roject Gutenberg's An English Grammar, by W. M. Baskervill and J. W.

Sewell This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: An English Grammar Author: W. M. Baskervill and J. W. Sewell Release Date: November 10, 2004 [EBook #14006] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR ***

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Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with confusing difficulties as far as may be. To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature. Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will, however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to "correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range. It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word. Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,²to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights. We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes. Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:² Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc., Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's "English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische

Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and suggestive. We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's BattleGround Academy, Franklin, Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School, Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful criticism. W.M. BASKERVILL. J.W. SEWELL. NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.





AND Verbs And

VERBALS.. Verbals.




WATCHING. II. SENTENCES. TO OF FORM. STATEMENTS. Sentences. Sentences. Sentences.



Sentences. III.


So many slighting remarks have been made of late on the use of teaching grammar as compared with teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object we have, or should have, in teaching science, is not to fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw out and exercise his powers of observation, and to show him how to make use of what he observes.... And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil to observe without the use of apparatus of any kind while the use of them also lies within the personal experience of every one.²DR RICHARD MORRIS. The proper study of a language is an intellectual discipline of the highest order. If I except discussions on the comparative merits of Popery and Protestantism, English grammar was the most important discipline of my boyhood.²JOHN TYNDALL. INTRODUCTION. What various opinions writers on English grammar have given in answer to the question, What is grammar? may be shown by the following²
Definitions of grammar.

English grammar is a description of the usages of the English language by good speakers and writers of the present day.²WHITNEY A description of account of the nature, build, constitution, or make of a language is called its grammar²MEIKLEJOHN Grammar teaches the laws of language, and the right method of using it in speaking and writing.²PATTERSON Grammar is the science of letter; hence the science of using words correctly.²ABBOTT The English word grammar relates only to the laws which govern the significant forms of words, and the construction of the sentence.²RICHARD GRANT WHITE These are sufficient to suggest several distinct notions about English grammar²
Synopsis of the above.

(1) It makes rules to tell us how to use words. (2) It is a record of usage which we ought to follow. (3) It is concerned with the forms of the language. (4) English has no grammar in the sense of forms, or inflections, but takes account merely of the nature and the uses of words in sentences.
The older idea and its origin.

Fierce discussions have raged over these opinions, and numerous works have been written to uphold the theories. The first of them remained popular for a very long time. It originated from the etymology of the word grammar (Greek gramma, writing, a letter), and from an effort to build up a treatise on English grammar by using classical grammar as a model. Perhaps a combination of (1) and (3) has been still more popular, though there has been vastly more classification than there are forms.
The opposite view.

During recent years, (2) and (4) have been gaining ground, but they have had hard work to displace the older and more popular theories. It is insisted by many that the student's time should be used in studying general literature, and thus learning the fluent and correct use of his mother tongue. It is also insisted that the study and discussion of forms and inflections is an inexcusable imitation of classical treatises.
The difficulty.

Which view shall the student of English accept? Before this is answered, we should decide whether some one of the above theories must be taken as the right one, and the rest disregarded. The real reason for the diversity of views is a confusion of two distinct things,²what the definition of grammar should be, and what the purpose of grammar should be.
The material of grammar.

. as compared with Latin or Greek. but this is bad English now. The work it will cover. as. assist the classification of kindred expressions. Usage is varied as our way of thinking changes. then. Surely our noble language. to those who have studied the language historically. Few inflections. that it is very hazardous to make rules in grammar: what is at present regarded as correct may not be so twenty years from now. Making rules is risky. What should grammar teach? and we give as an answer the definition." What grammar is. and thus incite his observation. If. It is also evident.The province of English grammar is. In Chaucer's time two or three negatives were used to strengthen a negation. their forms. "Analysis. however. and stated what syntax is the most used in certain troublesome places.² English grammar is the science which treats of the nature of words. apart from the mere memorizing of inflections and formulation of rules. The continued contact with the highest thoughts of the best minds will create a thirst for the "well of English undefiled. it will at the same time. What ground should grammar cover? we come to answer the question. if rightly presented. and their uses and relations in the sentence. there is still much for the grammarian to do. Grammar is eminently a means of mental training." and "Syntax. A few words here as to the authority upon which grammar rests. This will take in the usual divisions. rightly considered. its numerous periphrastic forms to express every possible shade of meaning. so that a small grammar will hold them all. and the student ought to have a clear idea of the ground to be covered. or draw the attention of the student to everyday idioms and phrases. its peculiar and abundant idioms. A broader view. is worthy of serious study. Mental training. from the question. And Shakespeare used good English when he said more elder ("Merchant of Venice") and most unkindest ("Julius Cæsar"). "Ther nas no man nowher so vertuous" (There never was no man nowhere so virtuous)." It will also require a discussion of any points that will clear up difficulties. even if our rules are founded on the keenest scrutiny of the "standard" writers of our time. An æsthetic benefit. we have tabulated the inflections of the language. Literary English. "The Parts of Speech" (with their inflections). It must be admitted that the language has very few inflections at present. Authority as a basis. Coming back. with its enormous vocabulary. wider than is indicated by any one of the above definitions. lay the foundation of a keen observation and a correct literary taste. and while it will train the student in subtle and acute reasoning.

submission.²the speech of the uneducated and ignorant. three divisions:² Part I. This literary English is considered the foundation on which grammar must rest. by which is meant the free. and Inflections. The Parts of Speech. Part III. or Syntax. Here and there also will be quoted words and phrases from spoken or colloquial English. The words state. The following pages will cover. Such words are called nouns. Part II. since they preserve turns of expressions that have long since perished from the literary or standard English.²which will serve to illustrate points of syntax once correct. and will are evidently names of a different kind. or standard. 1. unstudied expressions of ordinary conversation and communication among intelligent people. . not objects. besides this one. the word naming it will always call up the thing or idea itself. PART I. but now undoubtedly bad grammar.The statements given will be substantiated by quotations from the leading or "standard" literature of modern times. as they stand for ideas. then. from the eighteenth century on. Occasionally.²GIBBON. that is. which belongs to a people. the words sons and master name objects. In the more simple state of the Arabs. because each of her sons disdains a base submission to the will of a master. and the word nation stands for a whole group. but. and may belong to any of those objects. Analysis of Sentences. The Uses of Words. NOUNS. reference will be made to vulgar English. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. When the meaning of each of these words has once been understood. too. The plainest name is Arabs. These quotations will often throw light on obscure constructions. Vulgar English. Spoken English. the nation is free. Name words By examining this sentence we notice several words used as names.

MATERIAL. The word proper is from a Latin word meaning limited. Abstract. place.Definition. wagon is a term that names any vehicle of a certain kind used for hauling: the words are of the widest application. men in groups may be called a crowd. representing directly to the mind an object. and the name applied to it belongs to any group of its class. Nouns are classified as follows:² (1) (2) ii. or a council. A common noun is a name possessed by any one of a class of persons. whether person. Even if there are several Bostons or Manchesters. A noun is a name word. (3) (b) VERBAL Names for special objects. but Chicago names one city. Individual. as here used. It specializes or limits the thing to which it is applied. because each group is considered as a unit. however. Thus. and fixes the attention upon that particular city. the name of each is an individual or proper name. 2. Collective. . We may say. King may be applied to any ruler of a kingdom. Name for a group or collection of objects. (b) Common. and appropriate names to the groups. reducing it to a narrow application. They properly belong under common nouns. is from a Latin word which means general. Besides considering persons. road is a word that names any highway outside of cities. or things. or a congress. that a proper name can be applied to only one object. animals. but Alfred the Great is the name of one king only. For instance. Common. we may think of them in groups. Proper. (a) 4. This does not imply. Thus. or a mob. Name for any individual of a class. animals. possessed by all. but that each time such a name is applied it is fixed or proper to that object. Classes of nouns. These are called COLLECTIVE NOUNS. 5. a committee. or thing. and things separately. or the man in front of you. A proper noun is a name applied to a particular object. (a) CLASS NAMES: i. ATTRIBUTE. substance. 3. etc. belonging to one. city is a word applied to any one of its kind. the man here. but the word man is here hedged in by other words or word groups: the name itself is of general application. or idea.

expressing state. as in calling a city Cincinnati. there is no such intention. expressing attributes or qualities. "Painting is a fine art. that in proper names the intention is to exclude all other individuals of the same class. 7. When we speak of a wise man. but it is taken merely as a name." "Learning is hard to acquire. and so on. sand. tea.. Again. They remain common class names. paint." 9. NOTE. we recognize in him an attribute or quality. etc. dew. considered abstractly. such as sun.²There are some nouns. be correctly used for another group of nouns detailed below. not things. (3) Geological bodies: mud. Words naturally of limited application not proper. Abstract nouns are names of qualities. condition. and fasten a special name to the object considered. or apart from their natural connection. rubber. cloud. but which are not called proper names. proof means the act of proving. etc. frost. granite. (5) Various manufactures: cloth (and the different kinds of cloth). 6. rain. There are two chief divisions of abstract nouns:² (1) ATTRIBUTE NOUNS. etc. however. clay. we speak of the wisdom of the man.Names for things thought of in mass. So poverty would express the condition of a poor person. frost. etc. The definition given for common nouns applies more strictly to class nouns. mist. The reason is. iron. sugar. (2) VERBAL NOUNS. which seem to be the names of particular individual objects. sugar. (2) Products spoken of in bulk: tea. wheat. The quality is still there as much as before. Names of ideas. . earth. but in the words sun. for they are common nouns in the sense that the names apply to every particle of similar substance. They may be placed in groups as follows:² (1) The metals: iron. stone. It may. rice. earth. world. (4) Natural phenomena: rain. moon. or that which shows a thing has been proved. etc. If we wish to think simply of that quality without describing the person. they also are called suns by a natural extension of the term: so with the words earth. Such are glass. wheat. . platinum. etc. or action. or actions. we may say." "a man of understanding. potash. They are called MATERIAL NOUNS. instead of to each individual or separate object. If several bodies like the center of our solar system are known. soap. conditions. gold. etc. snow. rock. celluloid. etc. wine.

The VERBAL ABSTRACT NOUNS Originate in verbs. summer. 272. kingship from king. The verb. "a long run" "a bold move. action from act. The adjectives or verbs corresponding to these are either themselves derived from the nouns or are totally different words. her longing for their favor. stupidity from stupid. the great Puritan awakening.Attribute abstract nouns. etc. the moon caused fearful forebodings. he spread his blessings over the land. mastery from master. shadow. Caution. redness from red. (1) prudence from prudent. joy.. our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. and they cannot express action.²Remember that all sentences are to be selected from standard literature. winter. II. but were framed directly for the expression of certain ideas or phenomena. in the beginning of his life. as in the expressions. Such are beauty. They may be² (1) Of the same form as the simple verb. Underived abstract nouns. lightning. (3) Derived from verbs by adding -ing to the simple verb. 1. etc. They are only the husks of verbs. the teachings of the High Spirit." (2) Derived from verbs by changing the ending or adding a suffix: motion from move. hope. is used as a noun. by altering its function. those opinions and feelings. From your reading bring up sentences containing ten common nouns. the well-being of her subjects. (2) peerage from peer. It must be remembered that these words are free from any verbal function. Some abstract nouns were not derived from any other part of speech. a wedding or a festival. 10. energy. 273). . day. etc. NOTE. masterpieces of the Socratic reasoning. Thus. childhood from child. Exercises. the main bearings of this matter. theft from thieve. five abstract. night. Verbal abstract nouns. To avoid difficulty. study carefully these examples: The best thoughts and sayings of the Greeks. 12. as glad²joy. The ATTRIBUTE ABSTRACT NOUNS are derived from adjectives and from common nouns. service from serve. there is time for such reasonings. but are merely names of actions. They cannot govern a word. and are to be rigidly distinguished from gerunds (Secs. feelings which their original meaning will by no means justify. as their name implies. thunder. the rude drawings of the book." "a brisk walk. speech from speak. height from high. etc. hopeful²hope. ease. five proper.

Using a dictionary.2. typhus. mathematics? 3. pleurisy. diphtheria. geology. Mention collective nouns that will embrace groups of each of the following individual nouns:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y man horse bird fish partridge pupil bee soldier book sailor child sheep ship ruffian 4. (b) branches of knowledge. as physics. algebra. Under what class of nouns would you place (a) the names of diseases. catarrh. tell from what word each of these abstract nouns is derived:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y sight speech motion pleasure patience friendship deceit bravery height width wisdom regularity advice seizure nobility relief death raid honesty judgment belief occupation justice . as pneumonia.

nouns of one class may be made to approach another class. we shall find numerous examples of this shifting from class to class. and a similar place is called a Sodom of sin. Since words alter their meaning so rapidly by a widening or narrowing of their application. but we may say. as a davy. from China. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power. damask. from a town in France. above. Others of similar character are calico. etc. Names for things in bulk altered for separate portions. By being used so as to vary their usual meaning. 13. from Damascus. from Corinth. currants. from the name of Dr. Material nouns may be used as class names. a Hutton. who was its inventor. 119). Nouns change by use." referring to flat- . Or the name of the country or city from which an article is derived is used for the article: as china. a Locke. Some of this class have become worn by use so that at present we can scarcely discover the derivation from the form of the word. for example. arras. the name of the inventor may be applied to the thing invented. and we call a very strong man a Hercules or a Samson. a Lavoisier. or to go over to it entirely. Guillotin. in Portugal.² Hercules and Samson were noted for their strength. "The cook made the irons hot. the word port. 14. thus. Proper nouns are used as common in either of two ways:² (1) The origin of a thing is used for the thing itself: that is. levant and morocco (leather). We know a number of objects made of iron. 15. For further discussion see the remarks on articles (p. from Oporto. Proper names transferred to common use. a Fourier. A Daniel come to judgment!²SHAKESPEARE. The material iron embraces the metal contained in them all. it imposes its classification on other men.y y y y y service trail feeling choice simplicity SPECIAL USES OF NOUNS. but most of them are in the following groups. from Calicut.²EMERSON. as² (1) Of individual objects made from metals or other substances capable of being wrought into various shapes. and lo! a new system. one can speak of particular uses or phases of the substance. the guillotine. (2) The name of a person or place noted for certain qualities is transferred to any person or place possessing those qualities. Instead of considering the whole body of material of which certain uses are made. Sodom was famous for wickedness. meaning the miner's lamp invented by Sir Humphry Davy. a Bentham. port (wine).

which are made plural. clouds. as stones. tobaccos. Hence it shortens speech to make the nouns plural.²CARLYLE. to prowl or to moan like night birds. that is.irons.²COLLINS. be spoken of. and only Vice and Misery. oils. A halfway class of words. Class nouns in use. but in case an art or a science. slates. and say teas. or. Abstract nouns are frequently used as proper names by being personified.²PERCIVAL. the words italicized are pure abstract nouns. but differ in strength. etc. When it is said that art differs from science. on fire.²HAYNE. From all around²Earth and her waters. are still names of abstract ideas. Death. that disposition is the thing to be created. Abstract nouns are made half abstract by being spoken of in the plural. They are not then pure abstract nouns. coals. and the depths of air²Comes a still voice. purity. Personification of abstract ideas. of certain words necessarily singular in idea. but they widen the application to separate kinds of art or different branches of science. his eyes. or made plural. though not confined to verse.In lightnings owned his secret stings. Test this in the following sentences:² . tins. or used as class nouns. Traffic has lain down to rest. paints. examine this:² The arts differ from the sciences in this.²BYRON. as in the following:² The lone and level sands stretch far away. They are neither class nouns nor pure abstract nouns: they are more properly called half abstract. candies. and so on. that their power is founded not merely on facts which can be communicated. his mask melting like a nightmare dream. etc. (2) Of classes or kinds of the same substance. are abroad. papers. Next Anger rushed. For example. mists. (3) By poetical use. Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. not material things. smiled. clays. abstract in meaning. the ideas are spoken of as residing in living beings. nor are they common class nouns. The words preceded by the article a. or the arts and sciences. This is a poetic usage. that the power of art is founded on fact.²RUSKIN. 17. So also we may speak of a glass to drink from or to look into. 16. (4) Of detached portions of matter used as class names. but on dispositions which require to be created. These are the same in material. a steel to whet a knife on. the abstract idea is partly lost. Their airy earsThe winds have stationed on the mountain peaks. a rubber for erasing marks. "The sailor was put in irons" meaning chains of iron.²BRYANT.

(2) Certain word groups used like single nouns:² Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. a bill as to tax on the banks.²EMERSON.The Solitary can despise. they cannot be compared. Conjunctions." "the State Bank Tax bill. They may be regarded as elliptical expressions. make our own so." It is evident that these approach very near to the function of adjectives. they do not express quality. as each repeated pleasure tired. NOTE. or from any expression.²IRVING. sir!"²MACAULAY . They are more like the possessive noun. Adverbs. and various word groups may take the place of nouns by being used as nouns. But ah! those pleasures. Owing to the scarcity of distinctive forms. if we must have great actions. it may be regarded as changed to an adjective. but is still a noun. Adjectives. however. When I was young? Ah. sir!" and the "What then. Sometimes a noun is attached to another noun to add to its meaning.² BURNS. (1) Other parts of speech used as nouns:² The great. "a family quarrel. a bank in New York." "a morning walk. which belongs to another word. sir!" and the "You don't see your way through the question. All these.²BURNS. By ellipses. or describe it. loves. etc. nouns used to modify. for example. The term "gold pen" conveys the same idea as "golden pen. Then comes the "Why. were mere terrors of the night. sir?" and the "No. And still. for these reasons: they do not give up their identity as nouns. fear thy blow. The noun may borrow from any part of speech. as descriptive adjectives are. But it is better to consider them as nouns. Nouns used as descriptive terms. WORDS AND WORD GROUPS USED AS NOUNS.²SHAKESPEARE. the wealthy." "a New York bank. Every why hath a wherefore.Let us.²SHAKESPEARE. and joysWhich I too keenly taste.² GOLDSMITH. woeful When!Ah! for the change 'twixt Now and Then!²COLERIDGE. Succeeding sports the mirthful band inspired. meaning a walk in the morning." which contains a pure adjective. 19. words which are usually other parts of speech are often used as nouns. and to the consequent flexibility of English speech. 18.²If the descriptive word be a material noun.

is the word "just. A great deal of talent is lost to the world for want of a little courage. the terms the great. or a state secret. are used. whether it mean the sun or the cold. are spoken of as if pure nouns. The adjective good has no claim on the noun goods. It is to be remembered. too." or "legal. NOTE. The it. Exercise. but as a figure of speech.²Dr BLAIR In this definition. 2. or a faithful domestic. but still the reader considers this not a natural application of them as name words. 8. so. Notice if any have shifted from one class to another. is ambiguous. 5. without reference to its function in the sentence. There are many of these. When. She sweeps it through the court with troops of ladies. We seldom find instances of complete conversion of one part of speech into another. 3. Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named. 4. of course. and Then. . 6. FRANKLIN. Power laid his rod aside. or a criminal. etc. In the other sentences. There was also a book of Defoe's called an "Essay on Projects. in speaking of the principal of a school. the words are entirely independent of any adjective force. 7. of words rather than of their meaning. Stone walls do not a prison make.(3) Any part of speech may be considered merely as a word. 1. that the above cases are shiftings of the use. and tell to which class each belongs. they are not names only: we have in mind the idea of persons and the quality of being great or wealthy.And Ceremony doff'd her pride. When. in a sentence above." and another of Dr. Caution. Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate. also titles of books are treated as simple nouns."²B. 20.Nor iron bars a cage. to such words as become pure nouns by use. why and wherefore. at the beginning. Now. Mather's called "Essays to do Good. Pick out the nouns in the following sentences. but have an adjectival meaning. Learning.²These remarks do not apply. the wealthy. however.. that cobweb of the brain." finally to stand?²RUSKIN. The words are used in the sentence where nouns are used. Hope springs eternal in the human breast.

German. What gender means in English. Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. for every dropHinders needle and thread. but a wise man reserves something for hereafter. 14. 11. The hours glide by. . One To-day is worth two To-morrows. INFLECTIONS OF NOUNS.Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood. A little weeping would ease my heart. 19. the welcome.9. My soldier cousin was once only a drummer boy. But pleasures are like poppies spread. Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much. The fleet. Her robes of silk and velvet came from over the sea. 15. in English grammar. 18. A man he seems of cheerful yesterdaysAnd confident to-morrows. 21. the silver moon is gone. 22. Greek. 17. shattered and disabled. its bloom is shed.Fair guests. 23. 16. that waits you here. 12. he cried.But in their briny bedMy tears must stop. and names of females are usually feminine. 24.You seize the flower. 20. Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest. All that thou canst call thine own Lies in thy To-day. and many other languages. 13. Vessels carrying coal are constantly moving. 21. female. returned to Spain. but not so in English. And oft we trod a waste of pearly sands. some general rules are given that names of male beings are usually masculine. always feminine. And see. A fool speaks all his mind. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. It is founded on sex. 10. GENDER. In Latin. There are exceptions even to this general statement. always masculine. Male beings are.

²IRVING." . in German. "A little child shall lead them. then. Some words may be either gender nouns or neuter nouns. but are spoken of as neuter. those which do not distinguish sex.. clapping his burnished wings.²gender nouns. inanimate things are spoken of. He next stooped down to feel the pig. Hence: Definition. corpus (body) is neuter. For instance: in Latin. the name of it is feminine. Neuter nouns. however. Gender nouns. these languages are totally unlike our own in determining the gender of words.When. die Gabel (fork) is feminine. All nouns. 23.. or names of things without life. 24. if there were any signs of life in it. those distinguishing the sex of the object. that is.²LAMB.²masculine and feminine. Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. applying to his earThe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell. Some words either gender or neuter nouns. the word child is neuter in the sentence. or additions to words.² I have seenA curious child . and neuter nouns. that in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. according to use. the sex being of no consequence. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. . der Tisch (table) is masculine. Of animals. in other languages gender follows the form. No "common gender... neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. hortus (garden) is masculine. Other animals are not distinguished as to sex. in English. with a suddenness that had nearly sent his rider sprawling over his head²ID. that pattern of a husband. as in these sentences:² Before the barn door strutted the gallant cock. 22.² IRVING. are named by gender nouns. The great difference is. Thus. or which arouse his interest most. must be divided into two principal classes.. and consequently without sex. with its gizzard under its wing.. mensa (table) is feminine. It is evident from this that English can have but two genders. Gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words." but is masculine in the sentence from Wordsworth. Gunpowder . if of the female sex. das Messer (knife) is neuter. the name of it is masculine. Not a turkey but he [Ichabod] beheld daintily trussed up. those with which man comes in contact often. according to their use. came to a stand just by the bridge.

woman. I. the division of words according to sex. and for the older word fat they said vat. Put in convenient form. Spinster is a relic of a large class of words that existed in Old and Middle English. Hence vixen is for fyxen. Gender shown by Suffixes. 27. domestic. II. teacher. The native suffixes to indicate the feminine were -en and -ster. Native suffixes.[1] but have now lost their original force as feminines. According to the definition. In this particular the native endings have been largely supplanted by foreign suffixes. Male nouns beings. The inflections for gender belong. only to masculine and feminine nouns. 28. though both words have lost their original meanings. { Neuter nouns: Names of inanimate things. (2) By adding a suffix. as he-goat²she-goat. or the lack of it. servant. or of living beings whose sex cannot be determined. Very few of class I. 26. Gender shown by Prefixes. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. do not show the sex to which the persons belong. Woman is a short way of writing wifeman. The word vixen was once used as the feminine of fox by the Southern-English. There are three ways to distinguish the genders:² (1) By prefixing a gender word to another word.. since inflection applies only to the case of nouns. etc. . cock sparrow²hen sparrow. puts a prefix before the masculine man. 29. there can be no such thing as "common gender:" words either distinguish sex (or the sex is distinguished by the context) or else they do not distinguish sex. One feminine. of course. These remain in vixen and spinster. for from they said vram. from the masculine fox. relative. If such words as parent. but spinster has now no connection with it. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words.25. generally to a masculine word. he-bear²she-bear. as in wine vat. cousin. ruler. they are neuter words. (3) By using a different word for each gender. The old masculine answering to spinster was spinner.² (MASCULINE: Gender (FEMININE: Female beings. is. Forms would be a more accurate word than inflections. For fox they said vox.

-ess (French esse. The corresponding masculine may have the ending -er (-or). The ending -ster had then lost its force as a feminine suffix. Slightly changed and widely used. Unaltered and little used. The feminine may discard a vowel which appears in the masculine. (2) That regarded as the standard or regular termination of the feminine. Low Latin issa). Sometimes the -ess has been added to a word already feminine by the ending -ster. 30.The foreign suffixes are of two kinds:² Foreign suffixes. as. donna. but in most cases it has not. executrix. Ending of masculine not changed. the one most used. the feminine is formed by adding this termination -ess.² y y y y y y y y baron²baroness count²countess lion²lioness Jew²Jewess heir²heiress host²hostess priest²priestess giant²giantess Masculine ending dropped. These are attached to foreign words. as. it has none now in the words huckster. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine. and are never used for words recognized as English. as seam-stress. song-str-ess. Whenever we adopt a new masculine word. as in² y y y y y y actor²actress master²mistress benefactor²benefactress emperor²empress tiger²tigress enchanter²enchantress . señorita.² y y y y abbot²abbess negro²negress murderer²murderess sorcerer²sorceress Vowel dropped before adding -ess. gamester. as czarina. The masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added. punster. trickster. (1) Those belonging to borrowed words.

or servauntesse. from the Old French maistre²maistresse. "George Eliot is an eminent authoress. 31. and either use a prefix word or leave the masculine to do work for the feminine also.Empress has been cut down from emperice (twelfth century) and emperesse (thirteenth century). Thus. Gender shown by Different Words. Master and mistress were in Middle English maister²maistresse. from Latin imperatricem. we use the masculine termination. chairman. to represent persons of either sex. Some of them have an interesting history. we say doctor (masculine and feminine) or woman doctor. neighbor (masculine and feminine). neighboresse." III. When the older -en and -ster went out of use as the distinctive mark of the feminine. as. frendesse. as was said in the sixteenth century. 32. fosteress. Ending -ess less used now than formerly. "George Eliot is the author of 'Adam Bede. others have in their origin the same root. and will be noted below:² y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y bachelor²maid boy²girl brother²sister drake²duck earl²countess father²mother gander²goose hart²roe horse²mare husband²wife king²queen lord²lady wizard²witch nephew²niece ram²ewe sir²madam son²daughter uncle²aunt . sprang into a popularity much greater than at present. we use the feminine.²There is perhaps this distinction observed: when we speak of a female as an active agent merely. We frequently use such words as author.'" but when we speak purposely to denote a distinction from a male. from the French -esse. etc. editor. we have dispensed with the ending in many cases. Instead of saying doctress. as. In some of these pairs. as in the fourteenth century. teacheresse. the ending -ess. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words. NOTE. teacher or lady teacher. wagoness.

). The r in groom has crept in from confusion with the word groom. there are two other masculine words that were formed from the feminine:² Bridegroom. from the weakening of the ending -a in Old English to -e in Middle English. The masculine was formed by adding -a. material objects may be spoken of like gender nouns. and dige being of uncertain origin and meaning). and a new masculine ending was therefore added to distinguish the masculine from the feminine (compare Middle English widuer² widewe). Gander and goose were originally from the same root word. Besides gander and drake. Sir is worn down from the Old French sire (Latin senior).y y bull²cow boar²sow Girl originally meant a child of either sex. Drake is peculiar in that it is formed from a corresponding feminine which is no longer used. Goose has various cognate forms in the languages akin to English (German Gans. probably meaning house dweller). Icelandic gás. and was used for male or female until about the fifteenth century. the old sign of the masculine. or lauerd in Middle English. Madam is the French ma dame. among others) to be from the same root word. in Old English mere.² . Just as abstract ideas are personified (Sec. for example. wife was used in Old and Middle English to mean woman in general. King and queen are said by some (Skeat. but wizard is from the Old French guiscart (prudent). as in many other words. Husband and wife are not connected in origin. became identical. Danish gaas. etc. not immediately connected with witch. finally gander. Mare. Two masculines from feminines. Lord is said to be a worn-down form of the Old English hl f-weard (loaf keeper). from Old English bry d-guma (bride's man). 16). Widower. but is derived from ened (duck) and an obsolete suffix rake (king). Personification. Lady is from hl fdige (hl f meaning loaf. Husband is a Scandinavian word (Anglo-Saxon h sbonda from Icelandic hús-bóndi. but the German etymologist Kluge says they are not. Witch is the Old English wicce. lhauerd. had the masculine mearh (horse). the d being inserted to make pronunciation easy. This gansa was modified into gan-ra. It is not connected historically with our word duck. written loverd. Three letters of ened have fallen away. 34. though both are ultimately from the same root. The older forms. from Latin mea domina. but this has long been obsolete. gand-ra. widuwa²widuwe. 33. leaving our word drake.

Clustered around by all her starry Fays. for instance. where the swift Rhone cleaves his way. number means the mode of indicating whether we are speaking of one thing or of more than one. Effect of personification. Plurals formed by the Suffix -en.²KEATS. . This is not exclusively a poetic use. NUMBER. Our language has two numbers.No towers along the steep.²COLERIDGE. In nouns. etc. The -en inflection. Definition. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. and not by the form of the noun. together with the third. In such cases the gender is marked by the pronoun. the plural. The Sun now rose upon the right:Out of the sea came he. more than one.²CAMPBELL. 37. Hosen is found in the King James version of the Bible.Her home is on the deep. which last is still used in Lowland Scotch. (2) By changing the root vowel.Her march is o'er the mountain waves. This inflection remains only in the word oxen. 39. in Old English. that is. I. And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne."²BYRON. but in modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending. in imitation of the old words in -en by making a double plural. The first two methods prevailed. In ordinary speech personification is very frequent: the pilot speaks of his boat as feminine. Britannia needs no bulwarks. shoon (shoes). we make its plural by adding -s or -es. (3) By adding -s (or -es). But other words were inflected afterwards. 35. But the fact that in English the distinction of gender is confined to difference of sex makes these departures more effective.²singular and plural. 36."Now. 38. whenever we adopt a new word. though it was quite common in Old and Middle English. and housen is still common in the provincial speech in England. There are three ways of changing the singular form to the plural:² (1) By adding -en. the engineer speaks so of his engine. eyen (eyes). treen (trees).

