to the beggar. but.²ID. Exercise. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. 1. and does not add a new statement. which.

because of its antecedent. and it is called logic. That. 4. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. 10. However. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. down. it makes the verb third person singular. hard-mouthed horses at Westport.² NEWMAN. but. etc. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. these or that which. 7. which was to go over the Cordilleras. A grizzly-looking man appeared. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.² IRVING. We say I. Yet how many are there who up.3. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. 14. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. In what sense true.²H.²DE QUINCEY. . 8.² MOTLEY.²THOREAU.²HOLMES. or it might have gone hard with the tutor.²ADDISON. Hare has printed. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. The rule. The general rule is.²DE QUINCEY." that is invariable as to person and number. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. who. she agreed to join the party. 11. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. as that does not vary for person or number. 12. W.² CARLYLE. II. 414. With narrow shoulders. Which. On hearing their plan. in the sentence. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. etc. he. they. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. 6. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. 9. So different from the wild.²ID. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. and over England are saying. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. that were often vicious. For example. BEECHER 5. etc. long arms and legs. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.. 13. which Mr. you.²ID.

. but myself. [singular or plural. ARNOLD. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. MORSE. the true antecedent. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.²SCOTT. Franklin.²LOWELL. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound." or.²ADDISON. but speaks of him as that sort. . Let us be of good cheer. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. T. The fiery youth . with one as the principal word. but the former has good authority. who rarely speak at all. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. others regard books as the antecedent. French literature of the eighteenth century.. etc. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. "one of the finest books that have been published.²J. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.²HOLMES. and in improving a victory. and write the verb in the plural. "one of the finest books that has been published. He is one of those that deserve very well. in winning a battle.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company..²whether we should say. A disputed point.²BOWLES.] Both constructions are frequently found. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. Singular. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.²LECKY. JR.." One of ..²HOWELLS.. The latter is rather more frequent. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. or which .. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.²ADDISON. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.²MACAULAY. 415. when he derided the shams of society. [plural] that who.²LOWELL.²M. etc.

Exercise. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. I could see nothing except the sky. The same day I went aboard we set sail.And. when this dust falls to the urn. and see if the sentence is made clearer. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire.²SCOTT. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. return. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. when the relative word is a pronoun.In that same state I came. object of a preposition understood. III.²VAUGHAN. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed.²ADDISON." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. that is." "India is the place [in which. But I by backward steps would move.²GOLDSMITH.² THACKERAY.²SWIFT. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series."²DICKENS. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. 417.²EMERSON. 416.²DEFOE.²EMERSON.²BURNS.² RUSKIN. whence.²In the above sentences.²ID. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.²CARLYLE. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. and such like: as.A rare Roundabout performance. IV.² .²IRVING. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. or where] he died. where.

was a discoverer. she passed the lamp over her face and person. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon. CHURCH. That. ²GOLDSMITH. with Turner. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. and working in the same spirit.² MACAULAY. looking-glasses. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. if I had resolved to go on with. if same is followed by a complete clause.He considered. Caution.² BURKE. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. Anacoluthic use of which.. as his apprentice. but.. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. They believe the same of all the works of art. I might as well have staid at home.² THACKERAY. but we find the relative who. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. he. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. as is not used.²WORDSWORTH.²SWIFT. V. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. but which is usually carefully avoided. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Mr. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents.²FRANKLIN. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. as of knives. or that. for example.² Which. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. . Which. W. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard.²ADDISON. boats.²R. etc. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.²SCOTT. The regular construction. which.

²RUSKIN." etc. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. but. Express both relatives. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. Exercise. 1.²DE QUINCEY." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. etc. (3) "Among the poorer sort.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. or leave out both connective and relative. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.²SCOTT. 4. As the sentences stand. That is. After this came Elizabeth herself.² Direction for rewriting.²SHAKESPEARE." etc. 3. This was a gentleman. etc. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them.She'd come again.. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. He delivered the letter. or omit the conjunction. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. And who. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. once a great favorite of M.²HAWTHORNE..²which if they once heard. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. now thrown upon their. (1) "Among those who are poor. which when Mr. or. but none is expressed. . Thornhill had read. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. But who. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. and this be placed in the proper clause. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. le Conte.²THACKERAY.. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. he said that all submission was now too late. Exercise.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. and which. and who are now. (2) "Among the poorer sort. 419. 2.²GOLDSMITH.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. who are now thrown." etc.

Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man..5. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church.²SCOTT. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence.. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE.²HAWTHORNE. 1. one of signal interest. and which may even be heard a mile off.²PEARSON. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . etc. 11. indeed. But which. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. and which.²SCOTT. "What knight so craven.²IRVING. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. which the Scotch had learned." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. That . like that spoken in the towns. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. "A mockery. Or which. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. Exercise. English by name. and which has never been described. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties.² MOTLEY. . Dr. the French. as a false and astucious mark. 13. then. and repeat this for any further reference. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. And which. Akin to the above is another fault. etc. and to whom no door is closed. 420.²DE QUINCEY. either from imitation of their frequent allies. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. Or who. I saw upon the left a scene far different. who.. I shall have complete copies. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias.. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. 7. 10. 8. 12.²DE QUINCEY. 6. 9.

. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. which. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. Such as . Such as . and whose examples and principles we inherit. Which .²HAWTHORNE. and to whom I do not belong.²EMERSON. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours... 13. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. 9. that. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with.²DEFOE. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. 6.²DE QUINCEY. 10. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. which. It rose into a thrilling passion. I recommend some honest manual calling.2. 12..²BEECHER. in his Mephistopheles. In my native town of Salem. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. 5. in his present condition.²HALLAM. 4... 7. G. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. the cent.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses.. 3. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear..²W. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. 11. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. was hung in air. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. what.²SCOTT. half a century ago.²HOWELLS.. I give to such men as do not belong to me. 8. but which. CHANNING. He. whom. 15. the dime.. He flung into literature.. I grudge the dollar. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. 14. at the head of what. E. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. such as they have very probably been bred to. The Tree Igdrasil. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President... was a bustling wharf. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.²SCOTT That which . that .²W.²EMERSON. SIMMS.²HOLMES. That . but which is perhaps not so different from it.

421. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. carrying off each other's cattle and wives.²ID.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.² Some one must be poor. as it were. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects.²RUSKIN.²GOLDSMITH. Distributives either and neither. Each other. as. Use of any. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. We call ourselves a rich nation. always at war with one another. and in want of his gold²or his corn. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.²MACAULAY. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. for example.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.²RUSKIN. whether or not the two are equivalent. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. in which case any should be used instead. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. . one another. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. By their original meaning. Assume that no one is in want of either.² HAWTHORNE. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. as. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other.²EMERSON. that not all combined. England was then divided between kings and Druids. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.²DICKENS. 422. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries.²HAWTHORNE.

if ever man was.² EMERSON. any of his friends had died.. Do you think.² In earnest. In earlier Modern English.²CARLYLE.. afterwards in Goethe. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. before that. in the prose of the present day. whilst I still cherish their genius. usually plural. for him have I offended. None of Nature's powers do better service.²SHAKESPEARE. as. etc. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. and is isolated. speak. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. that I know of. at one time in Bacon. then in Plutarch. as none of the French philosophers were.²SCOTT. then in Plotinus. let him ask of God. Caution. Examples of its use are.² If any.. I beseech you. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. Do you think.²BURKE. If any of you lack wisdom. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. during his stay at Yuste.²PROF. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . Any usually plural. 424. even in Bettine. 423.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).²STIRLING. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. in Shakespeare. which is plural as often as singular.²FRANKLIN. . when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. None usually plural.²BEECHER Whenever. I mean that any of them are dead? None are.²BIBLE. any was often singular. when any of them are so good as to visit me. The adjective pronoun none is.²EMERSON. as.²THACKERAY.

Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. or somebody else's? 426.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.²NAPIER Plural. 425. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. When all were gone. and less rarely in poetry. and all was lost on the other.²McMASTER. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. when it means all persons: for example.² Singular.²SCOTT Like the use of any. etc.² None of them was cleansed..²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose.²THOREAU.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. for example. are treated as units. which is used absolutely. etc. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. as.² PEARSON. saving Naaman the Syrian. etc. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . nobody else. fixing his eyes on the mace.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. The light troops thought .²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. and Ford has nobody's else. The compounds somebody else. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. etc. that all was lost..²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. any one else.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. Somebody's else. the plural. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.

and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²in such as "these sort of books." "those kind of trees. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's."²MRS.²RUSKIN.²SWEET.²DICKENS. etc.² Saturday Review. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. STOWE. P. all manner of. ELIOT.² These kind of knaves I know. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got.²N. ADJECTIVES. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). or those sort of people. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's.²SHERIDAN. These sort.²AUSTEN. etc. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. WILLIS.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.SYDNEY SMITH. 427.² FIELDING." "all manner of men. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.²THACKERAY. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. for example.²G." the nouns being singular.curled once all over it in long tendrils. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. "Ye see. Whitefield or Wesley.²RUSKIN. His hair. London. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. the adjectives plural. or some other such great man as a bishop. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. . Again..²MULOCH.. unlike anybody else's in the world.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case.

or the nouns to the plural. At the source. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. "These kind of trees are best. Later form. the victor or the vanquished. gradually displacing the old. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. not "all kinds of wild animals.The library was open. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization.² Which is the better able to defend himself. as. Of two such lessons. "This sort of trees should be planted. History of this construction. made to agree with it. 428. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. they said. to express a higher degree of quality. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. with all manner of amusing books. "This kind of rules are the best. or one object with a class of objects. for example.²RUSKIN." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject." A question. which accounts for the construction." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. This the modern expression reverses. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. . Burke's sentence. Use of the comparative degree." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). more alarming than a total silence. Should we say. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. in spoken English. and the adjective is." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS.² PRESCOTT. and in this way may take a plural verb. when the necessary dispositions concur. Consequently we have a confused expression. such as.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. In Old and Middle English. The result. According to the approved usage of Modern English.

Use of the superlative degree. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.²WIRT.²MACAULAY.A braver ne'er to battle rode. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. Exercise. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. He is taller. . Gary. 4.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. 3. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. To the man who plays well. 429. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. 5.²LOWELL. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. I am concerned to see that Mr. 2. by almost the breadth of my nail. Superlative with two objects. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. the object would really be compared with itself: thus.²TROLLOPE. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold."²ID. 6. would not have had the face. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read.²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.² THACKERAY.²HUXLEY. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. etc.²CARLYLE. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. 430. if not. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.²SCOTT. Other after the comparative form. has sanctioned. Henry. Even Dodd himself.²SWIFT. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. than any of his court.²HAWTHORNE. the highest stakes are paid.

Nor that I am more better than Prospero. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. In all disputes between States.²GOLDSMITH.²RUSKIN.²BEN JONSON. I should say that one has the best cause. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. Double comparative and superlative. and the other contains the best men.²ADDISON. CÆSAR."²GOLDSMITH."²BULWER. ha. Come you more nearer. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. whichever can be got easiest. OLIPHANT. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.. 1611.²J. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. Mary. The following examples are used purposely.²MRS. Examples from Shakespeare are.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.²EMERSON. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. Also from the same period. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them.²TEMPEST. . There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. After the most straitest sect of our religion. "Ha. not a bit of high life among them. Rip was one of those . "Let us see which will laugh loudest.. The eldest. 431. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen."²HAWTHORNE.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense.²IRVING.²HAMLET. and differ only in form.²DR BLAIR. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.²Bible. who eat white bread or brown. These two properties seem essential to wit. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. more particularly the last of them.²SCOTT. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est.

² SMOLLETT. but in literary English. the Spanish. Three first. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone.²LAMB. ARTICLES.² With a singular noun. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. and Secretary Walsingham also. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²RUSKIN. not only so in popular speech.²GIBBON. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. ²COWPER.²DE QUINCEY. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. etc. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. As to these two expressions. etc. The merit of the Barb. 433. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. Instances of both are given below.²ADDISON. The first five had specific names. Examples of this construction are. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. jar upon us constantly. These are the three first needs of civilized life. For Carlyle. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. Definite article. First three.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The meaning intended is the same. The delay in the first three lines.²GIBBON.²PRESCOTT. He has already finished the three first sticks of it.²KINGSLEY.²RUSKIN. . In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. and conceit in the last.

Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town.²MACAULAY. with a plural noun. to distinguish clearly.²TENNYSON. Frequently.. of the higher and middling orders. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. distinct. . 435. The lofty. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.²CARLYLE.²THACKERAY. but is used with one only.. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. but inseparable from each other. and flexible language.² MACAULAY. the hour of parting came.²NEWMAN.²ID. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. were placed at a very tender age.²TAYLOR. The not repeated. however. the thought and the word. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. The flowers. 1508. Origin of the Aryans. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. 433. No.² RUSKIN. as. melodious.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. One object and several modifiers. Indefinite article.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. Meaning same as in Sec. With a plural noun. having been arranged. I think. 433. of the eighteenth century. or to emphasize the meaning. and the presents. 434. as.²PRESCOTT. Here the youth of both sexes.²SCOTT. He is master of the two-fold Logos. the greatest poems. with a singular noun.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. as in Sec.²THE NATION.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.

²BEECHER. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. In the sentences of Secs. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. COLERIDGE.²MACAULAY. to limit two or more modified nouns. a murderer. 438.²THACKERAY.²B.An early.²MACAULAY. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. One article with several adjectives. For rhetorical effect. and inexhausted vein. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. T. a tyrant. 435. He saw him in his mind's eye.²BULWER.² MACAULAY. one noun is expressed.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. Examples of this use are.²S. a collegian. 433 and 436. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house.² BURKE. JONSON. only one of which is expressed.436." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. To every room there was an open and a secret passage." and "a red and a white geranium. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.²DICKENS. rich. as. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²JOHNSON. a round and a square one alternately. But in the following sentences. 436). interest. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. or clearness to each of several nouns. The indefinite article (compare Sec. . So wert thou born into a tuneful strain. 437. like the definite article. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. The indefinite article is used. and a usurper.²DRYDEN. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. as in the first three of Sec.

ELIOT. Sec. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. then. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER.²FROUDE. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. like some others in this series. as. 439.VERBS. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. for example. Another writer might. 276. ARNOLD. Collective noun of singular meaning. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.²W. 440. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. Singulars connected by or or nor. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. He sees that it is better to live in peace. A broad and loose rule.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. as. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor.²G.²CARLYLE This usage. . This was spoken of in Part I. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. has got already.²M. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. and the following illustrations prove it. or the great intellectual life of our nation.. In English. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. Such.²The Nation.²GIBBON. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. all that academies can give. Singular verb. without academies.²AGASSIZ.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. was the earliest American land.²COOPER.

Plural form and singular meaning. ²EMERSON. the cheap defense of nations.²WHITTIER. is gone. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. No. a loss of wealth.²GOLDSMITH.² In a word. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. a loss of friends. or as making up one general idea. but each one emphatic.²DE QUINCEY. that of a large town.² GOLDSMITH.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. a cruel disappointment.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. a mutilation.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. ADAMS. or considered as appositional.² Politics is the only field now open for me. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²GIBBON.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. (4) When the subject is plural in form. nor Mahomet.²EMERSON . Several singular subjects to one singular verb. for example. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. other names. and other singulars of plural form. Q.² The unbought grace of life. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. for example.Jesus is not dead. as. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate.²CRITIC.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.²BURKE. but considered as meaning about the same thing. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.²J. A fever. nor John. and every four hours. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. seems at the moment unpaid loss. Between ourselves. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. nor Paul. as.

the partisan. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. the wit. every boor.²EMERSON. wineBegins to stir itself. Every fop. the fine gentleman. For wide is heard the thundering fray. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. nay.² There is a right and a wrong in them.²HAWTHORNE. no spent ball. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. sir!"²MACAULAY.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every.²SCOTT. as well as sides. the dismay. every echo. sir?" and the "No.²LONGFELLOW. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. as. as well as the newest. thus. Then comes the "Why. Every week. To receive presents or a bribe. The Epic. There is a moving tone of voice. every valet. Every sound. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two.²PRESCOTT. an impassioned countenance. the ruin. The oldest. no. was dazzled. as.²RUSKIN. each. and such like adjectives. almost every day.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. and greaves. as well as Europe. Plural verb.The rout.²ID. 441. with death.² Asia. Subjects after the verb. a cuirass.²NEWMAN. a gorget.²MACAULAY.²M ARNOLD. does not take the place of the man. in a judge. an agitated gesture.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. was like to crack. was punished. no matter if the second is plural).²MACAULAY. was listened to for five hours.The author. many a. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. Her back. sir!" and the "What then.²BUTLER.²ID. Here is no ruin. is a man of wit. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. no discontinuity.² .²PRESCOTT. as well as the Drama. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.

Philip of Anjou.² GIBBON. The travelers. as with a subject of plural form.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²SCOTT. Far.²FROUDE.² A multitude go mad about it. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. A shady grove. were men of insignificant characters. The Dauphin.These bits of wood were covered on every square. for example.²FROUDE. are sufficient to attract a colony. as in Sec. . One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²CARLYLE But its authorship. the Duke of Berri. a stream of fresh water.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. as.²ADDISON. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. Conjunction omitted. as. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. b).²GOLDSMITH. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. TAYLOR.²THOREAU. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. The conjunction may be omitted.²COLERIDGE.²SWIFT. of whom there were a number. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²EMERSON.² One or two of these perhaps survive.²B.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. shirt. 440 (5. All our household are at rest.²GIBBON.²DE QUINCEY. a green pasture. and its history are alike a mystery to us. far away thy children leave the land. its date. making up a plural subject.²FRANKLIN. but the verb is plural. His clothes.

are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. we never talk politics.²THACKERAY.²SMOLLETT. General usage. You and I are farmers. the verb takes the construction of the first person.²WHITTIER. "You would not be wiser. When the subjects. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. 442.²THACKERAY. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. as. Ah. "I have never said so.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. Exceptional examples. of different persons. Not I. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as.²LOWELL. If there is only one person in the subject. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²DE QUINCEY.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. Not Altamont.²ROWE. nor has she").²RUSKIN. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as.²GOLDSMITH.But notice the construction of this.). You and I are tolerably modest people.²BYRON. .²M. Pattison or I have said. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and." "She or you may be sure. but thou. his blood dost shed. but thou. hadst been my lord. Second or third and first person in the subject. ARNOLD. Nothing which Mr. that is.²D.²RUSKIN. for example." etc. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. "He or I can go. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. WEBSTER. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. the subject being really equivalent to we. 444.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. 443. nor should I." or. This construction is at the best a little awkward.

