roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. assist the classification of kindred expressions. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition." and "Syntax. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training.The province of English grammar is. Coming back. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). rightly considered. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. and their uses and relations in the sentence. with its enormous vocabulary. Mental training. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). is worthy of serious study. Few inflections. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). to those who have studied the language historically. so that a small grammar will hold them all. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. however." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. . and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. and thus incite his observation. Making rules is risky. If. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. as. A broader view." What grammar is. its peculiar and abundant idioms. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places. "Analysis. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. The work it will cover. from the question. as compared with Latin or Greek. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. Surely our noble language. This will take in the usual divisions. An æsthetic benefit. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. it will at the same time. but this is bad English now. if rightly presented. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. Authority as a basis. Literary English. then. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. their forms. there is still much for the grammarian to do. It is also evident. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste.

the words sons and master name objects. 1. besides this one. three divisions:² Part I.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. too. which belongs to a people. Part II. Vulgar English. The words state. and the word nation stands for a whole group. PART I. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. but. The following pages will cover. and may belong to any of those objects. The Parts of Speech. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. not objects. Part III. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. and Inflections. reference will be made to vulgar English. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. the nation is free. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. Spoken English. as they stand for ideas. from the eighteenth century on. or Syntax. by which is meant the free. that is. Analysis of Sentences.²GIBBON.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. The Uses of Words. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. In the more simple state of the Arabs. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. Occasionally. then. Such words are called nouns. . or standard. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. NOUNS. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names. submission. The plainest name is Arabs. and will are evidently names of a different kind.

(3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Name for a group or collection of objects. For instance. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. and things separately. or things. is from a Latin word which means general.Definition. (a) 4. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. Proper. the name of each is an individual or proper name. or thing. men in groups may be called a crowd. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. Individual. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. or the man in front of you. substance. 2. but Chicago names one city. Collective. we may think of them in groups. and appropriate names to the groups. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. . whether person. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. A noun is a name word. We may say. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. (b) Common. place. They properly belong under common nouns. Thus. reducing it to a narrow application. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. Name for any individual of a class. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. MATERIAL. ATTRIBUTE. or a congress. 3. animals. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. Besides considering persons. as here used. Abstract. representing directly to the mind an object. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. Thus. possessed by all. belonging to one. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. because each group is considered as a unit. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. etc. animals. or a council. however. 5. or idea. This does not imply. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. the man here. or a mob. Common. Classes of nouns. a committee.

granite. etc. there is no such intention. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. or apart from their natural connection. we may say. stone. expressing attributes or qualities. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. When we speak of a wise man. etc. moon. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. but in the words sun. It may. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. but it is taken merely as a name. cloud. snow. or actions. "Painting is a fine art. frost. . world. clay. condition. etc." "a man of understanding. sugar. however. mist. but which are not called proper names. gold. soap. earth. we speak of the wisdom of the man. 7. etc. NOTE. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. and fasten a special name to the object considered. sand. rain. The reason is. frost. instead of to each individual or separate object. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. rock.Names for things thought of in mass. tea. celluloid. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. and so on.²There are some nouns. rice. paint. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. expressing state. Such are glass. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. proof means the act of proving. The quality is still there as much as before.. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth)." 9. They remain common class names. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. etc. Again. dew. (3) Geological bodies: mud. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. earth. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. iron. considered abstractly. platinum. or action. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. not things. conditions. rubber. wheat. potash. such as sun. 6. as in calling a city Cincinnati. etc. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known." "Learning is hard to acquire. or that which shows a thing has been proved. wheat. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. . etc. wine. sugar. Names of ideas. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. Words naturally of limited application not proper. etc.

stupidity from stupid. (1) prudence from prudent. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. thunder. They cannot govern a word. . as glad²joy. speech from speak. by altering its function. etc. as in the expressions. To avoid difficulty. hope. in the beginning of his life. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech.Attribute abstract nouns. Underived abstract nouns. II. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. etc. (2) peerage from peer. Exercises. summer. redness from red. childhood from child. winter. service from serve. her longing for their favor. those opinions and feelings. five abstract. etc." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. is used as a noun. etc. there is time for such reasonings. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. the moon caused fearful forebodings. 12. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. 273). The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. action from act. kingship from king. NOTE. Caution. and they cannot express action. the main bearings of this matter. The verb..²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. lightning. 1. hopeful²hope. 272. ease. a wedding or a festival. Verbal abstract nouns. five proper. as their name implies. shadow. Thus. "a long run" "a bold move. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. 10. They are only the husks of verbs. the rude drawings of the book. day." "a brisk walk. theft from thieve. height from high. joy. the teachings of the High Spirit. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. energy. Such are beauty. the well-being of her subjects. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. mastery from master. the great Puritan awakening. he spread his blessings over the land. but are merely names of actions. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. night.

tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . Using a dictionary. pleurisy. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4.2. typhus. algebra. as physics. catarrh. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. as pneumonia. (b) branches of knowledge. mathematics? 3. geology. diphtheria.

The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. for example. Proper names transferred to common use. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. who was its inventor. from Oporto. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. a Lavoisier. 15. Nouns change by use. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. a Bentham. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. a Fourier. a Hutton. damask. Sodom was famous for wickedness. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Guillotin. as a davy. thus. or to go over to it entirely.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. Material nouns may be used as class names. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. the guillotine.²EMERSON. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. from a town in France. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. a Locke. it imposes its classification on other men. etc. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. currants.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. from China. arras. 119). from Corinth. above." referring to flat- . "The cook made the irons hot. levant and morocco (leather). 13. but we may say. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. port (wine). and lo! a new system. but most of them are in the following groups. in Portugal. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. the word port. from the name of Dr. 14. Others of similar character are calico. from Calicut. We know a number of objects made of iron. from Damascus. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson.

Class nouns in use. Personification of abstract ideas. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. coals. etc. or used as class nouns. or made plural.In lightnings owned his secret stings. be spoken of. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. (3) By poetical use.²BRYANT. Traffic has lain down to rest. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. From all around²Earth and her waters. clays. They are not then pure abstract nouns.²BYRON. or the arts and sciences. tobaccos.²PERCIVAL. that disposition is the thing to be created. and only Vice and Misery. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. to prowl or to moan like night birds. Next Anger rushed. that the power of art is founded on fact. not material things. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. his eyes. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. Test this in the following sentences:² . abstract in meaning. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. but differ in strength. the abstract idea is partly lost. are still names of abstract ideas. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. The words preceded by the article a. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. oils. as stones. 16. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. paints. A halfway class of words.²RUSKIN. or. tins.²CARLYLE. When it is said that art differs from science. clouds. a rubber for erasing marks. For example. a steel to whet a knife on.irons. 17.²COLLINS.²HAYNE. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. nor are they common class nouns. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. This is a poetic usage. that is. These are the same in material. are abroad. and so on. candies. smiled. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. and say teas. but in case an art or a science. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. papers. but on dispositions which require to be created. slates. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. which are made plural. etc. though not confined to verse. Death. purity. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. mists. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. on fire.

the wealthy. a bill as to tax on the banks.²EMERSON.² BURNS. Then comes the "Why. All these. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. or describe it. When I was young? Ah." which contains a pure adjective. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question.²BURNS.The Solitary can despise. a bank in New York. NOTE. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. sir!" and the "What then. By ellipses. which belongs to another word.Let us. etc." "a New York bank. they do not express quality. as each repeated pleasure tired. But it is better to consider them as nouns. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. 18. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE.²IRVING. as descriptive adjectives are. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions." "a morning walk.²SHAKESPEARE. nouns used to modify. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns.²SHAKESPEARE. sir!"²MACAULAY . were mere terrors of the night. or from any expression. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. meaning a walk in the morning. They are more like the possessive noun.² GOLDSMITH. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. Nouns used as descriptive terms. they cannot be compared. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. But ah! those pleasures. Adjectives. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. make our own so. Adverbs. 19.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. Conjunctions. fear thy blow." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. for example. sir?" and the "No. and joysWhich I too keenly taste." "the State Bank Tax bill. however. Every why hath a wherefore. loves. if we must have great actions. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. And still. "a family quarrel. but is still a noun.

The it." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. in speaking of the principal of a school. but have an adjectival meaning. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. In the other sentences. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. the terms the great. and tell to which class each belongs. Now. 1. 6. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. of course. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. are used. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. When. 4. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. so.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. in a sentence above. Exercise. are spoken of as if pure nouns. 5. NOTE. is the word "just. and Then. however.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. 2. or a faithful domestic. of words rather than of their meaning. to such words as become pure nouns by use. whether it mean the sun or the cold. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. 3. is ambiguous. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. without reference to its function in the sentence. It is to be remembered. .Nor iron bars a cage. why and wherefore. or a criminal. too. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. FRANKLIN.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. etc.. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. There are many of these. 7. When. Caution. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. the wealthy. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences." and another of Dr. or a state secret.²These remarks do not apply. Learning. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. at the beginning." or "legal. 8. Power laid his rod aside. that cobweb of the brain. but as a figure of speech."²B. Stone walls do not a prison make. 20.

the welcome. shattered and disabled. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 21. but not so in English.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. There are exceptions even to this general statement. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest.You seize the flower. . 11. Greek. its bloom is shed. 15. that waits you here. And see. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 21. and names of females are usually feminine. 19. But pleasures are like poppies spread. 16. German. 18. female. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. The hours glide by.Fair guests. and many other languages. In Latin. 24. always feminine. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 14. Male beings are. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. always masculine. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. 20. 17. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS. returned to Spain. 12. 22. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. in English grammar. It is founded on sex. What gender means in English. he cried. A little weeping would ease my heart. 13. 23. the silver moon is gone. The fleet. A fool speaks all his mind. GENDER. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. for every dropHinders needle and thread. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. 10.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood.9.

must be divided into two principal classes. For instance: in Latin. Gunpowder . those which do not distinguish sex.²gender nouns..²LAMB. clapping his burnished wings.When.. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. then. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. according to their use. that pattern of a husband. but are spoken of as neuter. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words. the word child is neuter in the sentence. Gender nouns. in German. the name of it is feminine. if of the female sex. The great difference is. in other languages gender follows the form. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. das Messer (knife) is neuter." . are named by gender nouns." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals.² I have seenA curious child . "A little child shall lead them.² IRVING. He next stooped down to feel the pig. the name of it is masculine. . or names of things without life. inanimate things are spoken of. and neuter nouns.²IRVING. 22. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. No "common gender.. Neuter nouns. 23. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. mensa (table) is feminine. that is. the sex being of no consequence. Thus. or additions to words. Hence: Definition. those distinguishing the sex of the object. hortus (garden) is masculine. Of animals. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words.²masculine and feminine. came to a stand just by the bridge.. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. 24.. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. corpus (body) is neuter. and consequently without sex. in English. der Tisch (table) is masculine. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. with its gizzard under its wing. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. or which arouse his interest most. however. All nouns. according to use.. if there were any signs of life in it. those with which man comes in contact often.

for from they said vram. and for the older word fat they said vat. only to masculine and feminine nouns. puts a prefix before the masculine man. The inflections for gender belong. cousin. though both words have lost their original meanings. Gender shown by Suffixes. he-bear²she-bear. 29. Hence vixen is for fyxen. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words.. as he-goat²she-goat. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. 28. If such words as parent. as in wine vat. but spinster has now no connection with it. ruler. relative. they are neuter words. 26. These remain in vixen and spinster. is. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. from the masculine fox. For fox they said vox. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. (2) By adding a suffix. of course. woman. II. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. One feminine. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. . Native suffixes.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines.25. teacher. I. Gender shown by Prefixes. Put in convenient form. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. or the lack of it. (3) By using a different word for each gender. servant. According to the definition. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. the division of words according to sex. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Very few of class I. generally to a masculine word. Male nouns beings. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. 27. etc. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. domestic. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections.

gamester. Low Latin issa).The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. 30. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. Unaltered and little used. executrix. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. señorita. as. as czarina. Ending of masculine not changed. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. punster. These are attached to foreign words. song-str-ess. trickster. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. -ess (French esse. as. and are never used for words recognized as English. it has none now in the words huckster. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. the one most used. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . but in most cases it has not. donna. as seam-stress. Slightly changed and widely used.

Ending -ess less used now than formerly. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. teacheresse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. or servauntesse. we use the feminine. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. 32.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. we use the masculine termination. NOTE. fosteress. Gender shown by Different Words. as in the fourteenth century. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. Some of them have an interesting history. 31. Instead of saying doctress. as was said in the sixteenth century. editor.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). wagoness. others have in their origin the same root. the ending -ess." III. to represent persons of either sex. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . as. from the French -esse. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. neighboresse. We frequently use such words as author. neighbor (masculine and feminine). etc. frendesse. In some of these pairs. teacher or lady teacher. Thus. from Latin imperatricem. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. chairman. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. as.

Personification. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Witch is the Old English wicce. but this has long been obsolete. It is not connected historically with our word duck. had the masculine mearh (horse). Danish gaas. Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. 34. though both are ultimately from the same root. for example. became identical. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent).² . as in many other words. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. in Old English mere. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. The older forms. widuwa²widuwe. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. etc. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. written loverd. probably meaning house dweller). finally gander. Mare. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). King and queen are said by some (Skeat. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. the old sign of the masculine. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). lhauerd. leaving our word drake. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). Widower. not immediately connected with witch. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. Two masculines from feminines. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec.). Madam is the French ma dame. from Latin mea domina. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). gand-ra.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. 33. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. The masculine was formed by adding -a. or lauerd in Middle English. 16). Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). Besides gander and drake. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. among others) to be from the same root word. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. Icelandic gás. Three letters of ened have fallen away.

number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. This is not exclusively a poetic use. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. for instance."Now.²CAMPBELL. 39. whenever we adopt a new word. shoon (shoes).²KEATS. and not by the form of the noun. together with the third. the engineer speaks so of his engine. 35. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. 37. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. The -en inflection. But other words were inflected afterwards. In nouns.Her home is on the deep. Effect of personification. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending.²COLERIDGE. eyen (eyes).Clustered around by all her starry Fays. the plural. that is. more than one. This inflection remains only in the word oxen."²BYRON. (3) By adding -s (or -es). NUMBER.No towers along the steep. 38. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. treen (trees). 36. The first two methods prevailed. (2) By changing the root vowel.Her march is o'er the mountain waves.²singular and plural. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. Definition. in Old English. . I. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. Britannia needs no bulwarks. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. etc. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. Our language has two numbers.

sheep.² "God bless me! so then. cannon. Brethren has passed through three stages. such as deer. .²MACAULAY. originally neuter. ditch. into Frederick town. cross. lens. salmon.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. finally brethren.²THOREAU. dozen. Other words following the same usage are. turf.-En inflection imitated by other words. but has now no singular. then brothre or brethre. The old plural was brothru."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. Akin to this class are some words. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. Such are box. 42. glass. retain the same form for plural meaning. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. The words horse and foot. Examples of this inflection are.The horse are thousands ten. swine. but they now add the ending -s. borough²formerly had the same inflection. folk. and get settled. II. as.²Over the mountains winding down. Children has passed through the same history. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. etc. people. wight. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. 41. as. and is still found in dialects. sail. they add -s): also trout. by.Horse and foot. quartz. after numerals (if not after numerals. or if preceded by the prepositions in.² The foot are fourscore thousand.²WHITTIER. heathen. when they mean soldiery. Instead of -s. 40. brace. III. etc. Lee marched over the mountain wall. after all. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. pair. Kine is another double plural. that have the singular and plural alike. etc. head.

So live. though they are plural in form. e. some adding -s. the Americas. means and politics.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. etc. Special Lists. politics. allies.² Politics. prize²prizes. Words in -ies. etc. It served simply as a means of sight. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. half²halves. 43.. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. DANA. niche²niches. etc. mathematics. fairies. Formerly.g. When such words take a plural ending. e. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. a new syllable is made. hero²heroes. means: as.²CENTURY DICTIONARY. molasses. Means plural. daisies. 44.g. and the real ending is therefore -s. 15 and 17). and many branches of learning. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. that when thy summons comes. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes.-Es added in certain cases. knife²knives. and go over to other classes (Secs. house²houses. The lilie on hir stalke grene.. race²races. summons. and some -es.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. pains (care). fancies. these words ended in -ie. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . shelf²shelves. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. in its widest extent. Examples of these are. negro²negroes. though this sound combines readily with -s. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). they lose their identity. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. optics. quoth then that ladie milde. Some words are usually singular. Proper nouns are regularly singular. 45. economics. etc. chaise²chaises.²BRYANT. as. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name.²PROF. is both the science and the art of government. however. the Washingtons. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. physics. volcano² volcanoes. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. also news. Two words.

A relic which. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. Politics plural.²BURKE. . I say.²GOLDSMITH. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. By these means.Words. it is furnished with a forceps. Besides this.²IRVING.²GOLDSMITH.²MOTLEY. Sometimes. With great dexterity these means were now applied. L. 46. however. CURTIS. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. by those means which we have already mentioned.²GOLDSMITH. riches will accumulate. he pronounced to have been a tongs. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome.² MACAULAY. Now I read all the politics that come out. LAUGHLIN. if I recollect right.²J. W. Some words have no corresponding singular. by strongly conveying the passions. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²G.

brethren (of a society or church). dice (for gaming).. clothes (garments). These make the last part plural. (2) literature. faculties. . or copies. part²parts: (1) divisions. In Early Modern English thank is found.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. two plurals. Tell me not.. genii (spirits). the other unlike it. trouble. (2) care. DANA. 49. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. One plural. sixpence. penny²pennies (separately). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.). for the numbers came. two meanings. riches. as two sixpences.. carry off chaff. (2) poetry. fish²fish (collectively).²LONGFELLOW. In speaking of coins. (2) abilities. eaves. 48.²POPE.² I lisped in numbers. pence (collectively). Two classes of compound words.²one corresponding to the singular. of a periodical. indices (signs in algebra). Other words have one plural form with two meanings. the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. die²dies (stamps for coins. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47.²was it subdued when. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. shot²shot (collective balls). or epistles. as in the lines. etc. in mournful numbers. genius²geniuses (men of genius). number²numbers: (1) figures. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). pea²peas (separately).The air. Three words were originally singular. twopence. 50. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). (2) revenue duties. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. ways. shots (number of times fired). making a double plural. Numbers also means issues. fishes (individuals or kinds). or work in a bellows?²PROF. index²indexes (to books). may add -s. etc. pease (collectively).

52. there is some disagreement among English writers.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. for example. As to plurals of names with titles. woman singer. the Drs. as the Messrs. though the latter is often found. Brown.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. The title may be plural. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. Two methods in use for names with titles. Allen. Brahman. HOLMES. as man singer. and then the three Miss Spinneys. German. 51. or the name may be pluralized. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. firman.²DR. Norman. such as talisman. Briggs. Ottoman. but add -s. woman servant. Mussulman. and Mrs. The chief member adds -s in the plural. then Silas Peckham. the Misses Rich. manservant.² Then came Mr. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. . Some groups pluralize both parts of the group.

Exercise. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. or Englished. Du Maurier. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. and retain their foreign plurals. FROM THE GREEK. These are said to be domesticated. or Anglicized. 53. y y analysis antithesis .²GOLDSMITH. FROM THE LATIN. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr.²GIBBON.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.²DICKENS. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. Domesticated words.²THE CRITIC. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. They are then said to be naturalized. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The Messrs. Others have been adopted.

etc. they form their plurals in the regular way. In the general wearing-away of inflections. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. Words quoted merely as words. etc. and expresses a relation akin to possession. form their plurals by adding -s or 's." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). helping to express the idea of place with the word in. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. In the sentence. 54. Letters. cell has another relation. ." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s)." the word felon's modifies cell. Only two case forms.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. 55. Definition. without reference to their meaning.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. figures.. as. figures. 56. also add -s or 's." CASE. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). as. When the foreign words are fully naturalized.

completing a verb. Excuses are clothes which." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. 3. and experience. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. three things characterize man. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. 4. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. then." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. 5. 2. may be said to have three cases. the enemy of the living.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. and tell which use of the nominative each one has.²person. when asked unawares. and merit. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead. the objective. I. .²one for the nominative and objective. must be understood for purposes of analysis. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. 57. Three properties belong to wisdom. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. fate. learning. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level." (2) As a predicate noun. 1. whether inflected or not. 58. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. Uses of the Nominative. Nouns.²nature. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen.²the nominative. they returned to their homes. Human experience is the great test of truth. excessive grief. and the possessive.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares.

and landlord of the inn. her first law broken. They charged. reconciles. 9. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. (5) As the object of a preposition. as will be seen in Sec. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. completing the verb. they are sands of precious gold. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. Conscience. thy wrath can send. sword in hand and visor down. and meaning calmest. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. distance." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. and makest a calm. the word toward which the preposition points. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. 8." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. But the flood came howling one day. and tell which use each has:² 1. taking the object storm. etc. 59. taking the object enemies." (3) Adverbially. 4. how have I frighted thee? II.6." (4) As the second object. and being equivalent to one verb. Uses of the Objective. . 68. 3. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. (in the older stages of the language. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. Set a high price on your leisure moments. save. wounded lies." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. But of all plagues. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences.Save. good Heaven. 2. measure. a patriarch of the village." Exercise. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder." "Thou makest the storm a calm. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse.

This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations. The noblest mind the best contentment has. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses. (2) Objective possessive. tempests that .5. 8. 60.²ADDISON.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. an elegy to commemorate yesterday.. as. III. as shown in the sentences. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. Uses of the Possessive. 9. The possessive case always modifies another word.² The unwearied sun. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive.²HAWTHORNE. or in writing yesterday's elegy.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. 10. 61. And whirling plate. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. Possession in some sense is the most common.e. It is a poetic expression.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. and forfeits paid.His winter task a pastime made. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. expressed or understood. (3) Subjective possessive. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. the Great Stone Face. 6. as in these expressions.Does his Creator's power display. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory.²BYRON. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay.And gave the leper to eat and drink. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. 7. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. from day to day.²SHELLEY. the most common of all. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.

making the possessive singular. there are only two case forms." Use of the apostrophe. PLURAL. 62.winter is likely to have)." "at his beddes syde. 63. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. Poss. child NOTE. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. 62. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. 64. As said before (Sec. A suggestion. Nom. "George Jones his book.e. .e. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. lady Poss. growth which several days had developed). "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. as schoolboys sometimes write. How the possessive is formed. in Chaucer. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. The use of the apostrophe. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. and Obj. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. To form the possessive plural." etc.. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. however.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. 56). Declension or inflection of nouns. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. Nom.. Case Inflection. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses)." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. 1. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case. One is the simple form of a word." "mannes herte [heart]. A false theory. "From every schires ende. the panther which the forest hides). and Obj.

a word with a phrase. etc.²CARLYLE.²THACKERAY. 67. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. Cervantes' satirical work.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. Kate saw that. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase.²DE QUINCEY..Though this opinion was untrue. as. I remember him in his cradle at St.²SWIFT. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that.. Possessive and no noun limited. 66. being understood with it: for example.²HOLMES. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. James's. etc. the possessive sign is usually last. . Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. as. dwelling. stands up for God's truth one man.² LOWELL. church. In compound expressions. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. as by the countess's command. know the amount of my income. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. the items of my son's. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century. for goodness' sake. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. 65. They invited me in the emperor their master's name. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. in the name of the emperor their master." "A postscript is added. Peter's.²RUSKIN. some such word as house. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. store. but to the ear all may be alike. my neighbors. instead of the emperor their master's name. and she walked off from the don's." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter." Possessive with compound expressions."²DE QUINCEY. Captain Scrapegrace's. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. containing words in apposition. and from a desire to have distinct forms.

sometimes they are used together. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. in such a sentence as. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. we use the phrase of Atterbury. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. A peculiar form. any. and tell whether each is appositional. Exercises. 87.²FROUDE. objective. ill-lighted except where she stands. Both of these are now used side by side. (See also Sec. making a double possessive. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. Clearness. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. and I used to like whatever they bade me like.The double possessive. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. etc.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. E. (3) It prevents ambiguity. 1. 2. no. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. however. (1) When a word is modified by a. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan.²the introduction which Atterbury made. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. each. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's.. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. HALE. In most cases. and at the same time by a possessive noun. a double possessive. Emphasis. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's.²E. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. that. If. every. the sentence might be understood as just explained.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. corresponding to 's. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. Blair). has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. For example. especially when used with this or that. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. as one modifier.²CARLYLE. or subjective. the statement clearly means only one thing. this. 68. (b) Rewrite the sentence. the.

'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. I must not see thee Osman's bride. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. 8. Hence.² . to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. 5. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. 7. in parsing a noun. therefore. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. we state.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. 69.3. Nature herself.They say. 11. 4. 12. Jove laughs. 13. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip.A weary waste expanding to the skies. day's harbinger. Friend. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 70. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. some idioms²the double possessive. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. Now the bright morning star. it seemed.Comes dancing from the East. 14. 10. 15. 6. At lovers' perjuries. and destroy the other. let him seasonably water the one. with every garland crowned. 9. There Shakespeare's self. In parsing. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence.