41.Horse and foot. wight. as. though the intermediate form childer lasted till the seventeenth century in literary English."²QUOTED BY DE QUINCEY. Plurals formed by Adding -s or -es. and is still found in dialects. Examples of this inflection are. turf.The horse are thousands ten. cannon. dozen. but has now no singular. ditch. Instead of -s. or if preceded by the prepositions in. originally neuter. that have the singular and plural alike.²THOREAU. pair. the ending -es is added² (1) If a word ends in a letter which cannot add -s and be pronounced. such as deer. Other words following the same usage are. etc.²MACAULAY. head. Brethren has passed through three stages. Kine is another double plural.² "God bless me! so then. The old plural was brothru. people. after all. brace. 40. 42. cross. then brothre or brethre. by. heathen. but they now add the ending -s. II. they add -s): also trout. III. The weakening of inflections led to this addition. glass. as.²WHITTIER. sheep. and get settled. lens. Such are box. you'll have a chance to see your childer get up like. folk. sail.² The foot are fourscore thousand. when they mean soldiery. finally brethren.² y y y y y y man²men foot²feet goose²geese louse²lice mouse²mice tooth²teeth Some other words²as book. borough²formerly had the same inflection. In spite of wandering kine and other adverse circumstance. Akin to this class are some words. retain the same form for plural meaning. etc. into Frederick town. Lee marched over the mountain wall. swine.-En inflection imitated by other words. quartz. Children has passed through the same history. after numerals (if not after numerals. etc. . The words horse and foot. Plurals formed by Vowel Change.²Over the mountains winding down. salmon.

²CENTURY DICTIONARY. allies. optics.² Politics..²PROF. and go over to other classes (Secs. as. but may be made plural when we wish to speak of several persons or things bearing the same name. however. the Washingtons. pains (care). physics. So live. in its widest extent. a new syllable is made. -Es is also added to a few words ending in -o. and the real ending is therefore -s.Of maladie the which he hadde endured. race²races. hero²heroes. house²houses. is both the science and the art of government. fairies. half²halves. DANA. Two words. If the word ends in a sound which cannot add -s. Means plural. though they are plural in form. And these from Spenser (sixteenth century):² Be well aware. It served simply as a means of sight. 43. means: as.g. the Americas. prize²prizes. etc. they lose their identity. 15 and 17).²BRYANT. volcano² volcanoes. Special Lists. molasses. these words ended in -ie. and does not make an extra syllable: cargo²cargoes. also news. e. e.g. Usage differs somewhat in other words of this class. niche²niches.At last fair Hesperus in highest skieHad spent his lampe. 45. Material nouns and abstract nouns are always singular. etc. economics. and many branches of learning. chaise²chaises. (3) In the case of some words ending in -f or -fe. means and politics. The lilie on hir stalke grene. politics. (2) If a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant (the y being then changed to i). and some -es. Proper nouns are regularly singular. some adding -s. etc. mathematics. Notice these from Chaucer (fourteenth century):² Their old form. When such words take a plural ending. negro²negroes. that when thy summons comes. summons.. fancies. quoth then that ladie milde. etc. Words in -ies. knife²knives. which have the plural in -ves: calf²calves. shelf²shelves. Formerly. though this sound combines readily with -s. 44. may be plural in their construction with verbs and adjectives:² . daisies.-Es added in certain cases. Some words are usually singular. Examples of these are.

Cultivating a feeling that politics are tiresome. .²BURKE. Some words have no corresponding singular. it is furnished with a forceps. by those means which we have already mentioned.²G. I say. however. A relic which.²GOLDSMITH. he pronounced to have been a tongs.²IRVING. The politics in which he took the keenest interest were politics scarcely deserving of the name. fully compensate for their weakness in other respects. W. riches will accumulate. Notice the following:² They cannot get on without each other any more than one blade of a scissors can cut without the other. LAUGHLIN. 46. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y aborigines amends annals assets antipodes scissors thanks spectacles vespers victuals matins nuptials oats obsequies premises bellows billiards dregs gallows tongs Occasionally singular words. Sometimes. Politics plural.²MOTLEY. if I recollect right. a few of these words have the construction of singular nouns. With great dexterity these means were now applied. L.Words.²J. Now I read all the politics that come out. by strongly conveying the passions. Besides this. CURTIS.²GOLDSMITH.² MACAULAY. By these means.²GOLDSMITH.

for the numbers came. as two sixpences. index²indexes (to books). letter²letters: (1) the alphabet. genius²geniuses (men of genius). 48. faculties. trouble. Numbers also means issues. (2) literature. two meanings. pease (collectively). y y y custom²customs: (1) habits. but they are regularly construed as plural: alms. indices (signs in algebra). twopence. 50. may add -s. pence (collectively). the other unlike it. of a periodical. Tell me not. or copies. cloth²cloths (kinds of cloth). two plurals.. Compound words may be divided into two classes:² (1) Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. Three words were originally singular.The air. One plural.²one corresponding to the singular. Other words have one plural form with two meanings. fishes (individuals or kinds). (2) abilities. in mournful numbers. ways.. y y pain²pains: (1) suffering. fish²fish (collectively).²LONGFELLOW. carry off chaff.). riches.² I lisped in numbers. number²numbers: (1) figures. etc. These make the last part plural. etc. or epistles. . (2) care. die²dies (stamps for coins. (2) revenue duties. shots (number of times fired). DANA. y y y y y y y y y brother²brothers (by blood). brethren (of a society or church). genii (spirits). penny²pennies (separately). shot²shot (collective balls).²POPE. What thank have ye?²BIBLE 47. sixpence.. In speaking of coins. 49. making a double plural. In Early Modern English thank is found. Two classes of compound words.²was it subdued when. pea²peas (separately). the present ending -s not being really a plural inflection. dice (for gaming).the wind was trained only to turn a windmill. or work in a bellows?²PROF. eaves. (2) poetry. part²parts: (1) divisions. as in the lines. clothes (garments).

as man singer. Mussulman. though the latter is often found. Brown. 51. Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. then Silas Peckham. as the Messrs. Brahman. such as talisman. The title may be plural. woman singer. and Mrs. Briggs. Allen.²Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. .² Then came Mr. HOLMES. As to plurals of names with titles. German. The former is perhaps more common in present-day use.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y courtyard dormouse Englishman fellow-servant fisherman Frenchman forget-me-not goosequill handful mouthful cupful maidservant pianoforte stepson spoonful titmouse (2) Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. but add -s. The chief member adds -s in the plural. there is some disagreement among English writers. Norman. the Drs. the Misses Rich. or the name may be pluralized. firman. manservant. for example. Ottoman. 52. woman servant. and then the three Miss Spinneys. Two methods in use for names with titles. y y y y y y y y y aid-de-camp attorney at law billet-doux commander in chief court-martial cousin-german father-in-law knight-errant hanger-on NOTE.²DR.

who drew their origin from the Counts of Hapsburgh. Du Maurier.²THE CRITIC. and retain their foreign plurals. y y analysis antithesis . These are said to be domesticated.²GIBBON. FROM THE GREEK. A number of foreign words have been adopted into English without change of form. Find in the dictionary the plurals of these words:² I.²DICKENS. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y apparatus appendix axis datum erratum focus formula genus larva medium memorandum nebula radius series species stratum terminus vertex II.Our immortal Fielding was of the younger branch of the Earls of Denbigh. and by long use have altered their power so as to conform to English words. The Misses Nettengall's young ladies come to the Cathedral too. The Messrs. The domesticated words may retain the original plural. Harper have done the more than generous thing by Mr. Domesticated words. FROM THE LATIN. They are then said to be naturalized. or Englished. Exercise. Others have been adopted. 53. Some of them have a secondary English plural in -s or -es. The Miss Flamboroughs were reckoned the best dancers in the parish. or Anglicized.²GOLDSMITH.

In the sentence. as. 54. figures. and expresses a relation akin to possession. as..² y y y y y y y y y y y y bandits cherubs dogmas encomiums enigmas focuses formulas geniuses herbariums indexes seraphs apexes Usage varies in plurals of letters. Case is an inflection or use of a noun (or pronoun) to show its relation to other words in the sentence.y y y y y y y y automaton basis crisis ellipsis hypothesis parenthesis phenomenon thesis Anglicized words. Letters. the number of case forms has been greatly reduced. form their plurals by adding -s or 's. "His 9's (or 9s) look like 7's (or 7s). "He sleeps in a felon's cell. etc. When the foreign words are fully naturalized. 55. Only two case forms. . Definition." the word felon's modifies cell. Words quoted merely as words. helping to express the idea of place with the word in. they form their plurals in the regular way. 56. In the general wearing-away of inflections." "Avoid using too many and's (or ands). also add -s or 's. without reference to their meaning." CASE. etc. figures." "Change the +'s (or +s) to -'s (or -s). cell has another relation.

There are now only two case forms of English nouns. Moderate lamentation is the right of the dead.Good Breeding to naked Necessity spares. fate. they returned to their homes. when asked unawares. must be understood for purposes of analysis. 4. The nominative case is used as follows:² (1) As the subject of a verb: "Water seeks its level. whether inflected or not." (4) In direct address: "Lord Angus. But there are reasons why grammars treat of three cases of nouns when there are only two forms:² (1) Because the relations of all words.²one for the nominative and objective. and referring to or explaining the subject: "A bent twig makes a crooked tree. then. Excuses are clothes which. may be said to have three cases. 2. I." (3) In apposition with some other nominative word. Nouns. Pick out the nouns in the nominative case. three things characterize man. . and the possessive. 58. and tell which use of the nominative each one has." (2) As a predicate noun. completing a verb. (2) Because pronouns still have three case forms as well as three case relations. adding to the meaning of that word: "The reaper Death with his sickle keen." (6) With an infinitive in exclamations: "David to die!" Exercise. excessive grief. Three properties belong to wisdom. 5. 57.²person. Cheerfulness and content are great beautifiers. Uses of the Nominative. one for the possessive: consequently the matter of inflection is a very easy thing to handle in learning about cases. the objective. Reasons for speaking of three cases of nouns. and experience.²nature. 3. the enemy of the living. Human experience is the great test of truth.²the nominative. and merit. thou hast lied!" (5) With a participle in an absolute or independent phrase (there is some discussion whether this is a true nominative): "The work done. learning. 1.

taking the object enemies. and tell which use each has:² 1. spare that tree!" (2) As the indirect object of a verb. wounded lies. Set a high price on your leisure moments. etc." "Thou makest the storm a calm. the word toward which the preposition points. taking the object storm. completing the verb." In these sentences the real predicates are makes friends. as will be seen in Sec. Necessity is the certain connection between cause and effect. The objective case is used as follows:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. . this took the regular accusative inflection): "Full fathom five thy father lies." The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case of a noun. They charged. 2. thy wrath can send. This is also called the predicate objective or the factitive object. 68. 8. 3. Conscience. 9. sword in hand and visor down." Exercise." "Cowards die many times before their deaths. 59. her first law broken." (4) As the second object. But the flood came howling one day. and being equivalent to one verb.6. naming the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb: "Give the devil his due. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. and makest a calm. measure. naming the person or thing directly receiving the action of the verb: "Woodman. save." (3) Adverbially.Save. Point out the nouns in the objective case in these sentences. But of all plagues. (6) In apposition with another objective: "The opinions of this junto were completely controlled by Nicholas Vedder. distance. oh save me from the candid friend! 7. (5) As the object of a preposition. and which it joins to another word: "He must have a long spoon that would eat with the devil. 4. and landlord of the inn. good Heaven. (in the older stages of the language. Uses of the Objective. a patriarch of the village. O sleep! O gentle sleep!Nature's soft nurse. defining the action of a verb by denoting time. and thus becoming part of the predicate in acting upon an object: "Time makes the worst enemies friends. reconciles. and meaning calmest. they are sands of precious gold. how have I frighted thee? II.

² Ann Turner had taught her the secret before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overbury's murder. the word Creator would be the subject of the verb: hence it is called a subjective possessive. from day to day. or in writing yesterday's elegy. expressed or understood.5. 8.²SHELLEY. 60. Multitudes came every summer to visit that famous natural curiosity.² THACKERAY In these the possessives are equivalent to an objective after a verbal expression: as. the possessive being really equivalent here to an appositional objective. The kind of relation may usually be found by expanding the possessive into an equivalent phrase: for example. for murdering Sir Thomas Overbury. I found the urchin Cupid sleeping. Beside a pumice isle in Baiæ's bay.His winter task a pastime made. (3) Subjective possessive. tempests that . Uses of the Possessive. as in these expressions. "Winter's rude tempests are gathering now" (i. as shown in the sentences. 6. There are three forms of possessive showing how a word is related in sense to the modified word:² (1) Appositional possessive. as. He passes to-day in building an air castle for to-morrow.²ADDISON. and in the bay [of] Baiæ. (2) Objective possessive. This last-named possessive expresses a variety of relations.²BYRON.e.And gave the leper to eat and drink. III. And whirling plate. 61.Does his Creator's power display. He broke the ice on the streamlet's brink. If this were expanded into the power which his Creator possesses.² The unwearied sun.. It is a poetic expression. Five times every year he was to be exposed in the pillory. 9. The noblest mind the best contentment has. the equivalent phrase being used in prose. an elegy to commemorate yesterday. the most common of all. The possessive case always modifies another word. Possession in some sense is the most common.² The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle. 10. For this reason the use of the possessive here is called objective. the Great Stone Face. 7. In these sentences the phrases are equivalent to of the rocky isle [of] Scio.²HAWTHORNE. and forfeits paid.

growth which several days had developed). making the possessive singular. child NOTE." Use of the apostrophe. the other is formed by adding 's to the simple form. only the apostrophe is added if the plural nominative ends in -s. there are only two case forms.. To form the possessive plural. "George Jones his book. and Obj.²The difficulty that some students have in writing the possessive plural would be lessened if they would remember there are two steps to be taken:² (1) Form the nominative plural according to Secs 39-53 (2) Follow the rule given in Sec. "His beard was of several days' growth" (i. By the end of the seventeenth century the present way of indicating the possessive had become general. however. 63. Special Remarks on the Possessive Case." "mannes herte [heart]. in Chaucer. As said before (Sec." etc. Declension or inflection of nouns. . Poss. 62. The full declension of nouns is as follows:² SINGULAR.e. the 's is added if the plural nominative does not end in -s. expressing the relations of nominative and objective. In Old English a large number of words had in the genitive case singular the ending -es.. in Middle English still more words took this ending: for example. "The forest's leaping panther shall yield his spotted hide" (i. lady Poss. "From every schires ende. Case Inflection. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood" (blood that man possesses). the panther which the forest hides). A false theory. How the possessive is formed. One is the simple form of a word. The use of the apostrophe." "Full worthi was he in his lordes werre [war]. 1. was not then regarded as standing for the omitted vowel of the genitive (as lord's for lordes): by a false theory the ending was thought to be a contraction of his. and Obj. Origin of the possessive with its apostrophe. ladies ladies' children children's lady's child's 2. PLURAL." "at his beddes syde. 64. Nom. 56).e.winter is likely to have). Nom. A suggestion. as schoolboys sometimes write. 62.

66.² Here at the fruiterer's the Madonna has a tabernacle of fresh laurel leaves. Possessive and no noun limited. the apostrophe has proved a great convenience. and from a desire to have distinct forms. etc. and the connection must tell us what form is intended. though instances are found with both appositional words marked. but to the ear all may be alike.²RUSKIN." Possessive with compound expressions. and she walked off from the don's." "I saw what the governess's views were of the matter. since otherwise words with a plural in -s would have three forms alike. being understood with it: for example. Peter's."²DE QUINCEY. More common still is the practice of turning the possessive into an equivalent phrase. dwelling. I remember him in his cradle at St.. They invited me in the emperor their master's name.Though this opinion was untrue. The possessive is sometimes used without belonging to any noun in the sentence. Captain Scrapegrace's.²CARLYLE. for goodness' sake. some such word as house.²THACKERAY. They will go to Sunday schools to teach classes of little children the age of Methuselah or the dimensions of Og the king of Bashan's bedstead. know the amount of my income. as. . as by the countess's command. containing words in apposition. as. Sometimes s is left out in the possessive singular. from thinking that s was not a possessive sign. the poor miner Hans Luther's son. the items of my son's. Notice these three examples from Thackeray's writings: "Harry ran upstairs to his mistress's apartment. instead of the emperor their master's name. the possessive sign is usually last. Occasionally the s is dropped in the possessive singular if the word ends in a hissing sound and another hissing sound follows. a word with a phrase. etc." "A postscript is added. It is very common for people to say that they are disappointed in the first sight of St.² LOWELL. store.²HOLMES. my neighbors. In compound expressions. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes of notes on the "Paradise Lost.²DE QUINCEY. church. Compare the following examples of literary usage:² Do not the Miss Prys. Cervantes' satirical work. To the eye all the forms are now distinct.²SWIFT. stands up for God's truth one man. but the apostrophe remains to mark the possessive. James's. in the name of the emperor their master. 67. Kate saw that. The use of the apostrophe in the plural also began in the seventeenth century.. In other cases the s is seldom omitted. tailor's bill²THACKERAY. 65.

etc. or subjective. however. and tell whether each is appositional. no.²E. (1) When a word is modified by a. "This introduction of Atterbury's has all these advantages" (Dr. 87. (See also Sec.. sometimes they are used together. turning the possessives into equivalent phrases. he wore that quaint old French sword of the Commodore's. Emphasis. 2. and at the same time by a possessive noun. the statement clearly means only one thing. Those lectures of Lowell's had a great influence with me. Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. 1. Both of these are now used side by side. Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? . there is a copious "Life" by Thomas Sheridan. or it might mean this act of introducing Atterbury. In most cases.²THACKERAY Always afterwards on occasions of ceremony. a possessive relation was expressed in Old English by the inflection -es.²CARLYLE. the.²FROUDE. objective. has grown up and become a fixed idiom in modern English.²HOWELLS Niebuhr remarks that no pointed sentences of Cæsar's can have come down to us. the sentence might be understood as just explained.) The following are some instances of double possessives:² This Hall of Tinville's is dark. each. we use the phrase of Atterbury. in such a sentence as. making a double possessive. any. as one modifier. Clearness.The double possessive. (a) Pick out the possessive nouns. this. (b) Rewrite the sentence. If. For this there are several reasons:² Its advantages: Euphony. 68. HALE. that. a double possessive. E. (3) It prevents ambiguity. and it would also alter the meaning: we place it after the modified noun with of. it is distasteful to place the possessive before the modified noun. corresponding to 's. for it brings out the modified word in strong relief. Exercises. every. especially when used with this or that. A peculiar form. For example. The same relation was expressed in French by a phrase corresponding to of and its object. Blair). I don't choose a hornet's nest about my ears.²the introduction which Atterbury made. and I used to like whatever they bade me like. ill-lighted except where she stands. (2) It is more emphatic than the simple possessive.

No more the juice of Egypt's grape shall moist his lip. 'Tis all men's office to speak patienceTo those that wring under the load of sorrow. Jove laughs. Parsing a word is putting together all the facts about its form and its relations to other words in the sentence. let him seasonably water the one. 12.² .A weary waste expanding to the skies. it seemed. in parsing a noun. never in the tongueOf him that makes it.They say.Flew to those fairy climes his fancy sheen. Friend. At lovers' perjuries. and are to be spoken of merely as idioms. Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies. 5. A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.Comes dancing from the East. would raiseA minster to her Maker's praise! HOW TO PARSE NOUNS. 69. 8. to have lost them [his eyes] overpliedIn liberty's defence. In parsing. 6. Hence. for example²do not come under regular grammatical rules. I must not see thee Osman's bride. therefore. and destroy the other. 4. with every garland crowned. we state. day's harbinger. 10. 14. A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it. 7. Now the bright morning star. 9. 15. 11. 70. The world has all its eyes on Cato's son. What supports me? dost thou ask?The conscience. some idioms²the double possessive.3. Nature herself. There Shakespeare's self. My quarrel and the English queen's are one. 13.

In parsing any word.Which in the soldier is flat blasphemy. and therefore nominative case. Follow the model above in parsing all the nouns in the following sentences:² 1. a fresh tapster. That in the captain's but a choleric word. a withered serving man. the following method should always be followed: tell the facts about what the word does. 71. To raise a monument to departed worth is to perpetuate virtue. and limits neckcloth. gender. and relations. therefore masculine gender. it expresses time. An old cloak makes a new jerkin. NOTE. has no governing word. if the latter. Thief is a common class noun. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?" Miller's is a name applied to every individual of its class. The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth. like miller's. which gender. the connection shows a male is meant. Neckcloth. Throat is neuter. therefore neuter. (2) Whether a neuter or a gender noun. therefore singular number. therefore possessive case. determining its case. then make the grammatical statements as to its class. etc. (4) Its office in the sentence. 3. as to case.²common. and to have it found out by accident. it denotes only one person. hence it is objective case. it is the object of the preposition by. Exercise. . it has no sex. hence it is a gender noun. and number. (3) Whether singular or plural number. 68). "What is bolder than a miller's neckcloth. subject of the verb is understood. 2. The correct method. is a common class noun. MODEL FOR PARSING. it expresses possession or ownership. object of the verb takes.²The preposition sometimes takes the possessive case (see Sec. 4. inflections. Morning is like throat and neckcloth as to class. therefore singular number. masculine. proper. hence it is a common noun.(1) The class to which it belongs. of the same class and number as the word neckcloth. hence objective case. singular number. it is the name of a male being. but is the adverbial objective. names one thing.

Mrs. blessings light on him that first invented . When we wish to speak of a name several times in succession. Madame de Staël. it is clumsy and tiresome to repeat the noun. we evidently cannot state the owner's name. PRONOUNS. This is not to be understood as implying that pronouns were invented because nouns were tiresome. were natives of Geneva. from a necessity for short. . 8. instead of saying. Classes of pronouns. 11. but by a question we say.. and representative words. definite. Jarley's back being towards him. Necker. 72. 7. Time makes the worst enemies friends. stands the famous Castle of Chillon.²palace. Pronouns may be grouped in five classes:² (1) Personal pronouns. the military gentleman shook his forefinger. A few miles from this point. Definition. The need of pronouns.5. or for a person or thing. He giveth his beloved sleep. "Whose house is that?" thus placing a word instead of the name till we learn the name. all in one. which distinguish person by their form (Sec." we improve the sentence by shortening it thus. "The pupil will succeed in the pupil's efforts if the pupil is ambitious. Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth. castle. connected with the shore by a drawbridge. which are used to ask questions about persons or things. or for a group of persons or things.. For instance. since history shows that pronouns are as old as nouns and verbs." Again. 10. if we wish to know about the ownership of a house. "The pupil will succeed in his efforts if he is ambitious. (2) Interrogative pronouns. A pronoun is a reference word. The use of pronouns must have sprung up naturally.. Now. 73. 9. sleep! 6. standing for a name. and prison. where the Rhone enters the lake. financial minister to Louis XVI. and his daughter.And hated her for her pride. 76).

they are said to have person by agreement. 77. they must represent the person talking. (3) Third person. if they are in apposition with a pronoun of the first or second person." Person of nouns. Pronouns naturally are of three persons:² (1) First person. Numerous examples of all these will be given under the separate classes hereafter treated. even if it had a special form. which have forms for person. Nom. This gives rise to a new term. as nouns have the same form. and the person or thing talked about. but stand for an indefinite number of persons or things. From analogy to pronouns. words. I Poss. primarily adjectives.. we our. Singular. 75. but as pronouns when they stand for nouns. This distinction was not needed in discussing nouns. Three persons of pronouns. (5) Indefinite pronouns. But usually nouns represent something spoken of. mine. 74. Personal pronouns are inflected thus:² FIRST PERSON. which relate or refer to a noun. (4) Adjective pronouns. which cannot be used as adjectives. Since pronouns stand for persons as well as names. standing for a person or thing spoken of. that is. ours . pronoun. whether representing persons and things spoken to or spoken of. representing a person or thing spoken to. nouns are sometimes spoken of as first or second person by their use. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. the person or thing spoken to. Person in grammar. my Plural. representing the person speaking. "the distinction of person. (2) Second person. or other word or expression. It is evident that a noun could not represent the person speaking. which are classed as adjectives when they modify nouns. 76. FORMS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. and at the same time connect two statements They are also called conjunctive.(3) Relative pronouns.

Obj. she her. 78. Nom. by personification. or. Poss. First and second persons without gender. it its it Poss. your. yours you Plural. you your. theirs them Neut. Old Form Common Form. of all Three. thou thee ye you you your. Old forms. Nom. . The speaker may be either male or female. they their. But the third person has. so also with the person or thing spoken to. In Old English these three were formed from the same root. neuter hit. Singular. thine. in the singular. masculine h . and also for the neuter. yours you THIRD PERSON. SECOND PERSON. thy Remarks on These Forms. Masc. Poss. feminine h o. Nom. he his him Fem. Nom. me us Singular. neuter. Obj.Obj. yours Poss. Obj.. namely. Third person singular has gender. a separate form for each gender. hers her Plur. Obj. It will be noticed that the pronouns of the first and second persons have no forms to distinguish gender.

²SHELLEY. The old form was his (from the nominative hit). thy. and sometimes its. but make the plural you do duty for the singular." As shown above. This is of comparatively recent growth. it. The transition from the old his to the modern its is shown in these sentences:² 1 He anointed the altar and all his vessels.² Oh. The form its.Shadow of annoyanceNever came near thee.. and this continued in use till the sixteenth century. as. but ne'er knew love's sad satiety. 2 It's had it head bit off by it young²SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare uses his. 3 See heaven its sparkling portals wide display²POPE A relic of the olden time. as possessive of it.Thou lovest. however. Two uses of the old singulars. even when referring to a single object. especially in poetry. and hoo (for h o) in some dialects of England. etc.:² (1) In elevated style. In Milton's poetry (seventeenth century) its occurs only three times. to thy care we commit the helpless. 81. etc. The consequence is. 79.²BEECHER. this form 'em has survived side by side with the literary them. . Second person always plural in ordinary English.. that we have no singular pronoun of the second person in ordinary speech or prose. The plurals were h . them. 80. thou Shepherd of Israel. two modern uses of thou.² With thy clear keen joyanceLanguor cannot be. 82. which is a neuter noun. The quotation represents the usage of the early sixteenth century. In spoken English. as in prayers. their. which was often sounded with the h silent. We use it with a plural verb always. though influenced by the cognate Norse forms. It is worth while to consider the possessive its. "I saw 'im yesterday" when the word him is not emphatic.The form hit (for it) is still heard in vulgar English. perhaps being from the English demonstrative. the forms they. (2) In addressing the Deity. the Old English objective was hem (or heom). just as we now say. in Old English. There are. are old forms which are now out of use in ordinary speech.²BIBLE Here his refers to altar. heora. for example. thee. Thou. heom. that didst comfort thy people of old. We have an interesting relic in such sentences as this from Thackeray: "One of the ways to know 'em is to watch the scared looks of the ogres' wives and children. etc.

ye.²LANDOR. our. Nominative forms. Thine are the city and the people of Granada. 58). ²SHAKESPEARE. us. Additional nominatives in spoken English. are sometimes grouped separately as POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. her. have a peculiar use. in such a sentence as. In spoken English. her. her. The case of most of these pronouns can be determined more easily than the case of nouns.Use of the pronouns in personification. The forms my. 83. him. Absolute personal pronouns. but it is better to speak of them as the possessive case of personal pronouns.²BULWER. II. The nominative forms of personal pronouns have the same uses as the nominative of nouns (see Sec. theirs. The pronouns he and she are often used in poetry. thine. 34). just as we speak of the possessive case of nouns. My arm better than theirs can ward it off. his. yours. hers. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 85. me. they. when they occur in the predicate position. him. and sometimes in ordinary speech. though ye is occasionally used as objective. The Possessive. their. Yet careful speakers avoid this. That is. or. its. your. I spare thee mine. And since thou own'st that praise. I The Nominative. 84 are always subjects." the literary language would require he after was. he. "I am sure it was him. thou. but colloquial English regularly uses as predicate nominatives the forms me. however. As instances of the use of absolute pronouns. and not make more classes. From this use they are called ABSOLUTE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. there are some others that are added to the list of nominatives: they are. them. Old use of mine and thine. to personify objects (Sec. note the following:² 'Twas mine. are very rarely anything but nominative in literary English. The forms mine. us. and follow the usage of literary English. for. them. she. . 'tis his. 84. sometimes his and its.²COWPER. though those named in Sec. they have a nominative form. besides a nominative use. 86. Not a separate class. standing apart from the words they modify instead of immediately before them. The words I. thy. and has been slave to thousands. some say. we. ABSOLUTE POSSESSIVES.

This usage is still preserved in poetry.²SWIFT. theirs.²ID. Their uses. (3) To express contempt. commenting upon a letter of mine. but few thy voice.²THACKERAY.²BIBLE.² A favorite liar and servant of mine was a man I once had to drive a brougham. Like the noun possessives. we find.²THACKERAY. He [John Knox] had his pipe of Bordeaux too. (2) To bring emphasis. his. since they add the possessive s to what is already a regular possessive inflection. ours. "Hold thy peace. ²HOLMES. yours. it tells of good old times. hers. ours. if the nouns began with a vowel or h silent. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. In New York I read a newspaper criticism one day. T.² "Do you know the charges that unhappy sister of mine and her family have put me to already?" says the Master. as in nouns. as in the following:² I have often contrasted the habitual qualities of that gloomy friend of theirs with the astounding spirits of Thackeray and Dickens. If thine eye offend thee. 87. No words of ours can describe the fury of the conflict. are really double possessives. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. a possessive phrase made up of the preposition of with these double possessives.² CARLYLE.² Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?²SHAKESPEARE. The forms hers. or satire.²CARLYLE.²J.²ID. This ancient silver bowl of mine. pluck it out. thine. F. (4) To make a noun less limited in application. and with mine. . in that old Edinburgh house of his. "I tell thee that tongue of thine is not the shortest limb about thee. they have several uses:² (1) To prevent ambiguity. as in these sentences:² This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. Long Allen. yours. thus. theirs. for example.Formerly mine and thine stood before their nouns."²SCOTT. Give every man thine ear. sometimes its. Besides this. thus. COOPER. Double and triple possessives. we have. anger.²J. FIELDS." said Henry Woodstall.

They all handled it.²ID. So in the sentences illustrating absolute pronouns in Sec. there are others:² (1) As the direct object of a verb. the thing is done. 89. The old dative case. Curse me this people. but not in form. as shown in Sec. In their function. Both joined in making him a present." the words italicized have an adjective force and also a noun force.²BIBLE. Now the objective.²MACAULAY Is it not enough that you have burnt me down three houses with your dog's tricks. The Objective. 88. . 20. In pronouns. For this reason a word thus used is called a dative-objective. was marked by a separate case. They may be spoken of as possessive in form. the absolute possessive forms of the personal pronouns are very much like adjectives used as nouns. but expresses for whom. In Old English there was one case which survives in use. in the first sentence. In such a sentence as this one from Thackeray. and be hanged to you!²LAMB I give thee this to wear at the collar.²SCOTT Other uses of the objective. 90. In Modern English the same use is frequently seen. or use in a sentence.²LAMB (2) As the object of a preposition. 86: mine stands for my property. The following are examples of the dative-objective:² Give me neither poverty nor riches. but the form is the same as the objective. this dative use. mine stands for my praise in the second. and preceded the nouns? About the case of absolute pronouns. for whose benefit. III." "None but the brave deserves the fair. as it is called. In such sentences as. "Pick me out a whip-cord thong with some dainty knots in it. "The good alone are great. But the first two have a nominative use. but nominative or objective in use." the word me is evidently not the direct object of the verb.What would the last two sentences mean if the word my were written instead of of mine. his for his property. Besides this use of the objective. according as the modified word is in the nominative or the objective. and mine in the second has an objective use.

