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Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FOR THE USE OF HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL
PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL
OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.
Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION I. SPEECH.

PART THE NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS Verbs. Verbals. How To ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS.. WORDS INTERJECTIONS. PART ANALYSIS CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION Simple Contracted Complex

PARTS

OF

AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.

Parse

THAT

NEED

WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.

OF ACCORDING ACCORDING TO NUMBER

Compound PART SYNTAX INTRODUCTORY. NOUNS. PRONOUNS. ADJECTIVES. ARTICLES. VERBS. INDIRECT VERBALS. INFINITIVES. ADVERBS. CONJUNCTIONS. PREPOSITIONS INDEX

Sentences. III.

DISCOURSE.

INTRODUCTION.
So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

from the question. rightly considered. Surely our noble language. Authority as a basis. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. If. so that a small grammar will hold them all. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered." What grammar is. This will take in the usual divisions.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. Mental training. It is also evident. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. to those who have studied the language historically. however. there is still much for the grammarian to do. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. Few inflections. and their uses and relations in the sentence. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. A broader view. Coming back. then. and thus incite his observation. Literary English. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous)." and "Syntax. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. Making rules is risky. An æsthetic benefit. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. "Analysis. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. with its enormous vocabulary. its peculiar and abundant idioms. their forms.The province of English grammar is. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. The work it will cover. but this is bad English now. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. as compared with Latin or Greek. as. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. assist the classification of kindred expressions. it will at the same time. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). . is worthy of serious study. if rightly presented." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties.

The plainest name is Arabs. as they stand for ideas. NOUNS. and Inflections. the nation is free. not objects. Vulgar English. too. submission. by which is meant the free.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. Part II.²GIBBON. and may belong to any of those objects. In the more simple state of the Arabs. three divisions:² Part I. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. The following pages will cover. The Uses of Words. Spoken English. . Such words are called nouns. Analysis of Sentences. or Syntax. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. which belongs to a people. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. Part III. PART I. and the word nation stands for a whole group. then. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. and will are evidently names of a different kind. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. or standard. reference will be made to vulgar English. that is. besides this one. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. from the eighteenth century on. The words state. 1. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. The Parts of Speech. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. the words sons and master name objects. but. Occasionally. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master.

They properly belong under common nouns. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. and appropriate names to the groups. Common. reducing it to a narrow application. animals. or a congress. the name of each is an individual or proper name. 2. whether person. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. Classes of nouns. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. but Chicago names one city. however. Thus. Thus. or things. representing directly to the mind an object. animals. a committee. because each group is considered as a unit. or the man in front of you. Proper. and things separately. or idea. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. 5. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. MATERIAL. (a) 4. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. as here used. place. Abstract. . but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. This does not imply. Individual. A noun is a name word. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. For instance. or a mob. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. men in groups may be called a crowd. substance. we may think of them in groups. Collective. belonging to one. etc. or thing. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. We may say. the man here. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. 3. Name for a group or collection of objects. is from a Latin word which means general. or a council. (b) Common.Definition. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. possessed by all. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. Besides considering persons. ATTRIBUTE. Name for any individual of a class.

considered abstractly.²There are some nouns. moon. frost. 6. paint. but it is taken merely as a name. we speak of the wisdom of the man. or that which shows a thing has been proved. but in the words sun. When we speak of a wise man. such as sun. and fasten a special name to the object considered. potash. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth).. mist. snow. etc. NOTE. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. etc. celluloid. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. tea. expressing state. instead of to each individual or separate object. however.Names for things thought of in mass. etc. gold. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. 7. not things. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. rubber. (3) Geological bodies: mud. sugar. wheat. granite. cloud. conditions. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. sand. there is no such intention. clay. dew. Such are glass. Names of ideas." 9. It may. but which are not called proper names. or apart from their natural connection. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. rain. wine. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. etc. Again. or actions. earth. condition." "a man of understanding. They remain common class names. rice. soap. or action. . as in calling a city Cincinnati. we may say. expressing attributes or qualities. stone. and so on. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. "Painting is a fine art. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. Words naturally of limited application not proper. etc. world. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. . wheat. earth. etc. etc. etc. sugar. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. iron. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. rock. The reason is. platinum. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea." "Learning is hard to acquire. frost. The quality is still there as much as before. proof means the act of proving.

etc. etc. action from act. and they cannot express action." "a brisk walk. but are merely names of actions. redness from red. Exercises. joy. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. mastery from master. 12. day. height from high. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. II. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. theft from thieve. 1. To avoid difficulty.Attribute abstract nouns. the main bearings of this matter. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. ease. a wedding or a festival. the teachings of the High Spirit. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. kingship from king. as glad²joy. 10. night. the rude drawings of the book. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. by altering its function. etc. thunder. NOTE.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. lightning. Such are beauty. The verb. etc. the moon caused fearful forebodings. 272. there is time for such reasonings. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. five proper. hopeful²hope. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. hope. he spread his blessings over the land. the well-being of her subjects. five abstract. stupidity from stupid. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. (2) peerage from peer. 273). service from serve. summer. her longing for their favor. energy. is used as a noun. those opinions and feelings." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. shadow. They cannot govern a word. as in the expressions. Underived abstract nouns. (1) prudence from prudent. speech from speak.. childhood from child. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. Caution. Thus. winter. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. in the beginning of his life. . They are only the husks of verbs. as their name implies. "a long run" "a bold move. the great Puritan awakening. Verbal abstract nouns.

Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. as pneumonia. as physics.2. diphtheria. mathematics? 3. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. pleurisy. geology. catarrh. (b) branches of knowledge. algebra. Using a dictionary. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . typhus.

a Bentham. a Hutton. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. Sodom was famous for wickedness. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. 14. a Lavoisier. from Damascus. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. etc. Guillotin. from Calicut. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. for example. as a davy. We know a number of objects made of iron. currants. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. 15. thus. a Locke. from Corinth. it imposes its classification on other men. Proper names transferred to common use. who was its inventor. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. Nouns change by use. port (wine). A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. from Oporto. the word port. Others of similar character are calico. but most of them are in the following groups. "The cook made the irons hot. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. 13. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. arras. from China. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. from the name of Dr. in Portugal. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. above. the guillotine. and lo! a new system.²EMERSON. damask. or to go over to it entirely. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. a Fourier." referring to flat- . 119). nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. but we may say. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. Material nouns may be used as class names. levant and morocco (leather). from a town in France.

a steel to whet a knife on. or the arts and sciences. that disposition is the thing to be created.²BRYANT. and so on. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. his eyes. For example. that is. Death. They are not then pure abstract nouns. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. purity. Traffic has lain down to rest. clouds. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. etc. etc. When it is said that art differs from science. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. nor are they common class nouns.²HAYNE. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. to prowl or to moan like night birds.²COLLINS. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. papers. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. on fire.²RUSKIN. or made plural. but in case an art or a science. abstract in meaning. The words preceded by the article a. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. or. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. are still names of abstract ideas. 16. clays. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. paints. not material things. tins. the abstract idea is partly lost. Class nouns in use. which are made plural. A halfway class of words. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. smiled. 17. though not confined to verse. These are the same in material. as stones. Next Anger rushed.irons.²BYRON. or used as class nouns. a rubber for erasing marks. oils. but on dispositions which require to be created. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. slates. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. tobaccos. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. Test this in the following sentences:² . mists. and only Vice and Misery. This is a poetic usage. be spoken of. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. are abroad. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. but differ in strength. Personification of abstract ideas. and say teas. From all around²Earth and her waters.²PERCIVAL. coals. (3) By poetical use. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural.²CARLYLE. candies. that the power of art is founded on fact.In lightnings owned his secret stings.

² GOLDSMITH. as descriptive adjectives are. a bank in New York.The Solitary can despise. which belongs to another word. fear thy blow. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. 18. They are more like the possessive noun. the wealthy. Adjectives. sir!" and the "What then. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. NOTE. etc. All these. Conjunctions. By ellipses. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. or describe it. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. but is still a noun. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. Every why hath a wherefore. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. and joysWhich I too keenly taste. Nouns used as descriptive terms." "a New York bank. they cannot be compared. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. they do not express quality. But it is better to consider them as nouns. loves.Let us. 19.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. Then comes the "Why.²EMERSON. if we must have great actions. Adverbs. as each repeated pleasure tired." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. meaning a walk in the morning. sir?" and the "No. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. however. for example.² BURNS.²SHAKESPEARE. or from any expression." "the State Bank Tax bill.²BURNS. "a family quarrel.²SHAKESPEARE. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. nouns used to modify.²IRVING." which contains a pure adjective. sir!"²MACAULAY . And still. were mere terrors of the night. make our own so." "a morning walk. a bill as to tax on the banks. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. When I was young? Ah. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. But ah! those pleasures. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning.

the terms the great. Power laid his rod aside. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. Learning." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. In the other sentences.And Ceremony doff'd her pride.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. When. however. 5. in speaking of the principal of a school. but have an adjectival meaning. When. why and wherefore. The it. 6. It is to be remembered. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. 2. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. in a sentence above. is ambiguous. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used." or "legal. or a faithful domestic. of course. Exercise.Nor iron bars a cage. too.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. and tell to which class each belongs. 1.²These remarks do not apply. or a criminal. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Now."²B. that cobweb of the brain. to such words as become pure nouns by use. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. the wealthy. and Then. but as a figure of speech. 3. so. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. are used. Caution. is the word "just. 4. at the beginning. NOTE. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. There are many of these.. whether it mean the sun or the cold. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. FRANKLIN. Stone walls do not a prison make. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. without reference to its function in the sentence. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. of words rather than of their meaning. 7. etc. are spoken of as if pure nouns. 8. 20. or a state secret. . the words are entirely independent of any adjective force." and another of Dr.

Fair guests. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. the silver moon is gone. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 23. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. Male beings are. 18. 13. The hours glide by.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 21. It is founded on sex. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. always masculine. What gender means in English. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. And see. 17. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. but not so in English. in English grammar.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. 10. that waits you here. 19. 16. the welcome. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. and names of females are usually feminine. 15. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. 14.You seize the flower. he cried. 21. 12. GENDER. female. shattered and disabled. its bloom is shed. There are exceptions even to this general statement. .9. Greek. 11. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. and many other languages. 24. The fleet. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 22. German. 20. A fool speaks all his mind. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. In Latin. always feminine. for every dropHinders needle and thread. returned to Spain. A little weeping would ease my heart.

that pattern of a husband. The great difference is. in English.. die Gabel (fork) is feminine.²LAMB.When. according to their use. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. the name of it is feminine.² I have seenA curious child . neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects.²IRVING. came to a stand just by the bridge.²gender nouns. No "common gender. Neuter nouns. and neuter nouns. Gender nouns. those which do not distinguish sex. . 24. mensa (table) is feminine.² IRVING. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. Hence: Definition. in other languages gender follows the form. the name of it is masculine. Gunpowder . "A little child shall lead them. All nouns.. are named by gender nouns. das Messer (knife) is neuter. and consequently without sex. He next stooped down to feel the pig. those with which man comes in contact often. according to use. must be divided into two principal classes. hortus (garden) is masculine. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. that is. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. 22. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. Of animals. or additions to words. or which arouse his interest most. those distinguishing the sex of the object. inanimate things are spoken of.²masculine and feminine.." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. if there were any signs of life in it. or names of things without life. the word child is neuter in the sentence. but are spoken of as neuter. For instance: in Latin.. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. der Tisch (table) is masculine. in German. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. 23. if of the female sex. corpus (body) is neuter. Thus. then. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. the sex being of no consequence." . Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up.. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. however. with its gizzard under its wing. clapping his burnished wings..

The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. as he-goat²she-goat. 28. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. etc. Male nouns beings. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. . teacher. 27. though both words have lost their original meanings. is.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. only to masculine and feminine nouns. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. from the masculine fox. servant. they are neuter words. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. for from they said vram. 26. the division of words according to sex. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. relative. According to the definition. These remain in vixen and spinster. generally to a masculine word. One feminine. Native suffixes. as in wine vat. cousin. For fox they said vox. woman. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. If such words as parent. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. and for the older word fat they said vat. Very few of class I.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. he-bear²she-bear.. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. puts a prefix before the masculine man. The inflections for gender belong. domestic. (3) By using a different word for each gender. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. (2) By adding a suffix. or the lack of it. Put in convenient form. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. 29. of course. ruler. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. Gender shown by Suffixes. Hence vixen is for fyxen.25. II. I. Gender shown by Prefixes. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. but spinster has now no connection with it.

executrix. Ending of masculine not changed. Low Latin issa). gamester. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. donna.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. 30.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. as. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess. trickster. Unaltered and little used. song-str-ess. but in most cases it has not. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. as czarina. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. punster. as. and are never used for words recognized as English. -ess (French esse. These are attached to foreign words. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. Slightly changed and widely used. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . as seam-stress. señorita.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. it has none now in the words huckster. the one most used.

or servauntesse. we use the feminine. as.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). from the Old French maistre²maistresse. neighbor (masculine and feminine). neighboresse. chairman. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. as. editor. from the French -esse. 32. as was said in the sixteenth century. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. Instead of saying doctress. We frequently use such words as author. fosteress. others have in their origin the same root. to represent persons of either sex. from Latin imperatricem. frendesse. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse." III. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. In some of these pairs. wagoness.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. teacheresse.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. etc. 31. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. as in the fourteenth century. Thus. teacher or lady teacher. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . Some of them have an interesting history. NOTE. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. Gender shown by Different Words. the ending -ess. we use the masculine termination.

King and queen are said by some (Skeat. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). from Latin mea domina. gand-ra. Three letters of ened have fallen away. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. Madam is the French ma dame. etc. 16). as in many other words. probably meaning house dweller). not immediately connected with witch.² . among others) to be from the same root word. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. finally gander. or lauerd in Middle English. Icelandic gás. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. had the masculine mearh (horse). from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). It is not connected historically with our word duck. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English.). Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. Widower. Witch is the Old English wicce. Two masculines from feminines. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. though both are ultimately from the same root. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). became identical. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). The older forms. the old sign of the masculine. but this has long been obsolete. widuwa²widuwe. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Husband and wife are not connected in origin. lhauerd. written loverd. Mare. The masculine was formed by adding -a. for example. Danish gaas. leaving our word drake. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. 34. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Besides gander and drake. 33. in Old English mere.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Personification. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century.

Effect of personification. This is not exclusively a poetic use. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural.Clustered around by all her starry Fays.²CAMPBELL. 39. that is. for instance. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. in Old English. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. whenever we adopt a new word. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English."Now.No towers along the steep. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Definition."²BYRON. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. 35. I. etc. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. Britannia needs no bulwarks. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. the engineer speaks so of his engine. shoon (shoes). NUMBER. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. The -en inflection. Our language has two numbers. together with the third.²COLERIDGE. But other words were inflected afterwards.²singular and plural. 38. 37. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. and not by the form of the noun. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. treen (trees).²KEATS. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. 36. (3) By adding -s (or -es). eyen (eyes). The first two methods prevailed. In nouns. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. the plural. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. . but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. more than one.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. (2) By changing the root vowel.Her home is on the deep.

II. Children has passed through the same history. Brethren has passed through three stages. turf. they add -s): also trout. as.The horse are thousands ten. when they mean soldiery.²MACAULAY. by. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. sail. retain the same form for plural meaning. wight. 40. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. after all. as. folk. people. or if preceded by the prepositions in. borough²formerly had the same inflection. 42. head.² "God bless me! so then. but has now no singular. Instead of -s.²Over the mountains winding down. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. cross. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. etc. finally brethren. . 41."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. salmon. etc. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. lens. originally neuter.²WHITTIER. The words horse and foot.-En inflection imitated by other words. Lee marched over the mountain wall.²THOREAU. Examples of this inflection are. after numerals (if not after numerals. cannon. swine. quartz. Kine is another double plural. into Frederick town. and is still found in dialects. that have the singular and plural alike. sheep. pair. dozen. Akin to this class are some words. heathen. The old plural was brothru. glass. Such are box.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. and get settled. III. etc. brace.Horse and foot. such as deer.² The foot are fourscore thousand. then brothre or brethre. ditch. but they now add the ending -s. Other words following the same usage are.

45. politics. etc. means: as. When such words take a plural ending. the Americas. some adding -s.² Politics.²PROF. Examples of these are. economics. Two words. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o.g. summons. Formerly.. optics.-Es added in certain cases. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). these words ended in -ie.²BRYANT. etc. etc. fairies. half²halves. though this sound combines readily with -s. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. also news. hero²heroes. Proper nouns are regularly singular. 44.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. chaise²chaises. race²races. shelf²shelves. that when thy summons comes. quoth then that ladie milde. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . volcano² volcanoes. allies. is both the science and the art of government. however.g. knife²knives. daisies. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. they lose their identity. and many branches of learning. prize²prizes. means and politics. molasses. etc. So live. Special Lists. pains (care). and the real ending is therefore -s. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. a new syllable is made. and some -es.. mathematics. Some words are usually singular. niche²niches. The lilie on hir stalke grene. 15 and 17). as. DANA. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. 43. physics. fancies. Words in -ies. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. e. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. e. Means plural. house²houses. and go over to other classes (Secs.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. It served simply as a means of sight. the Washingtons. though they are plural in form. in its widest extent. negro²negroes.

²BURKE. 46. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. by those means which we have already mentioned.²J. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²G.²GOLDSMITH. With great dexterity these means were now applied. Some words have no corresponding singular. Sometimes. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. if I recollect right.² MACAULAY.²MOTLEY. Now I read all the politics that come out. W. I say. riches will accumulate. . A relic which. however.²GOLDSMITH. by strongly conveying the passions. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. Politics plural.²IRVING. By these means.²GOLDSMITH. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. Besides this. CURTIS. it is furnished with a forceps. LAUGHLIN. L. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.Words.

² I lisped in numbers. faculties. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms.²POPE. . of a periodical. or copies. shot²shot (collective balls). as in the lines. two plurals. or epistles. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. riches. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. 49. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. eaves. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. in mournful numbers. indices (signs in algebra). Three words were originally singular. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. DANA. the other unlike it. In speaking of coins. number²numbers: (1) figures. 50. twopence. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.²one corresponding to the singular.. These make the last part plural. brethren (of a society or church). shots (number of times fired). trouble. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. In Early Modern English thank is found.. carry off chaff. fishes (individuals or kinds). etc. fish²fish (collectively). penny²pennies (separately). dice (for gaming). One plural. etc. as two sixpences. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. die²dies (stamps for coins. (2) revenue duties.²was it subdued when. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). for the numbers came. sixpence. part²parts: (1) divisions. genii (spirits).. 48. index²indexes (to books). making a double plural. pea²peas (separately). Two classes of compound words. (2) literature. or work in a bellows?²PROF. pence (collectively). pease (collectively). two meanings. may add -s.). (2) care. ways. clothes (garments).²LONGFELLOW. genius²geniuses (men of genius).The air. (2) poetry. (2) abilities. Numbers also means issues. Tell me not.

Brown. Briggs. as the Messrs. for example. HOLMES. woman servant. the Misses Rich. though the latter is often found. German. Two methods in use for names with titles. and Mrs.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. The title may be plural. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. the Drs.²DR. firman. as man singer. Ottoman. or the name may be pluralized. The chief member adds -s in the plural. there is some disagreement among English writers.² Then came Mr. 52. woman singer. Brahman. As to plurals of names with titles. Norman. . and then the three Miss Spinneys. manservant. such as talisman. then Silas Peckham. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. Mussulman. Allen.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. but add -s. 51.

Exercise. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. y y analysis antithesis .²DICKENS. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. or Englished. Du Maurier. Others have been adopted. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. Domesticated words.²GIBBON. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. 53. and retain their foreign plurals.²THE CRITIC. They are then said to be naturalized. or Anglicized. These are said to be domesticated.²GOLDSMITH. FROM THE LATIN. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. The Messrs. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. FROM THE GREEK. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. The domesticated words may retain the original plural.

etc. In the sentence. also add -s or 's. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. as. In the general wearing-away of inflections. When the foreign words are fully naturalized." the word felon's modifies cell.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. figures. .. and expresses a relation akin to possession. without reference to their meaning. cell has another relation. Only two case forms. 56. 55. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. Words quoted merely as words. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. etc. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). they form their plurals in the regular way. figures." CASE. 54. Definition." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s).² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. as. Letters." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands).

" (2) As a predicate noun. and merit.²nature. the enemy of the living. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers.²the nominative. fate.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. and the possessive. then. the objective. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. learning. Nouns. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. completing a verb. may be said to have three cases. 4. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. 57." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case.²person. Human experience is the great test of truth. 2. Excuses are clothes which. 3. excessive grief.²one for the nominative and objective. 1. and experience. Uses of the Nominative. 5. whether inflected or not." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. they returned to their homes. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. must be understood for purposes of analysis. three things characterize man. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. 58. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. when asked unawares. Three properties belong to wisdom. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. I. . Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases.

and tell which use each has:² 1. taking the object storm. as will be seen in Sec. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. measure. good Heaven. 2. taking the object enemies." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. . naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. Set a high price on your leisure moments. Conscience. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. and being equivalent to one verb. save. reconciles. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. But of all plagues. how have I frighted thee? II. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. and landlord of the inn. a patriarch of the village. 4. her first law broken. 8. completing the verb. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies." "Cowards die many times before their deaths." Exercise. and meaning calmest. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. But the flood came howling one day. 68. etc. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. (5) As the object of a preposition. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. wounded lies. and makest a calm.Save." (4) As the second object. distance. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. Uses of the Objective. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb." (3) Adverbially. sword in hand and visor down. (in the older stages of the language. thy wrath can send. 3.6. they are sands of precious gold. They charged. 59. the word toward which the preposition points. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. 9." "Thou makest the storm a calm. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun.

²ADDISON. Uses of the Possessive. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. as in these expressions. 6. expressed or understood. 8. And whirling plate. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. 9. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. the most common of all.²HAWTHORNE. The possessive case always modifies another word. the Great Stone Face.Does his Creator's power display. and forfeits paid. 61. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.² The unwearied sun. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.²SHELLEY. (3) Subjective possessive. and in the bay [of] Baiæ.And gave the leper to eat and drink. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. as shown in the sentences. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. from day to day. 10.5. It is a poetic expression. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink.. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.e. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. as.²BYRON. Possession in some sense is the most common. (2) Objective possessive. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. or in writing yesterday's elegy. 60. III. 7. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio. The noblest mind the best contentment has. tempests that . He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.His winter task a pastime made.

as schoolboys sometimes write. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2.e. expressing the relations of nominative and objective.. growth which several days had developed). In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. Nom. . "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. and Obj. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. 63. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his.winter is likely to have). 56). As said before (Sec.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. 64. however. 62. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. the panther which the forest hides). Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. Declension or inflection of nouns. A suggestion." etc. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. 62. "George Jones his book." Use of the apostrophe. Nom. in Chaucer.e. Case Inflection. Poss. PLURAL." "at his beddes syde. How the possessive is formed. To form the possessive plural. child NOTE. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. The use of the apostrophe. One is the simple form of a word. "From every schires ende. A false theory. making the possessive singular. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. lady Poss.. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. and Obj." "mannes herte [heart]. there are only two case forms. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). 1.

² LOWELL. my neighbors." Possessive with compound expressions. Cervantes' satirical work. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. a word with a phrase. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows.²RUSKIN." "A postscript is added. and she walked off from the don's. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence."²DE QUINCEY. but to the ear all may be alike. as by the countess's command. some such word as house.. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. etc. containing words in apposition. In compound expressions. being understood with it: for example. the possessive sign is usually last. as. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. and from a desire to have distinct forms. 66. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. Kate saw that. ." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. Peter's. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. I remember him in his cradle at St. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. know the amount of my income.Though this opinion was untrue. church. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike.²HOLMES. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. dwelling. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.²SWIFT.²CARLYLE. Captain Scrapegrace's. Possessive and no noun limited.. in the name of the emperor their master.²DE QUINCEY. stands up for God's truth one man. James's. the items of my son's. for goodness' sake. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. as. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. 65. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. instead of the emperor their master's name. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. 67. store. etc. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular.²THACKERAY. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. They invited me in the emperor their master's name.

the sentence might be understood as just explained. making a double possessive. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . objective. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. and at the same time by a possessive noun. (b) Rewrite the sentence. Exercises. that. the statement clearly means only one thing. A peculiar form. etc.The double possessive. (1) When a word is modified by a. Both of these are now used side by side. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. especially when used with this or that. a double possessive. we use the phrase of Atterbury. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's.. however. 68. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. Clearness. ill-lighted except where she stands. (See also Sec. 87. or subjective.²E. corresponding to 's. the.²FROUDE. (3) It prevents ambiguity.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English.²CARLYLE. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. no. Blair). he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. sometimes they are used together. as one modifier. E. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.²the introduction which Atterbury made. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. If.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. every. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. in such a sentence as. this. HALE. In most cases. 2. For example. 1. and tell whether each is appositional. any. Emphasis. each.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me.

