roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

then. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition. It is also evident. rightly considered. . Grammar is eminently a means of mental training. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. Surely our noble language. as compared with Latin or Greek. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. This will take in the usual divisions. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. to those who have studied the language historically. Literary English. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. If. it will at the same time. is worthy of serious study. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous). Few inflections. but this is bad English now. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. if rightly presented. and their uses and relations in the sentence. Coming back. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. however. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places.The province of English grammar is. An æsthetic benefit. there is still much for the grammarian to do. with its enormous vocabulary. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. and thus incite his observation. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. from the question. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). "Analysis." and "Syntax. so that a small grammar will hold them all. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. its peculiar and abundant idioms. Mental training." What grammar is. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. their forms. assist the classification of kindred expressions. as. Making rules is risky. The work it will cover." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning. Authority as a basis. It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. A broader view. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes.

The words state. not objects. . Such words are called nouns. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. the nation is free. but now undoubtedly bad grammar. 1. submission. then. The following pages will cover. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. by which is meant the free. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English. NOUNS. Part II. too. and will are evidently names of a different kind. three divisions:² Part I. In the more simple state of the Arabs. Spoken English. but. Analysis of Sentences. or standard.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. The Uses of Words. The Parts of Speech. PART I. from the eighteenth century on. and may belong to any of those objects. and the word nation stands for a whole group. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. Vulgar English. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. as they stand for ideas. which belongs to a people. reference will be made to vulgar English. The plainest name is Arabs. the words sons and master name objects. and Inflections. that is.²GIBBON. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. Part III. Occasionally. or Syntax. besides this one.

animals. They properly belong under common nouns. or thing. animals. Common. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. substance. etc. (a) 4. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. or idea. Name for any individual of a class. because each group is considered as a unit. . the name of each is an individual or proper name. (b) Common. but Chicago names one city. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. or things. Name for a group or collection of objects. a committee. representing directly to the mind an object. or a mob. belonging to one. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. or a congress. Classes of nouns. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. Thus. or a council. 3. MATERIAL. Individual. men in groups may be called a crowd. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. For instance. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. we may think of them in groups. place. the man here. ATTRIBUTE. We may say. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. Collective. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. Thus. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. and appropriate names to the groups. and things separately. 2.Definition. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. Proper. A noun is a name word. possessed by all. Besides considering persons. or the man in front of you. however. This does not imply. is from a Latin word which means general. as here used. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. 5. Abstract. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. reducing it to a narrow application. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. whether person. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom.

that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. instead of to each individual or separate object. . (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). conditions. frost. iron. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. rubber. The quality is still there as much as before. there is no such intention. 6. etc. or actions. When we speak of a wise man. and fasten a special name to the object considered. rice." "Learning is hard to acquire. we speak of the wisdom of the man. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. or action. but it is taken merely as a name. wheat. such as sun. soap. or apart from their natural connection. Names of ideas. sugar. expressing state. etc. The reason is. potash. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. They remain common class names. however. It may." 9. wheat. and so on. etc. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. etc. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth." "a man of understanding. mist. etc. but in the words sun. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. Again. 7. rock. NOTE. granite. Such are glass. considered abstractly. etc. paint. . moon. clay. proof means the act of proving. gold. cloud. but which are not called proper names. condition. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. sugar. tea. wine. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. celluloid. (3) Geological bodies: mud. platinum.²There are some nouns. dew. sand. we may say. expressing attributes or qualities. or that which shows a thing has been proved. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. "Painting is a fine art. earth. etc.Names for things thought of in mass. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. as in calling a city Cincinnati.. frost. stone. snow. Words naturally of limited application not proper. world. etc. earth. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. rain. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. not things.

our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. energy. NOTE. her longing for their favor. speech from speak." "a brisk walk. the main bearings of this matter. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. in the beginning of his life. action from act. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. stupidity from stupid. etc. redness from red. the well-being of her subjects." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. etc. the rude drawings of the book. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. the great Puritan awakening. night. They are only the husks of verbs. but are merely names of actions. childhood from child. hope. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. winter.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. theft from thieve. those opinions and feelings. Such are beauty. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. II. mastery from master. as their name implies. (1) prudence from prudent. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. five proper. 10. They cannot govern a word. hopeful²hope. etc. 273). the teachings of the High Spirit. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. shadow. he spread his blessings over the land. a wedding or a festival. "a long run" "a bold move. thunder. day. The verb. is used as a noun. 272. .. The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. Underived abstract nouns. summer. etc. ease. Exercises. Caution. 1. 12. there is time for such reasonings. lightning. and they cannot express action.Attribute abstract nouns. Verbal abstract nouns. To avoid difficulty. as glad²joy. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. the moon caused fearful forebodings. Thus. height from high. kingship from king. by altering its function. (2) peerage from peer. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. as in the expressions. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. five abstract. joy. service from serve.

geology. diphtheria. Using a dictionary. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. typhus. catarrh. as pneumonia. mathematics? 3. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . (b) branches of knowledge. as physics. algebra.2. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. pleurisy.

currants. and lo! a new system. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. etc. nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. from Calicut. 13. for example. or to go over to it entirely. 15. a Hutton. 14. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. Proper names transferred to common use. above. Others of similar character are calico. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. as a davy." referring to flat- . Sodom was famous for wickedness. the word port. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. 119). and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. in Portugal. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. We know a number of objects made of iron. arras. but we may say. from Corinth. from the name of Dr. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. port (wine). a Locke. Nouns change by use. a Bentham. from Oporto.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. Guillotin. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. but most of them are in the following groups. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. thus. from a town in France.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. levant and morocco (leather).²EMERSON. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. damask. from Damascus. who was its inventor. the guillotine. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. from China. "The cook made the irons hot. Material nouns may be used as class names. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. it imposes its classification on other men. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. a Fourier. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. a Lavoisier.

A halfway class of words. slates. nor are they common class nouns. coals. These are the same in material. Test this in the following sentences:² . Personification of abstract ideas. candies. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this. or made plural. or the arts and sciences. etc.²HAYNE. For example. Class nouns in use. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. mists. Next Anger rushed.²CARLYLE. etc. and only Vice and Misery. but differ in strength. 16. are abroad. or.In lightnings owned his secret stings. 17. clouds. From all around²Earth and her waters. are still names of abstract ideas. to prowl or to moan like night birds. Death. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. that is. a rubber for erasing marks. oils.irons. that the power of art is founded on fact. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. The words preceded by the article a. papers. When it is said that art differs from science. smiled.²BYRON. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. though not confined to verse. They are not then pure abstract nouns. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. abstract in meaning. that disposition is the thing to be created. on fire.²RUSKIN. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings.²BRYANT. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. be spoken of. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. but on dispositions which require to be created. his eyes. and say teas. and so on. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. or used as class nouns. purity. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. but in case an art or a science. Traffic has lain down to rest.²COLLINS. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. (3) By poetical use. tobaccos. clays.²PERCIVAL. tins. paints. not material things. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. which are made plural. the abstract idea is partly lost. a steel to whet a knife on. This is a poetic usage. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. as stones.

but is still a noun. Then comes the "Why. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. the wealthy. as descriptive adjectives are. were mere terrors of the night. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. loves. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech.The Solitary can despise. or describe it. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. They are more like the possessive noun." "a New York bank. Nouns used as descriptive terms. and joysWhich I too keenly taste." which contains a pure adjective. Every why hath a wherefore. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. as each repeated pleasure tired.²SHAKESPEARE. etc.²SHAKESPEARE." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. (2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. But it is better to consider them as nouns.²IRVING. Adjectives. they cannot be compared. 19. nouns used to modify. "a family quarrel.² BURNS.²BURNS. All these. meaning a walk in the morning.²If the descriptive word be a material noun. sir!" and the "What then. make our own so. And still. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. When I was young? Ah. Conjunctions. a bank in New York. NOTE. if we must have great actions. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. The noun may borrow from any part of speech.²EMERSON. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. however. sir!"²MACAULAY . a bill as to tax on the banks. Adverbs. fear thy blow. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS." "a morning walk.² GOLDSMITH. 18. for example. which belongs to another word. they do not express quality." "the State Bank Tax bill. sir?" and the "No.Let us. But ah! those pleasures. By ellipses. or from any expression.

(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. 20. 2. There are many of these. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences." and another of Dr. and Then. FRANKLIN."²B. the wealthy. to such words as become pure nouns by use. Hope springs eternal in the human breast. the terms the great. of course. or a state secret. are used. In the other sentences. that cobweb of the brain. 5. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. too. Power laid his rod aside. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy. 4. When. or a faithful domestic. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. of words rather than of their meaning. 8.Nor iron bars a cage.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. 1. NOTE. It is to be remembered. Learning. and tell to which class each belongs. why and wherefore. so. Exercise. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. is ambiguous. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. is the word "just. The it. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. etc.²These remarks do not apply." or "legal. in speaking of the principal of a school. however. but as a figure of speech. but have an adjectival meaning. whether it mean the sun or the cold. When. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods.. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns. Now. without reference to its function in the sentence. Caution. 7. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. in a sentence above. 3. or a criminal. Stone walls do not a prison make.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. are spoken of as if pure nouns. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. . at the beginning." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. 6.

but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. Greek. What gender means in English.9. 10. . 18. he cried. 17. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. In Latin. But pleasures are like poppies spread. The hours glide by. And see. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. 21. shattered and disabled. 21. returned to Spain. Male beings are. the welcome. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. One To-day is worth two To-morrows. 22. German. always masculine. The fleet. 16. that waits you here. always feminine. 14. 20. 13. and names of females are usually feminine. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 19. There are exceptions even to this general statement. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. its bloom is shed. and many other languages. 15. but not so in English. 12.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. 11. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. It is founded on sex. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea.Fair guests. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest.You seize the flower. 23. A fool speaks all his mind. GENDER. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. 24. A little weeping would ease my heart. female. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. for every dropHinders needle and thread. the silver moon is gone. in English grammar. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS.

der Tisch (table) is masculine. All nouns. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. must be divided into two principal classes. inanimate things are spoken of.When. the name of it is masculine. the name of it is feminine. however. that is.²masculine and feminine. and neuter nouns. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. hortus (garden) is masculine. For instance: in Latin. 24. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. 22. if of the female sex. Gender nouns. The great difference is.. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. those with which man comes in contact often. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word.²LAMB. but are spoken of as neuter. with its gizzard under its wing. das Messer (knife) is neuter. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. Hence: Definition. according to use. those which do not distinguish sex.. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. or which arouse his interest most. mensa (table) is feminine.. then. in English. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. and consequently without sex.² I have seenA curious child . in German. Neuter nouns. Gunpowder . or names of things without life. "A little child shall lead them. corpus (body) is neuter. according to their use.²gender nouns.² IRVING.. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. the word child is neuter in the sentence. are named by gender nouns. the sex being of no consequence. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. . in other languages gender follows the form.. Of animals. if there were any signs of life in it. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. He next stooped down to feel the pig. 23. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. those distinguishing the sex of the object. that pattern of a husband. Thus. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words.²IRVING. or additions to words." .. clapping his burnished wings. No "common gender. came to a stand just by the bridge.

Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. Hence vixen is for fyxen. he-bear²she-bear. 27. from the masculine fox.25. and for the older word fat they said vat. as in wine vat. puts a prefix before the masculine man. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. of course. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. Native suffixes. they are neuter words. If such words as parent. domestic. Very few of class I. (3) By using a different word for each gender. The inflections for gender belong. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. the division of words according to sex. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. only to masculine and feminine nouns.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. generally to a masculine word. though both words have lost their original meanings. etc. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. I. for from they said vram. woman. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. 29. Gender shown by Prefixes. 28.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. Put in convenient form. or the lack of it. cock sparrow²hen sparrow. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes.. as he-goat²she-goat. teacher. For fox they said vox. servant. cousin. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. 26. relative. (2) By adding a suffix. Gender shown by Suffixes. Male nouns beings. One feminine. According to the definition. but spinster has now no connection with it. These remain in vixen and spinster. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word. ruler. is. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. II. .

These are attached to foreign words. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . 30. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. -ess (French esse. but in most cases it has not. as seam-stress. as czarina. song-str-ess. The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Slightly changed and widely used. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. Unaltered and little used. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words. señorita. gamester. Low Latin issa). it has none now in the words huckster. Ending of masculine not changed. the one most used. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. trickster.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. executrix. Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. punster. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. and are never used for words recognized as English. donna. as. as.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes.

from the Old French maistre²maistresse. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also. Gender shown by Different Words.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). Ending -ess less used now than formerly. as. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. NOTE. etc. as. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. Some of them have an interesting history.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. wagoness. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. as was said in the sixteenth century. or servauntesse. chairman. from the French -esse. we use the feminine. editor. teacheresse. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. 31. 32. sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. fosteress. Thus. neighboresse. the ending -ess. Instead of saying doctress. We frequently use such words as author. as in the fourteenth century. teacher or lady teacher. we use the masculine termination. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. neighbor (masculine and feminine).'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. frendesse. from Latin imperatricem. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt ." III. to represent persons of either sex. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. others have in their origin the same root. In some of these pairs.

the old sign of the masculine. the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy.y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex.² . from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. Witch is the Old English wicce. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. Icelandic gás. not immediately connected with witch. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. The older forms. among others) to be from the same root word. though both are ultimately from the same root. The masculine was formed by adding -a. from Latin mea domina. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. but this has long been obsolete. 34. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). Widower. or lauerd in Middle English. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. probably meaning house dweller). Danish gaas. Personification. lhauerd. written loverd. Madam is the French ma dame. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. as in many other words. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. had the masculine mearh (horse). Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). Two masculines from feminines. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. gand-ra. for example. and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). Gander and goose were originally from the same root word.). Husband and wife are not connected in origin. It is not connected historically with our word duck. in Old English mere. 33. etc. Three letters of ened have fallen away. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. Mare. became identical. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior). but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). 16). finally gander. leaving our word drake. widuwa²widuwe. The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. Besides gander and drake.

This inflection remains only in the word oxen. treen (trees)."Now. shoon (shoes).No towers along the steep.Clustered around by all her starry Fays. The first two methods prevailed. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. This is not exclusively a poetic use. that is.²CAMPBELL. whenever we adopt a new word. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible. the plural. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way.²singular and plural. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne. in Old English. and not by the form of the noun. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. etc.²COLERIDGE. the engineer speaks so of his engine. more than one. NUMBER. Our language has two numbers. eyen (eyes). . 37. 39. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. In nouns. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun.²KEATS. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. together with the third. But other words were inflected afterwards. (3) By adding -s (or -es). for instance. (2) By changing the root vowel. 36. Britannia needs no bulwarks. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. I. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective. we make its plural by adding -s or -es. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he."²BYRON. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en. 35. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. 38. Definition.Her march is o'er the mountain waves.Her home is on the deep. The -en inflection. Effect of personification.

The old plural was brothru. etc. Instead of -s. head. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English. sail. borough²formerly had the same inflection. when they mean soldiery.² The foot are fourscore thousand.²WHITTIER.²MACAULAY. salmon. The words horse and foot. brace. quartz. after numerals (if not after numerals. as. Such are box. III. Brethren has passed through three stages. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. into Frederick town. cross. they add -s): also trout. turf. as. then brothre or brethre. or if preceded by the prepositions in."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. Plurals formed by Vowel Change. 42. sheep. Kine is another double plural. Examples of this inflection are.The horse are thousands ten. etc.²Over the mountains winding down. Other words following the same usage are. Akin to this class are some words. by. retain the same form for plural meaning. folk. glass. wight. that have the singular and plural alike.² "God bless me! so then. pair. people. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. swine. 40. Lee marched over the mountain wall. lens. etc. but has now no singular.Horse and foot.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. . II. 41. originally neuter. Children has passed through the same history. and get settled. but they now add the ending -s. after all. heathen. finally brethren. such as deer. and is still found in dialects.-En inflection imitated by other words.²THOREAU. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. dozen. cannon. ditch.

etc. Some words are usually singular.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. Means plural. molasses. and go over to other classes (Secs. fairies. negro²negroes.²BRYANT. shelf²shelves.²PROF. It served simply as a means of sight. 43. prize²prizes. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). that when thy summons comes. means: as. pains (care). etc.²CENTURY DICTIONARY.g. etc. allies. niche²niches. however. knife²knives. race²races. also news. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. means and politics. physics. Examples of these are. Formerly.. mathematics. is both the science and the art of government. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. daisies. some adding -s. as. these words ended in -ie. The lilie on hir stalke grene. Special Lists.-Es added in certain cases. politics. When such words take a plural ending. house²houses.² Politics. a new syllable is made. 44. e. the Americas. fancies. economics.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. summons. and many branches of learning. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. in its widest extent. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. though they are plural in form. they lose their identity. half²halves. and some -es.g. Two words. and the real ending is therefore -s. the Washingtons.. optics. volcano² volcanoes. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. chaise²chaises. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . Proper nouns are regularly singular. e. DANA. 45. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. quoth then that ladie milde. 15 and 17). Words in -ies. etc. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. though this sound combines readily with -s. hero²heroes. So live.

he pronounced to have been a tongs. W. I say. 46. by strongly conveying the passions. it is furnished with a forceps. With great dexterity these means were now applied.Words.²G. L. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name.²GOLDSMITH. if I recollect right. Politics plural. Besides this. Some words have no corresponding singular. LAUGHLIN. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. by those means which we have already mentioned. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. Now I read all the politics that come out. CURTIS. A relic which. By these means.²MOTLEY.²J. however. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects.²GOLDSMITH. Sometimes. riches will accumulate.²BURKE.²IRVING.²GOLDSMITH. Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. .² MACAULAY.

Tell me not. (2) revenue duties. die²dies (stamps for coins. two meanings. the other unlike it. 50. trouble. pea²peas (separately). sixpence. brethren (of a society or church). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. or epistles. fish²fish (collectively). for the numbers came. genius²geniuses (men of genius). (2) poetry. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. etc. (2) literature. as in the lines. pease (collectively).²LONGFELLOW. as two sixpences. genii (spirits). A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. twopence.the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. . y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. may add -s. These make the last part plural. dice (for gaming). 48.. letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. In speaking of coins. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. or copies. fishes (individuals or kinds).. faculties. penny²pennies (separately). Numbers also means issues.² I lisped in numbers. eaves.The air. In Early Modern English thank is found. number²numbers: (1) figures. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). riches. Two classes of compound words. in mournful numbers. etc. 49. One plural. shot²shot (collective balls). two plurals. pence (collectively). indices (signs in algebra). of a periodical. y y y custom²customs: (1) habits.²POPE.. clothes (garments). Three words were originally singular. index²indexes (to books).). making a double plural. DANA.²one corresponding to the singular. part²parts: (1) divisions. shots (number of times fired). (2) abilities. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. ways. or work in a bellows?²PROF. carry off chaff. (2) care.²was it subdued when.

Norman. or the name may be pluralized. such as talisman. The title may be plural. and Mrs. Brahman. woman servant. Brown.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. though the latter is often found. the Drs. but add -s. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. there is some disagreement among English writers. As to plurals of names with titles. 51. Briggs. for example. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier.²DR. Allen. The chief member adds -s in the plural. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use. as the Messrs. firman. Ottoman. Two methods in use for names with titles. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE. Mussulman. manservant. as man singer. and then the three Miss Spinneys. woman singer. the Misses Rich. HOLMES.² Then came Mr. 52. German. . then Silas Peckham.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one.

²DICKENS. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. 53. Du Maurier.²THE CRITIC. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. FROM THE LATIN. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The Messrs. and retain their foreign plurals. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. These are said to be domesticated. or Englished. who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. They are then said to be naturalized.²GIBBON.²GOLDSMITH. or Anglicized. y y analysis antithesis . Others have been adopted. Exercise. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. FROM THE GREEK. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II. Domesticated words.

"His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). and expresses a relation akin to possession. etc." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). 54. as." CASE. without reference to their meaning. Only two case forms.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence. "He sleeps in a felon's cell. Letters.² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. cell has another relation. . figures. also add -s or 's. Words quoted merely as words. figures. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. In the sentence. helping to express the idea of place with the word in." the word felon's modifies cell. as. 56. 55." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). etc.. they form their plurals in the regular way. Definition. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. In the general wearing-away of inflections. form their plurals by adding -s or 's.

." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. and tell which use of the nominative each one has. when asked unawares.²the nominative. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead.²nature.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. may be said to have three cases. I. they returned to their homes.There are now only two case forms of English nouns. 3. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. the objective. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen. and the possessive. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words. Three properties belong to wisdom. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. 5. must be understood for purposes of analysis. three things characterize man. 4. 1. Nouns. learning. 58. 2.²person. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. completing a verb. fate. and experience. Uses of the Nominative. then.²one for the nominative and objective. Human experience is the great test of truth." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns." (2) As a predicate noun." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. excessive grief. and merit. the enemy of the living. 57. whether inflected or not. Excuses are clothes which. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case.

Save. 3. as will be seen in Sec. a patriarch of the village. 2." "Thou makest the storm a calm. and landlord of the inn. But of all plagues. Uses of the Objective. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. measure. 59. her first law broken. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. and meaning calmest. Set a high price on your leisure moments. reconciles. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. (in the older stages of the language. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. and being equivalent to one verb. oh save me from the candid friend! 7." Exercise. (5) As the object of a preposition. and makest a calm." "Cowards die many times before their deaths." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. good Heaven. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. Conscience. etc. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. But the flood came howling one day." (4) As the second object. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. They charged. how have I frighted thee? II. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. distance." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. . 9. taking the object enemies. 8. and tell which use each has:² 1. thy wrath can send." (3) Adverbially. they are sands of precious gold.6. completing the verb. taking the object storm. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. 4. wounded lies. sword in hand and visor down. save. this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies. 68. the word toward which the preposition points.

The possessive case always modifies another word. 9. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.And gave the leper to eat and drink. 7. 60.e. expressed or understood. tempests that . The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. or in writing yesterday's elegy. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity. It is a poetic expression. the equivalent phrase being used in prose.²HAWTHORNE. 61.² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. (2) Objective possessive. (3) Subjective possessive.Does his Creator's power display. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. and forfeits paid.²SHELLEY. And whirling plate. as in these expressions. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow. as.. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.5. the most common of all. from day to day. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. 8. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. Possession in some sense is the most common. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. 6.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as.²BYRON.²ADDISON.² The unwearied sun. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.His winter task a pastime made. as shown in the sentences. Uses of the Possessive. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. 10. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. III. the Great Stone Face. The noblest mind the best contentment has. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay.

was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. One is the simple form of a word. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case." etc. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses).. the panther which the forest hides). as schoolboys sometimes write. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR. Nom. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. The use of the apostrophe.winter is likely to have). Nom. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. lady Poss." "at his beddes syde. Poss. expressing the relations of nominative and objective." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form." Use of the apostrophe. As said before (Sec. 62. A suggestion. 62. child NOTE. and Obj. in Chaucer. Case Inflection.e. growth which several days had developed). "From every schires ende. there are only two case forms.. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. . In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es. 56). A false theory.e. and Obj. Declension or inflection of nouns.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. "George Jones his book. however. To form the possessive plural. PLURAL. 1." "mannes herte [heart]. 64. How the possessive is formed. making the possessive singular. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. 63. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i.

the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. To the eye all the forms are now distinct. as by the countess's command. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. as.²RUSKIN. Possessive and no noun limited. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. some such word as house.. They invited me in the emperor their master's name.²SWIFT. and from a desire to have distinct forms. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. a word with a phrase.² LOWELL. the possessive sign is usually last. and she walked off from the don's. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. the poor miner Hans Luther's son.²DE QUINCEY. as. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. stands up for God's truth one man. .²CARLYLE. containing words in apposition. 65. my neighbors. instead of the emperor their master's name. etc. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.²HOLMES. James's. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. dwelling. Captain Scrapegrace's." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. etc.Though this opinion was untrue. Peter's. 66. for goodness' sake. store.. Cervantes' satirical work. 67." "A postscript is added. being understood with it: for example."²DE QUINCEY. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost. but to the ear all may be alike. I remember him in his cradle at St. in the name of the emperor their master." Possessive with compound expressions.²THACKERAY. In compound expressions. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. know the amount of my income. the items of my son's. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. church. Kate saw that.

Both of these are now used side by side. in such a sentence as. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. each. corresponding to 's.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. making a double possessive. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es. I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears. there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. every. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. we use the phrase of Atterbury. 68. any. etc. objective. sometimes they are used together. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. A peculiar form.²the introduction which Atterbury made. If. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. the sentence might be understood as just explained. however. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. In most cases. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . as one modifier. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. a double possessive.²E. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive. Exercises. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. this. and at the same time by a possessive noun. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. and tell whether each is appositional. Clearness. 87. HALE. 1. the statement clearly means only one thing. the. For example. no. (3) It prevents ambiguity. that. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. (1) When a word is modified by a. ill-lighted except where she stands. Emphasis.The double possessive. or subjective. (b) Rewrite the sentence. 2.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. E. (See also Sec. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr.²CARLYLE. especially when used with this or that.²FROUDE. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. Blair)..