Here it refers back to the whole sentence before it. which follows the verb. She sate all last summer by the bedside of the blind beggar." (3) As a grammatical subject. and they cry. (4) As an impersonal subject in certain expressions which need no other subject. (3) In apposition.² It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion. Society.²EMERSON.²DE QUINCEY. which prick and scratch because they can do no other. You have oaten cakes baked some months before. why. or that he has not a great deal more. 91. you sneeze. you must condense there. "any man's doing wrong merely out of ill nature.² NEWMAN. ²EMERSON. It is a pity that he has so much learning. and its possessive case yours are sometimes used without reference to a particular person spoken to. Your mere puny stripling. "God bless you!" The thrifty housewife shows you into her best chamber. logical subject.² .²LONGFELLOW Uses of it. Indefinite use of you and your. or to the idea. The pronoun it has a number of uses:² (1) To refer to some single word preceding.Time is behind them and before them. yet it is but like the thorn or brier.²ADDISON. has not made its progress. They approach the indefinite pronoun in use. (2) To refer to a preceding word group.²BACON. as. The word you. by a greater acuteness of ingenuity in trifles. like Chinese skill.² If any man should do wrong merely out of ill nature. WEBSTER.² Ferdinand ordered the army to recommence its march. as in the sentences. in this century. that winced at the least flourish of the rod.²D.²CARLYLE. was passed by with indulgence. SPECIAL USES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. thus. The peasants take off their hats as you pass. It is this haziness of intellectual vision which is the malady of all classes of men by nature. 92.²IRVING To empty here.²BULWER. to stand for the real. as. him that so often and so gladly I talked with.

who in turn tries all the professions.. yourself. however. yourselves. who teams it. Of the two forms in parentheses. but seldom in prose. The personal pronouns are not often used reflexively. This occurs in poetry.²BURNS. who lorded it over the fair regions of ancient Pavonia. REFLEXIVE OR COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS.It is finger-cold. There was nothing for it but to return. ourselves. the second is the old form of the second person. and prudent farmers get in their barreled apples. as they are also called.²HOLMES. herself.²DE QUINCEY. (ourself). For example. Reflexive use of the personal pronouns. The REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. . (thyself).²BRYANT. I made up my mind to foot it. or COMPOUND PERSONAL. 93. it rained.²ID. An editor has only to say "respectfully declined. I set me down and sigh. A sturdy lad . (5) As an impersonal or indefinite object of a verb or a preposition. that is. farms it.²IRVING.² Now I lay me down to sleep."²IRVING. 94. himself. It was late and after midnight. They are myself. used in poetry. And when I awoke. as in the following sentences:² (a) Michael Paw. (b) "Thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of it. Composed of the personal pronouns with -self.²EMERSON." etc. and its plural selves. as. peddles it.²COLERIDGE. since firstThe flight of years began." "He bought him a horse.²THOREAU.²HAWTHORNE.²ANON. itself." and there is an end of it. have laid them downIn their last sleep. Poor Christian was hard put to it. keeps a school. referring to the same person as the subject of the accompanying verb.²BUNYAN. they dropped their arms. "I found me a good book. when they are direct objects..²SCOTT. For when it dawned. are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the word self. This reflexive use of the dativeobjective is very common in spoken and in literary English. The personal pronouns in the objective case are often used reflexively. -selves. themselves. we use such expressions as. And millions in those solitudes.

with self. NOTE. as. ourselves. Use of the reflexives. The question might arise. As if it were thyself that's here. Why are himself and themselves not hisself and theirselves. not the possessive forms. Himself and themselves are the only ones retaining a distinct objective form. as in these sentences from Emerson:² He who offers himself a candidate for that covenant comes up like an Olympian. 96.To you yourself. especially in the speech of rulers. Threats to all. as.²EMERSON.² TENNYSON. In Middle English the forms meself. I shrink with pain.²In such sentences the pronoun is sometimes omitted. and build the lofty rhyme. shall dissolve. theself.²E. for example.² .²WORDSWORTH. Origin of these reflexives..As girls were once..? The history of these words shows they are made up of the dative-objective forms. I should hate myself if then I made my other friends my asylum.²SHAKESPEARE. Who would not sing for Lycidas! he knewHimself to sing. after the analogy of myself. We fill ourselves with ancient learning. and the reflexive modifies the pronoun understood. as we ourself have been. as in vulgar English.²ID. to every one.²MILTON. (3) As the precise equivalent of a personal pronoun. for example. to us. 95. What do we know of nature or of ourselves? (2) To emphasize a noun or pronoun.² Methinks he seems no better than a girl. There are three uses of reflexive pronouns:² (1) As object of a verb or preposition. and the others were formed by analogy with these.² The great globe itself . My hands are full of blossoms plucked before. In the forms yourself and yourselves we have the possessive your marked as singular as well as plural. B.² Only itself can inspire whom it will. Held dead within them till myself shall die. thyself. and referring to the same person or thing as the subject. BROWNING. were changed into the possessive myself. etc.Ourself is used to follow the word we when this represents a single person.

It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. fight it out. . it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. and how to do it. 2. why it is that a touch of water utterly ruins it. (c) Tell which use each it has in the following sentences:² 1. 3. But if a man do not speak from within the veil. father. Infancy conforms to nobody. 9. some of them being double possessives. which. and one would like to hear counsel on one point. feminine. and what. Come and trip it as we go. One obsolete. let him lowly confess it. 7. is wisdom. Victories that neither myself nor my cause always deserved.Lord Altamont designed to take his son and myself. and neuter. Years ago. Three now in use. all conform to it. 5.²DE QUINCEY. Arcturus and myself met a gentleman from China who knew the language. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten personal pronouns. Exercises on Personal Pronouns. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. some each of masculine. If any phenomenon remains brute and dark.² THACKERAY. 8. 97. It behooved him to keep on good terms with his pupils. 4. The interrogative pronouns now in use are who (with the forms whose and whom).²B. To know what is best to do. For what else have our forefathers and ourselves been taxed?²LANDOR. And it grew wondrous cold. 10. but it is the soonest spoiled. Courage.On the light fantastic toe. (b) Bring up sentences containing five personal pronouns in the possessive. where the word is one with that it tells of. 6. FRANKLIN. Biscuit is about the best thing I know.

Sentences showing the use of interrogative what:² Since I from Smaylho'me tower have been. but for case alone. that it is not inflected for gender or number. 99. What wouldst thou do. From these sentences it will be seen that interrogative who refers to persons only. ideas. referring to things. . and divide the one from the other?²DE QUINCEY. whispering sweet. Use of who and its forms.Promised. or case. that. it refers to either persons or things. the gold. picks out one or more from a number of known persons or objects. Whose was that gentle voice. These show that what is not inflected for case. long days of bliss sincere?²BOWLES. Use of what. Examples of the use of interrogative which:² Which of these had speed enough to sweep between the question and the answer. 98. number. used formerly to mean which of two.There is an old word. old man?²SHAKESPEARE. As shown here. etc. Use of which. DECLENSION OF INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. it is selective. The use of who. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. it is always third person. with its possessive and objective. is seen in these sentences:² Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?²DE QUINCEY.What did thy lady do?²SCOTT. Which of them [the sisters] shall I take?²ID. doth love us most?²SHAKESPEARE. not to persons. actions. methought. Which of you. Examples from the Bible:² Whether of them twain did the will of his father? Whether is greater. as it always asks about somebody. or the temple? From Steele (eighteenth century):² It may be a question whether of these unfortunate persons had the greater soul. but now obsolete. having three forms. that is. whether.. that it is always singular and neuter. 100. shall we say. What is so rare as a day in June?²LOWELL. which is not inflected for gender.

and also in having a conjunctive use. being the direct object of the verb shall take. 99. who? Poss. "The last of all the Bards was he. AND PLUR. subject of doth love. for which the pronoun stands. as. 103. or other word or expression.² "The last of all the Bards was he. The antecedent. These bards sang of Border chivalry. 127). They will be spoken of again in the proper places.101. The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun. who evidently refers to Bards. Personal pronouns of the third person may have antecedents also. whose? Obj. whom? which? ² which? what? ² what? In spoken English." Or. For instance. which is called the antecedent of the relative.² . RELATIVE PRONOUNS. as. which. what may be an adverb in some expressions. consequently the case can be told by the form of the word. Who. The following are all the interrogative forms:² SING. as they take the place usually of a word already used. The advantage in using them is to unite short statements into longer sentences. 102. who is used as objective instead of whom. pronoun.Who sung of Border chivalry.²by the use of the words. 105. Relative pronouns differ from both personal and interrogative pronouns in referring to an antecedent. SINGULAR Nom. especially in the treatment of indirect questions (Sec. objective in the last. and so to make smoother discourse. nominative in the second also. but the case of which and what must be determined exactly as in nouns. since it is subject of the verb had. AND PLUR. which is nominative in the first sentence. SING. The interrogative who has a separate form for each case." In the latter sentence. 104. Thus we may say. Further treatment of who. in Sec. "Who did you see?" "Who did he speak to?" To tell the case of interrogatives. It usually precedes the pronoun. and what are also relative pronouns. Function of the relative pronoun. it may be shortened into. which and what. which and what are sometimes adjectives.

They had not their own luster. Indefinite relatives. The men whom men respect.²PARTON Which and its forms. and the antecedent may be a word or a group of words. Ye mariners of England. WHITNEY. Relatives may be SIMPLE or INDEFINITE. 3. as will be shown in the remarks on which below. The SIMPLE RELATIVES are who. 6. Examples of the relative which and its forms:² 1. Who and its forms. The nurse came to us. For her enchanting son. The pronoun which may have its antecedent following.. Examples of the relative who and its forms:² 1. are the men and women who bless their species. 5. 107. When the word relative is used. the dogs which stray around the butcher shops restrain their appetites. both his and who have the antecedent priest. 4. but the look which is not of the earth.²DR JOHNSON. a simple relative is meant. is a divine creation.²SCOTT. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.Whose ponderous grate and massy barHad oft roll'd back the tide of war. in the same sense in which man's nature. The embattled portal arch he pass'd.²LOWELL In this. a thousand years.That guard our native seas. Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors and rendered none?²EMERSON.²THACKERAY.Whose flag has braved. what. 108.. 2. which.The battle and the breeze!²CAMPBELL. that.² COX.. the women whom women approve. 3. . 106.²BYRON. 4. and the indefinite use of simple relatives.Whom universal nature did lament. Two kinds. 2. D.²MILTON. The origin of language is divine.²W.The priest hath his fee who comes and shrives us. who were sitting in an adjoining apartment. Generally speaking. will be discussed further on. with all its capabilities .

²GOLDSMITH. W. That. 111. and what it takes most pains to render as complete as possible. which prevented him from taking his usual ride. ought to be kept in view.²IRVING.²MACAULAY [To the Teacher. The Tree Igdrasil. Already done is all that he would do. (b) The snow was three inches deep and still falling.²EMERSON. 109. 2. stratagems. the following facts will be noticed about the relative who:² .Is fit for treasons.²If pupils work over the above sentences carefully. The judge .. BEECHER 5. and spoils. which it certainly is not.5. For the sake of country a man is told to yield everything that makes the land honorable. Examples of the use of the relative what:² 1. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death.. (a) This gradation . they will get a much better understanding of the relatives. that do not pretend to have leisure for very much scholarship.²MARGARET FULLER. and test every remark in the following paragraphs. 107. 6. By reading carefully the sentences in Sec. Examples of the relative that:² 1.² SHAKESPEARE 2. 4. bought up all the pigs that could be had. no bad type of what often happens in that country. Who. 110.. you will not be angry with me for telling you. and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE. 3. else this description will seem exaggerated. For what he sought below is passed above. Some of our readers may have seen in India a crowd of crows picking a sick vulture to death... What. The man that hath no music in himself. Reader.] REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS..²BURKE. Its net to entangle the enemy seems to be what it chiefly trusts to.²DE QUINCEY. Nature and books belong to the eyes that see them..²LAMB 3.²H.

and others.have succeeded in driving off the bluejays who used to build in our pines. in the second. It has been seen (Sec.²THACKERAY. Though in most cases who refers to persons there are instances found where it refers to animals. 113. things. Sec. Who referring to animals. (3) The forms do not change for person or number of the antecedent. whose for the possessive. flung its arms around my neck. While we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former.. The sentences in Sec. A lake frequented by every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water.²LOWELL. (3) It is nearly always third person. that man. the others are all third person. whose.²who. son. Examples of whose. (2) It has three case forms.²LEIGH HUNT.²which for the nominative and objective. whose is second person. warm little housekeeper [the cricket]. Kingsley. and 6. not persons.(1) It usually refers to persons: thus. Smollett. 2.whose. under his former rider had hunted the buffalo. the relatives are singular. possessive case of which. Gibbon. and 3. in 5. who is first person.who. . in the third. whose wound I had dressed. The little gorilla. 108 show that² (1) Which refers to animals. in the first sentence. who. referring to animals. or ideas.²DR. Other examples might be quoted from Burke.²SWIFT. JOHNSON. because they understood how to weave as well as to spin. (4) It has two case forms. p. a man. 5. in 4. seemed as much excited as myself. Scott. Witness the following examples:² And you.²IRVING. In sentence 4. 96).. Probably on the same principle the personal relative who is used not infrequently in literature. In 1. whom. 24) that animals are referred to by personal pronouns when their characteristics or habits are such as to render them important or interesting to man.. and so on.. rarely second (an example of its use as second person is given in sentence 32.. My horse. 107. 112. Which. (2) It is not inflected for gender or number. The robins.. whom. who class With those who think the candles come too soon. they are plural. Cooper.

²MACAULAY Beneath these sluggish waves lay the once proud cities of the plain. too. Many great and opulent cities whose population now exceeds that of Virginia during the Revolution. whose grave was dug by the thunder of the heavens.²SCOTT.² MCMASTER. I demurred to this honorary title upon two grounds.²BEECHER. Burke.²SHAKESPEARE.² And. saying that the phrase of which should always be used instead. thus. and third persons. on whose tops the sun kindled all the melodies and harmonies of light.²THACKERAY. animals. So in Matthew Arnold. and numerous others. The last two sentences in Sec. Men may be ready to fight to the death.²first. In 5 (a) there is a participial adjective used as the antecedent. and whose names are spoken in the remotest corner of the civilized world. Sometimes. we notice that² (1) That refers to persons. Primarily. (2) It has only one case form. which is worse. yet a search in literature shows that the possessive form whose is quite common in prose as well as in poetry: for example. second. This moribund '61. Grammarians sometimes object to the statement that whose is the possessive of which. 108 show that which may have other antecedents than nouns and pronouns. (3) It is the same form for first. Through the heavy door whose bronze network closes the place of his rest. Kingsley. secondly (which made her stare).114. the antecedent follows which. no possessive. and saw at one glance the glorious elevations. 109. whose career of life is just coming to its terminus. in 5 (b) there is a complete clause employed as antecedent. That. and to persecute without pity. (4) It has the same form for singular and plural. 115. for a religion whose creed they do not understand."²RUSKIN. Which and its antecedents. and whose precepts they habitually disobey. I observe that men of business rarely know the meaning of the word "rich. which is very notable and curious. as being one toward which I had no natural aptitudes or predisposing advantages. In the sentences of Sec. 116. .²RUSKIN. all you have doneHath been but for a wayward son.² I swept the horizon.²DE QUINCEY. as carrying with it no real or enviable distinction. let us enter the church itself. and things. This often occurs.

²SHAKESPEARE. and is emphatic. 110 show that² (1) What always refers to things. that do I. whose Obj. let the sentence fall apart into three divisions: (1) "He uttered truths. Nom. who Poss. the case depends upon the function of the relative in its own clause. 109. as. it usually follows. and person of the relatives who. Here the relative agrees with its antecedent. 119. The gender. that do I not. consequently is neuter. as in sentence 6.² What I would. Compare this:² Alas! is it not too true. that he has. Who plainly stands for those or the people. number. which. The sentences of Sec. Sec. plural number. DECLENSION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. is always neuter. and that must be determined by those of the antecedent. . whom which whose which that what ² ² that what HOW TO PARSE RELATIVES. either of which would be neuter. for example. third person. 118. (3) Its antecedent is hardly ever expressed. third person. For example. consider the following sentence: "He uttered truths that wrought upon and molded the lives of those who heard him." (3) "These people heard him. that men must needs abide. What a man does.²BIBLE What fates impose. 117.²EMERSON. we can.It sometimes borrows the possessive whose. These are the forms of the simple relatives:² SINGULAR AND PLURAL. What." That evidently refers to truths. what we said?²CARLYLE. (2) It is used almost entirely in the singular. When expressed." (2) "The truths wrought upon and molded the lives of the people." Since the relatives hold the sentence together. but what I hate. plural number. but this is not sanctioned as good usage. by taking them out.

What can't be cured. who is sure to be cunninger than they. it is subject of the verb heard. Parsing what. I think they are trying to outwit nature. not of truths which is expressed in the sentence: consequently that is in the nominative case. 8. In (2). The relative what is handled differently.. Exercise. neuter. in (3).We cannot say the relative agrees with its antecedent in case. Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. above. "What can't be cured must be endured. so is in the objective case. The whole expression is its subject. Now. In the sentence. what is equivalent to that which:² It has been said that "common souls pay with what they do. Ill blows the wind that profits nobody. we is the subject. which is. 5. Another way. Its case is determined exactly as that of other relatives. however. it is object of uttered. What must be endured? Answer. third person. 7. Some gnarly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona. In the same way who. . The word what. is in the nominative case. then parse the relatives. whose blossoms are neither colored nor fragrant! 2. 4. people is the object of the preposition of. is subject of wrought upon and molded." Here the subject of is. "What we call nature is a certain self-regulated motion or change. Some prefer another method of treatment. after all. that takes the case of the truths in (2). but is singular. As shown by the following sentences. subject of heard. Perhaps I talk with one who is selecting some choice barrels for filling an order. 3. How superior it is in these respects to the pear. 120. and what is the direct object of the verb call. nobler souls with that which they are. First find the antecedents. and hence is in the nominative case. I know that there are many excellent people who object to the reading of novels as a waste of time." the verb must be endured is the predicate of something. because it has usually no antecedent. is what we call nature. Truths in sentence (2). is subject of the verb can't be cured."²EMERSON. but of this. etc. the simple relative. in (1). 6. in the following sentences:² 1. the highest result of all education. standing for the people understood. This method also forces upon us the necessity of thinking.

Whoso is heroic will always find crises to try his edge. Whoever has flattered his friend successfully must at once think himself a knave. 123. no particular thing. God offers to every mind its choice between truth and repose.²BURKE. 2. and what may also be used as indefinite relatives. The above helps us to discriminate between what as a simple and what as an indefinite relative. and parse that in the first clause. whatever.²you cannot have both. whatsoever. to everything that. that is. not as direct as the simple relatives. 2. 7. So with the other indefinites. and in 2. They are whoever. List and examples. They sit in a chair or sprawl with children on the floor. less common are whoso. Death is there associated. by meaning and use. in all things which belong ever so remotely to terror. and what is disagreeable to nature is called good and virtuous. or what else soever. not with everything that is most endearing in social and domestic charities. The simple relatives who.That which is pleasant often appears under the name of evil. whatever is equivalent to all things which. but with whatever is darkest in human nature and in human destiny. whosoever. and his friend a fool. Examples of indefinite relatives (from Emerson):² 1. It is no proof of a man's understanding. whatsoever. whichsoever. whichever. There is something so overruling in whatever inspires us with awe. INDEFINITE RELATIVES are. Do what we can. object of with] which [singular. no certain antecedent. summer will have its flies. to be able to affirm whatever he pleases. "common souls pay with that [singular. or stand on their head. object of do] they do. 6. Hence some take what as a double relative. that nothing else can stand in their presence. 4. 121.²MACAULAY. Meaning and use.²BURKE. 3. . which." INDEFINITE RELATIVES. being referred to. It is clear that in 1. Take which you please. in a new and original way. and which in the second clause. What simple relative and what indefinite relative. Only itself can inspire whom it will. The fitness of the term indefinite here cannot be shown better than by examining the following sentences:² 1. 122. 5.

4. whereupon. but and as. 125. upon which. as charmed your warts for you when you was a boy? "² KINGSLEY This is frequently illustrated in Dickens's works. whereby. by which. everything that (or everything which). the conjunctions wherein. 417). etc. The difference must be seen by the meaning of the sentence.²EMERSON. For as after same see "Syntax" (Sec.²HAWTHORNE. are used. 121.²DE QUINCEY. thus. In early modern English.² 1. But and as. Sentence 3 shows that but is equivalent to the relative that with not. 121.² some particular thing. There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has force in it: how else could it rot?²CARLYLE.² I have not from your eyes that gentlenessAnd show of love as I was wont to have. . for example. 124. nothing that does not interest us. are used with the force of relative pronouns in some expressions.As shown in Sec. Compare with these the two following sentences:² 3. There were articles of comfort and luxury such as Hester never ceased to use. has been my heaviest affliction. not following the word such..² "Don't you mind Lucy Passmore. either one that. Instead of the phrases in which.. 2. This. but mean any one whom. etc. as was used just as we use that or which. The examples in sentences 5 and 6. Sec. show that who and which have no antecedent expressed. Two words. as what hardly ever has an antecedent. the simple relative what is equivalent to that which or the thing which. but which only wealth could have purchased. Former use of as. and that as after such is equivalent to which. as shown by the last sentence in Sec. There is nothing but is related to us.² SHAKESPEARE This still survives in vulgar English in England. 126. for example. what means anything that. OTHER WORDS USED AS RELATIVES. etc. 120. Other substitutes. Proof that they have the force of relatives. amongst such other troubles as most men meet with in this life.

²ID. 2 (a) and 3 (a) the regular relative use is seen. if not. "But what had become of them? They knew not. The dear home faces whereuponThat fitful firelight paled and shone. it is either an indefinite relative or an interrogative pronoun). (1) see whether there is an antecedent of who or which. But in 1 (b). although each sentence as a whole is declarative in form.²EMERSON. How to decide. a question is disguised in each sentence. It is sometimes hard for the student to tell a relative from an interrogative pronoun. which having the antecedent lines. 127. and whether what = that + which (if so. "Who stood behind? We knew. second. But compare the following in pairs:² 1.A man is the facade of a temple wherein all wisdom and good abide." etc. so is the relative when an antecedent is close by. (b) And since that time I thought it not amiss To judge which were the best of all these three. which would indicate that they are not relatives. 2. it is an interrogative. 1 (b). would be. it is an indefinite relative). showing that who is plainly interrogative. PRONOUNS IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. (b) But what had become of them they knew not. if not. who having the antecedent gentleman." Likewise with which in 3 (b).. there are two points of difference from the others considered: first. what having the double use of pronoun and antecedent. Thus. if expanded. (a) These are the lines which heaven-commanded Toil shows on his deed. The sovereignty of this nature whereof we speak. what is interrogative. and 3 (b). (a) But what you gain in time is perhaps lost in power. (2) see if the pronoun introduces an indirect question (if it does. So in 2 (b). (b) Well we knew who stood behind. Another caution. 2 (b). In the regular direct question the interrogative is easily recognized. no antecedent is expressed. it is a simple relative. In studying such sentences. 3. though the earthwork hid them. the full expression being. .²WHITTIER. Special caution needed here. (a) Like a gentleman of leisure who is strolling out for pleasure. In sentences 1 (a).

Sweet rose! whence is this hueWhich doth all hues excel?²DRUMMOND 2. ELIOT. 4. and see whether the sentences are any smoother or clearer:² 1. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVES.² THACKERAY. I visited many other apartments. Hardly a writer can be found who does not leave out relatives in this way when they can be readily supplied in the mind of the reader.² These are the sounds we feed upon. the question is asked by the verb. whose has the antecedent you. When Goldsmith died. or that where they are omitted from the following sentences. And then what wonders shall you doWhose dawning beauty warms us so?²WALKER 3. William Filby was for clothes supplied to his nephew. whence is the interrogative word.²GOLDSMITH. 5. Examine the following:² 1. but in none of them does the pronoun ask the question. half the unpaid bill he owed to Mr. which has the antecedent hue. He opened the volume he first took from the shelf. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed.²SWIFT. In the second. 129. The thing I want to see is not Redbook Lists. and asks no question. The insect I am now describing lived three years.²FLETCHER. Thus. Put in the relatives who. In the first. which.²HOLMES. The relative is frequently omitted in spoken and in literary English when it would be the object of a preposition or a verb.128. . Is this a romance? Or is it a faithful picture of what has lately been in a neighboring land?² MACAULAY These are interrogative sentences. but the life of man in England. He could give the coals in that queer coal scuttle we read of to his poor neighbor. Exercise. In the third. On the other hand. care must be taken to see whether the pronoun is the word that really asks the question in an interrogative sentence. They will go to Sunday schools through storms their brothers are afraid of. and Court Calendars.²FORSTER 6. 3. Relative omitted when object. 2.²G.²CARLYLE.

² The silent truth that it was she was superior. but more with the purpose to see what each thought of the news. that.²Id. We often hear in spoken English expressions like these:² There isn't one here knows how to play ball. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. The nobles looked at each other. Relative omitted when subject. or indefinite relatives:² 1. And you may gather garlands thereWould grace a summer queen. What kept me silent was the thought of my mother. which. Gracious Heaven! who was this that knew the word? 4. 3. (d) Tell whether the pronouns in the following are interrogatives. (b) Bring up sentences having five indefinite relatives. He ushered him into one of the wherries which lay ready to attend the Queen's barge. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. Function of adjective pronouns. (c) Bring up five sentences having indirect questions introduced by pronouns.²THACKERAY I have a mind presages me such thrift. simple relatives.²SCOTT. and what. 2. 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.²SHAKESPEARE.Ne'er looks upon the sun. and comparatively so in poetry. The material they had to work upon was already democratical by instinct and habitude. 5. There is a nun in Dryburgh bower. It is rare in prose. Here the omitted relative would be in the nominative case. which was already proceeding. Exercises on the Relative Pronoun. There was such a crowd went. 130. (a) Bring up sentences containing ten instances of the relatives who.²CAMPBELL. 6. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. than to exchange any remarks on what had happened.² LOWELL. who were to be rulers over whom. Also in literary English we find the same omission. the house was full. . Examples are.7.

For instance. "another bank. It must come under the requirement of pronouns." in the others. many.'" "You needs must play such pranks as these. Adjective pronouns are divided into three classes:² (1) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. (2) DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. few. but in this function. Hence these words are like adjectives used as nouns. "Be that as it may" could refer to a sentiment in a sentence. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Definition and examples. the former. For example. and another to get cool under. or use. in the first. and on each is written. or may be the whole of a sentence. "each cube. "The dead are there. (3) NUMERAL PRONOUNS." "one man. etc. such as each. one must ride behind"²the words italicized modify nouns understood.²BRYANT." "Where two men ride on a horse.²IRVING." Classes of adjective pronouns. The person or thing alluded to by the demonstrative may be in another sentence. 133. The following are examples of demonstratives:² I did not say this in so many words. and stand for a noun. "these pranks." that is. expressed or understood.131. or an argument in a paragraph. all. etc. necessarily thought of: thus. as some. that. any. which we have seen in such expressions as. neither. In the first use they are adjectives." "They will always have one bank to sun themselves upon. 'Truth. in the following sentences²"The cubes are of stainless ivory. Caution. such as this. How happy is he born or taughtThat serveth not another's will. in the second they retain an adjective meaning. Most of the words how to be considered are capable of a double use. That mysterious realm where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death.²WOTTON That is more than any martyr can stand. 132. must not modify any word. Primarily they are adjectives. etc. The following are some examples of these:² Some say that the place was bewitched. not pronouns. Adjectives. a word." in the second. none. . or they may stand for nouns.²they may be pure modifiers of nouns. in order to be an adjective pronoun. A DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN is one that definitely points out what persons or things are alluded to in the sentence.²EMERSON. they are properly classed as adjective pronouns. either. in letters of gold. but have lost their adjective use. but the demonstrative clearly points to that thing.

but what he fain had seen He could not see. They have not shunned the one. Souls such as these treat you as gods would. NOTE.All these he saw. when the latter was the King of Spain. Such are a few isolated instances. 2. 134.²AGASSIZ DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. and to hand these over to his successor as little worn as he could. They had fewer books. . and sow wickedness.²ID. for example. or sat. Definition and examples. Their minds accorded into one strain. Even as I have seen. reap the same. but these were of the best.²EMERSON 4. Formerly the duty of a librarian was to keep people as much as possible from the books. As two yoke devils sworn to other's purpose. they that plow iniquity. Simple. Beyond that I seek not to penetrate the veil. and they have well performed the other. Some of these are simple pronouns. as seemed good to each. They know that patriotism has its glorious opportunities and its sacred duties. (b) In which of the following is these a pronoun?² 1. The DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS are those which stand for the names of persons or things considered singly. How much we forgive in those who yield us the rare spectacle of heroic manners! The correspondence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. accidentally preserved. Exercises. 5.²LOWELL. or reclined.²It will be noticed in the first four sentences that this and that are inflected for number. because he was not lying in wait for these. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Compound.² They stood.²ID. These are the first mountains that broke the uniform level of the earth's surface. (a) Find six sentences using demonstrative adjective pronouns. 3. A man inspires affection and honor.

If hand of mine another's task has lightened. More frequently they are considered as one pronoun. paused over a horoscope. as it were. for example. They may be separated into two adjective pronouns. There were plenty more for him to fall in company with. with the superstitions of his time. as some of the rangers had gone astray.²Find sentences containing three distributive pronouns.So perish all whose breast ne'er learned to glowFor others' good.It felt the guidance that it does not claim.² One reflexive. such as one other. . you quickly come to the end of all. Some inflected. into a high pavilion of their thoughts. The following sentences contain numeral pronouns:² Trusting too much to others' care is the ruin of many. NUMERAL PRONOUNS. The word one has a reflexive form. another.²HOLMES. They led one another. we might the more easily discharge them. imbued. Men take each other's measure when they react. Exercise. The best way to punish oneself for doing ill seems to me to go and do good. The NUMERAL PRONOUNS are those which stand for an uncertain number or quantity of persons or things. 'Tis of no importance how large his house. It is as if one should be so enthusiastic a lover of poetry as to care nothing for Homer or Milton. None shall rule but the humble. 135. Definition and examples.²KINGSLEY. If those [taxes] were the only ones we had to pay. as most were. ²HAWTHORNE.²EMERSON. The lines sound so prettily to one's self.²HAWTHORNE. The Soldan.²each other.Two are compound pronouns. as. We violated our reverence each for the other's soul. or melt for others' woe. It will be noticed that some of these are inflected for case and number. Another opposes him with sound argument. one another. Much might be said on both sides.