That neither of their intellects are vast. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 5.²and. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. The following illustrate exceptional usage. In this sentence from Defoe. In the following sentence. as we would hope. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.²G. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. Both death and I am found eternal. 8.²SMOLLETT.²ADDISON.²perhaps the devil.²MILTON. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²ID. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²THACKERAY." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. 6.445. 446. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . 11. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²SCOTT. 9. which it is proper to mention. 10. Nor wood. in my opinion. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. BANCROFT.² TROLLOPE. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.²BYRON. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. Neither of them. 3. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 2. nor bush are there. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. 4. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage.Her course to intercept. as illustrated above (Secs. How each of these professions are crowded.²ADDISON. In a word. 7.²EMERSON. nor tree. Also in verbals. 440-444):² 1.²BURKE. Exercise. 12.

448. on my return. Direct discourse²that is. meaning.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. Exercise. to have divided with her whatever might remain.. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. to have seen should be changed to to see.²IRVING. however. 447. for exact connection. It should be remarked. Definitions. But I found I wanted a stock of words. Of course. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.² PALGRAVE 5. if not. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. W." . He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. as. 4. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. CHURCH.²FRANKLIN 6. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.²MACAULAY. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . change them to a better form:² 1.²R.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. I gave one quarter to Ann.²KINGSLEY.. Two samples of indirect discourse. The present rule is recent. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. INDIRECT DISCOURSE.²THACKERAY. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used.²DE QUINCEY 2. Indirect discourse means reported speech. 3.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them.

. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. 449. His exact words were. will. under interrogative pronouns. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. She thought to herself. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Summary of the expressions. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. interrogative adverbs. 1. "I cannot oblige you . or regular interrogatives. have. and the indirect question by whether or if. 2. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form.." etc. Direct. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. . and the subjunctive mood of verbs. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect..." etc. introductory verb is in the past tense. etc. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. Direct." Indirect. This includes the auxiliaries be. The substance of his lamentation was. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. Oh. "Oh. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Her prudence whispered eternally. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. Sebastian's.

²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. The trouble is. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. PARTICIPLES. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. being the course which his confessor had enjoined.²ID. 450. handed down from his ancestor the historian. the first discoverer of the river and country. he assured me that nothing was more easy. . the sound of their balls.²B. Notice this." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. FRANKLIN. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. and that he himself had heard.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. in the sentences first quoted." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.²ADDISON. VERBALS. if this were expanded into a verb. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. Careless use of the participial phrase.²GOLDSMITH. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. like distant peals of thunder.Exercise. with his crew of the Half-moon. one summer afternoon. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. my first observation will be found nearly true. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.

purposely or not.²LAUGHLIN. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. Standard writers often use it. There are. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. . . universal assertion. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. Exercise... The practice is condemned by many grammarians.Correction. For example. 2. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. 3.²RUSKIN. 451. This is the more common arrangement.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. INFINITIVES. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject.² HERBERT SPENCER. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.. either "As I was pleased. leaving the principal statement as it is. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive." etc.. avoid it..²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. In the following citations. my first collection was. if a strike is to succeed. many things to be carefully considered. Adverb between to and the infinitive. and often. then." Exercise.²SCOTT. the first sentence would be.²ID. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . It is a solemn. while defended or excused by others. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.

1533. In works of art. 13. even.²DR. etc. even. No. but it is placed before the infinitive. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. 452. etc. BLAIR." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended. The rigid rule in such a case would be. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. but cannot misunderstand the thought.4. therefore.²GOLDSMITH. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. 5. 9. 6. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. Now. The spirits.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning.²ID. 8. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success.² MACAULAY. from Irving. 7.. are used. china. which consists in multitude. when such adverbs as only. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. this kind of grandeur. 11. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. Position of only. 10. ADVERBS. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. if they modify single words. and earthenware. but they are often removed from the exact position. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. 12.²RUSKIN. I wish the reader to clearly understand. etc. A little sketch of his. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks.²TROLLOPE. is to be very cautiously admitted. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example.²SCOTT. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . Exercise.²The Nation.²BURKE.² ADDISON.

²N.²PALGRAVE.²COOPER. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. 12. for example.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. 6. to avoid a crowd.1. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. 2. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.²ID. 7. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival.²MACAULAY. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 14.²HIGGINSON. He could only afford to keep one old horse. The old usage. In Old and Middle English. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 13. . He shouted in those clear.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. 8.²RUSKIN. WILLIS. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. GROTE. ²ASCHAM. 3.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.² THACKERAY. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²EMERSON. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. My master. 9. were he never so old of yeares.²CHAUCER.²MRS. In relating these and the following laws.²ID.²SWIFT. 15. Irving could only live very modestly. 453. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 16.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.²ID. P. whence he was never destined to return.²MOTLEY. No sonne.²THACKERAY. 5. His last journey to Cannes.²SYDNEY SMITH. 17. might not marry. During the whole course of his administration. 4. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. 10. 11.

This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. and is still kept in vulgar English. however.² HAMILTON. nor never shall. as infrequent. if two negatives are found together. . 5. etc. as.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. Exercise.²BAYNE. under the influence of Latin syntax. and why:² 1. However. 3. when one of the negatives is a connective.²DEFOE. who hadn't been to school for nothing. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. But. The prosperity of no empire."²MRS. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. 4. neither.²MRS. Exceptional use. is not common. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. STOWE. STOWE. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. nor the grandeur of no king. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. This. 7.²BURKE.²HOLMES. in Ole Virginia. ²PAGE. one of the negatives is often a prefix. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative."²four negatives. In the latter case. the usual way of regarding the question now is. but ought not to labor after it. can so agreeably affect. There weren't no pies to equal hers. 2. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. uncommon. denying each other. Not only could man not acquire such information. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. I did not act so hastily. I never did see him again. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all.²HAWTHORNE.²LOWELL.²GROTE. In the execution of this task. Therefore. Regular law of negative in modern English. 6.²DE QUINCEY.

"A weapon. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. "well worthy to confer honor." may be changed to "This loose ." .. neither . Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever....8. and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. if the second precedes a phrase.."²SCOTT. Choice and proper position of correlatives. either.. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. or with advantage. Correction. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. especially both .. 455. or to reply to it.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. not only to the success of their common cause. but to their own safety. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. The sentences given in Secs. nor is often changed to not²either .." Besides neither . CONJUNCTIONS. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals.. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.. the first ought to be placed before a verb. even neither .. nor. but (also).. and. the first should also. or... not only . "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. if the last precedes a verb. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. not or is the proper correlative of neither.²PRESCOTT. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . should be scrutinized. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. and which. And who." said the King.²LOWELL. The sentence." both of the above requirements are violated.. as the use of the conjunction.. as well as of the pronoun. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here.. not merely . In the sentence.²SCOTT.. or. but. Things to be watched.. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. 454. either . there we were. or to reply to it.