Thief is a common class noun. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. it expresses possession or ownership. it expresses time. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. inflections. has no governing word. Throat is neuter. the connection shows a male is meant. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. therefore masculine gender. 71.(1) The class to which it belongs. and to have it found out by accident.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. as to case. is a common class noun. 68). the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. and therefore nominative case. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. That in the captain's but a choleric word. determining its case. subject of the verb is understood. 4. gender. (4) Its office in the sentence. a withered serving man. hence it is a common noun. and relations. . it is the object of the preposition by. therefore possessive case. therefore singular number. proper. The correct method. therefore neuter. like miller's. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. but is the adverbial objective. therefore singular number. it is the name of a male being. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. hence it is a gender noun. it denotes only one person. singular number. names one thing. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun.²common. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. and number. hence objective case. hence it is objective case. 3. if the latter. Exercise. In parsing any word. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. which gender. it has no sex.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. masculine. Neckcloth. MODEL FOR PARSING. (3) Whether singular or plural number. and limits neckcloth. a fresh tapster. etc. object of the verb takes. NOTE. 2.

"The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. blessings light on him that first invented . When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. instead of saying. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. were natives of Geneva. all in one. A few miles from this point. 11. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. Mrs.And hated her for her pride. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name.5.. but by a question we say. Time makes the worst enemies friends. Necker. PRONOUNS. definite. Definition. Now. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. sleep! 6. from a necessity for short. which distinguish person by their form (Sec. ." Again. A pronoun is a reference word. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. and representative words.. 7. and prison. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. where the Rhone enters the lake. (2) Interrogative pronouns. 8. standing for a name. The need of pronouns. Classes of pronouns. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. 73. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. 76). Jarley's back being towards him. 10. and his daughter. 9. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. He giveth his beloved sleep. 72. stands the famous Castle of Chillon. or for a person or thing. castle. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious.²palace. or for a group of persons or things. financial minister to Louis XVI. For instance. Madame de Staël..

This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. as nouns have the same form. I Poss. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. they are said to have person by agreement. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. and the person or thing talked about. Three persons of pronouns. which relate or refer to a noun. pronoun. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Person in grammar. (4) Adjective pronouns. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. 76. or other word or expression. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things.(3) Relative pronouns. primarily adjectives. even if it had a special form. "the distinction of person. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. From analogy to pronouns. my Plural. (2) Second person. we our. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. (3) Third person. words. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. which cannot be used as adjectives.. representing the person speaking. standing for a person or thing spoken of. ours . Singular. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. 77. that is. they must represent the person talking. Nom. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. the person or thing spoken to." Person of nouns. 75. which have forms for person. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. (5) Indefinite pronouns. This gives rise to a new term. representing a person or thing spoken to. mine. 74.

Obj. Nom. Nom.Obj. neuter. of all Three. feminine h o. yours Poss. your. a separate form for each gender. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. But the third person has. me us Singular. Masc. Obj. 78. they their. she her. thy Remarks on These Forms. namely. Nom. in the singular. Obj. hers her Plur. so also with the person or thing spoken to. and also for the neuter.. Singular. Obj. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. by personification. Third person singular has gender. or. . SECOND PERSON. theirs them Neut. Poss. neuter hit. yours you THIRD PERSON. thou thee ye you you your. it its it Poss. he his him Fem. yours you Plural. masculine h . Poss. Nom. The speaker may be either male or female. thine. First and second persons without gender. Old forms. you your. Old Form Common Form.

Thou lovest. 82. just as we now say. (2) In addressing the Deity. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. and sometimes its. . heom. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. etc. thou Shepherd of Israel. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children." As shown above. which was often sounded with the h silent.²SHELLEY. the forms they. them. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). It is worth while to consider the possessive its. This is of comparatively recent growth. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. even when referring to a single object. in Old English.:² (1) In elevated style. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. but make the plural you do duty for the singular. Second person always plural in ordinary English. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. however. Thou..² Oh. The consequence is. 80. etc. as possessive of it. as. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. especially in poetry. that didst comfort thy people of old. thy. for example. thee. as in prayers.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. We use it with a plural verb always. Two uses of the old singulars. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). The form its. The plurals were h . their. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. In spoken English. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. 79. There are. to thy care we commit the helpless. which is a neuter noun. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. 81. heora. etc. it.²BEECHER. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. two modern uses of thou..

Not a separate class. The words I. they have a nominative form. 83. her. thy. Absolute personal pronouns. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. 84. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. though ye is occasionally used as objective. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. The Possessive. I spare thee mine. thou. they. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. and not make more classes. The forms my. she. theirs. thine. and follow the usage of literary English. he. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. 86. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. "I am sure it was him. our. me. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. and has been slave to thousands. or. II. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. we. her. The forms mine. him. its. their. 58). 85. though those named in Sec. sometimes his and its.²BULWER. your. And since thou own'st that praise. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. Old use of mine and thine. besides a nominative use. however. hers. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 'tis his. them. him. In spoken English. when they occur in the predicate position. yours.Use of the pronouns in personification. us. 34). but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. note the following:² 'Twas mine. Nominative forms. and sometimes in ordinary speech. 84 are always subjects. That is. his. .²LANDOR. us. Yet careful speakers avoid this.²COWPER. have a peculiar use. them. her. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. for. I The Nominative. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. Additional nominatives in spoken English. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. ²SHAKESPEARE. to personify objects (Sec. in such a sentence as." the literary language would require he after was. ye. some say.

(2) To bring emphasis. Besides this. theirs. Double and triple possessives. (3) To express contempt. Like the noun possessives. as in nouns. it tells of good old times. Give every man thine ear. or satire.² CARLYLE.²THACKERAY. commenting upon a letter of mine. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. thus. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives. "Hold thy peace. Their uses. in that old Edinburgh house of his. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. theirs. 87. thus. thine. pluck it out. ²HOLMES. ours.²CARLYLE. sometimes its.²ID. F. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. Long Allen.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. his. we have.²J. ours. yours.²ID.²SWIFT.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. but few thy voice. T. and with mine.²J.²BIBLE. The forms hers. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins.²THACKERAY. This usage is still preserved in poetry.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. If thine eye offend thee. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. hers. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. FIELDS. This ancient silver bowl of mine. we find. . if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent."²SCOTT. COOPER. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. are really double possessives. yours. for example. anger.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day." said Henry Woodstall.

but not in form. Besides this use of the objective. III. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. The Objective. In their function." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. They all handled it. 90. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. for whose benefit. 86: mine stands for my property. his for his property. but expresses for whom.²BIBLE.²ID. The old dative case. but nominative or objective in use. 89. the thing is done. Now the objective. Curse me this people. 20. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. or use in a sentence.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. but the form is the same as the objective. this dative use. They may be spoken of as possessive in form." "None but the brave deserves the fair. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. In pronouns. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. as it is called. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. But the first two have a nominative use. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. In such sentences as. and mine in the second has an objective use. in the first sentence. mine stands for my praise in the second. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. was marked by a separate case. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. Both joined in making him a present. 88." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. as shown in Sec. "The good alone are great. .

thus. which follows the verb. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. Indefinite use of you and your. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. to stand for the real.²EMERSON.²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. you sneeze. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. like Chinese skill. was passed by with indulgence.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. Your mere puny stripling. ²EMERSON. why. in this century.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. logical subject. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. or to the idea. as. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar.²BACON. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. you must condense there.²ADDISON. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature.²CARLYLE. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. or that he has not a great deal more. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.² NEWMAN.²IRVING To empty here. WEBSTER.²D. Society. (3) In apposition.Time is behind them and before them. has not made its progress. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. It is a pity that he has so much learning. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it." (3) As a grammatical subject. as in the sentences. The word you. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²DE QUINCEY. and they cry. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.²BULWER. as. 91. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles.² . You have oaten cakes baked some months before. 92.

used in poetry. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self." "He bought him a horse. yourself. themselves. it rained. "I found me a good book.²ID. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. have laid them downIn their last sleep. There was nothing for it but to return. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.It is finger-cold. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. I made up my mind to foot it. (thyself). herself. A sturdy lad . as they are also called. This occurs in poetry. however. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. as. (ourself).²BRYANT. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. I set me down and sigh. -selves.²HAWTHORNE. ourselves. keeps a school. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively.²HOLMES. For when it dawned. Of the two forms in parentheses. and its plural selves." and there is an end of it. peddles it. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined."²IRVING. 94. They are myself.²COLERIDGE. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. the second is the old form of the second person. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. since firstThe flight of years began." etc. when they are direct objects. Poor Christian was hard put to it.²BURNS. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. that is.² Now I lay me down to sleep. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. For example. who in turn tries all the professions. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. yourselves. And when I awoke. . but seldom in prose.²ANON.²EMERSON. It was late and after midnight. 93. they dropped their arms. who teams it.²SCOTT. we use such expressions as. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²IRVING. himself.²BUNYAN.²THOREAU.. farms it. And millions in those solitudes. itself.²DE QUINCEY.

as in vulgar English. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. were changed into the possessive myself. as.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. theself. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject.. and the others were formed by analogy with these. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. Threats to all. The question might arise.To you yourself. as we ourself have been. I shrink with pain. As if it were thyself that's here. etc.²EMERSON. after the analogy of myself.² TENNYSON. In Middle English the forms meself. not the possessive forms.²MILTON.²WORDSWORTH.²E.² The great globe itself . thyself. 96. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. for example.? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms.²SHAKESPEARE. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. with self. to us. ourselves. for example. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. NOTE.. 95. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. especially in the speech of rulers.²ID. to every one. shall dissolve. as. and build the lofty rhyme. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves.² . Use of the reflexives. Held dead within them till myself shall die. B.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. Origin of these reflexives.As girls were once. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. BROWNING.

Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. Courage. some each of masculine. and how to do it. Come and trip it as we go. all conform to it. To know what is best to do. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. FRANKLIN.²DE QUINCEY.On the light fantastic toe. Three now in use. 9. Infancy conforms to nobody. . But if a man do not speak from within the veil. 7. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). 3. 4. 2. fight it out. feminine. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. Years ago. father. and what. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Biscuit is about the best thing I know. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. is wisdom. and neuter. 8. where the word is one with that it tells of.²B. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active.² THACKERAY. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. 5. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. And it grew wondrous cold. some of them being double possessives. 97. which. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. let him lowly confess it. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. One obsolete. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. 6. 10. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. but it is the soonest spoiled.

What wouldst thou do. Which of you. number. that it is not inflected for gender or number. whether. referring to things. The use of who. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. actions. shall we say. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been.There is an old word.. but now obsolete. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. as it always asks about somebody. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. As shown here. whispering sweet. These show that what is not inflected for case. Whose was that gentle voice. having three forms. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. that. or case. but for case alone. 98. it refers to either persons or things.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID.Promised. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. with its possessive and objective. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. etc. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. ideas. not to persons. which is not inflected for gender. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. methought. Use of who and its forms. 100. it is always third person. . it is selective. 99. that is. Use of which. the gold. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. Use of what. used formerly to mean which of two. that it is always singular and neuter.

² "The last of all the Bards was he. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun." In the latter sentence. 99. 127). which is nominative in the first sentence. as. and so to make smoother discourse. They will be spoken of again in the proper places. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. it may be shortened into. objective in the last. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. whose? Obj. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. subject of doth love. which and what. which. for which the pronoun stands. For instance. which is called the antecedent of the relative. AND PLUR. 104. The antecedent. what may be an adverb in some expressions. SING. nominative in the second also. AND PLUR. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. and what are also relative pronouns. "The last of all the Bards was he. and also in having a conjunctive use. pronoun. These bards sang of Border chivalry. 105. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. in Sec. who evidently refers to Bards. Thus we may say. since it is subject of the verb had. or other word or expression.Who sung of Border chivalry. Further treatment of who. SINGULAR Nom. 102." Or.² .101. being the direct object of the verb shall take.²by the use of the words. who is used as objective instead of whom. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. Who. 103. Function of the relative pronoun. It usually precedes the pronoun. which and what are sometimes adjectives. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. as they take the place usually of a word already used. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. as. who? Poss.

That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.²W. The origin of language is divine.²DR JOHNSON. is a divine creation.. D. When the word relative is used. The nurse came to us. Indefinite relatives. and the indefinite use of simple relatives.. 4. 5.Whose flag has braved. 2. 108. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. which. 3. Generally speaking. 4. 107. that. what.²BYRON. The men whom men respect. They had not their own luster. Ye mariners of England. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. in the same sense in which man's nature. 6.²PARTON Which and its forms. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.²MILTON.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. For her enchanting son. but the look which is not of the earth. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.Whom universal nature did lament.²LOWELL In this.. 106. a thousand years. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. Two kinds. a simple relative is meant. are the men and women who bless their species. 3. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. will be discussed further on.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. with all its capabilities . both his and who have the antecedent priest. Who and its forms. the women whom women approve.²THACKERAY.² COX.That guard our native seas. WHITNEY. 2.²SCOTT. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. .

²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE... Examples of the relative that:² 1. What. and spoils.²DE QUINCEY.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. The judge . ought to be kept in view. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. 111. else this description will seem exaggerated. 6. 110. Who. For what he sought below is passed above. 107. The Tree Igdrasil. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.Is fit for treasons. Already done is all that he would do.²MARGARET FULLER. stratagems. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to. which it certainly is not. bought up all the pigs that could be had. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. 3. you will not be angry with me for telling you..²BURKE.. That.. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .5. no bad type of what often happens in that country.. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. 4.²EMERSON. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives.²H. The man that hath no music in himself. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. Reader. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. W.² SHAKESPEARE 2.²LAMB 3.²IRVING. 109. 2. (a) This gradation . and test every remark in the following paragraphs. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully.²GOLDSMITH.. BEECHER 5.

and others. and 3. in the third. Kingsley. Cooper. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.²who. p. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. (2) It has three case forms. who. the others are all third person. or ideas. referring to animals. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. in 5. Gibbon. 96). not persons. in the first sentence. seemed as much excited as myself. The robins. they are plural.²SWIFT. who is first person. Other examples might be quoted from Burke.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.whose. (4) It has two case forms. who class With those who think the candles come too soon... The little gorilla.. Scott. In 1.. son. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. whom. It has been seen (Sec. 2. whose. (3) It is nearly always third person. a man. 113. whose wound I had dressed. 5.²which for the nominative and objective.²LEIGH HUNT.²IRVING. Sec. whose is second person. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. the relatives are singular.. and so on. Who referring to animals.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. JOHNSON. flung its arms around my neck. Examples of whose.. . 112. The sentences in Sec. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. Witness the following examples:² And you. possessive case of which. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. whose for the possessive. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man. 107. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Which. things. My horse. Smollett. that man. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin.²THACKERAY. in 4. In sentence 4.²LOWELL. in the second. whom.²DR. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent.who. and 6.

² And. and numerous others. (2) It has only one case form. and things. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. Kingsley. So in Matthew Arnold.²DE QUINCEY.²BEECHER. Burke.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. for a religion whose creed they do not understand.²THACKERAY. Which and its antecedents. The last two sentences in Sec. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world.² I swept the horizon. thus. animals. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. . on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. and third persons. (3) It is the same form for first. which is worse.² MCMASTER. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural.²SCOTT. too. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds. In the sentences of Sec."²RUSKIN. 115. Sometimes.²RUSKIN.²SHAKESPEARE. Men may be ready to fight to the death.114. 109. 116. no possessive. which is very notable and curious. Primarily. That. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. second. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction.²first. let us enter the church itself. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. secondly (which made her stare). as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. This often occurs. the antecedent follows which. This moribund '61. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. and to persecute without pity. and whose precepts they habitually disobey.

(2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. The gender. For example. that men must needs abide." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. When expressed. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. number. that do I not. . which. Nom. consequently is neuter. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him. who Poss.²EMERSON. 109. 118. plural number. what we said?²CARLYLE. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. but this is not sanctioned as good usage." (3) "These people heard him. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. What. plural number.² What I would. is always neuter. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. The sentences of Sec. 119. it usually follows." That evidently refers to truths. whose Obj. and is emphatic. Who plainly stands for those or the people. 117.²BIBLE What fates impose. as in sentence 6.²SHAKESPEARE. third person.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. that he has. that do I. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. either of which would be neuter. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. Sec. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. we can. and person of the relatives who." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. What a man does. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. third person. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. for example. by taking them out. as. but what I hate.

Some prefer another method of treatment. in (3). after all. is subject of the verb can't be cured. standing for the people understood. and hence is in the nominative case. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. neuter." Here the subject of is. which is. third person. above. In (2). "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. that takes the case of the truths in (2). Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. 7. I think they are trying to outwit nature. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. 4. Now. In the sentence. people is the object of the preposition of. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time. What can't be cured. subject of heard. however."²EMERSON. "What can't be cured must be endured. . not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. etc. so is in the objective case. but is singular. but of this. and what is the direct object of the verb call. 3. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. nobler souls with that which they are. who is sure to be cunninger than they. In the same way who. First find the antecedents." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something.. is what we call nature.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. is subject of wrought upon and molded. because it has usually no antecedent. 8. Truths in sentence (2). As shown by the following sentences. Exercise. in (1). in the following sentences:² 1. 6. The whole expression is its subject. the highest result of all education. it is subject of the verb heard. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. then parse the relatives. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. 120. the simple relative. The relative what is handled differently. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. Another way. The word what. it is object of uttered. Parsing what. What must be endured? Answer. 5. we is the subject. is in the nominative case. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody.

to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. whosoever. in a new and original way. less common are whoso. 121. or stand on their head. whatsoever. object of do] they do. 122. 5. 3. no particular thing. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. . The simple relatives who. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. and parse that in the first clause. So with the other indefinites. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1.²you cannot have both. They are whoever. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. whatever is equivalent to all things which." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. summer will have its flies. Take which you please. by meaning and use. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. 4. 2. or what else soever. "common souls pay with that [singular. which. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. whichever. and which in the second clause.²BURKE. Death is there associated. List and examples. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. no certain antecedent. Hence some take what as a double relative. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. 123. object of with] which [singular. to everything that. not as direct as the simple relatives. that is. being referred to.²BURKE. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. Meaning and use. 7. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. whichsoever. whatsoever. and in 2. Only itself can inspire whom it will. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. It is no proof of a man's understanding.²MACAULAY. 2. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. 6. whatever. and his friend a fool. It is clear that in 1. Do what we can. that nothing else can stand in their presence. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor.

The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. Former use of as. etc. 121. nothing that does not interest us. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. etc. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. for example..² 1. are used. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. upon which. 2. 125. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. etc. whereby. Proof that they have the force of relatives.²DE QUINCEY. whereupon. thus. 124. not following the word such. . There is nothing but is related to us.²EMERSON. Sec. 4. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. has been my heaviest affliction. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. This. for example.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England.² some particular thing. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. Instead of the phrases in which. either one that. everything that (or everything which). In early modern English. Other substitutes. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE.As shown in Sec. but and as. 121. But and as. 120. what means anything that. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.²HAWTHORNE. as was used just as we use that or which. and that as after such is equivalent to which. Two words. but which only wealth could have purchased. by which. 417).. but mean any one whom. 126. the conjunctions wherein.

(a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. the full expression being. 3. it is a simple relative. it is an interrogative. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by." Likewise with which in 3 (b)." etc. Special caution needed here. who having the antecedent gentleman. Another caution. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. and 3 (b). So in 2 (b). (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. if expanded. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. 2 (b). would be. 1 (b). which having the antecedent lines. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. "Who stood behind? We knew. showing that who is plainly interrogative. if not. In sentences 1 (a). How to decide. what is interrogative. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. 2..²ID. "But what had become of them? They knew not. .A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. it is an indefinite relative). The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. In studying such sentences. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. and whether what = that + which (if so. But in 1 (b). 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. if not. though the earthwork hid them. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first.²WHITTIER. Thus. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. a question is disguised in each sentence.²EMERSON. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. no antecedent is expressed. 127. second. which would indicate that they are not relatives.

The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. Exercise. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. Thus. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. On the other hand. which.²FLETCHER. In the second.²HOLMES.²CARLYLE. Put in the relatives who. The insect I am now describing lived three years. 5. In the third. 3. and Court Calendars. which has the antecedent hue.² THACKERAY. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.² These are the sounds we feed upon. . 2. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. I visited many other apartments. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. but the life of man in England. In the first. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. 4. whose has the antecedent you.²SWIFT. Examine the following:² 1. and asks no question.128.²GOLDSMITH. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. the question is asked by the verb. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. 129. ELIOT. When Goldsmith died. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor.²G.²FORSTER 6. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. whence is the interrogative word. Relative omitted when object.

(a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. 6. which.Ne'er looks upon the sun. Relative omitted when subject. which was already proceeding. There was such a crowd went. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. the house was full. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. 2. Also in literary English we find the same omission.² LOWELL. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. that. Examples are. and what. who were to be rulers over whom. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. Function of adjective pronouns. It is rare in prose.²CAMPBELL. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. The nobles looked at each other.²Id. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. 130.²SCOTT. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. 5.²SHAKESPEARE.7. simple relatives. .² The silent truth that it was she was superior. and comparatively so in poetry. 3. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. or indefinite relatives:² 1.

²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. 133. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. or they may stand for nouns. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. in letters of gold. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. or may be the whole of a sentence. and another to get cool under. the former. For instance. Adjectives. that. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. and on each is written. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. "The dead are there. in the first. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. but in this function. in order to be an adjective pronoun. expressed or understood. but have lost their adjective use. either. 132. which we have seen in such expressions as. all. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.131." "Where two men ride on a horse." in the others." Classes of adjective pronouns.²IRVING. not pronouns. In the first use they are adjectives." that is.²EMERSON. many. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. "another bank. such as this. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. Primarily they are adjectives." in the second. "each cube. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. necessarily thought of: thus. . Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. etc. such as each. For example." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. Caution. any. or an argument in a paragraph. or use. and stand for a noun.²BRYANT.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these." "one man. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. etc. "these pranks. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. as some. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. few. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. none. must not modify any word. a word. neither. etc. 'Truth.

but these were of the best.All these he saw. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. Such are a few isolated instances. Their minds accorded into one strain. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Compound. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.²LOWELL. 134. reap the same. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. A man inspires affection and honor. Simple. and sow wickedness.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number.²ID. Exercises. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. NOTE. Some of these are simple pronouns. as seemed good to each. or sat. accidentally preserved.²ID. because he was not lying in wait for these. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. they that plow iniquity. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. or reclined. Even as I have seen. but what he fain had seen He could not see. for example. 3. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. They have not shunned the one. 2. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could.² They stood. when the latter was the King of Spain. 5.²EMERSON 4. Definition and examples. and they have well performed the other. They had fewer books. .

NUMERAL PRONOUNS. ²HAWTHORNE.²KINGSLEY. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. imbued. They led one another. as it were. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. Much might be said on both sides.²HOLMES. Some inflected. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns. with the superstitions of his time. The Soldan.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. for example. Definition and examples. as some of the rangers had gone astray. you quickly come to the end of all. or melt for others' woe. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. we might the more easily discharge them. Exercise. The lines sound so prettily to one's self.Two are compound pronouns. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. Men take each other's measure when they react. paused over a horoscope. None shall rule but the humble. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. one another. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. .²HAWTHORNE. Another opposes him with sound argument. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. as.² One reflexive. 135. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. another. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun.²EMERSON.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.²each other. such as one other. The word one has a reflexive form. as most were. into a high pavilion of their thoughts.

in building of chaises. everything. Every one else stood still at his post. everybody else. Exercise. and was indefinite in Old English. they are never used as adjectives. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. but. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. any one (or anyone). 136. every one else. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues.There is always somewhere a weakest spot.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. unlike adjective pronouns. 137. Now. Jove laughs. as shown in the words everybody's. no one. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. These other souls draw me as nothing else can." It means something. etc. also aught.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. and somewhat. nobody. everybody. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. as. what. I tell you what.Exercise. nothing. somebody else. . Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. anybody else's. Definition and examples. naught.. Somebody. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. etc. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America.² At lovers' perjuries. They indefinite means people in general. something. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. anybody. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. some one. anything. they say. and they.²SHAKESPEARE. every one (or everyone). anyone else.

7. from my earliest days. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. indeed. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. I first found myself among the mountains. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 13. Exercise. 5. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. O thou that rollest above. 3. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 11. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. Hutchinson tells us of herself. 14. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. in his negotiations. 4. 138. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. but not to quite so enormous an extent. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. and of no other. For this did God send her a great reward. Others did the same thing. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. . 8. All was now ready for action. 10. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. were suffered to depart. to which. 12. 6. Whoever deals with M. 9.²a feature of natural scenery for which. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 16. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 17.See also "Syntax" (Sec. The table was good. 18. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. 2. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. A reminder.