13. In parsing. 69. Hence. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. Nature herself.They say. 15. 5. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. Jove laughs.3. There Shakespeare's self.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen.A weary waste expanding to the skies. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. 6. let him seasonably water the one. 9. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. with every garland crowned. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. some idioms²the double possessive. At lovers' perjuries.² . 70. Now the bright morning star. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. therefore. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence.Comes dancing from the East. and destroy the other. it seemed. day's harbinger. 12. 4. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. Friend. 8. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. in parsing a noun. 7. 14. 10. 11. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. we state.

therefore singular number. In parsing any word. and to have it found out by accident. it has no sex. NOTE.(1) The class to which it belongs. masculine. it is the object of the preposition by. has no governing word. names one thing. therefore possessive case. Exercise. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. subject of the verb is understood. object of the verb takes. The correct method. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. 2. 68). if the latter. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. and therefore nominative case. the connection shows a male is meant. gender. hence it is a common noun. determining its case. therefore neuter. it is the name of a male being. but is the adverbial objective. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. and number. proper. (3) Whether singular or plural number. inflections. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. Throat is neuter. and relations. (4) Its office in the sentence. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. as to case. hence it is a gender noun. 3. singular number. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. and limits neckcloth. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. Neckcloth. is a common class noun. hence objective case.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec.²common. it denotes only one person. like miller's. it expresses time. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. 4. a fresh tapster. which gender. therefore masculine gender. 71. it expresses possession or ownership. a withered serving man. Thief is a common class noun. . MODEL FOR PARSING. etc. hence it is objective case. That in the captain's but a choleric word. therefore singular number.

. A few miles from this point. sleep! 6. but by a question we say. where the Rhone enters the lake. were natives of Geneva. When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. Time makes the worst enemies friends." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. He giveth his beloved sleep. A pronoun is a reference word. For instance. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name." Again. and his daughter.. The need of pronouns. from a necessity for short. (2) Interrogative pronouns. Mrs. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. castle. and representative words. the military gentleman shook his forefinger.²palace. Now. 7. or for a group of persons or things..And hated her for her pride. all in one. standing for a name. and prison. definite. Definition. instead of saying. financial minister to Louis XVI. 8. 72. PRONOUNS. 9. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun.. blessings light on him that first invented .5. 76). or for a person or thing. Madame de Staël. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. 10. Classes of pronouns. 11. Necker. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. 73. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. Jarley's back being towards him.

" Person of nouns. representing the person speaking. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. as nouns have the same form. which cannot be used as adjectives. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. (3) Third person. or other word or expression. they are said to have person by agreement. From analogy to pronouns. 74. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. ours . (5) Indefinite pronouns. pronoun. we our. and the person or thing talked about. "the distinction of person. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. Three persons of pronouns. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. 77. representing a person or thing spoken to. which have forms for person. even if it had a special form. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. the person or thing spoken to. standing for a person or thing spoken of. words. primarily adjectives.(3) Relative pronouns. I Poss. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. they must represent the person talking. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use.. (4) Adjective pronouns. 75. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. my Plural. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. 76. This gives rise to a new term. Nom. Person in grammar. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. which relate or refer to a noun. (2) Second person. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Singular. mine. that is.

Old forms. yours Poss. Nom. or. neuter hit. Third person singular has gender. Obj. in the singular. so also with the person or thing spoken to. Nom. Poss. namely. But the third person has. of all Three. Obj. it its it Poss. she her. Obj. Poss. Masc. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. thou thee ye you you your. Obj. by personification. thine. Old Form Common Form. neuter. hers her Plur. masculine h . a separate form for each gender. your. Nom. First and second persons without gender. me us Singular. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. Nom. and also for the neuter. yours you THIRD PERSON. theirs them Neut. feminine h o. Singular.. thy Remarks on These Forms. 78. yours you Plural.Obj. SECOND PERSON. The speaker may be either male or female. . they their. he his him Fem. you your.

but make the plural you do duty for the singular. . thy. Two uses of the old singulars.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. (2) In addressing the Deity. The form its. 82. just as we now say. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). The consequence is. as in prayers. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. that didst comfort thy people of old. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. 80. their. etc. it. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. as possessive of it.. The plurals were h . in Old English.. heom. them. We use it with a plural verb always. In spoken English. thee. two modern uses of thou. as.:² (1) In elevated style.² Oh. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. 81. etc. There are. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. to thy care we commit the helpless. even when referring to a single object. however. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. the forms they.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. thou Shepherd of Israel. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. for example. which was often sounded with the h silent. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. heora. Second person always plural in ordinary English. etc.²BEECHER. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. and sometimes its. which is a neuter noun." As shown above. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. 79. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. Thou.Thou lovest.²SHELLEY. especially in poetry. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. This is of comparatively recent growth.

are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. me. we. ye. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. have a peculiar use. her. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. her. thine. "I am sure it was him. The forms my. And since thou own'st that praise. them. 58). 84 are always subjects. your. yours. her. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Additional nominatives in spoken English. and sometimes in ordinary speech. Not a separate class. 'tis his. ²SHAKESPEARE.²LANDOR. some say. though ye is occasionally used as objective. hers. Absolute personal pronouns. they have a nominative form. him. he. theirs. or. however. their. Nominative forms. I spare thee mine. The forms mine. and not make more classes.²BULWER. 86. and follow the usage of literary English.Use of the pronouns in personification. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. 34). us. when they occur in the predicate position. That is. and has been slave to thousands. our. they. for. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. them. note the following:² 'Twas mine. The Possessive. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. him. . My arm better than theirs can ward it off. she. us. though those named in Sec. Yet careful speakers avoid this. thy. its." the literary language would require he after was. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. II. to personify objects (Sec. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. 85. his. sometimes his and its. in such a sentence as. Old use of mine and thine. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. In spoken English. besides a nominative use.²COWPER. 83. I The Nominative. The words I. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. thou. 84.

²ID. anger. (3) To express contempt.²SWIFT.²BIBLE. Give every man thine ear. in that old Edinburgh house of his. yours. or satire. pluck it out. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. hers. ²HOLMES. and with mine.²ID. Like the noun possessives. theirs. ours. COOPER. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. yours. commenting upon a letter of mine. Long Allen. thus. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent.²J.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. T. The forms hers. Besides this. but few thy voice.²THACKERAY. This usage is still preserved in poetry."²SCOTT. 87. Their uses. FIELDS.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns.² CARLYLE. are really double possessives. his. (2) To bring emphasis. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection.²CARLYLE. we find. ours.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. Double and triple possessives. thine. If thine eye offend thee. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee." said Henry Woodstall. we have. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. thus.²THACKERAY. sometimes its. .² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. it tells of good old times. F. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. "Hold thy peace. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. theirs. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. This ancient silver bowl of mine. for example.²J. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. as in nouns.

In such sentences as. 90. Besides this use of the objective. this dative use. but expresses for whom.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. 86: mine stands for my property. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. or use in a sentence. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. as it is called. 20. They may be spoken of as possessive in form." "None but the brave deserves the fair." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. the thing is done. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. Now the objective. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. but not in form. Both joined in making him a present. and mine in the second has an objective use. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen.²BIBLE.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. They all handled it. mine stands for my praise in the second. III. in the first sentence. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. but the form is the same as the objective. but nominative or objective in use. was marked by a separate case. . In their function. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. The Objective. "The good alone are great." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. In pronouns. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. The old dative case. 88.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. his for his property.²ID. for whose benefit. as shown in Sec. Curse me this people. 89.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. But the first two have a nominative use.

(4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. which follows the verb. logical subject. as. 92. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. why. The word you." (3) As a grammatical subject. in this century. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. to stand for the real. or to the idea.²ADDISON. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. Society.² NEWMAN. or that he has not a great deal more. WEBSTER. as in the sentences. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. ²EMERSON. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. like Chinese skill. 91. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. was passed by with indulgence.²D.Time is behind them and before them. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²BULWER.²CARLYLE. Indefinite use of you and your. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.²DE QUINCEY. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use.²BACON. It is a pity that he has so much learning. you sneeze. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. and they cry.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. you must condense there. thus. Your mere puny stripling. (3) In apposition. as.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. has not made its progress.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.² .²EMERSON. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.²IRVING To empty here. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to.

This occurs in poetry. they dropped their arms. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition."²IRVING. 93. I set me down and sigh. since firstThe flight of years began. "I found me a good book. A sturdy lad .. yourself. herself. keeps a school.² Now I lay me down to sleep. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. who in turn tries all the professions. 94. and its plural selves. Poor Christian was hard put to it. itself. (ourself). An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw.²BRYANT.²THOREAU.²ANON." etc. (thyself). when they are direct objects." and there is an end of it. -selves. it rained. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. And millions in those solitudes. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English.²COLERIDGE. yourselves.It is finger-cold. ourselves. we use such expressions as. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. Of the two forms in parentheses. It was late and after midnight. And when I awoke." "He bought him a horse. There was nothing for it but to return. the second is the old form of the second person. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS..²HAWTHORNE. peddles it.²EMERSON. that is.²DE QUINCEY. himself. .²IRVING. used in poetry. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. who teams it.²HOLMES. as they are also called.²BURNS. but seldom in prose. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. have laid them downIn their last sleep. I made up my mind to foot it. farms it. as. themselves. For when it dawned.²BUNYAN. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. however. They are myself.²ID. For example.²SCOTT. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self.

² . especially in the speech of rulers.. as in vulgar English. as. The question might arise.²WORDSWORTH. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing.²SHAKESPEARE.² TENNYSON. shall dissolve.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. and the others were formed by analogy with these.²ID. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. for example. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. We fill ourselves with ancient learning.² Only itself can inspire whom it will.²MILTON. and build the lofty rhyme. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form.²EMERSON. after the analogy of myself. I shrink with pain. Held dead within them till myself shall die. not the possessive forms. for example. ourselves. As if it were thyself that's here. Use of the reflexives.² The great globe itself . as we ourself have been. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. to every one. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. BROWNING.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.As girls were once. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. 96. B. with self. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. to us. etc. were changed into the possessive myself. as. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. thyself. Threats to all. NOTE. Origin of these reflexives. 95.²E. In Middle English the forms meself..² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.To you yourself. theself.

10. To know what is best to do. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. feminine. Courage. where the word is one with that it tells of. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. Come and trip it as we go.On the light fantastic toe. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 7. 9. 6. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. and how to do it. and neuter.²B. is wisdom. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. 3. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. 4. fight it out. 97. 2. Infancy conforms to nobody. FRANKLIN. let him lowly confess it. One obsolete. Three now in use. And it grew wondrous cold.²DE QUINCEY. and what. some of them being double possessives. Years ago. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. some each of masculine. 5. which.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. father. 8. but it is the soonest spoiled. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. all conform to it. . Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. Exercises on Personal Pronouns.² THACKERAY.

methought. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. referring to things. number. ideas. it is selective. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. that is. having three forms.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. but now obsolete. as it always asks about somebody. Use of what. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. or case.Promised. used formerly to mean which of two. Use of which. 98. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. Whose was that gentle voice. As shown here. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. but for case alone. with its possessive and objective. 99. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. 100. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. which is not inflected for gender.. These show that what is not inflected for case. Which of you. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. not to persons. Use of who and its forms. etc. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. The use of who. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. What wouldst thou do. actions. it refers to either persons or things. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. that it is not inflected for gender or number. whether. that.There is an old word. the gold. it is always third person. shall we say. whispering sweet. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. that it is always singular and neuter. . doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE.

"The last of all the Bards was he." In the latter sentence. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. which is called the antecedent of the relative. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences.²by the use of the words. or other word or expression. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English.Who sung of Border chivalry. as they take the place usually of a word already used. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. 103. and also in having a conjunctive use. in Sec. whose? Obj. which and what. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. These bards sang of Border chivalry. who evidently refers to Bards. it may be shortened into. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. who is used as objective instead of whom. 99. 127). objective in the last. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. who? Poss. and so to make smoother discourse. 105. which and what are sometimes adjectives. which is nominative in the first sentence.² . subject of doth love. SINGULAR Nom. AND PLUR.² "The last of all the Bards was he. and what are also relative pronouns." Or. what may be an adverb in some expressions. AND PLUR. being the direct object of the verb shall take. 102. for which the pronoun stands. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. since it is subject of the verb had. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. Function of the relative pronoun. The antecedent. Who. which. For instance. nominative in the second also. 104. as. pronoun. It usually precedes the pronoun. as. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. Further treatment of who. SING. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. Thus we may say.101. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives.

D. 107. 106. a simple relative is meant. . The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who.²SCOTT.. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. 5.² COX. Indefinite relatives.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. are the men and women who bless their species. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. but the look which is not of the earth. The nurse came to us.²PARTON Which and its forms. 2. WHITNEY. 4. The origin of language is divine. both his and who have the antecedent priest. 108. Generally speaking. will be discussed further on. The men whom men respect.Whose flag has braved.²THACKERAY.. that. 3. For her enchanting son. what. Ye mariners of England.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us.That guard our native seas.. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. a thousand years. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. 6.Whom universal nature did lament. with all its capabilities .²MILTON. which. They had not their own luster.²W. When the word relative is used.²LOWELL In this. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.²BYRON. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. is a divine creation. Two kinds.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. Who and its forms. 3. 2. and the indefinite use of simple relatives. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. 4. the women whom women approve. in the same sense in which man's nature.²DR JOHNSON.

.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. For what he sought below is passed above. Examples of the relative that:² 1. 111.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec.²MARGARET FULLER. BEECHER 5.. and test every remark in the following paragraphs.²IRVING.²H. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.²EMERSON. 2. Who..² SHAKESPEARE 2.²BURKE.. W.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible.. 3. ought to be kept in view. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them. That. else this description will seem exaggerated. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. What. 107. 4. Already done is all that he would do. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. The man that hath no music in himself.5.²LAMB 3. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. 110.²GOLDSMITH. which it certainly is not. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.. The Tree Igdrasil. you will not be angry with me for telling you. (a) This gradation . 6. Reader. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. no bad type of what often happens in that country. stratagems. The judge .Is fit for treasons.. 109. and spoils.²DE QUINCEY. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. bought up all the pigs that could be had.

Witness the following examples:² And you.. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Examples of whose. In sentence 4. in the second. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.²DR. who. son. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. 107.²SWIFT. possessive case of which. 5.²which for the nominative and objective.. (2) It has three case forms. who is first person. Kingsley. 113.. and 6. (3) It is nearly always third person. seemed as much excited as myself. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. and others.²IRVING. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.²who. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. 96). whose is second person. whose for the possessive. referring to animals. p.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. Gibbon. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. 112. in the third. The sentences in Sec. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. 2. whom.²THACKERAY. in 4. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. or ideas. whom. and 3. JOHNSON. My horse.who. Scott. things. the others are all third person. in the first sentence. a man. The robins. flung its arms around my neck. not persons. Which. and so on.. The little gorilla. that man. whose.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. Smollett.²LOWELL. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. Who referring to animals. whose wound I had dressed.. .. they are plural. the relatives are singular.²LEIGH HUNT. Cooper.whose. In 1. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. in 5. It has been seen (Sec. Sec. (4) It has two case forms. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo.

which is very notable and curious.²RUSKIN. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light.²SCOTT. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. (2) It has only one case form.²SHAKESPEARE.²DE QUINCEY. second. Primarily. Which and its antecedents. and to persecute without pity. too.114. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. thus. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. no possessive. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. let us enter the church itself. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. 116. Men may be ready to fight to the death. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.² And. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. (3) It is the same form for first. 115.² MCMASTER. and numerous others. secondly (which made her stare).²BEECHER. the antecedent follows which. animals. That.²first. Sometimes.² I swept the horizon.²THACKERAY. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. and things. The last two sentences in Sec. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. This moribund '61. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages."²RUSKIN. which is worse. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. So in Matthew Arnold. In the sentences of Sec. 109. Kingsley. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. Burke. This often occurs. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. .²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. and third persons. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution.

let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. number.² What I would. Nom. that he has. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. either of which would be neuter." (3) "These people heard him. that do I not." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. which. . that do I. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. is always neuter. what we said?²CARLYLE. The sentences of Sec.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. whose Obj. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²SHAKESPEARE. What. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. for example. but what I hate. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. by taking them out. What a man does.²BIBLE What fates impose. consequently is neuter. as. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. it usually follows. third person. who Poss. that men must needs abide. Sec. The gender. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. plural number. Who plainly stands for those or the people.²EMERSON. When expressed. and person of the relatives who. For example. as in sentence 6. 119. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. and is emphatic." That evidently refers to truths. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. third person. plural number. 118. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. 109. we can. 117.

" Here the subject of is. 7. is subject of the verb can't be cured. First find the antecedents. the highest result of all education. Now. is in the nominative case. 4. is what we call nature. because it has usually no antecedent. standing for the people understood. but of this. above. people is the object of the preposition of. so is in the objective case. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2.. we is the subject. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. The relative what is handled differently. in (3). who is sure to be cunninger than they. but is singular. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. then parse the relatives. In the same way who. As shown by the following sentences. third person. Parsing what. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. in (1). however. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. neuter. 3."²EMERSON. is subject of wrought upon and molded. after all. 6. and what is the direct object of the verb call. it is object of uttered. Some prefer another method of treatment. 8. Exercise. . etc. it is subject of the verb heard. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. In the sentence. 120. "What can't be cured must be endured." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. subject of heard. What must be endured? Answer. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. The word what. What can't be cured. the simple relative. which is. Truths in sentence (2). Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. The whole expression is its subject. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. 5. In (2). nobler souls with that which they are. I think they are trying to outwit nature. in the following sentences:² 1. Another way. and hence is in the nominative case. that takes the case of the truths in (2).

²MACAULAY. and his friend a fool. Take which you please. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. 122.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. that is. 2. being referred to. Do what we can. The simple relatives who. no particular thing. 3. and parse that in the first clause. "common souls pay with that [singular. It is no proof of a man's understanding.²you cannot have both. Meaning and use. whatever is equivalent to all things which. or what else soever. whatsoever. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. 4. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. 6. or stand on their head. Only itself can inspire whom it will. whatever. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. 7. It is clear that in 1. 5. Death is there associated. whichever. and in 2. 123.²BURKE. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. object of with] which [singular. They are whoever. Hence some take what as a double relative. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. by meaning and use. and which in the second clause. which. to everything that. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. summer will have its flies. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. whatsoever. less common are whoso. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. object of do] they do. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. 121. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. . Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. not as direct as the simple relatives." INDEFINITE RELATIVES.²BURKE. whosoever. that nothing else can stand in their presence. no certain antecedent. whichsoever. So with the other indefinites. 2. List and examples. in a new and original way.

²EMERSON. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. There is nothing but is related to us. 4. Instead of the phrases in which.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. But and as. but which only wealth could have purchased.² 1. whereby. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. by which. 124.² some particular thing. everything that (or everything which). Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. Two words. as was used just as we use that or which. This. 126. but and as. Former use of as. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use.²DE QUINCEY.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. 120. etc.As shown in Sec. and that as after such is equivalent to which. are used. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions. whereupon. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. In early modern English. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. . either one that. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. Sec. The examples in sentences 5 and 6.²HAWTHORNE. not following the word such. but mean any one whom.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. 125. 121. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. Other substitutes.. upon which. nothing that does not interest us. for example. 121. what means anything that.. etc. for example. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. etc. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. the conjunctions wherein. 417). 2. Proof that they have the force of relatives. thus. has been my heaviest affliction.

" etc. if expanded. no antecedent is expressed. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power.²ID.²WHITTIER." Likewise with which in 3 (b). (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. How to decide. "But what had become of them? They knew not. if not. But in 1 (b). 2. "Who stood behind? We knew. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. a question is disguised in each sentence. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. it is an indefinite relative). 3. and whether what = that + which (if so. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. if not. 2 (b). second. 1 (b). So in 2 (b). the full expression being.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide.²EMERSON. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. who having the antecedent gentleman. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. it is an interrogative. though the earthwork hid them. which would indicate that they are not relatives. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. it is a simple relative. In studying such sentences. what is interrogative. In sentences 1 (a). The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. would be. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. Special caution needed here. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. Thus. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. and 3 (b). which having the antecedent lines.. Another caution. showing that who is plainly interrogative. 127. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. . it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun).

3. Examine the following:² 1. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.² These are the sounds we feed upon. In the first. and asks no question. 129. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf.²G. 5. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. 4.128. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. On the other hand. the question is asked by the verb. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. whence is the interrogative word. In the third. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. which has the antecedent hue. and Court Calendars.²GOLDSMITH. . care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. Put in the relatives who. Exercise. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. but the life of man in England.²HOLMES. 2. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. The insect I am now describing lived three years.²FLETCHER. When Goldsmith died. ELIOT.²FORSTER 6. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. I visited many other apartments. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences.² THACKERAY. Relative omitted when object.²CARLYLE. whose has the antecedent you. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences.²SWIFT. which. Thus. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. In the second. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of.

that. 6. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. who were to be rulers over whom. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. Examples are. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. It is rare in prose. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. or indefinite relatives:² 1. and what. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. 5. which was already proceeding. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. The nobles looked at each other.²SHAKESPEARE.²SCOTT. simple relatives. Relative omitted when subject. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. There was such a crowd went.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. Function of adjective pronouns. 2. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. and comparatively so in poetry. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened.Ne'er looks upon the sun. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men.7. the house was full. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. Also in literary English we find the same omission.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. 3. which. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news.²CAMPBELL.²Id. .² LOWELL. 130. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives.

must not modify any word. or they may stand for nouns. 133. or an argument in a paragraph. or use. "each cube." in the others. necessarily thought of: thus. in the first." "one man. none. and stand for a noun. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. expressed or understood." Classes of adjective pronouns. such as each.²BRYANT. a word. etc. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words.131. such as this. not pronouns.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. but have lost their adjective use. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. few.²EMERSON. For example. "another bank. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. neither. etc. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. etc. as some. the former." that is." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. 'Truth. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. 132. any. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. . that. in letters of gold. in order to be an adjective pronoun. Adjectives. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. and on each is written. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. either. many. "these pranks. Primarily they are adjectives. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. For instance. which we have seen in such expressions as. but in this function. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. In the first use they are adjectives. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. or may be the whole of a sentence." in the second. and another to get cool under. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. all. "The dead are there. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing.²IRVING. Caution." "Where two men ride on a horse.

A man inspires affection and honor.²ID.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.²EMERSON 4. and they have well performed the other. Exercises. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. 5. 134. for example. 2. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. or sat. Such are a few isolated instances. as seemed good to each.All these he saw. They had fewer books.²ID.²LOWELL. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. and sow wickedness. .²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. accidentally preserved. Even as I have seen. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. reap the same. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. because he was not lying in wait for these. Some of these are simple pronouns. 3. Their minds accorded into one strain. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. Simple. they that plow iniquity. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. but what he fain had seen He could not see. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. or reclined. They have not shunned the one.² They stood. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. but these were of the best. when the latter was the King of Spain. NOTE. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. Definition and examples. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. Compound.

Exercise. The Soldan. Another opposes him with sound argument.²HOLMES. we might the more easily discharge them. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. They led one another. as. as some of the rangers had gone astray. Men take each other's measure when they react. you quickly come to the end of all. Much might be said on both sides. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.It felt the guidance that it does not claim. ²HAWTHORNE. None shall rule but the humble. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. with the superstitions of his time.²HAWTHORNE. paused over a horoscope. 135. such as one other. imbued.² One reflexive. or melt for others' woe. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. as it were. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. another.²KINGSLEY. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.Two are compound pronouns. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. . The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. as most were. Definition and examples.²EMERSON. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. Some inflected.²each other. The word one has a reflexive form. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. for example.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. one another.

I tell you what. unlike adjective pronouns. no one. they say. Exercise. 137. anybody. . and was indefinite in Old English. as. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. anybody else's. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. something. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. Every one else stood still at his post. but. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. They indefinite means people in general. everybody else. every one else.Exercise. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. they are never used as adjectives. anyone else. everything. also aught. Definition and examples. Jove laughs. Now. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. what. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. any one (or anyone). some one." It means something.² At lovers' perjuries. somebody else. Somebody. nobody. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. and they. everybody. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. and somewhat. in building of chaises.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. nothing. every one (or everyone).There is always somewhere a weakest spot. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. etc.. etc.²SHAKESPEARE. naught.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. 136. anything. as shown in the words everybody's. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did.

3. For this did God send her a great reward. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. O thou that rollest above. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. to which. The table was good.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 10. but not to quite so enormous an extent. All was now ready for action. 9. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. 5. indeed.²a feature of natural scenery for which. 11. Exercise. 13. Hutchinson tells us of herself. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 14. in his negotiations. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 18. A reminder. . But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. 2. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. from my earliest days. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. Others did the same thing. 7. 8. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). and of no other. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. were suffered to depart. 17. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. I first found myself among the mountains. Whoever deals with M. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. 16. 138. 12. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. 4. 6. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government.

and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. I who alone am.19.And it would work 'em woe. They know not I knew thee.Destroyer and preserver. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 29.Who knew thee too well. And will your mother pity me. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. 27. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. variety. 26. 21. hear! 33. Whatever he knows and thinks. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. 34. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. well-oiled dispositions. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. in all its height. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. And I had done a hellish thing. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. thou rollest now. and seized a pen. hear. behold now the semblance of my being. 25. who take the world easy. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. What can we see or acquire but what we are? .Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. oh. 32. 30. 35. He sate him down. 23. 31. that let him communicate. eat white bread or brown.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble.