10. 70. There Shakespeare's self. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms.3. 7.Comes dancing from the East. day's harbinger.A weary waste expanding to the skies. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. in parsing a noun. never in the tongueOf him that makes it. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. Hence. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. some idioms²the double possessive. let him seasonably water the one. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. 14. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. 15. 69. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. Now the bright morning star. 13. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. it seemed.They say.² . 11. 8. In parsing. with every garland crowned. Nature herself. 12. 5. 4. 9. I must not see thee Osman's bride. Jove laughs. My quarrel and the English queen's are one.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. we state. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. therefore. 6. At lovers' perjuries. and destroy the other. Friend.

therefore possessive case. NOTE. Exercise. inflections. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. it expresses possession or ownership. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. gender. . therefore singular number. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. therefore neuter. determining its case. Thief is a common class noun. Neckcloth. (3) Whether singular or plural number. a fresh tapster.²common. masculine. The correct method.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. names one thing. as to case. it expresses time. has no governing word. object of the verb takes. hence it is a common noun. singular number. and relations. therefore masculine gender. it denotes only one person. hence it is objective case. if the latter. which gender. 4. hence objective case. like miller's. and therefore nominative case. "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. it has no sex. MODEL FOR PARSING. Throat is neuter. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. subject of the verb is understood. it is the name of a male being. That in the captain's but a choleric word. 3. is a common class noun.(1) The class to which it belongs. and number. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. In parsing any word. (4) Its office in the sentence. hence it is a gender noun. etc. proper. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. 71. therefore singular number. but is the adverbial objective. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. 68). and to have it found out by accident. and limits neckcloth. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. a withered serving man. 2.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. it is the object of the preposition by. the connection shows a male is meant.

²palace. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. 11. . 10. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. He giveth his beloved sleep. and representative words. from a necessity for short. financial minister to Louis XVI.And hated her for her pride.. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. sleep! 6. Now. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs. all in one. 76). When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. Madame de Staël. PRONOUNS. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally. 72. definite. A pronoun is a reference word. stands the famous Castle of Chillon.5. where the Rhone enters the lake. 8. which distinguish person by their form (Sec." Again. The need of pronouns.. standing for a name. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. or for a group of persons or things. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. and his daughter. and prison. A few miles from this point. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. 73. Classes of pronouns. Time makes the worst enemies friends. but by a question we say. were natives of Geneva." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. 9. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. blessings light on him that first invented . castle. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. Necker. Mrs.. Jarley's back being towards him. (2) Interrogative pronouns. instead of saying. For instance. 7. or for a person or thing. Definition.

From analogy to pronouns. ours . or other word or expression. which relate or refer to a noun. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. that is. which cannot be used as adjectives. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. words. standing for a person or thing spoken of. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Singular. Three persons of pronouns. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns." Person of nouns. 74. mine. we our. and the person or thing talked about. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. my Plural. This gives rise to a new term. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. Person in grammar. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. "the distinction of person. (4) Adjective pronouns. representing the person speaking. 77. even if it had a special form. the person or thing spoken to. Nom. (2) Second person. which have forms for person. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns.. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. they must represent the person talking. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. (5) Indefinite pronouns. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. representing a person or thing spoken to. 76. pronoun. (3) Third person. I Poss.(3) Relative pronouns. 75. primarily adjectives. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. they are said to have person by agreement. as nouns have the same form.

The speaker may be either male or female. Nom. Nom. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender. and also for the neuter. hers her Plur. Obj. or. thou thee ye you you your.Obj. Obj. masculine h . Poss. she her. First and second persons without gender. thy Remarks on These Forms. your. neuter. a separate form for each gender. Masc. Nom. Singular. theirs them Neut.. neuter hit. of all Three. yours you THIRD PERSON. . SECOND PERSON. Old Form Common Form. they their. yours Poss. it its it Poss. namely. he his him Fem. Poss. so also with the person or thing spoken to. Nom. Obj. Third person singular has gender. by personification. 78. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. Old forms. me us Singular. you your. Obj. in the singular. thine. yours you Plural. But the third person has. feminine h o.

them. for example. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). . The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. the forms they.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee.²SHELLEY. thou Shepherd of Israel. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. heom. and sometimes its. 81. however. thy. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. etc. The consequence is. There are.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be." As shown above. etc. 82. thee. as. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. to thy care we commit the helpless. in Old English.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. two modern uses of thou. as possessive of it.. etc.:² (1) In elevated style. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms.. 80. that didst comfort thy people of old. their. We use it with a plural verb always.² Oh. The form its.²BEECHER. In spoken English. it. 79. just as we now say. heora. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech. (2) In addressing the Deity. especially in poetry.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time.Thou lovest. which was often sounded with the h silent. as in prayers. This is of comparatively recent growth. Second person always plural in ordinary English. Two uses of the old singulars. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. The plurals were h . but make the plural you do duty for the singular. even when referring to a single object. which is a neuter noun. Thou.

there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. or. they have a nominative form. I The Nominative. Not a separate class. thou. their. Nominative forms. The words I. Additional nominatives in spoken English. him. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns. Absolute personal pronouns. thy.Use of the pronouns in personification. however. "I am sure it was him. Yet careful speakers avoid this. in such a sentence as. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns. 84 are always subjects.²COWPER. her. II. though ye is occasionally used as objective. him. ye. them. and has been slave to thousands. 58). our. his. In spoken English. 'tis his. . Thine are the city and the people of Granada. have a peculiar use. us. though those named in Sec. That is. we. your. 84. and follow the usage of literary English. and not make more classes. to personify objects (Sec. for. her. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. he. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. The forms mine. when they occur in the predicate position. its. The Possessive. yours. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. besides a nominative use. her. 83. And since thou own'st that praise. us. theirs.²BULWER. hers. Old use of mine and thine. just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. me. 86. The forms my. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. note the following:² 'Twas mine. ²SHAKESPEARE. 34). them.²LANDOR. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS." the literary language would require he after was. and sometimes in ordinary speech. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. 85. I spare thee mine. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. sometimes his and its. thine. some say. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. she. they.

thus.²THACKERAY. hers. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. Like the noun possessives. pluck it out. we have.²BIBLE. Their uses. F. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. ours. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns. his. theirs. commenting upon a letter of mine. and with mine. . as in nouns. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master.²CARLYLE. Long Allen.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. The forms hers. COOPER. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. Give every man thine ear.²SWIFT. yours.²ID. are really double possessives. (2) To bring emphasis. FIELDS. theirs. If thine eye offend thee.²ID. T. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens.²J. or satire. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. anger." said Henry Woodstall. (3) To express contempt. (4) To make a noun less limited in application."²SCOTT. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. yours. thine. "Hold thy peace. it tells of good old times.²THACKERAY. we find. for example. This usage is still preserved in poetry. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. Besides this. 87. ours. ²HOLMES. sometimes its.²J. in that old Edinburgh house of his. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.² CARLYLE. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. thus. This ancient silver bowl of mine. but few thy voice. Double and triple possessives.

but not in form. this dative use. Both joined in making him a present. In pronouns. The Objective. mine stands for my praise in the second. his for his property. but expresses for whom. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. . as shown in Sec.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks." "None but the brave deserves the fair. 86: mine stands for my property. for whose benefit. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. but the form is the same as the objective. 90. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. but nominative or objective in use. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. In such sentences as. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. in the first sentence. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen.²ID. was marked by a separate case." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force. III." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb. Curse me this people. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar. They may be spoken of as possessive in form.²BIBLE. Now the objective. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. Besides this use of the objective. They all handled it. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. or use in a sentence. the thing is done. 88. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. In their function. But the first two have a nominative use. "The good alone are great. and mine in the second has an objective use. The old dative case.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. 20. as it is called. 89. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches.

" (3) As a grammatical subject. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar. thus. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. in this century. (3) In apposition. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject.² .²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. which follows the verb.² NEWMAN.²EMERSON. or to the idea.²ADDISON. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding. has not made its progress. The peasants take off their hats as you pass.²CARLYLE.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS.²BULWER. as. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. (2) To refer to a preceding word group. 91. It is a pity that he has so much learning. was passed by with indulgence.²DE QUINCEY. or that he has not a great deal more. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. logical subject. WEBSTER. you sneeze. Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. as in the sentences.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march.Time is behind them and before them. The word you. as. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature. Society. that winced at the least flourish of the rod. Indefinite use of you and your.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion.²D. you must condense there. why. and they cry.²BACON. him that so often and so gladly I talked with. 92. to stand for the real.²IRVING To empty here. Your mere puny stripling. like Chinese skill. yet it is but like the thorn or brier. ²EMERSON.

have laid them downIn their last sleep. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. himself. and its plural selves. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. herself.²ID. And millions in those solitudes. who teams it.²BURNS. keeps a school. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples.²IRVING. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.. (ourself). (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it.²EMERSON. Poor Christian was hard put to it. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb. however. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. used in poetry.²HOLMES. This occurs in poetry. farms it. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. 93.. we use such expressions as. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self. but seldom in prose.²BUNYAN. There was nothing for it but to return.²SCOTT. Of the two forms in parentheses. ourselves. -selves."²IRVING. For when it dawned. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. It was late and after midnight.²BRYANT. (thyself). itself. (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. ." and there is an end of it. themselves.²COLERIDGE. they dropped their arms. 94. as. For example. since firstThe flight of years began.It is finger-cold.²ANON. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. who in turn tries all the professions. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. A sturdy lad . peddles it.²DE QUINCEY. as they are also called. the second is the old form of the second person. yourselves. when they are direct objects. it rained. "I found me a good book. yourself.² Now I lay me down to sleep." etc. They are myself.²HAWTHORNE. that is. I set me down and sigh. I made up my mind to foot it. And when I awoke." "He bought him a horse.²THOREAU.

as in vulgar English. thyself. as. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. theself. and the others were formed by analogy with these.² TENNYSON. especially in the speech of rulers. were changed into the possessive myself.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. 96. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. for example..? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. Origin of these reflexives.²EMERSON. etc. Held dead within them till myself shall die. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian..As girls were once. Threats to all. to every one. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun.²ID. with self. I shrink with pain. B. not the possessive forms. for example. after the analogy of myself.²MILTON. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. As if it were thyself that's here. to us. The question might arise. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. ourselves.²WORDSWORTH.²E. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural.²SHAKESPEARE. 95. Use of the reflexives. BROWNING. NOTE. In Middle English the forms meself. shall dissolve. and build the lofty rhyme.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. as we ourself have been.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood.² .To you yourself.² The great globe itself . as.

but it is the soonest spoiled. 6. Infancy conforms to nobody. And it grew wondrous cold. where the word is one with that it tells of. 97. some of them being double possessives. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. . 3. it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. One obsolete. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it.On the light fantastic toe. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Three now in use.² THACKERAY. 5. 8. 7. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. Come and trip it as we go. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom). Biscuit is about the best thing I know. 4. fight it out. and what. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. let him lowly confess it. and how to do it. 10.²B. father.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. is wisdom. some each of masculine. which.²DE QUINCEY. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. all conform to it. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. feminine. and neuter. 9. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. FRANKLIN. Courage. Years ago. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. 2. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark. To know what is best to do. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved.

There is an old word. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. Whose was that gentle voice.Promised. having three forms. it refers to either persons or things. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. methought. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. ideas. and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.. . Use of who and its forms. shall we say. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. used formerly to mean which of two. As shown here. number. 98. that it is always singular and neuter. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY. the gold. with its possessive and objective. not to persons. old man?²SHAKESPEARE.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. it is selective. The use of who. 99. or case. Use of which. Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. it is always third person. whispering sweet. These show that what is not inflected for case. which is not inflected for gender. whether. as it always asks about somebody. that it is not inflected for gender or number. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. Which of you. that is. but for case alone. but now obsolete. 100. etc. that. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. actions. What wouldst thou do. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. referring to things. Use of what. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID.

pronoun. which is nominative in the first sentence.²by the use of the words. and also in having a conjunctive use. being the direct object of the verb shall take. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. 105. 99." In the latter sentence. and so to make smoother discourse. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. as they take the place usually of a word already used. in Sec. SINGULAR Nom. These bards sang of Border chivalry. subject of doth love. SING. objective in the last. which and what. It usually precedes the pronoun. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English. what may be an adverb in some expressions. for which the pronoun stands. Who. 104. who evidently refers to Bards. 127). They will be spoken of again in the proper places. "The last of all the Bards was he. who is used as objective instead of whom. nominative in the second also. which and what are sometimes adjectives. 102. AND PLUR. For instance. which is called the antecedent of the relative. Function of the relative pronoun. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. and what are also relative pronouns. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. Further treatment of who. since it is subject of the verb had. Thus we may say. it may be shortened into. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun.Who sung of Border chivalry. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. which. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. whose? Obj. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. or other word or expression. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING.² "The last of all the Bards was he. 103.² . as. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case." Or. who? Poss. The antecedent.101. as. AND PLUR.

The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. 107.²DR JOHNSON. D. Two kinds.²BYRON. 106. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. 2.²SCOTT. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following. both his and who have the antecedent priest. which. Indefinite relatives. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. The origin of language is divine. 3.. a simple relative is meant. Generally speaking. the women whom women approve. a thousand years.²PARTON Which and its forms. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. in the same sense in which man's nature. 2. is a divine creation. The men whom men respect.²MILTON.²THACKERAY. are the men and women who bless their species. 108. will be discussed further on. When the word relative is used. The embattled portal arch he pass'd. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. but the look which is not of the earth. that. Ye mariners of England. .. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon..That guard our native seas.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. 4. and the indefinite use of simple relatives.Whose flag has braved. Who and its forms. 3.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. 6. with all its capabilities . Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. For her enchanting son. The nurse came to us. as will be shown in the remarks on which below.Whom universal nature did lament. WHITNEY. They had not their own luster. 5. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.² COX.²LOWELL In this.²W. 4. what.

111.. For what he sought below is passed above.²BURKE. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 2. and spoils. else this description will seem exaggerated.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. W. (a) This gradation .] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 110. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them.Is fit for treasons. 109. 3.. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. Who. no bad type of what often happens in that country. you will not be angry with me for telling you.. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. Already done is all that he would do. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. bought up all the pigs that could be had..² SHAKESPEARE 2..²DE QUINCEY. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.5.. which it certainly is not. Examples of the relative that:² 1. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling. The man that hath no music in himself. stratagems. BEECHER 5. 4. ought to be kept in view. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship. The judge . the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² . and test every remark in the following paragraphs. they will get a much better understanding of the relatives..²GOLDSMITH.²MARGARET FULLER.²LAMB 3. What.²IRVING. Reader. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death. 6.²EMERSON. That. The Tree Igdrasil. 107.²H. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable.

under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. Smollett.. whom.²SWIFT. and others. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. that man. The robins. they are plural. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. Cooper.who. in 4.whose.²LEIGH HUNT. who is first person. referring to animals. In 1. (4) It has two case forms. JOHNSON. 112. whose for the possessive. son..have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. and 6. It has been seen (Sec. whose wound I had dressed. the relatives are singular. or ideas. Which. 96). in the first sentence. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. whose. In sentence 4. whom. who. Witness the following examples:² And you. Who referring to animals. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. seemed as much excited as myself. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32. things. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.. My horse. 5. Gibbon. whose is second person. and so on. Kingsley. Scott.²DR. the others are all third person.. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. not persons. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 107. in the third. possessive case of which.²IRVING. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals.²which for the nominative and objective. Examples of whose. and 3. (3) It is nearly always third person. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former.²THACKERAY. flung its arms around my neck. (2) It has three case forms. in 5. Sec.²LOWELL. The little gorilla. 2. 113. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature.. The sentences in Sec. Other examples might be quoted from Burke. p.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus.²who. in the second. a man.. .

²DE QUINCEY.²THACKERAY. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. Which and its antecedents. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Kingsley. second.²RUSKIN. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. and third persons.²SCOTT. and things. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds.²BEECHER. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. Men may be ready to fight to the death.² I swept the horizon. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. no possessive. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. That.² MCMASTER. (3) It is the same form for first. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. and numerous others. (2) It has only one case form. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural.²first.²SHAKESPEARE. In the sentences of Sec. too. which is worse. 116. and to persecute without pity. So in Matthew Arnold. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. This often occurs. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. 115. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus.²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain."²RUSKIN. which is very notable and curious. Sometimes. for a religion whose creed they do not understand. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. the antecedent follows which. The last two sentences in Sec.² And. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns.114. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. . Burke. secondly (which made her stare). 109. animals. thus. Primarily. This moribund '61. let us enter the church itself. and whose precepts they habitually disobey.

" That evidently refers to truths. plural number. as. plural number. that do I. third person. The gender. 109. that he has. Who plainly stands for those or the people. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. . These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him.² What I would. it usually follows. but what I hate. we can. for example. whose Obj. by taking them out. What a man does. Sec." Since the relatives hold the sentence together.²EMERSON. 119. 117." (3) "These people heard him. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. and is emphatic. The sentences of Sec. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. that do I not. What. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. and person of the relatives who. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. either of which would be neuter. number. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. is always neuter.²SHAKESPEARE. For example.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. When expressed. what we said?²CARLYLE. Nom. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people. whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. third person. 118. consequently is neuter. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. as in sentence 6. which. that men must needs abide.²BIBLE What fates impose. who Poss.

the simple relative. 6. In the sentence. What can't be cured. What must be endured? Answer. after all. because it has usually no antecedent. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. neuter. . and what is the direct object of the verb call. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. Now. people is the object of the preposition of. subject of heard. is subject of the verb can't be cured. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. The relative what is handled differently. is what we call nature. The whole expression is its subject.. in the following sentences:² 1. but is singular. third person. Parsing what. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking. and hence is in the nominative case. Truths in sentence (2). it is object of uttered. etc. nobler souls with that which they are. 4. above. in (1). the highest result of all education. that takes the case of the truths in (2). Another way. In the same way who. As shown by the following sentences. it is subject of the verb heard."²EMERSON. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. but of this." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. I think they are trying to outwit nature. so is in the objective case. 3. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time.We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. Some prefer another method of treatment. however. then parse the relatives. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. Exercise." Here the subject of is. 120. is subject of wrought upon and molded. First find the antecedents. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. 5. In (2). 7. The word what. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. in (3). which is. is in the nominative case. standing for the people understood. we is the subject. 8. who is sure to be cunninger than they. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. "What can't be cured must be endured. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives.

Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. and parse that in the first clause. Hence some take what as a double relative. no certain antecedent. and which in the second clause. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. no particular thing. whatever is equivalent to all things which. "common souls pay with that [singular. or what else soever. Death is there associated.²BURKE. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous.²BURKE. Take which you please. whatsoever. Only itself can inspire whom it will. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. 121. less common are whoso. 123. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. which." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. and in 2. Meaning and use. summer will have its flies. It is clear that in 1. whichever. Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. They are whoever. 3. or stand on their head. not as direct as the simple relatives.²MACAULAY. whatsoever. 5. object of with] which [singular. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. whichsoever. Do what we can.²you cannot have both. by meaning and use. So with the other indefinites. 2. 4. 7.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. that nothing else can stand in their presence. object of do] they do. and his friend a fool. 2. It is no proof of a man's understanding. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. that is. The simple relatives who. 122. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose. being referred to. 6. to everything that. in a new and original way. whatever. whosoever. List and examples. .

²HAWTHORNE. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. but mean any one whom. 124. 121. But and as. Former use of as. There is nothing but is related to us. whereupon. thus. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life. has been my heaviest affliction. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence. for example. either one that. the conjunctions wherein. are used. In early modern English. This. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. upon which. not following the word such.²EMERSON. Proof that they have the force of relatives.. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. . 120. whereby. but which only wealth could have purchased. etc. Sec.² some particular thing. etc. by which.²DE QUINCEY. and that as after such is equivalent to which. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. what means anything that. 125. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec. Instead of the phrases in which.As shown in Sec. everything that (or everything which). nothing that does not interest us. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. etc.² 1. 2. 417).² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. as was used just as we use that or which. 121. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE. Two words. 4. Other substitutes. but and as. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.. The examples in sentences 5 and 6.² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. for example. 126.

PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. what is interrogative. "But what had become of them? They knew not." Likewise with which in 3 (b). what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent.²EMERSON. showing that who is plainly interrogative. and 3 (b)." etc. (b) Well we knew who stood behind. would be. if expanded. a question is disguised in each sentence. In sentences 1 (a). In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized.²WHITTIER. But compare the following in pairs:² 1. 1 (b). Another caution. if not. it is an indefinite relative). although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form. But in 1 (b). 2 (b). it is an interrogative. Special caution needed here.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide. "Who stood behind? We knew. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. though the earthwork hid them. second. no antecedent is expressed. 2. In studying such sentences. and whether what = that + which (if so. 3. How to decide. who having the antecedent gentleman. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. 127.²ID. which having the antecedent lines. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. . Thus. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. the full expression being. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. which would indicate that they are not relatives.. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. So in 2 (b). (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. if not. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. it is a simple relative. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power.

In the second. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. 3. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. Relative omitted when object. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of.²HOLMES. Exercise. and asks no question.² These are the sounds we feed upon. Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. When Goldsmith died. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence.²CARLYLE. 5.²GOLDSMITH.² THACKERAY. but the life of man in England. Thus.²FORSTER 6. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. 4. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. whence is the interrogative word. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. 2. Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. On the other hand. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader. .²FLETCHER.²SWIFT. I visited many other apartments. Examine the following:² 1. Put in the relatives who. 129. which has the antecedent hue. ELIOT. whose has the antecedent you.²G. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. the question is asked by the verb. In the first. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES. The insect I am now describing lived three years.128. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. and Court Calendars. In the third. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. which.

3. the house was full. that. The nobles looked at each other. Relative omitted when subject. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge.² LOWELL. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who. who were to be rulers over whom. 5. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view. or indefinite relatives:² 1.²SHAKESPEARE. . 6.²CAMPBELL. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. 130. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. Examples are.²Id. It is rare in prose. 2. There was such a crowd went. and what. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. which was already proceeding. simple relatives. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. and comparatively so in poetry. Also in literary English we find the same omission. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives.Ne'er looks upon the sun. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower.²SCOTT. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.7. which.² The silent truth that it was she was superior. Function of adjective pronouns. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift.

but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing. must not modify any word. few. but in this function. and another to get cool under. and stand for a noun. all. . How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. or may be the whole of a sentence.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. etc. 'Truth. not pronouns. necessarily thought of: thus. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. which we have seen in such expressions as." "Where two men ride on a horse. and on each is written." Classes of adjective pronouns. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. etc. It must come under the requirement of pronouns. such as each. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. in the first. but have lost their adjective use.131." that is.²IRVING. 132. neither." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. that. or an argument in a paragraph. Primarily they are adjectives. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. Adjectives. "these pranks. as some. For example. etc. in letters of gold. or use.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns." in the second. For instance. the former. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. a word. such as this. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. "another bank. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. expressed or understood. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. in order to be an adjective pronoun. Caution. or they may stand for nouns. 133. In the first use they are adjectives. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. either. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. none." in the others." "one man.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. "The dead are there. any. many.²BRYANT.²EMERSON. "each cube.

5. Simple. Exercises. They have not shunned the one. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1.²LOWELL. and they have well performed the other. 2.²ID. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. accidentally preserved.²EMERSON 4. 3. . Definition and examples. or reclined.All these he saw. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. Compound. or sat. but these were of the best. NOTE. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. reap the same. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. 134. as seemed good to each. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. Some of these are simple pronouns. they that plow iniquity. and sow wickedness. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. A man inspires affection and honor. for example. because he was not lying in wait for these.²ID. when the latter was the King of Spain. but what he fain had seen He could not see. Even as I have seen. They had fewer books.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. Their minds accorded into one strain. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil.² They stood.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. Such are a few isolated instances.

It felt the guidance that it does not claim.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns.²EMERSON. The Soldan.² One reflexive. such as one other. They led one another. Some inflected. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. you quickly come to the end of all. imbued.²KINGSLEY.²HOLMES. with the superstitions of his time.Two are compound pronouns. 135. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. Exercise. paused over a horoscope. . None shall rule but the humble. as it were. another. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number.²HAWTHORNE.²each other. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. as. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. we might the more easily discharge them.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good. one another. The word one has a reflexive form. Another opposes him with sound argument. Much might be said on both sides. If hand of mine another's task has lightened. for example. as most were. Definition and examples. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. The lines sound so prettily to one's self. as some of the rangers had gone astray. ²HAWTHORNE. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. Men take each other's measure when they react. or melt for others' woe.

Definition and examples. also aught. something. everybody. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. but. anybody else's. anyone else.Exercise. some one. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. Exercise. everything. they are never used as adjectives.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns. . Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. Somebody. every one (or everyone).² At lovers' perjuries. etc.²SHAKESPEARE. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. They indefinite means people in general. etc. and they. every one else. and somewhat. unlike adjective pronouns. no one. Every one else stood still at his post. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered. as. everybody else. somebody else. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. nobody. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. Jove laughs. what. I tell you what. nothing. 136. 137. Now.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. they say. any one (or anyone). and was indefinite in Old English.. anybody. in building of chaises. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. anything." It means something. naught. Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. as shown in the words everybody's. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things.

6. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). O thou that rollest above. I first found myself among the mountains. Hutchinson tells us of herself. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. 8. but not to quite so enormous an extent. 2. 5. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. The table was good. 12. 14. 4. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. . 18. All was now ready for action. 3.²a feature of natural scenery for which. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. to which. 7. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. A reminder. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. 11. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. 16. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. For this did God send her a great reward. Whoever deals with M. 138. Exercise. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. 9. and of no other. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. in his negotiations. 13. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. 10. indeed. were suffered to depart. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 17. Others did the same thing. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June. from my earliest days.See also "Syntax" (Sec.

26. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble.19. And will your mother pity me. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . 29. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. These hopes are mine as much as theirs. behold now the semblance of my being. and seized a pen. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. in all its height. thou rollest now. eat white bread or brown. variety. They know not I knew thee. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. hear. And I had done a hellish thing. 25.Who knew thee too well. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. hear! 33. 34. oh. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. He sate him down. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 32. well-oiled dispositions. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 23. who take the world easy. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. that let him communicate. 27. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. 31.Destroyer and preserver. I who alone am. 21. 30.And it would work 'em woe.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. Whatever he knows and thinks. 35.