29. And I had done a hellish thing. They know not I knew thee. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. 34. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. What can we see or acquire but what we are? .By the old Hall which may be mine no more.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. hear. 21. well-oiled dispositions. in all its height. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 27. A smile of hers was like an act of grace.Who knew thee too well. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. 35. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. hear! 33. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20.19. and seized a pen. oh. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. And will your mother pity me. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form.And it would work 'em woe. variety. 30. 23. eat white bread or brown. behold now the semblance of my being. who take the world easy. thou rollest now. 31. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. Whatever he knows and thinks. and tracedWords which I could not guess of.Destroyer and preserver. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. 32. that let him communicate. 26. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. I who alone am. 25. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. He sate him down.

then. so that no other will be mistaken for it. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. We need to add some words to tell its color. who understands me." "some cities. 42. So with any object. He knew not what to do. etc." The office of an adjective. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object." etc. adjectives are used. Who hears me. 40. or liquid. the number is limited by adjectives. or gaseous. 44. brittle or tough. We are by nature observers. Substantives. Again. or with persons." "that house. which was no bad step towards my liberation. For example. etc. . "one hat. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. that is our permanent state. ADJECTIVES. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. heavy or light. If a chemist discovers a new substance. 45. 37. As to the kind of words used. It may have this office alone." "yonder hill. and he learns who receives. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. and if we are near. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. such as in the expressions "this man. Office of Adjectives. size. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid.36. 38. 41. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. 43. in pointing out an object. position. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. white or red. as. if we are at a distance. becomes mine. 39. 139. and so he read. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. He teaches who gives. we need some word to point out the house we speak of." "a hundred men.. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house.

141. it shows that he weighs men's minds." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. 143. Nouns are not. terrible. to describe it or to limit its application. and their trash. Infinitives." "the Roman writer Palladius. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun." "ivory-handled pistols. divine. If he be thankful for small benefits. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive. pointing out particular things. (4) Pronominal adjectives." "ice-cold water. Classes of adjectives. They include relative and interrogative words. beautiful." "next-door neighbor. To make this clear. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. rash. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. remotest. such as safe. derived from proper nouns. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. Definition." the "and there. 142." they constitute all his connections. happy. words primarily pronouns." and the still less significant "and so. With exception of the "and then." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White.140." "the Christian pearl of charity. used to tell how many things are spoken of. however." "half-dead traveler. "Heaven-derived power. deep. "an old English manuscript. etc.²COLERIDGE. or how much of a thing.² BACON." . made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. to forgive." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. fair. such as. Examples are. To err is human. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them." "unlooked-for burden. (2) Adjectives of quantity. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality." "this life-giving book.²POPE. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. (3) Demonstrative adjectives.

" "The shattering sway of one strong arm. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. which are either pure participles used to describe." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. but small thoughts have I of sleep. in this." was accomplished is a verb. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. 144. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady. any. 2. considerable." "a charming sight. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. some. no. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives. much. For instance: in the sentence. ." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing.²MACDONALD.²COLERIDGE." "trailing clouds. in studying these last-named words. They have these three subdivisions:² How much." "One is hungry. having some of each subclass named in Sec.But ever she looked on Mr.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. Oxenham. sometimes small. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. 143. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. Examples are. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. 1. 'Tis midnight.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting." Caution." "an aged man. and another is drunken." was is the verb. Care is needed." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." "It came on like the rolling simoom. 145. Exercises. and accomplished is an adjective. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished." "The shattered squares have opened into line.

that. but I have gained fourscore. The following sentences present some examples:² ." (b) Indefinite numerals. former. those). 146. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. An arrow was quivering in each body." Single ones of any number of changes.²KINGSLEY. instead of modifying them.² Every town had its fair. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. The demonstrative adjectives are this. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. When some. The list. its wake.²VAUGHAN. are used with plural nouns. Examples. Thus. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. yonder (or yon). Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. Exercise. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES." "In came some five and twenty more. latter. any.²ID. no." "I have lost one brother.²CARLYLE. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it." "a dozen volunteers. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards. they come under the next division of adjectives. How many.²THACKERAY." "Then we wandered for many days. and with them a few negroes. Not primarily pronouns. as. "one blaze of musketry. the former²the latter. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. every village." "He had lived by hunting for some months. (plural these. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts.

The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. In which evil strait Mr. I verily believe.. but. Modify names of persons or things. .²BANCROFT. WEBSTER. These do not. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.²KINGSLEY. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. Exercise. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. Definition. They are of two kinds. When we speak of the seventeenth century. for example. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. they are changed to adjectives. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²WORDSWORTH. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.² It matters not what rank he has.. but in the one case. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. ²CARLYLE. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns.²ID. 148.but all these charms are fled. 149. As has been said.²D. FRANKLIN. what revenues or garnitures."²B. skill which was progressive²in the other. Indefinite relative adjectives. like the other numerals.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions.²ID.²BULWER.²RUSKIN. 147. The silver and laughing Xenil. tell how many things are meant. These were thy charms. skill which was at pause.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. Oxenham fought desperately. The taking of which bark. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. just as the corresponding pronouns do. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you. of equal skill. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft.²GOLDSMITH. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.

²IRVING. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. or whether any.And whichsoever way I turn.²ID.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew.²AGASSIZ.. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). whichever. Whatsoever kind of man he is. In indirect questions. In direct questions. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.²RUSKIN. what inquires about things or persons not known.² EMERSON.. which. He was turned before long into all the universe. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. Was there.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor.²CARLYLE. proved not altogether displeasing to him. as it rather seemed. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. whatever.²LAMB. whichsoever. A lady once remarked. and gaze. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. But when the Trojan war comes. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. you at least give him full authority over your son. Adjective what in exclamations.150. Examples of their use are. it is impossible to determine. whatsoever. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON. . nature will be sure to bear us out in. whichsoever way I move. As in the pronouns. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. the debt to the rich. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. New torments I behold. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. and new tormentedAround me. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. 151. which is selective among what is known.

it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. History of this²these and that²those. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. This is the old demonstrative. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. 155. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have.²This. the making of it right. etc. When we place two objects side by side. we do so by means of their qualities. 154. gold is heavier than iron. we notice some differences between them as to size. Thus. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. alas.Adjectives have two inflections. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. Exercise. But this had also another plural. those). which was fully inflected in Old English.² Oh. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. . COMPARISON. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. All these have certain qualities. etc. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives.. And yet. color.152. The article that was used with neuter nouns. and when we compare the objects. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. In exclamatory expressions. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. That. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. or weight. It is neither relative nor interrogative. of the quality. and those as the plural of that. 153 . Those borrowed from this. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. Meaning of comparison. th s (modern those). or size. weight. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. or amount.²but not the same degree.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. as. NUMBER.²number and comparison. gold and iron by the quality of heaviness.

Freedom is a perpetual. whether they attend their own affair or not. expressing the greatest degree of quality. as. expressing a greater degree of quality. These are called degrees of comparison. or amounts in quantity. to the simple form. .² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. as. indefatigable. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States.²THACKERAY. organic. but. enormous. 160. bluest. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. blue. Substitute for inflection in comparison." "the commonest speech. "untamed thought. 159. easiest. infinite. and the superlative by adding -est. 157. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. easy. These are properly the only degrees. sufficient. Definition. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. They came into use about the thirteenth century. red. universal institution. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. but were not common until a century later." "the largest soul. easier. indomitable. bluer. strictly considered. though the simple. The two forms." Words that cannot be compared. whose favorite pupil he was. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. with less wit. 158. they are not compared. and the superlative. and many others. immemorial." "It is a nobler valor. So with the words sole. "more matter. for example.²SEWARD. supreme." "no fewer than a hundred.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. 156. The comparative is formed by adding -er. great. A main difference betwixt men is. giant-like. reddest. redder. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison.

"So help me God. peaceablest." "more austere and holy. and patientest fusing. mournfulest. strange. madam. Adjectives irregularly compared. was most finished. The following lists include the majority of them:² . that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. witty. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. honestest. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. polished. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given." said Henry Esmond. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries.Which rule. and other words are preceded by more and most." "more odd.²ID. indisputablest.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. there needed to be a most genuine substance. finest chiseling." "the wonderfulest little shoes.²ID." "the immensest quantity of thrashing. most small. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. quiet. though born in no very high degree.²The Nation. etc." "distantest relationships. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. 163. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning.² CARLYLE A gentleman. 162. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. easy. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain." Carlyle uses beautifulest. and yet familiar. which hung behind in the queerest way. The general rule is. admirablest. These long. falling on his knees. who. as." "sorrowfulest spectacles. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. I will. harsh forms are usually avoided. These are adjectives irregularly compared.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck.

furthest 10. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. 1. 2. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. 8. worst. List I. (2) In Old English. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. uppermost LIST III. last Hindmost. oldest Nighest. next Nearest Latest.²HAMLET. 164.LIST I. least. 3. innermost Outmost. further Farthest. though from a different root. older Nigher Nearer Later. A double comparative. . (3) Little is used as positive to less. lesser Elder. 9. lesser. [Out] Outer. [In] Inner Inmost. throw away the worser part of it.² O. hindermost Much or many More Farther. bad. as. as in Shakespeare. outermost Utmost. utter 3. which has softened to the modern best. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. Good or well Evil. The superlative I form was betst. 5. is often used. evil was the positive to worse. 6. uttermost Upmost. Worser was once used. as in the sentence (14th century). latter Hinder LIST II. Hind 2.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. a double comparative. which has gone out of use. There was an old comparative bet. 4. 7. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest.² We have it in a much lesser degree. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. These have no adjective positive:² 1.

there is scarcely any distinction. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English.² The more part being of one mind.²KINGSLEY. (5) The forms elder. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. but not in meaning. strong. etc. The most part kept a stolid indifference. making the modern farther. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. are shown in such phrases as. The meanings greater. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. th came into the others. to England we sailed. a distinction has grown up between the two series. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. the old forms. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. next. first.²HAWTHORNE. farthest. since the m is for -ma.²forth. further. In imitation of further. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. came into use. as long. are earlier than older. ²LAMB. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. much. for example. great. is quite common. except the form next. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. and was the same word that is found in the proverb." Its spelling has been micel. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. List II. First became entirely detached from the series. Between the two sets as they now stand.. and refer to time. instead of lenger.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti.. etc. The latter. meaning the largest part. or series. "Many a little makes a mickle. and the superlative nearest. greatest. strenger. oldest. doubling the inflection.²ID.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. eldest. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. . Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. an old superlative ending. moche. Since later. near. muchel. to which is added -ost. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. furthest. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. farrest. as. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. latest. but originally the comparison was nigh.

but they have no adjective positives. Her. There. was descried The royal banner floating wide. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. Think what each adjective belongs to. List III.165.²SCOTT." "far-seeing as the sun. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. . W. (Sec. Her bows were deep in the water. Decidedly handsome. Highest and midmost. 166. 168." "The outer is of the day. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. are like the comparative forms in List II. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective.²H. by the by.²HAWTHORNE. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING. 167. and have no comparative force. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. The comparatives are so in form. They have no superlatives." -Most added to other words." "the innermost moral soul. but not in their meaning. or have no comparative forms. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. The adjectives in List III.²EMERSON. being merely descriptive. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence." "their utmost exertion." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. in having no adjective positives. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. In List II. the upper light of the world. BEECHER." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man.²DE QUINCEY. or each may modify a different word or group of words. all may belong to the same noun. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives.²DE QUINCEY. on the very topmost twig.²KINGSLEY. but her after deck was still dry.

But in this sentence. A few improper jests and a volley of good. round. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. Exercise. therefore.²HAWTHORNE. as.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. bright. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. we may say "the then king." in which then is an adverb.For example. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. usual modifies incomparable decision. STEPHENS 5. STOWE. Our sometime sister. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. now our queen. and broken.² My then favorite. and thine often infirmities. In the following quotations. our new government. philosophical. in prose. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. May we not. the then and still owners.²TRENCH. solid.²A. 6. in this sentence. and heaven-defying oaths.²RUSKIN. satisfactory. This. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. instead of saying. Whenever that look appeared in her wild. 4. Other instances are. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. It may still be argued." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. H. Richard Hooker. rich." making then an adjective. 7. deeply black eyes.²HAWTHORNE. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. For thy stomach's sake. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. By a convenient brevity. 169.²HOLMES.²NOAH PORTER.²BIBLE. ." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. deep. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. "the one who was then king. ²TROLLOPE. and moral truth. The seldom use of it. Bradbury and Evans. not decision alone. 2. 3. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision.²MRS.

This gave the young people entire freedom. then. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. 170. this. having a singular. Unfamiliar describes truths. and I waited for none. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. positive degree. cannot be compared. compared by prefixing more and most. (3) Its degree of comparison. (4) What word or words it modifies. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. 7. 10. (2) Its number. with awkward but rapid pace. person. therefore descriptive. . These points out what truths. 8. plural number. if it has number. To every several man. the method of parsing is simple. 6. if it can be compared. 4. 5. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. and very few have number. modifies truths. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. MODEL FOR PARSING. I ask nothing of you. In parsing an adjective. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. across the plain. 9. 3. 2. Exercise. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. To every Roman citizen he gives. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. not inflected for number. frank. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. manly way. therefore demonstrative. and most astounding were those frightful yells. Since adjectives have no gender. or case. modifies the word truths. seventy-five drachmas. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. She made no reply.What to tell in parsing.

Their name was the last word upon his lips. during which time I waited. 23. it is so noble a fruit. the same love to France would have been nurtured. 12. 26. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. the tomahawk fell. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. Here lay two great roads. Two hours elapsed. Nearer to our own times. 31. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. suggests such thoughts as these. 28. oxen. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. 21. 22. Like most gifted men. those dogs in the yard. 20. 18. and many poles supported the lower ones. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. 19. yonder oxen in the pasture. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. as for armies that were too many by half. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. 29. and dogs. I know not what course others may take. are immutably fishes. With every third step. 13. 14. 25. and therefore more interesting to us. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 16. 32. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. To say what good of fashion we can. is the settlement of our own country. . it rests on reality. 33. not so much for travelers that were few. growing in the most unfavorable position. 27. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. In music especially. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. he won affections with ease.11. 24.

" the words the and an belong to nouns. weary-hearted man was he. 173. such as we have been attempting to describe.²MACAULAY. the latter is still preserved in the expression. these occurring as the tane. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36." An with consonant sounds. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. were formerly that one. An before vowel sounds. Their origin. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. th o. for example." "a yelling crowd. the tither. Many writers use an before h. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. 37. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect. Two relics. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives." "an orange. meaning one. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. he is no literary man. in vulgar English. the tother. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. In Middle English the became an article. s o." "an honor. even when not silent. 35. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. the other. sometimes the tother. 174. a before consonant sounds. 172. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. the tother. that other. that) which was also an article in Old English. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. 171." "a European. later th . An historian. ARTICLES. ðat. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s .²BREWER. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. Examples: "a house. with an ordinary little garden. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. . Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. and a before consonant sounds. but the former is used. A hard-struggling. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. or the tane.34. In the sentence. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. An or a came from the old numeral n. just as adjectives do.²SCOTT. Our expressions the one.

a person is introduced by a. An hereditary tenure of these offices.² . BANCROFT. on opening a story." the article indicates clearly that a river. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. An and a are different forms of the same word. since it points out a particular individual. and not a state or other geographical division. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. 175.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.²This use is noticed when. or class. thus.² Don't you remember how. NOTE. as "the Mississippi.²THACKERAY. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. An or a is the indefinite article. 177.. or any individual of a group or class. To call attention to attributes. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. An article is a limiting word. Definition. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. 178.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. 176. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me.." "the Ohio. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images.²HEROES OF ASGARD. the older n. With names of rivers. or a group or class of things.²COLERIDGE.²G. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. and when the word river is omitted. When the is prefixed to a proper name. as in the sentence.. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. not descriptive. The Dakota tribes. or group. Kinds.²IRVING. is referred to. 179. The is the definite article. which cannot be used alone. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. doubtless. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. Articles are either definite or indefinite. Reference to a known object.

²EMERSON. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun.²EMERSON. With plural of abstract nouns. . it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. etc. not into a particular virtue. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²ID. laid it on the miry spot. One thing for its class. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. as. but into the region of all the virtues. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. The. 1.² The faint. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. BANCROFT. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. Schelling. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. and the redwing. Caution. Common. 2.²KINGSLEY. 180.²ID. the gallant. the Hume. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. 182. If the good is there. Kant. would speedily extract the required information. her.²GIBBON. so is the evil. His messages to the provincial authorities. or a match put between the fingers. the Spinoza. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. the song sparrow. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. For possessive person pronouns.²SCOTT. 181. With adjectives used as nouns. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.² As she hesitated to pass on. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. for example. Half abstract. 183. NOTE.²MOTLEY.²G. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. The simple rise as by specific levity.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.The Bacon. marks it as half abstract or a common noun.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis.²BULWER . in (3. a preposition. in this sentence from Bulwer. we consider a verb as one word. Definition and caution. for example. representing something which it influences or controls. Each influences some object. "Put money in thy purse. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. hence is not a verb. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. which may be a person. an adverb. the word following. 204. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. and. Now." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. can deceive has an object.In (a). Of those expressing action. c). A verb is a word used as a predicate. the most penetrating. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. etc. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. to go is no predicate. The nature of intransitive verbs. in (2. all do not express it in the same way." Examine the sentences in Sec." put is the predicate. In the first. with some word understood. In the sentence. lone took what? answer. in (c). In giving a definition. or a material thing. but fearing is not a predicate. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. a noun. Has takes the object hypocrisy. taking the staff which always guided her steps."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. care. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. or an idea. The nature of the transitive verb. All these are called transitive verbs. 201. In each case. a). and a preposition unite as a verb. a verb. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. as. and shame the most astute. "Put thou money in thy purse. obeyed is a predicate. endured what? anguish. and to receive the action expressed. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. an article. Hence Definition. b). Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. but cannot be predicates. 200: In (1). the most astute. 202. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. in (b). from the Latin transire. (can) shame also has an object. 203. or the object. b). By examining a few verbs. in (2. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. to say something to or about some person or thing. in (3. and not a verb. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. which means to go over.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. the second founder. . Condition or Supposition. as. in our case. popular government must be pronounced impossible. I. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.I could lie down like a tired child. as. the representative system ultimately fail. or be fulfilled. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. ²EMERSON.²LONGFELLOW.² Now. and may or may not be regarded true.²D.²SHELLEY. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness. Ideal. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.² If. 215. for example.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. he will see the need of these ethics. the writer can make the statement following. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. Again. but.²BRYCE. the first great founder of the Empire. 222. 221. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same.²MACAULAY. they were recorded in the Book of Life. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same.²may or may not be true.²FRANKLIN. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. If this be the glory of Julius. Most excellent stranger. WEBSTER. Unreal²cannot be true. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. 2).

but when the verb precedes the subject. if his lot had been mine.²MACAULAY. Exercise.²FRANKLIN. Subjunctive of Purpose. as. WILLIS.²CALHOUN. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created.. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. especially be. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other.. since he [Byron] was dead.. would have sat still with joy and peace. ²LOWELL. and what kind of condition:² 1.. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. The voice. The subjunctive. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. and sonorous. that we cannot but regret its absence. clear." etc. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. is used to express purpose. II. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. 223. 7. . etc. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. if he speak to you. unless. he supposed. melodious. if he was the man I take him for. and striven energetically to save Ney. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me.²BAYNE. If he had reason to dislike him. and should. do you think. 6. In the following conditional clauses. to drink strong beer. he had better not have written. though. 2. might. is of similar physiognomy. the clause being introduced by that or lest. except.² CARLYLE.² If these things were true.² It was necessary. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories.²EMERSON. society could not hold together.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. she was regarded as a prodigy. that he might be strong to labor. I told him. But in no case could it be justified. P. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true. which cannot be true. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. 4. NOTE. would you. Epaminondas.²FRANKLIN. may. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. thus. 5. 3.²N. 8.²SWIFT.

²CARLYLE. Subjunctive of Result. the answer being regarded as doubtful.²MOORE. I've wished that little isle had wings.That vain it were her eyes to close. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. So live. In a Noun Clause.I have been the more particular.. Ask the great man if there be none greater. 227. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.Thou go not.²DE QUINCEY. VII. WEBSTER. till it meet the sun in his coming.²COLERIDGE. Let it rise. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause. like the Latin. In Temporal Clauses.. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²D. 224. The English subjunctive. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. 226.And we.²WORDSWORTH.. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE.²ID. VI. Rise up. .. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. within its fairy bowers. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside.²BRYANT. none of us could say. After a verb of wishing. To tell of what had passed. 225. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.²SOUTHEY. Expressing a Wish. III. In Indirect Questions. I would it were! ²EMERSON. like the quarry-slave at night. IV. V. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.Were wafted off to seas unknown.

it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air. (b) Adjective. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. The essence of originality is not that it be new.²THOREAU.²TENNYSON. Come. The first merit. Whatever betide.Subject. VIII. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. of cash. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.²SHELLEY. Object.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. is. in its various uses as subject.²DE QUINCEY.² DICKENS. etc. Concessive Clauses.And see the Braes of Yarrow.²CARLYLE. object. That hunger of applause. we'll turn aside. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. which may be (a) Pronoun. I have no thought what men they be. is the ultimate fact of man's life. Complement. . often contains a subjunctive. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. The noun clause.²SCOTT. for example. After verbs of commanding.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. Some might lament that I were cold. 228.²COLERIDGE.²WORDSWORTH.. tell me all that thou hast seen. See that there be no traitors in your camp.²COLERIDGE. in apposition. that everything be in its place.And look thou tell me true. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. 229.² Be the matter how it may. or whatsoever victual it may be.

231. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative.(c) Adverb. for example. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream.²SHELLEY. 230. In spoken English. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. love all men. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. to express a wish. Definition. It must be remembered. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. and condition contrary to fact.²BRYANT. Q. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. or requests. IMPERATIVE MOOD. 232. . the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. Honor all men. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. entreaties. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time.² CARLYLE. point to their immortal works. since commands are directed to a person addressed. (2) Entreaty. though. a concession. (1) Command. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. (3) Request.²J. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts.The spirit he loves remains. Oh. fear none.²CHANNING. however.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. ADAMS. Usually second person. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. At the present day. we had found [should have found] a poem here.

²SHAKESPEARE. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Quoth she. etc. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.²CAMPBELL.²SCOTT. but I + you. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. child of earth!While each performs his part.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart.. to you implied in it."²DICKENS Tell me. there will her heart and her prayers be. receive my hand. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. 8." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed." whispered Kit. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. Break we our watch up. etc. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life.. Sometimes with first person in the plural. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I.And. "Come along with me. Mark thou this difference."Hush! mother. noble earl. 3. 7. we may use the imperative with we in a command. Whatever inconvenience ensue. Oh. or I + they.One glance at their array! 5. lest we rust in ease. nothing is to be preferred before justice. "The Devil take the goose.And God forget the stranger!" . 6. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. Part we in friendship from your land. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go." Exercises on the Moods. request. 2.

26. it would speak. 19. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. 21. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15. as though an instrument. or do it at all. she ought to have it. whether he do it right or wrong. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. 20. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 14. my dear madam. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. and opinion displace opinion. but repentant child. . Think not that I speak for your sakes.Except. "tell me where I may find my poor. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. will it not fall unbound. Well. ruined. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. He is. 18. how he may do his work. "Oh. Marshall.9. then. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner." cried he. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. "Mr. 13. 11. Though abyss open under abyss. He. no literary man.Till you might faint with that delicious pain.That they might answer him. That sheaf of darts. 23." continued Old Morgan. 10. Though he were dumb. in what pomps and prosperities he like. let him live where else he like.High up in silver spikes! 22. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. Forget thyself to marble." 16.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls." 25. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. That a man parade his doubt.

which represented present and future time. "It is not in man that walketh. Siddons. such as be. will.² present. past. past perfect. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. called auxiliaries." . and future. "Thou walkest." present. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. as. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. 235. Old English had only two tenses. The tenses in detail. 234.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. in the third person singular. Meantime. as the classical languages have. PERSON AND NUMBER. and the past tense. also. past. 233." past. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. and the future tense. in the conjugations." "If he comes. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. a form ending in -eth. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. five in the subjunctive. and future perfect tenses. TENSE. 28. to direct his steps. kind. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. "I go away tomorrow. Tense means time. "Thou walkedst. or whether it were as one member of a general party." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. Definition. as will be shown later on. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. When the older pronoun thou was in use. five in the imperative. or future time. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. tell him to wait. by means of the present. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. such as Latin and Greek. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. whatever she did. Tenses in English. or agree with it. the past.27.²nothing could exceed the amiable. have. and unassuming deportment of Mrs. as. shall.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages.²the present tense.

[He] is [They] are 3. CONJUGATION. moods. for example. since it is composed of several different roots.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. is. been. chooseth. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. were. [He] were [They] were . wert) 3. etc. tenses. walking. walk has walk. choosing. chose. PRESENT TENSE. persons. You (thou) be 3. chosen (old. walks. 237. 236. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. 238. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. In classical languages. mood. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. "He walks. I were 2. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. Singular 1.²am. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. singular number. Definition. chooses. as. walketh. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. walkedst. Singular 1. and numbers. Such verbs as choose have five. tense. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. chosest). The verb be has more forms. Singular 1. You are 2. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. but in English. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. Singular 1. I be 2." and this only in the present tense indicative.²choose. are. etc. walked. Indicative Mood. Few forms. This is the third person. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. choosest. PRESENT TENSE.