²GOLDSMITH. 3.²FRANKLIN. 456. Try and for try to. They will. 4. 8. 457.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. murder. In the following sentences. but. but grown-up persons. Try and avoid the pronoun. but they will outrage.²ID. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded.²THACKERAY. as. Some exceptions. as. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. But what. nor the disgrace of assailing him. 7. but. and chop up their own kin. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. Exercise. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²S.²RUSKIN. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed.²MACAULAY.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. too. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. 2. or but that for the words but what:² 1.²THACKERAY.Exercise. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.²BAIN. 5." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. or the negative relative but. JEWETT. substitute that. etc. and I don't know but what he was right. not merely interest children. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.²GIBBON.² ADDISON. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. . 6. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. or but that. Correct the following sentences:² 1. O. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Now. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun.

but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.²BURKE. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised.²SCOTT. 6.²ADDISON.² SWIFT. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). see Sec. 5.²EMERSON. 3. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.2.²EMERSON.² BULWER. 459.²TROLLOPE. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. Between is used most often with two things only. 305. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. . 458. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. PREPOSITIONS. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. 313. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. no separation or division by twos being implied. as already seen in Sec. 4. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.²ADDISON. Between and among. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.

Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. LIST I. Derogatory to. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Acquit of. Dissent from. as. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. averse. Bestow on (upon). and Coleridge.²between philosophers like Spinoza. confer.²KINGSLEY.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Paley. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. . to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Accord with. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions.: Words with particular prepositions. as. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. a soldier of the Cross. and another to convey a different meaning. ²EMERSON. Abhorrent to. Such are absolve. Kant. different. Affinity between. Two groups or one and a group. Dependent on (upon). Comply with. correspond. and Stewart. Conform to. 460. or one object and a group.²RUSKIN What have I. etc. Some of them have. Averse to. 461. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Different from. Such are derogatory. Conversant with. by custom. and philosophers like Locke. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Mackintosh. involve. List I.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire.

Change for (a thing). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. 462. Confide in (trust in). as. Agree to (a proposal). Change with (a person). as." also of persons. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. LIST II. 463. Involve in. Independent of. Reconcile to (note below). etc. Confide to (intrust to). as. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Reconcile with (note below)." List III. A taste for (art.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Correspond to (a thing). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. . Change to (become). but it is not good usage. Confer on (upon) (give to). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things.y y y Deprive of. Differ from (note below). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. as meaning to be in keeping with. Correspond with (write to). "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. List II. Differ with (note below). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). LIST III. A taste of (food). and sometimes creeps into standard books.). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Confer with (talk with). in the sense of making friends with.

" (because of). Illustrations of "die of." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. "Die for.²FIELDING. "Die for. privation. If I meet with any of 'em. died for love of the fair Marcella.²BULWER. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. ²THACKERAY. simply from old age.²ADDISON. and ill treatment.²SCOTT.²MACAULAY.y y y Die by. "Die with. die from. "Die from. Who." The author died of a fit of apoplexy." "die from." She would have been ready to die with shame. Part from. part with. die with. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. as Cervantes informs us. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. expect from. I am positively dying with hunger.²GOLDSMITH. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²GOLDSMITH.²G.²POPE. ²ATHENÆUM. die for.²SHAKESPEARE. ELIOT.:² "Die of.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.²BOSWELL.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL." (material cause. It would take me long to die of hunger. Expect of. No one died from want at Longfeld. "Die by. ." etc. People do not die of trifling little colds." (in behalf of). I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²G. He died at last without disease. One of them said he would die for her. Take thought and die for Cæsar.²MACAULAY. they shall die by this hand. She died of hard work. die of. instrument).²BURNETT. ELIOT.²MACAULAY.

as my friend. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.²BULWER." She will expect more attention from you. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. ELIOT. ELIOT. Kind in you. It was a little bad of you." He was fond of everybody that he was used to." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year.²G.²WALLER.²AUSTEN. nothing better was to be expected. Illustrations of "part with.²MARRYAT." To part from you would be misery.²BULWER. and hated to part with them. .²MACAULAY.²G.²DICKENS.²SHAW. His precious bag. I can part with my children for their good. I have just seen her.²SCOTT. Illustrations of "expect of." "part from:"² "Part with. 464. just parted from her. kind of you. "Expect from. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. I part with all that grew so near my heart. 466. 465. Of Doctor P. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. That is more than I expected of you. "Part from.²WALPOLE." "expect from:"² "Expect of. I have long expected something remarkable from you.²G. With words implying behavior or disposition. which he would by no means part from. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man. ELIOT.²MACAULAY. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. "Part with" is used with both persons and things.²POE.²TROLLOPE. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. either of or in is used indifferently.

This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. with seraphims. nor green. and ran up the alley. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. raging storms. but which the story renders necessary. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. 10. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 1. . it is commonly said that his profits are high. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. But this is idle of you. In the friction between an employer and workman. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. or which we are most imperatively required to do. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. or that they are any way dependent on each other. nor of a pale red.²BULWER. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. Very natural in Mr. In.²DICKENS. 9. Hampden. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief.²TENNYSON. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white.He did not think it handsome of you. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean.²BULWER. This narrative. thunder. 15. nor blue. 4. 5. thrown it over Amyas's head. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 14. It will be anything but shrewd in you. 6.²CARLYLE. or artillery. tedious perhaps. 3. 11. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. nor yellow. the vast abyss. The noise of vast cataracts. 8. Thou tread'st. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 7.²BEACONSFIELD. 13.

When the glass or liquor are transparent. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. what is a just and unjust act. 20. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. 23. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling.And were I anything but what I am. 36. But every man may know.) 34. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 37. and other angular figures. and almost as good as a pony. 18. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. and most of us do know. save Amyas. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. Squares. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 19. 28. Friday. Every one of these letters are in my name. (Sec. 16. You have seen Cassio and she together. 17. 31. 411. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 29. 26. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. were down with raging fever. produce approbation. . 25. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. the acquiescence of the understanding. That night every man of the boat's crew. 21. 38. 35. 27. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. you or me. 32. but in the price paid to them. 24. The effect of proportion and fitness. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 22. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 30. or how beautiful it is. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them.I would wish me only he. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. triangles. 33. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. whom he thinks would be better than a dog.