45. or gaseous. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. so that no other will be mistaken for it." "that house. If a chemist discovers a new substance. We are by nature observers. who understands me. we need some word to point out the house we speak of. and so he read. then. or with persons. Office of Adjectives. For example." etc. 40. size. Again. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house. as.36. etc." "yonder hill. or liquid. and if we are near. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. "one hat. in pointing out an object. Who hears me. As to the kind of words used. He teaches who gives. So with any object. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present. and he learns who receives. the number is limited by adjectives. white or red. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. which was no bad step towards my liberation. 43. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. 41. 37. 139. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. Substantives. heavy or light. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. 44. We need to add some words to tell its color. 38. etc. 42. adjectives are used. ADJECTIVES.." The office of an adjective. that is our permanent state. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit." "some cities. brittle or tough. 39. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. It may have this office alone. . if we are at a distance." "a hundred men. position. becomes mine. He knew not what to do. such as in the expressions "this man.

"an old English manuscript. To make this clear.140. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them. Nouns are not.² BACON. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun.²COLERIDGE. 141. to describe it or to limit its application." "the Roman writer Palladius. etc." they constitute all his connections. 142. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. or how much of a thing. it shows that he weighs men's minds." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. To err is human.²POPE. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. They include relative and interrogative words." "ice-cold water. (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. fair." and the still less significant "and so. divine." ." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. (2) Adjectives of quantity. such as. Infinitives. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives. happy. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES." the "and there. With exception of the "and then." "next-door neighbor." "half-dead traveler. and their trash. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them." "unlooked-for burden." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. Examples are." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." "the Christian pearl of charity. such as safe. rash. 143. used to tell how many things are spoken of." "ivory-handled pistols. however. (4) Pronominal adjectives. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. deep. terrible. to forgive. If he be thankful for small benefits. Definition. beautiful. pointing out particular things. "Heaven-derived power. words primarily pronouns. Classes of adjectives. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive." "this life-giving book. remotest. derived from proper nouns.

(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting. 2. They have these three subdivisions:² How much. For instance: in the sentence. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.²MACDONALD." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. 145. and another is drunken." "One is hungry." "The shattering sway of one strong arm." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. some." "The shattered squares have opened into line. any. and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by." was is the verb. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. 'Tis midnight." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." "trailing clouds. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah." Caution. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. no. 143. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. Examples are. but small thoughts have I of sleep. ." "It came on like the rolling simoom.But ever she looked on Mr. 1. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. 144. Care is needed. sometimes small. in studying these last-named words. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb. considerable.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. much. having some of each subclass named in Sec. in this. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. Exercises. which are either pure participles used to describe. Oxenham. and accomplished is an adjective. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little." was accomplished is a verb.²COLERIDGE. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "an aged man." "a charming sight.

Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. Exercise. The list. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. former. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence.²VAUGHAN. the former²the latter. every village. no. How many. 146. The demonstrative adjectives are this. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense.²ID." "In came some five and twenty more. Not primarily pronouns. they come under the next division of adjectives. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. yonder (or yon). which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. (plural these. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of. When some. are used with plural nouns. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. An arrow was quivering in each body." "a dozen volunteers. The following sentences present some examples:² . and with them a few negroes." "Then we wandered for many days. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. "one blaze of musketry.²CARLYLE. those). its wake. as. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted.²THACKERAY. Examples. that. instead of modifying them. any.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity." "I have lost one brother." (b) Indefinite numerals.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. Thus. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives." Single ones of any number of changes. but I have gained fourscore. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards.²KINGSLEY. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection." "He had lived by hunting for some months. latter.² Every town had its fair.

PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.²D. FRANKLIN. was the ruin of every mother's son of us.. ²CARLYLE. When we speak of the seventeenth century. The silver and laughing Xenil. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. In which evil strait Mr. These were thy charms. They are of two kinds.²WORDSWORTH. I verily believe. but in the one case. Indefinite relative adjectives.²RUSKIN. . careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives.²BANCROFT. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives.but all these charms are fled. 149.²GOLDSMITH. Exercise. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. WEBSTER.²KINGSLEY. like the other numerals.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. skill which was progressive²in the other.² It matters not what rank he has.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. just as the corresponding pronouns do. what revenues or garnitures. 148."²B. but. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. As has been said.²ID. Definition. Oxenham fought desperately. of equal skill. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove. Modify names of persons or things. These do not. The taking of which bark. they are changed to adjectives. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. for example. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. tell how many things are meant. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. skill which was at pause. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you.²ID. 147..²BULWER.

what inquires about things or persons not known. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. 151. Was there. which is selective among what is known.²RUSKIN. you at least give him full authority over your son. which. But when the Trojan war comes.. As in the pronouns. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head.²LAMB. New torments I behold. and new tormentedAround me. as it rather seemed. In indirect questions. whatever. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. proved not altogether displeasing to him. whichsoever way I move.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. whatsoever.² EMERSON.²CARLYLE.²IRVING. . and points to yonder glade?² POPE.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. the debt to the rich. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. Examples of their use are. Adjective what in exclamations. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. nature will be sure to bear us out in. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY. and gaze. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL.150. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.²ID. it is impossible to determine.. or whether any.²AGASSIZ. A lady once remarked. whichsoever. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. whichever. Whatsoever kind of man he is.And whichsoever way I turn. He was turned before long into all the universe. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. In direct questions.

That. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. we do so by means of their qualities. th s (modern those). 154.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. as. NUMBER. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE.. of the quality. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. what a revolution! and what a heart must I have.²number and comparison. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. alas. And yet. When we place two objects side by side. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. the making of it right. All these have certain qualities. It is neither relative nor interrogative. or size. a sapphire is bluer than the sky.² Oh. .152. History of this²these and that²those. those). gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. 153 . But this had also another plural. color. 155. This is the old demonstrative. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. Meaning of comparison.²but not the same degree. which was fully inflected in Old English.²This.Adjectives have two inflections. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these.²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. or weight. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. etc. gold is heavier than iron. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. Exercise. or amount. COMPARISON. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. and when we compare the objects. weight. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article. and those as the plural of that. we notice some differences between them as to size. Those borrowed from this. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. In exclamatory expressions. etc. The article that was used with neuter nouns. Thus.

Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. expressing a greater degree of quality. indomitable. 157. These are called degrees of comparison." "the commonest speech. redder. giant-like. organic. "untamed thought. sufficient." "the largest soul. as. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. easy. Freedom is a perpetual. bluer. great. reddest. whose favorite pupil he was.² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms." "It is a nobler valor. blue.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. The two forms. supreme. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. for example. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. red. and the superlative by adding -est. and many others. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. whether they attend their own affair or not. though the simple. but. They came into use about the thirteenth century. 156. expressing the greatest degree of quality. indefatigable. infinite. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. These are properly the only degrees. So with the words sole. The comparative is formed by adding -er.²THACKERAY. Definition. "more matter. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. easier." Words that cannot be compared. immemorial. . It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. and the superlative. bluest. 158. to the simple form. but were not common until a century later.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. as. they are not compared. A main difference betwixt men is. 159. enormous. universal institution. with less wit." "no fewer than a hundred. strictly considered.²SEWARD. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. 160. Substitute for inflection in comparison. easiest. or amounts in quantity.

" "more austere and holy.²The Nation. which hung behind in the queerest way. mournfulest. was most finished. strange. The general rule is. quiet. Adjectives irregularly compared. finest chiseling. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative. there needed to be a most genuine substance. madam. falling on his knees. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est. polished. admirablest. as. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. The following lists include the majority of them:² . peaceablest. who. "So help me God.Which rule. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries.² CARLYLE A gentleman.² -er and -est or more and most? 161. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. indisputablest. though born in no very high degree. and patientest fusing." Carlyle uses beautifulest. 162. These are adjectives irregularly compared. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English. witty. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. These long. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words." "the wonderfulest little shoes. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. and yet familiar." said Henry Esmond. harsh forms are usually avoided. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. easy. most small. honestest. 163. and other words are preceded by more and most.²ID." From Ruskin: "The sharpest.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck." "more odd. etc." "sorrowfulest spectacles. I will.²ID." "distantest relationships." "the immensest quantity of thrashing.

though from a different root. lesser Elder. 7. which has softened to the modern best. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. evil was the positive to worse. hindermost Much or many More Farther. 9. worst. (2) In Old English. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse.²HAMLET. Hind 2.² We have it in a much lesser degree. older Nigher Nearer Later. [Out] Outer. last Hindmost. List I. A double comparative. as in the sentence (14th century). 4. 164.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. oldest Nighest. . furthest 10. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. 2. The superlative I form was betst. 8. a double comparative. 6. 1. 3. (3) Little is used as positive to less. outermost Utmost. innermost Outmost. Worser was once used. uttermost Upmost. further Farthest. as. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative. next Nearest Latest. bad.LIST I. latter Hinder LIST II. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. These have no adjective positive:² 1. which has gone out of use. lesser. There was an old comparative bet. least. is often used. uppermost LIST III. throw away the worser part of it. Good or well Evil. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. as in Shakespeare. utter 3. "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). [In] Inner Inmost. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. 5.² O.

as long. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. etc." Its spelling has been micel. but not in meaning. and on it were built a double comparative nearer. an old superlative ending. or series. next.. The meanings greater. much. muchel. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. List II. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer. and refer to time. strenger. latest. for example. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte. the old forms. there is scarcely any distinction.²forth. farrest. are shown in such phrases as. to which is added -ost. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. etc. are earlier than older. doubling the inflection.²HAWTHORNE. eldest. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force. greatest. making the modern farther. First became entirely detached from the series. strong. Between the two sets as they now stand. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. th came into the others. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. is quite common.²KINGSLEY. as. near. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. the parallel form mickle being rarely used. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. since the m is for -ma. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. "Many a little makes a mickle.. great.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. In imitation of further. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. further. but originally the comparison was nigh. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. instead of lenger. furthest. .² The more part being of one mind. (5) The forms elder. and the superlative nearest. ²LAMB. oldest. farthest. The most part kept a stolid indifference. but in former times much was used in the sense of large. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. a distinction has grown up between the two series. Since later. except the form next. came into use. moche. to England we sailed. meaning the largest part. and was the same word that is found in the proverb.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti.²ID. The latter. first.

The adjectives in List III. in having no adjective positives. Decidedly handsome. by the by. Her bows were deep in the water." "far-seeing as the sun.²EMERSON. Highest and midmost. sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING.165. the upper light of the world. 168. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective.²HAWTHORNE. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection.²H. all may belong to the same noun. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. was descried The royal banner floating wide." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. The comparatives are so in form. Think what each adjective belongs to. or have no comparative forms." "the innermost moral soul. List III. but they have no adjective positives. 167. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove. 166. but not in their meaning. . Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. but her after deck was still dry. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. There. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. and have no comparative force." -Most added to other words. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection." "The outer is of the day." "their utmost exertion. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace.²DE QUINCEY. They have no superlatives. on the very topmost twig. BEECHER. (Sec. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective.²SCOTT. are like the comparative forms in List II. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. W. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. being merely descriptive.²KINGSLEY. or each may modify a different word or group of words. Her. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man.²DE QUINCEY. In List II.

It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. our new government. Exercise. May we not.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. 6. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. 2.²NOAH PORTER. now our queen. Our sometime sister. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. . 169." in which then is an adverb. STOWE. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. 3. Other instances are. Whenever that look appeared in her wild.²BIBLE. deeply black eyes. and broken. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. and moral truth.²HOLMES. in this sentence. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. The seldom use of it.²A. Richard Hooker. rich. In the following quotations. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. But in this sentence. ²TROLLOPE. "the one who was then king. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. usual modifies incomparable decision. as.²RUSKIN. round. It may still be argued. This.²HAWTHORNE. and heaven-defying oaths. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID. Bradbury and Evans.²HAWTHORNE. STEPHENS 5. the then and still owners. instead of saying.²MRS. 7. solid. H. we may say "the then king.² My then favorite. bright. By a convenient brevity. in prose. satisfactory." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. deep. therefore. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. For thy stomach's sake. philosophical. not decision alone. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision.²TRENCH. A few improper jests and a volley of good. 4." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank." making then an adjective.For example. and thine often infirmities.

this. Exercise. She made no reply. and I waited for none. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure.What to tell in parsing. 6. 7. 9. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. if it can be compared. (2) Its number. These points out what truths. compared by prefixing more and most. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. therefore descriptive. seventy-five drachmas. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. 8. Since adjectives have no gender. manly way. . but that you proceed to your end by a direct. 4. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. (3) Its degree of comparison. then. or case. I ask nothing of you. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. 10. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. if it has number. 5. person. To every several man. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. with awkward but rapid pace. modifies truths. cannot be compared. the method of parsing is simple. 2. not inflected for number. MODEL FOR PARSING. (4) What word or words it modifies. plural number. and very few have number. and most astounding were those frightful yells. across the plain. 170. frank. having a singular. This gave the young people entire freedom. To every Roman citizen he gives. In parsing an adjective. positive degree. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. therefore demonstrative. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. modifies the word truths. Unfamiliar describes truths. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. 3.

11. and many poles supported the lower ones. 21. 27. In music especially. 22. . yonder oxen in the pasture. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. 23. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. 20. oxen. 29. growing in the most unfavorable position. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. To say what good of fashion we can. and therefore more interesting to us. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. Here lay two great roads. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions. 25. it rests on reality. Like most gifted men. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. the same love to France would have been nurtured. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. 14. Their name was the last word upon his lips. 24. those dogs in the yard. as for armies that were too many by half. and dogs. it is so noble a fruit. Two hours elapsed. 19. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. is the settlement of our own country. Nearer to our own times. 32. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. 16. 26. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. not so much for travelers that were few. the tomahawk fell. 33. With every third step. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. 13. during which time I waited. suggests such thoughts as these. I know not what course others may take. 12. 18. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. are immutably fishes. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 31. The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 28. he won affections with ease.

in vulgar English. or the tane. Their origin. They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives.²MACAULAY. In the sentence. Many writers use an before h. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment.²BREWER. the tother. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36. and a before consonant sounds. An or a came from the old numeral n. 35. weary-hearted man was he. 171. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. and that remained a demonstrative adjective. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. Our expressions the one. that other. a before consonant sounds. 37. 172.34. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. such as we have been attempting to describe." "an honor. 173. In Middle English the became an article. just as adjectives do." "a yelling crowd. he is no literary man. the latter is still preserved in the expression. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. 174. Two relics. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words." the words the and an belong to nouns. An historian. for example. the tither. but the former is used. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. the tother. later th . that) which was also an article in Old English. sometimes the tother. th o. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. A hard-struggling. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. with an ordinary little garden. Examples: "a house. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . ARTICLES.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. An before vowel sounds. these occurring as the tane. even when not silent. the other. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. ðat.²SCOTT." "an orange." An with consonant sounds." "a European. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. s o. . meaning one. were formerly that one. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect.

since it points out a particular individual. and not a state or other geographical division. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north.² . or any individual of a group or class. An and a are different forms of the same word.² Don't you remember how. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon.²IRVING. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. An article is a limiting word. With names of rivers. BANCROFT. the older n.²This use is noticed when. 176. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. is referred to. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. doubtless. not descriptive." "the Ohio. Articles are either definite or indefinite.²THACKERAY. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. a person is introduced by a. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of. thus. as "the Mississippi. Reference to a known object.. To call attention to attributes. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. 178. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things.. which cannot be used alone. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with." the article indicates clearly that a river. When the is prefixed to a proper name. NOTE.²COLERIDGE. or a group or class of things. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings. 177. 179. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. and when the word river is omitted. or group. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. or class.²G. as in the sentence.. Definition. 175. The Dakota tribes. An or a is the indefinite article. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. An hereditary tenure of these offices.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.²HEROES OF ASGARD. Kinds. The is the definite article. on opening a story.

or a match put between the fingers. as. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. BANCROFT.² As she hesitated to pass on. Common.² The faint. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. Schelling.²EMERSON. 180. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. the song sparrow. For possessive person pronouns. The. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively.²KINGSLEY. not into a particular virtue. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²MOTLEY. With plural of abstract nouns.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.The Bacon. Half abstract.²ID. etc. the Spinoza. 182. so is the evil. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. 2. her. One thing for its class. If the good is there.²ID. and the redwing. . But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU. His messages to the provincial authorities.²GIBBON. The simple rise as by specific levity. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. Caution. for example. 181. With adjectives used as nouns. would speedily extract the required information. 183. but into the region of all the virtues. Kant.²EMERSON. the gallant. laid it on the miry spot.²G. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. NOTE.²SCOTT. 1. the Hume.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

"Put thou money in thy purse. the word following." Examine the sentences in Sec. 204. hence is not a verb. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. in (c). and not a verb. can deceive has an object. A verb is a word used as a predicate. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek.²BULWER . which means to go over. a preposition. or the object. b). and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. a noun. an adverb. with some word understood. Of those expressing action. in (3. and to receive the action expressed. c). Has takes the object hypocrisy. All these are called transitive verbs. By examining a few verbs. 202. The nature of the transitive verb. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way. all do not express it in the same way. which may be a person. in (b). or an idea. b). but cannot be predicates. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. taking the staff which always guided her steps. The nature of intransitive verbs. a).In (a). the most penetrating. In the sentence. an article. or a material thing. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. but fearing is not a predicate. in this sentence from Bulwer. and a preposition unite as a verb. obeyed is a predicate. 203. and shame the most astute." put is the predicate. in (2."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. for example. Definition and caution. In each case. Now." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. we consider a verb as one word. Each influences some object. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. to say something to or about some person or thing. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. 201. (can) shame also has an object. the most astute. In the first. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. lone took what? answer. from the Latin transire. as. 200: In (1). "Put money in thy purse. etc. in (3. and. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. care.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. Hence Definition. endured what? anguish. to go is no predicate. a verb. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate. in (2. representing something which it influences or controls. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. In giving a definition.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

215. he will see the need of these ethics. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.²MACAULAY. WEBSTER.²FRANKLIN. If this be the glory of Julius. for example. Ideal. the first great founder of the Empire. the second founder.² If. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. or be fulfilled. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain. as. 2). ²EMERSON.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. 222.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. Again. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness.²SHELLEY. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds.² Now. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses.²LONGFELLOW.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. Most excellent stranger. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. . if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. the writer can make the statement following. popular government must be pronounced impossible. and may or may not be regarded true. the representative system ultimately fail. in our case. they were recorded in the Book of Life. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. I.²BRYCE. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. but. Condition or Supposition. Unreal²cannot be true.I could lie down like a tired child. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. as.²may or may not be true.²D. 221. they were deeply read in the oracles of God.

Exercise. The subjunctive. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. But in no case could it be justified. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature.²SWIFT." etc. If he had reason to dislike him. 8. do you think.²MACAULAY. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories. 6. the clause being introduced by that or lest. especially be. that we cannot but regret its absence. The voice.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if. 5. to drink strong beer.²EMERSON. might. would you. WILLIS. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed. clear.²BAYNE. except. ²LOWELL. NOTE. and should. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me.²FRANKLIN.²FRANKLIN. is used to express purpose. II. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. unless.. that he might be strong to labor. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled.² CARLYLE. he had better not have written. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. which cannot be true. melodious.. 223. though. Epaminondas. In the following conditional clauses. 2. is of similar physiognomy. Subjunctive of Purpose. etc. P.²N. thus. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.² It was necessary. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. . yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. 3. would have sat still with joy and peace.. he supposed.² If these things were true.. I told him. may. and sonorous. as. since he [Byron] was dead. but when the verb precedes the subject. the conjunction is often omitted: for example. if his lot had been mine. and striven energetically to save Ney. she was regarded as a prodigy. society could not hold together. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive. if he speak to you. 4. if he was the man I take him for.²CALHOUN. and what kind of condition:² 1. 7.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact.

Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS. like the Latin. So live. In Temporal Clauses.Were wafted off to seas unknown.²D. The transmigiation of souls is no fable.. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon. 227. WEBSTER. VII.²CARLYLE. the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.²SOUTHEY. V.. 225. 224. I've wished that little isle had wings. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions.I have been the more particular. till it meet the sun in his coming.²WORDSWORTH. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place. Ask the great man if there be none greater. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. The English subjunctive.²BRYANT.. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men.And we. Let it rise. Expressing a Wish. in her confusion she had not distinctly known.Thou go not.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were. the answer being regarded as doubtful. Rise up. Subjunctive of Result. III. like the quarry-slave at night. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. within its fairy bowers.²COLERIDGE.That vain it were her eyes to close. 226. After a verb of wishing. I would it were! ²EMERSON.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. VI. .²ID. none of us could say..²DE QUINCEY. To tell of what had passed. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. In a Noun Clause. IV. In Indirect Questions.²MOORE.

Subject. of cash. we'll turn aside.² DICKENS. Object.. . 229.²SCOTT. That hunger of applause. After verbs of commanding. I have no thought what men they be. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding. Some might lament that I were cold.²WORDSWORTH. Come.²DE QUINCEY.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. is. VIII. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. Concessive Clauses. The first merit.²COLERIDGE. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits.And see the Braes of Yarrow. in its various uses as subject. is the ultimate fact of man's life.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. often contains a subjunctive. that everything be in its place. Complement.And look thou tell me true. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. See that there be no traitors in your camp.²CARLYLE. object. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. 228.²SHELLEY. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.²THOREAU.² Be the matter how it may. The noun clause.²TENNYSON. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. or whatsoever victual it may be. which may be (a) Pronoun. (b) Adjective. for example. The essence of originality is not that it be new.²COLERIDGE. the sentence is the same²that rejects it. tell me all that thou hast seen. in apposition. etc. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. Whatever betide.

a concession.²SHELLEY. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. entreaties. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. love all men. however. 230.The spirit he loves remains. since commands are directed to a person addressed.² CARLYLE. Definition.²BRYANT. (1) Command. ADAMS.²CHANNING.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. we had found [should have found] a poem here. 232. Q. At the present day. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Honor all men. and condition contrary to fact.(c) Adverb. for example. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. It must be remembered.²J. though. Oh. In spoken English. point to their immortal works. or requests. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. Usually second person. The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. to express a wish. fear none. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. 231. IMPERATIVE MOOD. (2) Entreaty. . Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. (3) Request.

"Come along with me." whispered Kit.One glance at their array! 5. there will her heart and her prayers be. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. child of earth!While each performs his part. lest we rust in ease. Sometimes with first person in the plural. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1. 3. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. but I + you. request. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. etc. etc. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I. we may use the imperative with we in a command. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. 8. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Whatever inconvenience ensue.²SCOTT. or I + they. "The Devil take the goose. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go.²SHAKESPEARE. noble earl.. Part we in friendship from your land." Exercises on the Moods."Hush! mother. (a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences.And God forget the stranger!" . 7."²DICKENS Tell me.And. nothing is to be preferred before justice. Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. Break we our watch up. receive my hand." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed. 6. to you implied in it. 2.. Quoth she. Oh.²CAMPBELL. Mark thou this difference. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4.

no literary man. .Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. 10. Think not that I speak for your sakes. 20. He is." 25. my dear madam.Except. how he may do his work. That a man parade his doubt. That sheaf of darts. 19. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. as though an instrument. 18. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. He." cried he. in what pomps and prosperities he like. Though abyss open under abyss.That they might answer him. but repentant child. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. "Oh. 13.9. she ought to have it. then. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15." continued Old Morgan. it would speak. 23. 14. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. whether he do it right or wrong. let him live where else he like. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. "tell me where I may find my poor. will it not fall unbound. 26. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar.Till you might faint with that delicious pain. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause." 16. Well. From the moss violets and jonquils peep. 21. 11. Forget thyself to marble. or do it at all. ruined.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. Though he were dumb.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. "Mr. Marshall. and opinion displace opinion.High up in silver spikes! 22.

and the future tense. When the older pronoun thou was in use. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. as the classical languages have. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. and future. shall.² present. in the conjugations. 234. in the third person singular. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. which represented present and future time." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. 28. whatever she did. and unassuming deportment of Mrs.²the present tense. past. Old English had only two tenses.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. or whether it were as one member of a general party. by means of the present. and the past tense. the past. will. Siddons. Definition. as. "Thou walkest. tell him to wait." past. PERSON AND NUMBER. as. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. or agree with it. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. "It is not in man that walketh. Tense means time." "If he comes. five in the subjunctive. 233. The tenses in detail. also.²nothing could exceed the amiable.27. to direct his steps. as will be shown later on. TENSE. "I go away tomorrow. past. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. called auxiliaries. and future perfect tenses. such as be." present. Tenses in English. past perfect." . Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. 235. "Thou walkedst. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. Meantime. have. a form ending in -eth. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. such as Latin and Greek. five in the imperative. kind. or future time. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood.

Such verbs as choose have five.²choose. This is the third person. and numbers. walk has walk. moods. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. I be 2. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. chooses. wert) 3. walked. CONJUGATION. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. for example. Few forms.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. etc. "He walks. Singular 1. tenses. You (thou) be 3. were. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. [He] were [They] were . Definition. The verb be has more forms. are. walks. Singular 1. PRESENT TENSE. but in English. walketh. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. persons. etc. Singular 1. since it is composed of several different roots. singular number. 237. choosing. been. In classical languages. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. chooseth. choosest. I were 2. Singular 1. mood. PRESENT TENSE. walkedst. You are 2. chosen (old. chose. chosest). tense. 236. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. as. 238. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. Indicative Mood. walking." and this only in the present tense indicative. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast. is. [He] is [They] are 3.²am.