36. We need to add some words to tell its color. We are by nature observers. and he learns who receives. Substantives. becomes mine. 40. 45. brittle or tough. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. in pointing out an object. position. which was no bad step towards my liberation. adjectives are used. He teaches who gives. white or red. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. Who hears me. as." "some cities. It may have this office alone. "one hat. 43. 37." etc. Again. so that no other will be mistaken for it. or liquid. etc. He knew not what to do. 44. heavy or light. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. 41. As to the kind of words used. if we are at a distance. such as in the expressions "this man. 38. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. 39. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. size. that is our permanent state. ADJECTIVES." "yonder hill. and so he read.. who understands me. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. Office of Adjectives. the number is limited by adjectives. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. or with persons. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. then." "that house." "a hundred men. If a chemist discovers a new substance. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. or gaseous. 42. So with any object. For example. . 139. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. and if we are near. etc." The office of an adjective.

Nouns are not.140." "next-door neighbor. fair. Examples are. and their trash. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. derived from proper nouns.² BACON. to describe it or to limit its application. They include relative and interrogative words." the "and there. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. 142. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. however. to forgive." "this life-giving book." ." they constitute all his connections." "unlooked-for burden." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. (2) Adjectives of quantity. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. divine." "the Christian pearl of charity.²COLERIDGE." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. Classes of adjectives. Definition. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. With exception of the "and then. it shows that he weighs men's minds." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. 141." and the still less significant "and so. deep." "ivory-handled pistols. pointing out particular things." "half-dead traveler. remotest." "ice-cold water. rash. beautiful. (4) Pronominal adjectives. To err is human." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. or how much of a thing. Infinitives. such as safe. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES.²POPE. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. such as. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. To make this clear. terrible. If he be thankful for small benefits. etc. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. "Heaven-derived power. words primarily pronouns. "an old English manuscript. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them." "the Roman writer Palladius. happy. used to tell how many things are spoken of. 143. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality.

143. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little. in this.²MACDONALD. sometimes small. 145. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. For instance: in the sentence." was accomplished is a verb. Exercises." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. and another is drunken. any. in studying these last-named words. Examples are. much. . Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. but small thoughts have I of sleep." Caution." "a charming sight. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. Oxenham. no. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. They have these three subdivisions:² How much.But ever she looked on Mr.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. and accomplished is an adjective. Care is needed. 144. 2. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. 'Tis midnight." "The shattered squares have opened into line. considerable. having some of each subclass named in Sec. some.²COLERIDGE." was is the verb." "trailing clouds. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. which are either pure participles used to describe. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality." "The clearness and quickness are amazing." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. 1." "an aged man. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." "One is hungry." "It came on like the rolling simoom.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting.

The demonstrative adjectives are this. but I have gained fourscore.²THACKERAY. they come under the next division of adjectives." "I have lost one brother. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. any. are used with plural nouns. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. those).²ID. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. its wake. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. The following sentences present some examples:² . 146." (b) Indefinite numerals." "Then we wandered for many days.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. every village. no. "one blaze of musketry." Single ones of any number of changes. (plural these. and with them a few negroes." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers.² Every town had its fair." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. former. When some. latter.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other." "a dozen volunteers. Examples. instead of modifying them. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. Thus. yonder (or yon). the former²the latter. Exercise. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS.²KINGSLEY.²VAUGHAN. The list. that." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. How many. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "In came some five and twenty more. as." "He had lived by hunting for some months. An arrow was quivering in each body. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. Not primarily pronouns. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives.²CARLYLE.

was the ruin of every mother's son of us. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ.²KINGSLEY. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. I verily believe. 148. what revenues or garnitures. These do not. like the other numerals. . Indefinite relative adjectives. They are of two kinds. but in the one case. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. just as the corresponding pronouns do.²RUSKIN.²GOLDSMITH. skill which was at pause.. but. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. WEBSTER. Exercise.²BULWER.²ID. 147.² It matters not what rank he has. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. These were thy charms. As has been said. ²CARLYLE. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. tell how many things are meant.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. of equal skill. The silver and laughing Xenil. for example. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. In which evil strait Mr. Oxenham fought desperately."²B. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. they are changed to adjectives.²D.²ID. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.²BANCROFT. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. FRANKLIN.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. 149. Modify names of persons or things.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives.²WORDSWORTH. skill which was progressive²in the other. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. Definition.but all these charms are fled.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. The taking of which bark. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator.. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. When we speak of the seventeenth century. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century.

Adjective what in exclamations.²IRVING. Examples of their use are. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. As in the pronouns. In direct questions. and new tormentedAround me.²LAMB. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. Was there. whichsoever.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps.And whichsoever way I turn. 151. But when the Trojan war comes.²ID. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. make what sour mouths he would for pretense.²RUSKIN.150. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. Whatsoever kind of man he is. which. which is selective among what is known. He was turned before long into all the universe. nature will be sure to bear us out in. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. whichsoever way I move.. what inquires about things or persons not known. proved not altogether displeasing to him. as it rather seemed. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. A lady once remarked. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. you at least give him full authority over your son. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. New torments I behold. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.²CARLYLE. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.. where it was uncertain what game you would catch.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. it is impossible to determine.² EMERSON. and gaze. whichever. whatever. whatsoever. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE).²AGASSIZ. the debt to the rich. or whether any. . In indirect questions.

COMPARISON. gold is heavier than iron. All these have certain qualities. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. and those as the plural of that. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. .Adjectives have two inflections. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. The article that was used with neuter nouns. In exclamatory expressions. the making of it right. which was fully inflected in Old English. It is neither relative nor interrogative. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. Exercise.²but not the same degree.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these.² Oh. alas. etc. etc. History of this²these and that²those. color. Those borrowed from this. weight. th s (modern those). and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. which changed its spelling to the modern form these..²This. or amount.²number and comparison. 155.152. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. those). INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. When we place two objects side by side. NUMBER. we notice some differences between them as to size. of the quality. That. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. And yet. and when we compare the objects. Meaning of comparison. or size. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. or weight.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. we do so by means of their qualities. Thus. But this had also another plural. This is the old demonstrative. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. 154. as. 153 . what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective.

infinite. "untamed thought. enormous. easiest. to the simple form. and many others.²SEWARD. Freedom is a perpetual. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms." "It is a nobler valor." "the largest soul. They came into use about the thirteenth century. The two forms.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. with less wit. indefatigable.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. A main difference betwixt men is. expressing a greater degree of quality. 159. whether they attend their own affair or not. and the superlative by adding -est. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. bluer. sufficient." "no fewer than a hundred. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. and the superlative. for example. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison.²THACKERAY. but were not common until a century later. they are not compared. redder." "the commonest speech. as. 160. as. bluest. or amounts in quantity. easier. but. reddest. Substitute for inflection in comparison. So with the words sole." Words that cannot be compared. ." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. These are properly the only degrees. The comparative is formed by adding -er. 158. giant-like. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. supreme. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. 156. indomitable. whose favorite pupil he was. though the simple. blue. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. universal institution. 157. Definition. expressing the greatest degree of quality. immemorial. These are called degrees of comparison. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. strictly considered. organic. great. easy. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. "more matter. red.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms.

The following lists include the majority of them:² ." "more odd. most small. mournfulest. 163. which hung behind in the queerest way." "the wonderfulest little shoes." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. falling on his knees. witty. easy. quiet. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. These long. as. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English.²The Nation." "more austere and holy. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries.² CARLYLE A gentleman. there needed to be a most genuine substance." "distantest relationships. admirablest." Carlyle uses beautifulest." said Henry Esmond. and other words are preceded by more and most. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. The general rule is. who. polished. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. finest chiseling.²ID." "the immensest quantity of thrashing.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. though born in no very high degree. and yet familiar.Which rule." "sorrowfulest spectacles. peaceablest. and patientest fusing.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. madam. 162.²ID. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. strange. etc. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. harsh forms are usually avoided. I will. indisputablest. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. Adjectives irregularly compared. was most finished. honestest. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. "So help me God. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. These are adjectives irregularly compared. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most.

a double comparative. as in Shakespeare. lesser. (3) Little is used as positive to less. latter Hinder LIST II. last Hindmost. Good or well Evil. furthest 10. Hind 2. 7. List I. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. bad. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. The superlative I form was betst. which has softened to the modern best. throw away the worser part of it. 164. utter 3. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). is often used. though from a different root.² We have it in a much lesser degree. as in the sentence (14th century).²MATTHEW ARNOLD. evil was the positive to worse.LIST I. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. 4. outermost Utmost. lesser Elder. older Nigher Nearer Later. Worser was once used. A double comparative. 2. least. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. as. 3. [Out] Outer. worst. further Farthest. [In] Inner Inmost.²HAMLET. . There was an old comparative bet. 9. uppermost LIST III. innermost Outmost. hindermost Much or many More Farther. 8. These have no adjective positive:² 1. 1. next Nearest Latest. oldest Nighest. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. uttermost Upmost. (2) In Old English. which has gone out of use.² O. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 5. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. 6.

moche. List II.²forth. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. are shown in such phrases as. to England we sailed. there is scarcely any distinction. as. to which is added -ost. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. farrest. near. and refer to time.²HAWTHORNE. In imitation of further. etc. The meanings greater. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. oldest. ²LAMB. an old superlative ending. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. The most part kept a stolid indifference. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. but not in meaning. The latter. further. strong. "Many a little makes a mickle. much. etc. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. and the superlative nearest.. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. or series. muchel.. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. as long. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. meaning the largest part.²ID. first. furthest.² The more part being of one mind. great.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. since the m is for -ma. . latest. Since later. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. eldest." Its spelling has been micel. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. th came into the others. but originally the comparison was nigh. are earlier than older. strenger. is quite common. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. came into use. greatest. except the form next. for example. next. First became entirely detached from the series. the old forms. Between the two sets as they now stand. instead of lenger. farthest. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. doubling the inflection. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. (5) The forms elder. making the modern farther. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms.²KINGSLEY. a distinction has grown up between the two series.

The adjectives in List III. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. Think what each adjective belongs to. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. .165.²HAWTHORNE. The comparatives are so in form. W.²EMERSON." "their utmost exertion. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. In List II. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. but not in their meaning. but they have no adjective positives." "far-seeing as the sun.²H. Her bows were deep in the water. but her after deck was still dry. all may belong to the same noun.²SCOTT. 166. was descried The royal banner floating wide." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective." "the innermost moral soul. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. are like the comparative forms in List II. (Sec. Her. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. by the by. Highest and midmost. BEECHER. being merely descriptive. There. or each may modify a different word or group of words." "The outer is of the day. Decidedly handsome. They have no superlatives. 167. or have no comparative forms.²KINGSLEY. the upper light of the world." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing." -Most added to other words. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him.²DE QUINCEY. and have no comparative force. List III. 168. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives.²DE QUINCEY. in having no adjective positives. on the very topmost twig. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN.

round. and thine often infirmities. in prose. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. 2. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. in this sentence. It may still be argued. 3. now our queen. rich. By a convenient brevity. bright. For thy stomach's sake. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. May we not.²HAWTHORNE. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. This. Our sometime sister.²HAWTHORNE. STOWE.²RUSKIN. 6. solid. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. deeply black eyes." in which then is an adverb. ²TROLLOPE.For example. philosophical. we may say "the then king. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. Whenever that look appeared in her wild." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice.²TRENCH." making then an adjective. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. as. and moral truth. usual modifies incomparable decision." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation.²BIBLE. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs.²MRS. STEPHENS 5. In the following quotations. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. not decision alone. therefore. and broken. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. and heaven-defying oaths. "the one who was then king. instead of saying. A few improper jests and a volley of good. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. 7. . The seldom use of it.²A. Richard Hooker. 169. Other instances are. But in this sentence.²HOLMES. H.² My then favorite. our new government. 4. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. deep. satisfactory. the then and still owners. Exercise. Bradbury and Evans.²NOAH PORTER.

positive degree. with awkward but rapid pace. 9. I ask nothing of you. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. MODEL FOR PARSING. if it has number. 170. seventy-five drachmas. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. 2. . A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. manly way. 8. compared by prefixing more and most. this. She made no reply. This gave the young people entire freedom. across the plain. cannot be compared. These points out what truths. To every Roman citizen he gives. therefore demonstrative. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. modifies truths. Since adjectives have no gender. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. 3. and most astounding were those frightful yells. (2) Its number. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. having a singular. person. and very few have number. 6. (4) What word or words it modifies. Unfamiliar describes truths. 10. plural number. and I waited for none. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. Exercise. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. frank. or case. modifies the word truths. In parsing an adjective. the method of parsing is simple. not inflected for number. (3) Its degree of comparison. 7.What to tell in parsing. 4. if it can be compared. therefore descriptive. 5. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. then. To every several man.

are immutably fishes. 22. To say what good of fashion we can. not so much for travelers that were few. the same love to France would have been nurtured. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 25. is the settlement of our own country. and many poles supported the lower ones. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 12. it rests on reality. 19. 32. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. I know not what course others may take. 21. 16. those dogs in the yard. Two hours elapsed. the tomahawk fell. it is so noble a fruit. Like most gifted men. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. 13. 31. With every third step. Nearer to our own times. yonder oxen in the pasture. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. 20. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. and dogs. 27. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. as for armies that were too many by half. and hates nothing so much as pretenders.11. 28. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. oxen. and therefore more interesting to us. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 29. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. 26. 23. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. during which time I waited. 18. 24. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. he won affections with ease. 33. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. Here lay two great roads. . suggests such thoughts as these. growing in the most unfavorable position. In music especially. 14.

An historian. and that remained a demonstrative adjective.²SCOTT. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. when the word is not accented on the first syllable." "an orange. such as we have been attempting to describe. th o. sometimes the tother. ARTICLES.²BREWER. In the sentence. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. Two relics. with an ordinary little garden. or the tane. 173. Our expressions the one. 171. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. these occurring as the tane. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . the other. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. .34. later th . Their origin. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. s o. 37. 174. for example. Many writers use an before h. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. were formerly that one." An with consonant sounds. just as adjectives do. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel." the words the and an belong to nouns. he is no literary man. even when not silent. that other. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. 35. but the former is used. the tother. weary-hearted man was he. meaning one. the tother. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. that) which was also an article in Old English. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks." "a European. In Middle English the became an article. An before vowel sounds. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. the latter is still preserved in the expression. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. A hard-struggling. ðat. the tither. Examples: "a house." "an honor. An or a came from the old numeral n. 172. and a before consonant sounds.²MACAULAY. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect." "a yelling crowd. a before consonant sounds. in vulgar English.

The is often prefixed to the names of rivers.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. An article is a limiting word. 179. An or a is the indefinite article. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. 178." "the Ohio. An hereditary tenure of these offices. The Dakota tribes. The is the definite article. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla.²COLERIDGE. which cannot be used alone. Kinds. as "the Mississippi.² . not descriptive. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.² Don't you remember how. a person is introduced by a. 175.. and when the word river is omitted. doubtless. since it points out a particular individual. When the is prefixed to a proper name.. BANCROFT. or any individual of a group or class. or a group or class of things. 177. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. and not a state or other geographical division. Reference to a known object. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. An and a are different forms of the same word.²IRVING.²This use is noticed when. With names of rivers. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. 176. NOTE.²THACKERAY.²G. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.²HEROES OF ASGARD. as in the sentence. or group.. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. Articles are either definite or indefinite. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. or class. thus. the older n. on opening a story. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. Definition. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. To call attention to attributes." the article indicates clearly that a river. is referred to.

Schelling. 183. 1. 181.² The faint. The simple rise as by specific levity. would speedily extract the required information.² As she hesitated to pass on. 182. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his.²ID. not into a particular virtue. the Hume. etc.²ID. His messages to the provincial authorities. but into the region of all the virtues. Kant.²G. as.²SCOTT. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. marks it as half abstract or a common noun.The Bacon. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. The. the gallant. . NOTE. For possessive person pronouns. One thing for its class. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. With plural of abstract nouns. Caution.²EMERSON. or a match put between the fingers. With adjectives used as nouns. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness. and the redwing. Common. If the good is there. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons.²EMERSON. the song sparrow. laid it on the miry spot. the Spinoza. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. BANCROFT. so is the evil.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns. 180. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. her. Half abstract. 2. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship.²GIBBON.²KINGSLEY. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. for example. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives.²MOTLEY.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.
Caution.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

USES OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.
Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

HOW TO PARSE ARTICLES.
198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

VERBS AND VERBALS.. VERBS.
Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

representing something which it influences or controls. 204. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. 200: In (1). a). and not a verb. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. for example. 203. and to receive the action expressed."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. in this sentence from Bulwer. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. etc. in (3. Hence Definition. an adverb. lone took what? answer." put is the predicate. in (c). Has takes the object hypocrisy. In giving a definition. the most astute. 201. a preposition. an article. obeyed is a predicate. b). from the Latin transire. hence is not a verb. a noun. In the sentence. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. b). Definition and caution. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. can deceive has an object. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii." Examine the sentences in Sec." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. with some word understood. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. Each influences some object.²BULWER . In the first. or a material thing. and. A verb is a word used as a predicate. in (2. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. The nature of the transitive verb. (can) shame also has an object. which may be a person. in (b). to go is no predicate. which means to go over. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. or an idea. a verb.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. care. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. endured what? anguish. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. in (3. we consider a verb as one word. All these are called transitive verbs. all do not express it in the same way.In (a). Of those expressing action. and a preposition unite as a verb. By examining a few verbs. but cannot be predicates. or the object. Now. taking the staff which always guided her steps. the word following. In each case. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. "Put money in thy purse. to say something to or about some person or thing. 202. in (2. "Put thou money in thy purse. the most penetrating. but fearing is not a predicate. and shame the most astute. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. The nature of intransitive verbs. as. c). All do not express action: some denote state or condition.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence
Definition.

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

VOICE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE.
Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.
Definition.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.
Definition.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.

MOOD.
Definition.

213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.
Definition.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Cautions.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.
Definition.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

I could lie down like a tired child. . the writer can make the statement following. they were recorded in the Book of Life.²BRYCE. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. ²EMERSON.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. Most excellent stranger. the representative system ultimately fail. 221.²SHELLEY. Unreal²cannot be true. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same.²D. for example. Again. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. Condition or Supposition.² Now. as. as.²LONGFELLOW.²FRANKLIN. or be fulfilled. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. WEBSTER. 215. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. he will see the need of these ethics. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.²may or may not be true.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. Ideal. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. If this be the glory of Julius. 222. and may or may not be regarded true. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. 2). the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.² If. the second founder.²MACAULAY. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. in our case. but. the first great founder of the Empire. I. popular government must be pronounced impossible.

may.. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. WILLIS. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. thus. I told him. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.² If these things were true. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. II. NOTE. 6.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. if he was the man I take him for.²EMERSON. do you think. society could not hold together.² CARLYLE. unless. etc.²FRANKLIN.²CALHOUN. Subjunctive of Purpose. melodious. that he might be strong to labor. If he had reason to dislike him. but when the verb precedes the subject. that we cannot but regret its absence.. she was regarded as a prodigy. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. and sonorous. But in no case could it be justified. . or conditions that cannot be fulfilled.²SWIFT. and should. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. would you." etc. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. though. The voice. which cannot be true. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. and striven energetically to save Ney. if he speak to you..²BAYNE. except. 8. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. P. 5. 3. 4. as.²MACAULAY. 7. might. ²LOWELL. Epaminondas. and what kind of condition:² 1. the clause being introduced by that or lest. to drink strong beer. is of similar physiognomy. since he [Byron] was dead. would have sat still with joy and peace. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. he supposed.² It was necessary.. he had better not have written. if his lot had been mine. clear. especially be. 223. The subjunctive. 2.²FRANKLIN.²N. Exercise. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me. is used to express purpose. In the following conditional clauses.

²ID. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. within its fairy bowers. 227.²CARLYLE. 226. In Indirect Questions.That vain it were her eyes to close. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.Were wafted off to seas unknown.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. To tell of what had passed.I have been the more particular...²D.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. The English subjunctive. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. V. none of us could say. till it meet the sun in his coming. Expressing a Wish. After a verb of wishing. So live. 224. In a Noun Clause. VII. like the quarry-slave at night. IV. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. like the Latin. In Temporal Clauses. I've wished that little isle had wings.²COLERIDGE. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. the answer being regarded as doubtful. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. Let it rise. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. WEBSTER.²SOUTHEY. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men... 225.²BRYANT. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²WORDSWORTH. Ask the great man if there be none greater.Thou go not. Subjunctive of Result. I would it were! ²EMERSON. III. .²DE QUINCEY.²MOORE. Rise up. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro.And we. VI.

228. Whatever betide. Object.Subject.²COLERIDGE. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me.And see the Braes of Yarrow. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. in apposition. that everything be in its place. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. See that there be no traitors in your camp. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. tell me all that thou hast seen. object. or whatsoever victual it may be.²SCOTT. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.²THOREAU.²CARLYLE.²WORDSWORTH. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days.² DICKENS. VIII. which may be (a) Pronoun. The noun clause. Concessive Clauses.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. in its various uses as subject. The essence of originality is not that it be new. of cash. Some might lament that I were cold. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. etc. . Come. for example. 229. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. The first merit. is the ultimate fact of man's life..²COLERIDGE. we'll turn aside.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word.²TENNYSON. I have no thought what men they be. That hunger of applause. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent.²DE QUINCEY. is.And look thou tell me true. (b) Adjective.²SHELLEY. often contains a subjunctive. After verbs of commanding.² Be the matter how it may. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. Complement.

though. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. Oh. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. Definition. a concession.² CARLYLE. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. (2) Entreaty. or requests. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. . At the present day.The spirit he loves remains. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are.²CHANNING. and condition contrary to fact. Q. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. IMPERATIVE MOOD. we had found [should have found] a poem here. to express a wish. ADAMS. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. Honor all men. for example. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. point to their immortal works. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. In spoken English. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. (1) Command. Usually second person. love all men. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are.²BRYANT. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. 231. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. however. entreaties. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. 230.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. It must be remembered. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood.(c) Adverb. 232. since commands are directed to a person addressed.²SHELLEY. (3) Request. fear none.²J.

Whatever inconvenience ensue. Sometimes with first person in the plural. 2.²SCOTT. "Come along with me." whispered Kit. child of earth!While each performs his part. etc. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. Break we our watch up. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. to you implied in it. noble earl." Exercises on the Moods. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. 6. lest we rust in ease.. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. 8. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts.And. Oh. 7. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. Quoth she."²DICKENS Tell me. we may use the imperative with we in a command. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. receive my hand. etc."Hush! mother. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. "The Devil take the goose.And God forget the stranger!" . nothing is to be preferred before justice. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. or I + they. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. but I + you.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. there will her heart and her prayers be. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. Part we in friendship from your land..One glance at their array! 5. Mark thou this difference.²SHAKESPEARE.²CAMPBELL. 3. request.

alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. whether he do it right or wrong. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. 20. Forget thyself to marble. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. Well." cried he.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. "Oh. Though abyss open under abyss." continued Old Morgan. 11. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12." 16. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. He. 18.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. my dear madam.That they might answer him.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. That a man parade his doubt. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. That sheaf of darts.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. as though an instrument. 13. "Mr. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot.9. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. let him live where else he like. or do it at all. 21. 14. will it not fall unbound. and opinion displace opinion. it would speak. Marshall." 25. ruined. 19. "tell me where I may find my poor. how he may do his work. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. no literary man. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. 23. 26. Though he were dumb. in what pomps and prosperities he like. Think not that I speak for your sakes. 10. but repentant child. she ought to have it. .High up in silver spikes! 22. He is. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of.Except. then.

The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. as. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. kind. 233. and future perfect tenses. such as be.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. shall. past perfect. in the third person singular. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. the past. "I go away tomorrow. "Thou walkest.²nothing could exceed the amiable. or whether it were as one member of a general party. TENSE. and unassuming deportment of Mrs." past. to direct his steps. showing more exactly the time of the action or being." present. and the future tense.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present.²the present tense. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. tell him to wait. by means of the present. such as Latin and Greek. Meantime.27. 235." . We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. past. 28. and future. or agree with it.² present. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. as the classical languages have." "If he comes. "It is not in man that walketh. or future time. as will be shown later on." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. and the past tense. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. past. as. which represented present and future time. Siddons. Tense means time. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. in the conjugations. five in the subjunctive. The tenses in detail. will. 234. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. When the older pronoun thou was in use. also. Definition. Tenses in English. a form ending in -eth. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. Old English had only two tenses. called auxiliaries. "Thou walkedst. PERSON AND NUMBER. whatever she did. five in the imperative. have.

singular number. for example. You are 2. In classical languages. walkedst. PRESENT TENSE. I were 2. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. CONJUGATION. The verb be has more forms. choosing. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. moods. chosest). [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. were. wert) 3.²am. You (thou) be 3. since it is composed of several different roots. mood. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. walked. This is the third person. PRESENT TENSE. 238. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. as. I be 2. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. etc. Singular 1. chooseth. Singular 1. are.²choose. tenses. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. and numbers. but in English. walketh. choosest. Definition. chooses. [He] were [They] were . chosen (old. etc. walk has walk. walking. 237. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. Indicative Mood. Few forms. been. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. Singular 1. 236. [He] is [They] are 3. Such verbs as choose have five.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number." and this only in the present tense indicative. is. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. Singular 1. walks. persons. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. "He walks. tense. chose.

same as the German sind. (2) was. etc. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. were. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. Instead of the plural are. though it is usually a dialect form. The light that never was on sea and land. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. (d) With the infinitive. condition.²GOLDSMITH. for example. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. thus.His infancy was nurtured. (3) be. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. as. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. -en. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light.. which was now become an occasional banquet.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. is. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.Imperative Mood. in four ways.²THACKERAY. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.²WORDSWORTH. Remarks on the verb be.²SCOTT.²ID. etc. 240..²SHELLEY.²BURKE . Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. to express intention. to form the passive voice. (b) With the past participle in -ed. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. (2) As auxiliary verbs. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. obligation. 239.