Some indefinite pronouns are inflected for case. anybody else's. That is perfectly true: I did not want anybody else's authority to write as I did. Frederick was discerned to be a purchaser of everything that nobody else would buy. The following sentences contain indefinite pronouns:² As he had them of all hues. William of Orange was more than anything else a religious man. Every one knows how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. They indefinite means people in general. but. nothing. These other souls draw me as nothing else can. they say. as. Definition and examples. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. they are never used as adjectives. what. 137. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. as shown in the words everybody's. nobody..²SHAKESPEARE.²Find sentences with six indefinite pronouns.There is always somewhere a weakest spot. The genius that created it now creates somewhat else. Nothing sheds more honor on our early history than the impression which these measures everywhere produced in America. Jove laughs. also aught. some one. Somebody. unlike adjective pronouns. Let us also perform something worthy to be remembered.² At lovers' perjuries. something. 136. What indefinite is used in the expression "I tell you what. every one (or everyone). everybody. . naught. etc.²Find sentences containing ten numeral pronouns. in building of chaises. and somewhat. anybody. somebody else. Every one else stood still at his post. any one (or anyone). anyone else. Exercise. Most of them are compounds of two or more words:² List." It means something. Indefinite pronouns are words which stand for an indefinite number or quantity of persons or things. every one else. Now. I tell you what. no one. everything. and they. and was indefinite in Old English. etc. everybody else. anything.Exercise.

.²a feature of natural scenery for which. he was entitled for his unfurnished lodgings. But amongst themselves is no voice nor sound. All was now ready for action. Our readers probably remember what Mrs. 18. 2. 4. Others did the same thing.See also "Syntax" (Sec. 6. in his negotiations. 11. 17. 13. O thou that rollest above. 5. and of no other. 14. He came back determined to put everything to the hazard. indeed. 7. but that was exactly what Kate cared little about. were suffered to depart. Whoever deals with M. Nothing is more clear than that a general ought to be the servant of his government. Exercise. But there are more than you ever heard of who die of grief in this island of ours. round as the shield of my fathers! 15. The table was good. but not to quite so enormous an extent. from my earliest days. For this did God send her a great reward. 9. A smaller sum I had given to my friend the attorney (who was connected with the money lenders as their lawyer). 138. 8. She could not help laughing at the vile English into which they were translated. Whatever power the law gave them would be enforced against me to the utmost. A reminder. 16. to which. In parsing pronouns the student will need particularly to guard against the mistake of parsing words according to form instead of according to function or use. HOW TO PARSE PRONOUNS. 10. 3. 12. Scarcely had the mutiny broken up when he was himself again. Hutchinson tells us of herself. I first found myself among the mountains. Parse in full the pronouns in the following sentences:² 1. de Witt must go the plain way that he pretends to. it was not extravagant to say that I hungered and thirsted. Some of them from whom nothing was to be got. 426) as to the possessive case of the forms with else. but those from whom it was thought that anything could be extorted were treated with execrable cruelty. I speak of that part which chiefly it is that I know. On reaching the approach to this about sunset of a beautiful evening in June.

Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow:Such as creation's dawn beheld.Who knew thee too well. 21.Destroyer and preserver. Wild Spirit which art moving everywhere. 32. whichever can be got with least thought or trouble. Who and what was Milton? That is to say. 23. in all its height.By the old Hall which may be mine no more. oh. 34. A smile of hers was like an act of grace. 31. What can we see or acquire but what we are? . 30. who slept last night like a corpse? 22. What hand but would a garland cullFor thee who art so beautiful? 24. He sate him down. hear! 33. They know not I knew thee. And will your mother pity me. Rip Van Winkle was one of those foolish. 27. variety. I who alone am. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. What else am I who laughed or wept yesterday. hear. and seized a pen. what is the place which he fills in his own vernacular literature? 20. 26.19. that let him communicate. eat white bread or brown. 35. 29. who take the world easy. behold now the semblance of my being.And it would work 'em woe. I did remind thee of our own dear Lake. 25. thou rollest now. And I had done a hellish thing. Whatever he knows and thinks.Who am a maiden most forlorn? 28. and tracedWords which I could not guess of. No man can learn what he has not preparation for learning. well-oiled dispositions. I who see nothing in nature whose existence I can affirm with equal evidence to my own. and curiosity reiterated in a foreign form. These hopes are mine as much as theirs.

as. is to narrow down or limit the application of a noun. 41. so that no other will be mistaken for it. adjectives are used. and if we are near. Office of Adjectives. heavy or light. 45. If a chemist discovers a new substance. 39.. size. He knew not what to do. the number is limited by adjectives. ADJECTIVES. Substantives. etc. such as in the expressions "this man. if we are at a distance. then. and so he read. he cannot describe it to others without telling its qualities: he will say it is solid. The only aim of the war is to see which is the stronger of the two²which is the master. It may have this office alone. I am sorry when my independence is invaded or when a gift comes from such as do not know my spirit. We are by nature observers. 43. . 139. 37. Again. etc.36. We need to add some words to tell its color. For example. Who hears me." etc. 44. that is our permanent state. or it may at the same time add to the meaning of the noun. Higher natures overpower lower ones by affecting them with a certain sleep. or with persons. 38. or liquid." "a hundred men. we need some word to point out the house we speak of." "that house. As to the kind of words used. and he learns who receives. Nouns are seldom used as names of objects without additional words joined to them to add to their meaning. brittle or tough. Instead of using nouns indefinitely. in pointing out an object. The men who carry their points do not need to inquire of their constituents what they should say. or gaseous. we may begin with the common adjectives telling the characteristics of an object. So with any object. position. 42. if we wish to speak of a friend's house. white or red. becomes mine. He teaches who gives. Those who live to the future must always appear selfish to those who live to the present." "yonder hill." "some cities. who understands me. which was no bad step towards my liberation. "one hat." The office of an adjective. 40. Here I began to howl and scream abominably. we cannot guide one to it by merely calling it a house.

to forgive. 141. such as safe.² BACON. Adjectives are divided into four classes:² (1) Descriptive adjectives." and the still less significant "and so. such as." . (2) COMPOUND ADJECTIVES. An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression." "the well-curb had a Chinese roof. notice the following sentences:² Pronoun. used to tell how many things are spoken of. pointing out particular things. to describe it or to limit its application. derived from proper nouns. 142. (2) Adjectives of quantity. etc. "an old English manuscript." "unlooked-for burden." "the Roman writer Palladius.²COLERIDGE. With exception of the "and then. "Heaven-derived power. Classes of adjectives." "the Christian pearl of charity. the only words limited by adjectives: pronouns and other words and expressions also have adjectives joined to them. Examples are. Any word or word group that performs the same office as a noun may be modified by adjectives." the "and there. however. made up of various words thrown together to make descriptive epithets. divine. or how much of a thing. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES. To err is human. (4) Pronominal adjectives." "the cold-shudder-inspiring Woman in White. happy. fair. rash. This large class includes several kinds of words:² (1) SIMPLE ADJECTIVES expressing quality. (3) Demonstrative adjectives. but used adjectively sometimes in modifying nouns instead of standing for them.140.²POPE. 143. it shows that he weighs men's minds. and their trash. Definition. terrible." "ivory-handled pistols. They include relative and interrogative words." "his spirit wrapt and wonder-struck." "half-dead traveler. remotest. If he be thankful for small benefits." "this life-giving book. Nouns are not." they constitute all his connections." "ice-cold water. Infinitives. beautiful. which describe by expressing qualities or attributes of a substantive." "next-door neighbor." (3) PROPER ADJECTIVES. To make this clear. words primarily pronouns. deep.

some. joined usually to singular nouns to express an indefinite measure of the thing spoken of. Care is needed." "One is hungry." was accomplished is a verb. 145. . and seemed to take nocare as long as he was by. and walked away with a laugh of small satisfaction. Bring up sentences with twenty descriptive adjectives." "trailing clouds.²MACDONALD. which are either pure participles used to describe. in studying these last-named words. Exercises. any. 143. Is the italicized word an adjective in this?² The old sources of intellectual excitement seem to be well-nigh exhausted. 'Tis midnight. (1) QUANTITY IN BULK: such words as little.²COLERIDGE. sometimes small. 144. to distinguish between a participle that forms part of a verb.² Pure participial adjectives: "The healing power of the Messiah. The following examples are from Kingsley:² So he parted with much weeping of the lady." "The shattering sway of one strong arm. and a participle or participial adjective that belongs to a noun. Examples are." "It came on like the rolling simoom." Faded participial adjectives: "Sleep is a blessed thing." Caution." "The clearness and quickness are amazing. For instance: in the sentence." "a charming sight. but small thoughts have I of sleep. "No man of his day was more brilliant or more accomplished. and accomplished is an adjective." "The shattered squares have opened into line. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY." "under the fitting drapery of the jagged and trailing clouds. Oxenham.Because I had some knowledge of surgery and blood-letting.Which we began to do with great labor and little profit. 1." "an aged man. much." "God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. considerable. having some of each subclass named in Sec." was is the verb. Examples of small an adjective of quantity:² "The deil's in it but I bude to anger him!" said the woman. "The work was well and rapidly accomplished. They have these three subdivisions:² How much.But ever she looked on Mr. 2. or participles which have lost all verbal force and have no function except to express quality.(4) PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES. Adjectives of quantity tell how much or how many. no. and another is drunken. in this.

" "I have lost one brother. as. by which the words point out but stand for words omitted. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.It gives small idea of Coleridge's way of talking. Before I taught my tongue to woundMy conscience with a sinful sound. former." "a dozen volunteers. (3) DISTRIBUTIVE NUMERALS. Examples. Hence the natural division into² (a) Definite numerals. 146. which occupy a place midway between the last two subdivisions of numeral adjectives. The demonstrative adjectives are this. The list. they come under the next division of adjectives.Or had the black art to dispenseA several sin to every sense. instead of modifying them. also the pairs one (or the one)²the other. used to refer to two things which have been already named in a sentence. but definite in referring to the objects one at a time. as the following from Kingsley: "We gave several thousand pounds for it. When some. no. for the reason that they are felt to be primarily adjectives." Single ones of any number of changes." "He found in the pathway fourteen Spaniards.²KINGSLEY. but I have gained fourscore. How many. (plural these. Exercise. The words of this list are placed here instead of among pronominal adjectives. which may be expressed exactly by numbers or remotely designated by words expressing indefinite amounts.²Bring up sentences with ten adjectives of quantity." "That light is far too red to be the reflection of any beams of hers. the former²the latter. Not primarily pronouns. those).²CARLYLE. Few on either side but had their shrewd scratch to show. its wake.²THACKERAY.²ID. are used with plural nouns. every village. (2) QUANTITY IN NUMBER." "He had lived by hunting for some months.² Every town had its fair. for they are indefinite in telling how many objects are spoken of." (b) Indefinite numerals." "Then we wandered for many days. yonder (or yon)." "Amyas had evidently more schemes in his head. An arrow was quivering in each body. any. latter. The following sentences present some examples:² . "one blaze of musketry." "In came some five and twenty more. and with them a few negroes. their pronominal use being evidently a shortening. Thus. Their natural and original use is to be joined to a noun following or in close connection. that.²VAUGHAN.

²CARLYLE.²KINGSLEY. Yonder proud ships are not means of annoyance to you.²BANCROFT. The matron's glance that would those looks reprove.²D. 147. Ordinal numerals classed under demonstratives. careless what lord should possess the banks that bloomed by its everlasting course. WEBSTER. skill which was at pause. as having the same function as demonstrative adjectives. we imply nothing as to how many centuries there may be.²ID. Exercise. About this time I met with an odd volume of the "Spectator. I chose for the students of Kensington two characteristic examples of early art. but. I verily believe. for example. what revenues or garnitures.²WORDSWORTH."²B.²GOLDSMITH.. When we speak of the seventeenth century. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. The taking of which bark. 148. These were thy charms. tell how many things are meant.²and are used to join sentences or to ask questions. 149.²BULWER. when they modify words instead of referring to them as antecedents. Definition.²RUSKIN. pronominal adjectives are primarily pronouns. was the ruin of every mother's son of us. . As has been said. like the other numerals. Indefinite relative adjectives. Oxenham fought desperately.²ID.but all these charms are fled.² It matters not what rank he has. FRANKLIN. They point out which thing is meant among a series of things mentioned. just as the corresponding pronouns do.²RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE. Modify names of persons or things. but in the one case. Yon cloud with that long purple cleft. of equal skill.²Find sentences with five demonstrative adjectives. The class of numerals known as ordinals must be placed here. These do not. they are changed to adjectives.. skill which was progressive²in the other. and by the middle of the eighteenth century almost every important provincial town had its local organ. The following are examples:² The first regular provincial newspapers appear to have been created in the last decade of the seventeenth century. In which evil strait Mr.The bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love. The RELATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. They are of two kinds. The silver and laughing Xenil.

.²CARLYLE. But when the Trojan war comes. he [Coleridge] could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. The INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES are which and what. . whatever. which side will you take? ²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. make what sour mouths he would for pretense. nature will be sure to bear us out in. They may be used in direct and indirect questions. and gaze. or whether any. what inquires about things or persons not known. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. He was turned before long into all the universe. whichsoever. Sentences with which and what in direct questions:² Which debt must I pay first. New torments I behold. Whatsoever kind of man he is. proved not altogether displeasing to him.²AGASSIZ. and new tormentedAround me.150. you at least give him full authority over your son.²IRVING.And whichsoever way I turn. Examples of their use are. it is impossible to determine. the debt to the rich.. as it rather seemed. whichsoever way I move. which. Sentences with which and what in indirect questions:² His head. In indirect questions. As in the pronouns. Whatever correction of our popular views from insight.looked like a weathercock perched upon his spindle neck to tell which way the wind blew.²LONGFELLOW (FROM DANTE). a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity. which is selective among what is known.²LAMB. But what books in the circulating library circulate?²LOWELL. The INDEFINITE RELATIVE adjectives are what. What beckoning ghost along the moonlight shadeInvites my steps. whichever way he turned himself?²HAWTHORNE.²ID. Was there. A lady once remarked. whichever. 151.² He in his turn tasted some of its flavor. At what rate these materials would be distributed and precipitated in regular strata. or the debt to the poor?²EMERSON.² EMERSON. In direct questions. Adjective what in exclamations. and points to yonder glade?² POPE. whatsoever.

All these have certain qualities. INFLECTIONS OF ADJECTIVES. to contemplate without emotion that elevation and that fall!²BURKE. or size. History of this²these and that²those. alas. color. what a business for long time to come!²CARLYLE Through what hardships it may attain to bear a sweet fruit!²THOREAU. 155. . what a revolution! and what a heart must I have. and in Modern English we speak of these as the plural of this. it is said that a cow is larger than a sheep. what (or what a) has a force somewhat like a descriptive adjective. of the quality. the making of it right.Adjectives have two inflections. that being borrowed from the forms of the definite article.. weight. etc.²but not the same degree. etc. Thus. The only adjectives having a plural form are this and that (plural these. we notice some differences between them as to size. The old plural of that was tha (Middle English tho or thow): consequently tho (plural of that) and those (plural of this) became confused. but might be called an EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE. The article that was used with neuter nouns. Exercise.²cow and sheep by the quality of largeness. But this had also another plural. NUMBER.152. In Middle English the plural of this was this or thise. a sapphire is bluer than the sky. COMPARISON.² Oh. and it was forgotten that those was really the plural of this. 153 .²Find ten sentences containing pronominal adjectives. Those borrowed from this. or weight. and when we compare the objects. which changed its spelling to the modern form these. Meaning of comparison. 154. In exclamatory expressions.²This. That. and those as the plural of that. This is the old demonstrative. or amount. Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. as. gold is heavier than iron. those). When we place two objects side by side. What a piece of work is man!²SHAKESPEARE. It is neither relative nor interrogative.²number and comparison. which was fully inflected in Old English. th s (modern those). gold and iron by the quality of heaviness. we do so by means of their qualities. And yet.

² His company became very agreeable to the brave old professor of arms. 158. Substitute for inflection in comparison. There are some descriptive words whose meaning is such as not to admit of comparison. and the superlative by adding -est." "the largest soul. 159. infinite. .²THACKERAY. and many others. 160. giant-like. and the superlative. bluer.²SEWARD. These are called degrees of comparison. as. Freedom is a perpetual. reddest." Words that cannot be compared." "It is a nobler valor. in harmony with the Constitution of the United States. enormous. whether they attend their own affair or not. indefatigable. They came into use about the thirteenth century. 157. easiest. redder. easy. with less wit. expressing a greater degree of quality. great. red. easier. 156. but were not common until a century later. strictly considered. Definition. they are not compared.The degrees belong to any beings or ideas that may be known or conceived of as possessing quality. to the simple form. The two forms. indomitable. A main difference betwixt men is. There are two forms for this inflection: the comparative. These are often useful as alternative with the inflected forms. "untamed thought. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree." Also words of quantity may be compared: for example. but in most cases are used before adjectives that are never inflected. organic." "no fewer than a hundred." "the commonest speech. Side by side with these inflected forms are found comparative and superlative expressions making use of the adverbs more and most. Comparison means the changes that words undergo to express degrees in quality. "more matter. universal institution. though the simple. immemorial. bluest.²EMERSON It was his business to administer the law in its final and closest application to the offender² HAWTHORNE. sufficient. as. So with the words sole. The comparative is formed by adding -er. These are properly the only degrees. or amounts in quantity. blue. for example. whose favorite pupil he was. but. It is true that words of comparison are sometimes prefixed to them. supreme. expressing the greatest degree of quality.

² -er and -est or more and most? 161." said Henry Esmond. honestest. finest chiseling. polished." "more austere and holy. strange. there needed to be a most genuine substance. Most of them have worn down or become confused with similar words. etc. but more and most are frequently used with monosyllables. Among the variously derived adjectives now in our language there are some which may always be recognized as native English.² CARLYLE A gentleman. that monosyllables and easily pronounced words of two syllables add -er and -est." Carlyle uses beautifulest. These are equivalent usually to very with the positive degree. The following lists include the majority of them:² . easy. peaceablest. who. indisputablest. The English is somewhat capricious in choosing between the inflected forms and those with more and most. These long. witty. No 1507 In all formulas that Johnson could stand by. but they are essentially the same forms that have lived for so many centuries. falling on his knees." From Ruskin: "The sharpest. I will.²The Nation." "the wonderfulest little shoes. harsh forms are usually avoided. though born in no very high degree. and patientest fusing. To see how literary English overrides any rule that could be given. and yet familiar. 163. But room must be left in such a rule for pleasantness of sound and for variety of expression. These are adjectives irregularly compared. as. and other words are preceded by more and most. Adjectives irregularly compared.Which rule. mournfulest." "distantest relationships. so that no inflexible rule can be given as to the formation of the comparative and the superlative.² To this the Count offers a most wordy declaration of the benefits conferred by Spain. most small. The general rule is. Expressions are often met with in which a superlative form does not carry the superlative meaning. which hung behind in the queerest way.²ID. madam. 162. admirablest." "sorrowfulest spectacles." "the immensest quantity of thrashing.²THACKERAY He had actually nothing else save a rope around his neck. and kissing the hand of his dearest mistress. examine the following taken at random:² From Thackeray: "The handsomest wives. "So help me God. was most finished.²ID." "more odd. quiet.

is often used. [Up] Upper Remarks on Irregular Adjectives. Hind 2. 5. which has gone out of use.² O. hindermost Much or many More Farther. lesser Elder. latter Hinder LIST II. last Hindmost. outermost Utmost. bad. least. but later bad and ill were borrowed from the Norse. and used as positives to the same comparative and superlative.²MATTHEW ARNOLD. A double comparative. 3. further Farthest. though from a different root. (1) The word good has no comparative or superlative. worst. oldest Nighest. 2.LIST I.²HAMLET. innermost Outmost. as in the sentence (14th century). 6. as. as in Shakespeare. . "Ich singe bet than thu dest" (I sing better than thou dost). (2) In Old English. The superlative I form was betst. List I. A few of comparative form but not comparative meaning:² After Over Under Nether Best Worst Least Most Eldest. utter 3. 8. older Nigher Nearer Later. but takes the place of a positive to better and best. evil was the positive to worse. furthest 10. lesser. Worser was once used. next Nearest Latest. 9. 1. These have no adjective positive:² 1. a double comparative. 7. which has softened to the modern best.² We have it in a much lesser degree. [Out] Outer. uppermost LIST III. throw away the worser part of it. ill Little Old Nigh Near Far Late Better Worse Less. (3) Little is used as positive to less. Good or well Evil. There was an old comparative bet. uttermost Upmost. 164. [In] Inner Inmost. 4.

instead of lenger. (6) and (7) Both nigh and near seem regular in Modern English. greatest. there is scarcely any distinction. latter and last are used in speaking of succession. are earlier than older. near. a distinction has grown up between the two series. (10) Hinder is comparative in form. but these have followed old by keeping the same vowel o in all the forms. By and by the comparative near was regarded as a positive form. The word far had formerly the comparative and superlative farrer.² When that evil principle was left with no further material to support it. moche. is quite common. coming about as follows: further really belongs to another series. and furthest began to be used to follow the comparative further. The most part kept a stolid indifference.² The more part being of one mind. next. and refer to time. making the modern farther. th came into the others. Hind-er-m-ost presents the combination comparative + superlative + superlative. the parallel form mickle being rarely used.Thrust the lesser half by main force into the fists of Ho-ti. . but in former times much was used in the sense of large. came into use. an old superlative ending. etc. (4) The words much and many now express quantity. (5) The forms elder. the old forms.²ID. to England we sailed. for example. The meanings greater. and was the same word that is found in the proverb. muchel. latest. doubling the inflection. farthest. since the m is for -ma. meaning the largest part. Between the two sets as they now stand. as. oldest. and the superlative nearest. and are hardly thought of as connected in meaning with the word late. first. (8) These words also show confusion and consequent modification. and on it were built a double comparative nearer.. A few other words with the vowel o had similar change in the comparative and superlative. which adds -est to what is really a comparative instead of a simple adjective. as long. Later and latest have the true comparative and superlative force.²HAWTHORNE. or series. strenger.²forth. The form hindmost is really a double superlative. but originally the comparison was nigh. are shown in such phrases as. great. farrest.. The latter. In imitation of further. (9) Latter and last are the older forms. strong. "Many a little makes a mickle. except perhaps further is more used than farther in the sense of additional. then these were used as comparative and superlative of far. ²LAMB. List II. to which is added -ost." Its spelling has been micel. much. furthest. except the form next. First became entirely detached from the series. Since later. further.²KINGSLEY. etc. but not in meaning. eldest. In the same way the word high had in Middle English the superlative hexte.

sits that ridiculous but sweet-singing bobolink." "their utmost exertion. Decidedly handsome.²HAWTHORNE. Her. having such a skin as became a young woman of family in northernmost Spain. (Sec." -Most added to other words. Her bows were deep in the water. Think what each adjective belongs to. 166. 168." "far-seeing as the sun. was descried The royal banner floating wide. in after years I vainly endeavored to trace. Over is rarely used separately as an adjective.²DE QUINCEY. and of comparative added to doublesuperlative inflection. being merely descriptive. The adjectives in List III. In a series of adjectives in the same sentence. The comparatives are so in form. in having no adjective positives. Perhaps he rose out of some nether region. . all may belong to the same noun. Have you ever considered what a deep under meaning there lies in our custom of strewing flowers?²RUSKIN. on the very topmost twig. 163) the comparatives and superlatives are adjectives. Highest and midmost." "The outer is of the day." "This of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. by the by. or have no comparative forms. The superlatives show examples again of double inflection. List III. Some care must be taken to decide what word is modified by an adjective. There. W. and have no comparative force.²EMERSON. BEECHER. CAUTION FOR ANALYZING OR PARSING.²SCOTT. The upper and the under side of the medal of Jove.²H. but her after deck was still dry. but they have no adjective positives." "the innermost moral soul.165. Examples (from Carlyle) of the use of these adjectives: "revealing the inner splendor to him. In List II. or each may modify a different word or group of words. They have no superlatives. but not in their meaning. are like the comparative forms in List II. the upper light of the world.²KINGSLEY.²DE QUINCEY." "a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of a thing. The ending -most is added to some words that are not usually adjectives. 167.

our new government. Exercise. deeply black eyes. HOW TO PARSE ADJECTIVES. now our queen. H. therefore. and broken. STOWE. "The young pastor's voice was tremulously sweet. 6. and heaven-defying oaths.² My then favorite.²SHAKESPEARE Messrs.For example.²MRS. It is well known that the announcement at any private rural entertainment that there is to be ice cream produces an immediate and profound impression. Every quaking leaf and fluttering shadow sent the blood backward to her heart. Bradbury and Evans. instead of saying. round.²HAWTHORNE. those modifying different words or word groups are said to be adjectives of different rank. adverbs are sometimes used as adjectives. bright. usual modifies incomparable decision. . Whenever that look appeared in her wild.²NOAH PORTER. the then and still owners. ²TROLLOPE. May we not. philosophical. By a convenient brevity. In the following quotations. Our sometime sister. and thine often infirmities.²HAWTHORNE." decision is modified by the adjective incomparable. 2." in which then is an adverb. Other instances are. and the pronoun her limits usual incomparable decision. This distinction is valuable in a study of punctuation. that in the present divided state of Christendom a college which is positively Christian must be controlled by some religious denomination. it invested them with a strange remoteness and intangibility. as. It may still be argued. we may say "the then king. ADVERBS USED AS ADJECTIVES. "She showed her usual prudence and her usual incomparable decision. look with confidence to the ultimate universal acknowledgment of the truths upon which our system rests?²ID.²BIBLE. is the first in the history of the world based upon this great physical. tell what each adjective modifies:² 1. For thy stomach's sake.²A. in prose. and moral truth. not decision alone. Adjectives modifying the same noun are said to be of the same rank. The seldom use of it.²TRENCH. deep. 3.²RUSKIN. STEPHENS 5. Richard Hooker. rich. solid." it is clear that all four adjectives after was modify the noun voice. in this sentence. 169.²HOLMES. This. "the one who was then king. But in this sentence. satisfactory. 4. A few improper jests and a volley of good. 7." making then an adjective.

therefore descriptive. 4. therefore demonstrative. I ask nothing of you. and they enjoyed it to the fullest extent. not inflected for number. across the plain. whose grasp each moment grew more fierce and secure. In parsing an adjective. modifies truths. Each member was permitted to entertain all the rest on his or her birthday. Since adjectives have no gender. the method of parsing is simple. modifies the word truths. (3) Its degree of comparison. person. and most astounding were those frightful yells. 2. These truths are not unfamiliar to your thoughts. and I waited for none. Exercise. 5. MODEL FOR PARSING. positive degree. . 7. frank. or case. and very few have number. A thousand lives seemed concentrated in that one moment to Eliza. then. Unfamiliar describes truths. These points out what truths. She made no reply. To every several man. if it can be compared. but that you proceed to your end by a direct. This gave the young people entire freedom. if it has number. compared by prefixing more and most. (4) What word or words it modifies. cannot be compared. 170. A herd of thirty or forty tall ungainly figures took their way. with awkward but rapid pace. Parse in full each adjective in these sentences:² 1. on which occasion the elders of the family were bound to be absent. I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice. tell² (1) The class and subclass to which it belongs. To every Roman citizen he gives. The huge green fragment of ice on which she alighted pitched and creaked. 3. plural number. 6. (2) Its number. seventy-five drachmas. this. having a singular.What to tell in parsing. Gallantly did the lion struggle in the folds of his terrible enemy. 9. manly way. 8. 10.

The laws and institutions of his country ought to have been more to him than all the men in his country. 25. it is so noble a fruit. Most fruits depend entirely on our care. 16. What a ruthless business this war of extermination is! 15. and dogs. 24. and many poles supported the lower ones. Like most gifted men. those dogs in the yard. In music especially. Here lay two great roads. Their name was the last word upon his lips. yonder oxen in the pasture. growing in the most unfavorable position. is the settlement of our own country. and therefore more interesting to us. He was curious to know to what sect we belonged. 23. 21. Before sunrise the next morning they let us out again. On whichever side of the border chance had thrown Joanna. Instantly the mind inquires whether these fishes under the bridge. as for armies that were too many by half. 29. the same love to France would have been nurtured. With every third step.11. and hates nothing so much as pretenders. not so much for travelers that were few. Even the sourest and crabbedest apple. Two hours elapsed. are immutably fishes. 12. 27. To say what good of fashion we can. On what shore has not the prow of your ships dashed? 17. The captain said it was the last stick he had seen. yet are remarkably self-forgetful. . 18. suggests such thoughts as these. 19. 20. His letters aim to elicit the inmost experience and outward fortunes of those he loves. it rests on reality. I was just emerging from that many-formed crystal country. 14. during which time I waited. you will soon find what personal benefit there is in being serviceable. I know not what course others may take. What advantage was open to him above the English boy? 30. 13. 32. 22. 28. the tomahawk fell. 26. he won affections with ease. 31. oxen. Nearer to our own times. 33. Even the topmost branches spread out and drooped in all directions.

in vulgar English. that other.²MACAULAY. for example. Two relics. In Middle English the became an article. "He passes an ordinary brick house on the road. even when not silent. and that remained a demonstrative adjective." "a European. or the tane. s o. Our expressions the one. ðat. Ordinarily an is used before vowel sounds. meaning one. later th . 35. these occurring as the tane. An historian. The article the comes from an old demonstrative adjective (s . They are nearest to demonstrative and numeral adjectives. with an ordinary little garden. There is a class of words having always an adjectival use in general. An before vowel sounds. but they cannot be accurately placed under any class of adjectives. Many writers use an before h. that) which was also an article in Old English. Examples: "a house. sometimes the tother. A hard-struggling. he is no literary man." "an honor. weary-hearted man was he.² We ca' her sometimes the tane. but with such subtle functions and various meanings that they deserve separate treatment. . 174. nor does consonant sound mean beginning with a consonant. such as we have been attempting to describe. and a before consonant sounds. the other." the words the and an belong to nouns.²SCOTT. The Persians were an heroic people like the Greeks. would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. ARTICLES. were formerly that one. the tither.34. Not only this is kept in the Scotch dialect.²BREWER. the tother. In the sentence. because English spelling does not coincide closely with the sound of words. th o. An or a came from the old numeral n." An with consonant sounds. Let him live in what pomps and prosperities he like. just as adjectives do. Through what hardships it may bear a sweet fruit! 36." "an orange. the tother. the latter is still preserved in the expression. Whatsoever power exists will have itself organized. when the word is not accented on the first syllable. 173. Their origin." "a yelling crowd. Remember that a vowel sound does not necessarily mean beginning with a vowel. 172. 171. but the former is used. a before consonant sounds. 37.

not descriptive. when the dragon was infesting the neighborhood of Babylon. and afterwards referred to by the:² By and by a giant came out of the dark north. With names of rivers.. The most common use of the definite article is to refer to an object that the listener or reader is already acquainted with. and when the word river is omitted. The Dakota tribes. The is often prefixed to the names of rivers. An or a is the indefinite article. Reference to a known object. as in the sentence. 178. BANCROFT. thus. Kinds.²IRVING. as "the Mississippi. An hereditary tenure of these offices.²HEROES OF ASGARD. the older n." the article indicates clearly that a river. No wonder I could face the Mississippi with so much courage supplied to me. and lay down on the ice near Audhumla. The giant frowned when he saw the glitter of the golden hair. Definition. doubtless. or group.²COLERIDGE. and not a state or other geographical division. 176. since it points out a particular individual. or class. The is the definite article.²THACKERAY.² .. 179. is referred to. An article is a limiting word. but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing. NOTE. and look at the valleys round about strewed with the bones?²THACKERAY. When the is prefixed to a proper name. because it refers to any one of a group or class of things. on opening a story.He [Rip] evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to anything else but his business. the citizens used to walk dismally out of evenings.²THOMAS JEFFERSON.²G.. which cannot be used alone.²This use is noticed when. or any individual of a group or class." "the Ohio. then occupied the country southwest of the Missouri. it alters the force of the noun by directing attention to certain qualities possessed by the person or thing spoken of.² Don't you remember how. 177. To call attention to attributes. or a group or class of things. USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. Articles are either definite or indefinite. An and a are different forms of the same word. An habitual submission of the understanding to mere events and images. a person is introduced by a. 175.

the Spinoza. when placed before the pluralized abstract noun. 1. but into the region of all the virtues. If the good is there. her. would speedily extract the required information. The is frequently used instead of the possessive case of the personal pronouns his. . For possessive person pronouns. With adjectives used as nouns. laid it on the miry spot. as if the last flakes of winter tinkled as they fell!²THOREAU.²ID. When the precedes adjectives of the positive degree used substantively. throwing his cloak from his shoulders. 182.² The faint. 180. the song sparrow. etc. Kant. for example.²MOTLEY.²KINGSLEY. He was probably skilled in the subtleties of Italian statesmanship. silvery warblings heard over the partially bare and moist fields from the bluebird. 2.²GIBBON. or whosoever propounds to you a philosophy of the mind.² As she hesitated to pass on. it marks their use as common and plural nouns when they refer to persons. Half abstract. But De Soto was no longer able to abate the confidence or punish the temerity of the natives. More than one hinted that a cord twined around the head. Caution. The simple rise as by specific levity. and as singular and abstract when they refer to qualities. NOTE. The before class nouns may mark one thing as a representative of the class to which it belongs. 181.²EMERSON. His messages to the provincial authorities. One thing for its class.²EMERSON. is only a more or less awkward translator of things in your consciousness.²ID. Common. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. marks it as half abstract or a common noun. or a match put between the fingers. Schelling.²G. so is the evil. and the redwing. 183. With plural of abstract nouns. as.²This is not to be confused with words that have shifted from adjectives and become pure nouns.The Bacon. not into a particular virtue. the Hume. the gallant.²SCOTT. The. BANCROFT.