²WORDSWORTH. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. were. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be.. in four ways. is. to express intention. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. which was now become an occasional banquet.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. The light that never was on sea and land.²SHELLEY. Instead of the plural are. thus. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. (d) With the infinitive. (3) be. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. obligation. same as the German sind. 240. though it is usually a dialect form.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. 239. -en. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.²THACKERAY.His infancy was nurtured. etc. Remarks on the verb be.Imperative Mood. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. etc. as. for example.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. (2) As auxiliary verbs.²GOLDSMITH.²ID.²SCOTT. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva. (2) was. (b) With the past participle in -ed. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. condition. to form the passive voice.²BURKE .. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.

Singular. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. tenses. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. 240. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. as. I choose 2. . Singular. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE." (2) Present perfect. I chose 2. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. 1. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. 242. 1. [He] choose [They] choose 3. "I have gone" (present perfect). PRESENT TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. You chose Plural. past perfect. We chose You chose 3. You chose Plural.241. We chose You chose 3. I choose 2. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. tenses. (2). Machinery of a verb in the voices." "He will choose. as. Singular. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. You choose Plural. future perfect. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. You choose Plural. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. I chose 2. Singular. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). In addition to the above inflected forms. 1. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. 1. "I shall be. Indicative Mood. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. by placing have. etc. had. "I had gone" (past perfect).

He chooses. etc.] he choose. He will choose. Past. He will he choosing. of each tense. he have chosen. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Present definite. Past perfect. singular number. ACTIVE VOICE. Future definite. lest. Only the third person. Past perfect definite. He is choosing. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. Present perfect definite. Past perfect. Present. Imperative Mood. He has been choosing. Present definite. Same as indicative.) Choose. as. Past perfect definite. though. Same as indicative. Subjunctive Mood. he chose (or were to choose). Present perfect. Future perfect. He had chosen. Past definite. Present perfect definite. Future. Present.(3) The definite form of each tense." 243. " " " " " " " he be choosing. he have been choosing. " Be choosing. Future perfect definite." "They had been running. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. Present perfect. will be given. He had been choosing." (4) The passive forms. . He chose. (2d per. He has chosen. "I am running. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. He was choosing. He will have been choosing. Past definite. Past. Present. as. Indicative Mood. [If. Present definite. He will have chosen." "You are chosen. "I was chosen.

He has been chosen. lest. Past perfect definite. Imperative Mood. " " " " " " " None. (2d per. however. .NOTE. Past perfect definite. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. though." [Note to Teacher. None. He had been chosen.] he be chosen.] [If. if learned at all. Future perfect. Present perfect definite. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms. None. He was chosen. as. Future perfect definite. Future definite. Past. Present perfect definite. Present perfect. None. "He does strike. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). Past definite. Past definite. Subjunctive Mood. He was being chosen. None. he had been chosen. in affirmative sentences." "He did strike. Present perfect. he have been chosen. Present definite. Indicative Mood. None. Past Perfect. He will be chosen. Present definite. they will be discussed later (Sec.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. etc.) Be chosen. Past perfect. Exercises should be given. He is chosen. Also. PASSIVE VOICE. Present. He will have been chosen.. He is being chosen. Present tense.²This table is not to be learned now. Past. Present. 262). None. he were being chosen. but verbals. Future. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature.

TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. as. bid bound.[adj. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. According to form. but adds no ending. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. 245.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. ran. laid. NOTE. drove. lay. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. slept. bounden] bitten. sleep. caught. 244. beg. Past Tense. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. run. drive. and may or may not change the vowel: as. which are in parentheses Present Tense. bit blown broken chidden. Definition. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. verbs are strong or weak. catch. begged. Kinds. Some of these also have weak forms.

drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. drunken] driven eaten. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drank[adj.

stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. sunken] sat slain slidden. trod worn woven won wound .

especially in that of an earlier period. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus. Historically.²as (from Shakespeare). The island princes overboldHave eat our substance. and. for example." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active." "the cloven hoof. as. cleaved. Our cock.²one meaning to adhere or cling. nor a dog barked. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. cleft.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. probably to avoid confusion with this.² Thou hast clomb aloft."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. Not a cock crew." "a sunken snag.²cleave. "his bounden duty. and another (born) for the passive. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t). only one set remains certain. Sometimes in literary English. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. to split. but is much used in vulgar English. cloven. The form clomb is not used in prose. clave or clove. cleave.² We had each drank three times at the well." "a drunken wretch. cleft (to split). and sometimes occurs in poetry.²TENNYSON. which always crew at eleven. "stricken with paralysis. as. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. 246.²COLERIDGE.²GOLDSMITH. the other. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. now told us it was time for repose.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. cleaved. instead of ate and eaten." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. The former used to be cleave. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. borne is also a passive. . Crew is seldom found in present-day English. When it means to carry or to endure. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle.²B. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro.²MILTON. as (from Holmes). TAYLOR.²IRVING.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat." In this confusion of usage. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. ²THACKERAY. and the latter. as.

frozen.²WORDSWORTH. . "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. Shake.The form gotten is little used. even in poetry. Drive.²BIBLE. broke. He sate him down. Usually shear is a weak verb. shaken. drove."²KINGSLEY. thrown.² We had all got safe on shore. The butler was hanged. and seized a pen. 9. (a) From the table (Sec. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense.² If.²SCOTT. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. as. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. 4. 7. Exercises. 6. fell." but not much as a participle. which is seldom used except in poetry. Fling. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. began. for example. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. maiden. shook. 3. 10. given. driven. Begin.²TENNYSON. threw. for example. begun. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. as "a shorn lamb. Fall. broken. One example out of many is. shore is rare. gave. Freeze. found. 2." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. 245). Throw. flung. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. Find.²BYRON. Give. found. We usually say. 5. froze. fallen. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. 8. Break.²DE FOE. and grasping at his sword. This heard Geraint. flung.

there is one general principle.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons.. ability. Have we valuable territories and important posts.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. as. must have been an ocular deception. etc.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS."²WINIER. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. Ability. Can is used in the indicative only.. . as it has two meanings. or when it expresses wish. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. "So mote it be. 220. Like must.. PAST. Must is historically a past-tense form. "far off his coming shines. as in Sec.²CHANNING. HAMILTON. or. from the obsolete verb motan. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. 223. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. for full drill on the forms..²PAINE.²SCOTT. purpose.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. but came through analogy with should and would. It is indicative when it expresses permission. His superiority none might question..²CHANNING This. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. 249. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. etc.[To the Teacher. (See also Sec. 247. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. Indicative Use: Permission. Could may be subjunctive. The same remarks apply to ought. They are as follows:² PRESENT. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. Subjunctive use. it is used only in the indicative mood. according to the infinitive used. PAST. as it sometimes does. which survives in the sentence. The l in could did not belong there originally.²HAWTHORNE. of course. PRESENT. 251. All must concede to him a sublime power of action." Must is present or past tense. 250.

(b) In indirect quotations. WEBSTER. yea.²L.² The time will come full soon. 252.²BULWER. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.²LONGFELLOW.² With respect to novels.. They shall have venison to eat.²THAXTER. for example. while ought always has to.²COOPER. to the neglect of shall and should. he said. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. with pronouns of the first person. "I think I will go. to use will and would. what shall I say?²N. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i.²IRVING." Uses of shall and should. as. shall and should are used. she should ride like a queen. . as. She should not walk. BROCKDEN BROWN.e. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. I shall be gone. future action). The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. especially in the United States. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. my lad. She rejects his suit with scorn.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. The following are examples:² Never mind. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. or confident prediction.²MACAULAY. MOULTON. shall and should are used.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. not plod along like apeasant. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. (b) In questions asking for orders.² (a) To express authority.² Futurity and questions²first person. promise. and corn to hoe. Second and third persons. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. The sea shall crush thee. as. in the form of command. Shall and Will.Nay. C.

²WINTER. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. B..² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. . will and would are used to express determination as to the future. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.²WORDSWORTH.²C. or a promise. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.. purpose. 253.²ROGERS. First. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted.²A. BROWN. second and third persons. as the sole inventor.²BYRON.²CABLE. was to be expected. I never was what I should be. And promised. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. time.²SWIFT..²WORDSWORTH.²WORDSWORTH. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. thus.²H.that I would do him justice. for example. etc. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. and will not return until all is finished.²SCOTT. and is equivalent to ought. as. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. LARNED.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. JAMES.² I will go myself now.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. with the conviction that he should win in the end. Disguising a command. JR. for example. (c) With direct questions of the second person.

² Thou wilt take the skiff.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. as if it were merely expected action.. PASSIVE VOICE.²LANDOR. AND THIRD PERSONS.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. (4) With FIRST.²BANCROFT.²SCOTT. as. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. when thou wast born. 254.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.²IRVING. will is used to express command. SECOND. for punishment or intimidation. would is used to express a wish. so you will. To be sure.²SCOTT. action merely expected to occur. for example.. This puts the order more mildly. will and would often denote an action as customary.²War Records. Roland. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). . What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. through storms their brothers are afraid of. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. without regard to future time. In this stately chair would he sit. and mark on the grounds the works. Mere futurity. They will go to Sunday schools. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C..² DICKENS. Thine was a dangerous gift. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke. When I am in town. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. will and would are used to express simple futurity. The gift of Beauty..² Subject I omitted: often so. as. and two of my people.²BURKE.. B. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. BROWN. Would thou hadst it not.²the original meaning of the word will. for example. etc.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt.

Singular. [They] will choose. Singular. 3. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 3. You will choose. 2. [He] will choose. [They] will be chosen. Plural. 252 and 253.:² ACTIVE VOICE. You shall be chosen. 1. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. You shall be chosen. We shall choose. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. 1. Plural. We shall be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. You will choose. and justify the use of shall and will. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. 1. 5. 3. 2. promise. yet only seem. You shall choose. "I shall not run. ." answered Herbert stubbornly. Thou shalt have a suit. Exercises on Shall and Will. We will be chosen. To express determination. He informed us. I shall be chosen. [He] shall be chosen. Plural. We will choose. Singular. and that of the newest cut. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. [They] shall be chosen. 3. 1. 3. Thou art what I would be. 1. etc. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. You will be chosen. (b) Examine the following sentences. I will choose. I will be chosen. 2. 6. [They] shall choose. I shall choose. [He] shall choose. 3. [He] will be chosen. (a) From Secs. 2. 2. You shall choose. You will be chosen. 2. 4. Plural. Singular.

²CHAUCER. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. This ending has now dropped off. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. my son. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. put. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. which may be called irregular weak verbs. Without having attended to this. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. as if he would have more of the enchantment.7.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. 10. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. bereave beseech bereft. 256. Present Tense. "I am a wayfarer. Past Tense. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace.²ID. and have no change of vowel. set. very anxious. or mylk and wastel breed. and I have nothing to say." 14. 9. put. set. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. need some attention and explanation. But the rest. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. bereaved besought . No. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. Irregular Weak Verbs. bereft. The old ending to verbs of Class II. and wondering whether she should see anything alive." the stranger said.²Class I. put. 13.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. 257. then. bereave besought Past Participle. Lucy stood still. 11. 12. Of smale houndes hadde she. as. WEAK VERBS. 255. was -de or -te. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. The beast made a sluggish movement.

dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . hid kept knelt laid leaned. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. spelt spilt staid. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. leant leaped. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

[To] have chosen. 268. to express action unconnected with a subject. When active. and a perfect definite form. as in the Old English. they have an indefinite. an indefinite and a perfect form. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. But later. like participles. Indefinite. when inflections became fewer. In Sec. a perfect. 8. Infinitives. . [To] be choosing. Perfect definite. formed a kind of bedstead.²the creature warring against the creating power. and when passive. expressing purpose. 266. have no tense. Nothing of the kind having been done. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. Three saplings. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. I returned to reflection on my situation.. try clemency. Perfect. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. will (with should and would). 9. 267. [To] have been chosen. Cases when to is omitted. To with the infinitive. Perfect. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. INFINITIVES. 7.. [To] choose. an imperfect. [To] have been choosing. to was used before the infinitive generally. [To] be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. ACTIVE VOICE. 10.. Imperfect. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect.6. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. Indefinite.

(2) After the verbs may (might). hear. please. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun.²TENNYSON. and like a noun in use. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb." Examples are. The gerund is like the participle in form. "a house to let. and corn to hoe. as in the expression." etc. 269. "He need not go") and dare (to venture).² She was a kind. ." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms.²IRVING. under "Analysis. as the credulous imagine. GERUNDS. it may be the subject of a verb. "I do go" etc. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. "He will choose. also in the imperative. While the gerund expresses action. "She ask my pardon. 270. learn [doth learn is one verb. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. it has several attributes of a noun.²it may be governed as a noun.²HOWELLS. sometimes need (as. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. also let. 272. can (could). must. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win.²COOPER. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. as. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches.² What! doth she. liberal woman. as. 271. do (as.. it is often preceded by the definite article. too. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning." (4) In exclamations. HALE. feel.²GOLDSMITH. or the object of a verb or a preposition.²MACAULAY." "I shall have chosen. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. and emphatic forms of the present and past. make. see. watch. as. poor woman!" cried Charles. negative. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. But there was nothing to do.²DE QUINCEY. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. They shall have venison to eat.). the gerund may be called a noun verbal. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. (3) After had in the idiomatic use.²E. bid (command). E. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative.

brilliant." "Certainly dueling is bad. above. Words in -ing are of six kinds. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. according to use as well as meaning. but do not assert. which name an action or state.²Find sentences containing five participles. on your leaving the spot. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. making the definite tenses. which have lost all verbal force." also (2. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. but cannot govern. and has been put down. 4. when. Sec. after examining the nest. 273. which express action. five infinitives. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. and wonderful store of learning! . to see the returning hope of the parents. and five gerunds." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. (5) Gerunds. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. which express action and also modify. Exercise. What a vast." Exercise." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. (6) Verbal nouns. (4) Pure adjectives." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. 2. (3) Participial adjectives. II). which express action. b)." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. may govern and be governed." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. Then how pleasing is it. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. (2) Pure participles.

11. (b) as to use. write twenty pages without stopping. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. 10.²indicative. In parsing verbs. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 9. 7.²active or passive.²strong or weak. (2) Voice. (5) Person and number. or imperative. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. He spread his blessings all over the land. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. 16. 14. like Sir Walter Scott. 6. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. round which is an iron railing. 13. .²transitive or intransitive. What is dreaming? 8. giving principal parts. I. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. by object lessons. 275. but. 234. VERBS. he gave out sentence by sentence. (4) Tense. much corroded. The only means of ascending was by my hands. subjunctive. Thackeray did not. dictating from his chair. 15. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 12. slowly. Caution. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. I suppose I was dreaming about it. (3) Mood.5. bearing her national emblem. give reality to your teaching. you must. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature.²which of the tenses given in Sec.

past tense. indicative. The government might have been strong and prosperous. intransitive. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. active. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. Take these examples:² 1. 235. .276. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. III. Exercise. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. indicative (as it means could). The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. followed by a pure infinitive without to. can. (a) From what verb derived. II. may. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. intransitive. (1) Participle. 273). give points (a) and (b). In 2. 277. (b) whether indefinite. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. and ends in -s. etc. It has been intimated in Sec. (b) its use (Sec. verbals. You are gathered to your fathers. perfect. (2) Infinitive. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. etc. imperfect. (c) to what word it belongs. and should always be analyzed as phrases. then parse it as an adjective. call should a weak verb. (3) Gerund. Let it rise! let it rise. has the subject government. 278. VERBALS. call might a weak verb. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived." Sometimes it does. till it meet the sun in his coming. would. and parting day linger and play on its summit. 2. VERB PHRASES. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. and not taken as single verbs. 278(2).. If a participial adjective. in the world. definite. therefore active. we must beware of the rule." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. 4. In such sentences as 1. 2. must. could. might. past tense. Especially frequent are those made up of should. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. But unless the verb is present. Parse the verbs. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. (b) whether active or passive. has for its subject Lee. perfect. 3. see Sec. no sin nor sorrow. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. usually it does not.

8. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by.Down all the line. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. and wondered if she were yet awake.5. Whatever ground you sow or plant. as usual. He passed across the room to the washstand. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. he thought only of her. 23." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. a new bursting forth of the sun. When he arose in the morning. The soul having been often born. 22. 9. a new waking up of all that has life. a deafening shout. a sweet good will. With them. 11. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 24. Right graciously he smiled on us.O God. In going for water. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. from a sort of temporary death. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. 6. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 21. leaving me upon the bed. as the Hindoos say. 16. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. So. 18. 14. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. see that it is in good condition. 20. or. 17. 19. 10. . 13. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. morning is not a new issuing of light. as rolled from wing to wing. However that be. 15.Henceforth in me instill. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. 12.

27. and limit adjectives or adverbs. for example. place. thou sayest. Better it were. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. they are more himself than he is. who live with nature?²ID.²CARLYLE. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. or manner: as. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4. to consent.²time.²SHELLEY." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly. When action is expressed. The word adverb means joined to a verb. and so on. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. Is it only poets. and men of leisure and cultivation. for the hour of rest is at hand." An adjective or an adverb.²THACKERAY. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way. "William's private life was severely pure. To the almost terror of the persons present. ADVERBS. as. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. And now wend we to yonder fountain."²DE QUINCEY.25. 26.²EMERSON." Sometimes a noun or pronoun. 29. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner]. A verb. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time].² The young man reveres men of genius. and live ere life be spent." "He was absolute. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. because.Feast while we may. Adverbs modify. . Oh. to speak truly. 279." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. Nor was it altogether nothing.

because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. to-day. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. as now.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. B.²TROLLOPE. I draw forth the fruit. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. 281. like the light of heaven. An adverb. Thus considered. not the noun. Surely happiness is reflective. ALDRICH.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. while those in Sec.² FRANKLIN.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. We are offered six months' credit. 280. and half awfully.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. 282. before.²THOREAU. A phrase. A clause or sentence. then.²These last differ from the words in Sec. and that. but some verb understood. for example.²T. NOTE. which may qualify an action word or a statement. . thus. 169 are felt to be elliptical. hitherto. perhaps.²LEIGH HUNT. has induced some of us to attend it. there are six classes:² (1) Time. or a word group used as such. as. lately. ever. but really modifying. is a modifying word. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets.² LOWELL. (2) according to their use in the sentence. ²IRVING. 169. NOTE. but still with a rich bloom to it. etc.²BYRON. It may also modify a sentence. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. as shown in the sentences. being adverbs naturally and fitly. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. Make music to the lonely ear. and rather forced into the service of adjectives. Definition. all wet and glossy. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.He was incidentally news dealer. not simply the forms used in predication. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed.

greatly. singly. twice. (4) Number. especially the comparative of these words. (5) Degree. and others. or how far he believes it to be true. just.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. two by two. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. that these adverbs form a very large class. (6) Assertion. etc.. 283.whence. 283). So also in Grote. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration.which gained him such universal popularity. not.²SHAKESPEARE.² The master.(2) Place.yonder. This long's the text. slightly. The more they multiply. enough. slowly. for example.²IRVING. White. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. surely. Emerson.²R. the more friends you will have. as little. whithersoever. as perhaps. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. too. thus. and not infrequently are found in literary English. [Sidenote The status of such. the more perfect will be their obedience.where. as well. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. I was. etc. as here. Motley. Special remarks on adverbs of degree. as hence. whencesoever. Thackeray. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. etc. while so precedes only the adjective usually. (see also Sec. maybe.²DE QUINCEY. telling how many times: once.²BROWNING. etc. much. bravely. telling how much. as hither. probably.²BURKE. (3) Manner.was for this once of her opinion. at least. telling how anything is done.. the more evidently they love liberty. above. LOUIS STEVENSON.there..whither. .thither. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. etc. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. beautifully. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways.²LECKY.. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. etc. better. partly. very.near..thence.²HAWTHORNE. Meekness.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. possibly.

²THACKERAY. 282. B. Notice meanings. and its lawn before [place]. Franklin. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. 285. Kingsley. Mighty. Holmes. "Peace.²"He walked too far [place].² You are mighty courteous. De Quincey." said the king." "He spoke positively [manner]. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. for example. have the additional function of asking a question. besides modifying.²BAYNE.Pretty."²SCOTT. Dickens. Such are most of those given already in Sec. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples. Neville. Simple. A pretty large experience. and other writers." "The house.²GOLDSMITH. Direct questions. Beau Fielding. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. STOWE. and art but a fool." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE.²THACKERAY. Interrogative. Again. Emerson. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. Some adverbs." "That were far better [degree].² KINGSLEY.²BULWER. a mighty fine gentleman." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. . 284. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Pretty is also used by Prescott.² "Mighty well. It is only occasionally used in literary English." "I have seen you before [time]. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Aldrich. Hard blows and hard money.²HAWTHORNE. for example. Burke. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now.²FIELDING. 286. Defoe. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise.

²D. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. CLAY. . Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. I hearkened. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.²BYRON.²POE.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. (2) Place. (5) Reason. 287. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. for example.²BYRON (3) Manner.²BULWER. (2) Place. I will not ask where thou liest low. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. When did this humane custom begin?²H.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. (4) Degree. I know not why. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. I do not remember when I was taught to read. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. (4) Degree. they smiled. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. WEBSTER.

But in reality. The following. 288. 290. . last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. irregularly compared. just as adjectives do. Tell what each word in ly modifies. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. higher. sooner. not an adverb. Many adverbs are compared. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.) rather 289. highest.²BYRON. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb..²COLERIDGE. and. soon. when does not express time and modify. furthest (rathe. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. but the whole clause. further farthest. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. when compared. Its strings boldlier swept.. obs. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. see Sec. Exercise. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. high. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. soonest. use. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. when." Exercise.²TENNYSON. as. For further discussion. have the same inflection as adjectives. Only that we may wiselier see. well much little far late Comparative. Superlative.eyes. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. Then must she keep it safelier. Many adjectives have the same ending. only occasionally having -er and -est. representing four classes. Form vs.²EMERSON.²SHAKESPEARE.

² EMERSON.²WORDSWORTH. The reason is. etc. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. even. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. 2. 7. curiously jolly. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. or down the leaves laughed through. evenly. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. merely introduces a sentence. to be sure. There are eyes. whether adverbs or adjectives. 3. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 8.²TENNYSON. but with a different meaning. more courtly in their manners.1. 291. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth.²CHAUCER.²ID. 4. hard. instead of being used adverbially. Special use of there. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. With his proud. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. many words without -ly have the same form. 292. But he must do his errand right. kindly and good-natured in secret. Again. And all about. near. hardly.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. mostly. 5. Frequently the word there. quick-flashing eye. He is inexpressibly mean. 6.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly].²IRVING. Not near so black as he was painted. that in Old and Middle English. ." Compare these:² 1. if it has the verb be. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. nearly. Such are most. 2. as. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate.And his mien of kingly state.²THACKERAY.

We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. give² (1) The class. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. 15. according to meaning and also use. 2. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 12. and always. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 5. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. (3) What word or word group it modifies. at the regular wine-shop. Thither we went. but from my fall? 6. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. if the word is compared. . the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. 9. The higher we rise in the scale of being. burning in the center of the temple. 4. 10. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. Exercise. It is the Cross that is first seen. the Madonna is in great glory. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. 16. 18. 11. (2) Degree of comparison. is always politically unwise. but continually shifted. 293. For the impracticable. 17. however theoretically enticing. and sate down on the steps of a house. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. In parsing adverbs. But a few steps farther on. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. 3. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 7. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long.

and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. sentences. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. but the student will readily find them. Unlike adverbs. 21. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. therefore. hence. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. 20. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. etc. word groups. but side by side within the American Union. 294. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. It was pretty bad after that. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. nor. 295. Clauses. But now the wind rose again.19." Paragraphs. 22. CONJUNCTIONS. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. . or sentence groups. upon which the sun now shone forth. Definition. connecting words. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. A conjunction is a linking word. however. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. then." Sentences.

likewise.but (or but also). while. (2) Subordinate. and not man corn... for. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. however. Adversative. as. . nor. as and. Your letter. whether.. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown. neither.Classes of conjunctions. 297. etc.." Nevertheless. (3) CAUSAL. as. hence. either. The assertion. as but.. joining words. nor. however.. the butter too. the bread was spent.. also. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate... not only. else.. both. They are or. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. yet. The chief ones are.or. Causal. either.and.. whether.. or the sea rolls its waves. and. moreover.. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. "Howbeit.. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. as well as. but is emperor in his own right. either. (2) ADVERSATIVE.. therefore. etc. 298. of the same rank..or whether. Correlatives.nor. still. then. serves but to show their ignorance. etc. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair... usually between two things. Nor mark'd they less. Some of these go in pairs. 296. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. had its weight. the window being open. neither. Some go in threes... While the earth bears a plant. not only. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative..or. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought.or. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE.nor. as well as the room door. answering to each other in the same sentence.but. neither.or. Alternative. whether. introducing a reason or cause. only.. expressing a choice.... (4) ALTERNATIVE. word groups.

nor wing of bird. so. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. howsoever.. as.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. ²ALLSTON. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. whenever. nor creeping thing. though. (3) MANNER: how. there will the heart be also. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. nor echo. before. Time.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. . (7) RESULT: that. object. Neither the place in which he found himself. QUINCY. in case. however. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. so. sometimes if.²J. whether. since. so.²IRVING.²DE QUINCEY.²COOPER. unless. etc. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. until. whither. as. seeing. whithersoever. whereas.²BURKE. lest. etc. ere. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. now. on condition that. (2) TIME: when. in apposition. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. since. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. provided. nor green leaf. even if. especially that after so. that. so that. etc. provided that. whence. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. as. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. after.²BIBLE. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. except. wherever.. in order that. etc. He is not only bold and vociferous. etc. It is. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. (6) PURPOSE: that. Where the treasure is.²WILSON. so that. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it... 299. although. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. while.²PAULDING.