241. Singular. 1. I choose 2. 1. PRESENT TENSE. etc. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). PRESENT TENSE. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE." "He will choose. 240. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. had. Indicative Mood. as. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. . past perfect. I choose 2. 1. 242. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. tenses. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. [He] choose [They] choose 3. I chose 2. "I have gone" (present perfect). You chose Plural. In addition to the above inflected forms. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. I chose 2. tenses. Singular. "I shall be. Machinery of a verb in the voices. You choose Plural. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. Singular. We chose You chose 3. You chose Plural. You choose Plural. (2). future perfect. 1." (2) Present perfect. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. We chose You chose 3. Singular. "I had gone" (past perfect). by placing have. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. as. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose.

Future perfect definite. Same as indicative. Only the third person. "I was chosen. Past definite. though. will be given. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Imperative Mood. Present. Present. as. of each tense. He had been choosing. ACTIVE VOICE. he chose (or were to choose). Past. singular number. He will he choosing. He will have chosen. he have been choosing. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). He chooses. Present definite. as. He was choosing. lest. Future. Past perfect. Past. " " " " " " " he be choosing.] he choose." 243. (2d per.) Choose. etc. Present definite. He will have been choosing. Same as indicative.(3) The definite form of each tense. He will choose. Subjunctive Mood. Present definite. He chose. He is choosing. Present perfect definite. He has been choosing. [If. he have chosen. Past definite. Past perfect. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Future definite. "I am running. Indicative Mood. He has chosen. Present perfect." (4) The passive forms. Future perfect. Present perfect definite." "You are chosen. He had chosen. Past perfect definite. Present perfect. ." "They had been running. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. Past perfect definite. " Be choosing. Present.

NOTE. but verbals. Present perfect definite. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. he had been chosen. He has been chosen. He was chosen. Future definite. 262). None. Future. " " " " " " " None. None. Also. if learned at all.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Present perfect definite. He will have been chosen. He will be chosen. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). None. He was being chosen. they will be discussed later (Sec." "He did strike. Subjunctive Mood. Present. Past definite. Present definite. lest.²This table is not to be learned now. Imperative Mood. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form.] [If. Past perfect. as. Present definite.. Present perfect. he have been chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. Past perfect definite. in affirmative sentences. etc. PASSIVE VOICE. Indicative Mood.] he be chosen. Past definite. . He is being chosen. Future perfect. Past perfect definite. None. None. he were being chosen.) Be chosen. Present tense. "He does strike. Present." [Note to Teacher. He had been chosen. however. though. Present perfect. Past Perfect. He is chosen. Past. None. Past. (2d per. Future perfect definite. Exercises should be given.

abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. sleep. Kinds. as. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. begged. Some of these also have weak forms. laid. slept. 244. which are in parentheses Present Tense. but adds no ending. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. verbs are strong or weak. Definition.[adj. ran. 245. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. catch. bounden] bitten. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . bid bound. drive. NOTE. bit blown broken chidden. drove. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. and may or may not change the vowel: as. According to form. beg. lay. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. caught. run. Past Tense.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten.

slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. trod worn woven won wound . sunken] sat slain slidden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.

and sometimes occurs in poetry.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. Sometimes in literary English. as. instead of ate and eaten.²B. When it means to carry or to endure. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. now told us it was time for repose. .²TENNYSON." "a sunken snag. cleaved.²MILTON. nor a dog barked. Our cock. as (from Holmes)." "a drunken wretch. probably to avoid confusion with this. But drunk is very much used as an adjective." "the cloven hoof. and. The form clomb is not used in prose. cleft (to split).² We had each drank three times at the well.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. Not a cock crew."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove.²cleave.²as (from Shakespeare). "stricken with paralysis. especially in that of an earlier period. as. and another (born) for the passive. cleft." Stricken is used mostly of diseases.²GOLDSMITH. but is much used in vulgar English. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. as. TAYLOR. and the latter.²IRVING. borne is also a passive. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. to split. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. clave or clove. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). only one set remains certain. The former used to be cleave. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings.²one meaning to adhere or cling." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). cleaved. Historically.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb.² Thou hast clomb aloft. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. the other. cleave. for example. which always crew at eleven. cloven. ²THACKERAY." In this confusion of usage. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. "his bounden duty. 246. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro.²COLERIDGE.

6.²SCOTT. Drive. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. Exercises. for example. and grasping at his sword. 245). given. 7. Fling. froze.²WORDSWORTH. broken. shaken.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. 4.²DE FOE.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow." but not much as a participle. even in poetry. Begin."²KINGSLEY. This heard Geraint. 3. 9. shook. Break. Find." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. We usually say. 10. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Freeze.² If.²BIBLE. shore is rare. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. begun. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. gave. Throw. Usually shear is a weak verb. driven. 2. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. found. threw.² We had all got safe on shore. found. for example. fallen.²TENNYSON. and seized a pen. broke. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Give. fell. Shake. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. He sate him down.The form gotten is little used. 5. 8. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Fall. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. flung. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. One example out of many is. as. thrown. drove. flung. as "a shorn lamb.²BYRON. which is seldom used except in poetry. (a) From the table (Sec. The butler was hanged. maiden. frozen. . Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. began.

They are as follows:² PRESENT.²CHANNING. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. for full drill on the forms. which survives in the sentence. according to the infinitive used. Could may be subjunctive. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged.[To the Teacher. 247."²WINIER. His superiority none might question. as it has two meanings. purpose. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. Ability. HAMILTON. etc. (See also Sec. 251. Indicative Use: Permission. PAST." Must is present or past tense. "So mote it be. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise..²SCOTT. Can is used in the indicative only. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. as it sometimes does. it is used only in the indicative mood. . or. but came through analogy with should and would. PAST. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. Like must. from the obsolete verb motan. Must is historically a past-tense form. "far off his coming shines. of course. The l in could did not belong there originally. Have we valuable territories and important posts.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. must have been an ocular deception.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS.. 249.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons..which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action.²HAWTHORNE. 223. ability. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. as. The same remarks apply to ought.²CHANNING This. PRESENT. It is indicative when it expresses permission.. Subjunctive use.²PAINE. etc. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. 220. as in Sec. or when it expresses wish. 250. there is one general principle..

The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. to use will and would. especially in the United States. what shall I say?²N.²IRVING. in the form of command. I shall be gone.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. MOULTON.²L. to the neglect of shall and should. (b) In questions asking for orders.² Futurity and questions²first person. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. with pronouns of the first person. C. They shall have venison to eat. as. . or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. he said. shall and should are used.²COOPER.²LONGFELLOW. and corn to hoe.² (a) To express authority. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. 252. BROCKDEN BROWN.²THAXTER. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. for example." Uses of shall and should. She rejects his suit with scorn. The following are examples:² Never mind. "I think I will go. while ought always has to. as.. The sea shall crush thee. shall and should are used. She should not walk. my lad.² With respect to novels.²MACAULAY.e. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. she should ride like a queen. Shall and Will. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. not plod along like apeasant.²BULWER. as. or confident prediction.² The time will come full soon. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. Second and third persons. yea. future action). promise. (b) In indirect quotations. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. WEBSTER.Nay. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.

.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. and is equivalent to ought. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. First.²CABLE.. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. BROWN. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. And promised. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. (1) With the FIRST PERSON.. thus.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. (c) With direct questions of the second person. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena. will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²SWIFT.²H. 253. etc. was to be expected.² I will go myself now.²BYRON. . Disguising a command. for example. for example. as.²SCOTT. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. JAMES. time.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. second and third persons. as the sole inventor.²WORDSWORTH. I never was what I should be. purpose.²WINTER. and will not return until all is finished. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. or a promise.²ROGERS.²A.²WORDSWORTH. JR. LARNED.²WORDSWORTH.²C. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.that I would do him justice. with the conviction that he should win in the end. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. B.

PASSIVE VOICE. through storms their brothers are afraid of. When I am in town.² DICKENS.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. AND THIRD PERSONS. . for example. Mere futurity.. SECOND. shaking his right knee with a constant motion.. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. without regard to future time. for example. action merely expected to occur. (4) With FIRST. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C.²SCOTT. and two of my people. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. BROWN. To be sure. Thine was a dangerous gift.²the original meaning of the word will. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). when thou wast born. Roland.²BANCROFT. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. 254.² Thou wilt take the skiff. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.. as.. They will go to Sunday schools.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. and mark on the grounds the works.²LANDOR. as. will is used to express command.²IRVING. B. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. etc.. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. as if it were merely expected action. In this stately chair would he sit. would is used to express a wish. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable..²BURKE. This puts the order more mildly. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. will and would are used to express simple futurity.² Subject I omitted: often so. The gift of Beauty. Would thou hadst it not. for punishment or intimidation.²SCOTT. so you will.²War Records. will and would often denote an action as customary.

. Thou shalt have a suit. You will choose. I will choose. [They] will be chosen. 2. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. [They] shall be chosen. [He] will choose. 3. 2. 1. etc. Singular. 2. I will be chosen. and that of the newest cut. 3. Plural. We shall be chosen. (b) Examine the following sentences. 3. 2. You shall be chosen. [He] shall choose. You shall choose. 1. Singular. 2. 4. Thou art what I would be. I shall be chosen. 1. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. 252 and 253. Exercises on Shall and Will. 6. You will be chosen. [He] shall be chosen. You will be chosen. [He] will be chosen. You shall choose. We shall choose. 1. To express determination. Plural. 2. (a) From Secs. yet only seem.:² ACTIVE VOICE.Singular. and justify the use of shall and will. promise. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. I shall choose. We will choose. Plural. [They] shall choose. 3. PASSIVE VOICE. 1. [They] will choose. 5. Plural. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. We will be chosen. "I shall not run. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. You shall be chosen. 3. He informed us. Singular. You will choose." answered Herbert stubbornly. 3.

Of smale houndes hadde she. Lucy stood still. was -de or -te. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. set. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. very anxious. which may be called irregular weak verbs. bereft. then. Without having attended to this. 13. "I am a wayfarer.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. The old ending to verbs of Class II." the stranger said. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. Present Tense. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. 10. 257. No. But the rest. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. set. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. and I have nothing to say. my son. and have no change of vowel. 256. 12. WEAK VERBS. or mylk and wastel breed. as if he would have more of the enchantment. put. 9.7. as. 11. put. Past Tense. bereave besought Past Participle. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries.²ID. Irregular Weak Verbs. need some attention and explanation. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs.²CHAUCER. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. bereave beseech bereft. 255. This ending has now dropped off. bereaved besought .² The two classes of irregular weak verbs." 14. put. The beast made a sluggish movement.²Class I.

leant leaped. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. hid kept knelt laid leaned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st him...to his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.

VERBALS.
Definition.

262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.
Kinds.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.

PARTICIPLES.
Definition.

263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

to was used before the infinitive generally. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. 10. as in the Old English. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. [To] be chosen. like participles. Perfect. Cases when to is omitted. [To] choose. have no tense.. In Sec. 7. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. and a perfect definite form. 267. To with the infinitive. 268. will (with should and would). Imperfect. INFINITIVES. [To] have been choosing. [To] be choosing.. . Nothing of the kind having been done. [To] have been chosen. formed a kind of bedstead. ACTIVE VOICE. an imperfect. they have an indefinite. [To] have chosen. Indefinite. Indefinite. when inflections became fewer. I returned to reflection on my situation. Infinitives. 266. to express action unconnected with a subject. 8. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. But later.6. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends.²the creature warring against the creating power. 9. Perfect. try clemency. PASSIVE VOICE. a perfect. and when passive. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. an indefinite and a perfect form.. Three saplings. Perfect definite. expressing purpose. When active.

"She ask my pardon. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William.). Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. also in the imperative." Examples are.²COOPER. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II." (4) In exclamations. also let. and like a noun in use. "I do go" etc. While the gerund expresses action. E. see. too. or the object of a verb or a preposition. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. and corn to hoe. as. HALE. They shall have venison to eat. it is often preceded by the definite article. as.²E. GERUNDS. under "Analysis. negative..²it may be governed as a noun. The gerund is like the participle in form. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. poor woman!" cried Charles. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. it has several attributes of a noun.²TENNYSON. "He will choose. learn [doth learn is one verb. bid (command)." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms." "I shall have chosen. can (could).²DE QUINCEY. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent." etc.²GOLDSMITH. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. 270. hear.²IRVING. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. 272. and emphatic forms of the present and past. please. must. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. do (as. as the credulous imagine. make. 269. liberal woman. watch.²MACAULAY. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. But there was nothing to do.(2) After the verbs may (might). . The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. it may be the subject of a verb. "He need not go") and dare (to venture). sometimes need (as. 271.²HOWELLS. as in the expression. as. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning.² She was a kind. "a house to let. feel. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE.² What! doth she.

(3) Participial adjectives.²Find sentences containing five participles. (5) Gerunds. may govern and be governed. What a vast. 2. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274." Exercise. making the definite tenses. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. according to use as well as meaning. and wonderful store of learning! . 273. which express action. five infinitives. but do not assert. Sec. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. 4. II). Words in -ing are of six kinds. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. (2) Pure participles. and five gerunds. which express action and also modify. (4) Pure adjectives. they find the nurslings untouched! 3." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. b). to see the returning hope of the parents. on your leaving the spot. (6) Verbal nouns. which have lost all verbal force. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. which express action." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature." also (2." "Certainly dueling is bad. Exercise.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. which name an action or state. above. when. Then how pleasing is it. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. brilliant. and has been put down. but cannot govern. after examining the nest. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability.

like Sir Walter Scott. What is dreaming? 8. 6. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. 16. 10. give reality to your teaching. you must. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 13.²active or passive. write twenty pages without stopping.²indicative. The only means of ascending was by my hands. bearing her national emblem. 9. Caution. dictating from his chair. 11. (2) Voice. (5) Person and number. giving principal parts. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is.²which of the tenses given in Sec. but. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. 12. he gave out sentence by sentence. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. (4) Tense. 15. 234. 7. much corroded. round which is an iron railing. VERBS. I suppose I was dreaming about it. He spread his blessings all over the land. by object lessons. subjunctive. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. or imperative.²transitive or intransitive. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. I. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining.5. Thackeray did not. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. In parsing verbs. slowly. (b) as to use. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. 275.²strong or weak. . (3) Mood. 14.

and ends in -s. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. Take these examples:² 1. has for its subject Lee. followed by a pure infinitive without to. therefore active. 2. could. (a) From what verb derived. (b) whether indefinite. and should always be analyzed as phrases. perfect. 277. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. past tense. (2) Infinitive.276. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. . Especially frequent are those made up of should. (b) whether active or passive. indicative. Parse the verbs. The government might have been strong and prosperous. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. intransitive. perfect. definite. intransitive. Let it rise! let it rise. may. In such sentences as 1. in the world. and parting day linger and play on its summit. (1) Participle. If a participial adjective. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. But unless the verb is present. see Sec. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. (c) to what word it belongs. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. In 2." Sometimes it does.. active. past tense. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. 3. no sin nor sorrow. verbals. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. 2. and not taken as single verbs. (b) its use (Sec. usually it does not. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. must. till it meet the sun in his coming. VERB PHRASES. can. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. (3) Gerund. You are gathered to your fathers. Exercise. 235. VERBALS. 278. 4. call should a weak verb. etc. 273). we must beware of the rule. then parse it as an adjective. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. give points (a) and (b). call might a weak verb. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. etc. 278(2). indicative (as it means could). has the subject government. II. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. imperfect. would. might. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. It has been intimated in Sec. III.

13. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. 24. Right graciously he smiled on us. 20. 19. 11. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. or. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. The soul having been often born. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. a deafening shout. and wondered if she were yet awake. from a sort of temporary death. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 18. He passed across the room to the washstand.O God. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. However that be." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. 22. When he arose in the morning. 21. he thought only of her. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. morning is not a new issuing of light.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. With them. 6. So. 17. a sweet good will. as rolled from wing to wing. 9. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. 15. a new waking up of all that has life. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. leaving me upon the bed. 14. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. a new bursting forth of the sun. In going for water. Whatever ground you sow or plant. 8. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. as the Hindoos say. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. 12.Down all the line. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. as usual. see that it is in good condition. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. 16.5. .Henceforth in me instill. 10. 23.

had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. or manner: as. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. place."²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. Is it only poets. as. and men of leisure and cultivation. and limit adjectives or adverbs. and live ere life be spent. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. "William's private life was severely pure. . The word adverb means joined to a verb.²THACKERAY. who live with nature?²ID. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. they are more himself than he is.²time." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly.Feast while we may. Oh. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. Nor was it altogether nothing. 279. To the almost terror of the persons present. A verb.²SHELLEY. 29. to speak truly. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. because. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. And now wend we to yonder fountain. to consent. thou sayest. Adverbs modify. for example." "He was absolute. and so on. ADVERBS. When action is expressed. 26.25. 27. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. for the hour of rest is at hand.² The young man reveres men of genius." An adjective or an adverb. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. Better it were.²EMERSON.

but really modifying. perhaps. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. as shown in the sentences. NOTE. thus. hitherto. not simply the forms used in predication. but still with a rich bloom to it. An adverb.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis.²BYRON. 169. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.² FRANKLIN. Make music to the lonely ear. or a word group used as such. A phrase. ALDRICH.²THOREAU. 281. . An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. and half awfully. We are offered six months' credit. not the noun.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. but some verb understood.² LOWELL. and that.²TROLLOPE. I draw forth the fruit.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. for example. before.²These last differ from the words in Sec. It may also modify a sentence. A clause or sentence. there are six classes:² (1) Time. ever. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. is a modifying word. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. then. 169 are felt to be elliptical. to-day. has induced some of us to attend it. Definition. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. as. lately. 282. NOTE. as now. like the light of heaven. 280. Surely happiness is reflective. while those in Sec.²LEIGH HUNT.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. B. all wet and glossy. which may qualify an action word or a statement. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. Thus considered. etc. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb.He was incidentally news dealer.²T. ²IRVING. being adverbs naturally and fitly. (2) according to their use in the sentence.

Death! To die! I owe that much To what. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.²HAWTHORNE. etc. at least. So also in Grote.thence. Emerson. as hence. etc. while so precedes only the adjective usually. . beautifully. probably. Motley.²R. slightly.there. White. (3) Manner. enough. The more they multiply. the more perfect will be their obedience. greatly. as little. (4) Number.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun.yonder.. whencesoever. the more evidently they love liberty. (see also Sec.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. surely.. and others. telling how much..²BURKE. and not infrequently are found in literary English.which gained him such universal popularity. etc.was for this once of her opinion.near. I was. Meekness. (6) Assertion. LOUIS STEVENSON.. for example. bravely. above.thither. etc.²LECKY. two by two. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. as well. the more friends you will have. whithersoever. very. as perhaps. etc. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. much. (5) Degree. better. slowly. 283).. possibly.(2) Place. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. Thackeray. thus.² The master. not.²SHAKESPEARE. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement.²BROWNING. maybe. too. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. especially the comparative of these words. telling how anything is done. telling how many times: once.²DE QUINCEY. that these adverbs form a very large class. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.whence. just.where. 283. partly. singly. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb.²IRVING. as hither. twice. as here. etc. or how far he believes it to be true. This long's the text. [Sidenote The status of such.whither.

a mighty fine gentleman."²SCOTT. 284." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Kingsley. Neville. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Again. besides modifying.²HAWTHORNE. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. 285.²BULWER. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H." "I have seen you before [time]. for example. It is only occasionally used in literary English. Defoe. "Peace. Direct questions." "The house. have the additional function of asking a question." "That were far better [degree]. De Quincey. Franklin. Emerson.² "Mighty well. and its lawn before [place]. Such are most of those given already in Sec. 282.² KINGSLEY. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Interrogative.²"He walked too far [place]. and other writers. Notice meanings. Pretty is also used by Prescott. . for example." said the king. Holmes." "He spoke positively [manner].²THACKERAY.Pretty.²BAYNE. Some adverbs. Beau Fielding. 286.²GOLDSMITH. Simple. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.² You are mighty courteous. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Aldrich. Hard blows and hard money. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.²FIELDING. Dickens. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. STOWE. and art but a fool. A pretty large experience.²THACKERAY. B." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. Mighty. Burke. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister.

as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. I will not ask where thou liest low.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. WEBSTER. I know not why. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. (2) Place.²BULWER.²BYRON (3) Manner. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. . (5) Reason. (2) Place.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. (4) Degree. When did this humane custom begin?²H. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. I hearkened. I do not remember when I was taught to read. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. for example. they smiled. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. 287.²POE.²D. CLAY. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.²BYRON.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. (4) Degree. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.

Its strings boldlier swept. highest.²SHAKESPEARE. obs." Exercise. higher. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. soonest. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. 290.²EMERSON. and. furthest (rathe.But in reality. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. soon. Only that we may wiselier see. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. high. when does not express time and modify. when. have the same inflection as adjectives. Exercise. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. irregularly compared. representing four classes. use. only occasionally having -er and -est. . Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. sooner. Then must she keep it safelier.²COLERIDGE. I should freelier rejoice in that absence.²BYRON. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. The following. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Many adjectives have the same ending. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. further farthest..eyes. see Sec.²TENNYSON. Superlative. when compared. Form vs.) rather 289. well much little far late Comparative. Many adverbs are compared.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. For further discussion. but the whole clause.. just as adjectives do. as. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. Tell what each word in ly modifies. 288. not an adverb.

and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. etc. 6. mostly. . nearly.²CHAUCER. whether adverbs or adjectives. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. 7. With his proud. But he must do his errand right. merely introduces a sentence. hard. 292. 4.And his mien of kingly state. if it has the verb be.² EMERSON. hardly. evenly. 2. but with a different meaning. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. Such are most. The reason is.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. Not near so black as he was painted. that in Old and Middle English.²IRVING. many words without -ly have the same form. 8. Again. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. 3. 291.²WORDSWORTH. Special use of there. even. to be sure.²THACKERAY.²ID. or down the leaves laughed through. And all about. kindly and good-natured in secret. 2.²TENNYSON. more courtly in their manners. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. There are eyes. near. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. curiously jolly. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. quick-flashing eye.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]." Compare these:² 1. as. instead of being used adverbially. 5. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. He is inexpressibly mean.1. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. Frequently the word there.

Exercise. but from my fall? 6. is always politically unwise. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. according to meaning and also use. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. (2) Degree of comparison. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. 10. give² (1) The class. 11. In parsing adverbs. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. at the regular wine-shop. 9. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. the Madonna is in great glory. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. But a few steps farther on. 5. 15. 2. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. 16. 3. (3) What word or word group it modifies. For the impracticable. It is the Cross that is first seen. 4. 17. if the word is compared. however theoretically enticing. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. The higher we rise in the scale of being. and sate down on the steps of a house. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 7. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. burning in the center of the temple. and always. 293. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. but continually shifted. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. 12. 18. Thither we went. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. .

however. hence. Clauses. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but." Paragraphs. Unlike adverbs. 21." Sentences. therefore. upon which the sun now shone forth. sentences. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. etc. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. CONJUNCTIONS." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. 20. . conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. It was pretty bad after that.19. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. word groups. nor. 295. but side by side within the American Union. 22. then. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. A conjunction is a linking word. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. 294. connecting words." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. but the student will readily find them. But now the wind rose again. Definition. or sentence groups.

etc. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. etc. therefore. Causal. serves but to show their ignorance.. not only. Some of these go in pairs. (2) Subordinate.nor. "Howbeit. either.. . the butter too... usually between two things. either. or the sea rolls its waves. not only.Classes of conjunctions. still. word groups. yet... of the same rank. both.. etc.nor. as but... Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.or. 297... where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. moreover. The chief ones are. as and. for. whether. and not man corn.. I have nothing to do with the governor and council.but (or but also). only.. nor. 298. 296.. (2) ADVERSATIVE.. then. neither. Nor mark'd they less. and. Your letter.. either. however. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. neither. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. else. introducing a reason or cause. as.or. likewise.. as.. (4) ALTERNATIVE.or. The assertion. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE... Some go in threes. (3) CAUSAL. answering to each other in the same sentence. however.or. They are or. hence... While the earth bears a plant. expressing a choice. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. as well as. also.but. whether.and. neither. Adversative. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. the window being open." Nevertheless. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. but is emperor in his own right. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. nor. the bread was spent. as well as the room door. joining words. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man.. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. Alternative. had its weight. while... whether.or whether. Correlatives.

while. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. however. etc. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. nor creeping thing. except. since. provided. provided that. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. in order that. lest. (6) PURPOSE: that..as.²J. so. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. etc. as. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. howsoever. (3) MANNER: how.²BIBLE. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. there will the heart be also. Where the treasure is. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. whither. He is not only bold and vociferous. etc. . nor the exclusive attention that he attracted.²PAULDING. in apposition. etc. nor wing of bird.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. until. on condition that. unless. so that. sometimes if.²WILSON.²DE QUINCEY. whithersoever. now.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. even if. nor echo. ²ALLSTON. 299. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me..²BURKE. so. after.²IRVING. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. that. Neither the place in which he found himself. QUINCY. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry.. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. as. whereas. since. seeing. nor green leaf. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that.. before. Time. so that. especially that after so.²COOPER. as. ere. in case. though. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. whether. etc. It is. object. although. (7) RESULT: that. whenever. wherever. whence. whereto. (2) TIME: when. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. so.