The mouth, and the region of the mouth, were about the strongest features in Wordsworth's face.²DE QUINCEY.
The for a.

184. In England and Scotland the is often used where we use a, in speaking of measure and price; as,² Wheat, the price of which necessarily varied, averaged in the middle of the fourteenth century tenpence the bushel, barley averaging at the same time three shillings the quarter.²FROUDE.
A very strong restrictive.

185. Sometimes the has a strong force, almost equivalent to a descriptive adjective in emphasizing a word,² No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you.²BIBLE. As for New Orleans, it seemed to me the city of the world where you can eat and drink the most and suffer the least.²THACKERAY. He was the man in all Europe that could (if any could) have driven six-in-hand full gallop over Al Sirat.²DE QUINCEY.
Mark of a substantive.

186. The, since it belongs distinctively to substantives, is a sure indication that a word of verbal form is not used participially, but substantively. In the hills of Sacramento there is gold for the gathering.²EMERSON. I thought the writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it.²FRANKLIN.

187. There is one use of the which is different from all the above. It is an adverbial use, and is spoken of more fully in Sec. 283. Compare this sentence with those above:² There was something ugly and evil in his face, which they had not previously noticed, and which grew still the more obvious to the sight the oftener they looked upon him.²HAWTHORNE. Exercise.²Find sentences with five uses of the definite article.

Denotes any one of a class.

188. The most frequent use of the indefinite article is to denote any one of a class or group of objects: consequently it belongs to singular words; as in the sentence,² Near the churchyard gate stands a poor-box, fastened to a post by iron bands and secured by a padlock, with a sloping wooden roof to keep off the rain.²LONGFELLOW
Widens the scope of proper nouns.

189. When the indefinite article precedes proper names, it alters them to class names. The qualities or attributes of the object are made prominent, and transferred to any one possessing them; as,² The vulgar riot and debauchery, which scarcely disgraced an Alcibiades or a Cæsar, have been exchanged for the higher ideals of a Bayard or a Sydney.²PEARSON
With abstract nouns.

190. An or a before abstract nouns often changes them to half abstract: the idea of quality remains, but the word now denotes only one instance or example of things possessing the quality.
Become half abstract.

The simple perception of natural forms is a delight.²EMERSON If thou hadst a sorrow of thine own, the brook might tell thee of it.²HAWTHORNE In the first sentence, instead of the general abstract notion of delight, which cannot be singular or plural, a delight means one thing delightful, and implies others having the same quality. So a sorrow means one cause of sorrow, implying that there are other things that bring sorrow.
Become pure class nouns.

NOTE.²Some abstract nouns become common class nouns with the indefinite article, referring simply to persons; thus,² If the poet of the "Rape of the Lock" be not a wit, who deserves to be called so?²THACKERAY. He had a little brother in London with him at this time,²as great a beauty, as great a dandy, as great a villain.²ID. A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.²GRAY.
Changes material to class nouns.

191. An or a before a material noun indicates the change to a class noun, meaning one kind or a detached portion; as,² They that dwell up in the steeple,...Feel a glory in so rollingOn the human heart a stone.²POE. When God at first made man,Having a glass of blessings standing by.²HERBERT. The roofs were turned into arches of massy stone, joined by a cement that grew harder by time.²JOHNSON.
Like the numeral adjective one.

192. In some cases an or a has the full force of the numeral adjective one. It is shown in the following:² To every room there was an open and a secret passage.²JOHNSON.

In a short time these become a small tree, an inverted pyramid resting on the apex of the other.² THOREAU. All men are at last of a size.²EMERSON. At the approach of spring the red squirrels got under my house, two at a time.²THOREAU.
Equivalent to the word each or every.

193. Often, also, the indefinite article has the force of each or every, particularly to express measure or frequency. It would be so much more pleasant to live at his ease than to work eight or ten hours a day.² BULWER
Compare to Sec. 184.

Strong beer, such as we now buy for eighteenpence a gallon, was then a penny a gallon.² FROUDE
With such, many, what.

194. An or a is added to the adjectives such, many, and what, and may be considered a part of these in modifying substantives. How was I to pay such a debt?²THACKERAY. Many a one you and I have had here below.²THACKERAY. What a world of merriment then melody foretells!²POE.
With not and many.

195. Not and never with a or an are numeral adjectives, instead of adverbs, which they are in general. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note.²WOLFE My Lord Duke was as hot as a flame at this salute, but said never a word.²THACKERAY. NOTE.²All these have the function of adjectives; but in the last analysis of the expressions, such, many, not, etc., might be considered as adverbs modifying the article.
With few or little.

196. The adjectives few and little have the negative meaning of not much, not many, without the article; but when a is put before them, they have the positive meaning of some. Notice the contrast in the following sentences:² Of the country beyond the Mississippi little more was known than of the heart of Africa.² MCMASTER To both must I of necessity cling, supported always by the hope that when a little time, a few years, shall have tried me more fully in their esteem, I may be able to bring them together.² KEATS'S LETTERS.

Few of the great characters of history have been so differently judged as Alexander.²SMITH, History of Greece
With adjectives, changed to nouns.

197. When the is used before adjectives with no substantive following (Sec. 181 and note), these words are adjectives used as nouns, or pure nouns; but when an or a precedes such words, they are always nouns, having the regular use and inflections of nouns; for example,² Such are the words a brave should use.²COOPER. In the great society of wits, John Gay deserves to be a favorite, and to have a good place.² THACKERAY Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for use in the verses of a rival.²PEARSON. Exercise.²Bring up sentences with five uses of the indefinite article.

198. In parsing the article, tell² (1) What word it limits. (2) Which of the above uses it has. Exercise. Parse the articles in the following:² 1. It is like gathering a few pebbles off the ground, or bottling a little air in a phial, when the whole earth and the whole atmosphere are ours. 2. Aristeides landed on the island with a body of Hoplites, defeated the Persians and cut them to pieces to a man. 3. The wild fire that lit the eye of an Achilles can gleam no more. 4. But it is not merely the neighborhood of the cathedral that is mediæval; the whole city is of a piece. 5. To the herdsman among his cattle in remote woods, to the craftsman in his rude workshop, to the great and to the little, a new light has arisen. 6. When the manners of Loo are heard of, the stupid become intelligent, and the wavering, determined. 7. The student is to read history actively, and not passively. 8. This resistance was the labor of his life.

9. There was always a hope, even in the darkest hour. 10. The child had a native grace that does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. 11. I think a mere gent (which I take to be the lowest form of civilization) better than a howling, whistling, clucking, stamping, jumping, tearing savage. 12. Every fowl whom Nature has taught to dip the wing in water. 13. They seem to be lines pretty much of a length. 14. Only yesterday, but what a gulf between now and then! 15. Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick. 16. The class of power, the working heroes, the Cortes, the Nelson, the Napoleon, see that this is the festivity and permanent celebration of such as they; that fashion is funded talent.

Verb,²the word of the sentence.

199. The term verb is from the Latin verbum meaning word: hence it is the word of a sentence. A thought cannot be expressed without a verb. When the child cries, "Apple!" it means, See the apple! or I have an apple! In the mariner's shout, "A sail!" the meaning is, "Yonder is a sail!" Sentences are in the form of declarations, questions, or commands; and none of these can be put before the mind without the use of a verb.
One group or a group of words.

200. The verb may not always be a single word. On account of the lack of inflections, verb phrases are very frequent. Hence the verb may consist of: (1) One word; as, "The young man obeyed." (2) Several words of verbal nature, making one expression; as, (a) "Some day it may be considered reasonable," (b) "Fearing lest he might have been anticipated." (3) One or more verbal words united with other words to compose one verb phrase: as in the sentences, (a) "They knew well that this woman ruled over thirty millions of subjects;" (b) "If all the flummery and extravagance of an army were done away with, the money could be made to go much further;" (c) "It is idle cant to pretend anxiety for the better distribution of wealth until we can devise means by which this preying upon people of small incomes can be put a stop to."

and not a verb. from the Latin transire.In (a). a preposition. representing something which it influences or controls. c). and to receive the action expressed. the most astute. the most penetrating. and shame the most astute. lone took what? answer.²BULWER . with some word understood. we consider a verb as one word. in (2. in (3. or a material thing." put is the predicate. and the pride of woman has an hypocrisy which can deceive the most penetrating. a verb and a preposition are used as one verb. and. "Put money in thy purse. to say something to or about some person or thing. obeyed is a predicate. In each case. 201. as. she hastened to the neighboring shrine of Isis. a noun. it is indispensable to the nature of a verb that it is "a word used as a predicate."²every one of the verbs in Italics has one or more words before or after it. but fearing is not a predicate. can deceive has an object. taking the staff which always guided her steps.²"The proud lone took care to conceal the anguish she endured. endured what? anguish. (can) shame also has an object. in this sentence from Bulwer. or the object. that staff had sufficed to conduct the poor blind girl from corner to corner of Pompeii. All these are called transitive verbs. an adverb. All do not express action: some denote state or condition. an article. Examine the verbs in the following paragraph:² She sprang up at that thought. which may be a person. 200: In (1). in (2. 202. all do not express it in the same way. Hence Definition. are united with verbs as one verb phrase. "Put thou money in thy purse. Has takes the object hypocrisy. 204. Of those expressing action. The nature of the transitive verb. Till she had been under the guardianship of the kindly Greek. but cannot be predicates. b). a verb." VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING AND USE. Now. is necessary to the completion of the action expressed in the verb. to pretend and preying have something of verbal nature in expressing action in a faint and general way." Examine the sentences in Sec. In giving a definition. in (b). 203. A transitive verb is one which must have an object to complete its meaning. In the first. hence is not a verb. or an idea. Definition and caution. it may be seen that not all verbs are used alike. and a preposition unite as a verb. a). In the sentence. may be considered is a unit in doing the work of one predicate. the word following. By examining a few verbs. A verb is a word used as a predicate. to go is no predicate. in (c). The nature of intransitive verbs. in (3. which means to go over. etc. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. b). for example. might have been anticipated is also one predicate. care. Each influences some object.

In this there are some verbs unlike those that have been examined. Sprang, or sprang up, expresses action, but it is complete in itself, does not affect an object; hastened is similar in use; had been expresses condition, or state of being, and can have no object; had sufficed means had been sufficient, and from its meaning cannot have an object. Such verbs are called intransitive (not crossing over). Hence

205. An intransitive verb is one which is complete in itself, or which is completed by other words without requiring an object.
Study use, not form, of verbs here.

206. Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, according to their use in the sentence, It can be said, "The boy walked for two hours," or "The boy walked the horse;" "The rains swelled the river," or "The river swelled because of the rain;" etc. The important thing to observe is, many words must be distinguished as transitive or intransitive by use, not by form. 207. Also verbs are sometimes made transitive by prepositions. These may be (1) compounded with the verb; or (2) may follow the verb, and be used as an integral part of it: for example,² Asking her pardon for having withstood her.²SCOTT. I can wish myself no worse than to have it all to undergo a second time.²KINGSLEY. A weary gloom in the deep caverns of his eyes, as of a child that has outgrown its playthings.² HAWTHORNE. It is amusing to walk up and down the pier and look at the countenances passing by.²B. TAYLOR. He was at once so out of the way, and yet so sensible, that I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.² GOLDSMITH. My little nurse told me the whole matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her mother.²SWIFT. Exercises. (a) Pick out the transitive and the intransitive verbs in the following:² 1. The women and children collected together at a distance. 2. The path to the fountain led through a grassy savanna. 3. As soon as I recovered my senses and strength from so sudden a surprise, I started back out of his reach where I stood to view him; he lay quiet whilst I surveyed him. 4. At first they lay a floor of this kind of tempered mortar on the ground, upon which they deposit a layer of eggs.

5. I ran my bark on shore at one of their landing places, which was a sort of neck or little dock, from which ascended a sloping path or road up to the edge of the meadow, where their nests were; most of them were deserted, and the great thick whitish eggshells lay broken and scattered upon the ground. 6. Accordingly I got everything on board, charged my gun, set sail cautiously, along shore. As I passed by Battle Lagoon, I began to tremble. 7. I seized my gun, and went cautiously from my camp: when I had advanced about thirty yards, I halted behind a coppice of orange trees, and soon perceived two very large bears, which had made their way through the water and had landed in the grove, and were advancing toward me. (b) Bring up sentences with five transitive and five intransitive verbs.

Meaning of active voice.

208. As has been seen, transitive verbs are the only kind that can express action so as to go over to an object. This implies three things,²the agent, or person or thing acting; the verb representing the action; the person or object receiving the act. In the sentence, "We reached the village of Sorgues by dusk, and accepted the invitation of an old dame to lodge at her inn," these three things are found: the actor, or agent, is expressed by we; the action is asserted by reached and accepted; the things acted upon are village and invitation. Here the subject is represented as doing something. The same word is the subject and the agent. This use of a transitive verb is called the active voice.

209. The active voice is that form of a verb which represents the subject as acting; or The active voice is that form of a transitive verb which makes the subject and the agent the same word.
A question.

210. Intransitive verbs are always active voice. Let the student explain why.
Meaning of passive voice.

211. In the assertion of an action, it would be natural to suppose, that, instead of always representing the subject as acting upon some person or thing, it must often happen that the subject is spoken of as acted upon; and the person or thing acting may or may not be expressed in the sentence: for example,² All infractions of love and equity in our social relations are speedily punished. They are punished by fear.²EMERSON. Here the subject infractions does nothing: it represents the object toward which the action of are punished is directed, yet it is the subject of the same verb. In the first sentence the agent is not expressed; in the second, fear is the agent of the same action.

So that in this case, instead of having the agent and subject the same word, we have the object and subject the same word, and the agent may be omitted from the statement of the action. Passive is from the Latin word patior, meaning to endure or suffer; but in ordinary grammatical use passive means receiving an action.

212. The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject as being acted upon; or² The passive voice is that form of the verb which represents the subject and the object by the same word. Exercises. (a) Pick out the verbs in the active and the passive voice:² 1. In the large room some forty or fifty students were walking about while the parties were preparing. 2. This was done by taking off the coat and vest and binding a great thick leather garment on, which reached to the knees. 3. They then put on a leather glove reaching nearly to the shoulder, tied a thick cravat around the throat, and drew on a cap with a large visor. 4. This done, they were walked about the room a short time; their faces all this time betrayed considerable anxiety. 5. We joined the crowd, and used our lungs as well as any. 6. The lakes were soon covered with merry skaters, and every afternoon the banks were crowded with spectators. 7. People were setting up torches and lengthening the rafts which had been already formed. 8. The water was first brought in barrels drawn by horses, till some officer came and opened the fire plug. 9. The exclusive in fashionable life does not see that he excludes himself from enjoyment, in the attempt to appropriate it. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the active and five in the passive voice.


213. The word mood is from the Latin modus, meaning manner, way, method. Hence, when applied to verbs,² Mood means the manner of conceiving and expressing action or being of some subject.

The three ways.

214. There are three chief ways of expressing action or being:² (1) As a fact; this may be a question, statement, or assumption. (2) As doubtful, or merely conceived of in the mind. (3) As urged or commanded.

Deals with facts.

215. The term indicative is from the Latin indicare (to declare, or assert). The indicative represents something as a fact,²
Affirms or denies.

(1) By declaring a thing to be true or not to be true; thus,² Distinction is the consequence, never the object, of a great mind.²ALLSTON. I do not remember when or by whom I was taught to read; because I cannot and never could recollect a time when I could not read my Bible.²D. WEBSTER.
Assumed as a fact. Caution.

(2) By assuming a thing to be true without declaring it to be so. This kind of indicative clause is usually introduced by if (meaning admitting that, granting that, etc.), though, although, etc. Notice that the action is not merely conceived as possible; it is assumed to be a fact: for example,² If the penalties of rebellion hung over an unsuccessful contest; if America was yet in the cradle of her political existence; if her population little exceeded two millions; if she was without government, without fleets or armies, arsenals or magazines, without military knowledge,²still her citizens had a just and elevated sense of her rights.²A. HAMILTON. (3) By asking a question to find out some fact; as,² Is private credit the friend and patron of industry?²HAMILTON. With respect to novels what shall I say?²N. WEBSTER.

216 .The indicative mood is that form of a verb which represents a thing as a fact, or inquires about some fact.

Meaning of the word.

217. Subjunctive means subjoined, or joined as dependent or subordinate to something else.
This meaning is misleading.

If its original meaning be closely adhered to, we must expect every dependent clause to have its verb in the subjunctive mood, and every clause not dependent to have its verb in some other mood. But this is not the case. In the quotation from Hamilton (Sec. 215, 2) several subjoined clauses introduced by if have the indicative mood, and also independent clauses are often found having the verb in the subjunctive mood.

Three cautions will be laid down which must be observed by a student who wishes to understand and use the English subjunctive:² (1) You cannot tell it always by the form of the word. The main difference is, that the subjunctive has no -s as the ending of the present tense, third person singular; as, "If he come." (2) The fact that its clause is dependent or is introduced by certain words will not be a safe rule to guide you. (3) The meaning of the verb itself must be keenly studied.

218. The subjunctive mood is that form or use of the verb which expresses action or being, not as a fact, but as merely conceived of in the mind.

Subjunctive in Independent Clauses. I. Expressing a Wish.
219. The following are examples of this use:² Heaven rest her soul!²MOORE. God grant you find one face there You loved when all was young.²KINGSLEY. Now tremble dimples on your cheek, Sweet be your lips to taste and speak.²BEDDOES. Long die thy happy days before thy death.²SHAKESPEARE.

II. A Contingent Declaration or Question.
220. This really amounts to the conclusion, or principal clause, in a sentence, of which the condition is omitted. Our chosen specimen of the hero as literary man [if we were to choose one] would be this Goethe.²CARLYLE.

²LONGFELLOW.² If it be Sunday [supposing it to be Sunday]. Most excellent stranger.²BRYCE. 215. 222. rather than the shortest?²DE QUINCEY. Ideal. WEBSTER. the writer can make the statement following. as. for example.² If. (2) Those in which the condition depends on something uncertain.And weep away the life of careWhich I have borne and yet must bear. popular government must be pronounced impossible. 221. so it is also the glory of Charlemagne.² If they were unacquainted with the works of philosophers and poets. in our case. the second founder. If this be the glory of Julius. Condition or Supposition. I. STUDY OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.²SHELLEY. or be fulfilled. The most common way of representing the action or being as merely thought of. If any man consider the present aspects of what is called by distinction society. the peasants sit on the church steps and con their psalm books. they were deeply read in the oracles of God. (1) Those in which an assumed or admitted fact is placed before the mind in the form of a condition (see Sec. if the reader merely conceives them for the moment to be the same. ²EMERSON. Again. but. they were recorded in the Book of Life. the first great founder of the Empire.²D. as. this pasteboard and these scales may represent electrified clouds. 2). is by putting it into the form of a supposition or condition. There are three kinds of conditional sentences:² Real or true. as you come to the lakes simply to see their loveliness.²MACAULAY. if the fire of electricity and that of lightning be the same. Here no assertion is made that the two things are the same. .²may or may not be true.²FRANKLIN. If their names were not found in the registers of heralds. might it not be as well to ask after the most beautiful road. the representative system ultimately fail. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. Unreal²cannot be true.² Now. and may or may not be regarded true. he will see the need of these ethics.I could lie down like a tired child.

melodious.. would you. if his lot had been mine. if he speak to you." etc. since he [Byron] was dead. is of similar physiognomy. thus. or conditions that cannot be fulfilled. she was regarded as a prodigy. but are presented only in order to suggest what might be or might have been true.. In the following conditional clauses. especially be.²MACAULAY. he had better not have written. But in no case could it be justified. though. except it be for a failure of the association or union to effect the object for which it was created. . the clause being introduced by that or lest. NOTE.² If these things were true. P. might. 7. he supposed.²Conditional sentences are usually introduced by if.²N. WILLIS.(3) Suppositions contrary to fact. as. but when the verb precedes the subject. Had he for once cast all such feelings aside. 6. If it were prostrated to the ground by a profane hand. Did not my writings produce me some solid pudding. The subjunctive. it would have cast such an enhancing light over all his glories.. and should. Epaminondas. the great deficiency of praise would have quite discouraged me.² CARLYLE. 8.² It was necessary. 2. be any the happier?²THACKERAY. tell whether each verb is indicative or subjunctive.²SWIFT. 5. which cannot be true. ²LOWELL. clear.²CALHOUN. If a damsel had the least smattering of literature. Exercise. The voice. II. 3. if he was the man I take him for. may. the conjunction is often omitted: for example.. "Were I bidden to say how the highest genius could be most advantageously employed.²BAYNE. that we cannot but regret its absence. If he had reason to dislike him. Subjunctive of Purpose.²FRANKLIN.²FRANKLIN. and what kind of condition:² 1. that he might be strong to labor. what native of the city would not mourn over its fall?²GAYARRE. and striven energetically to save Ney. do you think. is used to express purpose.²EMERSON. 4. although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. Were you so distinguished from your neighbors. yet I would take such caution that he should have the honor entire. society could not hold together. except. and sonorous. etc. 223. to drink strong beer. I told him. would have sat still with joy and peace. unless.

224.²EMERSON What the best arrangement were.²SOUTHEY. I would it were! ²EMERSON. The subjunctive may represent the result toward which an action tends:² So many thoughts move to and fro. within its fairy bowers. Subjunctive of Result. In a Noun Clause. Let it rise. that when thy summons comes to joinThe innumerable caravan. III..And we. After a verb of wishing. till it meet the sun in his coming.²WORDSWORTH. So live. In Indirect Questions. The subjunctive is often found in indirect questions. The English subjunctive. lest in the strife They should engage with Julian's men. The transmigiation of souls is no fable. in her confusion she had not distinctly known. Bright star! Would I were steadfast as thou art!²KEATS.. He [Roderick] with sudden impulse that way rode. the answer being regarded as doubtful. like the quarry-slave at night.²MOORE. Ask the great man if there be none greater. VI. . the subjunctive is regularly used in the dependent clause.²D. V. WEBSTER.²DE QUINCEY.Were wafted off to seas unknown. like the Latin. Rise up.²BRYANT. 226.²CARLYLE. before it be too late!²HAWTHORNE. IV..²ID. is sometimes used in a clause to express the time when an action is to take place.²COLERIDGE. VII. 225.Thou go not. To tell of what had passed.that you may compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. But it will not be longEre this be thrown aside. In Temporal Clauses.That vain it were her eyes to close. none of us could say.. I've wished that little isle had wings. 227. Expressing a Wish.I have been the more particular. Whether it were morning or whether it were afternoon.

which may be (a) Pronoun. I have no thought what men they be.²THOREAU. After verbs of commanding. Come. that everything be in its place. The noun clause.²SHELLEY.And see the Braes of Yarrow. (b) Adjective.² DICKENS. of cash. 228. To appreciate the wild and sharp flavors of those October fruits. The concession may be expressed² (1) In the nature of the verb. Be the appeal made to the understanding or the heart. That hunger of applause. for example. Some might lament that I were cold. or whatsoever victual it may be. . often contains a subjunctive. Complement.² BROUGHAM (2) By an indefinite relative word. we'll turn aside. Object. is.²WORDSWORTH. As sure as Heaven shall rescue me. See that thy scepter be heavy on his head. VIII.²DE QUINCEY. Gabriel Grub was afflicted with rheumatism to the end of his days. in its various uses as subject. Whatever betide. that which admits neither substitute nor equivalent. etc.Subject. tell me all that thou hast seen.² Be the matter how it may. is the ultimate fact of man's life. 229. The essence of originality is not that it be new. the sentence is the same²that rejects it.²CARLYLE Apposition or logical subject. The first merit. it is necessary that you be breathing the sharp October or November air.And look thou tell me true.²COLERIDGE. See that there be no traitors in your camp.²CARLYLE. This subjunctive is very frequent after verbs of commanding.. object.²COLERIDGE.²TENNYSON.²SCOTT. in apposition. Concessive Clauses.

The three uses of the subjunctive now most frequent are. especially by those who are artistic and exact in the expression of their thought. At the present day. that many of the verbs in the subjunctive have the same form as the indicative. though. 231. to express a wish. Oh. Prevalence of the Subjunctive Mood.The spirit he loves remains. Call up the shades of Demosthenes and Cicero to vouch for your words. or requests. Especially is this true of unreal conditions in past time. (1) Command. since commands are directed to a person addressed. As shown by the wide range of literature from which these examples are selected. and condition contrary to fact. 230. ADAMS. (3) Request. we had found [should have found] a poem here. Q. but hardly any other subjunctive forms are. The imperative is naturally used mostly with the second person. the subjunctive were is much used in a wish or a condition contrary to fact.² CARLYLE. 232. . fear none. the subjunctive is very much used in literary English. Definition.²SHELLEY. Honor all men. Wherever he dream under mountain or stream. from these sterner aspects of thy faceSpare me and mine. Very many of the sentences illustrating the use of the subjunctive mood could be replaced by numerous others using the indicative to express the same thoughts. a concession.²J. the subjunctive is becoming less and less used. IMPERATIVE MOOD. In spoken English. Usually second person. however. love all men. point to their immortal works.² Were we of open sense as the Greeks were.²CHANNING.²BRYANT. entreaties. (2) Entreaty.(c) Adverb. The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in direct commands. nor let us need the wrathOf the mad unchained elements. It must be remembered. for example.

(a) Tell the mood of each verb in these sentences. Part we in friendship from your land.Not all the lip can speak is worthThe silence of the heart. This is scarcely ever found outside of poetry. noble earl.. or I + they. but I + you." whispered Kit."Hush! mother. Oh. etc. receive my hand. child of earth!While each performs his part. to you implied in it. we may use the imperative with we in a command. that I might be admitted to thy presence! that mine were the supreme delight of knowing thy will! 4. and what special use it is of that mood:² 1.²CAMPBELL. "The Devil take the goose. there will her heart and her prayers be.And. nothing is to be preferred before justice. 8. 'Twere worth ten years of peaceful life. "Come along with me. 3. Usually this is expressed by let with the objective: "Let us go. Mark thou this difference. Then seek we not their camp²for thereThe silence dwells of my despair. Break we our watch up. Since the first person plural person is not really I + I." And the same with the third person: "Let him be accursed.²SCOTT." Exercises on the Moods. lest we rust in ease. 2.. request. how was it you thought of coming here?²ID. Quoth she. Sometimes with first person in the plural. 7.²SHAKESPEARE. But the imperative may be used with the plural of the first person. etc.And God forget the stranger!" . Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been or shall be unfurled. Meet is it changes should controlOur being. Whatever inconvenience ensue."²DICKENS Tell me. 6. The vigorous sun would catch it up at eveAnd use it for an anvil till he had filledThe shelves of heaven with burning thunderbolts.One glance at their array! 5.