(d) With the infinitive.²SHELLEY.²SCOTT. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. 239. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs.. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. to express intention. obligation. 240. (2) was. though it is usually a dialect form. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. same as the German sind.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active. -en. condition. were. for example. is.Imperative Mood. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. Instead of the plural are.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses.His infancy was nurtured. (2) As auxiliary verbs.. etc.²BURKE . (b) With the past participle in -ed. as.²ID.²THACKERAY. Remarks on the verb be. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language.²WORDSWORTH. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon. which was now become an occasional banquet. Broadswords are maddening in the rear.²GOLDSMITH. By solemn vision and bright silver dream.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. The light that never was on sea and land. to form the passive voice. thus. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. etc. in four ways. (3) be. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.

PRESENT TENSE. Singular. "I have gone" (present perfect). Singular. Machinery of a verb in the voices. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood. "I shall be. future perfect. 242. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. there are many periphrastic or compound forms." (2) Present perfect. We chose You chose 3. as. FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. You chose Plural. You choose Plural. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. Some of these have been indicated in Sec. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). 240. etc. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. had. past perfect. tenses. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. PRESENT TENSE. "I had gone" (past perfect).241. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. [He] choose [They] choose 3. You choose Plural. Singular. 1. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. by placing have." "He will choose. In addition to the above inflected forms. 1. Indicative Mood. Singular. tenses. We chose You chose 3. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. I choose 2. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. as. I chose 2. 1. I choose 2. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. You chose Plural. . I chose 2. (2). 1. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb.

Present definite. etc. Present perfect. He was choosing. Past definite." "You are chosen. Past. he chose (or were to choose). He has been choosing. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Same as indicative. as. He chooses. Present perfect definite. Past. Imperative Mood. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. He will he choosing. Present.(3) The definite form of each tense. Future perfect definite. Future. Present. He chose. He will have been choosing. Future perfect. of each tense. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. He will choose.] he choose. Past perfect definite. as. He will have chosen. He had chosen. He has chosen. will be given. Present definite.) Choose. "I am running. . Indicative Mood. "I was chosen. lest. Present. He had been choosing. Past perfect. Past perfect definite." "They had been running. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Present perfect. " Be choosing. Same as indicative. [If. Present definite. Only the third person. Future definite. Subjunctive Mood. he have chosen." 243." (4) The passive forms. he have been choosing. He is choosing. Past definite. ACTIVE VOICE. Past perfect. (2d per. Present perfect definite. singular number. though.

he were being chosen. Present perfect definite. Indicative Mood. None. etc.] [If. Future definite. He will have been chosen. Past. though. Past definite. Past. He was being chosen. lest." "He did strike. 262). it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. Past perfect definite. He had been chosen. in affirmative sentences. He has been chosen. as. he have been chosen. if learned at all. Present. they will be discussed later (Sec. Future perfect definite. Exercises should be given.. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). he had been chosen.) Be chosen. He is chosen. Present. (2d per. but verbals. " " " " " " " None. Also. None. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form." [Note to Teacher.²This table is not to be learned now. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. Future perfect. None. None. Future. Present perfect definite. Present perfect.] he be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. Past Perfect. He will be chosen. He is being chosen. "He does strike. None. Present perfect. Present definite. He was chosen. Imperative Mood. Past perfect. Past definite. Subjunctive Mood. Present definite. however. None. Past perfect definite.NOTE. . Present tense.

sleep. catch. but adds no ending. beg. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. which are in parentheses Present Tense. Past Tense. bounden] bitten. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. caught. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. verbs are strong or weak. Definition. run. TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. Kinds. Some of these also have weak forms. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . begged. as. 245.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. bit blown broken chidden. bid bound. laid. ran. According to form. 244. drove. drive.[adj. NOTE. slept. lay. and may or may not change the vowel: as.

drank[adj. drunken] driven eaten. eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung .drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate.

sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck. trod worn woven won wound . stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sunken] sat slain slidden. stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk.

for example. as (from Holmes).² It ate the food it ne'er had eat.²MILTON." "a sunken snag. Sometimes in literary English. cloven.²as (from Shakespeare).²B. but is much used in vulgar English." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active. "stricken with paralysis. only one set remains certain. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. probably to avoid confusion with this.²cleave.²IRVING. now told us it was time for repose. and sometimes occurs in poetry. The form clomb is not used in prose. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated)." "the cloven hoof. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb. cleft. to split. borne is also a passive. cleave. as. Historically. 246. Not a cock crew. the other. . "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. cleaved. Our cock. which always crew at eleven. and the latter." In this confusion of usage."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove. especially in that of an earlier period. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. How fairy Mab the junkets eat.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. as. When it means to carry or to endure. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t)." "a drunken wretch.²one meaning to adhere or cling. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.² Thou hast clomb aloft. The former used to be cleave. cleft (to split). instead of ate and eaten. and another (born) for the passive.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs. But drunk is very much used as an adjective. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English.² We had each drank three times at the well. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. "his bounden duty.²COLERIDGE. ²THACKERAY. cleaved. TAYLOR.²GOLDSMITH.²TENNYSON. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. as. and. nor a dog barked. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. clave or clove.

9. shook. fallen. Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. and seized a pen. threw. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. broke. 3. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging. began. for example.Shore thro' the swarthy neck. 5. as "a shorn lamb. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. We usually say. shaken. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn.² We had all got safe on shore.²DE FOE. One example out of many is. 2. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. flung.²WORDSWORTH. maiden. 6." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend. 245). fell. Fling. driven. frozen. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Fall. given. . Give."²KINGSLEY. (a) From the table (Sec.The form gotten is little used." but not much as a participle. 10. found. found. and grasping at his sword. Begin. flung. which is seldom used except in poetry.²BIBLE. Find. The butler was hanged. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. broken.²BYRON. thrown. Drive. gave. as. 8.² If. 7. Break.²SCOTT. even in poetry.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. Shake. shore is rare. for example. Freeze. Usually shear is a weak verb. Exercises. Throw. froze. begun. He sate him down. drove.²TENNYSON. 4. This heard Geraint.

from the obsolete verb motan."²WINIER. or. 223. Can is used in the indicative only.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A. it is used only in the indicative mood. They are as follows:² PRESENT. as. or when it expresses wish. etc.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons.. as in Sec. 220.²CHANNING This. HAMILTON.. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts. (See also Sec.²HAWTHORNE. "So mote it be.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. as it has two meanings. Must is historically a past-tense form.[To the Teacher. Subjunctive use. but came through analogy with should and would. there is one general principle. His superiority none might question. 250. Indicative Use: Permission. It is indicative when it expresses permission. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed.²SCOTT. 249. Have we valuable territories and important posts. according to the infinitive used.²CHANNING.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS.. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. for full drill on the forms. must have been an ocular deception. All must concede to him a sublime power of action. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. PRESENT. as it sometimes does. Like must.. PAST. The l in could did not belong there originally. 247. 251. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248.. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. The same remarks apply to ought. of course. Could may be subjunctive. Ability. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. . etc." Must is present or past tense. "far off his coming shines. PAST. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. which survives in the sentence.²PAINE. purpose. ability.

not plod along like apeasant. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. (b) In indirect quotations.²COOPER. yea. and corn to hoe. in the form of command. shall and should are used.² (a) To express authority. my lad.²IRVING. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. "I think I will go. she should ride like a queen. for example. She should not walk. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. WEBSTER. as. while ought always has to. especially in the United States. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON. he said. as. 252.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to. How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. with pronouns of the first person. shall and should are used. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. They shall have venison to eat. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday.e. The sea shall crush thee. MOULTON.²THAXTER.² With respect to novels. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject. what shall I say?²N. Shall and Will. future action).²LONGFELLOW. as..Nay. . to use will and would.²L.² The time will come full soon. I shall be gone. (b) In questions asking for orders. BROCKDEN BROWN.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you.²MACAULAY. promise. or confident prediction." Uses of shall and should. Second and third persons. The following are examples:² Never mind. C.²BULWER. She rejects his suit with scorn. to the neglect of shall and should.² Futurity and questions²first person.

will and would are used to express determination as to the future.²CABLE. when the answer expected would express simple futurity.²BYRON.² I will go myself now. with the conviction that he should win in the end. purpose.²SCOTT.that I would do him justice. (c) With direct questions of the second person.²H. etc. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. And promised. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. as. (1) With the FIRST PERSON. Disguising a command. I never was what I should be.²WORDSWORTH. First. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener. thus.²WORDSWORTH. and will not return until all is finished. B. was to be expected. for example. . second and third persons. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling.²SWIFT.²WINTER. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena..² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms. time. as the sole inventor. BROWN.. LARNED.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.. and is equivalent to ought. or a promise. 253.²WORDSWORTH. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men.²C. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue.²ROGERS. JAMES.²A. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. JR. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. for example. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS.

They will stand behind a table at a fair all day. and fetch off certain plate and belongings.²SCOTT. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS.²IRVING.²War Records. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked. would is used to express a wish. will and would are used to express simple futurity. They will go to Sunday schools. Would thou hadst it not. In this stately chair would he sit. Roland. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable.. action merely expected to occur.. and mark on the grounds the works. and two of my people. will is used to express command. . Thine was a dangerous gift. so you will.²BANCROFT. The gift of Beauty..² All this will sound wild and chimerical. (4) With FIRST.. This puts the order more mildly.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C..²BURKE. for example.²the original meaning of the word will.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. BROWN. To be sure.² DICKENS.²SCOTT. 254. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. PASSIVE VOICE. When I am in town. for example.²LANDOR. SECOND. B. as. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. as if it were merely expected action. Mere futurity. as. when thou wast born. AND THIRD PERSONS. for punishment or intimidation. etc.(2) With the SECOND PERSON. through storms their brothers are afraid of. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it. will and would often denote an action as customary. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). without regard to future time. you'll always have somebody to sit with you.² Subject I omitted: often so. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives.² Thou wilt take the skiff. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. (5) With the THIRD PERSON.

[He] shall choose.:² ACTIVE VOICE.Singular. 2. 4. 3." answered Herbert stubbornly. yet only seem. We will choose. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 2. 3. 2. Singular. You shall choose. 3. Exercises on Shall and Will. 2. 3. [He] will choose. Plural. [They] will be chosen. (a) From Secs. He informed us. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. You shall be chosen. I shall be chosen. 1. You shall be chosen. Thou shalt have a suit. 1. 5. Singular. etc. I shall choose. 2. [They] shall be chosen. PASSIVE VOICE. Plural. We will be chosen. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. Thou art what I would be. and justify the use of shall and will. You shall choose. We shall be chosen. I will choose. 1. Plural. (b) Examine the following sentences. To express determination. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. You will choose. promise. 3. 3. 1. [He] shall be chosen. and that of the newest cut. [They] will choose. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. You will be chosen. [He] will be chosen. 252 and 253. [They] shall choose. Plural. You will choose. 1. We shall choose. I will be chosen. 6. "I shall not run. . You will be chosen. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. Singular. 2.

bereft. Present Tense. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this.²CHAUCER. and have no change of vowel. as. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. "I am a wayfarer. Without having attended to this. and I have nothing to say. put. bereaved besought . No. 257. then. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense. need some attention and explanation. WEAK VERBS. put. very anxious. 11. But the rest. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. set.7. Past Tense. which may be called irregular weak verbs. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. as if he would have more of the enchantment. bereave beseech bereft. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. This ending has now dropped off. 13.²ID.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. bereave besought Past Participle. was -de or -te. set. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. Irregular Weak Verbs. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle." the stranger said. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. 10. that sche fedde With rosted flessh.² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. 12. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. 255. Lucy stood still. Of smale houndes hadde she. my son. or mylk and wastel breed." 14. The beast made a sluggish movement. The old ending to verbs of Class II. 256. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment.²Class I. 9. put.

leapt left lost meant paid penned. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. hid kept knelt laid leaned. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . leant leaped. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. spelt spilt staid. leapt left lost meant paid penned.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned. leant leaped.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. 267. 7. INFINITIVES. [To] have been chosen. [To] have chosen. Perfect. have no tense. and when passive. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. try clemency. a perfect. Indefinite. [To] be choosing. to was used before the infinitive generally.. It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. Imperfect. 268. 266. When active.6. 10. [To] have been choosing. [To] be chosen. But later. I returned to reflection on my situation. an imperfect. PASSIVE VOICE.. they have an indefinite. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall. Perfect definite. [To] choose. .²the creature warring against the creating power. Indefinite. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. expressing purpose. to express action unconnected with a subject.. 9. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted. Nothing of the kind having been done. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). when inflections became fewer. To with the infinitive. as in the Old English. and a perfect definite form. In Sec. formed a kind of bedstead. 8. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. ACTIVE VOICE. Perfect. Three saplings. Infinitives. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. will (with should and would). like participles. an indefinite and a perfect form. Cases when to is omitted.

(3) After had in the idiomatic use. "I do go" etc. They shall have venison to eat. HALE." (4) In exclamations. and like a noun in use. as.²HOWELLS. poor woman!" cried Charles." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. "She ask my pardon. "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride.² What! doth she.²E. bid (command). 270. and corn to hoe. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. sometimes need (as. also in the imperative.²GOLDSMITH. please.²TENNYSON. the gerund may be called a noun verbal. and emphatic forms of the present and past.). do (as..²it may be governed as a noun.²COOPER. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. learn [doth learn is one verb. . as the credulous imagine.²DE QUINCEY. 272. too. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay. must. see.²IRVING. as." etc. The gerund is like the participle in form. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William. feel. 269. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. or the object of a verb or a preposition." Examples are. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. "a house to let. as. E. "He will choose. While the gerund expresses action. also let. it is often preceded by the definite article. watch. 271. it may be the subject of a verb.²MACAULAY. GERUNDS. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal. under "Analysis. can (could). hear." "I shall have chosen. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. make. negative. it has several attributes of a noun.² She was a kind.(2) After the verbs may (might). "He need not go") and dare (to venture). as in the expression. liberal woman. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. But there was nothing to do.

" (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. after examining the nest." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use." also (2. which express action.²Find sentences containing five participles." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. which name an action or state. 273. The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek." Exercise. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun. which have lost all verbal force." "Certainly dueling is bad. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings. may govern and be governed. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. (2) Pure participles. five infinitives. Words in -ing are of six kinds. when. making the definite tenses." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. on your leaving the spot. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. brilliant." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. which express action. and wonderful store of learning! . 4. Exercise. and has been put down. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. to see the returning hope of the parents. but do not assert. II). What a vast. but cannot govern. Then how pleasing is it. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. which express action and also modify. (3) Participial adjectives. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. above. (5) Gerunds. (4) Pure adjectives. b). and five gerunds. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb. according to use as well as meaning. Sec." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. 2. (6) Verbal nouns.

much corroded. (5) Person and number. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. you must. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. I suppose I was dreaming about it.5. 234. 15. I. by object lessons. What is dreaming? 8. Caution. In parsing verbs. . 10. round which is an iron railing. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. subjunctive.²indicative. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number.²which of the tenses given in Sec. write twenty pages without stopping. Thackeray did not. 275.²active or passive. (4) Tense. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. 14. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. or imperative. He spread his blessings all over the land. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. like Sir Walter Scott. but. 7. 13. bearing her national emblem. VERBS. dictating from his chair. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. 6. (3) Mood. (b) as to use. 16. give reality to your teaching. 11.²transitive or intransitive. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature.²strong or weak. 9. giving principal parts. 12. (2) Voice. he gave out sentence by sentence. slowly. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. The only means of ascending was by my hands.

. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. 3. (b) whether indefinite. verbals. You are gathered to your fathers. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. Take these examples:² 1. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. 278. and parting day linger and play on its summit. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. The government might have been strong and prosperous. definite. (c) to what word it belongs. and not taken as single verbs. may. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. give points (a) and (b). II. 278(2). if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. usually it does not. (a) From what verb derived. Let it rise! let it rise. intransitive. III. 2. no sin nor sorrow. active. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. must. could. and ends in -s. has for its subject Lee. past tense. perfect. intransitive. then parse it as an adjective. 4. perfect. can. in the world. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. followed by a pure infinitive without to. In such sentences as 1. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. would. we must beware of the rule. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. see Sec. (b) its use (Sec.. call might a weak verb. call should a weak verb. has the subject government." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. (2) Infinitive. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. If a participial adjective. past tense. indicative. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive. 277. But unless the verb is present. Parse the verbs. therefore active." Sometimes it does. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. Exercise. and should always be analyzed as phrases. VERBALS. In 2. 273). Especially frequent are those made up of should. etc. and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1.276. VERB PHRASES. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. 2. imperfect. might. indicative (as it means could). till it meet the sun in his coming. It has been intimated in Sec. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. (b) whether active or passive. etc. 235. (3) Gerund. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. (1) Participle.

Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. However that be. 11. a new waking up of all that has life.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. 15. 20. 23. 10. he thought only of her. When he arose in the morning. So. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. and wondered if she were yet awake.Down all the line. or. 21. 6. 9. 17. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance. 14. He passed across the room to the washstand. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things. from a sort of temporary death. see that it is in good condition. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. 13. as the Hindoos say. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. leaving me upon the bed.5. 22. as usual. as rolled from wing to wing.O God. With them. 16. . 18. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. Whatever ground you sow or plant. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by. 12. 24. a new bursting forth of the sun. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. The soul having been often born. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing.Henceforth in me instill. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. Right graciously he smiled on us. 19. 8. morning is not a new issuing of light. a sweet good will. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. a deafening shout. In going for water.

place. ADVERBS. as. When action is expressed. Is it only poets. or manner: as. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way.25. "William's private life was severely pure. A verb. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].²THACKERAY. to speak truly." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. And now wend we to yonder fountain. 27. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time]. and live ere life be spent. To the almost terror of the persons present. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly." "He was absolute. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. 26. for example.²SHELLEY. 29. and men of leisure and cultivation. Adverbs modify.²EMERSON. for the hour of rest is at hand. and so on. . because.Feast while we may. to consent. and limit adjectives or adverbs." Sometimes a noun or pronoun." An adjective or an adverb. who live with nature?²ID. 279. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. The word adverb means joined to a verb. they are more himself than he is. Oh. Nor was it altogether nothing. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. Better it were."²DE QUINCEY.² The young man reveres men of genius. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.²CARLYLE.²time. thou sayest.

169.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb. as now.²THOREAU. as.² LOWELL. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. thus. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly. Surely happiness is reflective.²TROLLOPE.²LEIGH HUNT. hitherto. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. B. An adverb.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. 281. being adverbs naturally and fitly. and that.²BYRON.He was incidentally news dealer. 282. all wet and glossy. 169 are felt to be elliptical. A clause or sentence. and rather forced into the service of adjectives.²T. NOTE. ²IRVING. etc.² FRANKLIN. I draw forth the fruit. Make music to the lonely ear. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. and half awfully. A phrase. We are offered six months' credit. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. . for example. 280. It may also modify a sentence. before. lately. Definition. which may qualify an action word or a statement. there are six classes:² (1) Time. but still with a rich bloom to it. has induced some of us to attend it. not simply the forms used in predication. Thus considered. as shown in the sentences. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb. but some verb understood. not the noun. or a word group used as such. but really modifying. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. perhaps.²These last differ from the words in Sec. ALDRICH. like the light of heaven. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead.²The expression action word is put instead of verb. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. to-day.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. (2) according to their use in the sentence. NOTE. ever. then. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. is a modifying word. while those in Sec.

(2) Place.there. whithersoever. for example. (5) Degree.²R. [Sidenote The status of such.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. Meekness. whencesoever. The more they multiply. while so precedes only the adjective usually. LOUIS STEVENSON.²HAWTHORNE. or how far he believes it to be true. the more perfect will be their obedience.where.was for this once of her opinion. at least.near. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. Emerson. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. too. etc. Thackeray.²LECKY.²SHAKESPEARE. (see also Sec. not. I was. 283. thus... etc. as little. much. bravely. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. Motley. This long's the text. White. as here. (6) Assertion. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. the more friends you will have. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. 283).²DE QUINCEY. surely. partly. etc. enough.² The master. especially the comparative of these words. two by two. probably. slowly. So also in Grote. beautifully. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. just. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.. singly. (4) Number. (3) Manner. . etc.whither. as perhaps. and not infrequently are found in literary English. above.²BROWNING. very.yonder. telling how many times: once.. etc. maybe. etc. possibly. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH. greatly.thither. the more evidently they love liberty. and others.²IRVING.whence.thence. as well.. as hence. that these adverbs form a very large class. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. better. twice.which gained him such universal popularity. slightly.²BURKE. telling how much. (b) PLACE TO WHICH. telling how anything is done. as hither.

"thou think'st thyself mighty wise. Mighty. I perceived his sisters mighty busy. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. 285.²BULWER.² KINGSLEY." said the king. Kingsley. Franklin. have the additional function of asking a question. Burke. 286. Some adverbs."²SCOTT." "The house. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister. De Quincey. Simple. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal.²HAWTHORNE. Again. a mighty fine gentleman." "That were far better [degree]." "I have seen you before [time]. and its lawn before [place]. Aldrich. Direct questions.² You are mighty courteous.² "Mighty well. Holmes. besides modifying. STOWE. Dickens.²BAYNE. It is only occasionally used in literary English." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. 284. Emerson. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs.Pretty. 282." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE. Beau Fielding.²THACKERAY. and other writers. "Peace. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. for example. Notice meanings.²GOLDSMITH. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Defoe. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples.²FIELDING. B. Interrogative. and art but a fool. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now. Pretty is also used by Prescott. A pretty large experience. Such are most of those given already in Sec. Neville. Hard blows and hard money." "He spoke positively [manner].²"He walked too far [place]. for example. .²THACKERAY. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H.

(4) Degree.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. 287. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls.²BYRON (3) Manner.²POE. (5) Reason. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. I will not ask where thou liest low.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. CLAY. while having the office of adverbs in modifying.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. (2) Place. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. (4) Degree. When did this humane custom begin?²H. I hearkened.²BULWER. WEBSTER. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON. I do not remember when I was taught to read. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE. (2) Place. they smiled. Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. I know not why. .²BYRON.²D. for example.

representing four classes. . and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. when. irregularly compared. only occasionally having -er and -est. Superlative. Form vs.²BYRON. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. Many adjectives have the same ending. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. as. Its strings boldlier swept. soon. The following. For further discussion. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. well much little far late Comparative. Tell what each word in ly modifies. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb. have the same inflection as adjectives. when does not express time and modify.But in reality. just as adjectives do. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. obs. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. further farthest.eyes... Then must she keep it safelier. sooner. highest. 290. high. soonest.²TENNYSON. higher. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions.²COLERIDGE. Many adverbs are compared. furthest (rathe.²EMERSON." Exercise. and.²SHAKESPEARE. use.) rather 289. but the whole clause. Only that we may wiselier see. Exercise. see Sec. 288. when compared. not an adverb.

It is true he was rarely heard to speak. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. but with a different meaning. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly. instead of being used adverbially.²THACKERAY. Such are most. near. as. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. 8. hardly. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. 2. curiously jolly. 4. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. more courtly in their manners. Again. 2. Special use of there.² EMERSON. The reason is.²CHAUCER.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. There are eyes.²WORDSWORTH. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. even. hard. whether adverbs or adjectives. quick-flashing eye. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face. nearly. to be sure. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride.And his mien of kingly state. if it has the verb be. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. With his proud. mostly. 292. 5. kindly and good-natured in secret.²IRVING. evenly. etc.²TENNYSON. He is inexpressibly mean. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. 291. 3." Compare these:² 1. merely introduces a sentence. 7. or down the leaves laughed through. And all about. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt. Not near so black as he was painted. .²ID. But he must do his errand right.1. that in Old and Middle English. 6. many words without -ly have the same form. Frequently the word there.

HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. if the word is compared. burning in the center of the temple. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. (2) Degree of comparison. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. But a few steps farther on. 2. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. . It is the Cross that is first seen. Thither we went. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 16. In parsing adverbs. (3) What word or word group it modifies. 11. according to meaning and also use. Exercise. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. The higher we rise in the scale of being. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. 7. but from my fall? 6. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. 9. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. 4. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. 15. give² (1) The class. 3. however theoretically enticing. is always politically unwise. For the impracticable. the Madonna is in great glory. 293. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 5. 10. and sate down on the steps of a house. 18. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. but continually shifted. at the regular wine-shop. and always. 12. 17.

she would undoubtedly have succumbed. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. Unlike adverbs. therefore." Sentences. 295. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. 21." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. But now the wind rose again. but side by side within the American Union. 294. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. etc. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. It was pretty bad after that. or sentence groups. hence. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. Clauses." Paragraphs. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. upon which the sun now shone forth. however. word groups.19." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. but the student will readily find them. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. nor. A conjunction is a linking word. (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. Definition. 22. sentences. 20. CONJUNCTIONS. then. . Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. connecting words.

in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks.. as well as the room door. etc. as.. the butter too.. While the earth bears a plant..but (or but also). Nor mark'd they less. neither. nor. The assertion.or.. however..or. etc...nor. the bread was spent. (2) Subordinate. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. else." Nevertheless. Some go in threes.. 297. hence.nor. only. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man. joining words. "Howbeit.. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative.and. therefore. introducing a reason or cause.or. The chief ones are. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.. the window being open. still. Alternative.or. for.but. (4) ALTERNATIVE. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. answering to each other in the same sentence. Causal.. not only.. and. as.. where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. of the same rank. either. and not man corn. nor.. also. had its weight. moreover. word groups.. whether. Adversative. Your letter. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. but is emperor in his own right. They are or. Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. yet. whether... however. I have nothing to do with the governor and council.. or the sea rolls its waves. etc. both. as but. (2) ADVERSATIVE. either.. whether. while.. likewise. Some of these go in pairs. .. then.or whether. neither.Classes of conjunctions. as and.. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. expressing a choice.. as well as. serves but to show their ignorance. (3) CAUSAL. neither. not only. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. 296. Correlatives.. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. either. 298. usually between two things.

in apposition. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. QUINCY. Neither the place in which he found himself.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. (3) MANNER: how. whithersoever. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. ²ALLSTON. since. Time. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. lest.²BIBLE. whither. so that. etc. nor creeping thing.²PAULDING. seeing. nor wing of bird.²IRVING. nor green leaf. especially that after so. that.²WILSON. whenever. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it. though. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. (6) PURPOSE: that. (2) TIME: when.. . whereas. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that.²J. ere. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. even if. object. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. as. until. He is not only bold and vociferous. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. except.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. nor echo.. etc. so. (7) RESULT: that. as. whether. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. as. there will the heart be also. before. sometimes if. etc.. wherever. It is. etc. in order that. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. Where the treasure is.²COOPER.²DE QUINCEY. so. whence. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. while. etc. provided. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste.. whereto. now. howsoever. provided that. so that. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. so. in case. I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place. on condition that.²BURKE. however. after. unless. although. 299.