² HAWTHORNE.²AMES. Manner. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²COLERIDGE.²CAMPBELL. JACKSON. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.² EMERSON.²EMERSON.²DEFOE.²EMERSON. We wish for a thousand heads.²CARLYLE Events proceed. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.²BYRON. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. As a soldier. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. I was again covered with water. Result.That vain it were her eyes to close.²BURKE. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags. reason. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²IRVING. Comparison. Cause.That he gave her wounds repose.² H. Concession. So many thoughts moved to and fro. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. . Substantive. a thousand bodies. Sparing neither whip nor spur.² WORDSWORTH. H.²AMES.So I behold them not. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Purpose. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. not as they were expected or intended.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. Now he is dead. Then Denmark blest our chief.²AMES. but not so long but I held it out. Let the world go how it will. Condition.²EMERSON.

(a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. He was brought up for the church. while. Crept under the leaf. hold a subordinate rank. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. The moth fly. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 300.Let us see whether the greatest.²RUSKIN. however. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. then. While patriotism glowed in his heart. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. While a faction is a minority. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. 7. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. that. it will remain harmless. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. some words²for example. 3. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. etc. Besides.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. They. her real merit is known at home. 4. And then recovering. as. the lady called her servant. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. and hid her there. And they lived happily forever after. No one had yet caught his character. 13. 2. 6. 14. since. After he was gone. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. as he shot in air. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. In what point of view. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. she faintly pressed her hand. Exercises. 5. 15. 9. the wisest. 12. 10. . As will have been noticed. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8.

as is often equivalent to as if. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. 304. etc. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. even as they would weep. The raft and the money had been thrown near her.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. the expression would be. and the frame will suit the picture. as is shown by the use of as though." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc.. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain.16. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. As if. In parsing conjunctions. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. So silently we seemed to speak. none of the lashings having given way. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. word groups. As though.²EMILY BRONTE. 301. GREELEY. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. "We meet. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. they connect. Consequently. expressing degree if taken separately.²IRVING. His voice . in this case. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. thus. If analyzed. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. and be a bud again.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. for example. SPECIAL REMARKS. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. In poetry. 302.²HOOD.As though a rose should shut. .²BYRON." as. 303.So slowly moved about. As for as if.Clouded. and part as though we parted not.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors.. In Emerson's sentence.. (2) What words.

²EMERSON 3. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason.² 1.²that the fairies do not like to be named. that it might testify of that particular ray. For example. and. so means provided. At sea. when. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. so that expresses result. and its clause is independent. All the postulates of elfin annals. or in the snow. 6. . 13. He dismisses without notice his thought. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. and the like. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. so that I could not stir abroad. because it is his. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. so means therefore. and very seldom?" 8. 2. so it be faithfully imparted. When the gods come among men. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower.²is subordinate of condition. 10. 3. he sleeps as warm. and associates as happily.²I find them true in Concord. so they paddled on. etc. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. 7. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. as beside his own chimneys. and its clause depends on the other." said his wife to Martin Luther. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. in 3. 4.Caution. Exercise. It continued raining. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. It may be safely trusted. such as nor. In classifying them. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. 11. Some conjunctions..²DEFOE 2. or in the forest. but of the natural. 12. they are not known. in 2. 5. others belong to several classes. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. he is also the correlative of nature. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. because.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. compare the sentences. dines with as good an appetite. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. 9. He is the compend of time. If he could solve the riddle. are regularly of one particular class. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. the Sphinx was slain. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. "Doctor.

but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. And whether consciously or not. 27. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. 15. enthroned. . in this they agree. Now you have the whip in your hand. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her.. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 20. 25.²else it is none. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. won't you lay on? 17. 305. 29. Goodness must have some edge to it. It is clear. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 30. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. you must be. of good novels only. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. 16. 18. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. the whole conditions are changed. therefore. 28. Still. 21. 23. whose names I omit. For. she might have the family countenance. PREPOSITIONS.14. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. I speak. 19. 26. however. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. that both were wayward. in many a heart. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. There was no iron to be seen. 24. save it were sinful like herself. It may be so in the majority of cases. I rejoice to stand here no longer. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. when it was presented to them. 22.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.
Definition.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
Inseparable.

310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.
Separable.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.

CLASSES OF PREPOSITIONS.

312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE.
313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME.
314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

EXCLUSION OR SEPARATION.
315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

MISCELLANEOUS PREPOSITIONS.
316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

At.
319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next invited...to grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

(4) Measure of excess. D.²B. etc.²R.²ID. at play. at work. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. At St. CONWAY.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. at one. Exercise. Helena. 321. At that time [the earth] was richer. By my faith. by means near or close to. She saw the boat headed for her.²DE QUINCEY. STODDARD. at the worst. at length. at rest. at first. the first port made by the ship. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.² (1) The general meaning of place. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. by the ruins of nations. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. at the best. he stopped. by many a million of acres. Like at. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. at random. at most. (3) Agency or means. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. as. Richard was standing by the window. etc. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at once. by the blessed memory of the departed. at least. at naught. Exercise. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.²M. H. For. (2) Time. at any rate.²COOPER..²Find sentences with three different uses of at. expressing the degree of difference. 320. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. . But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling.²SWIFT. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. at war.²WARNER. By.²EVERETT. TAYLOR The angel came by night. at peace. ²PARTON. by the wrecks of time.²ALDRICH. at all.

"²SCOTT By my faith. GARRISON. "For a fool. or in spite of. "thou hast counseled wisely. ate her child. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline..²HOOD. a person or thing. "Nay. in behalf of. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. if your worship can accomplish that. He and they were for immediate attack. for the benefit of. meaning in the character of. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. or extent of space. for famine. the Colonna motto would fit you best.²ID. (4) Substitution or exchange. but a few sunsets since.²PARKMAN." said the Lady of Lochleven.²PARKMAN. as being.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. for all his title. H. and leaped for joy. had a forest of poor relations. etc.. meaning although.²STODDARD.²E.²W.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE.² RUSKIN. (3) Duration of time.²H. (9) Motive. An Arab woman.One of Eve's family.²EMERSON. etc. For him. For the rest. cause. meaning with regard to. The twilight being. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. considering that etc. E. (5) Reference. incitement to action. they are now for us." answered Master Brackett. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. as to.(2) In favor of. respecting. for all slips of hers. But the Colonel. There are gains for all our losses. .²IRVING.²LAMB.²HOLMES. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. poor fellow. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. (7) Concession. reason. Still. L. he repented of his folly. (6) Like as. BANCROFT. etc.

if not a desperate man. cause. 323. A distrustful. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. The original meaning of of was separation or source. The From Relation. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²ID. Exercise. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. and having the same meaning as a noun clause.²HIGGINSON.²BANCROFT. ceased to be merciful.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. 322. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. It was from no fault of Nolan's.²HUXLEY. like from. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. (3) Time. Like boys escaped from school. (1) Origin or source. (4) Motive. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. The king holds his authority of the people. more.²DRYDEN. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. Coming from a race of day-dreamers.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. The young cavaliers.²HALE.²MILTON. Of. . nay.²H. (2) Origin. The general idea in from is separation or source. from a desire of seeming valiant. H. Exercise. From.²HUME. From harmony. or reason. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began.

free. relieve. (b) After some adjectives. wide of. acquitted them of.²BOSWELL..²PARKMAN. such as ease. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. reason. divest. motive. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. The hills were bare of trees. bare of. (6) Partitive. demand. free of.²BANCROFT. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. rid. he had raised a little Gothic chapel.²ID. etc. and grass. (c) After nouns expressing lack. White shirt with diamond studs. "I am glad of that. Sandals. ²PARTON. out of the most unpromising materials. that Cromwell once ruled England. or breastpin of native gold. More than one altar was richer of his vows. there were only twenty-one members present. A singular want of all human relation. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. (5) Expressing agency. etc. cure. E. beg. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. etc. rob. ask. expressing a part of a number or quantity. Back of that tree.²clear of.²ALDRICH. Other Relations expressed by Of.²BAYARD TAYLOR. You cannot make a boy know. He is away of his own free will. (3) With expressions of material. Asked no odds of.²SCOTT Who formed. deprivation. purge. weeds.²LEW WALLACE. bound with thongs of boar's hide. etc. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. etc. Of the Forty.²DICKENS II. clear. south of. disarm."²E. of his own knowledge. HALE.²HIGGINSON. .² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. especially out of. deprive.² HUXLEY. (d) With words expressing distance. as north of. ²GAVARRE.

(10) Of reference.²PRESCOTT. for the possessive. (7) Possessive. being equivalent to an infinitive. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. standing. E. Such a book as that of Job. could give shelter from his contumely. (c) Two nouns.²LOWELL. with its object. ²IRVING.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. concerning.²BANCROFT. Besides the phrases of old.²BANCROFT.²W. 309. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. Not even woman's love. Idiomatic use with verbs.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day.²HALLECK.²COOPER.. (9) Of time. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. when the first is descriptive of the second. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. of late. CHANNING.²BANCROFT. .²FROUDE.²LAMB. equal to about. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. and the dignity of a queen. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. with regard to. The fair city of Mexico. etc. of a sudden. (8) Appositional.²ALDRICH. See also Sec. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²SWIFT.He washed out some of the dirt. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages. of is used in the sense of during.²ID. (b) Noun and gerund. The nation of Lilliput.

Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. avail (one's self). approve. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where.²EMERSON. on the alert. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence.²PARKMAN. 325. etc.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire.²BRYANT.²MRS. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. on a sudden. . (3) Reference. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. Cannon were heard close on the left. (2) Time. (b) With motion.²DE QUINCEY. you are eighteen.²PARKMAN.²ALDRICH. allow. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. repent.²PARKMAN. Upon my reputation and credit. accept. on trial. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. complain. On my life.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. on the wing. The general meaning of on is position or direction. equal to about. concerning. consist. Exercise. It also accompanies the verbs tire. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications.²Find sentences with six uses of of. such as admit. To. 324. Upon is seldom used to express time. on view. on board. without adding to their meaning. SIGOURNEY. etc. permit. (4) In adjurations. and others. On. disapprove. Exercise. on high. ²BANCROFT. Upon. and not a day more.

while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.²IRVING.²B. to my taste. (5) Equivalent to according to. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. does the mere music.to be written over.. (2) Expressing result. mid meant in company with.²BULWER.²PARKMAN. He usually gave his draft to an aid. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. had ceased to be. whose influence is felt to this hour. gay Comedy appears. it may be genuine poetry..²GOLDSMITH. to him. But when. We cook the dish to our own appetite. With.Come to the bridal chamber.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. 326. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. To the few.²HALE.²often to the loss of vigor... (b) Referring to time. Revolutions.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. 268). Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification.²BRYANT. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. Death!²HALLECK.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. Nor. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. unmasked. . In Old English. Exercise.²LANG. interest.²PARTON.²Find sentences containing three uses of to.²BENTON To our great delight. His brother had died.

²HOWELLS. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. transmitted from the beginning.²Find sentences with four uses of with. With all his sensibility.²ALDRICH.²DE QUINCEY. with Heyward at its head. but with you. reason. with all his boldness. felt it unsafe to trifle further. opinion.²HOWELLS. HALE.²WALLACE (7) Time. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. I think. . and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. She seemed pleased with the accident. Exercise. E. but a pleasure"?²LANG. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. He expired with these words. It seemed a supreme moment with him. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. he gave millions to the sword. or with the haunch of our near leader. (4) Estimation. first of all. it is necessary. With my crossbow I shot the albatross.²SCOTT. as with you. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. "poetry is not a pursuit. to find the object of the preposition.²CHANNING.The advance. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. (5) Opposition.²COLERIDGE. He was wild with delight about Texas. 327. in spite of. had already reached the defile. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²COOPER.²LANG. Messala. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding.²E. motive.²HALE. (3) Cause.²DE QUINCEY. Either with the swingle-bar.²EMERSON. (2) Instrumentality.

Exercises. he followed us one day into those gardens. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. shook it directly over my head. because I had given the provocation. beginning. the phrase answers the question where. we met the defaulter here. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. I heard a noise just over my head. In (3). which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. In (2). (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. 2. hence we say. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. . by which a dozen apples. without a country modifies man. or was. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. (2) on which. before the dwarf left the queen. I felt my box raised very high in the air. In (1). The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. I remember. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. Be that as it will. country. the malicious rogue. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I looked towards my windows. I called out several times. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. but all to no purpose. To our general surprise. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. The guns were cleared of their lumber. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. (4) from the beginning. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. 5. and knocked me down flat on my face. I speak these things from a love of justice. 3. like the clapping of wings. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. The object of on board is ships. of on. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. 4. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. (3) without a country.The phrases are (1) on board the ships.²ID. telling what man. of without. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. of from. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. Whereupon. but I received no other hurt.²SWIFT 2. And so on. which. came tumbling about my ears.

plumed for battle. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 27. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine.He spurred his courser on. 17. 26. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 18. For my part. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure.6. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 14. . 19. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 24. With all his learning. in this respect. 9. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. 7. 13. 20. 22. The mother sank and fell. 8. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. in town. 11. 21.Without stop or stay. His breeches were of black silk. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. to one dark and gloomy. 10. I like to see the passing. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. after a restful morning. 16. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. On all subjects known to man. 25. 29. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. when. 15. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. Carteret was far from being a pedant. The savage army was in war-paint. 12. 23. he favored the world with his opinions. grasping at the child.

²HUXLEY. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore.²WEBSTER. THAT. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them.²STOCKTON. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. (1) Relative pronoun. and be proud in the midst of its toil. 328.30. (b) Of result.² JOHNSON.²BEECHER. That night was a memorable one. A few are discussed below.²COLERIDGE.That makes the heavens be mute. 330. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. that you might behold this joyous day. (2) As an adjective pronoun. .²WEBSTER. (c) Substantive conjunction. And now it is like an angel's song. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. not merely by the amount of the tax. WHAT. 329. and not according to form. We wish that labor may look up here. That is what I understand by scientific education. He will raise the price. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. (a) Indefinite relative. (3) As a relative pronoun. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. (4) As an adverb of degree. That was a dreadful mistake.²WEBSTER.

(b) Copulative..Which be they what they may.²ID. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. What. (6) Exclamatory adjective. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.²ID.²THACKERAY. silent still.²WORDSWORTH.these sounds are only to be heard.. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. (8) Conjunction.. 331.²S. and silent all!²BYRON. Cox. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying.in Pera.Are yet the fountain light of all our day... nearly equivalent to partly. (b) Indirect question. (b) Indirect question. (7) Adverb of degree.²EMERSON.S. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. after not only. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.²WEBSTER. to see what might be hidden. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. What with the Maltese goats. If he has [been in America]." (4) Relative adjective. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. At what rate these materials would be distributed. or not only. but the result of calculation. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. "I'll tell you what. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union....²EMERSON.. .but...it is impossible to determine. it rests on reality. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.. he knows what good people are to be found there. BUT. (9) As an exclamation. partly. What.Those shadowy recollections. To say what good of fashion we can.

AS.²LAMB. than... The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.. stands for that .²IRVING.²IRVING. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. meaning otherwise . And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE.. or who . (b) Substantive.²SHELLEY.²CARLYLE.. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village.He yearned to our patriot bands. after a negative. (c) Of degree. (2) Relative pronoun. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. To lead but one measure. (5) Adverb. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. (3) Preposition..Then arose not only tears. . There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. not.²SCOTT. (d) Of reason. meaning only. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times.. not.. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. ²CARLYLE. but piercing cries.²EMERSON.²FRANKLIN. not. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.²HAWTHORNE. meaning except.²IRVING. (e) Introducing an appositive word. I shall see but little of it. 332. at all moments. equivalent to that . sometimes same. (4) Relative pronoun. towards order.²MRS BROWNING. like the dog. on all sides. (b) Of manner. Who knows but. Doing duty as a guard. after such.

staring like a bewildered man.LIKE. Introduces a clause. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. this.²HAWTHORNE. and is followed by a dative-objective.² A timid. Through which they put their heads. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.²HIGGINSON.²LAMB. No Emperor. like drops out.² HAWTHORNE. This follows a verb or a verbal. like him awhile ago. but its verb is omitted. . In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. like summer ocean's. nervous child.²MAYHEW. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²ALDRICH.²CASS. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. That face. but this is not considered good usage: for example.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. 333. There is no statue like this living man. They look. Note the difference between these two uses. and as or as if takes its place. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. If the verb is expressed. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. In each case.²HALLECK. like a cook beating eggs.²ALDRICH.²SHAKESPEARE. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. ²PARKMAN. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. I do with my friends as I do with my books. In this second use. indeed. NOTE.-SCOTT.²EMERSON. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. (1) An adjective. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. Give Ruskin space enough.²LONGFELLOW. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. and was clearly an adjective. Stirring it vigorously. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. like Martin was. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.²EMERSON.²DARWIN.

but it still retains its identity as noun. tut! buzz! etc. that is. that is.: for example. 334. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. etc. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.²in determining case." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. Some of these are imitative sounds.. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. Value of analysis. . A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. Definition. Definition. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. clauses introduced by conjunctions. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. etc.INTERJECTIONS. pronoun. in separating them into their component parts. 335.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. entering into the structure of a sentence. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons." PART II. verb. 336. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. What analysis is. as. subject and predicate.

not according to the form in which a thought is put. 339. but by no means vulgar. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. "Old year. Definition. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. But now all is to be changed. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. hence. "Come to the bridal chamber. interrogative. or command: for example. This is the most common one. which puts the thought in a question. declarative. "The quality of mercy is not strained. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. Division according to number of statements.Kinds of sentences as to form. entreaty. (2) Interrogative." "What wouldst thou do. according to form." 340. but according to how many statements there are. or imperative. question. Every sentence must contain two parts. old man?" "Be thou familiar. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division.²a subject and a predicate. Examples of these three kinds are. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. . (3) Imperative. A rare old plant is the ivy green. always friends?" imperative. or request. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. but the sentence would still be declarative. "Hath he not always treasures. 338. 2. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. you must not die!" interrogative. which expresses command. SIMPLE SENTENCES. Definition: Predicate. 337.

4. thou. 3. 8. we have some trouble. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. "[You] behold her single in the field. 5. 341. as. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. Slavery they can have anywhere. adjective.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. especially in poetry. always reduce them to the order of a statement. and our definition must be the following. But if we try this with the second sentence. to an ignorant man. In the interrogative sentence. Consequently.²What is the ivy green? Answer. or adverb that asks about the subject. but about the ivy green.²What is to be changed? Answer. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. Thus. Listen. 7. to suit all cases:² Subject. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. a rare old plant. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. and is to be supplied. all. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. 6. The last of all the Bards was he. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. In analyzing such sentences. and the real subject is the latter. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions." Exercise. or an interrogative pronoun.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. not of a rare old plant. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. or ye) is in most cases omitted. . on the other hand. the subject (you. 2. the subject is frequently after the verb. we say all is the subject of the sentence.

for example. but it is a true complement. 343. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. "Ye honor me. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. Direct Object. but of call chief. direct. Of a transitive verb. 342." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). "I give thee this to wear at the collar. Indirect object. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. and means summoned. (3) The object. . Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. in addition to the object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. or second object. and by object we mean the direct object. The transitive verb often requires.10. The subject and predicate have been discussed." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. just as if to say. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. but chief belongs to the verb. "Ye call me chief. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. (4) The complements. (2) The predicate. (5) Modifiers.²transitive and intransitive." indirect." Complement: 344. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. and me here is not the object simply of call. (6) Independent elements.

Phrases." (2) PARTICIPIAL." Things used as Subject. A phrase is a group of words." 345. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. ay. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. 346. she sat down to undress the two youngest children. As to form. taste. in the popular judgment. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. or. etc. 'Ay." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. and of massive weight. especially the forms of be. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." All these complete intransitive verbs. I mentioned a case of that nature. introduced by a preposition: for example. "Brow and head were round. in exercise following Sec. in the original Opium Confessions. "A cheery. An intransitive verb. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. 347." Also an expression used as a noun. he was now getting old. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive." "The good man.." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. seem." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. as. to the completion of this man of the world. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. 355." (3) INFINITIVE. sir!' rang out in response. and. Complement of an intransitive verb. 364." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. appear. not containing a verb. and barring the door. Thom of the Gills. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. but used as a single modifier. feel. 351." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. 352." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . as in the sentence." "He was termed Thomas." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. for instance. more familiarly. above sixty. become. as in drowning. See sentence 19.

. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. 341." "The dead are there. but the real or logical subject is to print." Things used as Direct Object. or their religion from their sect. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." 348. etc. my deficiency. (2) In interrogative sentences." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. and by Saint George!' said the King." "Never." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. prowling eyes." etc." Things used as Complement." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. was heard one syllable to justify.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. or the thundering of organs. but obscures the real subject. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud.²the talent of starting the game. 349. asserting eyes. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. Disguised infinitive subject. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as.²the infinitive phrase." "There are asking eyes. but they will be given in detail here." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. from their lips. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject." The for did not belong there originally. for which see Sec." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). (4) After "there introductory. and ever will be. "'By God." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects." In this sentence. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. "Therein has been. I saw the quick and the dead.

" "Serving others is serving us." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. (3) Infinitive. and. I. Of a transitive verb. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. Like all the complements in this list.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." In this last sentence.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. the object is made the subject by being passive." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. Object. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. they are adjuncts of the object. Modifiers of Subject. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on.²heads or tails. or Complement. trusting the hearts of his countrymen." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. at the same time.²completing the predicate. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." "She asked her father's permission." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she. and whenever the complement is a noun." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. and explaining or modifying the subject." . 351. complements of the predicate. doubtless." "Their tempers. or the equivalent of the noun. As complement of an intransitive verb." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." (4) Participle. the shepherd girl. As complement of a transitive verb." Modifiers.350." "I hear the echoes throng. and the words italicized are still complements.

or complement is modified. Tells how. this young idolater." In such a sentence as." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. I have seasoned for thee. but noble teachers." (For participial and infinitive phrases. object." "Give them not only noble teachings.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. tell whether the subject.²proud. II." Exercise." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. the verb being omitted." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. was the scene from King John. or . was now called upon for his defense. 357-363. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help.²In each sentence in Sec. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. see further Secs." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. 352. austere." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. unforgiving. the prisoner at the bar. Modifiers of the Predicate. and leading him from star to star. and modify the predicate in the same way. "He died like a God." "Him. no sociable angel." "In the twinkling of an eye. not with nature." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. Since the predicate is always a verb. but with other men. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. but it is really a contracted clause. Retained with passive." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. given at the request of a Dutch lady." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. 351." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon.