We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. .²AMES. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. H. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France. Cause. Result. a thousand bodies. I was again covered with water. reason. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. Concession. not as they were expected or intended.²CARLYLE Events proceed. Sparing neither whip nor spur. We wish for a thousand heads. So many thoughts moved to and fro.² WORDSWORTH.²COLERIDGE. Comparison. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.²BURKE. Condition.²AMES.So I behold them not. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight.²EMERSON. Let the world go how it will. that we might celebrate its immense beauty.² HAWTHORNE. but not so long but I held it out. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it.²AMES. Manner.²EMERSON. As a soldier.²DEFOE.²EMERSON.That he gave her wounds repose. Purpose. Then Denmark blest our chief.² H.²IRVING. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.That vain it were her eyes to close.² EMERSON. JACKSON. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws.²CAMPBELL. Substantive. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.²BYRON. Now he is dead.

5. while. They. 2. 13. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. she faintly pressed her hand. her real merit is known at home. 9. 300. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. . the lady called her servant. as he shot in air.²RUSKIN. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 3. hold a subordinate rank.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. Crept under the leaf. Exercises. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. then.Let us see whether the greatest. The moth fly. In what point of view. No one had yet caught his character. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. While patriotism glowed in his heart. As will have been noticed. 4. 6. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. since. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. 14. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. After he was gone. some words²for example. however. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. 15. etc. 12. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. And they lived happily forever after. that. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. Besides. And then recovering. 7. He was brought up for the church. and hid her there. it will remain harmless. the wisest. as. 10. While a faction is a minority.

only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. and be a bud again. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. In parsing conjunctions.²IRVING. As for as if. and part as though we parted not. As if. 304. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. If analyzed. they connect. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. And their orbs grew strangely dreary.²EMILY BRONTE. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. sounded as though it came out of a barrel.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. none of the lashings having given way.16. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. word groups. expressing degree if taken separately. even as they would weep. 301." as. As though..²BYRON. Consequently. So silently we seemed to speak. . 302. "We meet.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. thus. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner.. (2) What words. His voice .As though a rose should shut.Clouded. in this case. for example.So slowly moved about. the expression would be. etc. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. In poetry. GREELEY. as is shown by the use of as though.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. 303. and the frame will suit the picture.²HOOD. In Emerson's sentence.. SPECIAL REMARKS. as is often equivalent to as if.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope.

they are not known. 3. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. as beside his own chimneys. In classifying them.Caution. At sea. so that expresses result. etc. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. If he could solve the riddle. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. that it might testify of that particular ray. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. when. so that I could not stir abroad. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. 7. 6. and the like. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. he is also the correlative of nature. 13.²that the fairies do not like to be named. because.²I find them true in Concord. Some conjunctions. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. and. but of the natural.² 1. so means provided. and its clause is independent. because it is his. the Sphinx was slain. 5. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1.²DEFOE 2. He is the compend of time. He dismisses without notice his thought. 10. are regularly of one particular class. others belong to several classes. The eye was placed where one ray should fall. so it be faithfully imparted. 2. All the postulates of elfin annals. and associates as happily. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. 9. "Doctor. or in the forest. and its clause depends on the other. so they paddled on. and very seldom?" 8. such as nor. It may be safely trusted. he sleeps as warm. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. When the gods come among men. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne.. or in the snow. in 2. It continued raining. Exercise. For example.²is subordinate of condition. in 3. . Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. compare the sentences. so means therefore." said his wife to Martin Luther. 11.²EMERSON 3. 4. dines with as good an appetite. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. 12.

There was no iron to be seen. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. 26. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. Now you have the whip in your hand. 18. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. 30. 16. 29. however. And whether consciously or not. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. Still. in this they agree. the whole conditions are changed. PREPOSITIONS.14. 21. Goodness must have some edge to it. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. I rejoice to stand here no longer. of good novels only.²else it is none. 305. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. 19. 15. 24. It is clear. in many a heart. 28. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. I speak. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. 23. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. whose names I omit. therefore. It may be so in the majority of cases. 20. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. you must be. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. 25. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. that both were wayward. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field. 27. 22.. won't you lay on? 17. when it was presented to them. . which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. enthroned. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. she might have the family countenance. save it were sinful like herself. For.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

by the ruins of nations.²B. at one. etc. at first. at once. at work. at most. by means near or close to. Like at. as. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. Exercise. By my faith. at least. at rest. At St. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. 321. by many a million of acres. etc. (2) Time. D. at peace. Richard was standing by the window. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. at war..²EVERETT. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. Exercise. CONWAY. At that time [the earth] was richer. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. at random. at naught. at the worst.²DE QUINCEY.²R. at the best. by the wrecks of time. expressing the degree of difference. For. TAYLOR The angel came by night. ²PARTON. the first port made by the ship.²COOPER. at any rate. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. 320. by the blessed memory of the departed. at play. She saw the boat headed for her. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. .²M. at length.²ID. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. (3) Agency or means. H. STODDARD. at all. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. (4) Measure of excess.² (1) The general meaning of place. he stopped.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. By.²SWIFT.²ALDRICH.²WARNER. Helena.

or extent of space.²HOLMES. For him. (6) Like as. An Arab woman.²W. Still. etc. had a forest of poor relations. H. For the rest. E.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. But the Colonel. for all slips of hers." answered Master Brackett.²EMERSON. "Nay.²HOOD.²LAMB. considering that etc. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. "For a fool. but a few sunsets since. for all his title. (5) Reference. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. There are gains for all our losses. (4) Substitution or exchange. (9) Motive. and leaped for joy.² RUSKIN.²STODDARD. in behalf of.²H.²IRVING." said the Lady of Lochleven. meaning with regard to. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. "thou hast counseled wisely. cause. poor fellow. BANCROFT.²E."²SCOTT By my faith. a person or thing. the Colonna motto would fit you best. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. The twilight being.. they are now for us. for the benefit of. incitement to action.One of Eve's family. or in spite of. ate her child. if your worship can accomplish that. as to. . (3) Duration of time. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. L. for famine. He and they were for immediate attack. as being.²ID. (7) Concession. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. GARRISON. etc.(2) In favor of.²PARKMAN. he repented of his folly.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. meaning although.. meaning in the character of. respecting.²PARKMAN. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. etc. reason.

From harmony. (3) Time. if not a desperate man.²H. from a desire of seeming valiant.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. H.²HUME. cause. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. Like boys escaped from school.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. like from. The From Relation.²DRYDEN. It was from no fault of Nolan's. (4) Motive. A distrustful. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. . Exercise. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. From. The king holds his authority of the people. The young cavaliers. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. 323.²HIGGINSON. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. The general idea in from is separation or source. (2) Origin. 322.²ID. nay.²HUXLEY.²HALE. The original meaning of of was separation or source. ceased to be merciful. (1) Origin or source. or reason. more. Of. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²BANCROFT. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. Exercise. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain.²MILTON.

free of. of his own knowledge. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. etc. (b) After some adjectives. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles. ²PARTON. (3) With expressions of material.²clear of. Other Relations expressed by Of. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. and grass. disarm. wide of. White shirt with diamond studs. ask.² HUXLEY. south of. (d) With words expressing distance. Asked no odds of.²PARKMAN.²BAYARD TAYLOR. bare of. deprive. reason.²ALDRICH. cure. motive.²LEW WALLACE. demand. rob. acquitted them of. out of the most unpromising materials.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. there were only twenty-one members present. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. beg. The hills were bare of trees. (c) After nouns expressing lack.²BOSWELL. etc. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. weeds. He is away of his own free will. rid.²DICKENS II. Sandals. A singular want of all human relation. clear.. You cannot make a boy know.²ID. expressing a part of a number or quantity. bound with thongs of boar's hide. ²GAVARRE. More than one altar was richer of his vows. divest. or breastpin of native gold. (5) Expressing agency. such as ease. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. especially out of. etc. Back of that tree. as north of. relieve. purge. etc. "I am glad of that. Of the Forty. HALE. that Cromwell once ruled England. . deprivation. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction.²HIGGINSON. free.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame.²BANCROFT.²SCOTT Who formed. (6) Partitive."²E. E. etc.

And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. Idiomatic use with verbs. Besides the phrases of old. (7) Possessive. when the first is descriptive of the second. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. (8) Appositional.²HALLECK.²COOPER.. with regard to. standing. of a sudden. (10) Of reference. E.²FROUDE.²ALDRICH.²LAMB. The nation of Lilliput. and the dignity of a queen.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. of late.²PRESCOTT. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. could give shelter from his contumely.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold. (9) Of time. CHANNING. Such a book as that of Job. of is used in the sense of during. Not even woman's love. 309. with its object. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.²ID.²BANCROFT. ²IRVING. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. The fair city of Mexico. See also Sec. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. (c) Two nouns. (b) Noun and gerund.²BANCROFT. for the possessive. .²LOWELL. being equivalent to an infinitive. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.²SWIFT. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.He washed out some of the dirt. etc. concerning. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is.²W.²BANCROFT. equal to about.

²DE QUINCEY. On. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. Cannon were heard close on the left.²MRS. repent.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. etc. SIGOURNEY. The general meaning of on is position or direction. on the alert. and others. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. without adding to their meaning. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. avail (one's self). disapprove.²PARKMAN. you are eighteen. on board. (3) Reference. Upon my reputation and credit. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters. 324. ²BANCROFT. complain.²EMERSON. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. (4) In adjurations. (2) Time. Exercise. such as admit. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. . Upon is seldom used to express time. To.²PARKMAN. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. approve. permit. etc.²ALDRICH. Upon. 325. on view. on the wing.²PARKMAN. equal to about. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. (b) With motion. allow. and not a day more. On my life. accept.²Find sentences with six uses of of. consist. on high. Exercise. on trial.²BRYANT. It also accompanies the verbs tire. on a sudden.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. concerning.

²often to the loss of vigor. interest. (5) Equivalent to according to.²HALE...²IRVING. 326. unmasked.²BENTON To our great delight. (2) Expressing result.²LANG. We cook the dish to our own appetite. had ceased to be.²GOLDSMITH.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison. He usually gave his draft to an aid. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. Revolutions.²BULWER. Nor.²Find sentences containing three uses of to.. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. But when. His brother had died. gay Comedy appears. to him. Ben Lomond was unshrouded.²PARKMAN. does the mere music. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. To the few.Come to the bridal chamber. Exercise. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. . With.²B.²BRYANT. In Old English. it may be genuine poetry. whose influence is felt to this hour.²PARTON. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. Full of schemes and speculations to the last. (b) Referring to time. The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. to my taste.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. mid meant in company with. Death!² be written over.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. 268).

we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig.²EMERSON. Exercise. She seemed pleased with the accident.²DE QUINCEY. but with you. "poetry is not a pursuit. 327.²HALE. transmitted from the beginning.²SCOTT. with all his boldness. Either with the swingle-bar. as with you. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. E. With all his sensibility. Messala. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. (3) Cause. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. With my crossbow I shot the albatross.²CHANNING.²WALLACE (7) Time. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²COOPER. He expired with these words. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. felt it unsafe to trifle further.²DE QUINCEY. motive.²COLERIDGE. I think.²HOWELLS. He was wild with delight about Texas.²Find sentences with four uses of with. (5) Opposition. (2) Instrumentality. . and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. opinion. HALE. (4) Estimation.²E. It seemed a supreme moment with him. it is necessary. with Heyward at its head. in spite of. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. to find the object of the preposition.The advance. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. he gave millions to the sword. or with the haunch of our near leader. had already reached the defile.²HOWELLS.²LANG. reason. first of all. but a pleasure"?²LANG.²ALDRICH.

²SWIFT 2. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. we met the defaulter here. of from. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. hence we say. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. of on. country. like the clapping of wings. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. I looked towards my windows. telling what man. And so on.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. 3. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. and knocked me down flat on my face. To our general surprise. In (1). though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board.²ID. In (2). Exercises. I remember. In (3). each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. 5. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. I called out several times. or was. I felt my box raised very high in the air. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. but I received no other hurt. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. I speak these things from a love of justice. by which a dozen apples. . the phrase answers the question where. I heard a noise just over my head. (3) without a country. The object of on board is ships. the malicious rogue. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. came tumbling about my ears. he followed us one day into those gardens. beginning. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. because I had given the provocation. shook it directly over my head. The guns were cleared of their lumber. before the dwarf left the queen. without a country modifies man. but all to no purpose. 4. 2. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. (2) on which. Be that as it will. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. Whereupon. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. of without. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. (4) from the beginning. which.

17. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. On all subjects known to man. 21. 16. plumed for battle. to one dark and gloomy. 11. he favored the world with his opinions. 8. after a restful morning. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. 18.He spurred his courser on. 29. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 12. Carteret was far from being a pedant. I like to see the passing. 23. in town. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. when. He locked his door from mere force of habit. His breeches were of black silk. 15. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. grasping at the child. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. The savage army was in war-paint. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. With all his learning. 24. 26. For my part. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold.6. 7. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. 20. 9.Without stop or stay. 27. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. 19. 22. 13. . 10. in this respect. The mother sank and fell. 25. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. 14.

That night was a memorable one.²WEBSTER.²BEECHER. WHAT. 328. not merely by the amount of the tax. . 329. that you might behold this joyous day. (1) Relative pronoun. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective.²WEBSTER. (4) As an adverb of degree. and not according to form. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. (3) As a relative pronoun. A few are discussed below.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. (b) Of result. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. We wish that labor may look up here. And now it is like an angel's song.²COLERIDGE. (2) As an adjective pronoun. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.That makes the heavens be mute. (a) Indefinite relative. and be proud in the midst of its toil. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. THAT. (c) Substantive conjunction. He will raise the price.²STOCKTON.²WEBSTER.30. 330. That is what I understand by scientific education.² JOHNSON.²HUXLEY. That was a dreadful mistake. is impossible to determine. it rests on reality. (b) Indirect question.Those shadowy recollections. What with the Maltese goats. What. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. he knows what good people are to be found there. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. "I'll tell you what. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.S. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. At what rate these materials would be distributed.²EMERSON. silent still.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. BUT. or not only. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.these sounds are only to be heard. What.²ID.. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. Cox.² Pera. and silent all!²BYRON. (b) Indirect question.Which be they what they may... . (9) As an exclamation. to see what might be hidden.²WORDSWORTH.²WEBSTER.. (7) Adverb of degree.. partly. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. (b) Copulative.but.²EMERSON.." (4) Relative adjective. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. (a) Indefinite relative adjective.²ID.. (8) Conjunction. but the result of calculation. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. 331. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. after not only. If he has [been in America]. To say what good of fashion we can. (6) Exclamatory adjective.²S. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. nearly equivalent to partly..

. 332. (e) Introducing an appositive word. like the dog.²MRS BROWNING.²SCOTT. (2) Relative pronoun.He yearned to our patriot bands. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain. after a negative.Then arose not only tears.. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. To lead but one measure.²FRANKLIN..²EMERSON.²IRVING. meaning except. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. not. at all moments.²IRVING.²LAMB. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. after such. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time. (d) Of reason. Who knows but. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. not. not.. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. or who . AS. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. meaning otherwise . as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. (c) Of degree. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. ²CARLYLE. (4) Relative pronoun. I shall see but little of it. equivalent to that .²HAWTHORNE. (b) Substantive.. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. than. but piercing cries.. (5) Adverb. Doing duty as a guard. .²CARLYLE. sometimes same. meaning only. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. (3) Preposition.²IRVING.²SHELLEY. stands for that .. (b) Of manner.. towards order. on all sides.

Modifier of a noun or pronoun. In this second use. like a cook beating eggs. like summer ocean's. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted.LIKE. Stirring it vigorously. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. like Martin was. . In each case. but its verb is omitted.-SCOTT. Through which they put their heads. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. and is followed by a dative-objective. and was clearly an adjective.²LONGFELLOW.²HIGGINSON. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. Note the difference between these two uses. There is no statue like this living man. but this is not considered good usage: for example.² A timid.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. No Emperor. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village.²SHAKESPEARE. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image.²EMERSON. I do with my friends as I do with my books.²HALLECK.² HAWTHORNE. NOTE. 333. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. Introduces a clause. That face. This follows a verb or a verbal. and as or as if takes its place. They look. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. like drops out. this. If the verb is expressed.²ALDRICH. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day.²ALDRICH. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.²DARWIN. indeed. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.²LAMB. nervous child. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.²MAYHEW. like him awhile ago.²EMERSON. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. ²PARKMAN. (1) An adjective.²CASS. Give Ruskin space enough. staring like a bewildered man.²HAWTHORNE.

Definition." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. Definition. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. that is.INTERJECTIONS. as. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. subject and predicate. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. pronoun." PART II. verb. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. Value of analysis. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. etc. 336. tut! buzz! etc.. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. clauses introduced by conjunctions. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. entering into the structure of a sentence. Some of these are imitative sounds. in separating them into their component parts. 335. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. What analysis is. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. .²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. etc." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective].: for example. but it still retains its identity as noun. that is. 334.²in determining case.

sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. ." 340.²a subject and a predicate. This is the most common one. Definition. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence." "What wouldst thou do. Division according to number of statements. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. 2. "Come to the bridal chamber. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. Definition: Predicate. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. you must not die!" interrogative. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. but the sentence would still be declarative. according to form. but by no means vulgar. always friends?" imperative. interrogative. 337. question. which expresses command. Every sentence must contain two parts. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. entreaty. (3) Imperative. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. or imperative. But now all is to be changed. "Old year. hence. A rare old plant is the ivy green. "Hath he not always treasures. (2) Interrogative.Kinds of sentences as to form. 339. 338. declarative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. or request. old man?" "Be thou familiar. Examples of these three kinds are. but according to how many statements there are. or command: for example. SIMPLE SENTENCES. "The quality of mercy is not strained. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. not according to the form in which a thought is put. which puts the thought in a question.

the subject is frequently after the verb. not of a rare old plant. 2. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. and our definition must be the following. a rare old plant. to suit all cases:² Subject. adjective. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. 7. Slavery they can have anywhere. always reduce them to the order of a statement. or ye) is in most cases omitted. to an ignorant man. Consequently. Listen. we have some trouble. the subject (you. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. 8. or an interrogative pronoun. or adverb that asks about the subject. Thus. 341." Exercise. especially in poetry. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. thou. all. In the interrogative sentence. In analyzing such sentences. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. and the real subject is the latter.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. The last of all the Bards was he. 3. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. as. But if we try this with the second sentence. 6.²What is to be changed? Answer. 5. 4. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. . but about the ivy green. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. "[You] behold her single in the field.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. on the other hand. and is to be supplied.²What is the ivy green? Answer. we say all is the subject of the sentence.

for example. Of a transitive verb. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed." indirect. or second object. "Ye honor me. but chief belongs to the verb. but of call chief. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. and by object we mean the direct object. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. (4) The complements. (6) Independent elements. (3) The object. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. but it is a true complement. just as if to say. 342. Indirect object." Complement: 344. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. in addition to the object. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed.10.²transitive and intransitive. The subject and predicate have been discussed. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. (5) Modifiers. and means summoned. The transitive verb often requires. 343. . (2) The predicate. Direct Object. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. "Ye call me chief." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. direct. and me here is not the object simply of call.

" "The good man." All these complete intransitive verbs. 346. introduced by a preposition: for example. to the completion of this man of the world. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. and. Thom of the Gills. 355. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. as. taste. Phrases. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness.. As to form." (3) INFINITIVE." Also an expression used as a noun." "He was termed Thomas. 351. in the popular judgment. he was now getting old. I mentioned a case of that nature. "Brow and head were round." 345." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. 364. sir!' rang out in response. or." (2) PARTICIPIAL. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. not containing a verb. appear. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. "A cheery. for instance." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. and of massive weight. as in drowning. in the original Opium Confessions. become. Complement of an intransitive verb. 'Ay. etc." Things used as Subject. but used as a single modifier. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. in exercise following Sec. and barring the door. ay. more familiarly. as in the sentence. above sixty. seem. feel. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. 347. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. especially the forms of be. An intransitive verb." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . she sat down to undress the two youngest children. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. A phrase is a group of words. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. 352." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. See sentence 19." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk.

my deficiency.²the infinitive phrase. prowling eyes." "There are asking eyes. (2) In interrogative sentences. and by Saint George!' said the King. but the real or logical subject is to print. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. or the thundering of organs." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies. asserting eyes." "The dead are there. etc. from their lips. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." In this sentence. "'By God." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile." "Never. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb." 348. but obscures the real subject. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). and ever will be." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. 341. but they will be given in detail here. Disguised infinitive subject. I saw the quick and the dead." Things used as Direct Object.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec." etc. was heard one syllable to justify." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. for which see Sec. or their religion from their sect." Things used as Complement. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive.²the talent of starting the game." The for did not belong there originally." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. (4) After "there introductory. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. 349." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. "Therein has been. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. .

" It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. Modifiers of Subject. doubtless." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this. they are adjuncts of the object. and whenever the complement is a noun. I. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. complements of the predicate. Like all the complements in this list." "She asked her father's permission." "I hear the echoes throng. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective. As complement of an intransitive verb. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly. 351. or Complement.²heads or tails. or the equivalent of the noun. (3) Infinitive." (4) Participle. Object." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken. As complement of a transitive verb." "Their tempers. and." ." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she.350. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. the object is made the subject by being passive." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me." "Serving others is serving us." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. and the words italicized are still complements." In this last sentence." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards." Modifiers. and explaining or modifying the subject. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. Of a transitive verb. at the same time. the shepherd girl.²completing the predicate.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot.

I have seasoned for thee." "Give them not only noble teachings.²In each sentence in Sec. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. or complement is modified. 357-363. II." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. tell whether the subject. Tells how." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. not with nature." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading.²proud. but with other men. "He died like a God. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. Retained with passive. object. and leading him from star to star." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. no sociable angel." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help. the prisoner at the bar." "Him. 351." Exercise. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. given at the request of a Dutch lady. 352.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. the verb being omitted." "In the twinkling of an eye. unforgiving.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. was now called upon for his defense. but noble teachers. this young idolater. see further Secs. but it is really a contracted clause. Modifiers of the Predicate." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. and modify the predicate in the same way." In such a sentence as." (For participial and infinitive phrases. austere." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. was the scene from King John. or . at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. Since the predicate is always a verb.

with my joy and grief. . 6. 8. 2. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. a sort of personality to the whole writing. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. They do not wish to be lovely. On the voyage to Egypt. or how long.When the verb is changed from active to passive. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. I took. 3. no relief to the dead prosaic level. gives wonderful animation. he liked. to the animal strength and spirits. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. 6." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain." Exercises. negative. and (direct) object:² 1. is good in the making. but the children of the great. This. 5. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. 7. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour." "All such knowledge should be given her. 5. no emotion. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. according to old philosophers. Evil. These answer the question when. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 2. But anger drives a man to say anything. His books have no melody. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. etc. how far. Fashion does not often caress the great. and. and other measures of precaution." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus.." "One way lies hope. 7. (a) Pick out subject. 4. after dinner." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. but to be loved. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition." (6) Adverbial objective. predicate. predicate. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. and the direct object is retained: for example. no humor. in regard to particulars. and as many to oppose it. the indirect object is retained. in this center? 4. To the men of this world. 3. (b) Pick out the subject.

3. must visit again the home of her childhood. 5. six children sat by a peat fire. viz. Compound Predicate. In one feature. Paint me. the present Archbishop of Dublin. I gave him an address to my friend. I promised her protection against all ghosts. I felt myself. in little peaceful Easedale.. expecting the return of their parents. 5. 4. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1.y 8. Not the less I owe thee justice. Unhorse me. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. the blooming cornet. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. To suffer and to do. a room seventeen feet by twelve. then. 2. 4. for the first time. this nun so martial. upwards. etc. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 3. Yes. the attorney.²the river Meuse. at the chief hotel. That night. then. 6. 2. Their intention was to have a gay. Not compound sentences. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. at length the warrior lady. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. happy dinner. A river formed the boundary.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. . this imperial rider. 3. 2. downwards. 4. burthened with the anxieties of a man. and a member of the world. y y y y Compound Subject. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. after their long confinement to a ship. that was thy portion in life. to the right and to the left. this dragoon so lovely. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1.