²DEFOE.² EMERSON.That he gave her wounds repose.²EMERSON. Substantive. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. reason.²AMES. a thousand bodies.² WORDSWORTH.²AMES. .So I behold them not. Comparison.²EMERSON.²EMERSON. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze. Then Denmark blest our chief. I was again covered with water. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Manner. So many thoughts moved to and fro. Cause. Condition. H. Now he is dead. Concession.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.That vain it were her eyes to close. Result.²BURKE. JACKSON.² H. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. We wish for a thousand heads.²CARLYLE Events proceed.²IRVING. As a soldier. Purpose. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.² HAWTHORNE. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. There flowers or weeds at will may grow. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant.²CAMPBELL. not as they were expected or intended.²AMES.²BYRON. but not so long but I held it out. Let the world go how it will. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.²COLERIDGE.

Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. 4. 7. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. and hid her there. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. her real merit is known at home. 13. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. the wisest. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. 6. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. it will remain harmless. as. After he was gone. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. as he shot in air. 15. the lady called her servant. she faintly pressed her hand. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. 3. then. 300. that. Exercises.²RUSKIN. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. Besides. 14. 10. 5. And then recovering. 9. While patriotism glowed in his heart. some words²for example. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. He was brought up for the church. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. . As will have been noticed. while. Crept under the leaf.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. In what point of view. however. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions.Let us see whether the greatest. No one had yet caught his character. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. since. 12. 2. The moth fly. hold a subordinate rank. And they lived happily forever after. While a faction is a minority. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. They. etc.

Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. .. 304. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved." as. and the frame will suit the picture. expressing degree if taken separately. in this case. Consequently. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. If analyzed. even as they would weep. As for as if. 301. they connect. thus..As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. as is often equivalent to as if.As though a rose should shut.²EMILY BRONTE. The raft and the money had been thrown near her. In parsing conjunctions.So slowly moved about. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.Clouded. SPECIAL REMARKS. As if.²BYRON. for example.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H.16.²IRVING. GREELEY." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. and be a bud again. the expression would be. In poetry. as is shown by the use of as though. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words. So silently we seemed to speak. word groups. And their orbs grew strangely dreary. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. 302. etc. His voice . In Emerson's sentence. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing. "We meet. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner. none of the lashings having given way. 303.²HOOD. and part as though we parted not. As though.. (2) What words.

. so that I could not stir abroad. Exercise. It may be safely trusted. because it is his. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. 7. and. 2. It continued raining. 13. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. or in the forest. so that expresses result. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. etc. so means therefore. he sleeps as warm. the Sphinx was slain. as beside his own chimneys. such as nor. and the like. they are not known. 6. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. The eye was placed where one ray should fall." said his wife to Martin Luther. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait. and its clause is independent. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. he is also the correlative of nature. and associates as happily. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. He dismisses without notice his thought. that it might testify of that particular ray. At sea.²is subordinate of condition. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. 9. For example. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye.²I find them true in Concord. 10. others belong to several classes.²EMERSON 3. dines with as good an appetite.² 1. When the gods come among men. 5. but of the natural. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. are regularly of one particular class. so means provided. when. so they paddled on. 4. "Doctor. All the postulates of elfin annals. He is the compend of time. 11.²DEFOE 2. 3. so it be faithfully imparted. or in the snow. and its clause depends on the other. Some conjunctions. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. 12. in 2. compare the sentences. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old.Caution. in 3. and very seldom?" 8.²that the fairies do not like to be named. . because. If he could solve the riddle. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. In classifying them.

15. For. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. 21. 30. in many a heart. in this they agree. Still. It may be so in the majority of cases. 24. when it was presented to them. of good novels only. I speak. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. . but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. whose names I omit. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. I rejoice to stand here no longer. Now you have the whip in your hand. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. she might have the family countenance. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. won't you lay on? 17. 305. 25. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object.²else it is none. 22. 16. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. however. 29. 20. you must be. PREPOSITIONS.14. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. 26. 18. enthroned. And whether consciously or not. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. 19. 28. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. It is clear. therefore. There was no iron to be seen. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don.. 27. the whole conditions are changed. 23. save it were sinful like herself. that both were wayward. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. Goodness must have some edge to it. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

at the best. at play. ²PARTON.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at least.²EVERETT.²R.²ALDRICH. Richard was standing by the window. at peace. At that time [the earth] was richer. at most.²B. at work. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. By my faith. expressing the degree of difference.² (1) The general meaning of place.²SWIFT. At St.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last. by means near or close to. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. (4) Measure of excess. by the ruins of nations. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at length. . by the wrecks of time. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. By. STODDARD. D. Exercise. at rest. CONWAY. H. at random. Helena. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. as. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. at once. (2) Time.²ID. 321. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling.²DE QUINCEY. For.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. at first. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. he stopped. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder.. 320.²WARNER. at all. at naught. at the worst. etc. She saw the boat headed for her. etc. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. by many a million of acres. at one. TAYLOR The angel came by night. Exercise. at any rate. (3) Agency or means. by the blessed memory of the departed. at war. the first port made by the ship.²COOPER.²M. Like at.

and leaped for joy. BANCROFT. a person or thing.² RUSKIN. An Arab woman. etc..One of Eve's family. E. etc.²LAMB. For the rest. meaning with regard to. For him. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE."²SCOTT By my faith. respecting. There are gains for all our losses. "Nay. (8) Meaning notwithstanding.²EMERSON. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. as being. "thou hast counseled wisely.²PARKMAN. (9) Motive.(2) In favor of. or extent of space. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. for famine. cause. meaning in the character of. poor fellow. considering that etc. GARRISON.²ID. reason. he repented of his folly. H. but a few sunsets since. He and they were for immediate attack.²E.. (4) Substitution or exchange. for all his title. as to. they are now for us." answered Master Brackett. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity. "For a fool. the Colonna motto would fit you best. or in spite of.²W. . etc." said the Lady of Lochleven. The twilight being. had a forest of poor relations. Still. (6) Like as. for the benefit of.²PARKMAN The people were then against us.²PARKMAN. if your worship can accomplish that.²IRVING.²H.²HOOD. (3) Duration of time. (7) Concession.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. meaning although. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. for all slips of hers. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. (5) Reference.²HOLMES. L. incitement to action. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. in behalf of. But the Colonel. ate her child.²STODDARD. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON.

²ID. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. (1) Origin or source. 322.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. (4) Motive. 323.²HUXLEY. ceased to be merciful. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. (2) Origin. Exercise. cause. The general idea in from is separation or source. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. more.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. like from. Like boys escaped from school. (3) Time.²BANCROFT.²DRYDEN.²HUME. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies.²H. nay. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. The original meaning of of was separation or source. if not a desperate man. The From Relation. H. It was from no fault of Nolan's. A distrustful. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. Exercise. The king holds his authority of the people.²HALE.²MILTON. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE. or reason. The young cavaliers. From. from a desire of seeming valiant. From harmony.²HIGGINSON.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. . Of.

Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs.²BANCROFT. A singular want of all human relation. bare of. reason. The hills were bare of trees. relieve. ask. (5) Expressing agency.²ALDRICH. Other Relations expressed by Of. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. or breastpin of native gold. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. Asked no odds of. He is away of his own free will.²BAYARD TAYLOR. disarm.²SCOTT Who formed. motive. More than one altar was richer of his vows. south of."²E. especially out of. Sandals. . and grass. free of. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. free. HALE. (d) With words expressing distance.²LEW WALLACE. E. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. "I am glad of that. out of the most unpromising materials. deprivation. rid. beg. (b) After some adjectives. of his own knowledge. wide of. etc. (3) With expressions of material. acquitted them of.² HUXLEY. (6) Partitive. Of the Forty. etc.. deprive. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. purge.²clear of. as north of. etc. there were only twenty-one members present. rob. etc. etc. that Cromwell once ruled England. cure. White shirt with diamond studs. demand.²PARKMAN. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. (c) After nouns expressing lack. such as ease. divest. Back of that tree. ²PARTON.²BOSWELL.²DICKENS II. ²GAVARRE. weeds.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. clear. bound with thongs of boar's hide. You cannot make a boy know.²HIGGINSON. expressing a part of a number or quantity.²ID.

²W. The nation of Lilliput. (8) Appositional. 309. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour. for the possessive. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. (c) Two nouns.²LAMB. of a sudden. Such a book as that of Job. and the dignity of a queen. (9) Of time. of late. CHANNING. standing.²COOPER. The fair city of Mexico. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed. concerning.²BANCROFT. . separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²BANCROFT.²HALLECK. See also Sec.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. Not even woman's love. ²IRVING.²PRESCOTT.²FROUDE. when the first is descriptive of the second. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate. of is used in the sense of during.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. (10) Of reference. (7) Possessive. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him.He washed out some of the dirt. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. E.²ID. with regard to. being equivalent to an infinitive. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²SWIFT. with its object. Besides the phrases of old.²BANCROFT.. etc. equal to about. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. could give shelter from his contumely.²ALDRICH.²LOWELL. Idiomatic use with verbs. (b) Noun and gerund.

without adding to their meaning.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. On. 325.²Find sentences with six uses of of. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. consist. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. permit. etc.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs.²ALDRICH. equal to about.²PARKMAN. Cannon were heard close on the left.²EMERSON. allow. complain. Upon my reputation and credit. avail (one's self). (b) With motion. The general meaning of on is position or direction. on view. Exercise. (2) Time. on high. To. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. etc. repent. SIGOURNEY. and not a day more. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.²PARKMAN. on trial. approve. such as admit.²DE QUINCEY. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. ²BANCROFT. you are eighteen. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. Upon. and others. on the alert. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. On my life. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. (3) Reference. on the wing.²PARKMAN.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. It also accompanies the verbs tire.²MRS. on a sudden. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. concerning. (4) In adjurations. accept. . Exercise. Upon is seldom used to express time.²BRYANT. disapprove. on board. 324.

Exercise.. had ceased to be.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. unmasked. We cook the dish to our own appetite. (2) Expressing result. interest. it may be genuine poetry.²PARTON. With. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²BRYANT. Nor. Revolutions.²PARKMAN. to him.²BULWER. (5) Equivalent to according to.²HALE.. In Old English. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks. 268). . The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment. To the few.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec. Death!²HALLECK. With expresses the idea of accompaniment. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears. 326..²IRVING.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. does the mere music. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him. mid meant in company with. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with. whose influence is felt to this hour. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. But when. gay Comedy appears.²GOLDSMITH. He usually gave his draft to an aid. to my taste. His brother had died. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT.²B.. (b) Referring to time.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification.²often to the loss of vigor.Come to the bridal chamber.²BENTON To our great be written over.²LANG.

²COLERIDGE. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. reason.²DE QUINCEY. with all his boldness. as with you. . It seemed a supreme moment with him. but a pleasure"?²LANG.²CHANNING. felt it unsafe to trifle further.²E.²WALLACE (7) Time.²EMERSON.²HOWELLS. (2) Instrumentality.²HOWELLS. with Heyward at its head. "poetry is not a pursuit. but with you.The advance. opinion. first of all.²COOPER. (4) Estimation. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. He expired with these words.²DE QUINCEY. Exercise. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. he gave millions to the sword. (3) Cause. I think. motive. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. Messala.²SCOTT.²LANG.²Find sentences with four uses of with. it is necessary. After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. or with the haunch of our near leader. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires. She seemed pleased with the accident. E. had already reached the defile.²HALE. Either with the swingle-bar. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. (5) Opposition. With all his sensibility. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. to find the object of the preposition. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life. transmitted from the beginning. He was wild with delight about Texas. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS. 327. in spite of. HALE.²ALDRICH.

one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. I heard a noise just over my head. shook it directly over my head. like the clapping of wings. 3.²SWIFT 2. Whereupon. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. Be that as it will. came tumbling about my ears. without a country modifies man. To our general surprise. In (3). which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. because I had given the provocation. beginning. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. I looked towards my windows. The guns were cleared of their lumber. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. and knocked me down flat on my face. I felt my box raised very high in the air. I remember. (3) without a country. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. I speak these things from a love of justice. 4. the phrase answers the question where. 5. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. or was.²ID. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. by which a dozen apples. of from. . 2. (2) on which. In (1). country. I called out several times. he followed us one day into those gardens. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. of on. In (2). on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. but I received no other hurt. and then borne forward with prodigious speed.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. the malicious rogue. which. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. Exercises. The object of on board is ships. but all to no purpose. (4) from the beginning. hence we say. telling what man. we met the defaulter here. of without. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. And so on. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. before the dwarf left the queen.

down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance. For my part. 12. 11. 14. 26. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. in this respect. 21. 29. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. 18. plumed for battle. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. I like to see the passing. 10. He locked his door from mere force of habit. 20. 15. 22. in town. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. The mother sank and fell. after a restful morning. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. 17. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. The savage army was in war-paint. 19. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. 23. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory. 24. 16. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years.6. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. 13. when. 25. On all subjects known to man. 7. 27. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. 8. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. to one dark and gloomy. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. 9. grasping at the child. With all his learning. His breeches were of black silk. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. .He spurred his courser on. Carteret was far from being a pedant.Without stop or stay. he favored the world with his opinions. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays.

not merely by the amount of the tax.²STOCKTON.30. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. That night was a memorable one. A few are discussed below. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach.²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. (b) Of result. And now it is like an angel's song. (4) As an adverb of degree. 329. He will raise the price. We wish that labor may look up here.That makes the heavens be mute.² JOHNSON. (3) As a relative pronoun. (2) As an adjective pronoun.²WEBSTER.²HUXLEY.²COLERIDGE. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. That is what I understand by scientific education. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives.²BEECHER.²WEBSTER. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. (a) Indefinite relative.²WEBSTER. (1) Relative pronoun. WHAT. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. 330. That was a dreadful mistake. (c) Substantive conjunction. and not according to form. THAT. 328. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech. . that you might behold this joyous day. and be proud in the midst of its toil.

but. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage.² is impossible to determine.these sounds are only to be heard.² Pera.²ID.. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT.S... 331.²S. "I'll tell you what. What.Are yet the fountain light of all our day.Those shadowy recollections.Which be they what they may. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. If he has [been in America]. and silent all!²BYRON. to see what might be hidden. he knows what good people are to be found there.. partly. (7) Adverb of degree." (4) Relative adjective. (b) Indirect question.²WORDSWORTH. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning. nearly equivalent to partly. silent still.. (9) As an exclamation. (b) Copulative. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative.²EMERSON. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. who go tinkling by to their pasturage. What with the Maltese goats. or not only. (b) Indirect question. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ.²EMERSON.. it rests on reality.... Cox.. (6) Exclamatory adjective.²THACKERAY. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union. BUT.. To say what good of fashion we can.. after not only. . but the result of calculation. What. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way. At what rate these materials would be distributed. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question. (8) Conjunction.

like the dog. 332.Then arose not only tears.²SCOTT. not. equivalent to that .He yearned to our patriot bands. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage.. (3) Preposition.²EMERSON. (d) Of reason.. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. towards order.. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. stands for that . There is not a man in them but is impelled withal. ²CARLYLE. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. meaning except. I shall see but little of it. after such. but piercing cries. Who knows but. . on all sides.²IRVING. meaning otherwise . His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. than. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²FRANKLIN. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night.. or who . meaning only.. after a negative. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction. (c) Of degree. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. (e) Introducing an appositive word.²SHELLEY..²IRVING. (2) Relative pronoun. (4) Relative pronoun. To lead but one measure. (b) Of manner. at all moments.²HAWTHORNE.²MRS BROWNING. Doing duty as a guard. not. (5) Adverb. not. sometimes same. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.²CARLYLE.²IRVING.. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village.²LAMB. AS.. (b) Substantive. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU.

The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases. That face. If the verb is expressed. like a cook beating eggs. staring like a bewildered man. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. This follows a verb or a verbal. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. Stirring it vigorously.²DARWIN. 333. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. Through which they put their heads.²LONGFELLOW. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner.²HIGGINSON. this. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. In this second use.²ALDRICH. . Give Ruskin space enough.-SCOTT. NOTE. like summer ocean's.²HALLECK. like him awhile ago. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. They look.²EMERSON.²MAYHEW.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. and as or as if takes its place. (1) An adjective.²SHAKESPEARE. No Emperor. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. There is no statue like this living man.²CASS. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. ²PARKMAN. Note the difference between these two uses. and is followed by a dative-objective.² A timid. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. Introduces a clause. but its verb is omitted. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war.²EMERSON.²ALDRICH. like drops out. like Martin was.²LAMB. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle.² HAWTHORNE. nervous child. I do with my friends as I do with my books. but this is not considered good usage: for example.²HAWTHORNE. indeed. In each case. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. and was clearly an adjective.LIKE.

Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell.: for example. etc. 336..²in determining case. pronoun. Definition. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. subject and predicate. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. in separating them into their component parts.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun]. but it still retains its identity as noun. Value of analysis. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. etc. 334. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. clauses introduced by conjunctions. entering into the structure of a sentence. 335. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation. verb. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. that is." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. ." PART II. that is. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. Definition. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. Some of these are imitative sounds. tut! buzz! etc. What analysis is." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. as. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech.INTERJECTIONS.

339. which puts the thought in a question. always friends?" imperative. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. not according to the form in which a thought is put." 340. entreaty. you must not die!" interrogative. SIMPLE SENTENCES. "The quality of mercy is not strained. "Hath he not always treasures. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. hence. Division according to number of statements. . (2) Interrogative. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. This is the most common one. old man?" "Be thou familiar. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. A rare old plant is the ivy green. "Come to the bridal chamber.Kinds of sentences as to form. 337. or request.²a subject and a predicate. Definition. But now all is to be changed. 2. (3) Imperative. but the sentence would still be declarative. 338. question. "Old year. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. Every sentence must contain two parts. which expresses command." "What wouldst thou do. according to form. but according to how many statements there are. declarative. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. or command: for example. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. interrogative. or imperative. but by no means vulgar. Examples of these three kinds are. Definition: Predicate.

The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. especially in poetry. But if we try this with the second sentence. all. adjective.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. always reduce them to the order of a statement.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. thou. a rare old plant. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions. and the real subject is the latter. . Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. on the other hand. 341. as. In the interrogative sentence. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. The last of all the Bards was he.²What is to be changed? Answer. the subject is frequently after the verb. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. or adverb that asks about the subject. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. 8. In analyzing such sentences. 2. not of a rare old plant." Exercise. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. to an ignorant man. 7. or an interrogative pronoun. "[You] behold her single in the field. Thus. 4. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. 5. but about the ivy green. Consequently. and is to be supplied. to suit all cases:² Subject. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. 3. the subject (you. we say all is the subject of the sentence. and our definition must be the following. or ye) is in most cases omitted.²What is the ivy green? Answer. Listen. Slavery they can have anywhere. we have some trouble. 6.

just as if to say. (4) The complements. direct. 343. (2) The predicate. (3) The object. "Ye honor me. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. Of a transitive verb. but it is a true complement. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. Indirect object. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb. The subject and predicate have been discussed. (5) Modifiers. "Ye call me chief.10. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. Direct Object. but of call chief. or second object. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. "She seldom saw her course at a glance. Examples of direct and indirect objects are. and by object we mean the direct object. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject.²transitive and intransitive." Complement: 344. for example. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. The transitive verb often requires. (6) Independent elements. and means summoned. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. and me here is not the object simply of call. 342." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief)." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object. in addition to the object. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. ." indirect. but chief belongs to the verb.

A phrase is a group of words. 347. and." "He was termed Thomas. seem." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. 'Ay. feel. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. become. or. introduced by a preposition: for example. sir!' rang out in response." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk. more familiarly. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. he was now getting old. Phrases. as. for instance. "A cheery. above sixty. etc. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. I mentioned a case of that nature. As to form.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. 355. 364." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. and barring the door. "Brow and head were round. not containing a verb." "The good man. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. 352. as in drowning." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. Thom of the Gills." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . appear. Complement of an intransitive verb. 351." 345. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. but used as a single modifier. 346." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. and of massive weight." Things used as Subject." (2) PARTICIPIAL. See sentence 19. (1) PREPOSITIONAL." Also an expression used as a noun. ay. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. in the original Opium Confessions. to the completion of this man of the world.." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. she sat down to undress the two youngest children." All these complete intransitive verbs. as in the sentence. in the popular judgment. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it." (3) INFINITIVE. An intransitive verb. taste. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. in exercise following Sec. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. especially the forms of be.

" (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office.²the talent of starting the game. 349. but they will be given in detail here. 341.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. but the real or logical subject is to print." The for did not belong there originally. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party. or their religion from their sect. and by Saint George!' said the King. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." etc." In this sentence. (4) After "there introductory. "'By God. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as." "Never." "The dead are there. . asserting eyes. but obscures the real subject." "There are asking eyes. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. was heard one syllable to justify. etc. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. "Therein has been. I saw the quick and the dead." Things used as Complement. or the thundering of organs. Complement: Of an intransitive verb. Disguised infinitive subject." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. my deficiency.²the infinitive phrase." Things used as Direct Object. (2) In interrogative sentences." Also expressions used as nouns: for example." 348. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. for which see Sec." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. from their lips. and ever will be. prowling eyes." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec.

at the same time. the shepherd girl. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun." Modifiers. and the words italicized are still complements.²completing the predicate. As complement of an intransitive verb." "Their tempers." "She asked her father's permission." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. Object. and. Like all the complements in this list. they are adjuncts of the object." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous.350." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me. (3) Infinitive." "Serving others is serving us." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object. I. complements of the predicate. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. and whenever the complement is a noun." (4) Participle." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken." . or the equivalent of the noun.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." In this last sentence. the object is made the subject by being passive. 351." "I hear the echoes throng. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. Modifiers of Subject. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. or Complement.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. and explaining or modifying the subject. As complement of a transitive verb.²heads or tails. Of a transitive verb. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. doubtless." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she.

Since the predicate is always a verb." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. but it is really a contracted clause." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour." Exercise. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." "In the twinkling of an eye." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase. 357-363. the prisoner at the bar. given at the request of a Dutch lady.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. II. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. but with other men. was the scene from King John. no sociable angel. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. and leading him from star to star." "Him. Retained with passive." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. not with nature. but noble teachers. 352. austere. see further Secs. Modifiers of the Predicate. or complement is modified. "He died like a God. 351. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve." "Give them not only noble teachings. tell whether the subject. was now called upon for his defense. I have seasoned for thee. or . Tells how. unforgiving.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. and modify the predicate in the same way.²proud." In such a sentence as. object.²In each sentence in Sec. the verb being omitted. this young idolater." (For participial and infinitive phrases.

and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. in this center? 4. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. etc. how far." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. and other measures of precaution. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. negative. no emotion." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus. a sort of personality to the whole writing. according to old philosophers. I took. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. is good in the making. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why. the indirect object is retained. But anger drives a man to say anything. and. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. 5. 6. he liked. to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. predicate. and as many to oppose it. with my joy and grief. 2. no humor." (6) Adverbial objective. but to be loved. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. and (direct) object:² 1." "One way lies hope. 7. no relief to the dead prosaic level. 5. To the men of this world. . after dinner. (b) Pick out the subject. 2. or how long. They do not wish to be lovely. This. (a) Pick out subject. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light." Exercises. On the voyage to Egypt. Why does the horizon hold me fast. 6." "All such knowledge should be given her.When the verb is changed from active to passive. 4. gives wonderful animation. 7. predicate. Evil. and the direct object is retained: for example. 3. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. Fashion does not often caress the great.. His books have no melody. in regard to particulars. but the children of the great. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. 3. and complement: y y y y y y y 1." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. These answer the question when. 8. to the animal strength and spirits.