6. etc." (6) Adverbial objective. 3. how far. 3." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. and as many to oppose it. he liked. no humor. no relief to the dead prosaic level. But anger drives a man to say anything. to the animal strength and spirits. 7. gives wonderful animation. in regard to particulars. predicate." Exercises. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. These answer the question when. but the children of the great. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. On the voyage to Egypt. but to be loved. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. and (direct) object:² 1. 8. in this center? 4. His books have no melody. (b) Pick out the subject. 2. a sort of personality to the whole writing. (a) Pick out subject. ." "All such knowledge should be given her. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 5. 5. Evil." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. Fashion does not often caress the great. negative. They do not wish to be lovely. with my joy and grief. This. and other measures of precaution. and. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. predicate. 4. To the men of this world. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. after dinner.When the verb is changed from active to passive. and the direct object is retained: for example. no emotion. 7. is good in the making. or how long. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. according to old philosophers. the indirect object is retained. I took. 6. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour.." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster." "One way lies hope. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. 2. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition.

to the right and to the left. happy dinner. the attorney.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. 5. for the first time. at the chief hotel. then. In one feature. burthened with the anxieties of a man. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. To suffer and to do. y y y y Compound Subject. after their long confinement to a ship. upwards. That night. six children sat by a peat fire. 4. this imperial rider. this dragoon so lovely. A river formed the boundary. etc.y 8. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. 5. 4. Paint me.. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. in little peaceful Easedale. this nun so martial. Compound Predicate. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. Their intention was to have a gay. 3. at length the warrior lady. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. 2. . Yes. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. viz. then. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. 2. I gave him an address to my friend. Unhorse me. that was thy portion in life. 3. the blooming cornet. Not compound sentences. and a member of the world. must visit again the home of her childhood. downwards.²the river Meuse. Not the less I owe thee justice. the present Archbishop of Dublin. I promised her protection against all ghosts. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. expecting the return of their parents. 4. 2. a room seventeen feet by twelve. 6. 3. I felt myself.

shouldered the rusty firelock. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. etc. and the rest is the logical predicate. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. however. ulcer. that is. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. the air of the mother. in the sentence. two or more subjects of the same predicate. and its object or complement." "He shook his head. For example. in all such sentences as we quote below. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. Larger view of a sentence. Examples of compound subjects are. 354. hurry. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is." "The name of the child. may be the person or thing addressed. the verb). together with all its modifiers. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. above: thus." Sentences with compound predicates are. together with its modifiers. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. Bishop. complements. etc. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." And so with complements. but it is to be noticed that. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. they are not a necessary part. forming a sentence: "Oh. then the grammatical subject and predicate. several modifiers. my brave young man!" . the predicate." "Ye crags and peaks. the simple subject is situation. "Ah. 355. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. the object.. turned his steps homeward. exposes. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. same as (1).353. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. and." "Voyages and travels I would also have. The exclamatory expression. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. Of this. etc.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. "The company broke up. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. the tone of her voice. modifiers." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. I'm with you once again. hurry. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. Independent Elements of the Sentence.

350. or complement (see Sec. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. her noticing even this is creditable. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared." Another caution. 351.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. such as perhaps." "Well. 355. or word used as a noun: for example. really." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. . pronoun. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. therefore. how you're winking!" "Now. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. instances of which were seen in Sec. (1) Adjectival. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. besides. y (2) The adverbial use. moreover." (3) Independent." "Truth to say. grandma. already noticed. (b) As a modifier of subject. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. that have an office in the sentence.. he somehow lived along. 356. nevertheless. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. object. and so on. modifying a noun. 6). yes! everybody knew them. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. "Oh. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. The words well. truly. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. generally speaking." (5) Participial phrase: "But. 4). the company broke up. prepositional phrases may be. he closed his literary toils at dinner. then. 3. and some conjunctions. etc. 352." "No. to the best of my remembrance. such as however. why. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. let him perish. modifying the predicate." "At all events." (2) Adverbial. now. see Sec. undoubtedly." (6) Single words: as. this story runs thus. In their use. These need close watching." "Why. six quill-driving gentlemen. 4). There are some adverbs. 357." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. he was a conscientious man. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES.. see Sec. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. etc.

: as in the sentences. or as nearly so as the student will require." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. I. 355. being equivalent to a future with obligation.]. my dear. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. Wilt thou. was speedily run through. therefore. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. 358." (b) With the forms of be. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances. etc. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes." etc. (5). "The letter of introduction. "Because I was. etc. but having no other office than a verbal one.should." (c) With the definite forms of go. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. necessity. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. The verbal use. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . but require somewhat closer attention. thus.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. and teach her how to be happy and good. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business.seem.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter.would. modifying was speedily run through.can (could). and hence is adverbial. y (a) With may (might)." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. he should not have known them at all. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public." In this sentence. This case excepted." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion." "There. and they will be presented here in full. containing no matters of business.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. See Sec. ought.

"She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). "But there was no time to be lost. 362. complement. to look means that he might look. notice the following:² In (1). . "Do they not cause the heart to beat. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor.²both purpose clauses." (3) As complement: See examples under (1)." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. and the eyes to fill?" 359." "To teach is to learn. hang the idiot. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. II." 360. the Scotch fighting all the battles.: for example. IV. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." "To say what good of fashion we can. (4) In apposition." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. III." "Are you mad. etc. The adjectival use. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you. 351. object. Don Guzman." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. 5)." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death.. 361 are used adverbially. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. to hear McOrator after dinner. is evident from the meaning of the sentences." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. The adverbial use. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. result. The substantive use. etc. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. above." "He insisted on his right to forget her. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. To test this. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. to please is equivalent to that he may please." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. modifying a noun that may be a subject. already examined. 361.

364. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. The independent use. and to say is equivalent to if we say. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 4. 355). 349). 2." (See also Sec. 355. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. etc. 352). object. 363. etc.. equivalent to that you betray. 351). V. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 3. and to betray and to bring express the reason. In (5). to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. as in Sec. In (3). In (4). I will try to keep the balance true.. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. (5) The subject (Sec. give² (1) The predicate. If it is an incomplete verb. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. 351). to part means because I part. 347). In analyzing simple sentences. savage and serene in one hour. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. not in a book. to hear means if you should hear. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. give the complement (Secs. . 351). Our life is March weather.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. to find shows the result of the return. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. (3). must be in a life. (7) Independent elements (Sec.²both expressing condition." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 268. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. etc. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it.In (2). which is of two kinds.

11. To these gifts of nature. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 21. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. nor money. is to have no political system at all. 19. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. two stricken hours. He risked everything. To be hurried away by every event. and to the purpose. through toys and atoms.The old crow of Cairo.4. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. always in a bad plight. good and amiable otherwise. 20.²to preserve her throne. It is easy to sugar to be sweet.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. to the moral sphere. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. I have heard Coleridge talk. We are always in peril. and spared nothing. and every moment discover something new. 13. a good shot. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. 22. through evil agents. nor troops. neither ammunition. You may ramble a whole day together. a skilled musician.He sat in the shower. to keep England out of war. The word conscience has become almost confined. Old Adam. 7. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. 10. 24. His opinion is always original. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. in popular use. 6. . 17. to restore civil and religious order. might be called flabby and irresolute. like a witch's oils. 16. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 8. with eager energy. 5. just on the edge of destruction. a graceful dancer. 23.Burnt green and blue and white. the carrion crow. Her aims were simple and obvious. The water. 12. The whole figure and air. 15. nor himself. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 9. Through the years and the centuries. 14. an accomplished scholar. 18. nor generals. and only to be saved by invention and courage.

time-honored. 33. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. to bid you leave the place now and forever. The villain. 37. 36. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. Oxford. Fair name might he have handed down. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. in front of all this mighty crowd. 30. and the why.25. secluded. 41. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. and in my own garden. This amiable relative. The cry. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. Supposing this computation to be correct. 29. Must we in all things look for the how. ready to receive her. 26. the same Condé Olivarez. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 39. Now. or perhaps one virtue. had but one foible. in less heroic and poetic form. to be a reproach to such goodness. and the wherefore? . She had made a two days' march. But yield. I dare this. the prime minister of Spain. baggage far in the rear. Few in number. and no provisions but wild berries. the present capital of New England. proud foe. 35. Of the same grandeur. I hate him and myself. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. 27.Distant. 40. it would not have been filial or ladylike. an elderly man. haply. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. upon my own ground. in this world.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. and. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter.Effacing many a stain of former crime. 31. Upon this shore stood. 38. the ship was in an uproar. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. still. 32. 34. In the Acadian land. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches.

Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. however. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. the expressions of manner introduced by like.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. which is the unit of speech. . the pride and beauty of the grove." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. though often treated as phrases. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. As shown in Part I." To show that these words are really omitted. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. The simple sentence the basis.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep." Sentences with like." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. as would be the connective instead of like.From her own loved island of sorrow. Some sentences look like simple ones in form." This must. 365. are really contracted clauses. as. COMPLEX SENTENCES. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. 333)." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences. 367. thus. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. but. 366. if they were expanded.² "She is like some tender tree. made merely for convenience and smoothness. (Sec. Words left out after than or as.

complement. predicate.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. Hence the following definition:² Definition. A principal.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. as in this sentence. suffering. containing a verb with its subject. each clause has its subject. and the next one. CLAUSES. that . A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). 370. is taken in. and the last. logically depends on suffering. or it may be applied to the others.²the other members subordinate to it. A clause is a division of a sentence..²the backbone. we are aware. murmur. main.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. 368. Independent clause. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences... that is. or dependent on it. modifiers. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. complements. then we recognize this as the main statement. 369. and modifier. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. which are so united that one member is the main one. how great .. etc.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. 371. Definition. object. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. object. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. ." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint.

As to their office in the sentence. Kinds. impertinences²would be grammatical. for example. impertinences.." (4) Apposition. verbal. Noun Clauses. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. (b) that are . We ourselves are getting . 373." "I was told that the house had not been shut.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. and the whole clause is not. clauses are divided into NOUN.' is an electric touch. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. But since they are complex in form. over which the torrent came tumbling. for example. and ADVERB clauses. for a hundred years. pronoun. . that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. etc. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." 374. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. with a noun clause in apposition with it. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs." Just as the object noun. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause.." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. ADJECTIVE.. attention is called to them here.. 5). but logically the sentence is. or adverbs." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. thus.. 372.. night or day." (2) Object of a verb. infinitive. for a time. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. 'I know that he can toil terribly. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. and it is . adjectives. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. 352. so the object clause is retained.Dependent clause. put an end to my fancies. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. (a) Ordinary apposition.. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some.

The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. 7. As the office of an adjective is to modify. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind." Exercise. still remains reasonable. 5. But the fact is. which. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. Adjective Clauses. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. Frequently there is no connecting word. 6. I was napping. 8. a falsehood incarnate. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. What history it had. . he could know nothing. that. whence. a relative pronoun being understood. in the sentence. that he was a scheming impostor. Other examples of this construction are. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. 4. as. 10.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. or equivalent of a noun. whereby. he would repent it. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. how it changed from shape to shape. The reply of Socrates. whether he should choose one or not.² "It is on the understanding. 2." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. no man will ever know. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. 9. sometimes by the conjunctions when. wherein. and not on the sentiment. that all safe legislation must be based. that. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. 375. etc. Except by what he could see for himself. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. 3. whither. of a nation. where. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. Such a man is what we call an original man. but. Examples of adjective clauses.

I walked home with Calhoun. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. the champions advanced through the lists." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. 10. whether subject. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place.e. Pick out the adjective clauses. . 3." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. 8. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. 5. or that essence we were looking for. which formed the center of the mansion." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. which Rowena tasted. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. 1. 9. and tell what each one modifies. object. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 7. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. etc. 2. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. Adverbial Clauses. which could not be a prison whilst he was there." "Those who see the Englishman only in town." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. 6. No man is reason or illumination. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness.376." Exercise. all is vacancy. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once.. 4. 11. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. i. he begins to help us more as an effect.

where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. to make up our shortcomings." "The right conclusion is. an adjective. whatever. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. 378. adverbs. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. no matter what remains. it takes precedence of everything else. etc. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. the milestones are grave-stones. tell what kind each is." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]." "When he was come up to Christian. but they require careful study. or an adverb. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. introduced by indefinite relatives. so far as we can. is wider.: "But still." "After leaving the whole party under the table. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." (3) REASON. he goes away as if nothing had happened. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself.377." (5) DEGREE. Exercise. the wider is the horizon of their thought. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent.² whoever. shaping our actions. and adverbial conjunctions." "He went several times to England. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. and what it modifies:² ." (9) CONCESSION. etc. expressing the degree in which the horizon. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." (7) RESULT. with examples. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. a verbal." These mean no matter how good.. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. etc." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." "The broader their education is. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. since he was too great to care to be original. that we should try. Joanna is better. however." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future." "Who cares for that." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. and will be given in detail." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. however good she may be as a witness. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance.

adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. its object is that Odin was a reality. find the principal subject and principal predicate. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. in the sentence. incoherent exclamations. object. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. with shrill. when the wind was unruly.1. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. predicate. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. 380. For example. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. If the children gathered about her." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. banging about doors and windows. howling and whistling. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. so as to picture the parts and their relations. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. 379. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. we are a little disappointed. then treat noun clauses as nouns. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. and twirling weathercocks. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. snatching up stones to fling at them. etc. as they sometimes did. on a dark wintry night. 3." 2. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. to tell the truth. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. 'Well. they might perhaps say of their visitors. and modifiers. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. of which clause Odin is the subject. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ .

| r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (2) Analyze it according to Sec.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. Exercises. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. (1) Find the principal clause. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1.. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. . 2. 3. d. as seen in the "map" (Sec. 364. 380).. 364. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and .

Had they been better chemists. 23. But now that she has become an establishment. as for armies that were too many by half. that pressed her with an objection. not so much for travelers that were few. namely. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. which. 16. 7. 8. could not have been effected. Now. 22. if applied to the Bible. that. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 13. Whether she said the word is uncertain. The deep eyes. M. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. dying for them. the mixed result. counselor that had none for herself. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. 5. or whether any. 19. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. He was what our country people call an old one. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 9. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. of a light hazel. Next came a wretched Dominican. 15. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 20. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 10. 11. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. whom I choose. I like that representation they have of the tree. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 14. 12. 18. This is she. 24. 21. the flower should revive for us. 6. the shepherd girl. Here lay two great roads. The night proved unusually dark. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. for yours. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. And those will often pity that weakness most. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. . who would yield to it least.4. had we been worse. 17. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. bishop.

2." said Bentley. 6. though we may repeat the words never so often. and stamped with his right number. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. COMPOUND SENTENCES. 26." 4. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. 30. "No book. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. 3. . a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. How formed. questions. 28. 5. 383. then map out as in Sec. and not from his heart. but above it. 7. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. that it was no more than his daily walk. 380. and what content I can find in conversing with each. would easily reach. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. speed. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. 382. if there be one to whom I am not equal. 27. It makes no difference how many friends I have. These things we are forced to say. "was ever written down by any but itself. the following complex sentences:² 1. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. if continuously extended. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. or commands. and temper. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. we cannot adequately say. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square.² Definition. is to speak and write sincerely. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. That which we do not believe.25. Hence the definition.²which will not be disposed of. (b) First analyze.

and connects the first and second complex members. Connectives. and nor the second and third complex members. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. Exercise. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. he soliloquizes. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. from the second. etc. or but. for. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and not the form of the connective. introduce independent clauses (see Sec." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. tell which are compound. as but. Another example is." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. which are simple statements. he is twice a man. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. if there are any. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). moon-like ray" (adversative). nor. the semicolon separates the first." 384. the planet has a faint. whereas. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. in (3). 383 (1). for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. yet. Some of these are now conjunctions. nor does he know until he has tried. Speak your latent conviction. a simple member. Thus in (1). he dilates. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached.. 297). The division into members will be easier. 386. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. and which complex:² 1. and it shall be the universal sense. etc. . as in Sec. he walks with arms akimbo. in (2). Study the thought. a complex member. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. while (whilst). 385. now adverbs or prepositions. however. The coördinate conjunctions and. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. "Only the star dazzles. others sometimes coördinate. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. the waving grass. Of the following illustrative sentences. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses.

I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. however. I can yet love. all pain. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. Love. 7. However some may think him wanting in zeal. I can still receive. 2. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. 13. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. and thou shalt be loved. 6. yield to them heart and life. you lose something. is particular. Man does not stand in awe of man. so is every one of its parts. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 12. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. In this manner. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. passed in that time. 14. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. you have gained something else. 10. unobtrusive boy. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. . and as yet very early in the morning. from a happy yet often pensive child. and not by what each is. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. (i) Separate it into its main members. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 4. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. Whilst the world is thus dual. 387. 3. he grew up to be a mild. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. nay. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. quiet.2. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 8. 4. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 364. Exercise. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. for example. 3. to find a pot of buried gold. 11. 9. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. The gain is apparent. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. or. and for everything you gain. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. For everything you have missed. that it was Easter Sunday. All loss. the tax is certain. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 381. 5.

or we read books. 6." 13. Whatever he knows and thinks. is as thin and timid as any. 15. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. or hope. 7. and he learns who receives. 8. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. 9. only that they may brag and conquer there. if you rip up his claims." says the smith. or men will never know and honor him aright. . 21. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. abide by it. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. "as nigh the scythe as you can. Stand aside. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. or sail with God the seas. that let him communicate. because. 18. crook and hide. why should we intrude? 10. and the other dares not. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. 19. Trust men. 11. and not a thought has enriched either party. and they will be true to you. He teaches who gives. 20. 14. "Strike. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. treat them greatly. We go to Europe. whilst frankness invites frankness. which always make the Actual ridiculous." "keep the rake. "the iron is white. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. puts the parties on a convenient footing. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and they repel us. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and the peace of society is often kept. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. 16. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. as children. modesty. feign to confess here. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. 17. They will shuffle and crow. and not an emotion of bravery. give those merits room. let them mount and expand." says the haymaker. We see the noble afar off. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. and makes their business a friendship. one is afraid. and each shows only what lies at its focus. and they will show themselves great. When you have chosen your part. Come into port greatly. and the cart as nigh the rake.5. or we pursue persons.

Government has to do with verbs and prepositions.²agreement and government. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. Do not craze yourself with thinking. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. the department of syntax will be a small affair. 23. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. it never was known to fall into the rear. and dodge the account. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. We see young men who owe us a new world. 24. PART III. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. they lose themselves in the crowd. pronoun and antecedent. or. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. but go about your business anywhere. 25. if they live. adjective and noun. INTRODUCTORY. but its leading characteristic is. By way of introduction. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. Essential point in English syntax.22. SYNTAX. 390. Following the Latin method. Ground covered by syntax. So does culture with us. but they never acquit the debt. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. verb and subject. 380. 388. they die young. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. so readily and lavishly they promise. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. it ends in headache.

take the sentence. and added to it the preposition of. authorities²that is." that is. etc. and to think clearly of the meaning of words." is ambiguous. Savage may be the subject. 392. Second. As an illustration of the last remark. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. pronoun and antecedent. or settler may be the subject. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. and nothing but important points will be considered. some of which conform to classical grammar. as to study inflected forms. both forms will be given in the following pages. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points." In this there is a possessive form. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. but are not now.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. There is. or the same writer will use both indifferently. good English. and imitate it. In some cases. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. and it would not matter which one stood first. then. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. sometimes verb and subject. following the regular order of subject. This is not logical. or when they exist side by side in good usage. the order being inverted. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. the sentence. therefore. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. "None remained but he.² First. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. "The savage here the settler slew. Some rules not rigid. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. distinct forms would be used. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). The basis of syntax. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. For example. . 393. Why study syntax? 391." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. and whose judgment. When usage varies as to a given construction. Also in the sentence. In Latin. also expressing a possessive relation.

Joint possession. or indicate joint ownership or possession. 395. He kept Bolingbroke's.²RUSKIN. Use of the possessive. the antechamber of the High Priest. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. and Pope's.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. 408). When two or more possessives stand before the same noun.NOUNS.²MILTON. the shore of Galilee." Juletta tells. Mill's and Mr. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. Separate possession. as.²MCCULLOCH.²MACAULAY. sense and nature's easy fool.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Bentham's principles together.²EMERSON. but imply separate possession or ownership. 394. PRONOUNS. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. and Peter's. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. 396. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage.²ROWE. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. and Harley's.²BYRON. Woman. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. Putting Mr.² Live your king and country's best support. etc. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. and Peterborough's. for example. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. ²ID.²THACKERAY. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. and Paul's. 397. . the possessive sign is used with each noun.

whom is the complement after the verb am. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.) "The young Harper. together with the relative who. But he must be a stronger than thee. 398." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. others are generally. I.²SOUTHEY.²POPE. Some of the violations are universally condemned. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. 399. there are two general rules that require attention. thus. the real thought being forgotten. Since most of the personal pronouns.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. Bedott Papers." 400.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me.²TROLLOPE. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. who. for example. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). This should be "as she. the last expression has the support of many good writers. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. Objective for the nominative. General rules. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.²THACKERAY. No mightier than thyself or me. sanctioned.²WHITCHER. as. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. and should be the nominative form. Still. have separate forms for nominative and objective use.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. .²BYRON.²SHAKESPEARE. if not universally. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.

The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne.² One I remember especially."²WINTHROP. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. I have no other saint than thou to pray to.²COLERIDGE. "Who's there?"²"Me.²FIELDING. both in England and America. "If there is any one embarrassed. namely. The usage is too common to need further examples. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.²THACKERAY. it will not be me. on the other hand." 401.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. the objective form is regularly found. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²RUSKIN. In spoken English. as. But still it is not she. and the other forms of the verb be. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was." There is no special reason for this.²SCOTT.²LONGFELLOW. "Than whom. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²KINGSLEY.²PARTON. is."²KINGSLEY. BLACK. A safe rule. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. ."²WM. are. The camp of Richard of England. they are yet holier than we. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. Patrick the Porter. unless a special. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. And it was heThat made the ship to go. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe.² For there was little doubt that it was he. for example. One exception is to be noted. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. but such is the fact.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.²MACAULAY. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402.

as. or this. If there ever was a rogue in the world. 11. and prepositions. 7. 2. 5. . The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb. 404. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women." the word being in apposition with murderer). verbals. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. Nominative for the objective. Whom they were I really cannot specify. used after verbs. 9. Me in exclamations. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. 403. It is not me you are in love with. now. as. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. but not he" (he should be him.Exercise.²MILTON. the object of to). You know whom it is that you thus charge. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. as this from Shakespeare. 3. Truth is mightier than us all. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 8. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. verbal. object of saw). giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. 4. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. 10. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. as." 6. it is me. or us). I speak not to" (he should be him. you or me. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. or preposition which governs it. (3) By forgetting the construction. "Ask the murderer. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned.

We regularly say. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.²KINGSLEY. 2. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. changed in all save thee.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. 406. who interrogative. "Who did you see?" or.²KINGSLEY.²GOLDSMITH. 405.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. partial Nature. I've sworn. as well as the objective. Thou. . Let you and I look at these. but he.²KINGSLEY. Exception 2. Thy shores are empires. for they say there are none such in the world.²BYRON. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT.Exception 1.Shall be left upon the morn.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. I arraign. as. Exercise. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. save thou and thine. Nature. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. None. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. etc. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. all but he. after the preposition but (sometimes save). It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Who have we here?²ID. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. "Who were they talking to?" etc. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²STEELE.²BYRON. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use.² All were knocked down but us two. and is usually avoided. for example. as.

BROWN. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. 5. Preceding a gerund.²RUSKIN. or objective? . 8. and they know that as well as me.²THACKERAY. They are coming for a visit to she and I. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. 12.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 11. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.3.Ye I salute. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. B. II. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates.²DE QUINCEY. 9. and by hers whom I most worship on earth.²possessive. Bartholomew. They crowned him long ago. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada." 4. 10. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. This usage is not frequent. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.²MACAULAY. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.²C. POSSESSIVE FORMS. 407. who. Markland.²SCOTT. 6. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. As antecedent of a relative. 7. with Jortin and Thirlby. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.

. Objective. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. and the meaning is. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. We heard of Brown. Possessive. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. as he turned away from his wife. Here I state them only in brief.² IRVING. both are gerunds. The use of the objective is older.²DICKENS. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house.²DE QUINCEY. etc." That is. and that in the second. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. studying is a gerund.²BREWER. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted.²CARLYLE.408.² CARLYLE. But in common use there is no such distinction. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. Why both are found.²MACAULAY. object of heard of. In the examples quoted. The last incident which I recollect. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern.²RUSKIN. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair.² THACKERAY. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. and asked why it was not made. [who was] studying law. that the bitterness of death was past.² SCOTT. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. sometimes it has the objective. Both types of sentences are found.

and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. Everybody had his own life to think of.²THOREAU. preceded by a distributive. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²DEFOE.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. taking in each of many persons. if the antecedent is neuter.²HUXLEY. Every city threw open its gates.²DE QUINCEY.²RUSKIN. number. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²when the antecedent. and gender.²DE QUINCEY. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects.²C.²CABLE. and ought to agree with them in person. it was his own fault.² BRYANT. Watch for the real antecedent.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²EMERSON III. In such a case as the last three sentences. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. . The pale realms of shade.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine.²HOLMES. BROCKDEN BROWN.²AUDUBON. in one person.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office.²THACKERAY. or is a distributive word. where there were examinations. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Examples of these constructions are. If any one did not know it. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. 410. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. the pronoun will be neuter singular. 409. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun.

but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.²BYRON. not a mowing idiot.²HUXLEY.²PALGRAVE. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²EMERSON. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. for example. let them break it off. The sun. Every one must judge of their own feelings.²PAULDING.²DEFOE. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²PALEY. and giving them means of being so. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom. Struggling for life.²ID. Whosoever hath any gold. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²THACKERAY. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. as anybody in their senses would have done. . Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. By using the plural pronoun. This is not considered the best usage. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. If the part deserve any comment.²ID.²SCOTT.² Not the feeblest grandame.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. till they have lost him. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. 411. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²RUSKIN.²FIELDING.²AUSTEN. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.Avoided: By using both pronouns. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²BIBLE. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.

the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. etc. I. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one].²ADDISON." This means. unless both genders are implied. or what was become of her. and he went away. the definite relatives who. no one could take upon them to say. but. That is in most cases restrictive. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. that being considered already clear. and that are restrictive or not. when restrictive. 412. because. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health." A relative. Exercise. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. and that may be coördinating or restrictive.²HAWTHORNE. As to their conjunctive use. when coördinating.² SHERIDAN. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. 2. which. What these terms mean. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. Exercise." It defines beggar.Where she was gone.) and a personal pronoun. who went away. 1. but. A relative. 413. It adds a new statement to what precedes. and does not add a new statement. In the following examples. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. or unrestrictive. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. "I gave it to the beggar. in each instance:² Who.²In the above sentences. . which. and that always restrictive. as. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated.²ID. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. tell whether who. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. according to the practice of every modern writer.