Till you might faint with that delicious pain. . then. disrobed of thy vain earthly vaunt. 20. That a man parade his doubt. 26. whether he do it right or wrong. in what pomps and prosperities he like. The fat earth feed thy branchy rootThat under deeply strikes!The northern morning o'er thee shoot. or do it at all. and opinion displace opinion. From the moss violets and jonquils peep.Blew mimic hootings to the silent owls. Think not that I speak for your sakes.High up in silver spikes! 22. 11. 21. and get to imagine that debating and logic is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has. Were that a just return? Were that Roman magnanimity? 12. 14. my dear madam. will it not fall unbound.And dart their arrowy odor through the brain. Forget thyself to marble. Could we one day complete the immense figure which these flagrant points compose! 15." 25. "see that no one mentions the United States to the prisoner. she ought to have it." 16. as though an instrument. "tell me where I may find my poor. 23. tillWith a sad leaden downward castThou fix them on the earth as fast. ruined. is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of.That they might answer him. no literary man. 19. all are at last contained in the Eternal cause. 18.Except. "Now tread we a measure!" said young Lochinvar. 13. Well. how he may do his work." cried he. 10. Marshall. but repentant child. let him live where else he like. That sheaf of darts. Though abyss open under abyss. If there is only one woman in the nation who claims the right to vote. alas! this is as if you should overturn the tree. He.Thou bring it to be blessed where saints and angels haunt? 17. "Mr. He is.9. "Oh." continued Old Morgan. Though he were dumb. God send Rome one such other sight! 24. it would speak.

in the third person singular. or whether it were as one member of a general party. to direct his steps. a form ending in -eth. Not only is this so: there are what are called definite forms of these tenses. 234. The distinct inflections are found only in the present and past tenses. whatever she did. Siddons. The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person. five in the imperative. and the past tense. "Thou walkest. 233. showing more exactly the time of the action or being. PERSON AND NUMBER. Definition. The tenses in detail. five in the subjunctive. "I go away tomorrow." past. and unassuming deportment of Mrs.² present. such as Latin and Greek. Tenses in English. It makes a great difference to the force of any sentence whether there be a man behind it or no. past. as. The tense of a verb is the form or use indicating the time of an action or being. tell him to wait. (b) Find sentences with five verbs in the indicative mood. These make the English speech even more exact than other languages. shall." present.27. "Thou walkedst.²whether it were in display of her own matchless talents. or agree with it. called auxiliaries.²but has other tenses to correspond with those of highly inflected languages." . also. 235. as the classical languages have.²nothing could exceed the amiable. and future perfect tenses. the past. Meantime. past perfect. in the conjugations. and future. there was a form of the verb to correspond to it. Action or being may be represented as occurring in present. or future time. have.²the present tense. Old English had only two tenses. which represented present and future time. kind. by means of the present." "If he comes. however: the others are compounds of verbal forms with various helping verbs. past. "It is not in man that walketh. It may also be represented as finished in present or past or future time by means of the present perfect. and the future tense. as will be shown later on. such as be. 28. We still use the present for the future in such expressions as. When the older pronoun thou was in use. TENSE. as." But English of the present day not only has a tense for each of the natural time divisions. Tense means time. will.

as. are. [He] be Plural We be You be PAST TENSE. and numbers. etc. [He] was Subjunctive Mood. singular number. chosen (old. mood. CONJUGATION. Singular 1. walketh. 237. were. Verbs in modern English have only four or five forms. Such verbs as choose have five. wert) 3. [He] were [They] were . I be 2." and this only in the present tense indicative. conjugation means joining together the numerous endings to the stem of the verb. chooseth. moods. [He] is [They] are 3.²choose.But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one ending for person and number. Singular 1. tenses. walked. Singular 1. In classical languages. This is important in questions of agreement when we come to syntax. I were 2. chooses. chose. "He walks. You were (thou wert) Plural We were You were [They] be 3. etc. choosest. choosing. is. walk has walk. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB BE. walks. You (thou) be 3. Conjugation is the regular arrangement of the forms of the verb in the various voices. PRESENT TENSE. for example. been. This is the third person. Indicative Mood. but in English. I was Plural We were You were [They were] 2. tense. persons. 238. inflections are so few that conjugation means merely the exhibition of the forms and the different verb phrases that express the relations of voice. The verb be has more forms. chosest). You are 2. Definition. You were You are (thou art) (thou wast.²am. I am Plural We are PAST TENSE. walking. Few forms. since it is composed of several different roots. sometimes adding the old forms walkest. 236. PRESENT TENSE. Singular 1. walkedst.

etc.²SCOTT. obligation. though it is usually a dialect form.²WORDSWORTH We drank tea. (d) With the infinitive. (c) With past participle of intransitive verbs. (2) was. By solemn vision and bright silver dream. same as the German sind.. When we are goneFrom every object dear to mortal sight.²GOLDSMITH. to express intention. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Be. to form the passive voice. 240. This conjugation is pieced out with three different roots: (1) am. The old indicative third person plural be is sometimes found in literature. Broadswords are maddening in the rear. being equivalent to the present perfect and past perfect tenses active.²BURKE . -en. were.Imperative Mood. Are is supposed to have come from the Norse language. Remarks on the verb be.²WORDSWORTH. (2) As auxiliary verbs. Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. which was now become an occasional banquet. condition.. etc. is. Old English had beoth and sind or sindon.²SHELLEY. The light that never was on sea and land. in four ways. as. and desolate mountains?²WHITTIER Uses of be. (3) be. Instead of the plural are. thus. for example. 239.² (a) With verbal forms in -ing (imperfect participle) to form the definite tenses. (b) With the past participle in -ed.²ID. The forms of the verb be have several uses:² (1) As principal verbs.His infancy was nurtured.² Where be the sentries who used to salute as the Royal chariots drove in and out?²THACKERAY Where be the gloomy shades. If I were to explain the motion of a body falling to the ground. It was to have been called the Order of Minerva.²THACKERAY.²Each broadsword bright was brandishing like beam of light.

Some of these have been indicated in Sec. PRESENT TENSE. You chose Plural. "I had gone" (past perfect). as. had. "I shall have gone" (future perfect). We choose You choose PAST TENSE. Singular. "I have gone" (present perfect)." "He will choose. future perfect. You choose Plural. We choose You choose PAST TENSE. [He] chose [They] chose Subjunctive Mood." (2) Present perfect. You chose Plural. INFLECTIONS OF THE VERB CHOOSE. We chose You chose 3. tenses. Singular. Singular. 240. made up of auxiliaries with the infinitives and participles. PRESENT TENSE. Singular. We chose You chose 3. Indicative Mood. Machinery of a verb in the voices. [He] chose [They] chose Imperative Mood. 1. [He] choose [They] choose 3. 242. there are many periphrastic or compound forms. You choose Plural. I chose 2. and shall (or will) have before the past participle of any verb. 1. I choose 2. 1. . as. In addition to the above inflected forms. [He] chooses [They] choose 3. tenses. "I shall be. The ordinary tenses yet to be spoken of are made up as follows:² (1) Future tense. by using shall and will with the simple or root form of the verb. (2). FULL CONJUGATION OF THE VERB CHOOSE. by placing have. I chose 2. past perfect. I choose 2. 1.241. PRESENT TENSE Singular and Plural Choose. etc.

(3) The definite form of each tense. he chose (or were to choose). Same as indicative. (2d per. He chose. He had been choosing. He will have chosen. Past perfect. He has chosen. "I am running. Present perfect. as. etc. He had chosen. Present perfect definite. Past perfect definite. singular number. Indicative Mood. as." (4) The passive forms. Past definite. " Be choosing. He will choose. he have been choosing. The following scheme will show how rich our language is in verb phrases to express every variety of meaning. He has been choosing. He chooses. Present definite. Future perfect. Only the third person. . Present. Present definite. Present perfect definite. "I was chosen. by using auxiliaries with the imperfect participle active. He is choosing. Future perfect definite. " " " " " " " he be choosing. Future definite. though. He will he choosing. lest. Past definite. Past. Past perfect. of each tense. Present. by using the forms of the verb be before the past participle of verbs. will be given.] he choose. he have chosen. Present. Past. [If. Present definite. he were choosing (or were to be choosing). Present perfect. He was choosing." "They had been running. Past perfect definite. He will have been choosing.) Choose. Same as indicative." "You are chosen. Future. Imperative Mood." 243. Subjunctive Mood. ACTIVE VOICE.

etc. Indicative Mood.NOTE. Past definite. they will be discussed later (Sec. though. he were being chosen. it should be as practice work on strong and weak verb forms.²This table is not to be learned now." "He did strike. He will be chosen. He is chosen. Past definite. Subjunctive Mood. however. Past perfect definite. None. Past. Also. Present. the indicative present and past tenses have emphatic forms made up of do and did with the infinitive or simple form. Past perfect definite. as. . Future definite.] he be chosen. Present definite.) Be chosen. None. Present perfect. None. "He does strike. Past Perfect. He had been chosen. None. He was chosen. He will have been chosen. Future. PASSIVE VOICE. 262). He is being chosen. Past. Present. None.²Since participles and infinitives are not really verbs. He has been chosen. to bring up sentences containing such of these conjugation forms as the pupil will find readily in literature. he had been chosen. Present perfect. in affirmative sentences. Present definite. He was being chosen. Present perfect definite. but verbals. Exercises should be given. he were chosen (or were to be chosen). (2d per. Past perfect. Imperative Mood.] [If. " " " " " " " None." [Note to Teacher. None. Present tense. Future perfect. Future perfect definite. lest. Present perfect definite. if learned at all. he have been chosen..

TABLE OF STRONG VERBS. 244. slept. laid. According to form. chid chosen climbed clung come (crowed) dug done drawn clove. Kinds. beg.VERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO FORM. abode arisen awoke (awaked) borne (active)born (passive) begun beheld bidden. Some of these also have weak forms. which are in parentheses Present Tense. bit blown broken chidden. A strong verb forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present tense form. but adds no ending. lay. and may or may not change the vowel: as. bid bound bit blew broke chid chose [clomb] climbed clung came crew (crowed) dug did drew Past Participle. NOTE. Past Tense. abide arise awake bear begin behold bid bind bite blow break chide choose cleave climb cling come crow dig do draw abode arose awoke (awaked) bore began beheld bade. ran. A weak verb always adds an ending to the present to form the past tense. clave (cleft) cloven (cleft) . verbs are strong or weak. caught. drive. catch. as. run. bounden] bitten.[adj. 245. begged. sleep. drove. bid bound. Definition.

eat fell fought found flung flew forbore forgot forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) held knew lay rode rang ran saw shook shore (sheared) shone shot shrank or shrunk shrove sang or sung drunk.drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forbear forget forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hold know lie ride ring run see shake shear shine shoot shrink shrive sing drank drove ate. drank[adj. eat fallen fought found flung flown forborne forgotten forsaken frozen got [gotten] given gone ground grown hung (hanged) held known lain ridden rung run seen shaken shorn (sheared) shone shot shrunk shriven sung . drunken] driven eaten.

stank strode struck strung strove swore swam or swum swung took tore throve (thrived) threw trod wore wove won wound sunk [adj.sink sit slay slide sling slink smite speak spin spring stand stave steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wear weave win wind sank or sunk sat [sate] slew slid slung slunk smote spoke spun sprang. sunken] sat slain slidden. stricken strung striven sworn swum swung taken torn thriven (thrived) thrown trodden. sprung stood stove (staved) stole stuck stung stunk. trod worn woven won wound . slid slung slunk smitten spoken spun sprung stood (staved) stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck.

²TENNYSON. instead of drunken (meaning intoxicated). cleft." "a sunken snag. as. Sometimes in literary English. Crew is seldom found in present-day English. "stricken with paralysis. especially in that of an earlier period. to split. it is found that the verb eat has the past tense and past participle eat ( t).² Thou hast clomb aloft. instead of ate and eaten." "a drunken wretch. and the latter. as. and.wring write wrung wrote wrung written Remarks on Certain Verb Forms. Several of the perfect participles are seldom used except as adjectives: as. But the latter took on the weak form cleft in the past tense and past participle. cleaved. TAYLOR. and another (born) for the passive. for example.²as (from Shakespeare). ²THACKERAY. the other.²B. "his bounden duty. which always crew at eleven." In this confusion of usage. cleaved. drank is a good deal used as a past participle: thus.²COLERIDGE. cleave. only one set remains certain. Not a cock crew. cloven.²GOLDSMITH. How fairy Mab the junkets eat. ." The verb bear (to bring forth) is peculiar in having one participle (borne) for the active.²COLERIDGE The forms of cleave are really a mixture of two verbs.² We had each drank three times at the well.²WORDSWORTH Or pine grove whither woodman never clomb."²while cleave (to cling) sometimes has clove." "the cloven hoof. The former used to be cleave. borne is also a passive. But drunk is very much used as an adjective." Stricken is used mostly of diseases. The form clomb is not used in prose. drunk is the one correct past participle of the verb drink. This liquor was generally drank by Wood and Billings. clave or clove.²MILTON. but is much used in vulgar English. 246. as (from Holmes). probably to avoid confusion with this. Historically. now told us it was time for repose. as.²cleave. cleft (to split). nor a dog barked. and sometimes occurs in poetry.² It ate the food it ne'er had eat. "The old Latin tutor clove to Virgilius Maro. "O Hamlet! thou hast cleft my heart in twain.²IRVING. When it means to carry or to endure. This is also very much used in spoken and vulgar English. The island princes overboldHave eat our substance.²one meaning to adhere or cling. Our cock.

Hung and hanged both are used as the past tense and past participle of hang. Usually shear is a weak verb. Freeze. "The sheep were sheared" instead of "The sheep were shorn."²KINGSLEY. shaken. maiden. and grasping at his sword. Drive. make out lists of verbs having the same vowel changes as each of the following:² y y y y y y y y y y 1. Fling. This heard Geraint. found. flung. fallen." Went is borrowed as the past tense of go from the old verb wend.² If. Fall. for example." but not much as a participle. frozen. which is seldom used except in poetry.²BIBLE. Shorn is used sometimes as a participial adjective. The butler was hanged.²TENNYSON. as "a shorn lamb. Give. broken. thou would'st wend with meTo leave both tower and town. 2. Begin. 10. got being the preferred form of past participle as well as past tense. Break. 6.The form gotten is little used. 7. given. 245). 3. threw. broke.²SCOTT.²WORDSWORTH. for example. The verb sat is sometimes spelled sate. as. fell. began. Shorn and shore are not commonly used: indeed. even in poetry. Throw. drove. He sate him down. begun. We usually say. 9. . shook. 5. Exercises. thrown.² We had all got safe on shore. 8. and seized a pen. (c) Find sentences using ten past participles of strong verbs. "But I sate still and finished my plaiting. found.²DE FOE. One example out of many is. froze.Shore thro' the swarthy neck.² Might we have sate and talked where gowans blow. Shake.²BYRON. flung. Find. (a) From the table (Sec. 4. driven. shore is rare. (b) Find sentences using ten past-tense forms of strong verbs. gave. but hanged is the preferred form when we speak of execution by hanging.

Ability. Could may be subjunctive.²HAWTHORNE. like the word can: it is subjunctive when it expresses doubt as to the reality of an action. ability. 223.[To the Teacher. as it has two meanings. May is used as either indicative or subjunctive.. as.. as in Sec.²SCOTT. PAST. of course. etc. 251. Indicative Use: Permission. must have been an ocular deception. but came through analogy with should and would. There are several verbs which are lacking in one or more principal parts.) And from her fair and unpolluted fleshMay violets spring!²SHAKESPEARE. HAMILTON. purpose."²WINIER.. 249. Like must. The l in could did not belong there originally.. The just imputations on our own faith ought first to be removed. as it sometimes does. may can [must] might [ought] could shall must will ought should would 248. His superiority none might question. PRESENT. Subjunctive use. Have we valuable territories and important posts.²These exercises should be continued for several lessons. "So mote it be. from the obsolete verb motan. or.²CHANNING. 250. PAST. .²CHANNING This. there is one general principle. etc. If I may lightly employ the Miltonic figure. which is historically the past tense of the verb owe. Can is used in the indicative only. Must is historically a past-tense form.which ought long since to have been surrendered?²A.²PAINE. it is used only in the indicative mood. 247. according to the infinitive used.. which survives in the sentence. (See also Sec. A stripling arm might swayA mass no host could raise. It is indicative when it expresses permission. They are as follows:² PRESENT. In whatever manner the separate parts of a constitution may be arranged. The same remarks apply to ought. "far off his coming shines. All must concede to him a sublime power of action.] DEFECTIVE STRONG VERBS. 220. for full drill on the forms." Must is present or past tense. or when it expresses wish.

especially in the United States. (b) In indirect quotations. what shall I say?²N. not plod along like apeasant.² (a) To express authority. as. Shall and Will. I shall be gone.² Futurity and questions²first person. The following distinctions must be observed:² (1) With the FIRST PERSON.²L. with pronouns of the first person. my lad. (2) With the SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. yea.It will be noticed that all the other defective verbs take the pure infinitive without to.² He declares that he shall win the purse from you. the ponderous wave up the loose beach shall grind and scoop thy grave. . How shall I describe the luster which at that moment burst upon my vision?²C. to the neglect of shall and should.. while ought always has to.²LONGFELLOW.²COOPER. "I think I will go. The sea shall crush thee. to express the same idea that the original speaker put forth (i. Second and third persons. or confident prediction. as. (a) In making simple statements or predictions about future time. 252. through the dust and heat ofthe noonday. whilst I live thou shalt never want a friend to stand by thee. promise. to use will and would. shall and should are used. She rejects his suit with scorn. shall and should are used. C. They shall have venison to eat.² The time will come full soon. WEBSTER.²THAXTER. (b) In questions asking for orders.Nay. future action). She should not walk.² With respect to novels. BROCKDEN BROWN. he said. but assures him that she shall make great use of her power over him. as. for example. in the form of command. she should ride like a queen. The following are examples:² Never mind. and corn to hoe.²BULWER." Uses of shall and should. MOULTON.e. The principal trouble in the use of shall and will is the disposition.²IRVING.²MACAULAY. or implying obligation or authority resting upon the subject.

²H. Disguising a command. Milton! thou should'st be living at this hour. BROWN.²WINTER. was to be expected. JAMES.that I would do him justice. and will not return until all is finished.²WORDSWORTH.. or a promise. Suppose this back-door gossip should be utterly blundering and untrue. If I should be where I no more can hear thy voice. 253. and is equivalent to ought. (c) With direct questions of the second person. I never was what I should be. If thou should'st ever come by chance or choice to Modena.. etc.²BYRON.. That accents and looks so winning should disarm me of my resolution. (b) Shall and should are both used in dependent clauses of condition. time. as the sole inventor.²A. when the answer expected would express simple futurity. LARNED.² When thy mindShall be a mansion for all stately forms.²SWIFT.²ROGERS. would any one wonder?²THACKERAY. as. First.² I will go myself now.²WORDSWORTH. purpose.² (a) Should is used with the meaning of obligation. for example. Jealous lest the sky should have a listener.²WORDSWORTH.² "Should you like to go to school at Canterbury?"²DICKENS. Will and would are used as follows:² Authority as to future action²first person.²C. . (1) With the FIRST PERSON. He should not flatter himself with the delusion that he can make or unmake the reputation of other men. will and would are used to express determination as to the future. JR.²SCOTT.Fielding came up more and more bland and smiling. (3) With ALL THREE PERSONS. second and third persons. Those who had too presumptuously concluded that they should pass without combat were something disconcerted. with the conviction that he should win in the end. And promised.²CABLE. for example. thus. B.

²SCOTT. To be sure. AND THIRD PERSONS.. for example. and fetch off certain plate and belongings. Thine was a dangerous gift. they would cut off the hands of numbers of the natives. Would that a momentary emanation from thy glory would visit me!²C. (4) With FIRST. without regard to future time.. but thou shalt answer to me for the use of it.²BANCROFT.² DICKENS. will and would are used to express simple futurity. They will go to Sunday schools. What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?²COLERIDGE. shaking his right knee with a constant motion. . Would thou hadst it not.. You will proceed to Manassas at as early a moment as practicable. PASSIVE VOICE. This puts the order more mildly. and mark on the grounds the works. Mere futurity.²BURKE. as. They will stand behind a table at a fair all day.² Thou wilt take the skiff. as. Roland. would is used to express a wish. SECOND.²IRVING. as if it were merely expected action. will and would often denote an action as customary. She would tell you that punishment is the reward of the wicked.²the original meaning of the word will. In this stately chair would he sit.² Subject I omitted: often so.²SCOTT.. Conjugation of Shall and Will as Auxiliaries (with Choose). When I am in town. through storms their brothers are afraid of.. will is used to express command. (5) With the THIRD PERSON. (3) With both SECOND AND THIRD PERSONS. so you will.. 254. and this magnificent pipe would he smoke.² All this will sound wild and chimerical. To express simply expected action:² ACTIVE VOICE. BROWN. etc. for punishment or intimidation.² ROGERS It shall be gold if thou wilt. for example.(2) With the SECOND PERSON.²War Records.²HOLMES On a slight suspicion. you'll always have somebody to sit with you. action merely expected to occur. when thou wast born. and two of my people.²LANDOR. B. The gift of Beauty.

2." answered Herbert stubbornly.Singular. I shall be chosen. Plural. promise. etc. 6. [He] shall choose. (b) Examine the following sentences. What shall we do with him? This is the sphinx-like riddle which we must solve if we would not be eaten. [They] will choose. Exercises on Shall and Will. and that of the newest cut. 252 and 253. 3. We will be chosen. Plural. We will choose. 2. Singular. He informed us. (a) From Secs. You shall be chosen. 1. 3. PASSIVE VOICE. yet only seem. 5. You shall choose. You will choose. Plural. You shall choose. write out a summary or outline of the various uses of shall and will. You will choose. To express determination. [He] will be chosen. I shall choose. 4. Thou art what I would be. You shall be chosen. Thou shalt have a suit. 2. 1. You will be chosen. the wardrobe keeper shall have orders to supply you. 3. [He] will choose. and justify the use of shall and will. Plural. . 1. 1. We shall choose. [They] shall choose. You will be chosen. We would be greatly mistaken if we thought so. or correct them if wrongly used:² 1. 2. We shall be chosen. I will choose. 3. Singular.:² ACTIVE VOICE. that in the course of another day's march we would reach the prairies on the banks of the Grand Canadian. 2. Singular. [They] shall be chosen. 2. [He] shall be chosen. "I shall not run. 3. I will be chosen. [They] will be chosen. 3. 1.

² This worthi man ful wel his wit bisette [used]. Lucy stood still. (2) Those which end in -d or -t. that sche fedde With rosted flessh. But I will doubtless find some English person of whom to make inquiries. 12. The beast made a sluggish movement. WEAK VERBS. 255. was -de or -te. and have lost the ending which formerly was added to this. 10. This ending has now dropped off. "and would like permission to remain with you a little while. 9.7. my son. 257. or mylk and wastel breed. very anxious.²Class I. as if he would have more of the enchantment.²ID.² The two classes of irregular weak verbs. "I am a wayfarer. bereaved besought . as. bereave beseech bereft. Of smale houndes hadde she. Will not our national character be greatly injured? Will we not be classed with the robbers and destroyers of mankind? 8. and have no change of vowel. Past Tense. whatever cash I send you is yours: you will spend it as you please. put." 14. we will be at a loss to understand several passages in the classics. and I have nothing to say. put. I would be overpowered by the feeling of my disgrace.²CHAUCER. bereave besought Past Participle. stirred her slightly with his muzzle. Those weak verbs which add -d or -ed to form the past tense and past participle. set. with some change of form for the past tense and past participle. No. 256. bereft. put. 11. which may be called irregular weak verbs. set. Irregular Weak Verbs. then. Without having attended to this. Some of them are already given as secondary forms of the strong verbs." the stranger said. The old ending to verbs of Class II. and wondering whether she should see anything alive. leaving some weak verbs with the same form throughout: as set. The irregular weak verbs are divided into two classes. need some attention and explanation. 13. But the rest. Present Tense. are so easily recognized as to need no special treatment. (1) Those which retain the -d or -t in the past tense.

stayed swept taught made (once maked) made . hid kept knelt laid leaned. pen said sought sold shod slept spelled. stayed swept taught burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. dreamed dwelt felt fled had (once haved) hidden. spelt spilt staid. burnt bought caught crept dealt dreamt. pent said sought sold shod slept spelt spilt staid. dreamed dwelt felt fled had hid kept knelt laid leaned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leapt left lost meant paid penned. leant leaped. leant leaped.burn buy catch creep deal dream dwell feel flee have hide keep kneel lay lean leap leave lose make mean pay pen [inclose] say seek sell shoe sleep spell spill stay sweep teach burned.

tell think weep work

told thought wept worked, wrought

told thought wept worked, wrought

258. Irregular Weak Verbs.²Class II. Present Tense. Past Tense. bend bleed breed build cast cost feed gild gird hit hurt knit lead let light meet put quit read rend rid send set shed shred shut bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut Past Participle. bent, bended bled bred built cast cost fed gilded, gilt girt, girded hit hurt knit, knitted led let lighted, lit met put quit, quitted read rent rid sent set shed shred shut

slit speed spend spit split spread sweat thrust wed wet

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

slit sped spent split spread sweat thrust wed, wedded wet, wetted

spit [obs. spat] spit [obs. spat]

Tendency to phonetic spelling.

250. There seems to be in Modern English a growing tendency toward phonetic spelling in the past tense and past participle of weak verbs. For example, -ed, after the verb bless, has the sound of t: hence the word is often written blest. So with dipt, whipt, dropt, tost, crost, drest, prest, etc. This is often seen in poetry, and is increasing in prose.

Some Troublesome Verbs.
Lie and lay in use and meaning.

260. Some sets of verbs are often confused by young students, weak forms being substituted for correct, strong forms. Lie and lay need close attention. These are the forms:² Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Lie 2. Lay lay laid lying laying lain laid

The distinctions to be observed are as follows:² (1) Lie, with its forms, is regularly intransitive as to use. As to meaning, lie means to rest, to recline, to place one's self in a recumbent position; as, "There lies the ruin." (2) Lay, with its forms, is always transitive as to use. As to meaning, lay means to put, to place a person or thing in position; as, "Slowly and sadly we laid him down." Also lay may be used without any object expressed, but there is still a transitive meaning; as in the expressions, "to lay up for future use," "to lay on with the rod," "to lay about him lustily."
Sit and set.

261. Sit and set have principal parts as follows:²

Present Tense. Past Tense. Pres. Participle. Past Participle. 1. Sit 2. Set sat set sitting setting sat set

Notice these points of difference between the two verbs:² (1) Sit, with its forms, is always intransitive in use. In meaning, sit signifies (a) to place one's self on a seat, to rest; (b) to be adjusted, to fit; (c) to cover and warm eggs for hatching, as, "The hen sits." (2) Set, with its forms, is always transitive in use when it has the following meanings: (a) to put or place a thing or person in position, as "He set down the book;" (b) to fix or establish, as, "He sets a good example." Set is intransitive when it means (a) to go down, to decline, as, "The sun has set;" (b) to become fixed or rigid, as, "His eyes set in his head because of the disease;" (c) in certain idiomatic expressions, as, for example, "to set out," "to set up in business," "to set about a thing," "to set to work," "to set forward," "the tide sets in," "a strong wind set in," etc. Exercise. Examine the forms of lie, lay, sit and set in these sentences; give the meaning of each, and correct those used wrongly. 1. If the phenomena which lie before him will not suit his purpose, all history must be ransacked. 2. He sat with his eyes fixed partly on the ghost and partly on Hamlet, and with his mouth open. 3. The days when his favorite volume set him upon making wheelbarrows and chairs,... can never again be the realities they were. 4. To make the jacket sit yet more closely to the body, it was gathered at the middle by a broad leathern belt. 5. He had set up no unattainable standard of perfection. 6. For more than two hundred years his bones lay undistinguished. 7. The author laid the whole fault on the audience. 8. Dapple had to lay down on all fours before the lads could bestride him. 9. And send'st his gods where happy liesHis petty hope in some near port or bay,And dashest him again to earth:²there let him lay. 10. Achilles is the swift-footed when he is sitting still. 11. It may be laid down as a general rule, that history begins in novel, and ends in essay.

12. I never took off my clothes, but laid down in them.


262. Verbals are words that express action in a general way, without limiting the action to any time, or asserting it of any subject.

Verbals may be participles, infinitives, or gerunds.


263. Participles are adjectival verbals; that is, they either belong to some substantive by expressing action in connection with it, or they express action, and directly modify a substantive, thus having a descriptive force. Notice these functions.
Pure participle in function.

1. At length, wearied by his cries and agitations, and not knowing how to put an end to them, he addressed the animal as if he had been a rational being.²DWIGHT. Here wearied and knowing belong to the subject he, and express action in connection with it, but do not describe.
Express action and also describe.

2. Another name glided into her petition²it was that of the wounded Christian, whom fate had placed in the hands of bloodthirsty men, his avowed enemies.²SCOTT. Here wounded and avowed are participles, but are used with the same adjectival force that bloodthirsty is (see Sec. 143, 4). Participial adjectives have been discussed in Sec. 143 (4), but we give further examples for the sake of comparison and distinction.
Fossil participles as adjectives.

3. As learned a man may live in a cottage or a college commmon-room.²THACKERAY 4. Not merely to the soldier are these campaigns interesting ²BAYNE. 5. How charming is divine philosophy!²MILTON.
Forms of the participle.

264. Participles, in expressing action, may be active or passive, incomplete (or imperfect), complete (perfect or past), and perfect definite. They cannot be divided into tenses (present, past, etc.), because they have no tense of their own, but derive their tense from the verb on which they depend; for example,² 1. He walked conscientiously through the services of the day, fulfilling every section the minutest, etc.²DE QUINCEY. Fulfilling has the form to denote continuance, but depends on the verb walked, which is past tense. 2. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,Comes dancing from the East.²MILTON. Dancing here depends on a verb in the present tense. 265. PARTICIPLES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. ACTIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. Choosing. Having chosen.

Perfect definite. Having been choosing. PASSIVE VOICE. Imperfect. Perfect. None Chosen, being chosen, having been chosen.

Perfect definite. None. Exercise. Pick out the participles, and tell whether active or passive, imperfect, perfect, or perfect definite. If pure participles, tell to what word they belong; if adjectives, tell what words they modify. 1. The change is a large process, accomplished within a large and corresponding space, having, perhaps, some central or equatorial line, but lying, like that of our earth, between certain tropics, or limits widely separated. 2. I had fallen under medical advice the most misleading that it is possible to imagine. 3. These views, being adopted in a great measure from my mother, were naturally the same as my mother's. 4. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over her people. 5. No spectacle was more adapted to excite wonder.