116. 119. adverbs used complements. numeral. Abstract with Active Address. 40. of. as comparison definition demonstrative. INDEX. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. 102.39. adjectives. article. He had four children. 92. from about 1500 to the present time. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. from nominative clauses. 124. 98. 20. 47. of. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 124. 310. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. demonstrative. 90. 47. 107. 239. syntax uses Absolute. (2) Middle English. voice. 133. origin of. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. . THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. nouns. of.000 between them. 89. of. Adjectives. (3) Modern English. 91. 260. of. nominative. pronouns. as. A. 25.

. conjunction. conjunctions. of. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. nouns. infinitive. of. Alms. 303. 328. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 194. 190. 323. objective. 103. between of. 116. 99. 190. 106. of. of. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. compared. 262. and 185. parse. 115. parse. 316. 116. as nouns. predicate. antecedent. quantity. Against. to used of. 27. 207. of. 242. Agreement. clauses. 191. 97. 109. 101. of. 42. 325. adjectives. 291. 148. adjectives.from function how in not of of ordinal. 104. 194. with with with subject. from to of. 27. 187. 114. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. of. antecedent. adjectives. 239. 302. 195. 303. modify. sentence. plural pronominal. 183. 184. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 325. quality. 207. 275. nouns. 48. 287.

271. sentences. 225. words between. 120. See with definition complex compound simple who. 198. 207. of and pronoun of. and. 240. 275. sentences. 79. syntax As. See 74.Among. possessive. . 150. sentences. 331. parse. 294. of. as uses verbs. 120. adjective. which. 67. An. 295. 231. which. 300. 51. 148. A. of of of And Antecedent. 264. 47. 84. 49. 287. definition how indefinite. of. in in. 74. pronouns. which. same. 124. Are. 90. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. agreement personal as pronoun. of. after of. to of. 101. Anacoluthon Analysis. 67. 208. of. Arrangement Articles. syntax. definition of of of Any. derivation in definite. it. 252. of. 127. uses As At. 296. Agreement. though. Auxiliary if. 309.

uses nominative of. plurals of. 279. 194. Be. clauses of. 210. 37. 260. 54. Case. uses of. possessive. of nouns. number of. Between. 46. 195. 48. 66. of. 39. of. of pronouns. Can. 110. conjunctions Cherub. uses Better. 111. best. of nouns. of what. nominative. 149. Case. 278. 64. Among. 84. 278. But. adverb. 110. . of pronouns. 39. See of. 262. 330. with But By. objective. of. 62. 279. definition could. adjective. 283. Clause. of pronouns. 49. of nouns. Cause. of nouns. 63. 45. Bridegroom. Children. of pronouns. forms. in Old and Modern English. 47. 224. syntax of. comparison conjugation of. pronoun. 150.Bad. Brethren. 46. 262. 161. double possessive.

18. 264. 43. 312. of. 43. nouns. of. of. and forms of. 157. double. infinitive. Cleave. 268. 108. of. 257. clothes. material. plural of. 239. sentence. 113. adverbs. 12. Cloths. defective. 110. English. 263. 24. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. 244. predicate. of. of. 107. predicate of and from from of. and sentence. . Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 108. proper. 53. 111. 258. verb. adjectives. analysis of. Clomb. of. 271. 257. 257. 315. 305. nouns. 248. of.definition kinds noun. 307. 189. 18. 307. definition degrees irregular. subject. of. superlative. 23. 158. nouns. in analysis.

See in subjunctive. and clause. See English. to of. 188. replaced by objective. 193. of. 263. conjunctions. 143. definition be. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 195. conjunction. 231. 194. of of Conjunctions. pronoun. 194. Agreement. other other parts of speech. conjunctions. same words. verbs. sentences. 255. 138. 149. pronoun. 207. 328. . 199. parse.with Concord. Dative Declarative Declension of case. subjunctive. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. 194. 269. See analysis clauses. interrogative pronouns. 196. 151. in Old vs. 149. correlative. definition how subordinate. 289. sentences. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. pronouns. adverbs. Conjunctions. 139. Can. 73. 66. analysis. 195. of. coördinate. sentence.

adverbs See adjectives. 99. Case. See See 48. nouns. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. Comparison. indirect. 333. pronouns. article. 315. 26. Comparative. 303.Declension. 91. possessive. 90. 160. nouns. object. 80. Degrees. 320. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 43. of. Subordinate clause. from. clause. See adjectives. 51. 242. passive adjectives. pronouns. vs. 185. 152. of. of personal relative verbs. 242. 287. . verb. 35. 60. 102. comparative. See 148. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. pronouns. by. 102. tenses. use of dies. for. of. duck. with of. pronouns. of. 288. 300. discourse. with. Articles.

to suffix. 90. 12. 92. Elements Ellipsis. 33. of subject. 39. 112. 287. 299. plural. added suffix. ending. complement. Empress. 42. suffix. 255. 40. error in sentence. literary. conjunction. 51. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 33. 241. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. older. 102. of. possessive suffix. 32. 234. 110. of. 240. 90. adjective. feminine plural English. 287. adjective. pronoun. 328. object. in 'Em. pronoun. 92.Drank. . of. the of sentence. 194. drunk. another. Each. Either. 257. one ( t). 38. vulgar. pronouns. syntax Each Eat Eaves. predicate. of. spoken. 92. -En. other. 158. 300. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 158. of. 280. 34. of. 62. original.

32. 152. Feminine.. uses Foreign Former. 148. Further. 30. 36. 238. 43. 30. gender. adjective.. first. 91. 48. 29. with in sex. Future Future tense. 112. 334. 189. 102.Every. 112. 30. 110. used of. with infinitive. expect gone. uses redundant. Few. of. 308. of. 212. other languages. First Fish. From. 211. 147. etc. For. First. nouns. fishes. Farther. pronoun. 102. definition distinguished in English. plurals. etc. 287. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 212. 103." 31. have adjective. . See Gander. modes "common goose. two a further. two. as of from compared marking. the. to of. perfect. as a noun. object. 126. Gender. 235. from. 152. of. 45. few. 319.