8. because of its antecedent. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. The rule. and over England are saying. etc. 414. but.²HOLMES. which Mr. W.² NEWMAN. they. On hearing their plan. The general rule is. That. Hare has printed. . hard-mouthed horses at Westport. she agreed to join the party. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. who. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves.. 6. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. II. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number.²DE QUINCEY. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. etc. We say I. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. long arms and legs. 9. So different from the wild. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.²ADDISON.²ID. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. etc. 7. With narrow shoulders. 12. 14. these or that which.²ID. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind.²H.² MOTLEY. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.² CARLYLE. BEECHER 5. However. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.² IRVING.²DE QUINCEY.3. 13. In what sense true. 4. and it is called logic. down. as that does not vary for person or number. which was to go over the Cordilleras. For example. A grizzly-looking man appeared. Yet how many are there who up. or it might have gone hard with the tutor." that is invariable as to person and number. Which. in the sentence. you. he. that were often vicious. 10. 11. it makes the verb third person singular.²THOREAU.

He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. etc..²ADDISON. . The latter is rather more frequent.²HOLMES. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. but speaks of him as that sort. Let us be of good cheer. in winning a battle. MORSE. French literature of the eighteenth century. but the former has good authority. [plural] that who. the true antecedent..²LOWELL. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. others regard books as the antecedent.²SCOTT. The fiery youth .²whether we should say. with one as the principal word. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. but myself. 415.²LOWELL.. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was..²LECKY. He is one of those that deserve very well.. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent.²ADDISON.. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. ARNOLD. and in improving a victory." or. etc. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. T. Franklin. and write the verb in the plural.] Both constructions are frequently found.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company..²M. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. JR.²BOWLES. "one of the finest books that has been published. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²MACAULAY. when he derided the shams of society. [singular or plural. "one of the finest books that have been published. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. who rarely speak at all. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.²J. or which . He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign." One of . Singular.²HOWELLS. A disputed point. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal.

²SCOTT. I could see nothing except the sky. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. whence. III. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME." "India is the place [in which. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²ADDISON."²DICKENS. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. object of a preposition understood. The same day I went aboard we set sail. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.A rare Roundabout performance.²VAUGHAN.² .²DEFOE. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention.²BURNS. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. or where] he died.²In the above sentences.²GOLDSMITH. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers.In that same state I came. Exercise. when this dust falls to the urn. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race.²SWIFT. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. 417. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. and such like: as." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.²EMERSON.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.²CARLYLE.And. where. IV. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers. 416. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. and see if the sentence is made clearer.²ID. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came. But I by backward steps would move. that is.² RUSKIN. when the relative word is a pronoun.²EMERSON. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. return.² THACKERAY.²IRVING.

as is not used. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.. for example. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. but we find the relative who.² THACKERAY..me as his apprentice.²FRANKLIN. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. Caution. CHURCH. as of knives. but.²R. looking-glasses. Anacoluthic use of which. with Turner. The regular construction. he. 418. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. V.² BURKE. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.²ADDISON. she passed the lamp over her face and person. but which is usually carefully avoided. That. was a discoverer. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. W. ²GOLDSMITH. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. which. if same is followed by a complete clause. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.²SCOTT.² Which. or that. They believe the same of all the works of art.He considered. boats. .²SWIFT. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard.²WORDSWORTH. Which. and working in the same spirit. if I had resolved to go on with. Mr. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. I might as well have staid at home. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin.² MACAULAY. etc.

But who. With an albatross perched on his shoulder.² Direction for rewriting.²DE QUINCEY. This was a gentleman.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. etc. As the sentences stand. he said that all submission was now too late. but none is expressed. or leave out both connective and relative. (1) "Among those who are poor. That is. and this be placed in the proper clause.. 419.²which if they once heard. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. or omit the conjunction. Exercise. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. which when Mr.. and which. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. (3) "Among the poorer sort. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. Express both relatives." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. le Conte.. once a great favorite of M.She'd come again. 1." etc. 4. (2) "Among the poorer sort. or. and in whom I myself was not a little interested." etc.²SCOTT.²HAWTHORNE. who are now thrown. Exercise.²THACKERAY.²SHAKESPEARE.²RUSKIN. And who. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. 2. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. but. 3. etc. Thornhill had read. After this came Elizabeth herself.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. He delivered the letter. and who are now. now thrown upon their." etc.²GOLDSMITH. .

and which has never been described.²SCOTT. who.²DE QUINCEY. . Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence. Dr.²SCOTT. And which. and to whom no door is closed.²IRVING. 1..²PEARSON. 13.²DE QUINCEY. "What knight so craven. English by name. 9. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. indeed. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. I shall have complete copies. 11. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. But which.. That . and which may even be heard a mile off. Akin to the above is another fault. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . then. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. I saw upon the left a scene far different. 6. etc. 420. and which. like that spoken in the towns.. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. either from imitation of their frequent allies. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative.² MOTLEY. one of signal interest. etc. which the Scotch had learned. and repeat this for any further reference.5. 10. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. Or which. Exercise. Or who. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. the French. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. as a false and astucious mark. "A mockery. 7. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. 8. 12.²HAWTHORNE.. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house.

I give to such men as do not belong to me. in his present condition.²BEECHER. that .²HOLMES. half a century ago. such as they have very probably been bred to.²HOWELLS. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. 14. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices.. 9. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.. I recommend some honest manual calling. which. what. whom.²HALLAM. 5.²DEFOE. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill.. In my native town of Salem. CHANNING... 7. . Such as . at the head of what. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. which. 6. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. 4. E..²EMERSON. SIMMS. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. 3.²EMERSON. He flung into literature. It rose into a thrilling passion.. Such as . 11. That . and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. the cent. He. 13. that. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. was hung in air. was a bustling wharf. G. The Tree Igdrasil. Which .²HAWTHORNE... Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren.²W. 10..²SCOTT. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.²DE QUINCEY.²W. 12. in his Mephistopheles.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses.. I grudge the dollar. and whose examples and principles we inherit. the dime. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. but which. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. 8. but which is perhaps not so different from it.²SCOTT That which . and to whom I do not belong. 15.2.

²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. always at war with one another. 422. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²EMERSON.²DICKENS. By their original meaning. . The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. one another. Each other. for example. Distributives either and neither. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. in which case any should be used instead.²MACAULAY. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. 421. Assume that no one is in want of either. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. as it were. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.² HAWTHORNE.²RUSKIN. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects.²ID. that not all combined.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes.²GOLDSMITH. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. as. Use of any. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. whether or not the two are equivalent. England was then divided between kings and Druids.²HAWTHORNE. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. We call ourselves a rich nation.² Some one must be poor. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. as. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. into the high pavilion of their thoughts.

I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. when any of them are so good as to visit me. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. and is isolated. afterwards in Goethe.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . speak. for him have I offended. Any usually plural. None of Nature's powers do better service. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. usually plural. in the prose of the present day. Examples of its use are. in Shakespeare.²STIRLING. Caution. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.. whilst I still cherish their genius. that I know of. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. Do you think.²FRANKLIN.²SCOTT. any of his friends had died. The adjective pronoun none is. If any of you lack wisdom. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. In earlier Modern English. then in Plutarch. if ever man was. as.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. I beseech you.. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. which is plural as often as singular. before that. even in Bettine.²BURKE. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one).² EMERSON. .²SHAKESPEARE. None usually plural. as none of the French philosophers were. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²PROF. 424. let him ask of God. during his stay at Yuste. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times.²CARLYLE. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. as.² In earnest. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural.. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²THACKERAY.² If any.²BIBLE. then in Plotinus.²EMERSON. any was often singular.²BEECHER Whenever. Do you think. etc. 423. at one time in Bacon.

and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first..²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. which is used absolutely.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. the plural. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . and Ford has nobody's else. Somebody's else. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.. etc. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything.² PEARSON. are treated as units.²NAPIER Plural.²McMASTER.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. nobody else. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. When all were gone. as. etc.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. fixing his eyes on the mace.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. and less rarely in poetry. or somebody else's? 426. that all was lost.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. saving Naaman the Syrian.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. any one else.²SCOTT Like the use of any. for example. and all was lost on the other. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. etc.² Singular.²THOREAU.² None of them was cleansed.. The compounds somebody else. when it means all persons: for example. 425. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. etc. The light troops thought .²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.

These sort. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). 427.²RUSKIN. STOWE. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic. ADJECTIVES. unlike anybody else's in the world."²MRS. "Ye see. London.² FIELDING. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. . the adjectives plural.²SWEET. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. all manner of. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. His hair. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.² Saturday Review. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English." the nouns being singular.²RUSKIN. Again.curled once all over it in long tendrils. WILLIS. etc. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.²THACKERAY.²SHERIDAN. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. for example. ELIOT. or some other such great man as a bishop.. or those sort of people.²DICKENS.SYDNEY SMITH.. P.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.²G.²AUSTEN. and may be found not infrequently in literary English.²N.²in such as "these sort of books. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.²MULOCH. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. Whitefield or Wesley." "those kind of trees. etc." "all manner of men.² These kind of knaves I know.

they said. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. According to the approved usage of Modern English. At the source. with all manner of amusing books. "This kind of rules are the best." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. 428. for example. In Old and Middle English. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). as. to express a higher degree of quality. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject.² Which is the better able to defend himself. Consequently we have a confused expression. or one object with a class of objects. This the modern expression reverses. "This sort of trees should be planted. which accounts for the construction. . more alarming than a total silence. The result. such as. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. "These kind of trees are best." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. and the adjective is. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. Later form. gradually displacing the old. made to agree with it. when the necessary dispositions concur.The library was open. the victor or the vanquished. Use of the comparative degree. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. Of two such lessons.² PRESCOTT. Burke's sentence. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. History of this construction. and in this way may take a plural verb.²RUSKIN. in spoken English. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. Should we say. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. not "all kinds of wild animals." A question. or the nouns to the plural.

²THACKERAY.²HAWTHORNE. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. To the man who plays well. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. by almost the breadth of my nail.²CARLYLE. 2.²HUXLEY. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. would not have had the face. Gary. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. Even Dodd himself. . 6. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own.²WIRT. 5. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. than any of his court. has sanctioned.² THACKERAY. Exercise. Use of the superlative degree. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. 4. etc. Henry. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot.²MACAULAY. Other after the comparative form. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. I am concerned to see that Mr.A braver ne'er to battle rode. if not. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things."²ID. 430. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. He is taller.²SWIFT.²MACAULAY. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. 429.²SCOTT. 3.²TROLLOPE. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.²LOWELL. Superlative with two objects. the highest stakes are paid. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.

Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. I should say that one has the best cause. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. more particularly the last of them.²EMERSON.²Bible. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. whichever can be got easiest.²SCOTT. Mary. OLIPHANT. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party.²J."²HAWTHORNE. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest.. who eat white bread or brown.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. ha."²BULWER.²RUSKIN. Double comparative and superlative. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. CÆSAR. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.²DR BLAIR. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. Also from the same period. "Ha. The eldest.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. the weaker is often so in a minor degree."²GOLDSMITH. Rip was one of those .²TEMPEST. 431. not a bit of high life among them. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.²MRS.. These two properties seem essential to wit. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. The following examples are used purposely. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.²GOLDSMITH. 1611. and the other contains the best men.²BEN JONSON. After the most straitest sect of our religion. Examples from Shakespeare are. and differ only in form.²IRVING. Come you more nearer.²HAMLET.²ADDISON. In all disputes between States. .

²DE QUINCEY. and Secretary Walsingham also. Definite article. Three first.² With a singular noun. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. The merit of the Barb. ARTICLES. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²GIBBON. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun.²GIBBON.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. The delay in the first three lines. and conceit in the last. the Spanish. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. ²COWPER. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. .² SMOLLETT. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. not only so in popular speech. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. 433. First three. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. etc. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. As to these two expressions.²ADDISON.²RUSKIN.²PRESCOTT. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. The first five had specific names. but in literary English.²KINGSLEY.²RUSKIN.²LAMB. Examples of this construction are. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. The meaning intended is the same. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. These are the three first needs of civilized life. For Carlyle. Instances of both are given below. etc. jar upon us constantly.

1508. Indefinite article. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. . the thought and the word. melodious.²MACAULAY. but inseparable from each other. 434. The flowers. to distinguish clearly. 433. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. the hour of parting came.²CARLYLE.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. Here the youth of both sexes. were placed at a very tender age. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. the greatest poems. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. No. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. distinct. and the presents. of the eighteenth century. of the higher and middling orders. however. I think. as. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives.²TAYLOR. The not repeated. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . Origin of the Aryans. 435. as in Sec.² MACAULAY. as.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. and flexible language. Frequently. One object and several modifiers. with a singular noun.²THE NATION. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. 433.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. having been arranged. He is master of the two-fold Logos.² RUSKIN. The lofty. but is used with one only. or to emphasize the meaning. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.²THACKERAY. Meaning same as in Sec.²TENNYSON.²NEWMAN..²SCOTT.²ID.²PRESCOTT.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. with a plural noun.. With a plural noun.

²DRYDEN. JONSON.²JOHNSON. to limit two or more modified nouns.²B. only one of which is expressed. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. and a usurper. interest.²DICKENS. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. 436). But in the following sentences. one noun is expressed." and "a red and a white geranium.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.436. as. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. Examples of this use are. T. rich. a murderer. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. 438." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind.²MACAULAY. a round and a square one alternately. as in the first three of Sec. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other.²S. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. or clearness to each of several nouns. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. . and inexhausted vein.An early. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian.²BEECHER. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. The indefinite article (compare Sec. 433 and 436.²THACKERAY.²MACAULAY.²BULWER. 435. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. For rhetorical effect. like the definite article. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. In the sentences of Secs. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. 437. a tyrant.² MACAULAY. COLERIDGE. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. He saw him in his mind's eye. One article with several adjectives.² BURKE. The indefinite article is used. a collegian. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.

² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²The Nation. as. without academies. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.²AGASSIZ.²G. was the earliest American land. like some others in this series. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. A broad and loose rule. has got already.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. or the great intellectual life of our nation. 440. Another writer might.VERBS. ELIOT. 276. all that academies can give.²CARLYLE This usage. He sees that it is better to live in peace. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. for example. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number.²W. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. as. then. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. ARNOLD. In English.²COOPER. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. This was spoken of in Part I. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men.. 439. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. Sec. and the following illustrations prove it. Collective noun of singular meaning. Singular verb. Such. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form.²M. . Singulars connected by or or nor.²GIBBON. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.²FROUDE.

three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.² Politics is the only field now open for me. is gone. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.²GIBBON. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. and every four hours.²J.² In a word. ²EMERSON. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.²EMERSON . or considered as appositional.²BURKE. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. that of a large town. No. (4) When the subject is plural in form. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. but considered as meaning about the same thing.²CRITIC.²DE QUINCEY. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. nor Mahomet. ADAMS.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. nor John.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.²GOLDSMITH. for example. or as making up one general idea. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. Plural form and singular meaning.² GOLDSMITH. a loss of friends.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. nor Paul. but each one emphatic. other names. A fever. a mutilation.² The unbought grace of life.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. as. as.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. a cruel disappointment. and other singulars of plural form.Jesus is not dead. the cheap defense of nations. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. a loss of wealth. seems at the moment unpaid loss. Between ourselves.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right. Q.²WHITTIER. for example.

with death. in a judge. no spent ball.² There is a right and a wrong in them. every echo. almost every day. sir?" and the "No. nay.²MACAULAY. Here is no ruin. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. the partisan. a cuirass. the dismay.²EMERSON. many a. the ruin. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. The oldest. as.²NEWMAN.²HAWTHORNE. Then comes the "Why. was dazzled. sir!"²MACAULAY.²ID. For wide is heard the thundering fray.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ.²ID. every valet.² .²SCOTT. as well as Europe.The author. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²LONGFELLOW. Every sound. There is a moving tone of voice.²MACAULAY. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. an agitated gesture.²PRESCOTT. as. Plural verb.²M ARNOLD. an impassioned countenance. as well as sides. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. Every fop.The rout. and greaves. wineBegins to stir itself. thus. Every week. 441. a gorget. To receive presents or a bribe. was like to crack. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. as well as the newest.²RUSKIN. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two.²BUTLER. the wit. every boor. and such like adjectives. was punished. was listened to for five hours. Subjects after the verb. no matter if the second is plural). Her back. the fine gentleman. no discontinuity. no. The Epic. does not take the place of the man. as well as the Drama.² Asia. each. is a man of wit.²PRESCOTT. sir!" and the "What then.

His clothes.²THOREAU.² GIBBON. b).² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. for example. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. . as with a subject of plural form. A party of workmen were removing the horses. Conjunction omitted.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²GOLDSMITH. as in Sec.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²EMERSON.² A multitude go mad about it. making up a plural subject. a green pasture. shirt. a stream of fresh water. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. as. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. as.²SWIFT. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.²FROUDE. far away thy children leave the land. the Duke of Berri. its date.²COLERIDGE.²FRANKLIN.²GIBBON. were men of insignificant characters.²DE QUINCEY.²B. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²SCOTT. The conjunction may be omitted. 440 (5.These bits of wood were covered on every square. The Dauphin.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining.² One or two of these perhaps survive. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. TAYLOR. are sufficient to attract a colony. Philip of Anjou. of whom there were a number.²FROUDE. The travelers.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. A shady grove. Far.²ADDISON. and its history are alike a mystery to us. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. but the verb is plural. All our household are at rest.

we never talk politics." etc. 442.²THACKERAY. his blood dost shed. ARNOLD.²SMOLLETT. but thou.²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. Second or third and first person in the subject.²D. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men.²RUSKIN. This construction is at the best a little awkward. "He or I can go.²M. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives.²BYRON. 443. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. Exceptional examples. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. Not Altamont. You and I are tolerably modest people. "I have never said so. Nothing which Mr. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. Not I. "You would not be wiser.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.²ROWE. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. but thou. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. You and I are farmers." or. nor should I. for example. of different persons.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. that is.But notice the construction of this.²RUSKIN. Ah. . It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as.). WEBSTER. Pattison or I have said. nor has she"). When the subjects. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision." "She or you may be sure. hadst been my lord. 444. General usage. the verb takes the construction of the first person.²GOLDSMITH. as. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. If there is only one person in the subject.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²WHITTIER. the subject being really equivalent to we.²LOWELL.

5. in my opinion. In this sentence from Defoe. The following illustrate exceptional usage.²BYRON. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.²SMOLLETT.445. 9. Both death and I am found eternal.²ADDISON.²BURKE.²G.² TROLLOPE. which it is proper to mention. In a word. Nor wood.²THACKERAY. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. In the following sentence. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . 446. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. Neither of them. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. as illustrated above (Secs. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 440-444):² 1. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. Lack of logical sequence in verbs. 8.²perhaps the devil. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 4. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder.²EMERSON.²MILTON. nor bush are there. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. 3. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. How each of these professions are crowded. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. 2. nor tree. 7. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.That neither of their intellects are vast.²SCOTT. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. 10. Also in verbals. BANCROFT. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²ADDISON. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). 12.Her course to intercept. 11. as we would hope.²ID.²and. 6. Exercise.

Direct discourse²that is. however.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.. I gave one quarter to Ann." . the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used.²THACKERAY. to have seen should be changed to to see. Definitions. CHURCH.²DE QUINCEY 2. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. But I found I wanted a stock of words. 3.²MACAULAY.² PALGRAVE 5.²FRANKLIN 6.. for exact connection.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. Two samples of indirect discourse. 448. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. Exercise. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. change them to a better form:² 1.²KINGSLEY. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. if not.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. The present rule is recent. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.²IRVING. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . W. as. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. to have divided with her whatever might remain. meaning. Of course.²R. 447. 4. Indirect discourse means reported speech. on my return. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. It should be remarked.

This includes the auxiliaries be. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. interrogative adverbs. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. Oh. The substance of his lamentation was.." etc.. or regular interrogatives. etc. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead.. 2. "I cannot oblige you . introductory verb is in the past tense. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. . Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. His exact words were. Summary of the expressions. Direct. "Oh. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. will. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. not attempting to follow the entire quotation." Indirect. Sebastian's. She thought to herself. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. 449. Direct. under interrogative pronouns. and the indirect question by whether or if." etc. Her prudence whispered eternally. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis.. have. 1. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect.

²ID. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. the sound of their balls. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. my first observation will be found nearly true. FRANKLIN. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. if this were expanded into a verb. one summer afternoon. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. handed down from his ancestor the historian. being the course which his confessor had enjoined.Exercise. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. he assured me that nothing was more easy.²ADDISON." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. VERBALS. the first discoverer of the river and country. The trouble is. Careless use of the participial phrase. PARTICIPLES.²B. with his crew of the Half-moon. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. like distant peals of thunder. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. and that he himself had heard. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. 450. in the sentences first quoted.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. Notice this. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. . Having thus run through the causes of the sublime.²GOLDSMITH. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings.

.² HERBERT SPENCER. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. then. 2. INFINITIVES. the first sentence would be. while defended or excused by others.²ID.²SCOTT.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase." etc.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works.. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. It is a solemn. This is the more common arrangement. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. universal assertion. many things to be carefully considered. my first collection was. For example. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible.. Exercise.. and often. . Standard writers often use it. There are. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. In the following citations. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea.²RUSKIN.. purposely or not. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . 3. Adverb between to and the infinitive.Correction.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject." Exercise. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. if a strike is to succeed. 451. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. . leaving the principal statement as it is. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.²LAUGHLIN. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. either "As I was pleased. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. avoid it.

Exercise. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . ADVERBS. The rigid rule in such a case would be. but cannot misunderstand the thought. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. 12. if they modify single words.. 13. etc. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. are used. even. 9. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. this kind of grandeur. but it is placed before the infinitive. 10. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. I wish the reader to clearly understand.²BURKE.²DR. No. therefore. Now. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. etc. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.²RUSKIN. BLAIR. 5..²ID. china. Position of only. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. 8. 1533.²GOLDSMITH. The spirits. even.²SCOTT. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. when such adverbs as only.²The Nation.4. from Irving. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. and earthenware. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. In works of art.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. which consists in multitude. is to be very cautiously admitted. A little sketch of his. 7. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. 11. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.²TROLLOPE. but they are often removed from the exact position. 452. etc. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. 6.² MACAULAY.² ADDISON.

two negatives strengthened a negative idea.1. 12. 6. WILLIS. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 453. During the whole course of his administration.²COOPER. 9. P. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 7. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.²PALGRAVE. No sonne. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. Irving could only live very modestly.²SYDNEY SMITH. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. He shouted in those clear.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. 3. His last journey to Cannes.²MRS. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.²EMERSON.²ID. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. ²ASCHAM. 14. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. 4. 10.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. 2.² THACKERAY. .²RUSKIN. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²MACAULAY.²N. to avoid a crowd. In Old and Middle English. In relating these and the following laws. GROTE. 8. might not marry. 16.²HIGGINSON. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 13. He could only afford to keep one old horse. 5.²SWIFT. were he never so old of yeares.²ID. for example. 15.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. 17. My master. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. 11.²MOTLEY. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. whence he was never destined to return. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.²CHAUCER.²THACKERAY.²ID. The old usage.

Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. can so agreeably affect. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. 2."²MRS. when one of the negatives is a connective.²MRS. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements.²DEFOE. if two negatives are found together. . and is still kept in vulgar English. This. who hadn't been to school for nothing. Exercise. But. Exceptional use. one of the negatives is often a prefix. 4. The prosperity of no empire.² HAMILTON. In the latter case. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. under the influence of Latin syntax.²BURKE. uncommon. nor the grandeur of no king."²four negatives. 5. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. ²PAGE. 6. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl.²HAWTHORNE. Therefore. STOWE.²DE QUINCEY. as. the usual way of regarding the question now is. as infrequent. STOWE.²GROTE.²BAYNE. denying each other. etc. Regular law of negative in modern English. 3. I never did see him again. Not only could man not acquire such information. 7. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. however. is not common.²LOWELL. However.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. in Ole Virginia. neither. In the execution of this task. and why:² 1.²HOLMES. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. but ought not to labor after it. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. I did not act so hastily. There weren't no pies to equal hers. nor never shall. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all.