Bishop. 355. "Ah. etc. the tone of her voice. the object. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." "Voyages and travels I would also have." "The name of the child. same as (1). however." And so with complements. may be the person or thing addressed. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. For example.353. exposes. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. Of this. and. hurry." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. the predicate. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. then the grammatical subject and predicate. The exclamatory expression. together with all its modifiers. modifiers. together with its modifiers. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. and the rest is the logical predicate. ulcer. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. complements. they are not a necessary part. two or more subjects of the same predicate. and its object or complement. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. but it is to be noticed that. etc. 354. hurry. "The company broke up." "Ye crags and peaks. etc.." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. Independent Elements of the Sentence. several modifiers. my brave young man!" . Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. turned his steps homeward. Examples of compound subjects are. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. the air of the mother. in all such sentences as we quote below. forming a sentence: "Oh." "He shook his head. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. Larger view of a sentence. that is. above: thus. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. the simple subject is situation. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. shouldered the rusty firelock. the verb). I'm with you once again. in the sentence. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer." Sentences with compound predicates are.

undoubtedly. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. and some conjunctions. the company broke up. how you're winking!" "Now. to the best of my remembrance. 357. now.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above.. already noticed. modifying the predicate. There are some adverbs. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. . "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. 350. or complement (see Sec. "Oh. then. really." Another caution. he was a conscientious man." (5) Participial phrase: "But. besides. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. 3. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. etc. moreover. he closed his literary toils at dinner. 356. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary." "No. 352. nevertheless. 351. therefore. prepositional phrases may be. truly. that have an office in the sentence. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. (1) Adjectival." "At all events. this story runs thus. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. grandma." (6) Single words: as." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. let him perish. object." (2) Adverbial. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples." "Truth to say." (3) Independent. yes! everybody knew them. 6). 355. 4). y (2) The adverbial use. These need close watching. 4). or word used as a noun: for example." "Well. see Sec. six quill-driving gentlemen." "Why. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. her noticing even this is creditable. In their use." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. he somehow lived along.. generally speaking. (b) As a modifier of subject. and so on." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. see Sec. pronoun. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. The words well. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. modifying a noun. instances of which were seen in Sec. such as perhaps. such as however." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. why. etc. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES.

" "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. but having no other office than a verbal one.seem. or as nearly so as the student will require.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. y (a) With may (might)." etc.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. and hence is adverbial. See Sec. etc. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing.can (could). being equivalent to a future with obligation." "There. and teach her how to be happy and good.would. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. 358. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts." (c) With the definite forms of go. (5)." (b) With the forms of be. necessity. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. This case excepted. "Because I was. I." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. containing no matters of business. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.: as in the sentences.should. modifying was speedily run through. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. thus. but require somewhat closer attention. 355." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. Wilt thou." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. and they will be presented here in full. The verbal use." In this sentence. was speedily run through. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule.]. ought. etc. my dear. therefore. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. he should not have known them at all. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. "The letter of introduction.

The adjectival use. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you." 360." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). the Scotch fighting all the battles. modifying a noun that may be a subject. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. (4) In apposition. was to have the foe's life at their mercy. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. "But there was no time to be lost." "He insisted on his right to forget her. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. complement. object. above." "To teach is to learn. hang the idiot. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. notice the following:² In (1). "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. The substantive use.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). 361. 361 are used adverbially." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. etc. II. "Do they not cause the heart to beat..²both purpose clauses. result. 362. to please is equivalent to that he may please. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. and the eyes to fill?" 359." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec." "To say what good of fashion we can.: for example. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. III. Don Guzman. 351. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck. to look means that he might look." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. IV. 5). The adverbial use. to hear McOrator after dinner. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. already examined. To test this. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). The fact that the infinitives in Sec." "Are you mad." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. . etc." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this.

give² (1) The predicate. I will try to keep the balance true. 351). V. 355).. etc. 349)." (See also Sec. 351). In (3). The independent use.In (2). to find shows the result of the return. and to say is equivalent to if we say.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. not in a book. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. etc. must be in a life. . This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. to hear means if you should hear. 268. 351). and to betray and to bring express the reason.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. 347). savage and serene in one hour. 363. 3. to part means because I part. In (5). Our life is March weather. In (4). 355. 352). (3).. which is of two kinds. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. (5) The subject (Sec. 2. object. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. as in Sec. equivalent to that you betray. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. 364. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. If it is an incomplete verb.²both expressing condition. In analyzing simple sentences." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. give the complement (Secs. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. etc. 4. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. (7) Independent elements (Sec. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions.

It is easy to sugar to be sweet. Old Adam. a good shot. 9. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. 20. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings.He sat in the shower. is to have no political system at all. He risked everything. The word conscience has become almost confined. good and amiable otherwise. always in a bad plight. a skilled musician.The old crow of Cairo. 10. 8. an accomplished scholar. 18. just on the edge of destruction. 17. 5. . You may ramble a whole day together. through evil agents. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. two stricken hours. nor troops. 11. the carrion crow. 12.Burnt green and blue and white. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. to restore civil and religious order. 22. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. We are always in peril.²to preserve her throne. with eager energy. 24. neither ammunition.4. Her aims were simple and obvious. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. and spared nothing. Through the years and the centuries. To these gifts of nature. nor himself. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. and every moment discover something new. 21. to keep England out of war. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. and to the purpose. To be hurried away by every event. 16. I have heard Coleridge talk. nor money. in popular use. a graceful dancer. like a witch's oils. 15. 14. 7. The water. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 19. and only to be saved by invention and courage. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. might be called flabby and irresolute. The whole figure and air. nor generals.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. through toys and atoms. His opinion is always original. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. 6. 23. 13. to the moral sphere.

and no provisions but wild berries. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. 41. and the wherefore? . But yield. and the why. The villain. the prime minister of Spain. 34.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. and in my own garden.Effacing many a stain of former crime. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. 31. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. to bid you leave the place now and forever. in less heroic and poetic form. to be a reproach to such goodness. an elderly man.Distant. or perhaps one virtue. had but one foible. Supposing this computation to be correct. the present capital of New England. still. time-honored. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. 37. Oxford. 30. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. I hate him and myself. 36. 39. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. and. She had made a two days' march. The cry. it would not have been filial or ladylike. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. Must we in all things look for the how. Now. 29. 35. 40. 32. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. the same Condé Olivarez. In the Acadian land. secluded. ready to receive her. This amiable relative. Few in number. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. the ship was in an uproar. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 27. upon my own ground. in this world. Fair name might he have handed down. proud foe. Of the same grandeur. haply. 38. Upon this shore stood. baggage far in the rear. 33.25. I dare this. in front of all this mighty crowd. 26.

367.² "She is like some tender tree. . Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]." This must. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. The simple sentence the basis. thus. which is the unit of speech." Sentences with like." To show that these words are really omitted. As shown in Part I. Words left out after than or as. though often treated as phrases. 366.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. if they were expanded. COMPLEX SENTENCES. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. the pride and beauty of the grove." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences.From her own loved island of sorrow. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. Some sentences look like simple ones in form." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. as. as would be the connective instead of like. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities. are really contracted clauses. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. 365.CONTRACTED SENTENCES. (Sec. but. however. 333). made merely for convenience and smoothness." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. the expressions of manner introduced by like.

that is. . each clause has its subject.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. then we recognize this as the main statement. predicate. A clause is a division of a sentence. that .. how great . The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. and the next one." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. which are so united that one member is the main one. complement. CLAUSES. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. complements. Hence the following definition:² Definition. 369. and modifier.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. A principal. containing a verb with its subject. or it may be applied to the others.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. as in this sentence. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. Definition.. object. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. 368.. murmur. is taken in. etc. Independent clause. main. logically depends on suffering. suffering. or dependent on it. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause).. and the last. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences.²the other members subordinate to it. object. we are aware. 370. modifiers. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. 371. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind.²the backbone.

373." 374. As to their office in the sentence. But since they are complex in form." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. over which the torrent came tumbling. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things.. .² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. 352. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. 372. attention is called to them here.." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves.. ADJECTIVE. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. thus. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. etc. for example. 5)." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. but logically the sentence is. pronoun. so the object clause is retained. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. adjectives. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh." (2) Object of a verb." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. for a hundred years. with a noun clause in apposition with it.' is an electric touch. and the whole clause is not." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. night or day. (b) that are . Noun Clauses." "I was told that the house had not been shut.. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. (a) Ordinary apposition." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. for example. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause. for a time." (4) Apposition. clauses are divided into NOUN. Kinds.. or adverbs. put an end to my fancies.. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. impertinences. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise..Dependent clause." Just as the object noun. We ourselves are getting . 'I know that he can toil terribly. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. verbal. impertinences²would be grammatical. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. infinitive. and ADVERB clauses. and it is .

5. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. I was napping. that all safe legislation must be based. The reply of Socrates. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. 3.² "It is on the understanding. 9. Adjective Clauses. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. in the sentence. which.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. but. he could know nothing. 2. or equivalent of a noun. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. that. But the fact is. Examples of adjective clauses. Such a man is what we call an original man. whence. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. As the office of an adjective is to modify. 10. he would repent it. whether he should choose one or not. that he was a scheming impostor. . that. wherein. a relative pronoun being understood. 8. Other examples of this construction are." Exercise. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. and not on the sentiment. sometimes by the conjunctions when. where. Frequently there is no connecting word. 4. etc. of a nation." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. 7. What history it had. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. no man will ever know. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. Except by what he could see for himself. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. 6. whereby. whither. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. a falsehood incarnate. as. still remains reasonable. 375. how it changed from shape to shape.

" (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place. 5. 3. 1. 7." Exercise. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. . 8. 10. Pick out the adjective clauses. the champions advanced through the lists. 6.. and tell what each one modifies. he begins to help us more as an effect.376.e." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. Adverbial Clauses. which formed the center of the mansion. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. or that essence we were looking for. 9. object. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. which could not be a prison whilst he was there." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. i. etc. I walked home with Calhoun. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. which Rowena tasted. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 4. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. 11. No man is reason or illumination. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. all is vacancy. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. 2. whether subject." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements.

no matter what remains.: "But still. since he was too great to care to be original." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]." These mean no matter how good. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. an adjective. however good she may be as a witness." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. Shakespeare is our city of refuge." (3) REASON. that we should try. adverbs. introduced by indefinite relatives. expressing the degree in which the horizon. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention. it takes precedence of everything else. however." "The broader their education is. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification. a verbal." "After leaving the whole party under the table. to make up our shortcomings. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. 378." (7) RESULT. the wider is the horizon of their thought.377. is wider." "He went several times to England. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church." (5) DEGREE.² whoever." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. and adverbial conjunctions." (9) CONCESSION. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. etc. Joanna is better. and what it modifies:² . he goes away as if nothing had happened. whatever." "Who cares for that. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. the milestones are grave-stones. but they require careful study." "When he was come up to Christian. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. tell what kind each is. or an adverb." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in." "The right conclusion is. with examples. shaping our actions. etc. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. so far as we can. and will be given in detail. etc. Exercise." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming..

and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. in the sentence. banging about doors and windows." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. to tell the truth. its object is that Odin was a reality. If the children gathered about her. For example. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. they might perhaps say of their visitors. so as to picture the parts and their relations. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. and twirling weathercocks.1. of which clause Odin is the subject. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence." 2. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. with shrill. as they sometimes did. snatching up stones to fling at them.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. incoherent exclamations. object. then treat noun clauses as nouns. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. find the principal subject and principal predicate. 'Well. predicate. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. and modifiers. etc. on a dark wintry night. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. howling and whistling. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. 380. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . so that the living were frightened out of their beds. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. when the wind was unruly. 3. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. we are a little disappointed. 379.

That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. (1) Find the principal clause. 3... . True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. 364. (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. as seen in the "map" (Sec. 2. Exercises. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 364. d. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. 380).

the flower should revive for us. which. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. Whether she said the word is uncertain. could not have been effected. I like that representation they have of the tree. 20. 21. 17. for yours. This is she. of a light hazel. 22. Here lay two great roads. had we been worse. And those will often pity that weakness most. 12. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. 24. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. as for armies that were too many by half. whom I choose. . The deep eyes. that pressed her with an objection. Had they been better chemists. He was what our country people call an old one. 5. 9. the shepherd girl. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. that. 19.4. the mixed result. dying for them. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. M. 23. 10. Next came a wretched Dominican. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. 8. 11. bishop. The night proved unusually dark. or whether any. 7. who would yield to it least. Now. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. if applied to the Bible. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 14. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 16. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. 18. But now that she has become an establishment. 15. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. 6. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 13. counselor that had none for herself. not so much for travelers that were few. namely.

There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. (b) First analyze. we cannot adequately say. the following complex sentences:² 1. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. .²which will not be disposed of. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. questions. 2. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 27.² Definition." said Bentley. and not from his heart. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. then map out as in Sec. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. These things we are forced to say. 6. if continuously extended. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. How formed. 7. is to speak and write sincerely. That which we do not believe. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. would easily reach. that it was no more than his daily walk. 3. 28. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. Hence the definition. speed.25. and temper. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements." 4. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 380. or commands. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. 30. "No book. but above it. though we may repeat the words never so often. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. 26. if there be one to whom I am not equal. "was ever written down by any but itself. 5. 383. and stamped with his right number. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. COMPOUND SENTENCES. 382. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses.

Of the following illustrative sentences. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. Exercise. and connects the first and second complex members. however. in (3). 297). a complex member." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest." 384. yet. in (2). he is twice a man. 383 (1). for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. Some of these are now conjunctions.." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. for. if there are any. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. or but. Speak your latent conviction. Another example is. Connectives. he dilates. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. as in Sec. the planet has a faint. while (whilst). a simple member. and nor the second and third complex members. and which complex:² 1. The division into members will be easier. others sometimes coördinate. The coördinate conjunctions and. nor does he know until he has tried. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. now adverbs or prepositions. and it shall be the universal sense. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. etc. Study the thought. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. and not the form of the connective. 386. etc. Thus in (1). the semicolons cut apart the independent members. tell which are compound. he walks with arms akimbo. the semicolon separates the first. "Only the star dazzles. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. he soliloquizes. moon-like ray" (adversative). 385. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. whereas. nor. as but. the waving grass. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. from the second. . introduce independent clauses (see Sec. which are simple statements.

Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. 3. I can yet love. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. you have gained something else. The gain is apparent. the tax is certain. for example. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. 364. and as yet very early in the morning. you lose something. quiet. 14. nay. 5. and not by what each is. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. yield to them heart and life. In this manner. For everything you have missed. 10. Exercise. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. he grew up to be a mild. passed in that time. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. 4. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 7. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. 387. Whilst the world is thus dual.2. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. or. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. and thou shalt be loved. 9. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. that it was Easter Sunday. all pain. however. unobtrusive boy. is particular. All loss. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. (i) Separate it into its main members. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. 2. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. to find a pot of buried gold. 13. . I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. Love. so is every one of its parts. from a happy yet often pensive child. 4. 6. 381. Man does not stand in awe of man. 12. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. I can still receive. and for everything you gain. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 8. However some may think him wanting in zeal. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. 3. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 11. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home.

and each shows only what lies at its focus. which always make the Actual ridiculous. abide by it. 18. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. Whatever he knows and thinks. They will shuffle and crow. one is afraid. 21.5. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. if you rip up his claims. modesty. "the iron is white. or we pursue persons. and makes their business a friendship. why should we intrude? 10. 16. He teaches who gives. whilst frankness invites frankness. puts the parties on a convenient footing. only that they may brag and conquer there. treat them greatly. 14. We go to Europe. because. give those merits room. and the cart as nigh the rake. crook and hide. and they repel us. 15. "as nigh the scythe as you can. and they will be true to you. We see the noble afar off. 9. 19. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. that let him communicate. and not a thought has enriched either party. Come into port greatly." 13. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. 20. When you have chosen your part. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and they will show themselves great. Stand aside. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. and the peace of society is often kept. 8. or sail with God the seas. feign to confess here. let them mount and expand. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow." says the haymaker. as children." says the smith. or we read books. 11. Trust men. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. or men will never know and honor him aright. and he learns who receives. or hope." "keep the rake. is as thin and timid as any. and the other dares not. 6. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. 7. and not an emotion of bravery. 17. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. . "Strike.

if they live. it ends in headache. but they never acquit the debt.22. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. 24. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. and dodge the account. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions.²agreement and government. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . so readily and lavishly they promise. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. but go about your business anywhere. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. So does culture with us. it never was known to fall into the rear. 23. 25. verb and subject. but its leading characteristic is. PART III. Essential point in English syntax. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. By way of introduction. pronoun and antecedent. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. We see young men who owe us a new world. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. or. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. INTRODUCTORY. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. 380. Do not craze yourself with thinking. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. SYNTAX. 390. Following the Latin method. they lose themselves in the crowd. the department of syntax will be a small affair. they die young. 388. adjective and noun. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. Ground covered by syntax.

authorities²that is. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. When usage varies as to a given construction. The basis of syntax. For example. distinct forms would be used. Savage may be the subject. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. some of which conform to classical grammar. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. the order being inverted. also expressing a possessive relation. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. and imitate it. 393. Why study syntax? 391. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. following the regular order of subject. take the sentence. good English. Second. In Latin. and nothing but important points will be considered. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. There is. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. "The savage here the settler slew. etc. the sentence.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. Also in the sentence. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. . both forms will be given in the following pages. "None remained but he. or when they exist side by side in good usage. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree." In this there is a possessive form. pronoun and antecedent. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. 392. or settler may be the subject." is ambiguous. This is not logical." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. and added to it the preposition of. sometimes verb and subject. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. Some rules not rigid. or the same writer will use both indifferently. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. and whose judgment. therefore. as to study inflected forms. As an illustration of the last remark." that is.² First. and it would not matter which one stood first. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. then. In some cases. but are not now.

He kept Bolingbroke's. as. and Harley's. but imply separate possession or ownership.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.²EMERSON. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. the shore of Galilee. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. Putting Mr. the possessive sign is used with each noun.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Separate possession. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec.² Live your king and country's best support. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them. and Pope's." Juletta tells. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. and Paul's. 408). and Peter's. for example. Use of the possessive.²RUSKIN. ²ID. sense and nature's easy fool. the antechamber of the High Priest. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. 394. and Peterborough's. 397.²THACKERAY. .²MCCULLOCH. Woman. 396. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Joint possession. PRONOUNS.NOUNS.²MACAULAY. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²BYRON. 395. Bentham's principles together.²ROWE. Mill's and Mr. etc.²MILTON. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.

the true relation of the words is misunderstood. But he must be a stronger than thee. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. This should be "as she. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. Objective for the nominative. Since most of the personal pronouns. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. I. as. No mightier than thyself or me. there are two general rules that require attention. the real thought being forgotten. General rules. whom is the complement after the verb am. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness.²BYRON. Some of the violations are universally condemned.²POPE. others are generally.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her. 398. for example.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. and should be the nominative form. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was).²SOUTHEY. thus. . who. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence.²THACKERAY. Still. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out.²SHAKESPEARE. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. sanctioned. Bedott Papers. if not universally. the last expression has the support of many good writers. together with the relative who." 400. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is.) "The young Harper. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as.²WHITCHER.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville.²TROLLOPE. 399.

as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant. One exception is to be noted. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. But still it is not she. it will not be me. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. is. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. and the other forms of the verb be. BLACK. "Than whom." 401. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed. they are yet holier than we.²SCOTT.²RUSKIN. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. . I have no other saint than thou to pray to. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. for example. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. The camp of Richard of England. "Who's there?"²"Me.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee."²WINTHROP. but such is the fact. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage.²LONGFELLOW.² One I remember especially." There is no special reason for this.² For there was little doubt that it was he."²WM.²PARTON. In spoken English. A safe rule. on the other hand. namely. And it was heThat made the ship to go.²THACKERAY. both in England and America.²MACAULAY. Patrick the Porter. The usage is too common to need further examples. are.²FIELDING. the objective form is regularly found. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule.²COLERIDGE. as.²KINGSLEY. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. "If there is any one embarrassed."²KINGSLEY. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. unless a special.

now. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn.Exercise. 5. used after verbs. as. as this from Shakespeare. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. it is me. 403. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 8. 7. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb." 6. or preposition which governs it. but not he" (he should be him. 404." the word being in apposition with murderer).² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. Me in exclamations. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. as. 2. object of saw). The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. verbals. You know whom it is that you thus charge. Whom they were I really cannot specify.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. 9. (3) By forgetting the construction. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. as. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. It is not me you are in love with. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. If there ever was a rogue in the world. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. "Ask the murderer. or this. and prepositions. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. 11. you or me. 4. the object of to). verbal. . 10. or us). It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. I speak not to" (he should be him.²MILTON. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. Nominative for the objective. Truth is mightier than us all. 3. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me.

Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. "Who were they talking to?" etc.Exception 1. who interrogative. Thou. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. for example.²KINGSLEY. .² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT.²KINGSLEY. and is usually avoided.²STEELE. 406. Exercise. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who.² All were knocked down but us two.²KINGSLEY. Who have we here?²ID. Let you and I look at these. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²BYRON. as well as the objective. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. Thy shores are empires. I've sworn. 2. as. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. Exception 2. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. after the preposition but (sometimes save). changed in all save thee. etc. partial Nature. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend.Shall be left upon the morn. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.²GOLDSMITH. I arraign. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. We regularly say. all but he. 405. as. Nature. "Who did you see?" or.²BYRON. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. save thou and thine. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use. None. for they say there are none such in the world. but he.

and by hers whom I most worship on earth. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. Markland.Ye I salute. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. "Nonsense!" said Amyas.²DE QUINCEY. 5. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 6." 4. with Jortin and Thirlby.²RUSKIN.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. 11. B. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.²C. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates.²SCOTT. 9. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. POSSESSIVE FORMS.3. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 407. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. and they know that as well as me. BROWN. who. 7. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. or objective? .²THACKERAY. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. 8. II. As antecedent of a relative.²possessive. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. Preceding a gerund.²MACAULAY. Bartholomew. 12. This usage is not frequent. They crowned him long ago. 10.

should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. Both types of sentences are found. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. The last incident which I recollect.² CARLYLE. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house.² IRVING.²DE QUINCEY. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern.²CARLYLE. Here I state them only in brief. both are gerunds." That is. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying.² SCOTT. But in common use there is no such distinction. that the bitterness of death was past. as he turned away from his wife. The use of the objective is older. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law.²DICKENS. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.² THACKERAY. and that in the second. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote.²RUSKIN. and asked why it was not made.408.²BREWER. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea." or "We heard of Brown's studying law. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. etc. We heard of Brown. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. . and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. and the meaning is. sometimes it has the objective. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.²MACAULAY. [who was] studying law. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. Why both are found. In the examples quoted. Possessive. Objective. object of heard of. studying is a gerund.

There was a chance of their being sent to a new school. Every city threw open its gates.²RUSKIN.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²DE QUINCEY. or is a distributive word.²HOLMES. 410.² BRYANT. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. preceded by a distributive. .²C.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. the pronoun will be neuter singular. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. taking in each of many persons. number. Watch for the real antecedent. Examples of these constructions are. if the antecedent is neuter.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²CABLE.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²DE QUINCEY. in one person. where there were examinations.²AUDUBON. 409. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. BROCKDEN BROWN.²HUXLEY. and gender. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes.²DEFOE.²THOREAU. Everybody had his own life to think of.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. In such a case as the last three sentences. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun.²when the antecedent. and ought to agree with them in person. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.²EMERSON III. it was his own fault.²THACKERAY. If any one did not know it. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. The pale realms of shade. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.

² Not the feeblest grandame. It is a game which has been played for untold ages.²PALGRAVE. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. and giving them means of being so. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. till they have lost him. By using the plural pronoun. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. Whosoever hath any gold.²FIELDING. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case.²BYRON. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective.²THACKERAY. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. Struggling for life.²RUSKIN. as anybody in their senses would have done. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. . every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun.²BIBLE. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²DEFOE. for example.Avoided: By using both pronouns. The sun. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. Every one must judge of their own feelings. 411.²PALEY.²PAULDING. This is not considered the best usage. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²SCOTT. let them break it off. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²HUXLEY. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. If the part deserve any comment. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²EMERSON.²ID.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. not a mowing idiot. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off.²ID. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²AUSTEN. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.

"I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. because. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. or what was become of her. and he went away. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. when restrictive. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. in each instance:² Who. 412. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. who went away." This means. and does not add a new statement. the definite relatives who.²ADDISON.²In the above sentences. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. but. Exercise. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. 2. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. That is in most cases restrictive. Exercise. which. 1. unless both genders are implied. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. tell whether who. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. and that are restrictive or not. I. In the following examples. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. but.) and a personal pronoun. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health.²HAWTHORNE. which. according to the practice of every modern writer. etc. . "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. It adds a new statement to what precedes. 413. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals.Where she was gone.² SHERIDAN. that being considered already clear." It defines beggar. as. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. or unrestrictive. and that always restrictive. A relative. no one could take upon them to say. As to their conjunctive use.²ID. What these terms mean. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. when coördinating. "I gave it to the beggar." A relative.