275. forms in Girl. 43. He. definition basis of. 159. pronoun. it. 177. Got. and case verbal with. 144. adjective. of. Grammar. 10. pronouns. 12. personal relative geniuses. noun. of. an better. 61. His Husband. 60. for before. she. 175. Gerund. 285. I. of. 60. definition divisions opinions province H. had hung. kinds of. from participle of. its. 145. . Had Hanged. 80. 35. 9. 101. rather. person. distinguished syntax. 176. of. Government. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. first sentence. 61. 231. participle. 13. 120.of of Genii. 159. possessive pronouns. 36. 173. on. 12.

319. mood. transitive. verbs. 178. See you. 283. 320. pronoun. indirect of. with of. 245. words. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. uses discourse.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 233. pronouns. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. indices. 136. use article. 73. . 276. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. See Articles. of. elements. 67. 248. 85. of. of. 110. adjectives. adjectives. 323. of clause. questions. 257. sentence. 188. 131. 227. summary See passive mood. 231. questions. of. your. 105. 153. a object. in compared syntax. meaning. Questions. Direct object. 72. 176. adverbs. 93. 43. 131.

in little. Latter.adverbs. was uses me. of. latest. etc. Like. 189. See Madam. 245. Lie. . 227. queen. 170. Lady. lesser. 113. plural. 276. pronoun. -Ly. 226. uses Literary Little. 61. Lady. subject form. syntax. It. a vs. 36. of. "It Its. 102. Last. 63. Kind. 110. 39. 303. of. 36. 91. lie. Less.. English. syntax the. 281. predicate. of. Lay.. 67. and See words in. 12. Logic Logical Lord. 36. 126. Kine. King. 190. 113. these double kind." history etc. adjective. 110. lord. Lay.

Master. 189. 112. Must.Manner. of. 114. 112. in adverbs comparison a. of. 325. subjunctive. 195. Mood. indicative. 137. 112. -Most. of. nigh. of. mine. 265. 126. conjunctions Many. 41. of. 64. 187. 110. adjective. might.. 137-144. . comparison Near. 161. position adverb. 36. imperative. 328. 102. Neither. 287. Negative. mistress. 185. 113. 194. Much. 34. 144. of. Means. of. double. out of. syntax conjunction. 256. 189. Many Mapping Mare. of. Modifiers. 110. 326. 135. May. 188. construction as of adverb. etc. Enlargement. See definition 136. 160. Modifier. superlatives. syntax nearer. Mighty Mine. sentences. 110.

and figures. 246. of. analysis. formed. etc. number once other plural. 126. to of. 19. to use. 38. Case. None. No Nominative. 124. words how compound. become become formation case collective. abstract. 17.pronoun. clause. half abstract. Not Noun Nouns. become neuter. 300. 41. 41. 17. class used singular. 328. 46. 30. of. of. 25. in. of. nouns. 32. gender how kinds material. gender nouns. 18. 30. 26. proper. foreign. of. of. 125. 38-41. 29. definition descriptive. material. See 194. abstract. of of of of of a. 30. 45. 46. . letters as 24. now plural. kinds 90. 17 19. 258. 42. parse. 56. used as. Nor. of. 41 43. syntax Neuter or two News. etc. 301. syntax in gender nouns. definition according of. common. 92. 27. 20. nouns. 21. 25.

adjectives. 106. . dative. 285. definite. or plural. etc. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. plural form. 66. 48. article. 278. 282. nominative. 242. adjectives. spoken of instead nouns. English. of. 235. 279. plural. 41. pronouns.. 41. indirect. 242. preposition. 121. 48. 278. Numeral Object. 48. meaning. with case. meanings. indefinite. of different possessive definite of. 92. singular. 23. See verb. adverbial. 196. 42 44. in article. 102. passive adverbial. of. form. 48. Nouns. of. 42. singular. 101. 101. Preposition. 41. verbs. 42. as forms titles. pronouns. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. of. 39. 48. 43.of same two with proper. 240. of. 148. of. common. 195. See in in in Numeral distributive. plural no two singular construction. 60. conjunction. in nouns. with with with Now Number. personal. 124. 18. and analysis. 281. become syntax use with with with Nouns.

213. . See the as of. Ourself. 91. 194. 87. adverbs. 103. 93 other. 237. adjective.syntax Of. nouns. Omission On. Parsing. 41. position Order. definite relative uses of. of. treatment comparatives. 117. Oxen. 127. adverb. 233. 306. another. pronoun. 293. of. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 216. Our. See pronoun. inverted. a in adjectives. of syntax. 115. 199. as other. uses numeral pronoun. 56. 94. Pains. of upon. Older. 103. ours. articles. with (the). conjunctions. 191. One. 69. part analysis. 161. of. as of. 116. 325 275. 279. for. Elder. Ordinal Other Ought. 101. conjunction. 56. 64. 38. of of of of of models adjectives. Each adjective.

69. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 28. phrases. 177. antecedent. not is. of. verbals. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. of. pronouns. parsed. pennies. 317. used as voice. verbs. 148. of. 335. 172. 43. part adjective. with. 247. 180. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. article 150. of. of. 179. 95. speech. 59. them. of. 219. 80. 119. 62. verbs. 134. 61. 172. pronoun. -ing words. pease. pronouns. 56. Pence. 56. Person. agreement of verb nouns. relatives. 59. from definition other of. nominative. 100. included various. reflexive. 281. 287. 27. . absolute with of. and subject in. phrase.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. of. verb idioms it from. 64. in. predicate use of. or of. 59. 43. 70. 181. possessive and of. 322. 174. 62. 173. 63.

41. singular degree. or See of of See 185. as double. 60. of. 236. Personification. 248. simple. pronoun. spoken of. 61. 53. 67. antecedent of of pronouns. Positive Possessive. Nouns. 303. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 278. of. double. of nouns. 235. adjectives. 247. Place. kinds infinitive. in of. 37. nouns. 106. vs. 's. 195. syntax of of Politics. of. nouns. 52. omitted. 281. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 278. 236. 303. 25. pronoun. 247. 188. complete. 245. See 60. 232. 49. of. of. pronouns. conjunctions prepositions Plural. appositional. prepositional. nouns. participial. objects. it. 285. plural. 281. relative. of. of. of. 64. 63. Comparison. 53. English. adverbs of. noun nouns. 245. Personal subjective. 241.objective syntax table triple uses of. . 54. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 50. of Phrase. 51. singular. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 206.

adjective. 299. expressed as other of. singular usually other. 186. and form form form form of. 302.Prefixes. verbs. by parts of of. by with shown certain of. plural. neither. in exclamations. of. forms of. possessive nominative to of. 129. 93. after but. another. interrogative. plural. what. same used as adjectives. 105. of. as. meaning. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. of. 206. who personal. plural. 203. 195. 89. 279. 104. 287. 284. future. as 54. . and one with else's. of. 300. 147. 331. parse. words. 203. exclamatory. objective. 72. 300. 187. 281. 280. 283. Pronouns. Prepositions. of. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. each either. with tense certain. 58. 58. 202. 32. 219. 64. 282. 207. adverb. 301. of. 332. objective. 205. somebody definition how indefinite. 59. 132. 208. none. case. usually to as than. interrogative. case. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. all. speech. 303. parse. any. of. as antecedent of relative. by. 333. 283. 285. for predicate nominative. 105. 95.