455. "A weapon. especially both .. either . Correction. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. CONJUNCTIONS. there we were. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace... Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. or with advantage. but to their own safety. if the last precedes a verb. either. nor is often changed to not²either ..." said the King. The sentence.." both of the above requirements are violated. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. 454. or.. or to reply to it. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. "well worthy to confer honor.. or to reply to it. as well as of the pronoun. and which.²LOWELL. but." .²PRESCOTT. or. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. not only . neither .."²SCOTT. if the second precedes a phrase. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. not merely . And who.8. should be scrutinized. In the sentence. but (also).. Things to be watched.. even neither . nor." Besides neither . not only to the success of their common cause.. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. not or is the proper correlative of neither. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not . as the use of the conjunction.. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. The sentences given in Secs.. the first ought to be placed before a verb. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is." may be changed to "This loose .... and.. Choice and proper position of correlatives.. the first should also..²SCOTT. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder.

The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart.²THACKERAY. But what.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed.²RUSKIN. They will. etc. JEWETT. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. as. 4. 7.²S.²THACKERAY. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. . or but that for the words but what:² 1. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. substitute that. Some exceptions. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. but grown-up persons. Exercise. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. O. but they will outrage. 457. Try and for try to. Try and avoid the pronoun.²ID. murder." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.²GIBBON. as. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²FRANKLIN. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. and chop up their own kin. but. 8. nor the disgrace of assailing him.²BAIN. 456. In the following sentences. and I don't know but what he was right. Correct the following sentences:² 1. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. 2. but. not merely interest children. 3.²MACAULAY. 6. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity.²GOLDSMITH. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. or the negative relative but.Exercise. Now. too. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. 5.² ADDISON. or but that. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous.

6. no separation or division by twos being implied. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. PREPOSITIONS.²EMERSON. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. 458. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. Between is used most often with two things only.² SWIFT. see Sec. 5.²ADDISON. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things.²EMERSON.²BURKE. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. as already seen in Sec.²SCOTT.²ADDISON. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. 459. 305. 3. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate.² BULWER. Between and among. 313. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science.2. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).²TROLLOPE. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. 4. . some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects.

Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Affinity between. Paley.: Words with particular prepositions. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. and philosophers like Locke. Mackintosh. ²EMERSON. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. involve. Such are derogatory.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Accord with. different. 460. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. as. Two groups or one and a group.²KINGSLEY. Bestow on (upon). a soldier of the Cross. Derogatory to. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. confer. Averse to.²RUSKIN What have I. Dependent on (upon). and Stewart. .²between philosophers like Spinoza. Such are absolve. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. correspond. and Coleridge. Conform to. List I. as. Different from. Dissent from. Conversant with. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Comply with. Some of them have. and another to convey a different meaning. Kant.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. averse. or one object and a group.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. by custom. Abhorrent to. LIST I. Acquit of. etc. 461. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions.

Confide to (intrust to). "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. and sometimes creeps into standard books. Change to (become). Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Agree to (a proposal). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. as meaning to be in keeping with. Correspond to (a thing). 463. Confide in (trust in). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). A taste of (food). in the sense of making friends with. List II.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. etc. A taste for (art. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person).y y y Deprive of. Independent of. as. . "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Correspond with (write to)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. but it is not good usage. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Change for (a thing). Differ from (note below). Change with (a person).). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. Confer with (talk with). LIST II. Differ with (note below). "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Reconcile with (note below). Confer on (upon) (give to)." List III. as. as.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Involve in. LIST III." also of persons. 462. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Reconcile to (note below).

"Die from.²GOLDSMITH.²SHAKESPEARE. ELIOT. Take thought and die for Cæsar." (in behalf of).²MACAULAY. No one died from want at Longfeld.²SCOTT.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. they shall die by this hand.²BOSWELL. It would take me long to die of hunger." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. part with. Expect of." "die from." (because of). "Die with. People do not die of trifling little colds. die from. It is a man of quality who dies for her. Part from. I am positively dying with hunger. He died at last without disease.²MACAULAY. and ill treatment.²MACAULAY. Who. instrument). die of.y y y Die by. privation. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. . "Die for.²FIELDING. die with. "Die for. She died of hard work.²G." (material cause." etc. If I meet with any of 'em. ²THACKERAY. One of them said he would die for her.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. expect from.²ADDISON. ELIOT. died for love of the fair Marcella.²BULWER." She would have been ready to die with shame. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. as Cervantes informs us.²GOLDSMITH." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²G.:² "Die of. "Die by. Illustrations of "die of. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²POPE. simply from old age.²BURNETT. ²ATHENÆUM. die for.

Of Doctor P.²SHAW.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. Illustrations of "part with. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. and hated to part with them.²G. nothing better was to be expected. "Expect from.²BULWER. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. ELIOT.²POE. which he would by no means part from." She will expect more attention from you. as shown in the following quotations:² Of.²AUSTEN.²G.²MACAULAY. His precious bag.²TROLLOPE.²SCOTT." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. ELIOT. Kind in you. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. That is more than I expected of you. 466. "Part from. With words implying behavior or disposition. just parted from her." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. I part with all that grew so near my heart. Illustrations of "expect of.²MACAULAY. I can part with my children for their good. either of or in is used indifferently. as my friend. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²MARRYAT. 464.²WALLER.²G.²BULWER. ELIOT. I have long expected something remarkable from you. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²WALPOLE. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. I have just seen her." To part from you would be misery. 465. kind of you.²DICKENS." "part from:"² "Part with." "expect from:"² "Expect of. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. . It was a little bad of you.

. 4.²TENNYSON.²DICKENS. In. 3. 5. or which we are most imperatively required to do. Hampden.²BEACONSFIELD. But this is idle of you. or artillery. Very natural in Mr.²CARLYLE. nor blue. This narrative. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. It will be anything but shrewd in you.He did not think it handsome of you.²BULWER. thunder. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. it is commonly said that his profits are high. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. raging storms. 1. 7. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 11. and ran up the alley.²BULWER. The noise of vast cataracts. thrown it over Amyas's head. or that they are any way dependent on each other. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. 14. 15. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. Thou tread'st. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. with seraphims. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. the vast abyss. In the friction between an employer and workman. 6. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 9. but which the story renders necessary. tedious perhaps. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. nor of a pale red. nor green. 10. 8. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. nor yellow. 13.

38. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 37. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 30. 36. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. save Amyas. but in the price paid to them. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. 18. Squares.I would wish me only he. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 27. and other angular figures. you or me. 19. produce approbation. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. Every one of these letters are in my name. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 23.And were I anything but what I am. The effect of proportion and fitness. But every man may know. 22. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. or how beautiful it is. 24. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. You have seen Cassio and she together. That night every man of the boat's crew. Friday. 26. 35. When the glass or liquor are transparent. 17. . 28.) 34. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. 32. 411. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. what is a just and unjust act. were down with raging fever. 29. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. and almost as good as a pony. and most of us do know. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 25. (Sec. 33. triangles. 31. 16. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. the acquiescence of the understanding. 20. 21.

116.39. 133. (3) Modern English. 89. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. as comparison definition demonstrative. pronouns. INDEX. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 47. 20. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 239. nominative. 90. A. 92. article. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. origin of. voice. demonstrative. from about 1500 to the present time. syntax uses Absolute. of. 40. He had four children. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. as. 91. 98. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. from nominative clauses. numeral. of. 310. 47.000 between them. 119. 260. of. 124. adverbs used complements. of. nouns. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 25. of. Abstract with Active Address. 107. (2) Middle English. 124. Adjectives. 102. . adjectives.

207. 291. 191. 323. of. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. of. 275. to used of. 190. antecedent. 239. nouns. Against. of. Agreement. of. adjectives. infinitive. 194. 287. 148. 302. 303. predicate. sentence. from to of. 27. 97. of. objective. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 325. 42. 183. 116. 187. of. 114. 325. 116. . adjectives. 27. 184. 101. adjectives. 262. with with with subject. 115. conjunctions. 242. conjunction.from function how in not of of ordinal. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 103. and 185. Alms. plural pronominal. 207. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 190. of. 195. 328. modify. 104. 48. quality. compared. 106. clauses. 316. 109. 303. form as as they to in as uses uses of. parse. 194. 99. antecedent. between of. parse. as nouns. quantity. nouns.

67. 84. 264. syntax As. 225. 287. 51. in in. possessive. 240. of. See with definition complex compound simple who. which. after of. 271. of of of And Antecedent. 74. 296. of and pronoun of. syntax. 150. An. 294. agreement personal as pronoun. 101. definition of of of Any. and. parse. to of. though. of. uses As At. Arrangement Articles. . 309. 275. as uses verbs. sentences. 49. Agreement. 148. same. 120. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. See 74. of. 124. 231. 300. of. 198. 207. derivation in definite. 331. pronouns. adjective. which. Are.Among. sentences. 79. of. A. 295. 127. 47. 67. sentences. Auxiliary if. which. Anacoluthon Analysis. 252. definition how indefinite. 120. words between. 208. 90. it.

110. adverb. Among. 45. Bridegroom. 37. Clause. 279. of. 278. adjective. . See of. Between. 66. definition could. of nouns. 279. 54. 39. 39. objective. 224. nominative. in Old and Modern English. 161. uses nominative of. clauses of. Children. 210. 49. Can. Case. uses Better. 262. 260. of pronouns. Brethren. forms. 84. 46. of pronouns. number of. 48. comparison conjugation of. with But By. Case. 262. 47. 195. 283. pronoun. 64. 278. plurals of. Cause. 111. 150. best. of. 330. Be. conjunctions Cherub. of nouns. 149. syntax of. 63. uses of. But. 194. 46. of nouns. double possessive. possessive. 110. 62. of what. of. of pronouns. of nouns. of pronouns.Bad.

189. adjectives. 110. 53. 239. 158. verb. predicate of and from from of. 264. double. of. of. 257. 43. clothes. material. 12. and forms of. 307. infinitive. 108. 248. 113. 111. Clomb. sentence. Cloths. 244.definition kinds noun. of. defective. 23. 307. of. subject. . proper. 263. 271. 108. definition degrees irregular. superlative. and sentence. nouns. 24. 257. plural of. of. 18. analysis of. nouns. predicate. 268. 43. of. English. 312. 258. 315. of. adverbs. 18. 257. 107. 157. 305. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. in analysis. nouns. of. Cleave. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of.

parse. 199. 149. See analysis clauses. 194. 195. 328. 255. 138. definition how subordinate. 231. other other parts of speech. and clause. to of. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. pronoun. replaced by objective. correlative. 188. definition be. Conjunctions. coördinate. sentence. 66. pronouns. same words. Can. 194. Dative Declarative Declension of case. Agreement. adverbs. of. in Old vs. interrogative pronouns. of of Conjunctions.with Concord. 269. verbs. conjunction. conjunctions. analysis. 143. 194. conjunctions. of. 289. sentences. See English. 195. sentences. 139. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. 193. . subjunctive. 263. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. See in subjunctive. 151. pronoun. 207. 73. 196. 149.

object. by. pronouns. 90. 185. indirect. article. passive adjectives. Articles. verb. adverbs See adjectives. nouns. 102. . tenses. Subordinate clause. with of. 35. Comparison. of personal relative verbs. 102. 51. 333. use of dies. pronouns. See 148. 300. 287. Comparative. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. pronouns. 43.Declension. 60. Degrees. duck. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 288. pronouns. 242. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 242. See adjectives. comparative. 152. 320. See See 48. of. possessive. 315. 91. of. for. 80. 99. with. 26. of. discourse. Case. from. 160. clause. vs. of. nouns. 303.

syntax Each Eat Eaves. 92. of subject. of. possessive suffix. drunk. another. 90. 34. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 33. 90. added suffix. 92. complement. 240. one ( t). 92. 32. 241. suffix. 38. pronoun. . other. 158. 40. predicate. 33. older. 112. error in sentence. 51. to suffix. 257. 194. in 'Em. of. 300. Empress. 299. original. 12. feminine plural English. plural. spoken. 287. Either. -En. 280. vulgar.Drank. adjective. literary. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 328. the of sentence. of. 62. 102. Each. of. pronouns. pronoun. 39. Elements Ellipsis. 158. of. 234. of. object. conjunction. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 255. 287. 110. 42. adjective. ending.

212. definition distinguished in English. plurals. For. 36. uses Foreign Former. 102. the. See Gander. other languages." 31. 48. 148. Gender. etc. fishes. Future Future tense. adjective. 211. with infinitive. 308. perfect. 238.Every. 103. nouns. as of from compared marking. 152. to of. 235. 32. 334. 43. Few. 126. two a further. uses redundant. of.. object. 91. First. from. 147. Further. with in sex. First Fish. 30. few. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. gender. 112. of. two. first. 110.. as a noun. 287. 45. 319. From. 29. 152. of. modes "common goose. 30. expect gone. have adjective. etc. 212. 102. 30. Farther. pronoun. 189. 112. used of. Feminine. .

He. 176. its. of. person. 36. participle. 80. 10. 175. 43. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 159. of. 285. adjective. kinds of. rather. forms in Girl. 12. . I. of. 61. had hung. Had Hanged. pronouns. an better. 159. possessive pronouns. personal relative geniuses. 177. 101. 35. Government. Grammar. from participle of. Got. definition divisions opinions province H. 9. definition basis of. noun. Gerund. 275. on. His Husband. 60. pronoun. distinguished syntax. she. and case verbal with. of. 231. 145. first sentence.of of Genii. 120. 12. 13. 144. it. 61. for before. 60. 173.

transitive. of. adverbs. adjectives. a object. 248. adjectives. pronoun. mood. use article. 323. 176. See Articles. 85. 67. 245. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. with of. 136. Direct object. 276. of. words. 72. sentence. pronouns. meaning. your. 153.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 105. 257. questions. 233. Questions. uses discourse. See you. questions. 110. 178. 131. 320. summary See passive mood. verbs. of. 73. 319. 231. elements. in compared syntax. 283. . Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. indirect of. 227. of clause. 43. 188. 93. of. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 131. indices.

uses Literary Little. subject form. adjective. syntax. 110. English. of. of. 170. Lady. in little. lord. Lady. 276. 36. a vs. 36. 113. 61. 39. 226. these double kind. 91. 113. Lie. Kind. 36. plural. 303. Logic Logical Lord. 102. of. 110. Lay." history etc. -Ly. lesser. . See Madam. 12. It. "It Its. Lay. Last. 281. and See words in. 245. was uses me. predicate. latest. 190.. 227. 189. queen. Less. of. 63. King. Like. 67. etc. syntax the.adverbs. pronoun. Latter. Kine. 126.. lie.

Modifier. 189. of. 110. in adverbs comparison a. Negative. of. subjunctive. 144. 187. 114. 137-144. Modifiers. mine. 189. Enlargement. double. 161. 325.Manner. of. of. 287. position adverb. 112. Much. Means. out of. 328. 36. Mighty Mine. 188. 41. indicative. 256. etc. 326. 137. 113. 185. nigh. construction as of adverb. 110. May. syntax conjunction. 195. of. of. 194. imperative. Neither. 112. 112. 110. 135. 102. Must. 265. mistress. adjective. See definition 136. . Master. of. 160. conjunctions Many. syntax nearer. sentences. might. Mood. 34. -Most. Many Mapping Mare. superlatives. comparison Near.. 64. of. 126.

in. 301. proper. 21. 25. used as. 45. to of. number once other plural. 30. definition descriptive. 300. kinds 90. 17. 41 43. Nor. No Nominative. 17 19. Not Noun Nouns. 25. 125. clause. foreign. 46. become become formation case collective. 258. 20. 124. gender nouns. gender how kinds material. analysis. definition according of. None. 27. 30. of. syntax Neuter or two News. to use. See 194. 42. 19. 41. . abstract. of. abstract. and figures. become neuter. 18. words how compound. of. etc. 38. etc. of. of. 29. of. syntax in gender nouns.pronoun. class used singular. 56. 41. parse. 246. of of of of of a. common. 46. material. 38-41. letters as 24. half abstract. 17. formed. 92. Case. nouns. 30. nouns. 328. 126. 26. now plural. of. 32.

66.of same two with proper. meaning. form. 124. article. 285. verbs. See in in in Numeral distributive. 282. plural no two singular construction. 48. plural form. and analysis. 60. 48. 48.. pronouns. plural. See verb. adverbial. nominative. Nouns. 278. become syntax use with with with Nouns. definite. etc. personal. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. singular. 121. 148. Numeral Object. 41. 42. singular. 41. dative. 102. or plural. 242. 196. 242. of. 240. 18. spoken of instead nouns. 278. Preposition. . 281. pronouns. 42. 43. passive adverbial. 48. 106. 279. 101. adjectives. meanings. with case. preposition. of. 195. of. in article. 23. indirect. of. 235. as forms titles. English. of. adjectives. 48. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. of different possessive definite of. with with with Now Number. 41. indefinite. 92. 42 44. common. conjunction. in nouns. of. 101. 39.

103. with (the). 91. One. Older. Ordinal Other Ought. of. 191. 93 other. 127. 199. 194. Ourself. inverted. 306. a in adjectives. 117. 213. 216. . 38. 293. Oxen. 325 275. as of. articles. 64. 69. of. Elder. uses numeral pronoun. 41. 279. for. 103. ours. conjunction. See the as of. conjunctions. adjective. 115. Our. 116. 56. another. 233. Parsing. of syntax.syntax Of. indefinite possessive One One as Only. as other. 237. pronoun. See pronoun. treatment comparatives. 56. Omission On. of. position Order. 94. 87. of upon. Pains. 161. adverbs. 101. Each adjective. nouns. part analysis. definite relative uses of. of of of of of models adjectives. adverb.

uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 59. included various. 247. absolute with of. possessive and of. 322. 56. 181. pennies. 27. 61. in. verbals. Pence. of. 64. 28. verb idioms it from. . 148. agreement of verb nouns. of. verbs. verbs. 180. pronoun. pronouns. speech. 172. 59. relatives. 219. parsed. 63. 134. 100. pease. 62. or of. Person. -ing words. of. of. of. 119. predicate use of. them. and subject in. reflexive. from definition other of. 317. 174. part adjective. 179. antecedent. with. 59. of. 43.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 62. of. nominative. article 150. 173. pronouns. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. phrase. 80. 177. phrases. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 172. 95. 335. not is. 70. used as voice. 56. 281. 43. 69. 287.

spoken of. of nouns. 247.objective syntax table triple uses of. participial. 236. of. of. Personification. pronoun. 245. singular. singular degree. of. pronoun. 281. of. in of. omitted. See 60. 236. 51. 303. Comparison. 206. syntax of of Politics. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. pronouns. 281. 37. 232. 278. 60. 106. of Phrase. Positive Possessive. as double. 64. double. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. of. relative. English. antecedent of of pronouns. of. appositional. 188. 52. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 278. simple. complete. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 247. 195. nouns. adjectives. 's. vs. nouns. prepositional. or See of of See 185. 53. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. of. Place. 41. it. objects. Personal subjective. 245. . 54. 50. 248. noun nouns. 61. 53. 303. 67. 49. kinds infinitive. 241. 285. 25. nouns. of. Nouns. adverbs of. plural. 235. 63.

for predicate nominative. 208. meaning. 32. 280. plural. 284. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. after but. interrogative. 219. of. 303. 203. same used as adjectives. 195. 281. 332. and one with else's. words. neither. none. of. 206. singular usually other. plural. 147. 282. as. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. objective. in exclamations. plural. 58. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 59. 129. 207. of. 287. parse. 64. 132. 283. possessive nominative to of. 299. and form form form form of. 186. 285. objective. 300. speech. 104. 205. exclamatory. any. case. adjective. 105. 283. adverb. as 54. expressed as other of. 331. who personal. 187. 72.Prefixes. of. by parts of of. by with shown certain of. somebody definition how indefinite. Pronouns. 89. Prepositions. . case. 93. of. all. interrogative. what. each either. 333. 279. 105. 202. parse. of. another. 302. as antecedent of relative. 300. verbs. with tense certain. future. 58. of. forms of. 301. 95. by. 203. usually to as than.

nouns. See of. 293. Quotations. indirect. pronoun. in. of. 69. 263. 297. discourse. which. 74. personal pronoun. questions. . 286. 99. 279. pronominal pronouns indirect. 87. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 68. Direct same and different. 295. of. 85. unrestrictive. Questions. 142. indirect compound. 101. 69. 189. 58. of. 195. 87. to of. of. 289. Rather. pronouns. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. Quantity. of. 80. 289. 296. 74. in. that. 188. 74. 105. 291. use in as. 84. of. agreement anacoluthon and as. Nouns. conjunctions Quality. 83. 295. or of. 85. 293. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. who. which after same. with who. with with gerund. same antecedent. and antecedent. of. from and interrogative. adverbs in. Rank. parse. use of history formed. and which. of.possessive relative. and relatives. in. of.

sentence. 294. 74.syntax use Result. plural possessive as. kinds Sequence Set. pronoun. 263. 162. of of of complex Sentences. 51. and should. in form. Self Sentences. Shear. forms shots. 69. suffix. simple of. complex. 'S. 159. of. Same Sat. will. of. 196. S. 195. 26 271. reflexive analysis of compound. effect. conjunctions Retained Riches. 170. Seeing. definition . gender. 259. clauses of. of. which. of. 255. 159. 319. 242. object. tenses. that. 196. elliptical. ending. 252. who. 231. in of. 42. Shot. Simple in sate. 231. See Sentences. 29. conjunction. simple. Sex Shall. of sit. 289. 40. would. 43.

38. Subject. 144. definition how kinds noun. 323. English. 257. in Middle English. -es. 245. distinguish. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective.Singular Sir. 303. 258. definition 67. -en. 258. in feminine suffix. names as a. 38. sort. of. of. etc. 33. 260. 169. 138. 245. vs. 257. phonetic in infinitive. 12. Spelling Spinster. 144. adverb. 137. of. literary clause. 257. for. . Split Spoken -Ster. verbs. to of. disuse in spoken complete. English. 233. adverb. of. 237. Modern use becoming else's. as. 32. other Such Such Suffix -s. used mood. Somebody Sort. of.. of. 186. 240. these number. 258. 33. of. English. 262. 303. 270. logical. See -En. 36. English. 126. 257.

33. me. definition in English Tense. coördinating. 119. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. 123. 319. Tenses. . 297. as history The. of. meaning made up in Old of. 87. 152. 147. which. degree. form. when relative. Then. English. 107. 120. 277. than of. adjectives. 306. "the then foreign. 275. plural as adverb. syntax of. in comparison. 290.. 106. adverbs. 147. 61. and and of. English. of. 307.Suffixes. Kind. 275. that uses That. 306. as adverbs. 186. object. of languages. 186. 106. of. in Modern number sequence table Than That. meaning. of. of. of . restrictive. 189. 109. See etc. 280. 148. 309.. objects. There These kind. subject. as history syntax Their. king. 289. 222.. auxiliaries. 108. article. 191. 116. 88. of. classical of. this. they. in double." introductory. omission whom. not suggesting adjectives. of. of. when as of. two basis not same definition definite. 147.

try two.These. words. Utter. 180. See That. of. first. kinds participle.. . from cleft to 174. of. 114. 175. of. other noun. certain as the before with of. -ing 111. uttermost. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. feminine and. Upper. gerund. 217. parse. 185. thy. to. how infinitive. 114. infinitive. 247. conjunctions prepositions To. Time. 21. etc. of. Try Two Under. 308. 248. 188. exclamations. Upon. 114. 176. 207. first adjective. 20. 172. preposition. 322. uses history of. in of. of. 323. verbs. 33. 195. analysis. 175. 61. 172. of. uses of. carelessly uses syntax this. 173. used. tother. -Trix. infinitive. 181. suffix. Thou. 175. in omitted uses T'other. 322. thee. 128. phrases. 119. See On. 330. of. adverbs those.

weak. but uses what. 130. 320. 47. auxiliary. 319. how to parse. 131. 39. table of irregular. 159. 148. table of. 33. spelling of. made transitive.Verbs. 149. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. active meaning. 330. mood of. agreement of. of. 167. passive form. 157. becoming irregular. 147. 134. 154. regular. 135. tense of. 133. with subject in number. 312. defective. . strong. 160. 167. syntax of. 148. of incomplete predication. 151. 12. 154. Vixen. passive. 236. person and number of. analysis. transitive and intransitive. Vocative in Voice. phonetic. of. verbs. 245. past tense formed nominative. in person. retained object with passive. definition of. definition of. change. definition of. 169. in indirect discourse. sequence of. 155. conjugation of. 179. active. 242. voice of. 129. 154. of English. formed by. verbs by. 317. 133. 169. What. 223. intransitive. 312-316. 150. remarks on certain.

relative. 75. 296. Yes ending analysis. of. 36. Words in Worse. pronoun. . 295-299. in -ly. would. in. conjunction. Y. 72. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. worser. animals. relative indirect relative. a. antecedent adjective. 105. 190. of. 83. Will. 194. plural of in nouns -ing. 79. English. Witch. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. wizard. questions. direct of. interrogative Which. 72. spoken in of.what Whereby. Who. questions. 85. 36. 37. 111. questions. 178. pronoun. 246. 78. in in indefinite objective. 299. 83. 126. 75. 72. 218. whereto. 77. 105. 40. 85. relative. Wife. Whether. 85. 73. 104.. etc. With. uses See Shall. referring syntax Widower. questions. 32. Woman.

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