²the creature warring against the creating power. formed a kind of bedstead. expressing purpose. stripped of their branches and bound together at their ends. 267 the word to is printed in brackets because it is not a necessary part of the infinitive. Cases when to is omitted. try clemency. ACTIVE VOICE. This all-pervading principle is at work in our system. have no tense. [To] choose. to was used before the infinitive generally. an imperfect. and when passive. to express action unconnected with a subject. 9. Perfect. 8. . 7. To with the infinitive. 10. Infinitives. Indefinite. Perfect definite. [To] have been chosen. [To] be chosen. as in the Old English.6. Nothing of the kind having been done. Indefinite. when inflections became fewer. Perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. " t ode se s dere his sæd t s wenne" (Out went the sower his seed to sow). like participles. [To] have been choosing.. a perfect. 268. and the principles of this unfortunate king having been distorted.. 267. and a perfect definite form. an indefinite and a perfect form. But later. except in the following cases:² (1) After the auxiliaries shall.. Imperfect. INFINITIVES. When active. Perfect. will (with should and would). It originally belonged only to an inflected form of the infinitive. PASSIVE VOICE. In Sec. [To] be choosing. [To] have chosen. 266. they have an indefinite. I returned to reflection on my situation. INFINITIVES OF THE VERB CHOOSE. Three saplings. Having fully supplied the demands of nature in this respect.

do (as.). "You had better go" "He had rather walk than ride. as in the following examples:² "He find pleasure in doing good!" cried Sir William.²HOWELLS. watch. GERUNDS. She did not weep²she did not break forth into reproaches. and emphatic forms of the present and past. But there was nothing to do.²DE QUINCEY.²GOLDSMITH. liberal woman. poor woman!" cried Charles.²E. under "Analysis. and like a noun in use. 270. as in the expression. 271. sometimes need (as. They shall have venison to eat. (3) After had in the idiomatic use. "a house to let." etc. make. E. 269. too. Do not entertain so weak an imagination²BURKE. Shall and will are not to be taken as separate verbs. "I do go" etc. Nolan himself saw that something was to pay." (4) In exclamations. must. I urge an address to his kinswoman! I approach her when in a base disguise! I do this!²SCOTT. present tense] the love of the great stars? ²BULWER. The gerund is like the participle in form. negative. it is frequently modified by a possessive noun or pronoun. it has several attributes of a noun. hear. feel. While the gerund expresses action. also let. also in the imperative.²IRVING.. The infinitive is sometimes active in form while it is passive in meaning. as.² What! doth she. as. see. it may be the subject of a verb. rich rather more than needed where there were no opera boxes to rent. Also do may be considered an auxiliary in the interrogative. the gerund may be called a noun verbal.²COOPER. The various offices which the infinitive and the participle have in the sentence will be treated in Part II." Examples are. The participle has been called an adjectival verbal.(2) After the verbs may (might).²TENNYSON.² She was a kind. "He need not go") and dare (to venture)." "I shall have chosen." as we are now learning merely to recognize the forms. please. as. "He will choose. can (could). "She ask my pardon.²MACAULAY. as the credulous imagine. but with the infinitive as one tense of a verb. it is often preceded by the definite article. 272. and corn to hoe. learn [doth learn is one verb. Tho' it seems my spurs are yet to win. or the object of a verb or a preposition. bid (command).²it may be governed as a noun. . HALE.

but do not assert." "The guilt of having been cured of the palsy by a Jewish maiden. SUMMARY OF WORDS IN -ING 274. (5) Gerunds. (6) Verbal nouns." (2) Object: (a) "Our culture therefore must not omit the arming of the man. making the definite tenses." "He could not help holding out his hand in return. may govern and be governed. The following are examples of the uses of the gerund:² (1) Subject: "The taking of means not to see another morning had all day absorbed every energy. above. which express action. II). according to use as well as meaning. What a vast. It differs from the participle in being always used as a noun: it never belongs to or limits a noun." (b) "Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus. (4) Pure adjectives." "Certainly dueling is bad.²Find sentences containing five participles. but cannot govern. five infinitives. when. b). The crowning incident of my life was upon the bank of the Scioto Salt Creek. Then how pleasing is it. 273. It differs from the verbal noun in having the property of governing a noun (which the verbal noun has not) and of expressing action (the verbal noun merely names an action. in which I had been unhorsed by the breaking of the saddle girths. (2) Pure participles. they find the nurslings untouched! 3. which express action and also modify." "I announce the good of being interpenetrated by the mind that made nature. and five gerunds." also (2. on your leaving the spot. Words in -ing are of six kinds. Sec. Exercise. (3) Participial adjectives. which express action.Distinguished from participle and verbal noun. 2. They are as follows:² (1) Part of the verb." Exercise. "He could embellish the characters with new traits without violating probability. and wonderful store of learning! . after examining the nest. and has been put down. which name an action or state. which have lost all verbal force." (3) Governing and Governed: "We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. to see the returning hope of the parents. brilliant. Tell to which of the above six classes each -ing word in the following sentences belongs:² 1. 4. Here is need of apologies for shortcomings.

²transitive or intransitive. subjunctive. He is one of the most charming masters of our language. give the following points:² (1) Class: (a) as to form. by object lessons. 12. A marble figure of Mary is stretched upon the tomb. (5) Person and number.²which of the tenses given in Sec. giving principal parts. In explaining to a child the phenomena of nature. for the form of the verb may not show the person and number. (3) Mood. 14. 275. HOW TO PARSE VERBS AND VERBALS. I suppose I was dreaming about it. In parsing verbs. (2) Voice. We now draw toward the end of that great martial drama which we have been briefly contemplating. dictating from his chair.5. 16. . He spread his blessings all over the land.²indicative. Caution. 9. slowly. (4) Tense. It is years since I heard the laughter ringing. or imperative. 13. VERBS. I. What is dreaming? 8. he gave out sentence by sentence.²strong or weak. Thackeray did not. 15. bearing her national emblem. write twenty pages without stopping.²active or passive. in determining which you must tell² (6) What the subject is. 7. (b) as to use. 6. but. you must. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing: it is seeing and ascertaining. The second cause of failure was the burning of Moscow. 11. like Sir Walter Scott. round which is an iron railing. give reality to your teaching. The exertion left me in a state of languor and sinking. 234. The only means of ascending was by my hands. 10. much corroded.

2. imperfect. For fuller parsing of the infinitive. In 2. active. VERB PHRASES. It has been intimated in Sec. 235. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. VERBALS. The birds were singing as if there were no aching hearts. Exercise. Take these examples:² 1. in the world. 273). Especially frequent are those made up of should. You are gathered to your fathers. Have been is a perfect active infinitive. Lee should of himself have replenished his stock. Parse the verbs. till it meet the sun in his coming. would. definite. or is an old or poetic form ending in -st or -eth. (1) Participle. In such sentences as 1. II. 277. 278. verbals. intransitive. But unless the verb is present. Tell (a) from what verb it is derived. perfect." Sometimes it does. may. it is best for the student not to state it as a general rule that "the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. call should a weak verb. and should always be analyzed as phrases. and live only to your country in her grateful remembrance. (b) whether active or passive." but merely to tell what the subject of the verb is. (2) Infinitive. III. therefore active. 4. call might a weak verb. (b) its use (Sec. must. (b) whether indefinite. intransitive. "A verb agrees with its subject in person and number. past tense. followed by a pure infinitive without to. and not taken as single verbs. see Sec. (3) Gerund. give points (a) and (b). and verb phrases in the following sentences:² 1. 2. let the earliest light of the morning gild it. past tense. has the subject government. The government might have been strong and prosperous. (a) From what verb derived. if agrees means that the verb changes its form for the different persons and numbers. The verb be has more forms than other verbs. . indicative (as it means could). and parting day linger and play on its summit. Byron builds a structure that repeats certain elements in nature or humanity. (c) to what word it belongs. indicative. has for its subject Lee.. can. etc. 278(2). Let it rise! let it rise. might. and may be said to agree with its subject in several of its forms. If a participial adjective. perfect.276. we must beware of the rule. usually it does not. etc. Verb phrases are made up of a principal verb followed by an infinitive. then parse it as an adjective. 3. could. and ends in -s. no sin nor sorrow. Have replenished is a perfect active infinitive.

leaving me upon the bed. However that be. where I afterward found he had replaced me on being awakened by hearing me leap frantically up and down on the floor. 17. When he arose in the morning. So. a new bursting forth of the sun. as rolled from wing to wing. The ancients called it ecstasy or absence. Hasheesh always brings an awakening of perception which magnifies the smallest sensation. He can behold with serenity the yawning gulf between the ambition of man and his power of performance.O God. With them. 16. Whatever ground you sow or plant. a new waking up of all that has life. a sweet good will. he thought only of her. To the child it was not permitted to look beyond into the hazy lines that bounded his oasis of flowers. 14. 11. 13.5. The sun appears to beat in vain at the casements. He had rather stand charged with the imbecility of skepticism than with untruth. and wondered if she were yet awake. . 24. In going for water. The soul having been often born. 20. Read this Declaration at the head of the army. Margaret had come into the workshop with her sewing. 19. Two things there are with memory will abide²Whatever else befall²while life flows by.Henceforth in me instill. "God save our Lord the King!" 7. he seemed to be traveling over a desert plain to some far-off spring. as usual. Such a boy could not whistle or dance. and his agitated soul reflected only broken and distorted images of things.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. lest I be inclinedTo render ill for ill. Right graciously he smiled on us. see that it is in good condition. 18. 23." there is nothing of which she has not gained knowledge. 10. 8. or.Down all the line. as the Hindoos say. a deafening shout. it is certain that he had grown to delight in nothing else than this conversation. 9. He passed across the room to the washstand. 15. 12. 22. 21. 6. from a sort of temporary death. He had lost the quiet of his thoughts. morning is not a new issuing of light. "traveling the path of existence through thousands of births.

ADVERBS. Oh." An adjective or an adverb. or manner: as. thou sayest. When action is expressed. And now wend we to yonder fountain. ." "Principles of English law are put down a little confusedly." "One of the young heroes scrambled up behind [place]. and so on. Sometimes an adverb may modify a noun or pronoun. because. But this does not mean that adverbs modify verbs only: many of them express degree. who live with nature?²ID. 279. to consent. Nor was it altogether nothing. Sounds overflow the listener's brain So sweet that joy is almost pain. 26. Better it were. Is it only poets. place. "He began already to be proud of being a Rugby boy [time].Feast while we may. A verb. Macaulay began with the senior wrangler of 1801-23-4.²EMERSON. "William's private life was severely pure. for example. The adverb is the only word that can join to a verb to modify it. To the almost terror of the persons present." Sometimes a noun or pronoun."²DE QUINCEY. 27. had we some bright little isle of our own! 28. The word adverb means joined to a verb.²THACKERAY.² The young man reveres men of genius. an adverb is usually added to define the action in some way.²time. and limit adjectives or adverbs. 29.²SHELLEY. and live ere life be spent. as. and men of leisure and cultivation. to speak truly. Adverbs modify. Over them multitudes of rosy children came leaping to throw garlands on my victorious road. but wisely and bravely ruling [manner].²CARLYLE. for the hour of rest is at hand. they are more himself than he is. I have always talked to him as I would to a friend. The condition of Kate is exactly that of Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner.25." "He was absolute.

not simply the forms used in predication. Definition. while those in Sec. ALDRICH.He was incidentally news dealer. A phrase. Adverbs may be classified in two ways: (1) according to the meaning of the words. but really modifying. as. perhaps. emphasizing or qualifying the statement expressed. or a word group used as such. then. which may qualify an action word or a statement. 281. 169 are felt to be elliptical. thus. and rather forced into the service of adjectives.² And certainly no one ever entered upon office with so few resources of power in the past. B. has induced some of us to attend it.² The gentle winds and waters [that are] near. I draw forth the fruit. maybe nibbled by rabbits and hollowed out by crickets. there are six classes:² (1) Time.²The expression action word is put instead of verb.²THOREAU. hitherto. is a modifying word.²T.²TROLLOPE.² FRANKLIN. (2) according to their use in the sentence. 282. ²IRVING. to-day. .²LEIGH HUNT. to which the eye Looked up half sweetly.²BYRON. not the noun. Also these adverbs modifying nouns are to be distinguished from those standing after a noun by ellipsis. and may add to the meaning of an adjective or adverb. 280. as now. An adverb may modify a phrase which is equivalent to an adjective or an adverb.² LOWELL. because any verbal word may be limited by an adverb.² They had begun to make their effort much at the same time. as shown in the sentences. NOTE. lately. and that. Make music to the lonely ear. A clause or sentence. ever. Surely happiness is reflective. but still with a rich bloom to it. 169. for example. We are offered six months' credit. With bowering leaves [that grow] o'erhead. and perhaps with a leaf or two cemented to it. being adverbs naturally and fitly. but some verb understood. NOTE. etc. Thus considered. It may also modify a sentence. ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MEANING. like the light of heaven. An adverb. before. all wet and glossy. and half awfully.²These last differ from the words in Sec.

as hence. two by two. This and that are very common as adverbs in spoken English. maybe. Such a glittering appearance that no ordinary man would have been able to close his eyes there. just. White.² But not the less the blare of the tumultuous organ wrought its own separate creations. slowly. slightly. especially the comparative of these words. etc. or how far he believes it to be true. not. for example. Motley. So also in Grote. as perhaps. Death! To die! I owe that much To what. probably. (6) Assertion. too.²LECKY.near. The is an adverb of degree when it limits an adjective or an adverb. at least. etc.thither. that these adverbs form a very large class. whithersoever. telling how much. greatly. the more evidently they love liberty. Special remarks on adverbs of degree.which gained him such universal popularity. thus. 283. singly. above.²BROWNING. better. (c) PLACE FROM WHICH..there.²HAWTHORNE. These may be adverbs either of y y y (a) PLACE WHERE. as little. whencesoever.²SHAKESPEARE. (4) Number. as here. (3) Manner. etc.whither.where. 283). etc. (5) Degree.yonder. I was. (see also Sec.thence.²BURKE. bravely. very.. as well. as hither. This long's the text. LOUIS STEVENSON. enough. An eye of such piercing brightness and such commanding power that it gave an air of inspiration. partly. beautifully.] Such is frequently used as an equivalent of so: such precedes an adjective with its noun. Action is conceived or performed in so many ways. possibly.. The more they multiply. and others. etc. and not infrequently are found in literary English. while so precedes only the adjective usually.²IRVING.² The master. Thackeray.was for this once of her opinion. twice.²R.whence. telling how anything is done. telling how many times: once. the more friends you will have. surely. [Sidenote The status of such. Meekness.. etc. telling the speaker's belief or disbelief in a statement. Emerson.(2) Place. much. .²DE QUINCEY. (b) PLACE TO WHICH.. the more perfect will be their obedience.

De Quincey. Holmes. Hard blows and hard money. the meaning of words must be noticed rather than their form. Neville. Defoe. Interrogative. Franklin. A pretty large experience. and other writers.²THACKERAY. Aldrich. for many words given above may be moved from one class to another at will: as these examples.²BULWER. 282.² KINGSLEY. Such are most of those given already in Sec."²SCOTT. "Maybe you're wanting to get over?²anybody sick? Ye seem mighty anxious!"²H." "That were far better [degree]. Beau Fielding. STOWE. The adverb mighty is very common in colloquial English. Dickens. Mighty. 286. 285. I believe our astonishment is pretty equal. Notice meanings. Deacon Gookin!" replied the solemn tones of the minister.²GOLDSMITH.²BAYNE. and its lawn before [place]." "The house." ADVERBS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO USE." "I have seen you before [time].²"He walked too far [place]. 284. The first of these generals is pretty generally recognized as the greatest military genius that ever lived. Simple. "thou think'st thyself mighty wise." said the king. Pretty has a wider adverbial use than it gets credit for. for example. Direct questions. "Peace. besides modifying. Pretty is also used by Prescott. for example. I perceived his sisters mighty busy.Pretty. the feel of both of which you know pretty well by now." "He spoke positively [manner].²THACKERAY.² You are mighty courteous.²FIELDING. All adverbs which have no function in the sentence except to modify are called simple adverbs. have the additional function of asking a question. Some adverbs. Kingsley. Burke.² "Mighty well. Again. and art but a fool. .²HAWTHORNE. Emerson." "That is positively untrue [assertion]. B. It is only occasionally used in literary English. a mighty fine gentleman.

Why that wild stare and wilder cry?²WHITTIER Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?²COLERIDGE Indirect questions. for example. Or they may introduce indirect questions of² (1) Time. CLAY. I will not ask where thou liest low. (5) Reason. (4) Degree. as they are said to have the office of conjunctions in joining clauses. they smiled.² When last I saw thy young blue eyes. I hearkened. . And how looks it now?²HAWTHORNE.²D. (4) Degree. Being too full of sleep to understandHow far the unknown transcends the what we know. I do not remember when I was taught to read. (2) Place.²POE.²BYRON (3) Manner.²BYRON. I know not why. Who set you to cast about what you should say to the select souls. There is a class of words usually classed as conjunctive adverbs.² LONGFELLOW (5) Reason. Where will you have the scene?²LONGFELLOW (3) Manner. "How long have you had this whip?" asked he. 287. or how to say anything to such?²EMERSON.These may introduce direct questions of² (1) Time. WEBSTER. while having the office of adverbs in modifying. (2) Place. When did this humane custom begin?²H.²BULWER.

Most monosyllabic adverbs add -er and -est to form the comparative and superlative. Adverbs in -ly usually have more and most instead of the inflected form. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. soon.But in reality. have the same inflection as adjectives. see Sec.) rather 289.²COLERIDGE. better more less best worst most least nearest or next latest. not an adverb. I should freelier rejoice in that absence. as. sooner. higher.. Then must she keep it safelier. Many adjectives have the same ending. when. For further discussion. irregularly compared. further farthest. just as adjectives do. representing four classes.²Bring up sentences containing twenty adverbs. well much little far late Comparative. high. and must be distinguished by their use in the sentence.²BYRON. and when has simply the use of a conjunction. 299 under "Subordinate Conjunctions. Many adverbs are compared.²SHAKESPEARE. highest. when does not express time and modify.²TENNYSON.²EMERSON." Exercise. last ill or badly worse nigh or near nearer later farther. Superlative. 290. are often used as adjectives:² Positive. Exercise. Only that we may wiselier see. only occasionally having -er and -est. Form vs. then whether it is an adjective or an adverb. 288. Its strings boldlier swept. . obs. None can deem harshlier of me than I deem. but the whole clause. Tell what each word in ly modifies. The following. soonest. and.eyes. The fact that a word ends in -ly does not make it an adverb.. furthest (rathe. when compared. use.

²THACKERAY. Time was when field and watery cove With modulated echoes rang. 291. The reason is. The king winced when he saw his homely little bride. instead of being used adverbially. etc. kindly and good-natured in secret. hardly. This is such a fixed idiom that the sentence. that in Old and Middle English.²CHAUCER. many words without -ly have the same form. quick-flashing eye. In some cases adverbs with -ly are used side by side with those without -ly. He is inexpressibly mean. Special use of there. whether adverbs or adjectives.² If men smoot it with a yerde smerte [If men smote it with a rod smartly]. 8. curiously jolly. 3. 6. adverbs derived from adjectives had the ending -e as a distinguishing mark.²ID. or down the leaves laughed through. that give no more admission into the man than blueberries. a lovely sky of blueClearly was felt.²WORDSWORTH. O sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing. as.² EMERSON. Such are most. and inverts the usual order of subject and predicate. 292. 2. if it has the verb be. but with a different meaning. near. Weeds were sure to grow quicker in his fields. Not near so black as he was painted. It is true he was rarely heard to speak. Frequently the word there.²IRVING. . 7. hard. merely introduces a sentence." Compare these:² 1. to be sure. It seems certain that the Normans were more cleanly in their habits. With his proud. 4. 5. nearly. mostly. The perfectly heavenly law might be made law on earth. But he must do his errand right. more courtly in their manners.1. 2. Again. even.²DRAKE Long she looked in his tiny face.²TENNYSON. There are eyes. evenly. He would inhale the smoke slowly and tranquilly.And his mien of kingly state. seems awkward or affected without this "there introductory. This e dropping off left both words having the same form. And all about.

however theoretically enticing. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received. In parsing adverbs. the Madonna is in great glory. is always politically unwise. (2) Degree of comparison. It is the Cross that is first seen. 3. Meanwhile the Protestants believed somewhat doubtfully that he was theirs. How carefully that blessed day is marked in their little calendars! 8. The higher we rise in the scale of being. It is left you to find out why your ears are boxed. Exercise. 10. Thither we went.HOW TO PARSE ADVERBS. 17. Parse all the adverbs in the following sentences:² 1. burning in the center of the temple. according to meaning and also use. 293. 11. if the word is compared. whilst our good kind words don't seem somehow to take root and blossom? 14. and sate down on the steps of a house. the more certainly we quit the region of the brilliant eccentricities and dazzling contrasts which belong to a vulgar greatness. at the regular wine-shop. 7. Perhaps he has been getting up a little architecture on the road from Florence. give² (1) The class. 2. but continually shifted. We somehow greedily gobble down all stories in which the characters of our friends are chopped up. 5. 12. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinion. . 15. Now the earth is so full that a drop overfills it. 18. How comes it that the evil which men say spreads so widely and lasts so long. We sit in the warm shade and feel right wellHow the sap creeps up and blossoms swell. For the impracticable. 9. 16. but from my fall? 6. 4. At these carousals Alexander drank deep. Whence come you? and whither are you bound? 13. and always. He could never fix which side of the garden walk would suit him best. But a few steps farther on. (3) What word or word group it modifies.

but the student will readily find them. Examples of the use of conjunctions:² They connect words. Definition. 294. 295. (3) Connecting sentences: "Unanimity in this case can mean only a very large majority. conjunctions do not modify: they are used solely for the purpose of connecting. or sentence groups." "What a simple but exquisite illustration!" Word groups: Phrases. but side by side within the American Union. But even unanimity itself is far from indicating the voice of God. Clauses." "This has happened because the Union is a confederation of States. They were soon launched on the princely bosom of the Thames. 22. (4) Connecting sentence groups: Paragraphs would be too long to quote here. Unlike adverbs. however. But now the wind rose again. etc. hence. . (2) Connecting word groups: "Hitherto the two systems have existed in different States. 21. word groups. and the stern drifted in toward the bank. then. A conjunction is a linking word. should be omnipotent for evil? 24. and found room to wonder how it could have got there. Why should we suppose that conscientious motives. He caught the scent of wild thyme in the air. 20. she would undoubtedly have succumbed. and but for Polly's outdoor exercise." Sentences. It was pretty bad after that. connecting words.19. therefore. feeble as they are constantly found to be in a good cause. CONJUNCTIONS. in which the writer connects the divisions of narration or argument by such words as but. nor. sentences. (1) Connecting words: "It is the very necessity and condition of existence. upon which the sun now shone forth." Paragraphs.

Conjunctions have two principal divisions:² (1) Coördinate. for. (4) ALTERNATIVE. only. etc. neither. 296.. not only.or. nor. else. but is emperor in his own right. joining words.. Some of these go in pairs. therefore.or. For it is the rule of the universe that corn shall serve man...... where in the airA thousand streamers flaunted fair. however. COÖRDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.or..... both. Correlatives." Nevertheless. had its weight.nor. coupling or uniting words and expressions in the same line of thought. of the same rank. still. and not man corn. connecting words and expressions that are opposite in thought. Nor mark'd they less. either. . and.. I have nothing to do with the governor and council. etc.and. "Can this be so?" said Goodman Brown.Classes of conjunctions. joining a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal or independent clause. also. yet.. Causal. 297. serves but to show their ignorance. whether. answering to each other in the same sentence. While the earth bears a plant. as well as. as. as but. moreover.. (2) Subordinate. as well as the room door. Coördinate conjunctions are of four kinds: (1) COPULATIVE. Further examples of the use of coördinate conjunctions:² Copulative. neither. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed to myself a sojourn of some weeks. likewise.. the butter too.. 298. neither. word groups. the bread was spent. hence.but. (3) CAUSAL. whether. either. or the sea rolls its waves. as.. however. introducing a reason or cause.. Therefore the poet is not any permissive potentate. nor. not only. etc..nor. (2) ADVERSATIVE.or whether.. Alternative.. "Howbeit. Some go in threes. while. either.. Adversative. then.. The chief ones are. Your letter. They are or. usually between two things. as and. whether...but (or but also). the window being open. expressing a choice. The assertion.or.

I promise to devote myself to your happiness whenever you shall ask it of me. as. until. Subordinate conjunctions are of the following kinds:² (1) PLACE: where. so that.²PAULDING. nor creeping thing. and seems to enjoy great satisfaction in mocking and teasing other birds. He is not only bold and vociferous. It is. in case. whithersoever. (2) TIME: when. although. (5) COMPARISON: than and as. etc. especially that after so.²COOPER. as.²J. disturbed the self-possession of the young Mohican. lest. before.²IRVING. etc. Where the treasure is. Time.. nor wing of bird. (7) RESULT: that. (3) MANNER: how.the same whether I move my hand along the surface of a body. whereas. etc. Neither was there any phantom memorial of life. 299. (4) CAUSE or REASON: because. whence. whenever. except. To lead from eighteen to twenty millions of men whithersoever they will. wherever. in order that. whereto. or whether such a body is moved along my hand. as. etc. nor the exclusive attention that he attracted. though. on condition that.. Examples of the use of subordinate conjunctions:² Place.Examples of the use of correlatives:² He began to doubt whether both he and the world around him were not bewitched. since. after. nor echo. Neither the place in which he found himself. so. ²ALLSTON. (8) CONDITION or CONCESSION: if. in so that. etc.²BURKE. that. but possesses a considerable talent for mimicry. however. provided. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. seeing. whither. there will the heart be also. since.²DE QUINCEY. now. An artist will delight in excellence wherever he meets it.²BIBLE. (6) PURPOSE: that.²WILSON. howsoever. . provided that. that moved or stirred upon the soundless waste. so.. even if.. so. whether. QUINCY. sometimes if. while. unless. are used frequently to introduce noun clauses used as subject. nor green leaf. ere. object. (9) SUBSTANTIVE: that.

²EMERSON. Comparison. a thousand bodies. seeing that he carried the vindication of his patron's fame in his saddlebags.² H. Sparing neither whip nor spur. Concession. but as they are impelled by the irresistible laws. Cause.²EMERSON. There flowers or weeds at will may grow.That he gave her wounds repose.²BURKE. .² HAWTHORNE. his martyrdom will reapLate harvests of the palms he should have had in life. So many thoughts moved to and fro.So I behold them not.That vain it were her eyes to close. Now he is dead. Result. It seems a pity that we can only spend it once.²AMES. H. reason. Purpose.²EMERSON.²COLERIDGE.² WORDSWORTH. As a soldier. All the subsequent experience of our race had gone over him with as little permanent effect as [as follows the semi-adverbs as and so in expressing comparison] the passing breeze.² EMERSON. I see no reason why I should not have the same thought.It is sixteen years since I saw the Queen of France.²AMES.²DEFOE. not as they were expected or intended.²AMES. Manner.²IRVING.²CARLYLE Events proceed. We do not believe that he left any worthy man his foe who had ever been his friend. but not so long but I held it out. What though the radiance which was once so brightBe now forever taken from my sight. A ridicule which is of no import unless the scholar heed it. We wish for a thousand heads.²BYRON.²CAMPBELL. Let the world go how it will. JACKSON. Condition. Substantive. Then Denmark blest our chief. that we might celebrate its immense beauty. he was more solicitous to avoid mistakes than to perform exploits that are brilliant. I was again covered with water.

and hid her there. some words²for example. No one had yet caught his character. (c) Bring up sentences containing ten subordinate conjunctions. wisdom blended in his speech her authority with her charms. 7. While a faction is a minority. then. 4. While patriotism glowed in his heart. classify them if conjunctions:² 1. 3. according to their meaning and connection in the sentence. it will remain harmless. there is little prospect of justice in permitting war. 10. 12. Whence else could arise the bruises which I had received? 8. hold a subordinate rank. as the rulers of a nation are as liable as other people to be governed by passion and prejudice. (a) Bring up sentences containing five examples of coördinate conjunctions. Hence it is highly important that the custom of war should be abolished. whence he was occasionally called the Dominie. she faintly pressed her hand. etc. that. . the wisest. the purest-hearted of all ages are agreed in any wise on this point. After he was gone. as. (b) Bring up sentences containing three examples of correlatives. however.²RUSKIN. her real merit is known at home. And then recovering. And they lived happily forever after. Crept under the leaf. Exercises. while. is war not to be regarded with horror? 11. They. He was brought up for the church. (d) Tell whether the italicized words in the following sentences are conjunctions or adverbs. 14. 6. 9. However ambitious a woman may be to command admiration abroad. as he shot in air. 2. Yet these were often exhibited throughout our city. 5.²may belong to several classes of conjunctions. the lady called her servant. As will have been noticed.Let us see whether the greatest. Who can tell if Washington be a great man or no?²EMERSON. 300. 13. 15. Besides. since. In what point of view. The moth fly.

and the frame will suit the picture. thus. The raft and the money had been thrown near her.²HOOD. tell² (1) To what class and subclass they belong. His voice .." as. Blinded alike from sunshine and from rain. As if.² But thy soft murmuringSounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. SPECIAL REMARKS. for example.So slowly moved about.As we had lent her half our powersTo eke her living out.²EMILY BRONTE.² KEATS Examples might be quoted from almost all authors. As for as if. etc. only what is the use of a guinea amongst tangle and sea gulls? 17. GREELEY. in this case. none of the lashings having given way. word groups. In poetry. If analyzed. In Emerson's sentence. Consequently. expressing degree if taken separately. In parsing conjunctions. And their orbs grew strangely dreary.Clouded. even as they would weep. 302. but really there is an ellipsis between the two words.. 304. 303. as is often equivalent to as if. As though. As though seems to be in as wide use as the conjunction as if. "We meet. As if is often used as one conjunction of manner.²IRVING. (2) What words.. they connect. 301.16.² Do you know a farmer who acts and lives as though he believed one word of this?²H. as if and as though may be taken as double conjunctions expressing manner." it cannot be said that there is an ellipsis: it cannot mean "we part as [we should part] though" etc. So silently we seemed to speak. as is shown by the use of as though.As though a rose should shut. "sounds sweet as [the sound would be] if a sister's voice reproved. sounded as though it came out of a barrel. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope. But the ellipsis seems to be lost sight of frequently in writing.²BYRON. . and be a bud again. and part as though we parted not. the expression would be. HOW TO PARSE CONJUNCTIONS.

and its clause depends on the other. 2. so means provided. It was too dark to put an arrow into the creature's eye. because it is his. particular attention must be paid to the meaning of the word. He dismisses without notice his thought." said his wife to Martin Luther. or in the snow. in 2. the Sphinx was slain.²EMERSON 3. compare the sentences. The mountain of granite blooms into an eternal flower.²that the fairies do not like to be named. so they paddled on. 7. It may be safely trusted. . so it be faithfully imparted. in 3. and its clause is independent. It continued raining. 11. as beside his own chimneys. "how is it that whilst subject to papacy we prayed so often and with such fervor. 9. etc. Exercise. because. such as nor. or in the forest. so means therefore. For example. Our admiration of the antique is not admiration of the old. In classifying them. dines with as good an appetite. He is the compend of time. There will be an agreement in whatever variety of actions. and the like. A lady with whom I was riding in the forest said to me that the woods always seemed to wait.² 1. however they might be in Cornwall or Bretagne. and very seldom?" 8. All the postulates of elfin annals. 10. 12. If he could solve the riddle.²is subordinate of condition. they are not known.²DEFOE 2. "Doctor. when. Some conjunctions. 3.²I find them true in Concord. are regularly of one particular class. When the gods come among men. he is also the correlative of nature. so they be each honest and natural in their hour. He knows how to speak to his contemporaries. 5. that their gifts are capricious and not to be trusted. as if the genii who inhabit them suspended their deeds until the wayfarer had passed. and. 13. hence it is a subordinate conjunction of result. 4. but of the natural. he sleeps as warm.²KINGSLEY In sentence 1. Parse all the conjunctions in these sentences:² 1. whilst now we pray with the utmost coldness. with the lightness and delicate finish as well as the aërial proportions and perspective of vegetable scenery. At sea. others belong to several classes. so that I could not stir abroad. and associates as happily. 6.Caution. so that expresses result.. that it might testify of that particular ray. hence it is a coördinate conjunction of reason. The eye was placed where one ray should fall.

that both were wayward.²else it is none.. I scowl as I dip my pen into the inkstand. Still. you must be. For. and Kate thought he looked with a suspicious scrutiny into her face as he inquired for the young don. the whole conditions are changed. 15. 20. 28. in this they agree. seeing that it behooves me to hasten. The word preposition implies place before: hence it would seem that a preposition is always before its object. Now you have the whip in your hand. 26. when it was presented to them. There was no iron to be seen. The manuscript indeed speaks of many more. And whether consciously or not. 30. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last. save it were sinful like herself. PREPOSITIONS. He should neither praise nor blame nor defend his equals. 27. 21. I rejoice to stand here no longer. God had marked this woman's sin with a scarlet letter. 305. This occurs in such cases as the following:² Preposition not before its object. won't you lay on? 17. I never rested until I had a copy of the book. 18. He follows his genius whithersoever it may lead him. 29. therefore. 19. 22. . however. for they unguardedly took a drawn sword by the edge. of good novels only. 23. she might have the family countenance. but in a considerable proportion of instances the preposition is after its object. to be looked at as though I had seven heads and ten horns. enthroned. whose names I omit. which had such efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. in many a heart. Goodness must have some edge to it. nor did they appear acquainted with its properties. though there may be little resemblance otherwise. 24. Let her loose in the library as you do a fawn in a field.14. 25. 16. I speak. It may be so in the majority of cases. It is clear.