(c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. then. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 5. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste. Compound Predicate. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1.y 8. viz. Paint me. That night. in little peaceful Easedale. this imperial rider. must visit again the home of her childhood. Unhorse me. I felt myself. that was thy portion in life. 3. the attorney. six children sat by a peat fire. Yes. the present Archbishop of Dublin. to the right and to the left. at length the warrior lady. Not compound sentences. downwards. In one feature. a room seventeen feet by twelve. 6. I gave him an address to my friend. 3. etc. To suffer and to do. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. happy dinner.²the river Meuse. the blooming cornet. Not the less I owe thee justice. 5. then. 4. and a member of the world. 4. this nun so martial. after their long confinement to a ship. this dragoon so lovely. 2.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. upwards. A river formed the boundary. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. y y y y Compound Subject. . I promised her protection against all ghosts. expecting the return of their parents. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light.. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. 2. for the first time. 4. burthened with the anxieties of a man. at the chief hotel. 2. 3. Their intention was to have a gay.

shouldered the rusty firelock.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. several modifiers. the predicate. the simple subject is situation. Bishop." Sentences with compound predicates are. then the grammatical subject and predicate." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. the air of the mother. ulcer. the object. 354. Larger view of a sentence. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. "Ah. Of this. modifiers.. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. same as (1).353. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. etc. etc. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer." "Voyages and travels I would also have. but it is to be noticed that. the verb). hurry. together with its modifiers. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject." "He shook his head." "Ye crags and peaks. forming a sentence: "Oh. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is. 355. they are not a necessary part. the tone of her voice. my brave young man!" . that is." "The name of the child. two or more subjects of the same predicate. may be the person or thing addressed. Independent Elements of the Sentence. The exclamatory expression. exposes. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. in all such sentences as we quote below." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. however. "The company broke up. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. in the sentence. and its object or complement. I'm with you once again. For example. turned his steps homeward. complements." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. and the rest is the logical predicate. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first." And so with complements. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided. above: thus. and returned to the more important concerns of the election. together with all its modifiers. and. etc. hurry. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. Examples of compound subjects are.

"He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. see Sec. object. that have an office in the sentence. not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. "Oh. prepositional phrases may be. There are some adverbs." "Why." "Well. modifying a noun. The words well." Another caution. y (2) The adverbial use." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. such as perhaps. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. now. this story runs thus." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. 351." "At all events." "Truth to say." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. 357. In their use. or complement (see Sec. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. then. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. really. etc." (6) Single words: as." (2) Adverbial. 3.. he was a conscientious man. he closed his literary toils at dinner. six quill-driving gentlemen. moreover. and some conjunctions." (3) Independent. etc. her noticing even this is creditable. modifying the predicate. why. let him perish. grandma. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. he somehow lived along. the company broke up. . pronoun." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. instances of which were seen in Sec. 350. therefore. such as however. to the best of my remembrance." "No. undoubtedly. 6). PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. These need close watching. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. how you're winking!" "Now. 356. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. or word used as a noun: for example. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. (b) As a modifier of subject. already noticed. 4).. truly. nevertheless. see Sec. 4). 352. 355. besides.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. generally speaking. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above." (5) Participial phrase: "But. and so on. yes! everybody knew them. (1) Adjectival.

The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. thus. he should not have known them at all. and teach her how to be happy and good. was speedily run through." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. and hence is adverbial." etc. "The letter of introduction.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially.can (could). etc. containing no matters of business. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. This case excepted.seem. and they will be presented here in full. Wilt thou. modifying was speedily run through. therefore. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public. I. but having no other office than a verbal one. y (a) With may (might)." (b) With the forms of be." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. ought.: as in the sentences. "Because I was. my dear. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.]." (c) With the definite forms of go. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. (5). etc. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. but require somewhat closer attention." In this sentence. See Sec. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. The verbal use. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. or as nearly so as the student will require. (1) Completing an incomplete verb. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. necessity.should. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances.would. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. 358. 355." "There. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every . being equivalent to a future with obligation.

: for example. to hear McOrator after dinner." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation." 360.. 362. The adverbial use. The substantive use. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause.²both purpose clauses. the Scotch fighting all the battles." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them. 351. object. IV. already examined. "Do they not cause the heart to beat. to look means that he might look. above. modifying a noun that may be a subject. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. etc. to please is equivalent to that he may please." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. III." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French. (4) In apposition. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death. 5). to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. result. Don Guzman. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. etc. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. "But there was no time to be lost." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive). it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence. hang the idiot. ." (5) Condition: "You would fancy. II. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. 361. was to have the foe's life at their mercy." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. complement. Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose." "To say what good of fashion we can." "He insisted on his right to forget her. notice the following:² In (1)." "To teach is to learn. To test this. and the eyes to fill?" 359. The adjectival use." "Are you mad. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. 361 are used adverbially.

and to say is equivalent to if we say. equivalent to that you betray. 363. (7) Independent elements (Sec. 268. which is of two kinds. 352). 355. Our life is March weather.) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. to part means because I part. 351). etc. If it is an incomplete verb. 355). This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. savage and serene in one hour. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. (3)." (See also Sec. (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec..²both expressing condition. V. not in a book. 364.² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence.. 349). 347).In (2). (2) The object of the verb (Sec. I will try to keep the balance true. 351). 2." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. and to betray and to bring express the reason. give the complement (Secs. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. give² (1) The predicate. (5) The subject (Sec. must be in a life. etc. Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. 3. to find shows the result of the return. etc. The independent use. 351). object. In (3). (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. In (4). The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. In (5). In analyzing simple sentences. . to hear means if you should hear. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences. 4. as in Sec. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity.

is to have no political system at all. with eager energy. 19. might be called flabby and irresolute. 5. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 16. To these gifts of nature. 9. 22. 12. nor money. You may ramble a whole day together. The whole figure and air. 8. nor troops. nor generals. 18. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. He risked everything. neither ammunition. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. in popular use. like a witch's oils. and every moment discover something new. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 24. 15. 17. nor himself.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. 6. 10. a good shot. 14. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. Through the years and the centuries. just on the edge of destruction.²to preserve her throne. to keep England out of war. The water. To be hurried away by every event. 20. a skilled musician. and only to be saved by invention and courage. 23. and spared nothing. His opinion is always original. Old Adam. a graceful dancer. to the moral sphere. good and amiable otherwise. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. We are always in peril.He sat in the shower. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. through toys and atoms. The word conscience has become almost confined. 11. I have heard Coleridge talk. through evil agents. 7.The old crow of Cairo. . 21. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. always in a bad plight. and to the purpose. two stricken hours. an accomplished scholar. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. Her aims were simple and obvious. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. the carrion crow. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 13. to restore civil and religious order.Burnt green and blue and white. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams.4.

Of the same grandeur. Oxford.Distant. She had made a two days' march. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. and the wherefore? . 27. had but one foible. 33. The villain. 36. proud foe. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. time-honored. But yield. In the Acadian land. Fair name might he have handed down. This amiable relative.Effacing many a stain of former crime. the same Condé Olivarez. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. Supposing this computation to be correct. to bid you leave the place now and forever. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. 26.25. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. I dare this. 35. and no provisions but wild berries. upon my own ground. 30. ready to receive her. I hate him and myself. Must we in all things look for the how. 34. still. and in my own garden. and. Few in number. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. 32. it would not have been filial or ladylike. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. the present capital of New England. the ship was in an uproar. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors. an elderly man. 39. The cry. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. and the why. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. in less heroic and poetic form. 29. or perhaps one virtue. to be a reproach to such goodness. 41. 38. 31. baggage far in the rear. 40. in this world. Now. secluded. haply. Upon this shore stood. the prime minister of Spain. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. in front of all this mighty crowd. 37.

like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. thus. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences. if they were expanded. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom.CONTRACTED SENTENCES.² "She is like some tender tree.From her own loved island of sorrow. as would be the connective instead of like. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. but. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. The simple sentence the basis. Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. 333). are really contracted clauses. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. as." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly. Words left out after than or as. COMPLEX SENTENCES. though often treated as phrases." Sentences with like. made merely for convenience and smoothness. (Sec. however." To show that these words are really omitted. 366. the expressions of manner introduced by like. 367. which is the unit of speech. As shown in Part I. . to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. the pride and beauty of the grove." This must. 365.

each clause has its subject. Independent clause. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. 368. complement. CLAUSES. is taken in. object.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence.²the dependent or subordinate clauses. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. how great .² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. 369. as in this sentence. A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). . suffering. logically depends on suffering. main. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. and modifier. or dependent on it. which are so united that one member is the main one. containing a verb with its subject. that .²the other members subordinate to it. then we recognize this as the main statement.²the backbone.. Definition... 371. drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. etc. we are aware. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. Hence the following definition:² Definition. or it may be applied to the others. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. that is. A clause is a division of a sentence. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. and the last. murmur. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses. A principal. complements. 370. object. modifiers. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. predicate.. and the next one.

But since they are complex in form.Dependent clause. for a hundred years." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs." (4) Apposition." "I was told that the house had not been shut." (2) Object of a verb. for a time. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. or adverbs. verbal. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some." 374. and the whole clause is not. attention is called to them here. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex. As to their office in the sentence. but logically the sentence is. over which the torrent came tumbling.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living. etc.. 5). adjectives. explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh.. (a) Ordinary apposition." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition. pronoun.. 373. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise. Noun Clauses. infinitive. and it is . ." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. put an end to my fancies. so the object clause is retained. is retained after a passive verb (Sec." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences.." Just as the object noun.. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. for example. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend. 352. clauses are divided into NOUN. ADJECTIVE. We ourselves are getting . impertinences. night or day. (b) that are . according as they are equivalent in use to nouns. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause.' is an electric touch. impertinences²would be grammatical. 372. with a noun clause in apposition with it. 'I know that he can toil terribly. and ADVERB clauses.. thus." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. for example. or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. Kinds..

of a nation. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. that. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. 6. As the office of an adjective is to modify. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. no man will ever know. 9. and not on the sentiment. What history it had. . The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who." Exercise. But the fact is. Such a man is what we call an original man. as. he would repent it. Other examples of this construction are. 10. in the sentence. where. that all safe legislation must be based. The reply of Socrates. but. 2. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. 5. 375. Examples of adjective clauses. wherein. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. 7. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. whether he should choose one or not. sometimes by the conjunctions when. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. whither. whereby. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. how it changed from shape to shape. which. that. still remains reasonable. he could know nothing. 8. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. 3. whence. Adjective Clauses. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one.that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. etc. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. 4. or equivalent of a noun. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. that he was a scheming impostor. I was napping.² "It is on the understanding. Except by what he could see for himself. Frequently there is no connecting word. a falsehood incarnate. a relative pronoun being understood.

are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character.. 3." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. Adverbial Clauses." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. and tell what each one modifies. which could not be a prison whilst he was there." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness. No man is reason or illumination. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place.376. whether subject. all is vacancy. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. 4. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. i." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. 6. he begins to help us more as an effect. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. or that essence we were looking for. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. 11. I walked home with Calhoun. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. 2. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. 8. which Rowena tasted.e. Pick out the adjective clauses. object. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. 5. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities." Exercise. etc." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. 10. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. the champions advanced through the lists." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. which formed the center of the mansion." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse. . 1. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left. 9. 7.

since he was too great to care to be original." (9) CONCESSION. to make up our shortcomings. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. an adjective. however. whatever. but they require careful study." "Who cares for that. etc. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming. etc." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. 378. with examples." "The broader their education is." (7) RESULT.² whoever. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. introduced by indefinite relatives. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. a verbal." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. no matter what remains. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention.. the milestones are grave-stones. and will be given in detail. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly." "The right conclusion is. and what it modifies:² . tell what kind each is. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." "After leaving the whole party under the table. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were." "When he was come up to Christian. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study. Joanna is better. adverbs.377. he goes away as if nothing had happened." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints." These mean no matter how good." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome." (5) DEGREE. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church. Shakespeare is our city of refuge. expressing the degree in which the horizon. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. it takes precedence of everything else." "He went several times to England." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. etc. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. that we should try. shaping our actions.: "But still. or an adverb. Exercise. and adverbial conjunctions. so far as we can." (3) REASON. is wider. however good she may be as a witness. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. the wider is the horizon of their thought." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future.

as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied.1. banging about doors and windows. object. in the sentence. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. to tell the truth. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. on a dark wintry night. as they sometimes did. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. For example. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . 3. 380.'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. we are a little disappointed. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. its object is that Odin was a reality. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. howling and whistling. when the wind was unruly. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words. snatching up stones to fling at them. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. If the children gathered about her. find the principal subject and principal predicate. then treat noun clauses as nouns. of which clause Odin is the subject." 2. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. 'Well. As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. they might perhaps say of their visitors. and modifiers. and twirling weathercocks. so that the living were frightened out of their beds. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. 379." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. predicate. incoherent exclamations. so as to picture the parts and their relations. with shrill. etc.

. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. 3. (2) Analyze it according to Sec. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. (1) Find the principal clause. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. 364. 380). (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us.. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . Exercises.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. 2. 364. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. as seen in the "map" (Sec. d..

or whether any. 23. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. that pressed her with an objection. Next came a wretched Dominican. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. who would yield to it least. Now. 22. 11. And those will often pity that weakness most. 5. namely. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. as for armies that were too many by half. had we been worse. Whether she said the word is uncertain. bishop. the shepherd girl. if applied to the Bible. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. 7. The deep eyes. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. 17. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. 9. counselor that had none for herself. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. This is she. 15. 8. that. 20. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. 6. 14. the flower should revive for us. not so much for travelers that were few. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. of a light hazel. M. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration.4. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. 18. I like that representation they have of the tree. for yours. But now that she has become an establishment. 21. . 12. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. dying for them. 13. Here lay two great roads. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. The night proved unusually dark. whom I choose. Had they been better chemists. 16. could not have been effected. 19. 24. 10. which. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. He was what our country people call an old one. the mixed result.

How formed. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. "was ever written down by any but itself. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. It makes no difference how many friends I have. 383. 6. speed. and stamped with his right number. That which we do not believe. 30. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. if there be one to whom I am not equal. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. questions." 4. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. 380. Hence the definition. (b) First analyze. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. 28. the following complex sentences:² 1. we cannot adequately say. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. and temper. 26. is to speak and write sincerely. 2.²which will not be disposed of. and not from his heart. 5. that it was no more than his daily walk. though we may repeat the words never so often. but above it. COMPOUND SENTENCES.² Definition. These things we are forced to say. There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. or commands. would easily reach. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. if continuously extended. . 7. then map out as in Sec.25. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion. "No book. 27. 382. and what content I can find in conversing with each. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained. 3." said Bentley.

Exercise. yet. tell which are compound. Another example is." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. he soliloquizes. Speak your latent conviction. the waving grass. from the second. as but. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. moon-like ray" (adversative)." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. a complex member. and none but he knows what that is which he can do. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. and it shall be the universal sense. the planet has a faint. he walks with arms akimbo. 297). for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. 383 (1). he is twice a man. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. however. 386. nor does he know until he has tried. Connectives. in (3). which are simple statements. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. etc. while (whilst). the semicolon separates the first. whereas. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. and connects the first and second complex members. if there are any. and which complex:² 1. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. he dilates. now adverbs or prepositions. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). as in Sec. a simple member. or but. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. etc. . others sometimes coördinate." 384. and not the form of the connective. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. "Only the star dazzles.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. in (2). for. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. Thus in (1). The division into members will be easier. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. and nor the second and third complex members. Study the thought. 385. Of the following illustrative sentences. nor.. Some of these are now conjunctions. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. The coördinate conjunctions and.

364. I can yet love. and for everything you gain. However some may think him wanting in zeal. so is every one of its parts. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. quiet. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 10. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 5. All loss. Man does not stand in awe of man. Love. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. and thou shalt be loved. to find a pot of buried gold. 3. for example. 2. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. . Whilst the world is thus dual. 4. (i) Separate it into its main members. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. is particular. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. he grew up to be a mild. 14. you have gained something else. 8. yield to them heart and life. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. unobtrusive boy. I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. I can still receive. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. The gain is apparent. 12. 381. Exercise. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night.2. For everything you have missed. 13. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. In this manner. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. that it was Easter Sunday. passed in that time. 3. 4. the tax is certain. and not by what each is. nay. all pain. 387. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. 11. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. 9. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. you lose something. 7. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. from a happy yet often pensive child. and as yet very early in the morning. or. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. 6. however.

19. Stand aside. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. puts the parties on a convenient footing. as children. one is afraid. if you rip up his claims. Times of heroism are generally times of terror. When you have chosen your part. 14. whilst frankness invites frankness. He teaches who gives. or we pursue persons. "as nigh the scythe as you can. 18. and makes their business a friendship. and not an emotion of bravery. "the iron is white. and they will be true to you. crook and hide. and they will show themselves great. that let him communicate. 21. give those merits room. treat them greatly. only that they may brag and conquer there. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. "Strike. let them mount and expand. 6. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. We go to Europe. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. modesty. 20. ." 13. why should we intrude? 10. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. but the day never shines in which this element may not work.5. Whatever he knows and thinks. and not a thought has enriched either party. 11. Come into port greatly. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and they repel us. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. or men will never know and honor him aright. and each shows only what lies at its focus. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. or hope. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. which always make the Actual ridiculous. They will shuffle and crow. We see the noble afar off. and the cart as nigh the rake. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. 15. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. and the other dares not. or sail with God the seas. 7." says the haymaker. 8." says the smith. 9. or we read books. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. because." "keep the rake. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. and the peace of society is often kept. 17. 16. Trust men. and he learns who receives. is as thin and timid as any. feign to confess here. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. abide by it.

²agreement and government. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. So does culture with us. Do not craze yourself with thinking. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . or. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. if they live. the department of syntax will be a small affair. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. it ends in headache. and dodge the account. 23. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. 380. they die young. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. SYNTAX. Following the Latin method. By way of introduction. PART III. so readily and lavishly they promise. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. but its leading characteristic is. they lose themselves in the crowd. 24. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. pronoun and antecedent. adjective and noun. Ground covered by syntax. verb and subject. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. Essential point in English syntax. 388. 390.22. but they never acquit the debt. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. We see young men who owe us a new world. but go about your business anywhere. INTRODUCTORY. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. 25. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. it never was known to fall into the rear.

standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. sometimes verb and subject. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. or when they exist side by side in good usage. Savage may be the subject. take the sentence. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words.² First. or settler may be the subject. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. As an illustration of the last remark. and it would not matter which one stood first. When usage varies as to a given construction. Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. as to study inflected forms. both forms will be given in the following pages. There is. but are not now. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. pronoun and antecedent. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. . To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. some of which conform to classical grammar. the order being inverted. the sentence. etc. distinct forms would be used. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior. "None remained but he. and added to it the preposition of. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. In some cases. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. also expressing a possessive relation.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. Why study syntax? 391. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. This is not logical. Some rules not rigid. and imitate it." is ambiguous. therefore. following the regular order of subject. For example. or the same writer will use both indifferently. then. 393. good English. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. Also in the sentence. authorities²that is. 392. The basis of syntax. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition." In this there is a possessive form. and nothing but important points will be considered. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. and whose judgment." that is. Second. "The savage here the settler slew. In Latin. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar.

In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage." Juletta tells.²RUSKIN. When two or more possessives modify the same noun. the shore of Galilee. and Pope's. and Peterborough's. Adam and Eve's morning hymn. the possessive sign is used with each noun. Separate possession. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. Joint possession.² He lands us on a grassy stage. Putting Mr. He kept Bolingbroke's. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.²MCCULLOCH.²THACKERAY. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY. as.²ROWE. Use of the possessive. and Peter's. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. Woman. . When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays. 408). But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case.²MACAULAY. etc. 395. PRONOUNS. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. but imply separate possession or ownership. the antechamber of the High Priest.² Live your king and country's best support. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. or indicate joint ownership or possession. 394. and Harley's. ²ID. sense and nature's easy fool. Mill's and Mr. for example.²BYRON.NOUNS. Bentham's principles together. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. 397.²MILTON. 396. and Paul's.²EMERSON.

no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.²POPE. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. No mightier than thyself or me. if not universally. there are two general rules that require attention. . The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English. Still. Since most of the personal pronouns. Some of the violations are universally condemned. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. I. the last expression has the support of many good writers. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. the true relation of the words is misunderstood.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. Bedott Papers. General rules.²SOUTHEY. thus. This should be "as she.²WHITCHER. others are generally. Objective for the nominative. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. 399. as. 398.²SHAKESPEARE. and should be the nominative form. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. sanctioned.) "The young Harper.²BYRON. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. whom is the complement after the verb am." 400. Not to render up my soul to such as thee. who. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was). together with the relative who. But he must be a stronger than thee. for example.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE.²THACKERAY. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. the real thought being forgotten.²TROLLOPE.PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her.² One I remember especially. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. unless a special. "Who's there?"²"Me. And it was heThat made the ship to go. for example. on the other hand. "If there is any one embarrassed.²RUSKIN. One exception is to be noted. I have no other saint than thou to pray to.²SCOTT. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed." 401. "Than whom.²FIELDING. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage." There is no special reason for this. are. is. . It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule.²MACAULAY."²WINTHROP. both in England and America."²WM. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable. it will not be me. but such is the fact. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant."²KINGSLEY. A safe rule. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who.²KINGSLEY. The camp of Richard of England.²THACKERAY. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. as. they are yet holier than we.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.²LONGFELLOW. Patrick the Porter. namely. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. and the other forms of the verb be. The usage is too common to need further examples. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. In spoken English. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. the objective form is regularly found. BLACK.²COLERIDGE.² For there was little doubt that it was he. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. But still it is not she.²PARTON.

It is not me you are in love with. . 7. 10. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. now. but not he" (he should be him. 11. verbal. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. as. 9. The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. 403. I speak not to" (he should be him. or preposition which governs it. If there ever was a rogue in the world.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. object of saw). Truth is mightier than us all. and prepositions. as this from Shakespeare. 4. you or me. the object of to). Whom they were I really cannot specify. as. 5. 404. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. 3. used after verbs.²MILTON." the word being in apposition with murderer). Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there. or us). "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. Nominative for the objective. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1." 6. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. (3) By forgetting the construction. verbals. It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me. "Ask the murderer. it is me. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). as. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. 8. 2.Exercise. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no. You know whom it is that you thus charge. Me in exclamations. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. or this. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb.

and is usually avoided. Who have we here?²ID.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who. "Who did you see?" or. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²KINGSLEY.Shall be left upon the morn. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. after the preposition but (sometimes save). . What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH.² All were knocked down but us two.²STEELE. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. 406. as well as the objective. None. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. Thy shores are empires. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. Let you and I look at these. as. I've sworn. Thou.²BYRON.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. partial Nature. but he. all but he. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. who interrogative. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. I arraign. etc. for they say there are none such in the world. "Who were they talking to?" etc.Exception 1. We regularly say. Exception 2. Nature.²BYRON. for example. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1.²KINGSLEY.²GOLDSMITH. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. 405. 2. Exercise. save thou and thine.²KINGSLEY. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. changed in all save thee. as.

10.²possessive. 9. This usage is not frequent. with Jortin and Thirlby. BROWN.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. 7. 8.3. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective. 11. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven.Ye I salute. and they know that as well as me. They crowned him long ago. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. B. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. 5. They are coming for a visit to she and I.²RUSKIN. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada.²MACAULAY. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. 12. II. As antecedent of a relative. Bartholomew. Markland. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives. Preceding a gerund. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. who. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well.²THACKERAY. 407. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. 6. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me. POSSESSIVE FORMS.²SCOTT. or objective? ." 4.²DE QUINCEY. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set.²C.

²CARLYLE. Why both are found.² IRVING. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. object of heard of. and that in the second. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house.²DICKENS.408. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.²MACAULAY. and the meaning is. The use of the objective is older. The last incident which I recollect." That is. [who was] studying law. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. Both types of sentences are found. and asked why it was not made. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it.²BREWER. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. In the examples quoted. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. Here I state them only in brief.² SCOTT. Objective. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth.²DE QUINCEY. etc. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle. . sometimes it has the objective. We heard of Brown. that the bitterness of death was past. as he turned away from his wife. studying is a gerund. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. But in common use there is no such distinction. both are gerunds. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning.² THACKERAY. and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.²RUSKIN. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern.² CARLYLE. Possessive.

Examples of these constructions are. it was his own fault. the pronoun will be neuter singular.²RUSKIN. The pale realms of shade.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead.²THOREAU. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. . or is a distributive word. In such a case as the last three sentences. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²HUXLEY.²DEFOE.²C. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²THACKERAY. and ought to agree with them in person. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY. 410. If any one did not know it. It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. BROCKDEN BROWN.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. in one person. preceded by a distributive. number.²CABLE. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess. if the antecedent is neuter. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. where there were examinations.²EMERSON III.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. taking in each of many persons. Everybody had his own life to think of. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. Watch for the real antecedent. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary.²HOLMES.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition.² BRYANT. 409. Every city threw open its gates.²when the antecedent. and gender.²AUDUBON.