² MOTLEY. etc. which Mr.²HOLMES. We say I. However. The rule. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. but. W. etc. because of its antecedent.² IRVING.² CARLYLE." that is invariable as to person and number. The general rule is.²ID. he.²DE QUINCEY. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following. as that does not vary for person or number. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. A grizzly-looking man appeared. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. that were often vicious. With narrow shoulders. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. Hare has printed. they. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. which was to go over the Cordilleras. you. 14. For example. Yet how many are there who up. and over England are saying..²ADDISON. In what sense true. long arms and legs.² NEWMAN. . 13. 11. II. 7.²THOREAU.²DE QUINCEY. 414. 10. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. 12. BEECHER 5. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. and it is called logic. she agreed to join the party. who. So different from the wild. Which. 9.²H.²ID. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. 4. 8. On hearing their plan. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.3. these or that which. 6. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. That. etc. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. down. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. in the sentence. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. it makes the verb third person singular.

T..²LOWELL. and in improving a victory.²M.²J.²MACAULAY. when he derided the shams of society. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY..²BOWLES. The latter is rather more frequent. or which . Singular. [singular or plural.²HOWELLS." or. in winning a battle. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. "one of the finest books that have been published. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed.²ADDISON. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. . A disputed point.²LOWELL.²LECKY. but myself. 415.. with one as the principal word. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. but the former has good authority. etc.²SCOTT.. MORSE. ARNOLD.. Franklin. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. and write the verb in the plural. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. others regard books as the antecedent." One of . Let us be of good cheer.] Both constructions are frequently found. JR. etc.²HOLMES.. but speaks of him as that sort. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed. the true antecedent. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.²whether we should say. [plural] that who. who rarely speak at all. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company.. The fiery youth . It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. He is one of those that deserve very well.²ADDISON. "one of the finest books that has been published. French literature of the eighteenth century.

Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.In that same state I came."²DICKENS. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase.² RUSKIN.²EMERSON.²In the above sentences. when the relative word is a pronoun." "India is the place [in which.²ADDISON.²SCOTT. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. and such like: as. whence. IV.²BURNS.² THACKERAY. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts.A rare Roundabout performance.And. or where] he died. 417. and see if the sentence is made clearer. that is. Exercise. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England.²VAUGHAN. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²GOLDSMITH. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning.²IRVING. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²ID.²DEFOE. or is equivalent to the conjunction when. 416. object of a preposition understood. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. where. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as.²SWIFT.² .²EMERSON.²CARLYLE. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. when this dust falls to the urn. But I by backward steps would move.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. I could see nothing except the sky. III. return. The same day I went aboard we set sail. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country.

or lack of proper connection between the clauses. The regular construction. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. They believe the same of all the works of art. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. she passed the lamp over her face and person.²SCOTT. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. looking-glasses. was a discoverer. or that.²WORDSWORTH. if I had resolved to go on with. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. I might as well have staid at home.² BURKE. if same is followed by a complete clause. Mr. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another.² Which. with Turner. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. CHURCH.²ADDISON. but which is usually carefully avoided.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do. Anacoluthic use of which. but we find the relative who.²R.² MACAULAY. V. but.He considered.² THACKERAY. which. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. 418.²SWIFT. W.. etc.. and working in the same spirit. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. That. for example. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an as his apprentice. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. Caution. he. Which. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. . as of knives.²FRANKLIN. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. boats. as is not used. ²GOLDSMITH.

but none is expressed. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.²HAWTHORNE. (2) "Among the poorer sort. . and who are now thrown upon their compassion. This was a gentleman. Thornhill had read." etc. he said that all submission was now too late.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. 419. who are now thrown. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. 2. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. or leave out both connective and relative. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. Exercise. After this came Elizabeth herself. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. Exercise.. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. now thrown upon their." etc. He delivered the letter.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. etc.She'd come again. That is. and this be placed in the proper clause." etc. or.² Direction for rewriting. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. which when Mr. and which.²DE QUINCEY. As the sentences stand. or omit the conjunction.²which if they once heard. etc. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. But who.²RUSKIN. 4. And who. 1. 3.²SHAKESPEARE. but. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. once a great favorite of M. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish.²GOLDSMITH.²THACKERAY.²SCOTT. le Conte.. (3) "Among the poorer sort. and who are now. Express both relatives. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who. (1) "Among those who are poor..

And which. and which may even be heard a mile off.²PEARSON. . The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 9.. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. and to whom no door is closed. 10. and which has never been described. who. 1. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT.. 8. That . which the Scotch had learned. English by name. Or who.²SCOTT. and which. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence.²DE QUINCEY. "A mockery. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony.² MOTLEY.²SCOTT. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. Dr.²DE QUINCEY. like that spoken in the towns. 7. then. indeed. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. Akin to the above is another fault. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. as a false and astucious mark. 13. "What knight so craven. the French.. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . 11. I shall have complete copies.²IRVING.5. 12. etc. either from imitation of their frequent allies. and repeat this for any further reference. I saw upon the left a scene far different. But which.. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. 420. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. one of signal interest. Or which. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. 6." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. etc.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.

7.²HAWTHORNE. but which is perhaps not so different from it. It rose into a thrilling passion. I recommend some honest manual calling. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. which.. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices.²DEFOE. 10. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. and whose examples and principles we inherit. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill.²DE QUINCEY.²SCOTT That which . half a century ago. E. and to whom I do not belong.. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. at the head of what. 14. I give to such men as do not belong to me.2. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune.. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love.. was a bustling wharf.. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. 12. SIMMS. 15. that. in his present condition. 9.²W. 6. the dime.. but which. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. The Tree Igdrasil. 11. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. That . the cent.. whom. I grudge the dollar. what.²HOWELLS. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²EMERSON. such as they have very probably been bred to.²EMERSON. 5.²BEECHER.... which. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. 13. He flung into literature. He.²W.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted.. CHANNING. G..²HALLAM. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. that .²HOLMES. in his Mephistopheles. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. 3. was hung in air. Such as . Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. 4. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. . such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours.²SCOTT. 8. In my native town of Salem. Which . Such as .

that not all combined. 422. . always at war with one another. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. and in want of his gold²or his corn. as.² Some one must be poor. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. 421.²HAWTHORNE. England was then divided between kings and Druids. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own.²RUSKIN. as. Each other.²GOLDSMITH. Use of any. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. in which case any should be used instead. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. We call ourselves a rich nation.²MACAULAY. Assume that no one is in want of either. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY.² HAWTHORNE.²RUSKIN.²DICKENS.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. By their original meaning. let us not increase them by dissension among each other.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. as it were. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. one another.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. whether or not the two are equivalent. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. for example.²ID.²EMERSON. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. Distributives either and neither. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects.

that I know of.²STIRLING. and is isolated.²BURKE. any was often singular.²PROF. even in Bettine. None usually plural.² In earnest. Do you think. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants.²BIBLE.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . in Shakespeare. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. Caution. let him ask of God. Any usually plural. 423. Do you think. during his stay at Yuste.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. I beseech you.²FRANKLIN. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). In earlier Modern English. afterwards in Goethe..²CARLYLE. None of Nature's powers do better service. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. any of his friends had died.²SHAKESPEARE. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. at one time in Bacon. The adjective pronoun none is. whilst I still cherish their genius. when any of them are so good as to visit me. etc. then in Plutarch.² If any. speak.. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. in the prose of the present day. If any of you lack wisdom. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. if ever man was.. Examples of its use are. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²EMERSON. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory.²BEECHER Whenever.² EMERSON. 424.²THACKERAY. as none of the French philosophers were. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. usually plural. before that. for him have I offended. then in Plotinus.²SCOTT. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. as. which is plural as often as singular. . as.

that all was lost.² PEARSON. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. nobody else. any one else.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. when it means all persons: for example.²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. Somebody's else. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² .²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. the plural. fixing his eyes on the mace.² None of them was cleansed.. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.²THOREAU. etc. etc..Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²NAPIER Plural. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. are treated as units. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. and less rarely in poetry.. which is used absolutely. etc. When all were gone.²McMASTER. The light troops thought . the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none. as. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. The compounds somebody else. or somebody else's? 426.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.² Singular. and Ford has nobody's else. etc.²SCOTT Like the use of any. and all was lost on the other.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. 425. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible. for example. saving Naaman the Syrian.

unlike anybody else's in the world. etc.²RUSKIN.curled once all over it in long tendrils." "all manner of men..SYDNEY SMITH. P. "Ye see. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated. . WILLIS. STOWE. ELIOT. or those sort of people.² Saturday Review.²in such as "these sort of books. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. Again.²AUSTEN. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.²RUSKIN. 427. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes." the nouns being singular. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS."²MRS.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. for example. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. the adjectives plural. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. These sort..² FIELDING. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. London.²DICKENS.²G. ADJECTIVES. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. His hair. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. etc.²MULOCH.²THACKERAY. or some other such great man as a bishop.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things.²SHERIDAN. Whitefield or Wesley." "those kind of trees.²SWEET.²N.² These kind of knaves I know. all manner of.

According to the approved usage of Modern English. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. the victor or the vanquished. such as. with all manner of amusing books. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. Use of the comparative degree." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). when the necessary dispositions concur." A question. "This kind of rules are the best. At the source. which accounts for the construction.²RUSKIN." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. The result. History of this construction. 428. Consequently we have a confused expression. "These kind of trees are best. "This sort of trees should be planted. Burke's sentence. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. not "all kinds of wild animals. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. as. . more alarming than a total silence. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. for example. Later form. gradually displacing the old. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. or the nouns to the plural.The library was open. or one object with a class of objects. and in this way may take a plural verb.² Which is the better able to defend himself.² PRESCOTT. and the adjective is. In Old and Middle English. made to agree with it. Of two such lessons. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. to express a higher degree of quality. in spoken English. This the modern expression reverses. they said. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. Should we say.

would not have had the face. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. the highest stakes are paid. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. 2. Henry. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own.²MACAULAY. 6. Even Dodd himself.² THACKERAY. Use of the superlative degree. Gary. 4.²HUXLEY. 429. by almost the breadth of my nail. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. . the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²CARLYLE.²TROLLOPE.²HAWTHORNE.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn.²SCOTT. etc. Superlative with two objects.²SWIFT. Exercise. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. than any of his court. has sanctioned."²ID.²THACKERAY. He is taller.²MACAULAY.²LOWELL. Other after the comparative form. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. I am concerned to see that Mr. 3. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs.²WIRT. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know.A braver ne'er to battle rode. 430. if not. 5. To the man who plays well.

²ADDISON. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. OLIPHANT. Double comparative and superlative. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. The eldest. After the most straitest sect of our religion.²BEN JONSON. These two properties seem essential to wit."²GOLDSMITH.²J.²DR BLAIR.²Bible. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. ha.. "Let us see which will laugh loudest.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. more particularly the last of them. Rip was one of those .²IRVING. not a bit of high life among them. Examples from Shakespeare are. whichever can be got easiest."²HAWTHORNE. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.²HAMLET. Come you more nearer.²RUSKIN. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. Nor that I am more better than Prospero. Mary.²TEMPEST. 431. In all disputes between States. and differ only in form. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. I should say that one has the best cause. CÆSAR.²SCOTT.²MRS. Also from the same period. and the other contains the best men."²BULWER. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. 1611.²GOLDSMITH. The following examples are used purposely. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. . who eat white bread or brown. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. "Ha. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²EMERSON.

The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. Three first. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. ARTICLES.² With a singular noun. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. First three. As to these two expressions. The meaning intended is the same. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books.²PRESCOTT.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. The merit of the Barb. but in literary English.²KINGSLEY. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²RUSKIN. the Spanish.²LAMB. ²COWPER. For Carlyle. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. . He has already finished the three first sticks of it. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. jar upon us constantly. Instances of both are given below.²DE QUINCEY. and Secretary Walsingham also. Examples of this construction are.²ADDISON. etc. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. and conceit in the last. The first five had specific names. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.²GIBBON.² SMOLLETT. The delay in the first three lines. 433.²RUSKIN. not only so in popular speech. Definite article. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. These are the three first needs of civilized life. etc.²GIBBON.

433. . without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. Indefinite article. He is master of the two-fold Logos. having been arranged.²THE NATION. melodious. and the presents. but is used with one only. as. of the higher and middling orders.²PRESCOTT. No.²TAYLOR. as. Here the youth of both sexes. 1508. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.²NEWMAN.² RUSKIN.²SCOTT.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul.. however. Frequently. but inseparable from each other. and flexible language.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. With a plural noun. I think. The flowers. distinct. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. with a plural noun. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. The lofty. The not repeated. the greatest poems. One object and several modifiers.²TENNYSON. the thought and the word. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . to distinguish clearly. the hour of parting came..²ID.² MACAULAY.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.²CARLYLE. 433. were placed at a very tender age. Meaning same as in Sec.²THACKERAY. of the eighteenth century. with a singular noun. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. Origin of the Aryans. 435. 434. or to emphasize the meaning.²MACAULAY. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. as in Sec.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.

rich.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy.²THACKERAY.²BEECHER.²B. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference.436. a tyrant. 438. like the definite article. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²DICKENS. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. only one of which is expressed. Examples of this use are. a collegian. For rhetorical effect. 436). .²DRYDEN. T. But in the following sentences.An early. The indefinite article (compare Sec. The indefinite article is used.² BURKE. 433 and 436. 437. as in the first three of Sec. to limit two or more modified nouns. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. one noun is expressed.²BULWER. interest. and inexhausted vein." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. 434) is used to lend special emphasis.²MACAULAY. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. COLERIDGE.² MACAULAY.²JOHNSON. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. and a usurper.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. One article with several adjectives. a round and a square one alternately. JONSON." and "a red and a white geranium. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun.²S. He saw him in his mind's eye. as. a murderer. 435. In the sentences of Secs.²MACAULAY. or clearness to each of several nouns.

²GIBBON. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. Singular verb.²G. as.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds.²M. 440. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby.²CARLYLE This usage. Such. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. He sees that it is better to live in peace. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. ELIOT.VERBS. This was spoken of in Part I.²COOPER. all that academies can give.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. . (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. Sec. A broad and loose rule. then. ARNOLD. Singulars connected by or or nor.²W. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle.²FROUDE. Collective noun of singular meaning.²The Nation. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. without academies. like some others in this series.²AGASSIZ. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. and the following illustrations prove it. 439. or the great intellectual life of our nation. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. was the earliest American land.. as. In English. for example. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. Another writer might. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. 276. has got already.

or as making up one general idea. is gone. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. but considered as meaning about the same thing. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work.² GOLDSMITH. but each one emphatic.²GIBBON. No. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.² The unbought grace of life. Several singular subjects to one singular verb.²CRITIC. and every four hours. other names. the cheap defense of nations.Jesus is not dead. seems at the moment unpaid loss. for example.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. and other singulars of plural form. Q. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls. a loss of wealth. (4) When the subject is plural in form. as.²J.²GOLDSMITH. as. (b) Not joined by a conjunction.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. A fever. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles.²DE QUINCEY.²EMERSON . Between ourselves. ADAMS. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. for example.² Politics is the only field now open for me. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. a mutilation. ²EMERSON. or considered as appositional. Plural form and singular meaning. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise.² In a word.²BURKE. a loss of friends. nor Mahomet. nor Paul.²WHITTIER. nor John. a cruel disappointment. that of a large town. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.

²MACAULAY. does not take the place of the man.²EMERSON. every echo. sir?" and the "No. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. To receive presents or a bribe.²HAWTHORNE. as well as sides. as well as the Drama. Then comes the "Why. the partisan.²PRESCOTT. wineBegins to stir itself.²BUTLER.²SCOTT. and greaves. Every week. sir!"²MACAULAY.The rout. no matter if the second is plural). every valet. was listened to for five hours. the ruin. as well as Europe. the dismay. the wit. was like to crack.² . the fine gentleman.²M ARNOLD. For wide is heard the thundering fray.²NEWMAN. as. sir!" and the "What then.²LONGFELLOW. was punished. as. a cuirass. The oldest. no spent ball. no discontinuity.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²ID. each. and such like adjectives.²MACAULAY.²PRESCOTT. thus. as well as the newest. The Epic. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. with death. nay. almost every day.²ID.² There is a right and a wrong in them. was dazzled. Subjects after the verb. a gorget.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. in a judge. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. no.The author. an impassioned countenance. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath.² Asia. Plural verb. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. Her back.²RUSKIN. an agitated gesture. There is a moving tone of voice. is a man of wit. Every fop. 441. every boor. many a. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. Every sound. Here is no ruin.

²GIBBON. The Dauphin. shirt. One or two of the ladies were going to leave. of whom there were a number.²CARLYLE But its authorship. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village.²COLERIDGE. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. a green pasture.²B.²THOREAU. and its history are alike a mystery to us. Conjunction omitted. are sufficient to attract a colony. b). Far. TAYLOR. a stream of fresh water. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. for example. His clothes. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists.² One or two of these perhaps survive. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.²ADDISON.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.²SCOTT.²FRANKLIN. as. The conjunction may be omitted.²GOLDSMITH. were men of insignificant characters. . All our household are at rest.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. Philip of Anjou. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. making up a plural subject. A party of workmen were removing the horses.²SWIFT.²FROUDE.²EMERSON. A shady grove.These bits of wood were covered on every square. the Duke of Berri. as with a subject of plural form. far away thy children leave the land. 440 (5.² A multitude go mad about it. its date.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization.² GIBBON.²DE QUINCEY. as in Sec.²FROUDE.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. but the verb is plural. The travelers. as.

Nothing which Mr." or. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. "He or I can go. This construction is at the best a little awkward. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. 443.)." "She or you may be sure.²WHITTIER. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. that is.²SMOLLETT.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. nor has she"). Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men. Exceptional examples. but thou.²M.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser.²THACKERAY. If she or you are resolved to be miserable.²THACKERAY.²LOWELL. WEBSTER. ARNOLD.But notice the construction of this. but thou." etc.²RUSKIN. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. . the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. When the subjects. Not Altamont. hadst been my lord. as.²GOLDSMITH. Not I. of different persons. Pattison or I have said. General usage. the subject being really equivalent to we. for example. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. If there is only one person in the subject. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness.²ROWE. his blood dost shed. You and I are tolerably modest people. 442. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. Ah.²D. Second or third and first person in the subject. 444. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as.²RUSKIN.²DE QUINCEY. "I have never said so. "You would not be wiser. we never talk politics. the verb takes the construction of the first person. nor should I.²BYRON. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. You and I are farmers.

6. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring.²EMERSON.²ID.²ADDISON. 446.²MILTON. Nor wood. 12. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb.²BURKE. 3.²SMOLLETT. in my opinion. Exercise. 440-444):² 1. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer.²and.²THACKERAY. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. as illustrated above (Secs. nor tree. as we would hope.²SCOTT. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. How each of these professions are crowded. BANCROFT. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. which it is proper to mention.²perhaps the devil. Both death and I am found eternal. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). In this sentence from Defoe. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. 7. 11. In a word.445. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan.² TROLLOPE.Her course to intercept. 8. 10. Neither of their counselors were to be present. Neither of them.That neither of their intellects are vast. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . In the following sentence. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.²BYRON. 2. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie. 4.²G. 9. Also in verbals. 5. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. The following illustrate exceptional usage. nor bush are there.²ADDISON.

W. as. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . Of course. Two samples of indirect discourse. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise. for exact connection. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. 4. Indirect discourse means reported speech.²R.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. Definitions. change them to a better form:² 1. I gave one quarter to Ann. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again.²KINGSLEY.. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.²DE QUINCEY 2. It should be remarked.²MACAULAY.." . to have seen should be changed to to see. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. Direct discourse²that is.² PALGRAVE 5.²FRANKLIN 6. 448. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. Exercise. if not. CHURCH. meaning. 447. 3. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. however. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used.²THACKERAY. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes.²IRVING. on my return. But I found I wanted a stock of words. The present rule is recent. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. to have divided with her whatever might remain.

Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. Her prudence whispered eternally. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. Summary of the expressions. His exact words were. and the indirect question by whether or if. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. interrogative adverbs. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. The substance of his lamentation was. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. introductory verb is in the past tense. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. have. under interrogative pronouns. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. etc. She thought to herself. will. Direct. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. "I cannot oblige you .. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. 449." etc.. 1.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect." etc. Direct. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words.. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. "Oh." Indirect. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. This includes the auxiliaries be. Oh. or regular interrogatives. 2. Sebastian's. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. ..

Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. . handed down from his ancestor the historian." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact.²GOLDSMITH. VERBALS. The trouble is. the first discoverer of the river and country. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill.²ID. 450. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. FRANKLIN.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson. and that he himself had heard.²B. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land.²ADDISON. if this were expanded into a verb. like distant peals of thunder. one summer afternoon. Notice this.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. he assured me that nothing was more easy. the sound of their balls. PARTICIPLES. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. Careless use of the participial phrase. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress. with his crew of the Half-moon. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. in the sentences first quoted." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. my first observation will be found nearly true. being the course which his confessor had enjoined.Exercise.

Correction.. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. 3. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive.²RUSKIN. many things to be carefully considered.. .²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. then.. .² HERBERT SPENCER. In the following citations.²SCOTT. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. The practice is condemned by many grammarians. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them.. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. 2. It is a solemn. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. Standard writers often use it. either "As I was pleased. while defended or excused by others. avoid it.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. if a strike is to succeed. Consequently one of two courses must be taken.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. universal assertion. This is the more common arrangement. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. INFINITIVES. There are. purposely or not." etc.. my first collection was.²ID. and often. the first sentence would be. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. For example." Exercise.²LAUGHLIN. Exercise. Adverb between to and the infinitive. 451. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. leaving the principal statement as it is.

In works of art. Exercise.²RUSKIN. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. 5. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. and earthenware. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.²GOLDSMITH. The rigid rule in such a case would be. this kind of grandeur. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. 8.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning.²The Nation. etc. 12. Now. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned.. even. 13." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks.²BURKE. from Irving. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. BLAIR. A little sketch of his. I wish the reader to clearly understand. 7.² MACAULAY. No. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. 10. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. etc. when such adverbs as only..²ID. therefore. The spirits. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. ADVERBS. 452. but it is placed before the infinitive. but cannot misunderstand the thought.²SCOTT. 6. 11.²TROLLOPE. which consists in multitude. etc. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. even.4. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. 9. is to be very cautiously admitted. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. 1533. but they are often removed from the exact position.²DR. Position of only.² ADDISON. if they modify single words. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. are used. china. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² .

The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. Such disputes can only be settled by arms.²MOTLEY. No sonne. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. two negatives strengthened a negative idea.²COOPER. 10. 9. 453. 14. 2. Irving could only live very modestly.²MACAULAY. P. During the whole course of his administration.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²MRS. 16. 6. to avoid a crowd.²EMERSON. 7. 3.²HIGGINSON. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. WILLIS. 5.² THACKERAY. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.²RUSKIN. 15.²SYDNEY SMITH.²SWIFT. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 17. might not marry. He could only afford to keep one old horse. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. whence he was never destined to return.²ID. 12. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. were he never so old of yeares.²ID. His last journey to Cannes. The old usage. 11.²PALGRAVE. In relating these and the following laws. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. for example. GROTE.²N. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard.²CHAUCER.²ID. 13.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. My master. ²ASCHAM. 4. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. 8. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. In Old and Middle English. He shouted in those clear.²THACKERAY. .1. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon.

"Huldy was so up to everything about the house. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. However. ²PAGE. .²MRS. in Ole Virginia."²four negatives. nor the grandeur of no king. 7. denying each other. uncommon.²HOLMES. 5. Exceptional use. the usual way of regarding the question now is. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements.²HAWTHORNE. as. I did not act so hastily. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. Therefore. Exercise. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. etc. when one of the negatives is a connective."²MRS. however. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative.²BAYNE. under the influence of Latin syntax. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. 4. There weren't no pies to equal hers. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. if two negatives are found together. 6. but ought not to labor after it. 3. STOWE.²DEFOE. and why:² 1. In the latter case. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. Regular law of negative in modern English. STOWE. neither. I never did see him again.²GROTE. In the execution of this task.²DE QUINCEY. 2. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. can so agreeably affect. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. But. nor never shall. This. Not only could man not acquire such information. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl.²BURKE. one of the negatives is often a prefix.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. is not common. as infrequent. who hadn't been to school for nothing. The prosperity of no empire.²LOWELL.² HAMILTON. and is still kept in vulgar English.