See of. of. 296. nouns. or of. agreement anacoluthon and as. 295. 291. 87. unrestrictive. same antecedent. Rather. of. in. 279. 74. and antecedent. 101. 189. 289. conjunctions Quality. pronominal pronouns indirect. 142. 188. Quantity. of. indirect compound. 74. discourse. in. 85. personal pronoun. of. that. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. Rank. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. of. questions. of. in. of. 58.possessive relative. of. 80. with with gerund. 293. from and interrogative. and which. parse. Nouns. 87. use in as. 83. pronouns. pronoun. 68. who. 295. 293. 105. which after same. 99. to of. Direct same and different. 289. 84. 263. . 69. indirect. 286. 297. use of history formed. with who. Quotations. Questions. and relatives. of. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 195. adverbs in. 69. 85. which. 74.

ending. simple. 294. 196. 69. clauses of. 195. S. in of. gender. 231. pronoun. kinds Sequence Set. 242. 231. 'S. 40. of sit. sentence. tenses. elliptical. 252. object. of of of complex Sentences.syntax use Result. 29. and should. effect. of. forms shots. 162. Seeing. suffix. 319. 74. will. reflexive analysis of compound. 289. 263. which. 43. 196. of. 170. complex. 26 271. See Sentences. would. of. who. Simple in sate. 259. of. 159. 42. conjunctions Retained Riches. Shear. 159. Same Sat. simple of. definition . conjunction. Self Sentences. that. 51. 255. Sex Shall. plural possessive as. Shot. in form.

of. 233. Somebody Sort. 258. for. 169. 270. 126. English. etc. of. in Middle English. distinguish. verbs. 33. adverb. 260. 32. 237. names as a. vs. 186. 245. Spelling Spinster. 138. English. 262. English. 38. of. 257. 303. 240. 36..Singular Sir. disuse in spoken complete. used mood. 257. See -En. English. literary clause. 144. 303. as. in feminine suffix. to of. of. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. 144. of. 323. definition 67. 38. of. . of. Modern use becoming else's. 258. logical. 257. other Such Such Suffix -s. 257. 258. 137. 12. Subject. sort. 245. definition how kinds noun. 33. Split Spoken -Ster. adverb. these number. -en. -es. phonetic in infinitive.

as history The. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. in comparison. two basis not same definition definite. coördinating. 152. degree. meaning. 147.. 306. adverbs. not suggesting adjectives. classical of. which. 319. English. when relative. meaning made up in Old of. adjectives. 277. of languages. omission whom. Then. 147. See etc. 275. 123. definition in English Tense. king. 307. 106. 309. as history syntax Their. 108. and and of. 33. as adverbs. 189. of. 222. restrictive. in Modern number sequence table Than That. auxiliaries. English. subject. 275. in double." introductory. 120. 147. article. me.. form. that uses That. of. of. 280. of. of. syntax of. 148. of. Kind. 107. this. objects. 116. than of. Tenses. 87.Suffixes. 290. of. plural as adverb. when as of. 109. 186. "the then foreign. . object. 119. There These kind. they. 88. 297.. of. 106. 61. 191. 306. 186. of . 289.

114. other noun. adverbs those. of. 114. 172. from cleft to 174. used. in omitted uses T'other. gerund. Upon. thy. 247. thee. try two. 322. -ing 111. suffix. 180. first. 128. how infinitive. 172. 248. -Trix. 217. of. 175. parse. 308. 33. Thou. of. uttermost. 114. phrases. See That. 176. of. Try Two Under. 61. in of. infinitive. 20.. 330. 21. verbs. feminine and. 175. uses of. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. etc.These. analysis. 195. . first adjective. 207. 175. 188. See On. uses history of. 185. kinds participle. 119. Upper. 323. 173. of. tother. conjunctions prepositions To. 181. of. preposition. to. carelessly uses syntax this. infinitive. Time. Utter. 322. certain as the before with of. of. words. exclamations.

tense of. 236. remarks on certain. 47. passive form. 245. 133. table of. but uses what. 167. What. verbs. past tense formed nominative. with subject in number. 154. definition of. 33. of. 133. 148. in indirect discourse. of. . 155. of English. transitive and intransitive. table of irregular. verbs by. Vixen. 147. 149. becoming irregular. 169. 242. 39. defective. made transitive. 179. 130. conjugation of. person and number of. 317. 148. 159. weak. 135. change. in person. Vocative in Voice.Verbs. analysis. spelling of. active meaning. phonetic. 319. 312. auxiliary. 312-316. agreement of. 12. strong. passive. sequence of. how to parse. 131. regular. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. mood of. active. 169. intransitive. definition of. of incomplete predication. 223. retained object with passive. 129. 157. 134. formed by. syntax of. 330. 151. 154. 167. voice of. 150. definition of. 160. 154. 320.

83. 79. in -ly. pronoun. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 104. 72. 73. 78. 295-299. 178. 85. in. relative indirect relative. relative. 83. 72. English. 190. relative. 299. animals.. uses See Shall.what Whereby. 218. Who. 36. 296. 37. worser. spoken in of. etc. 111. 75. 72. . 105. 105. referring syntax Widower. wizard. 85. 32. in in indefinite objective. plural of in nouns -ing. 85. would. of. Will. a. Y. 36. Yes ending analysis. 75. 194. Wife. Woman. of. whereto. direct of. 246. With. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. questions. interrogative Which. 77. Words in Worse. conjunction. questions. pronoun. antecedent adjective. 126. Whether. 40. questions. questions. Witch.

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