²AUSTEN.²ID. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. Every one must judge of their own feelings. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way. By using the plural pronoun.²PAULDING. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²BIBLE. This is not considered the best usage. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own.²THACKERAY.²BYRON. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. .²DEFOE. Struggling for life.²SCOTT. for example. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent.²ID. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left. 411. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²PALEY. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. till they have lost him.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²EMERSON. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. Whosoever hath any gold. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. and giving them means of being so. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders. The sun.²RUSKIN. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²HUXLEY. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go.² Not the feeblest grandame.²PALGRAVE.²FIELDING. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world.Avoided: By using both pronouns. let them break it off. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. not a mowing idiot. as anybody in their senses would have done. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. If the part deserve any comment. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.

and he went away. or what was become of her. tell whether who.²In the above sentences. and does not add a new statement. the definite relatives who. 412. A relative. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. That is in most cases restrictive. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers.²ADDISON. I. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. no one could take upon them to say. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. What these terms mean. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent.²ID. who went away. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive. and that are restrictive or not. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. As to their conjunctive use." A relative. when restrictive. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. when coördinating. but. which. 413. in each instance:² Who. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. or unrestrictive. "I gave it to the beggar. and that always restrictive." This means.) and a personal pronoun. Exercise." It defines beggar. 2. according to the practice of every modern writer.Where she was gone. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. Exercise. unless both genders are implied. as.²HAWTHORNE. but. 1. In the following examples. because. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. which. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. etc. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated. . the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one].² SHERIDAN. that being considered already clear. It adds a new statement to what precedes.

long arms and legs. 14. that were often vicious. in the sentence. you. A grizzly-looking man appeared. BEECHER 5.²THOREAU.²ID. because of its antecedent. but. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. 414. II. However. etc. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. and over England are saying.3.² CARLYLE. 10. he. as that does not vary for person or number. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. down. For example. 9. she agreed to join the party. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.²ID. So different from the wild. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. Which. With narrow shoulders." that is invariable as to person and number. Yet how many are there who up. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand. 7. and it is called logic. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following.²DE QUINCEY. We say I. The general rule is. which Mr. who. 6. 12. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive.² NEWMAN. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him.²HOLMES. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. Hare has printed.² MOTLEY.² IRVING. 4. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. 8.²ADDISON. which was to go over the Cordilleras. In what sense true. The rule.²DE QUINCEY. they. .. these or that which. it makes the verb third person singular. 11. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. That. W. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch. etc. etc. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. On hearing their plan. 13.²H. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT.

²BOWLES.²J. The latter is rather more frequent. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed..²SCOTT.²LOWELL. and in improving a victory. The fiery youth . It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor.] Both constructions are frequently found. "one of the finest books that have been published. Let us be of good cheer.²MACAULAY. T. but the former has good authority.. He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was. Franklin. in winning a battle. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come. "one of the finest books that has been published. who rarely speak at all." One of . [singular or plural. the true antecedent.²M. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. JR. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. but speaks of him as that sort. 415. French literature of the eighteenth century. etc.²ADDISON." or. .. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived. and write the verb in the plural.²LOWELL.²ADDISON. etc. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. ARNOLD. He is one of those that deserve very well.²HOLMES. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions... when he derided the shams of society. others regard books as the antecedent. [plural] that who. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. Singular..Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. with one as the principal word.²LECKY. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural.²whether we should say. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. MORSE. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. but myself. A disputed point..²HOWELLS. or which .

To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. whence. IV.²EMERSON. when this dust falls to the urn. or is equivalent to the conjunction when." "India is the place [in which. The same day I went aboard we set sail. Exercise."²DICKENS.² .² RUSKIN.²ID. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. III.²ADDISON.² THACKERAY." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay.²IRVING. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. and such like: as.²DEFOE.²BURNS. that is. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.²GOLDSMITH.In that same state I came. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²CARLYLE.A rare Roundabout performance. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. But I by backward steps would move. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came.²In the above sentences. or where] he died. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. 417.²EMERSON.²SWIFT. where. 416.And.²VAUGHAN. return. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. and see if the sentence is made clearer. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel.²SCOTT. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest. object of a preposition understood. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. when the relative word is a pronoun. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. I could see nothing except the sky.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series.

Mr.He considered. etc. for example. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. he. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. boats. Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. Caution. looking-glasses. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. which. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as..²DEFOE Which if he attempted to do.²WORDSWORTH. if same is followed by a complete clause. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. V. but which is usually carefully avoided. The regular construction. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. ²GOLDSMITH.²SCOTT. but we find the relative who.²R. or that. 418. was a discoverer. Anacoluthic use of which. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.²FRANKLIN. as is not used. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative.²SWIFT. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest.² THACKERAY. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. W.² Which. or lack of proper connection between the clauses. as his apprentice.²ADDISON.² MACAULAY. she passed the lamp over her face and person. That. They believe the same of all the works of art. if I had resolved to go on with. with Turner. Which. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles.² BURKE. I might as well have staid at home. . There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. but. as of knives. and working in the same spirit.

(2) "Among the poorer sort. (1) "Among those who are poor. and who are now. once a great favorite of M. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun.² Direction for rewriting. 2. or. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. now thrown upon their. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. and who are now thrown upon their compassion. who are now thrown.²which if they once heard. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. This was a gentleman." etc. And who. etc. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus. That is..²SHAKESPEARE. After this came Elizabeth herself. As the sentences stand. 419." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. and in whom I myself was not a little interested. but.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch. le Conte. but none is expressed.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. and which. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. Exercise. . 3.²HAWTHORNE. 1." etc. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. (3) "Among the poorer sort. and this be placed in the proper clause. Express both relatives.She'd come again. or leave out both connective and relative.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. he said that all submission was now too late.²RUSKIN. which when Mr..²DE QUINCEY. or omit the conjunction. Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago. 4.. Thornhill had read. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who." etc.²GOLDSMITH. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. He delivered the letter.²SCOTT. Exercise. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure.²THACKERAY. But who. etc.

indeed. Akin to the above is another fault.² MOTLEY. 11. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. I saw upon the left a scene far different." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. and repeat this for any further reference. one of signal interest.²SCOTT. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. 9.. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house. then. "What knight so craven. 7. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. But which. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. 13. 8. Or who. Exercise.5. That . 10. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence.²HAWTHORNE. as a false and astucious mark.²DE QUINCEY. English by name. which the Scotch had learned. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy. either from imitation of their frequent allies.²IRVING. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church. the French. and which may even be heard a mile off. 420. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. Or which. who. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. and which has never been described. . Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. and which. etc. etc. and to whom no door is closed.. Dr. And which. "A mockery. I shall have complete copies.²DE QUINCEY. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. 1.²PEARSON..²SCOTT. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That .. 6. 12. like that spoken in the towns.

was hung in air. Such as . Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. in his Mephistopheles. and whose examples and principles we inherit. 12... G. He.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after. the cent. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity. 15. whom. He flung into literature.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. but which. that . that.. CHANNING. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune..²EMERSON. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. 7. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. I recommend some honest manual calling. I grudge the dollar. 3.. 10.²EMERSON. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.. In my native town of Salem.. 6. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. 8. what. and to whom I do not belong. was a bustling wharf..²W. and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me. I give to such men as do not belong to me. half a century ago..²SCOTT That which . SIMMS..²HOWELLS. The Tree Igdrasil. 9. such as they have very probably been bred to.²HAWTHORNE. 4. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus. It rose into a thrilling passion. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard.²DEFOE.. That . the dime. 11. which.²BEECHER. Such as . 14. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President.²HOLMES. . in his present condition. Which .²HALLAM.²SCOTT.²DE QUINCEY. at the head of what. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry. which. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. E. 13. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren. 5. but which is perhaps not so different from it.2.²W. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear.

and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. We call ourselves a rich nation. England was then divided between kings and Druids. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. Distributives either and neither. whether or not the two are equivalent.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. for example. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. in which case any should be used instead.²RUSKIN.²GOLDSMITH. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects.²EMERSON. Assume that no one is in want of either. By their original meaning.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain.²HAWTHORNE. and in want of his gold²or his corn. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. one another. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. Use of any. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us. 422. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. as it were. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. as. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other.² Some one must be poor. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. 421.²DICKENS.² HAWTHORNE.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. that not all combined.²RUSKIN.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order. . always at war with one another.²MACAULAY. Each other. as. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another.²ID.

then in Plotinus. 424. 423. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. let him ask of God.² EMERSON..² If any. as none of the French philosophers were. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any. even in Bettine. if ever man was. etc.²THACKERAY. when any of them are so good as to visit me. at one time in Bacon. Caution.. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage.. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. which is plural as often as singular.²SCOTT.²PROF. in the prose of the present day. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly.²SHAKESPEARE. None usually plural. speak.² In earnest.²STIRLING. The adjective pronoun none is. as. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. for him have I offended. then in Plutarch. Examples of its use are.²FRANKLIN. before that. Any usually plural. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. I mean that any of them are dead? None are. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.Once I took such delight in Montaigne .²BIBLE. . Do you think. whilst I still cherish their genius. Do you think. in Shakespeare. that I know of.²CARLYLE. during his stay at Yuste.²EMERSON. None of Nature's powers do better service. as. usually plural. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. any of his friends had died.²BEECHER Whenever. In earlier Modern English.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be.²BURKE. If any of you lack wisdom. afterwards in Goethe. I beseech you. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. and is isolated. any was often singular.

etc.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples..²PRESCOTT All singular and plural.²THOREAU. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything...² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people. saving Naaman the Syrian. which is used absolutely. that all was lost.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.²McMASTER. The light troops thought .²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. and all was lost on the other.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. the plural.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others.² None of them was cleansed. and Ford has nobody's else. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. and less rarely in poetry. nobody else.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . etc.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side. when it means all persons: for example. etc. Somebody's else.²NAPIER Plural. for example. any one else. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.²SCOTT Like the use of any. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. as.² PEARSON. When all were gone. fixing his eyes on the mace. are treated as units. 425. The compounds somebody else. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom. etc. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell. or somebody else's? 426.² Singular. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.

Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences."²MRS. for example.² FIELDING. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots. . The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those).²RUSKIN. STOWE. etc.²RUSKIN. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. and may be found not infrequently in literary English." "all manner of men.² Saturday Review.²SWEET. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²N. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. WILLIS. the adjectives plural. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.²AUSTEN. Whitefield or Wesley. etc. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. ELIOT.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. 427.SYDNEY SMITH. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural." the nouns being singular.²SHERIDAN. His hair.curled once all over it in long tendrils. P.. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's. London.²G.²in such as "these sort of books.² These kind of knaves I know.²DICKENS.. I hoped we had done with those sort of things. all manner of. Again.²THACKERAY.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. These sort. or those sort of people." "those kind of trees. unlike anybody else's in the world. or some other such great man as a bishop. ADJECTIVES.²MULOCH. "Ye see. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.

²RUSKIN. to express a higher degree of quality. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. The result. This the modern expression reverses.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. According to the approved usage of Modern English. the victor or the vanquished. Of two such lessons. Should we say. History of this construction. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. Burke's sentence. 428.The library was open. or one object with a class of objects. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. which accounts for the construction. In Old and Middle English. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. . not "all kinds of wild animals. as. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. in spoken English. "These kind of trees are best. or the nouns to the plural. made to agree with it. such as. and the adjective is." A question. At the source. and in this way may take a plural verb. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular. for example. "This sort of trees should be planted. Use of the comparative degree. with all manner of amusing books." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind). The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. Later form. more alarming than a total silence." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. "This kind of rules are the best." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject. they said. gradually displacing the old. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. when the necessary dispositions concur.² PRESCOTT." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS.² Which is the better able to defend himself. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. Consequently we have a confused expression.

but is also frequently used in comparing only two things. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity.²HAWTHORNE.²SCOTT.²MACAULAY. Henry. than any of his court.²LOWELL. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot.²TROLLOPE. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1.²CARLYLE. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY. Superlative with two objects. would not have had the face. 4. Compare the first three sentences in Sec. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator."²ID. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. 430. 6. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr.²MACAULAY. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. 429. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men.²HUXLEY. I am concerned to see that Mr. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest.²SWIFT. . This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. has sanctioned. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. Exercise. Even Dodd himself.²WIRT.²THACKERAY. He is taller. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. if not.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. 2. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. Gary. by almost the breadth of my nail. etc. 3. the highest stakes are paid.A braver ne'er to battle rode. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. To the man who plays well.² THACKERAY. Use of the superlative degree. 428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Other after the comparative form. 5.

"Ha. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. I should say that one has the best cause."²BULWER.. Come you more nearer.²HAMLET. the weaker is often so in a minor degree.²J. CÆSAR. 1611. These two properties seem essential to wit.²GOLDSMITH. and differ only in form. In all disputes between States. "Let us see which will laugh loudest."²GOLDSMITH.²RUSKIN.. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. Mary. whichever can be got easiest. OLIPHANT. Examples from Shakespeare are. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them."²HAWTHORNE. ha.²DR BLAIR. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. and the other contains the best men. 431.²MRS. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size.²Bible. The following examples are used purposely. Also from the same period. who eat white bread or brown.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians. . to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen.² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice.²EMERSON. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²SCOTT. Rip was one of those . though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. Double comparative and superlative. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. The eldest. not a bit of high life among them.²BEN JONSON.²TEMPEST. After the most straitest sect of our religion.²ADDISON. more particularly the last of them.²IRVING. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child.

Three first. . ARTICLES. The delay in the first three lines. and conceit in the last.²LAMB.²GIBBON. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use.²ADDISON. etc. jar upon us constantly.² SMOLLETT. 433.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. For Carlyle. As to these two expressions. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.²GIBBON. over which a little war has so long been buzzing. not only so in popular speech. First three. The meaning intended is the same. The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. Definite article.²RUSKIN.²PRESCOTT. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. The merit of the Barb.²RUSKIN. the Spanish. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years.²DE QUINCEY. but in literary English. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. Examples of this construction are.² With a singular noun. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. ²COWPER. etc. and Secretary Walsingham also. The first five had specific names. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. Instances of both are given below. These are the three first needs of civilized life.²KINGSLEY.

²MACAULAY. Indefinite article. 435. were placed at a very tender age. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . .²NEWMAN. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. Origin of the Aryans. 433. or to emphasize the meaning. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. One object and several modifiers.²ID.² RUSKIN.²TAYLOR. the greatest poems. Here the youth of both sexes. The not repeated. the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives...² MACAULAY.²TENNYSON. With a plural noun.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day.²SCOTT. melodious. as.²THACKERAY. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. as.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. He is master of the two-fold Logos. to distinguish clearly. but inseparable from each other. 433. however. and flexible language. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth. of the eighteenth century. Frequently.²PRESCOTT. but is used with one only. having been arranged. 1508. No. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. the hour of parting came. At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. with a singular noun. with a plural noun. The flowers. I think. of the higher and middling orders.²THE NATION. The lofty. distinct. the thought and the word. as in Sec.²CARLYLE. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE. and the presents. 434. Meaning same as in Sec.

a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. In the sentences of Secs.²BEECHER. and a usurper. T. . 437. He saw him in his mind's eye. a murderer. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. 433 and 436. a collegian.²DRYDEN. and inexhausted vein. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium. 438. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist.²THACKERAY. to limit two or more modified nouns.²B. only one of which is expressed.²S. COLERIDGE. rich. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. The indefinite article is used.²BULWER." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. Examples of this use are. The indefinite article (compare Sec. as.An early. a tyrant. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. as in the first three of Sec. To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.436. One article with several adjectives.²MACAULAY. like the definite article.² BURKE. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. But in the following sentences. or clearness to each of several nouns. interest. one noun is expressed. For rhetorical effect. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. JONSON. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other." and "a red and a white geranium. a round and a square one alternately.²DICKENS.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life. 435.² MACAULAY.²MACAULAY. 436).

. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. and the following illustrations prove it.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. as. He sees that it is better to live in peace. Sec. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. This was spoken of in Part I. Singulars connected by or or nor. or the great intellectual life of our nation. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above. 440. In English.²FROUDE. Such.²M. . In this work there was grouped around him a score of men.²W.²GIBBON.²COOPER. as. for example. then. 276. Another writer might. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. has got already. A broad and loose rule.VERBS. was the earliest American land. Collective noun of singular meaning. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. ELIOT.² It is by no means sure that either our literature. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. Another school professes entirely opposite principles. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. without academies.²The Nation. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number.²CARLYLE This usage. 439. all that academies can give.²AGASSIZ. Singular verb. ARNOLD. like some others in this series.²G. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject.

but each one emphatic. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. ²EMERSON. but considered as meaning about the same thing. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²WHITTIER. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. or considered as appositional.²BURKE. a loss of wealth. or as making up one general idea.²DE QUINCEY.²CRITIC. the cheap defense of nations.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. a loss of friends.² In a word.²J. a mutilation.²GIBBON. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. Between ourselves.²GOLDSMITH.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. Plural form and singular meaning. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON. as. nor Paul.² The unbought grace of life. nor John. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. (4) When the subject is plural in form.Jesus is not dead.² Politics is the only field now open for me. seems at the moment unpaid loss. nor Mahomet. a cruel disappointment. No. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa. for example. other names. that of a large town. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. ADAMS. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. is gone.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments.² GOLDSMITH. for example.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph.²EMERSON . The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. and other singulars of plural form. A fever. and every four hours. Q. as. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.

no matter if the second is plural).² .² Asia. Every week.²LONGFELLOW. sir?" and the "No. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. was listened to for five hours.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every. was dazzled. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning. every boor.² There is a right and a wrong in them. Subjects after the verb. Then comes the "Why. was punished. an impassioned countenance. many a.²EMERSON.²MACAULAY. no. no discontinuity. is a man of wit.²BUTLER.The rout. To receive presents or a bribe.²ID. For wide is heard the thundering fray. The oldest. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. in a judge. as well as the Drama. every valet. every echo. as. as well as sides. the wit.²M ARNOLD.²SCOTT. the partisan. as. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. Here is no ruin. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. thus.²HAWTHORNE. almost every day. as well as the newest. Every fop.²PRESCOTT. each. sir!" and the "What then.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. the fine gentleman.²MACAULAY. The Epic. an agitated gesture.²ID. Plural verb.²NEWMAN. nay. as well as Europe. Every sound. and such like adjectives. the dismay.²RUSKIN. wineBegins to stir itself.²PRESCOTT. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. Her back. a cuirass. was like to crack. There is a moving tone of voice. 441. and greaves. a gorget. with death. no spent ball. the ruin.The author.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. sir!"²MACAULAY. does not take the place of the man.

²ADDISON. Philip of Anjou. TAYLOR. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. All our household are at rest.²SCOTT.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word. The Dauphin. making up a plural subject.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. b).²GIBBON.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke. The conjunction may be omitted. Far. were men of insignificant characters. 440 (5. A great number of people were collected at a vendue. the Duke of Berri. A party of workmen were removing the horses. far away thy children leave the land.²GOLDSMITH. His clothes. The travelers. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent.²B.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. its date. shirt.²CARLYLE But its authorship.²FROUDE.² GIBBON. are sufficient to attract a colony.²FROUDE. the verb agrees with the one nearest it.²SWIFT. and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT.²DE QUINCEY. but the verb is plural. a stream of fresh water. . and its history are alike a mystery to us. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. as.²THOREAU. of whom there were a number.These bits of wood were covered on every square. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of.² One or two of these perhaps survive. as in Sec.²FRANKLIN. Conjunction omitted. as.² A multitude go mad about it. as with a subject of plural form. a green pasture.²COLERIDGE. for example.²EMERSON. A shady grove.

²THACKERAY.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. You and I are tolerably modest people.²THACKERAY. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions.²DE QUINCEY.). his blood dost shed. the subject being really equivalent to we. of different persons." "She or you may be sure. If she or you are resolved to be miserable." or.²RUSKIN. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. 443. "I have never said so.²RUSKIN. You and I are farmers.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again. This construction is at the best a little awkward. Exceptional examples. 444. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as. we never talk politics.²ROWE. but thou. ARNOLD." etc.²LOWELL. If there is only one person in the subject.²WHITTIER. WEBSTER. hadst been my lord.²M. When the subjects. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. Ah. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject. that is.²GOLDSMITH. Not I. as.²BYRON. "He or I can go. but thou. "You would not be wiser.²D. Nothing which Mr. the verb takes the construction of the first person.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. 442. Not Altamont. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. nor should I. nor has she"). General usage.But notice the construction of this. Pattison or I have said. . for example. Second or third and first person in the subject. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now.²SMOLLETT.

Neither of them.²and. 2. 4.²SCOTT.445. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. Neither of their counselors were to be present.²ID. 10. as illustrated above (Secs.²BURKE. nor tree. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant.²EMERSON. 11. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. In the following sentence. 446.That neither of their intellects are vast. How each of these professions are crowded. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. 6. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. Both death and I am found eternal. nor bush are there. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses.² TROLLOPE. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.²THACKERAY.²SMOLLETT. In this sentence from Defoe. 440-444):² 1.Her course to intercept.²perhaps the devil. 9. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). The following illustrate exceptional usage.²ADDISON. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. 3.²MILTON. 5. as we would hope.²BYRON. BANCROFT. in my opinion. 12. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. Exercise. In a word. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. 7.²G. Also in verbals. which it is proper to mention. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . Lack of logical sequence in verbs.²ADDISON. 8. Nor wood.

²FRANKLIN 6.² PALGRAVE 5.²DE QUINCEY 2. Of course. meaning. if not. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. Exercise. Definitions. Indirect discourse means reported speech. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head. 4. if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. 448. 447. however.. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence.²THACKERAY. on my return. I gave one quarter to Ann. a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used.²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. Direct discourse²that is. as. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. The present rule is recent. CHURCH.. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.²MACAULAY.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. But I found I wanted a stock of words. 3.²R. change them to a better form:² 1. to have seen should be changed to to see. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . Two samples of indirect discourse.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas.²IRVING. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. It should be remarked.²KINGSLEY." . which I thought I should have acquired before that time. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. W. for exact connection. to have divided with her whatever might remain.

will. 449. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. and the subjunctive mood of verbs.. . that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main." Indirect. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that. Her prudence whispered eternally. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. interrogative adverbs. "I cannot oblige you ... but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. not attempting to follow the entire quotation." etc.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. 2. have. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. Direct. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. etc. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. and the indirect question by whether or if. or regular interrogatives. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step. The substance of his lamentation was. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis. Direct. This includes the auxiliaries be.. under interrogative pronouns. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. Sebastian's. introductory verb is in the past tense. 1. "Oh. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid. the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh." etc. Oh. Summary of the expressions. She thought to herself. His exact words were.

Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. my first observation will be found nearly true. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.Exercise.²ID. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. The trouble is. handed down from his ancestor the historian. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.²B. Careless use of the participial phrase. in the sentences first quoted. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. the sound of their balls. the first discoverer of the river and country.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. . he assured me that nothing was more easy. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. PARTICIPLES. FRANKLIN. VERBALS. and that he himself had heard. one summer afternoon.²GOLDSMITH. 450." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. Notice this. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. with his crew of the Half-moon.²ADDISON. if this were expanded into a verb. like distant peals of thunder.

In the following citations. purposely or not.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. Consequently one of two courses must be taken. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress. the first sentence would be. INFINITIVES. my first collection was. For example.. . The practice is condemned by many grammarians. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible.Correction. Adverb between to and the infinitive.²SCOTT.. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . This is the more common arrangement. and often. .²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject. Standard writers often use it.. then. avoid it.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. 451. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. It is a solemn. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers.²RUSKIN.. if a strike is to succeed. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. There are. 2..² HERBERT SPENCER. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. universal assertion. Exercise.²LAUGHLIN. many things to be carefully considered. either "As I was pleased.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works." Exercise. while defended or excused by others." etc. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. leaving the principal statement as it is. 3.²ID.

if they modify single words. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp.²BURKE. etc. 5. 1533. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example.²TROLLOPE. which consists in multitude. is to be very cautiously admitted. 10. 12. are used. 9. Exercise. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. The rigid rule in such a case would be. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. even.² ADDISON. The spirits.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. I wish the reader to clearly understand. etc. No. etc. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . even. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity.²The Nation. but cannot misunderstand the thought. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. 11. Now. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. when such adverbs as only." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. 7.²RUSKIN. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence. 6. In works of art.. 8. BLAIR.²DR. therefore. from Irving. but it is placed before the infinitive. ADVERBS. this kind of grandeur.4. 452.²SCOTT. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel.² MACAULAY. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.. and earthenware. Position of only. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. A little sketch of his. 13.²GOLDSMITH. china. but they are often removed from the exact position.²ID.

²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills.²MRS. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES.²RUSKIN. In Old and Middle English. No sonne.²MOTLEY. to avoid a crowd. might not marry. were he never so old of yeares. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²HIGGINSON. 4.²ID. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays.²SYDNEY SMITH. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. 17.² THACKERAY.²ID. 9. He shouted in those clear. whence he was never destined to return. 16.²COOPER. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. 7.²CHAUCER. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. 11. 6. 15.²EMERSON. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse.²THACKERAY. 2. 5.²ID. My master. Irving could only live very modestly. During the whole course of his administration.²MACAULAY. . His last journey to Cannes. 10. In relating these and the following laws. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. 14. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years. The old usage. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. 8.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. P. ²ASCHAM. 13. for example. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. He could only afford to keep one old horse. WILLIS.1. 453.²PALGRAVE. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde. GROTE. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him. 3. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. 12.²SWIFT.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²N. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival.

if two negatives are found together. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. Regular law of negative in modern English. however. But. denying each other. nor never shall."²four negatives. and is still kept in vulgar English. who hadn't been to school for nothing. However. one of the negatives is often a prefix. as infrequent. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences.²DE QUINCEY. when one of the negatives is a connective.²BAYNE. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. In the latter case.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. 2. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative. Not only could man not acquire such information.²BURKE. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. is not common. There weren't no pies to equal hers. neither. The prosperity of no empire. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. but ought not to labor after it. Therefore.²DEFOE. under the influence of Latin syntax. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. can so agreeably affect. etc. In the execution of this task. Exceptional use.²GROTE.² HAMILTON.²MRS. as. I did not act so hastily.²LOWELL. STOWE. and why:² 1. 7. This. nor the grandeur of no king. . 6.²HAWTHORNE. 4. STOWE."²MRS. uncommon. 3. Exercise. the usual way of regarding the question now is. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. 5. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. I never did see him again. ²PAGE.²HOLMES. in Ole Virginia.