" said the King. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. and which. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. either.. Correction. nor is often changed to not²either . And who.. as the use of the conjunction. not merely .. nor.. even neither .. or with advantage.. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. the first ought to be placed before a verb.. 454. not only to the success of their common cause. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind." Besides neither . should be scrutinized. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder..²PRESCOTT. "well worthy to confer honor. The sentence. as well as of the pronoun. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is.. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. the first should also. either . especially both . The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .²LOWELL. In the sentence. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.²SCOTT. if the second precedes a phrase.. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.. CONJUNCTIONS...8. Things to be watched. not only . and an equivalent pronoun by the other.. or to reply to it. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel.. but (also). "A weapon. or." both of the above requirements are violated. but to their own safety. and." may be changed to "This loose .."²SCOTT. but. Choice and proper position of correlatives.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. there we were. if the last precedes a verb. or to reply to it.. neither .. or.. The sentences given in Secs. 455." . not or is the proper correlative of neither..

This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.Exercise.²S. not merely interest children. but. and chop up their own kin. JEWETT.²FRANKLIN. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. but they will outrage. 456. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. too. Try and for try to. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. Now. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. 6. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what.²RUSKIN. Correct the following sentences:² 1. but. But what.²BAIN.²GIBBON. as. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. In the following sentences." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.²ID. 8.² ADDISON. . 2.²THACKERAY. murder. substitute that. or but that. as. 5. They will.²MACAULAY.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. or but that for the words but what:² 1. 457. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. 3. but grown-up persons.²GOLDSMITH.²THACKERAY. O. 4. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. Some exceptions. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. Try and avoid the pronoun. etc. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. 7. or the negative relative but. Exercise. nor the disgrace of assailing him. and I don't know but what he was right. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex.

but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. PREPOSITIONS. as already seen in Sec. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. 459. no separation or division by twos being implied.²TROLLOPE. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth.² BULWER. 458. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. Between and among. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. 3. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied.² SWIFT. 305. 5. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. 6. see Sec.²BURKE.²ADDISON. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. . 4.²SCOTT. 313.²EMERSON. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. Between is used most often with two things only. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.²ADDISON.²EMERSON.2. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.

between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. Conform to. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Such are absolve. Different from. correspond. and another to convey a different meaning. Bestow on (upon). 461. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow.²RUSKIN What have I. and Coleridge. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. as. averse.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. as.²between philosophers like Spinoza. and Stewart. . come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. involve. different. ²EMERSON. Abhorrent to. Comply with. Derogatory to.: Words with particular prepositions. confer. LIST I. Mackintosh. List I. or one object and a group. Dependent on (upon). 460. Dissent from. Kant. Two groups or one and a group. etc.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once.²KINGSLEY. Acquit of. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Accord with.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. Paley. Averse to. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Some of them have. and philosophers like Locke. Such are derogatory. Conversant with. by custom. a soldier of the Cross. Affinity between.

Correspond with (write to). "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. . Confide in (trust in). in the sense of making friends with. Confer with (talk with). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Reconcile to (note below). and sometimes creeps into standard books.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Confide to (intrust to)." List III. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). A taste for (art. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person).). Reconcile with (note below). List II. Involve in. as. Independent of. LIST II. as. etc. A taste of (food). but it is not good usage. 463. Change with (a person). Correspond to (a thing).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. 462. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. Change to (become). as meaning to be in keeping with." also of persons. Differ with (note below). Agree to (a proposal). LIST III. "The king is reconciled to his minister. Differ from (note below). Change for (a thing).y y y Deprive of. as. Confer on (upon) (give to).

²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL.²MACAULAY. It is a man of quality who dies for her.²GOLDSMITH. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing. ELIOT. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. "Die for.:² "Die of." She would have been ready to die with shame. die of." (material cause. privation.²G. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. die from. Who.²POPE. Expect of. expect from. and ill treatment.²SCOTT.²SHAKESPEARE. ELIOT." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. die with.²FIELDING. ²ATHENÆUM. simply from old age.²BOSWELL. they shall die by this hand." The author died of a fit of apoplexy. "Die from. Part from.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. "Die with. No one died from want at Longfeld.²ADDISON." "die from. part with.²BURNETT." (because of). Illustrations of "die of. as Cervantes informs us.²MACAULAY. "Die for. One of them said he would die for her. It would take me long to die of hunger.²MACAULAY.y y y Die by. People do not die of trifling little colds. die for.²G. died for love of the fair Marcella." etc. He died at last without disease. I am positively dying with hunger." (in behalf of). instrument). ²THACKERAY. "Die by. .²BULWER. She died of hard work.²GOLDSMITH. Take thought and die for Cæsar. If I meet with any of 'em.

²WALLER." "part from:"² "Part with. "Part from. 464. How cruel of me!²COLLINS.²DICKENS. His precious bag.²TROLLOPE. 465. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. as my friend. kind of you.²WALPOLE. Kind in you.²MACAULAY. I part with all that grew so near my heart. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. ELIOT. Of Doctor P. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²BULWER. I have just seen her. With words implying behavior or disposition.²AUSTEN.²MACAULAY.²POE. ." "expect from:"² "Expect of. That is more than I expected of you. ELIOT.²G." To part from you would be misery. nothing better was to be expected. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. It was a little bad of you. which he would by no means part from.²MARRYAT. ELIOT.²BULWER. I have long expected something remarkable from you. and hated to part with them. either of or in is used indifferently. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. 466.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²G.²SCOTT." She will expect more attention from you. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²SHAW.²G. Illustrations of "part with. I can part with my children for their good. Illustrations of "expect of. "Expect from. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. just parted from her." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.

1. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. In. the vast abyss. It will be anything but shrewd in you. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. thrown it over Amyas's head. 8. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. 4. or artillery. nor of a pale red. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 10. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. thunder. 3.²TENNYSON. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. .²BULWER. nor green. In the friction between an employer and workman. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white.²CARLYLE. tedious perhaps.²BULWER. and ran up the alley. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. Very natural in Mr. Thou tread'st. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 5. The noise of vast cataracts. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. This narrative. Hampden. or that they are any way dependent on each other. nor yellow. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss.²BEACONSFIELD. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame.²DICKENS. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. or which we are most imperatively required to do. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. But this is idle of you. 9. 13. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. nor blue. it is commonly said that his profits are high. 14. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. 6. 7. raging storms. 15. with seraphims. 11.He did not think it handsome of you. but which the story renders necessary.

You have seen Cassio and she together. what is a just and unjust act. were down with raging fever. produce approbation. you or me. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. and other angular figures. 23. and almost as good as a pony. 36. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. or how beautiful it is. Squares. 25. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. 24. and most of us do know. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. Friday. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. Every one of these letters are in my name. 38. 21.) 34. 31. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 22. When the glass or liquor are transparent. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. the acquiescence of the understanding. 32. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. 27. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. 17. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. 18. That night every man of the boat's crew. 19. 411. 26. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 28. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. The effect of proportion and fitness. But every man may know.I would wish me only he. 20. 30. but in the price paid to them.And were I anything but what I am. 33. . Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. 35. (Sec. save Amyas. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. 37. 16. triangles. 29.

voice.000 between them. of. 98. 47. adjectives. (2) Middle English. of. 25. of. article. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 47. 89. of. 20. Abstract with Active Address. pronouns. as comparison definition demonstrative. of. adverbs used complements. nouns. 92. 102. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. 239. as. 310. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. nominative. (3) Modern English. from about 1500 to the present time. 260. Adjectives. origin of. 133. numeral. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 90. 40. A. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 119. 116. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. 124. INDEX. syntax uses Absolute. . 124. demonstrative.39. 107. 91. from nominative clauses. He had four children.

Against. 184. 190. 328. 303. . 115. antecedent. 207. 207. adjectives. Alms. 42. 242. infinitive. plural pronominal. sentence. of. Agreement.from function how in not of of ordinal. parse. 101. parse. 323. conjunction. 183. compared. 187. 191. to used of. 239. 97. of. form as as they to in as uses uses of. with with with subject. conjunctions. adjectives. 104. 27. 194. nouns. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 275. 116. 195. and 185. of. 262. clauses. 316. antecedent. quality. of. as nouns. modify. 325. adjectives. 99. 325. 302. quantity. predicate. 103. 109. 27. 48. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. 106. 116. of. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. 287. of. from to of. nouns. 303. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. objective. of. 114. 194. between of. 291. 148. 190.

294. of and pronoun of. which. See 74. 67. sentences. agreement personal as pronoun. uses As At. it. syntax. derivation in definite. 295. 49. sentences. 74. sentences. 47. 287. 198. Arrangement Articles.Among. Agreement. which. 240. 148. 300. of of of And Antecedent. to of. Auxiliary if. definition of of of Any. possessive. . adjective. 296. and. definition how indefinite. of. 67. 264. 90. as uses verbs. 84. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. same. See with definition complex compound simple who. words between. 79. 208. A. 120. though. 51. 271. 225. 331. 150. of. Anacoluthon Analysis. pronouns. which. 207. syntax As. 231. 127. of. 309. of. 101. 275. parse. of. in in. An. Are. 120. 124. after of. 252.

definition could.Bad. 45. Brethren. Children. of nouns. . 49. 48. 330. uses of. Can. 47. of nouns. 37. 110. 62. Among. adverb. 84. uses nominative of. of pronouns. uses Better. syntax of. of what. of. possessive. 260. Clause. 111. 46. Case. 110. 161. 195. nominative. with But By. Be. 150. plurals of. See of. 66. of pronouns. of. But. best. Case. Cause. 224. 149. 262. double possessive. 279. of pronouns. of nouns. Bridegroom. 54. 64. 39. of. objective. forms. number of. conjunctions Cherub. 262. 46. 63. 283. in Old and Modern English. comparison conjugation of. Between. 279. of nouns. pronoun. 210. 278. 39. clauses of. 278. adjective. 194. of pronouns.

in analysis. and sentence. of. analysis of. 111. 257. 258. English. 110. of. predicate. proper. 18. Clomb. 158. 307. 189. clothes. 307. 263. adjectives. of. infinitive. material. subject. 43. of. definition degrees irregular. 113. 23. 312. plural of. defective. nouns. 315. 24. double. 107. 12. 257. 244. of. nouns. superlative. 268. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. and forms of. 157. 248. sentence.definition kinds noun. 53. of. . of. of. predicate of and from from of. 257. 239. nouns. 108. 264. Cloths. 43. 18. Cleave. 305. verb. 108. adverbs. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of. 271.

to of. 328.with Concord. 194. in Old vs. coördinate. 289. 199. conjunctions. 149. 263. 139. replaced by objective. adverbs. subjunctive. interrogative pronouns. sentence. 151. verbs. 66. analysis. sentences. correlative. pronouns. pronoun. 231. same words. 73. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. pronoun. conjunction. . 255. 194. Agreement. Conjunctions. 269. 149. See English. sentences. See in subjunctive. 143. 196. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. Dative Declarative Declension of case. 138. definition be. Can. other other parts of speech. and clause. 195. 193. of of Conjunctions. 194. parse. conjunctions. 207. of. See analysis clauses. 188. of. 195. definition how subordinate.

pronouns. of. comparative. of. indirect. 51. 242. pronouns. 90. 333. by. possessive. 300. See adjectives. pronouns. 26.Declension. Degrees. 287. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. 35. 102. tenses. 60. 288. 43. 99. . Case. 152. clause. 91. 303. vs. for. Comparative. Comparison. 185. from. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. of. nouns. object. 102. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. discourse. 80. adverbs See adjectives. See See 48. of personal relative verbs. 320. of. article. passive adjectives. 160. Articles. duck. use of dies. pronouns. verb. 315. 242. with of. nouns. See 148. Subordinate clause. with.

42. suffix. adjective. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 102. of. literary. Empress. older. 90. 158. 110. -En. conjunction. pronoun. another.Drank. spoken. 257. of. 92. in 'Em. 34. syntax Each Eat Eaves. 92. the of sentence. object. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. ending. Elements Ellipsis. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. 287. 40. 38. of subject. of. 287. vulgar. adjective. feminine plural English. possessive suffix. plural. 194. Each. complement. drunk. of. pronoun. original. 33. Either. 90. error in sentence. other. 62. . 12. 328. 241. 280. 158. 300. 112. added suffix. 32. 234. to suffix. 33. 299. 255. of. 240. 39. one ( t). pronouns. 51. of. predicate. 92.

few. pronoun. as of from compared marking. See Gander. 308. 30. gender. First. . 112. Further. uses redundant. 43. definition distinguished in English. 287. etc. uses Foreign Former." 31. of. used of. nouns.. 152. of. 30. Few. 102. the. Farther. 36. 45. 319. Feminine. with infinitive. 29. have adjective. 126. 32. 189. 212. From. First Fish. expect gone. object. adjective. 148. first. perfect. of. 152. 103. 102. other languages. Gender.. 235. two a further. two. to of. 212. as a noun. Future Future tense. from. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. 48. 30. 238. 112. 334. etc. fishes. modes "common goose. with in sex. plurals.Every. 211. For. 147. 110. 91.

159. 177. person. 60. 173. 175. 145. 275. rather. for before. 176. Gerund. 10. definition basis of. 13. Got. 231. definition divisions opinions province H. 159. pronoun. 60. 285. 36. noun. an better. 61. its. 80. first sentence. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. Had Hanged. and case verbal with. from participle of. Grammar. I. His Husband. pronouns. Government. 120. of. . possessive pronouns. of. of. of. it. He. 35. 43. participle. had hung. forms in Girl. 144. 12. distinguished syntax. 61. 9.of of Genii. 101. adjective. she. personal relative geniuses. 12. kinds of. on.

Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. 319. 131. 283. with of. adjectives. pronouns. 323. of. 85. 245.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. of clause. of. 231. elements. use article. 110. questions. a object. adverbs. 72. words. transitive. indirect of. adjectives. 153. 73. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 178. 248. summary See passive mood. See Articles. mood. uses discourse. 93. 136. meaning. in compared syntax. 43. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. 176. pronoun. of. 320. 105. 131. verbs. 276. 188. indices. 233. of. your. 257. sentence. 227. See you. questions. 67. . Direct object. Questions.

36. 39. 227. of. See Madam. plural. queen. 63. syntax. Kind. of. latest. and See words in.adverbs.. 113. lord. etc. Lady. 36. lesser. Kine. Last. Logic Logical Lord. syntax the. of. 189. 170. adjective. 190. subject form. 245. lie. Lady. 110." history etc. 12. a vs.. 61. Less. 110. 113. 281. 303. Like. predicate. was uses me. 67. King. 126. Lay. in little. Lie. English. 36. 276. It. "It Its. 226. -Ly. 91. . 102. these double kind. of. Latter. uses Literary Little. Lay. pronoun.

328. Negative. Master. in adverbs comparison a. etc. out of. 287. 189.. of. -Most. 161. See definition 136. 114. 110. adjective. 135. conjunctions Many. of. 137. Means. syntax conjunction. Neither. of. 112. 112. syntax nearer. . 41. mistress. of. sentences. of. Must. 34. imperative. Much. double. 326. Enlargement. 160. 144. 126. subjunctive. May. Modifiers. 110. 188. 195.Manner. 112. comparison Near. might. of. Mood. mine. 265. 185. Modifier. Mighty Mine. 194. 36. 113. 325. 256. 64. nigh. indicative. construction as of adverb. superlatives. 137-144. Many Mapping Mare. 110. 187. of. of. 102. position adverb. 189.

46. half abstract. 42. kinds 90. formed. definition according of. clause. abstract. 21. become neuter. 328. 20. 27. of. to of. now plural. number once other plural. to use. 26. No Nominative.pronoun. None. of. 301. 300. analysis. etc. 38. in. 56. 25. 258. Not Noun Nouns. 17. 41 43. 30. nouns. gender nouns. abstract. 41. gender how kinds material. material. of. of. 29. and figures. of. nouns. 30. 92. . proper. 25. 19. 125. 32. words how compound. syntax in gender nouns. 45. 38-41. 41. syntax Neuter or two News. 246. of. Nor. 46. used as. 30. common. become become formation case collective. 126. parse. letters as 24. 18. 124. definition descriptive. 17 19. 17. Case. class used singular. of. etc. foreign. of of of of of a. See 194.

102. 240. 66. 148. 41. personal. nominative. in article. 42.. etc. 121. plural no two singular construction. 242. singular. passive adverbial. 195. 235. Nouns. 285. 101. 48.of same two with proper. Preposition. 196. 48. plural. 101. singular. conjunction. 41. 92. of. 282. dative. 18. preposition. See in in in Numeral distributive. 281. as forms titles. of. and analysis. form. 23. 42 44. indirect. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. of different possessive definite of. article. adjectives. in nouns. pronouns. of. with with with Now Number. or plural. 48. 43. 278. pronouns. See verb. of. adverbial. 242. 41. English. definite. common. plural form. spoken of instead nouns. 48. become syntax use with with with Nouns. meanings. 60. with case. 42. indefinite. adjectives. 48. . 279. of. of. 278. 106. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 124. verbs. meaning. 39. Numeral Object.

Omission On. Ourself. 306. 293. 116. definite relative uses of. uses numeral pronoun. a in adjectives.syntax Of. 279. 101. Parsing. 194. of syntax. 94. inverted. 56. of. 216. of of of of of models adjectives. See pronoun. . 64. conjunction. as other. 127. part analysis. adjective. 93 other. Ordinal Other Ought. Older. 199. 237. another. of. of. indefinite possessive One One as Only. One. with (the). 161. 69. 56. 191. treatment comparatives. adverb. position Order. Elder. 103. 87. Our. 91. pronoun. nouns. Pains. Each adjective. 115. 233. 38. articles. for. ours. Oxen. 41. as of. 103. See the as of. conjunctions. 213. 117. adverbs. 325 275. of upon.

70. predicate use of. 80. verbs. of. 56. part adjective. 62. not is. used as voice. 177. of. 28. 62. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. pronoun. relatives. of. 56.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. and subject in. 100. 335. 95. agreement of verb nouns. of. included various. -ing words. 61. 247. 219. 174. 173. 134. 287. 148. 181. 63. absolute with of. 172. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. reflexive. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. antecedent. Person. verbals. or of. pronouns. of. 43. phrase. pronouns. in. 59. 322. from definition other of. verbs. article 150. 317. 180. 179. speech. 69. 59. phrases. 43. pease. parsed. 27. Pence. 64. them. possessive and of. 119. 281. nominative. 172. pennies. of. verb idioms it from. with. . 59. of.

in of. of nouns. English. 247. conjunctions prepositions Plural. Positive Possessive.objective syntax table triple uses of. 236. 278. 53. pronouns. 188. Personal subjective. 41. of. . noun nouns. as double. of. plural. singular degree. pronoun. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 235. 61. 247. of. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. of Phrase. 25. nouns. 245. 248. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 's. 106. adverbs of. of. Nouns. 281. See 60. prepositional. 278. of. 64. nouns. Comparison. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. kinds infinitive. 195. 245. 51. 50. or See of of See 185. 54. 49. of. 232. 60. adjectives. singular. complete. omitted. vs. relative. pronoun. syntax of of Politics. 303. participial. 67. 281. 236. 303. antecedent of of pronouns. appositional. 52. nouns. 241. it. of. Personification. double. 53. simple. 63. 37. spoken of. 285. of. objects. Place. 206.

for predicate nominative. 285. 279. plural. 283. speech. expressed as other of. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. somebody definition how indefinite. of. interrogative. of. as. 206. 207. 332. 58. 58. 32. with tense certain. by. case. 89. case. and form form form form of. 186. singular usually other. 105. 59. each either. 147. 333. any. of. exclamatory. same used as adjectives. adjective. who personal. 129. 93. 195. Prepositions. and one with else's. 187. 95. future. possessive nominative to of. words. parse. plural. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. plural. after but. 281. meaning. 208. by with shown certain of. as 54. forms of. 282. verbs. 287. 202. usually to as than. 104. 303. objective. objective. 280. . of. 205. by parts of of. 132. all. 302. 299. of. interrogative. 105. parse. another. neither. 203. 219. none. of. in exclamations.Prefixes. Pronouns. what. adverb. 72. 301. 283. 284. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. of. as antecedent of relative. 300. 300. 203. 64. 331.

pronoun. 189. See of. 84. 87. 101. 297. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. 83. 99. 289. Nouns. agreement anacoluthon and as. Direct same and different. of. unrestrictive. which after same. 105. 295. 74. and relatives. questions. same antecedent. of. with who. 195. to of. 293. indirect. 142. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. 188. with with gerund. 74. adverbs in. Rather. indirect compound. 291. use of history formed. that. and antecedent. 286. of. in. of. 69. who. of.possessive relative. 85. 85. of. discourse. Quotations. nouns. of. personal pronoun. and which. Quantity. 87. Questions. pronouns. which. 58. 289. of. of. 293. . 296. use in as. 295. conjunctions Quality. from and interrogative. 68. 74. 80. 279. pronominal pronouns indirect. parse. Rank. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. or of. 69. 263. in. in.

that. of. definition . of. See Sentences.syntax use Result. in form. 51. sentence. 263. conjunction. 196. 196. who. 289. 259. 159. Self Sentences. plural possessive as. 'S. simple of. effect. simple. clauses of. 294. of. in of. forms shots. and should. Shot. pronoun. 42. Sex Shall. 231. S. 43. will. Same Sat. suffix. gender. 231. which. 255. kinds Sequence Set. 40. of of of complex Sentences. of sit. ending. tenses. object. 195. reflexive analysis of compound. complex. 69. Simple in sate. would. conjunctions Retained Riches. of. 242. elliptical. 162. Shear. 252. 159. 170. 26 271. 319. 29. 74. Seeing.

126. 233. 36. used mood. distinguish. definition 67. 245. of. 257. 303. to of. in Middle English. Somebody Sort. 38. of. 33. 257. these number. 186. of. 258. 260. of. etc. English.Singular Sir. in feminine suffix. names as a. literary clause. Spelling Spinster. See -En. vs. 257. 12. -en. English. sort. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. Split Spoken -Ster. 270. phonetic in infinitive. 38. 303. other Such Such Suffix -s. logical. definition how kinds noun. of. verbs. 262. of. -es. disuse in spoken complete.. adverb. English. Modern use becoming else's. 258. as. 33. 323. 32. 169. of. 137. Subject. 138. . 258. 144. 257. for. 240. 237. 245. 144. adverb. English.

88. 275. as adverbs. English. 152. 106. 307. 306. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 109. 148.. 280. two basis not same definition definite. as history The. English. 147. 106. when relative. Tenses. 222. 186. "the then foreign. meaning. degree. 306. subject. object. me. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. they. of. 33. of. 87. coördinating.. not suggesting adjectives. 319. of. definition in English Tense. There These kind. adverbs. adjectives. auxiliaries. 289. king. 191. in comparison. as history syntax Their. than of. 297. article. of. 107. of . 123. and and of. omission whom. 147. 61. that uses That. of. this.Suffixes." introductory. meaning made up in Old of. in double. See etc. 147. plural as adverb. 277. objects. 309. 120. 189. 108. which. of. 119. 275. 290.. form. restrictive. . of languages. syntax of. Kind. when as of. of. 186. of. Then. classical of. 116.

114. thy. of. See On. 330. in omitted uses T'other. of. 176. 21. 172. other noun. uses of.. try two. 195. 247. exclamations. 175. certain as the before with of. 308. adverbs those. analysis. of. 322. infinitive. . etc. tother. how infinitive. 180. conjunctions prepositions To. 128. 33. words. 175. phrases. -ing 111. Try Two Under. carelessly uses syntax this. first adjective. 188. 248. preposition. feminine and. of. parse. first. 114. uttermost. 61. used. of. 185. infinitive. Upon.These. in of. -Trix. Upper. See That. 181. 119. from cleft to 174. 20. verbs. to. 173. 207. thee. kinds participle. 172. 175. of. of. gerund. Time. suffix. 322. 323. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. 114. Thou. Utter. uses history of. 217.

spelling of. 242. 236. defective. 133. 317. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. formed by. transitive and intransitive. 154. 135. 129. table of irregular. . 319. 151. retained object with passive. 47. 147. 160. Vixen. 312-316. syntax of. mood of. in indirect discourse. passive. conjugation of. 157. definition of.Verbs. 159. auxiliary. active. passive form. 33. 155. analysis. 223. 154. change. 167. past tense formed nominative. of incomplete predication. 148. intransitive. 312. Vocative in Voice. regular. how to parse. agreement of. 39. What. tense of. table of. definition of. person and number of. 12. 330. 154. of. sequence of. but uses what. 133. with subject in number. 320. 130. 245. becoming irregular. weak. 134. voice of. 169. 150. made transitive. 179. 169. strong. of English. active meaning. 167. verbs by. 148. 131. in person. remarks on certain. of. definition of. 149. phonetic. verbs.

104. a. interrogative Which. of. referring syntax Widower. 72. 40. questions. of. conjunction. 299. uses See Shall. 77. 75. 83. 73. wizard. 36. worser. 72. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 32. English. pronoun. in. relative indirect relative. etc. . relative. Woman. would.. 83. questions. questions. 85. Will. 111. Witch. relative. 105. in -ly. Yes ending analysis. plural of in nouns -ing. direct of. Words in Worse. 296. animals. Y. With. 218. 75. 194. Whether. Who. spoken in of. questions. antecedent adjective. 72. 36. 295-299. 190. 85. 105. 78. Wife. 126. pronoun. 85. 79. whereto. 37. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 178.what Whereby. 246. in in indefinite objective.

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