. especially both .. "This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. neither .²LOWELL. or to reply to it. The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace.. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. not only . In these examples it will be noticed that nor. but. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical. not only to the success of their common cause. as the use of the conjunction.. 454. The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not ." said the King. not merely ." . even neither . and. or with advantage.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. CONJUNCTIONS. nor is often changed to not²either .. but to their own safety. should be scrutinized.. if the last precedes a verb... nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder." may be changed to "This loose . A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives.. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever.. either . "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals. if the second precedes a phrase. the first ought to be placed before a verb." both of the above requirements are violated. or. In the sentence. as well as of the pronoun. Correction..... either.8.. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives. "A weapon. Things to be watched. and which. The sentences given in Secs.²SCOTT. "well worthy to confer honor. or to reply to it.. The sentence. or. nor. not or is the proper correlative of neither.. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. Choice and proper position of correlatives. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.²PRESCOTT.. the first should also." Besides neither . 455.. 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here."²SCOTT.. but (also). there we were. And who.

as. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. But what. but. etc. 457. Try and for try to. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. 5. 2. but grown-up persons. as. 4. and chop up their own kin. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. O. Exercise. 8. substitute that. Try and avoid the pronoun.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. Some exceptions. nor the disgrace of assailing him. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself.²GOLDSMITH. In the following sentences. .²FRANKLIN.²MACAULAY.² ADDISON.²THACKERAY.²GIBBON. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers.²RUSKIN. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. or the negative relative but. murder.²ID. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart. JEWETT. or but that for the words but what:² 1. Correct the following sentences:² 1. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID.²S. too. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. They will. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. not merely interest children.²THACKERAY. 456. Now. or but that. but they will outrage." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction. and I don't know but what he was right. but.Exercise. 7.²BAIN. 6. 3. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets.

Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. as already seen in Sec. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. . 3. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY.2. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans. 6. no separation or division by twos being implied. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning). 313. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire.²BURKE. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate.²EMERSON.²SCOTT. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.² BULWER.²ADDISON. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. 459. 5.²EMERSON. 458. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. Between and among.²ADDISON.² SWIFT. 4. Between is used most often with two things only. see Sec. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. 305.²TROLLOPE. PREPOSITIONS.

Mackintosh. Conform to. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT. and Stewart. Acquit of.: Words with particular prepositions. different. involve. Abhorrent to.²between philosophers like Spinoza.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. and another to convey a different meaning. Dissent from. Kant. Averse to. Different from. and philosophers like Locke. Some of them have. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. averse. 461. and Coleridge. ²EMERSON. Such are derogatory. 460. Dependent on (upon). Two groups or one and a group. as. as. confer. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning. Paley. a soldier of the Cross. Accord with. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Conversant with. or one object and a group. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Affinity between.²KINGSLEY. List I. by custom. etc. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. correspond. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. .²RUSKIN What have I. Comply with. Bestow on (upon). Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. Derogatory to. LIST I.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. Such are absolve.

"differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). Agree to (a proposal). LIST III. Correspond with (write to). "The king is reconciled to his minister. as. Correspond to (a thing). Differ from (note below).: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. and sometimes creeps into standard books. "The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct." also of persons. A taste of (food). "The exile became reconciled to his fate. in the sense of making friends with. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to. LIST II. Change with (a person).y y y Deprive of." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Change to (become). "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. Confer with (talk with). 462." List III. Confide in (trust in). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). but it is not good usage. Differ with (note below). as.: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. A taste for (art. etc. List II. as meaning to be in keeping with. 463. .). Involve in. Confer on (upon) (give to). Reconcile with (note below). Independent of. Confide to (intrust to). as. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Reconcile to (note below). Change for (a thing).

Take thought and die for Cæsar.²GOLDSMITH. If I meet with any of 'em. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. die for. privation.:² "Die of.²FIELDING. and ill treatment. Expect of. instrument). Who.²BOSWELL. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing.²MACAULAY. expect from. ²ATHENÆUM. die of. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread." etc." The author died of a fit of apoplexy.²ADDISON." (because of). "Die for. die with.²MACAULAY.²POPE.²BULWER." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. Illustrations of "die of. "Die with.²G.y y y Die by." "die from.²G. I am positively dying with hunger. It would take me long to die of hunger.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL. No one died from want at Longfeld. ELIOT. One of them said he would die for her. He died at last without disease. died for love of the fair Marcella. Part from. People do not die of trifling little colds.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day. "Die by. die from. part with. It is a man of quality who dies for her. simply from old age. She died of hard work. they shall die by this hand.²GOLDSMITH." (material cause." She would have been ready to die with shame. ELIOT. "Die for. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy. ²THACKERAY. ." (in behalf of). "Die from.²SHAKESPEARE.²MACAULAY.²BURNETT.²SCOTT. as Cervantes informs us.

" "expect from:"² "Expect of. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general.²AUSTEN. Kind in you. "Expect from. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. "Part with" is used with both persons and things. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. ELIOT.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. His precious bag.²DICKENS. It was a little bad of you. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²POE.²TROLLOPE. "Part from. That is more than I expected of you. Illustrations of "expect of. nothing better was to be expected. Cleveland was sorry to part with him. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. I can part with my children for their good.²MACAULAY.²BULWER.²G. 465.²G.²MACAULAY. I have long expected something remarkable from you.²BULWER.²SHAW. I part with all that grew so near my heart. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. 464. ." "part from:"² "Part with." To part from you would be misery. either of or in is used indifferently. ELIOT. Illustrations of "part with.²SCOTT. which he would by no means part from. With words implying behavior or disposition.²WALPOLE. and hated to part with them." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH. kind of you. just parted from her." He was fond of everybody that he was used to.²WALLER. as my friend.²G. 466." She will expect more attention from you.²MARRYAT. ELIOT. Of Doctor P. I have just seen her.

This narrative. . I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me.He did not think it handsome of you.²TENNYSON. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 11. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. Hampden. nor green.²BULWER. 6. and ran up the alley. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. nor of a pale red. nor blue. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. Thou tread'st. or artillery. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12.²BEACONSFIELD. or that they are any way dependent on each other. In. 9. 8. the vast abyss. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak. It will be anything but shrewd in you. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. 10. 13. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. tedious perhaps. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean.²DICKENS. 7. In the friction between an employer and workman. nor yellow. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. thunder. it is commonly said that his profits are high. but which the story renders necessary. Very natural in Mr.²BULWER. 3. 15. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. 5. raging storms. But this is idle of you. 1. thrown it over Amyas's head. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. 14. 4. or which we are most imperatively required to do. with seraphims. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. The noise of vast cataracts.²CARLYLE.

but in the price paid to them. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once. Friday. or how beautiful it is. 35. and almost as good as a pony. 32. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 20. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. 26. save Amyas. you or me. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. . Every one of these letters are in my name. were down with raging fever. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. But every man may know. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. That night every man of the boat's crew. The effect of proportion and fitness. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. produce approbation. and other angular figures. 24. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. (Sec. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 36. what is a just and unjust act. 38. 29.I would wish me only he. 19.And were I anything but what I am. 21. and most of us do know. Squares. 411. 22. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. 28. 16. 30. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. 18. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. triangles. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. 31. the acquiescence of the understanding. 17. 23. When the glass or liquor are transparent.) 34. 33. 27. You have seen Cassio and she together. 37. 25. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough.

from nominative clauses. voice. of. adjectives. as comparison definition demonstrative. 124. from about 1500 to the present time. 310. 47. article. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. of. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 20. 98. adverbs used complements. (3) Modern English. 25. 124. 47. 40. nouns. 91. 116.39. nominative. origin of. INDEX. 260. of. demonstrative. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. Adjectives. from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. 89. 102. 107. as. Abstract with Active Address. 119. pronouns. (2) Middle English. 133. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. syntax uses Absolute. .000 between them. 239. of. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. of. He had four children. 92. 90. A. numeral.

from function how in not of of ordinal. objective. of. clauses. 115. . 239. conjunction. 303. 104. infinitive. 106. plural pronominal. 190. quality. to used of. parse. 275. Alms. 116. 242. and 185. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. 302. 103. sentence. adjectives. 195. nouns. quantity. from to of. of. of. antecedent. 148. Against. 183. 287. compared. 101. adjectives. 190. 316. 187. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 109. 42. Agreement. of. of. parse. 303. 291. conjunctions. between of. 325. 27. 191. 194. antecedent. of. nouns. 207. 262. 114. with with with subject. 99. 323. 184. 97. 207. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. predicate. 328. 27. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. 116. of. as nouns. adjectives. 325. 194. modify. 48.

295. of. syntax. sentences. of and pronoun of. 74. 300. uses As At. 49. definition how indefinite.Among. 271. 67. though. which. Arrangement Articles. 84. pronouns. 51. sentences. parse. of of of And Antecedent. 240. 67. after of. 264. possessive. 47. A. words between. to of. 296. Are. 252. which. agreement personal as pronoun. in in. 148. 231. syntax As. as uses verbs. sentences. and. 79. 120. An. of. derivation in definite. 331. Auxiliary if. 309. See 74. Agreement. definition of of of Any. . 294. of. 207. Anacoluthon Analysis. same. 127. 225. which. See with definition complex compound simple who. 150. of. it. 101. 198. adjective. of. 124. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. 208. 287. 90. 275. 120.

adverb. 278. uses of. Clause. 279. 111. But. Between. in Old and Modern English. uses Better. objective. of pronouns. . of nouns. with But By. syntax of. plurals of. pronoun. clauses of. uses nominative of. of. 283. Can. 262. 62. definition could.Bad. of nouns. 54. 64. 46. double possessive. Be. of nouns. 224. of pronouns. of pronouns. Case. 150. 278. 49. conjunctions Cherub. 279. 194. Cause. 330. 210. number of. possessive. of nouns. 260. 149. of. best. 47. 110. of. Children. 262. 39. 110. 46. 37. 63. 161. nominative. Bridegroom. adjective. 84. Case. of pronouns. Among. of what. 66. 39. 48. 45. forms. 195. Brethren. See of. comparison conjugation of.

257. 307. 111. 271. 12. 158. of. 18. defective. nouns. 189. 107. predicate of and from from of. Cleave. superlative. of. of. plural of. nouns. 157. 53. 110. infinitive. analysis of. 23. double. 257. of. sentence. 258. nouns. and sentence. adjectives. subject. proper. of. 108. 24. 257. verb. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. English. 307. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 264. in analysis.definition kinds noun. 305. 315. . 248. 263. 108. of. definition degrees irregular. 312. material. 43. 18. 244. predicate. clothes. 113. and forms of. adverbs. Clomb. of. of. Cloths. 268. 239. of. 43.

conjunctions. replaced by objective. 194. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. 151. 289. 255. definition be. 196. conjunction. 149. coördinate. 194. conjunctions. pronoun. 139. . sentences. to of.with Concord. adverbs. 149. correlative. See in subjunctive. other other parts of speech. of. 207. 194. 269. See analysis clauses. 231. 188. 195. of of Conjunctions. Conjunctions. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. sentence. definition how subordinate. 199. 138. 193. sentences. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. Agreement. verbs. subjunctive. Dative Declarative Declension of case. Can. of. 73. parse. 263. 66. in Old vs. same words. analysis. See English. 143. and clause. 195. 328. pronouns. pronoun. interrogative pronouns.

Comparison. Comparative. nouns. of. 80. discourse. 315. comparative. See adjectives. with of. of. passive adjectives. object. by. 102. pronouns. article. 91. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. for. . clause. 160. of. indirect. 288. 43. verb. 99. from. nouns. See See 48. 333. duck. Degrees. 152. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. 300. 60. 242. 287. of. Case.Declension. 51. of personal relative verbs. 26. Articles. See 148. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. pronouns. adverbs See adjectives. 185. 242. Subordinate clause. 320. pronouns. tenses. with. 303. use of dies. pronouns. 35. vs. possessive. 102. 90.

vulgar. . Each. complement. 12. 39. 90. 257. added suffix. conjunction. 92. drunk. suffix. pronouns. 110. of. adjective. syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. 51. 194. 42. Either. 40. to suffix. 328. of. pronoun. object. 112. 287. 158. other. 240. 33. 158. the of sentence. 38. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. pronoun. error in sentence. 32. ending.Drank. 255. 92. 280. 62. possessive suffix. Empress. syntax Each Eat Eaves. of. Elements Ellipsis. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. -En. 90. feminine plural English. 33. 92. 299. of. in 'Em. of subject. predicate. 300. literary. 234. another. plural. older. 241. 34. of. 287. of. spoken. 102. original. one ( t). adjective.

syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther.. gender. . few. For. Feminine. first. have adjective. 45. perfect. fishes. from. with in sex. pronoun. See Gander. 110. two. 238. Farther. 102. 30. object. From. 212. 30. 126. 30. 43. adjective. as a noun. 91. 36. 152. 211. of. 148. 48. 112. 235. uses Foreign Former. 189. 152. 287. the. 103. definition distinguished in English. First Fish. uses redundant. of. Gender. First. Few. plurals. 29. 112.Every. modes "common goose.. etc. other languages. 102. of. expect gone. nouns. 308. as of from compared marking. 147. used of. 212. Further. with infinitive. 334. 32." 31. to of. two a further. Future Future tense. 319. etc.

of. personal relative geniuses. . had hung. 159. forms in Girl. from participle of. it. participle. Had Hanged. adjective. of. 36. 61. on. pronoun. definition basis of. 80. of. for before. possessive pronouns. 101. its. kinds of. definition divisions opinions province H. 145. 10. 231. 43. distinguished syntax. 144. Government. an better. she. 9. 159. and case verbal with. noun.of of Genii. He. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. 61. 120. 60. 285. 60. pronouns. 35. I. Got. rather. first sentence. His Husband. person. 177. 175. 173. 12. of. 275. Gerund. Grammar. 176. 12. 13.

indirect of. words.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. 319. 248. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. indices. 257. 43. 188. a object. 105. adjectives. mood. verbs. 178. 93. 136. 110. . pronoun. See you. your. of. of. elements. Direct object. sentence. meaning. 131. of. adjectives. adverbs. uses discourse. 131. transitive. 153. 320. 72. 227. summary See passive mood. 73. questions. 176. 85. in compared syntax. 276. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. questions. 67. pronouns. Questions. of clause. use article. See Articles. 323. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 245. 233. of. 283. 231. with of.

113. 36. 110. lie. Lay. "It Its. Kind. Lady. plural. pronoun. in little.adverbs. See Madam. 36. Last. 67. 226. Latter. Lie. Less. Lay. 126. these double kind. Like. 63. uses Literary Little. . subject form. Lady. was uses me. -Ly. 170. of. predicate.. adjective. syntax the. 110.. 61. and See words in. 303. 276. Kine. syntax. 245. 12. etc. latest. It. Logic Logical Lord. of. 39. a vs. queen. King. 227. 113. lord. 102." history etc. lesser. 189. 281. of. of. 36. 190. English. 91.

Mood. 188. See definition 136. 112. position adverb. 328. . of. nigh. 34. 113. comparison Near. construction as of adverb. 137-144. of. of. 187. 189. Enlargement. 36. Negative. 195. conjunctions Many. May. Mighty Mine. might. mistress. double. -Most. Master. imperative. Neither. of. 287. in adverbs comparison a. 110. etc. of. 161. 326.Manner. 160. 110. 144. of. of. superlatives. 194. adjective. 64. out of. 325.. 114. syntax nearer. Means. Modifier. 256. 185. subjunctive. Modifiers. indicative. 137. mine. syntax conjunction. 112. 112. 110. Much. 189. of. 265. Many Mapping Mare. 102. 126. 135. 41. Must. sentences.

125. 246. 18. become neuter. nouns. 19. 46. formed. 25. 38-41. etc. definition according of. 32. of. become become formation case collective. parse. 42. kinds 90. in. 17. clause. number once other plural.pronoun. 46. to use. gender nouns. 20. abstract. 41. of. 41 43. of. class used singular. 17 19. No Nominative. Case. 301. proper. 56. See 194. of. 126. Not Noun Nouns. syntax in gender nouns. syntax Neuter or two News. material. letters as 24. 45. now plural. 26. of. words how compound. etc. None. 30. of. half abstract. gender how kinds material. 25. 300. and figures. common. analysis. used as. . Nor. of of of of of a. 328. to of. 258. 30. 38. definition descriptive. 30. foreign. 21. 27. 41. 17. 92. nouns. of. 124. abstract. 29.

41. plural form. 18. 242. 102. Numeral Object. of. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. singular. plural. personal. dative. of. 92. article. 235. 278. indefinite. 41. pronouns. 48. with case. or plural. English. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 48. 43. become syntax use with with with Nouns. 196. passive adverbial. 281. pronouns. singular. 279. 101. 48. 23. meaning. of different possessive definite of. form. nominative. 48. of. of. 242. 148. preposition. 121. conjunction. meanings. adjectives. 42. adverbial. 39. in article. Preposition. 101.of same two with proper. 42.. 60. of. See verb. verbs. 282. See in in in Numeral distributive. of. 240. with with with Now Number. spoken of instead nouns. 278. as forms titles. 66. 124. 42 44. in nouns. 41. Nouns. common. 106. definite. 195. 48. . 285. indirect. plural no two singular construction. adjectives. etc. and analysis.

117. Our. of. pronoun. 233. nouns. 87. another. 237.syntax Of. 101. One. conjunction. adjective. 194. treatment comparatives. 115. 91. Oxen. 103. uses numeral pronoun. Parsing. 127. definite relative uses of. See pronoun. 293. indefinite possessive One One as Only. with (the). of upon. Ordinal Other Ought. . of syntax. as other. ours. 64. Omission On. of of of of of models adjectives. 325 275. inverted. 213. See the as of. Elder. Each adjective. 191. of. adverbs. 199. for. 38. 216. 94. 161. 41. position Order. 56. 306. Ourself. Older. Pains. 93 other. 69. a in adjectives. 116. 56. articles. as of. conjunctions. of. adverb. 103. 279. part analysis.

43. phrase. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. of. 148. article 150. 181. not is. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. and subject in. reflexive. 63. pease. Pence. 335. part adjective. . 219. 180. of. 173. possessive and of. of. 281. 177. 62. 172. 80. 59. 28. pronouns. verbals. absolute with of. 56. 56. verbs.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. of. 119. of. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 43. with. antecedent. 134. or of. 64. 247. Person. 317. 69. 61. 100. 27. of. pennies. verbs. 174. nominative. predicate use of. used as voice. 62. them. speech. 179. 59. 59. 70. pronoun. 322. 172. of. -ing words. relatives. included various. agreement of verb nouns. 95. verb idioms it from. pronouns. parsed. phrases. from definition other of. in. 287.

spoken of. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. singular degree. of. nouns. 53. simple. 195. in of. 54. 53. of Phrase. Place. 247. 49. of nouns. 303. Personal subjective. 245. of. antecedent of of pronouns. vs. prepositional. 285. kinds infinitive. pronoun. of. 67. as double. 281. 278. objects. 247. participial. relative. it. 245. Nouns. 52. Positive Possessive. noun nouns. 61. 188. conjunctions prepositions Plural. nouns. 64. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. Comparison. 60. 41. of. singular. 106. Personification. 206. of. English. . of. adjectives. 232. double. plural. 235. 248. 281. See 60. nouns. 236. 's. 278. 37. or See of of See 185. 51.objective syntax table triple uses of. syntax of of Politics. complete. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. adverbs of. 50. 303. 25. appositional. omitted. 63. pronouns. 241. of. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 236. of. pronoun.

195. of. plural. 206. 203. speech. adverb. with tense certain. 95. 187. plural. 105. 58. as 54. 300. case. all. 89. 301. same used as adjectives. 284. verbs. 32. and one with else's. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. 300. possessive nominative to of. each either. 331. 280. 208. 64. as antecedent of relative. of. future. as. any. usually to as than. 287. neither. 93. . 147. 333. interrogative. 219. of. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. 132. 129. parse. another. by. by with shown certain of. expressed as other of. 283. for predicate nominative. objective. none. who personal. words. interrogative. of. 282. Prepositions. 299. 58. of. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. after but. 105. 207. singular usually other. forms of. Pronouns.Prefixes. 205. 59. 332. 283. and form form form form of. 104. of. case. 202. objective. 279. meaning. 203. 302. 303. 72. what. 285. 281. parse. in exclamations. by parts of of. of. exclamatory. 186. plural. somebody definition how indefinite. adjective.

105. 291.possessive relative. parse. 80. 99. 263. 295. Quantity. and antecedent. from and interrogative. Quotations. 142. unrestrictive. indirect compound. of. same antecedent. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. use in as. of. 83. 297. 74. Rather. 101. . 85. 69. 289. with with gerund. 74. 279. and which. of. of. which. Questions. 293. See of. who. with who. 189. and relatives. pronouns. 195. questions. discourse. personal pronoun. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. of. in. of. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. agreement anacoluthon and as. 286. 84. Rank. 87. pronominal pronouns indirect. nouns. 69. to of. 289. that. conjunctions Quality. 68. 188. or of. Nouns. 85. pronoun. indirect. in. of. which after same. 74. in. 296. adverbs in. use of history formed. 87. of. Direct same and different. 58. of. 295. 293.

289. 43. 51. 319. 29. who. effect. 252. conjunctions Retained Riches. tenses. Sex Shall. in of. Simple in sate. of. suffix. will. and should. of. 42. kinds Sequence Set. object. 195. would. gender. 242. definition . 259. which. 231. 40. that. of of of complex Sentences. simple. of sit. in form. complex. forms shots. 263. 170. 159. Shot. conjunction. elliptical. 162. 69. 'S. 294. See Sentences. Shear. pronoun. of. Same Sat. reflexive analysis of compound. Self Sentences. 74. clauses of. 255. of. ending. plural possessive as. Seeing. 196. 26 271. sentence.syntax use Result. 231. 196. 159. simple of. S.

adverb. Subject. 33. of. 233. of. disuse in spoken complete. 137.Singular Sir. as. 237. 270. names as a. 144. vs. Modern use becoming else's. distinguish. etc. 38. Somebody Sort. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. literary clause. 245. of. 257. 240. 138. definition 67. 32. 245. 258. See -En. of. of. 260. 126. 38. 303. for. 186. 258. 262. English. logical. 257. other Such Such Suffix -s. -en. 258. used mood. English. Split Spoken -Ster. English. -es. adverb. 257. 36. English. to of. in feminine suffix. 257. phonetic in infinitive. verbs. 303. 12. 33. Spelling Spinster. of. 323. these number. 169. 144. . definition how kinds noun.. of. in Middle English. sort.

auxiliaries. meaning made up in Old of. plural as adverb. 275. 290. when relative. of. 119. classical of. of. 306. Kind. See etc. as history syntax Their. 106. 307. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax. of. and and of. meaning. 186.. 222." introductory. of. not suggesting adjectives. 319. syntax of. subject. Tenses. they. of. 309. coördinating. English. 277. 107. 33. 280. 108. 297. 189. 191. 87. of. objects. omission whom. 275. 61. when as of. that uses That. in Modern number sequence table Than That. 109. 152. than of. definition in English Tense. this. 289. 147. 88. 306. object. restrictive. 186. adjectives. 120. of. 106. degree. Then. English. 116. 148. in comparison. as history The. 147. 147.. king. form. of . which. . in double. as adverbs.. There These kind. article. of languages. "the then foreign. me. adverbs. two basis not same definition definite. of.Suffixes. 123.

172. adverbs those. of. kinds participle. try two. gerund. tother. 20. uses of. Thou. 308. . See On. Upon. first. 173. of. 180. how infinitive. 188. words. Try Two Under. 119. feminine and. used. Utter. 217. 61. 21. carelessly uses syntax this. 175. Time. 114. infinitive.. uses history of. 172. phrases. of. 330. uttermost. of. 128. 175. 33. parse. thee. exclamations. 248. preposition. -Trix. 195. 114. 185. certain as the before with of. suffix. etc. verbs. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. from cleft to 174. other noun. See That. -ing 111. 207. 181. first adjective.These. in of. 175. 322. 323. 114. thy. to. analysis. conjunctions prepositions To. Upper. of. 176. of. in omitted uses T'other. of. 322. 247. infinitive.

passive form. 167. 236. 330. past tense formed nominative. 147. 39. made transitive. Vocative in Voice. 151. definition of. 131. 179. spelling of. person and number of. 319. 245. with subject in number. in person. What. tense of. 154. auxiliary. 167. 33.Verbs. active meaning. 223. phonetic. 317. in indirect discourse. regular. syntax of. agreement of. verbs. of. 169. voice of. strong. defective. transitive and intransitive. table of. 155. analysis. weak. 312. table of irregular. passive. intransitive. 242. of. 154. formed by. 129. . remarks on certain. of English. 320. 160. 149. how to parse. but uses what. 312-316. 154. 169. 133. 133. 148. 148. mood of. 47. 12. sequence of. 135. Vixen. of incomplete predication. 159. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. becoming irregular. verbs by. change. 150. definition of. definition of. 134. active. 157. retained object with passive. 130. conjugation of.

79. 37. plural of in nouns -ing. in in indefinite objective. 75. 72. pronoun. 296. referring syntax Widower. 73. 105. 218. 190. English. would. 85. 83. 32. 111. 85. in. relative. 72. Yes ending analysis. spoken in of. questions. Woman. Will. whereto. Words in Worse.what Whereby. 194. of. 83. worser. questions. questions. Y. questions. Who. 36.. of. in -ly. pronoun. antecedent adjective. 75. Whether. 178. Wife. . 78. interrogative Which. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 77. 299. animals. 40. 105. uses See Shall. 85. Witch. wizard. relative. direct of. relative indirect relative. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 246. etc. conjunction. 126. 295-299. With. 72. a. 36. 104.

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