(1) After a relative pronoun, a very common occurrence; thus,² The most dismal Christmas fun which these eyes ever looked on.²THACKERAY. An ancient nation which they know nothing of.²EMERSON. A foe, whom a champion has fought with to-day.²SCOTT. Some little toys that girls are fond of.²SWIFT. "It's the man that I spoke to you about" said Mr. Pickwick.²DICKENS. (2) After an interrogative adverb, adjective, or pronoun, also frequently found:² What God doth the wizard pray to?²HAWTHORNE. What is the little one thinking about?²J. G. HOLLAND. Where the Devil did it come from, I wonder?²DICKENS. (3) With an infinitive, in such expressions as these:² A proper quarrel for a Crusader to do battle in.²SCOTT. "You know, General, it was nothing to joke about."²CABLE Had no harsh treatment to reproach herself with.²BOYESEN A loss of vitality scarcely to be accounted for.²HOLMES. Places for horses to be hitched to.²ID. (4) After a noun,²the case in which the preposition is expected to be, and regularly is, before its object; as,² And unseen mermaids' pearly songComes bubbling up, the weeds among.²BEDDOES. Forever panting and forever young,All breathing human passion far above.²KEATS. 306. Since the object of a preposition is most often a noun, the statement is made that the preposition usually precedes its object; as in the following sentence, "Roused by the shock, he started from his trance." Here the words by and from are connectives; but they do more than connect. By shows the relation in thought between roused and shock, expressing means or agency; from shows the relation in thought between started and trance, and expresses separation. Both introduce phrases.

307. A preposition is a word joined to a noun or its equivalent to make up a qualifying or an adverbial phrase, and to show the relation between its object and the word modified.
Objects, nouns and the following.

308. Besides nouns, prepositions may have as objects²

(1) Pronouns: "Upon them with the lance;" "With whom I traverse earth." (2) Adjectives: "On high the winds lift up their voices." (3) Adverbs: "If I live wholly from within;" "Had it not been for the sea from aft." (4) Phrases: "Everything came to her from on high;" "From of old they had been zealous worshipers." (5) Infinitives: "The queen now scarce spoke to him save to convey some necessary command for her service." (6) Gerunds: "They shrink from inflicting what they threaten;" "He is not content with shining on great occasions." (7) Clauses: "Each soldier eye shall brightly turnTo where thy sky-born glories burn."
Object usually objective case, if noun or pronoun.

309. The object of a preposition, if a noun or pronoun, is usually in the objective case. In pronouns, this is shown by the form of the word, as in Sec. 308 (1).
Often possessive.

In the double-possessive idiom, however, the object is in the possessive case after of; for example,² There was also a book of Defoe's,... and another of Mather's.²FRANKLIN. See also numerous examples in Secs. 68 and 87.
Sometimes nominative.

And the prepositions but and save are found with the nominative form of the pronoun following; as,² Nobody knows but my mate and IWhere our nest and our nestlings lie.²BRYANT.


310. Prepositions are used in three ways:² (1) Compounded with verbs, adverbs, or conjunctions; as, for example, with verbs, withdraw, understand, overlook, overtake, overflow, undergo, outstay, outnumber, overrun, overgrow, etc.; with adverbs, thereat, therein, therefrom, thereby, therewith, etc.; with conjunctions, whereat, wherein, whereon, wherethrough, whereupon, etc.

(2) Following a verb, and being really a part of the verb. This use needs to be watched closely, to see whether the preposition belongs to the verb or has a separate prepositional function. For example, in the sentences, (a) "He broke a pane from the window," (b) "He broke into the bank," in (a), the verb broke is a predicate, modified by the phrase introduced by from; in (b), the predicate is not broke, modified by into the bank, but broke into²the object, bank. Study carefully the following prepositions with verbs:² Considering the space they took up.²SWIFT. I loved, laughed at, and pitied him.²GOLDSMITH. The sun breaks through the darkest clouds.²SHAKESPEARE. They will root up the whole ground.²SWIFT. A friend prevailed upon one of the interpreters.²ADDISON My uncle approved of it.²FRANKLIN. The robber who broke into them.²LANDOR. This period is not obscurely hinted at.²LAMB. The judge winked at the iniquity of the decision.²ID. The pupils' voices, conning over their lessons.²IRVING. To help out his maintenance.²ID. With such pomp is Merry Christmas ushered in.²LONGFELLOW.
Ordinary use as connective, relation words.

(3) As relation words, introducing phrases,²the most common use, in which the words have their own proper function.
Usefulness of prepositions.

311. Prepositions are the subtlest and most useful words in the language for compressing a clear meaning into few words. Each preposition has its proper and general meaning, which, by frequent and exacting use, has expanded and divided into a variety of meanings more or less close to the original one. Take, for example, the word over. It expresses place, with motion, as, "The bird flew over the house;" or rest, as, "Silence broods over the earth." It may also convey the meaning of about, concerning; as, "They quarreled over the booty." Or it may express time: "Stay over night." The language is made richer and more flexible by there being several meanings to each of many prepositions, as well as by some of them having the same meaning as others.


312. It would be useless to attempt to classify all the prepositions, since they are so various in meaning. The largest groups are those of place, time, and exclusion.

313. The following are the most common to indicate place:² (1) PLACE WHERE: abaft, about, above, across, amid (amidst), among (amongst), at, athwart, below, beneath, beside, between (betwixt), beyond, in, on, over, under (underneath), upon, round or around, without. (2) PLACE WHITHER: into, unto, up, through, throughout, to, towards. (3) PLACE WHENCE: down, from (away from, down from, from out, etc.), off, out of. Abaft is exclusively a sea term, meaning back of. Among (or amongst) and between (or betwixt) have a difference in meaning, and usually a difference in use. Among originally meant in the crowd (on gemong), referring to several objects; between and betwixt were originally made up of the preposition be (meaning by) and tw on or tw onum (modern twain), by two, and be with tw h (or twuh), having the same meaning, by two objects. As to modern use, see "Syntax" (Sec. 459).

314. They are after, during, pending, till or until; also many of the prepositions of place express time when put before words indicating time, such as at, between, by, about, on, within, etc. These are all familiar, and need no special remark.

315. The chief ones are besides, but, except, save, without. The participle excepting is also used as a preposition.

316. Against implies opposition, sometimes place where. In colloquial English it is sometimes used to express time, now and then also in literary English; for example,² She contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night.²SWIFT About, and the participial prepositions concerning, respecting, regarding, mean with reference to.
Phrase prepositions.

317. Many phrases are used as single prepositions: by means of, by virtue of, by help of, by dint of, by force of; out of, on account of, by way of, for the sake of; in consideration of, in spite of, in defiance of, instead of, in view of, in place of; with respect to, with regard to, according to, agreeably to; and some others. 318. Besides all these, there are some prepositions that have so many meanings that they require separate and careful treatment: on (upon), at, by, for, from, of, to, with. No attempt will be made to give all the meanings that each one in this list has: the purpose is to stimulate observation, and to show how useful prepositions really are.

319. The general meaning of at is near, close to, after a verb or expression implying position; and towards after a verb or expression indicating motion. It defines position approximately, while in is exact, meaning within. Its principal uses are as follows:² (1) Place where. They who heard it listened with a curling horror at the heart.²J. F. COOPER. There had been a strike at the neighboring manufacturing village, and there was to be a public meeting, at which he was besought to be present.²T. W. HIGGINSON. (2) Time, more exact, meaning the point of time at which. He wished to attack at daybreak.²PARKMAN. They buried him darkly, at dead of night.²WOLFE (3) Direction. The mother stood looking wildly down at the unseemly object.²COOPER. You are next grasp at the opportunity, and take for your subject, "Health."² HIGGINSON. Here belong such expressions as laugh at, look at, wink at, gaze at, stare at, peep at, scowl at, sneer at, frown at, etc. We laugh at the elixir that promises to prolong life to a thousand years.²JOHNSON. "You never mean to say," pursued Dot, sitting on the floor and shaking her head at him.² DICKENS. (4) Source or cause, meaning because of, by reason of. I felt my heart chill at the dismal sound.²T. W. KNOX. Delighted at this outburst against the Spaniards.²PARKMAN.

² (1) The general meaning of place. at one. 320. by many a million of acres. Exercise. Like at. and phrases signifying state or condition of being. STODDARD.²ID. (4) Measure of excess. CONWAY. For. He was taller by almost the breadth of my nail. by the ruins of nations. At St.²COOPER. Provided always the coach had not shed a wheel by the roadside. Helena. at war. etc. Richard was standing by the window. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. at work. She saw the boat headed for her. at first. at least. . at play. the first port made by the ship. at naught. by means near or close to. Pioneers who were opening the way for the march of the nation. By my faith. at most. at any rate. 321. at the best.²EVERETT. at length.²DE QUINCEY. as. by the wrecks of time. Exercise. at once.. D. By. expressing the degree of difference.²M.²Find sentences with three different meanings of by. at all. H. The chief meanings of for are as follows:² (1) Motion towards a place.²WARNER. TAYLOR The angel came by night. he stopped. But by this time the bell of Old Alloway began tolling. ²PARTON. Menippus knew which were the kings by their howling louder. (2) Time.²ALDRICH.(5) Then the idiomatic phrases at last.²B.²R. etc. (5) It is also used in oaths and adjurations. They implore us by the long trials of struggling humanity. by the blessed memory of the departed.²Find sentences with three different uses of at. at rest. at random.²SWIFT. or a tendency or action toward the attainment of any object. at peace. at the worst. but has several other meanings more or less connected with this. At that time [the earth] was richer. (3) Agency or means.

BANCROFT. for all slips of hers.²IRVING. Here Satouriona forgot his dignity.²STODDARD. for the benefit of. . E. he repented of his folly. but a few sunsets since.²HOOD. meaning in the character of. Wavering whether he should put his son to death for an unnatural monster. An Arab woman. For the rest. He could overlook all the country for many a mile of rich woodland. for famine. There are gains for all our losses.²PARKMAN.. or extent of space. reason. in behalf of. HALE This is very common with as²as for me. (7) Concession." said the Lady of Lochleven. (4) Substitution or exchange. GARRISON. The twilight being. or in spite of.²ID. etc. But the Colonel. Still.(2) In favor of. L.²HOLMES. For a long time the disreputable element outshone the virtuous. "I shall own you for a man of skill indeed!" ²HAWTHORNE. respecting. as being. the Colonna motto would fit you best. if your worship can accomplish that. and leaped for joy. cause. He and they were for immediate attack.²E.²EMERSON. For him.² RUSKIN. they are now for us.²PARKMAN The people were then against us. a person or thing.hardly more wholesome for its glittering mists of midge companies. as to. (5) Reference.. Thus did the Spaniards make bloody atonement for the butchery of Fort Caroline. "For a fool. (8) Meaning notwithstanding. meaning although. ate her child.²H. considering that etc.One of Eve's family.²LAMB."²SCOTT By my faith. H.²PARKMAN. had a forest of poor relations." answered Master Brackett. meaning with regard to. for all his title. poor fellow. etc. (3) Duration of time. (6) Like as.²W. incitement to action. etc. that is a very plump hand for a man of eighty-four!²PARTON. "Nay. (9) Motive. "thou hast counseled wisely.

from a desire of seeming valiant. It was from no fault of Nolan's. Of. Ayrault had inherited the faculty of dreaming also by night. and having the same meaning as a noun clause. Exercise.²HALE. as shown by this sentence:² It is by no means necessary that he should devote his whole school existence to physical science. (1) Origin or source. . The young cavaliers. Coming from a race of day-dreamers. It may be with regard to² (1) Place. cause.²H.²Find sentences with five meanings of for. or reason. The king holds his authority of the people. Exercise. ceased to be merciful.²ID.²Find sentences with three meanings of from. The original meaning of of was separation or source. A distrustful.²DRYDEN. nay.²HUXLEY. Thomas à Becket was born of reputable parents in the city of London.²BANCROFT. The From Relation. more. 323. it is not necessary for him to give up more than a moderate share of his time to such studies. From. from heavenly harmonyThis universal frame began. (3) Time.²MILTON. From harmony. BANCROFT Thus they drifted from snow-clad ranges to burning plain. The various uses are shown in the following examples:² I. if not a desperate man. The general idea in from is separation or source. 322.²HIGGINSON.(10) For with its object preceding the infinitive. (4) Motive. H. (2) Origin. Like boys escaped from school. like from. did he become from the night of that fearful dream² HAWTHORNE.²HUME.

acquitted them of. (b) After some adjectives. More than one altar was richer of his vows. "Good for him!" cried Nolan. free.²LEW WALLACE. and grass. (3) With expressions of material. beg. "I am glad of that.²ALDRICH. ask. deprivation.(2) Separation: (a) After certain verbs. He is away of his own free will. reason. HALE.. he had raised a little Gothic chapel. such as ease. Asked no odds of. as north of. clear. etc. that Cromwell once ruled England. etc. motive. there were only twenty-one members present. cure. wide of. especially out of. of his own knowledge. bare of. ²HAWTHORNE Within a few yards of the young man's hiding place. The author died of a fit of apoplexy. ²PARTON.²clear of.²HIGGINSON. purge. out of the most unpromising materials."²E. (c) After nouns expressing lack. Until he had come within a staff's length of the old dame. especially adjectives and adverbs of direction. deprive. (6) Partitive. Sandals. divest.²BANCROFT. The hills were bare of trees. expressing a part of a number or quantity.²BAYARD TAYLOR. etc. You cannot make a boy know. E. rob. bound with thongs of boar's hide. south of. or breastpin of native gold.²DICKENS II.²ID. Two old Indians cleared the spot of brambles.² HUXLEY. A singular want of all human relation. weeds. relieve. Back of that tree. . etc. rid.²PARKMAN.² MACAULAY (4) Expressing cause. the finest army that Europe had yet seen. White shirt with diamond studs. (5) Expressing agency.²BOSWELL. (d) With words expressing distance. ²GAVARRE. Of the Forty.²SCOTT Who formed. etc. demand. Other Relations expressed by Of. free of. disarm.

(c) Two nouns. (10) Of reference. with regard to. which may be in the case of² (a) Nouns. (8) Appositional. being equivalent to an infinitive. separating thereby as much of the dust as a ten-cent piece would hold.²EMERSON A sorry antediluvian makeshift of a building you may think it. etc. In the vain hope of appeasing the savages.²ALDRICH.²FROUDE. This crampfish of a Socrates has so bewitched him. ²IRVING. (7) Possessive. standing. Such a book as that of Job. 309.He washed out some of the dirt. The fair city of Mexico. Boasted of his prowess as a scalp hunter and duelist. The Turk lay dreaming of the hour.²W. of late. for the possessive. of a sudden. when the first is descriptive of the second. E.²ID. could give shelter from his contumely. concerning.. and the dignity of a queen.²SWIFT.²BANCROFT.²LAMB.²ALDRICH I delighted to loll over the quarter railing of a calm day. See also Sec.²LOWELL. Besides the phrases of old. with its object. of is used in the sense of during. An inexhaustible bottle of a shop. I used often to linger of a morning by the high gate.²COOPER. Not even woman's love. Sank into reverie of home and boyhood scenes. And the mighty secret of the Sierra stood revealed.²PRESCOTT. Few people take the trouble of finding out what democracy really is. equal to about. (b) Noun and gerund.²BANCROFT. The nation of Lilliput.²BANCROFT. or being used with the possessive case to form the double possessive. .²HALLECK. (9) Of time. CHANNING. Idiomatic use with verbs.

(4) In adjurations.Of is also used as an appendage of certain verbs. (3) Reference.²PARKMAN. repent. (2) Time. SIGOURNEY. The demonstration of joy or sorrow on reading their letters.²Find sentences with three uses of on or upon. Upon my reputation and credit. On my life. (b) With motion. and others.²SHAKESPEARE (5) Idiomatic phrases: on fire. Some uses of to are the following:² (1) Expressing motion: (a) To a place. as shown by the sentences below:² (1) Place: (a) Where. 324.²PARKMAN. It also accompanies the verbs tire. etc. It was the battery at Samos firing on the boats. you are eighteen. on trial. on view. Exercise. and not a day more. on a sudden. on high. ²BANCROFT. equal to about. complain. He pronounced a very flattering opinion upon my brother's promise of excellence. On. allow. On Monday evening he sent forward the Indians. on board. on the wing. avail (one's self). To. The Earl of Huntley ranged his hostUpon their native strand. accept. 325. Exercise. permit. approve. Cannon were heard close on the left.²EMERSON. concerning. disapprove. On and upon are interchangeable in almost all of their applications. The general meaning of on is position or direction.²Find sentences with six uses of of. Thou didst look down upon the naked earth. Upon is seldom used to express time. consist. . on the alert.²MRS. I think that one abstains from writing on the immortality of the soul. such as admit.²ALDRICH. etc.²DE QUINCEY. Upon.²BRYANT.²PARKMAN. without adding to their meaning.

. His brother had died. Rip had scrambled to one of the highest peaks.of your style fall far below the highest efforts of poetry.²PARTON. TAYLOR (3) Expressing comparison.²BULWER.. Death!²HALLECK.²Find sentences containing three uses of to. Nor. 268). The following meanings are expressed by with:² (1) Personal accompaniment.. had ceased to be.²BENTON To our great delight. (5) Equivalent to according to. In Old English. Little mattered to them occasional privations²BANCROFT. (b) Referring to be written over. and hardly any of its applications vary from this general signification. 326. to my taste. whose influence is felt to this hour. Exercise. Full of schemes and speculations to the last.²LANG. But when. Revolutions. Ben Lomond was unshrouded. unmasked. We cook the dish to our own appetite.²B.²HALE. mid meant in company with. ..²PARKMAN. to him. Bolingbroke and the wicked Lord Littleton were saints to him.²often to the loss of vigor. gay Comedy appears. does the mere music. interest. (6) With the infinitive (see Sec.²WEBSTER (4) Expressing concern. With.Come to the bridal chamber. while wið meant against: both meanings are included in the modern with.'Tis ten to one you find the girl in tears.²BRYANT.²ALDRICH They are arrant rogues: Cacus was nothing to them. (2) Expressing result. To the few. He usually gave his draft to an aid. With expresses the idea of accompaniment.²IRVING. it may be genuine poetry.²GOLDSMITH.

She seemed pleased with the accident. opinion. HALE. HOW TO PARSE PREPOSITIONS.²Find sentences with four uses of with.²HALE.²HOWELLS. but with you. Messala.²EMERSON.²HOWELLS. I think.²DE QUINCEY. With all his sensibility. (5) Opposition. The quarrel of the sentimentalists is not with life.²COOPER. For many weeks I had walked with this poor friendless girl. it is necessary.²SCOTT. transmitted from the beginning.The advance. (6) The equivalent of notwithstanding. How can a writer's verses be numerous if with him. he gave millions to the sword. but a pleasure"?²LANG. had already reached the defile.²E. reason.²WALLACE (7) Time. with Heyward at its head. Exercise. Take this sentence:² The rule adopted on board the ships on which I have met "the man without a country" was. With each new mind a new secret of nature transpires.²CHANNING.²COLERIDGE. (4) Estimation. to find the object of the preposition. 327. we had struck the off-wheel of the little gig. (2) Instrumentality. (3) Cause. Since a preposition introduces a phrase and shows the relation between two things. He expired with these words. motive.²DE QUINCEY. as with you. With my crossbow I shot the albatross. Either with the swingle-bar.²LANG. or with the haunch of our near leader.²ALDRICH. E. "poetry is not a pursuit. first of all. It seemed a supreme moment with him. He was wild with delight about Texas. . After battling with terrific hurricanes and typhoons on every known sea. felt it unsafe to trifle further. and then to find what word the prepositional phrase limits. in spite of. with all his boldness.

. came tumbling about my ears. which. The parsing of prepositions means merely telling between what words or word groups they show relation. on board shows the relation between ships and the participle adopted. (3) without a country. And so on. without a country modifies man. and could see nothing but the clouds and the sky. we met the defaulter here. the phrase answers the question where. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. The object of on board is ships. I heard a noise just over my head. telling what man. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage.²SWIFT 2. I called out several times. of on. like the clapping of wings. because I had given the provocation. beginning. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. or the verb was understood: hence without shows the relation between country and man. 2. In (3). but all to no purpose.The phrases are (1) on board the ships. In (1). 3. I looked towards my windows. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. watching his opportunity when I was walking under one of them. To our general surprise. with an intent to let it fall on a rock: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enabled him to discover his quarry at a great distance. In (2). the malicious rogue. by which a dozen apples. (2) on which. and then began to perceive the woeful condition I was in. he followed us one day into those gardens. Be that as it will. I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull upon the ring. There was no one except a little sunbeam of a sister. hence we say. Whereupon. each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel. and has the office of an adverb in telling where the rule is adopted. but I received no other hurt. 5.²ID. I felt my box raised very high in the air. 4. Exercises. I speak these things from a love of justice. I must needs show my wit by a silly illusion between him and the trees. of without. country. They then left for a cruise up the Indian Ocean. of from. I remember. and knocked me down flat on my face. (4) from the beginning. (b) Give the exact meaning of each italicized preposition in the following sentences:² 1. (a) Parse the prepositions in these paragraphs:² 1. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. on which modifies the verb have met by telling where: hence on shows the relation between which (standing for ships) and the verb have met. The guns were cleared of their lumber. before the dwarf left the queen. shook it directly over my head. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. or was.

after a restful morning. 13. even to the eclipsing of the involuntary object of the ceremony. The great gathering in the main street was on Sundays. Roland was acknowledged for the successor and heir. the miners gathered from hills and ravines for miles around for marketing. to one dark and gloomy. 26. 8. The savage army was in war-paint. in this respect. Carteret was far from being a pedant. he favored the world with his opinions. 23. 19. grasping at the child. An immense mountain covered with a shining green turf is nothing. He had lived in Paris for the last fifty years. He locked his door from mere force of habit. The lady was remarkable for energy and talent. 14. and his hat was garnished with white and sable plumes. On every solemn occasion he was the striking figure. The hill stretched for an immeasurable distance.He spurred his courser on.Without stop or stay. They were shriveled and colorless with the cold. The baron of Smaylho'me rose with day. A suppressed but still distinct murmur of approbation ran through the crowd at this generous proposition. I like to see the passing. though unbroken by the peal of church bells. For my part. The troops waited in their boats by the edge of a strand. 29. 27. On all subjects known to man. With all his learning. The mother sank and fell. 25. His breeches were of black silk. 11. 17. 20. 22. 21. 16.6. in town. 18. 12. 7. 15. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. Wilt thou die for very weakness? 28. A half-dollar was the smallest coin that could be tendered for any service. when. . 24. 10. 9. Our horses ran on a sandy margin of the road. The hero of the poem is of a strange land and a strange parentage. plumed for battle. down the rocky wayThat leads to Brotherstone. The name of Free Joe strikes humorously upon the ear of memory.

(4) As an adverb of degree. WHAT. (2) As an adjective pronoun. THAT. he will be able to handle some words that are used as several parts of speech.30.²STOCKTON.²WEBSTER.²COLERIDGE. That may be used as follows: (1) As a demonstrative adjective. Gates of iron so massy that no man could without the help of engines open or shut them. If the student has now learned fully that words must be studied in grammar according to their function or use.²WEBSTER. (3) As a relative pronoun. 328. That night was a memorable one. That was a dreadful mistake. not merely by the amount of the tax. WORDS THAT NEED WATCHING. (5) As a conjunction: (a) Of purpose. and not according to form. We wish that labor may look up here. Has bounteously lengthened out your lives. A few are discussed below. That is what I understand by scientific education.²HUXLEY.That makes the heavens be mute. .²a summary of their treatment in various places as studied heretofore. and be proud in the midst of its toil. that you might behold this joyous day. He will raise the price. And now it is like an angel's song.²WEBSTER. 330.² JOHNSON. (b) Of result. (a) Indefinite relative. That far I hold that the Scriptures teach. 329. (1) Relative pronoun. (c) Substantive conjunction.²BEECHER.

. (b) Indirect question. What with the Maltese goats. (7) Adverb of degree.these sounds are only to be heard..Which be they what they may. At what rate these materials would be distributed.²ID.²THACKERAY.²S..²WORDSWORTH. he knows what good people are to be found there. What. and silent all!² Pera. (b) Indirect question. (a) Indefinite relative adjective. "I'll tell you what. (9) As an exclamation... 331. Adam Woodcock at court!²SCOTT.. What would be an English merchant's character after a few such transactions?²THACKERAY. after not only.but. . who go tinkling by to their pasturage. (1) Coördinate conjunction: (a) Adversative. (b) Copulative. (6) Exclamatory adjective. Saint Mary! what a scene is here!²SCOTT. But woe to what thing or person stood in the way.. To say what good of fashion we can. What right have you to infer that this condition was caused by the action of heat?²AGASSIZ. or not only.Those shadowy recollections. silent still.. is impossible to determine. Cox.²ID. to see what might be hidden.Are yet the fountain light of all our day. If he has [been in America]. it rests on reality. nearly equivalent to partly." (4) Relative adjective.²EMERSON. (5) Interrogative adjective: (a) Direct question. what with the vocal seller of bread in the early morning..²WEBSTER. His very attack was never the inspiration of courage. (8) Conjunction. (3) Indefinite pronoun: The saying. What.S. BUT. (2) Interrogative pronoun: (a) Direct question.²EMERSON... but the result of calculation. I have not allowed myself to look beyond the Union..

(5) Adverb. not. As orphans yearn on to their mothers. not. (b) Substantive.. (e) Introducing an appositive word. not. as I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage. I shall see but little of it. ²CARLYLE. or who . meaning except. after such.²EMERSON.He yearned to our patriot bands. (1) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Of time.. (2) Subordinate conjunction: (a) Result. And was there such a resemblance as the crowd had testified?²HAWTHORNE. Who knows but.. like the dog. 332..²CARLYLE.²SHELLEY. but piercing cries.²IRVING.. (4) Relative pronoun. (b) Of manner. at all moments. meaning only. after a negative. Doing duty as a guard..²SCOTT. To lead but one measure. Rip beheld a precise counterpart of himself as he went up the mountain.²FRANKLIN. than. equivalent to that . .. There is not a man in them but is impelled withal.²HAWTHORNE. Now there was nothing to be seen but fires in every direction.Then arose not only tears. The whole twenty years had been to him but as one night. (3) Preposition. (c) Of degree. AS. towards order. stands for that . on all sides. His wan eyesGaze on the empty scene as vacantlyAs ocean's moon looks on the moon in heaven. Reverenced as one of the patriarchs of the village. Nor is Nature so hard but she gives me this joy several times. meaning otherwise .²MRS BROWNING.²IRVING. it will at length be no longer traceable to its wild original² THOREAU. (d) Of reason.²IRVING.²LAMB. (2) Relative pronoun. sometimes same..

They look. 333. Stirring it vigorously.²DARWIN.²SHAKESPEARE.²LAMB.²MAYHEW. like him awhile ago. They conducted themselves much like the crew of a man-of-war. If the verb is expressed.²EMERSON. like Martin was. In this second use.²ALDRICH.-SCOTT. but this is not considered good usage: for example. The sturdy English moralist may talk of a Scotch supper as he pleases.²HAWTHORNE. I do with my friends as I do with my books. [The sound] rang in his ears like the iron hoofs of the steeds of Time. and as or as if takes its place. indeed. Introduces a clause. That face. this.²EMERSON.² A timid.² HAWTHORNE. Through which they put their heads. and he grows frantic and beats the air like Carlyle. Give Ruskin space enough. . staring like a bewildered man. The aforesaid general had been exceedingly like the majestic image. ²PARKMAN. as shown in the following sentences:² Goodman Brown came into the street of Salem village. (2) A subordinate conjunction of manner. NOTE.²HIGGINSON. liker a lion's mane than a Christian man's locks. and is followed by a dative-objective. but its verb is omitted. like clearly modifies a noun or pronoun. nervous child.LIKE. like a cook beating eggs. but the verb of the clause introduced by like is regularly omitted. like summer ocean's. This follows a verb or a verbal. Modifier of a noun or pronoun. like drops out. In Old English gelic (like) was followed by the dative. Like an arrow shotFrom a well-experienced archer hits the mark. In each case. Note the difference between these two uses.²CASS.²Very rarely like is found with a verb following. and was clearly an adjective.²ALDRICH.²LONGFELLOW. like the Gauchos do through their cloaks. (1) An adjective. There is no statue like this living man. just as they do in Abyssinia to this day. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. like introduces a shortened clause modifying a verb or a verbal.²HALLECK. No Emperor.

Value of analysis. All discourse is made up of sentences: consequently the sentence is the unit with which we must begin. but it still retains its identity as noun. and are not parts of speech in the same sense as the words we have discussed. What analysis is. etc. in separating them into their component parts. And in order to get a clear and practical idea of the structure of sentences. A sentence is the expression of a thought in words. it is necessary to become expert in analysis. A more thorough and accurate acquaintance with the subject is necessary for two reasons." "Halt! the dust-brown ranks stood fast [verb]. Other interjections are oh! ah! alas! pshaw! hurrah! etc. Not all exclamatory words are interjections. tut! buzz! etc. . 336. Definition. 334. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FORM. but for the study of punctuation and other topics treated in rhetoric.²in determining case. as." "Up! for shame! [adverb]. But it is to be remembered that almost any word may be used as an exclamation.²not only for a correct understanding of the principles of syntax. subject and predicate." "Impossible! it cannot be [adjective]. 335.INTERJECTIONS. that is. Humph! attempts to express a contemptuous nasal utterance that no letters of our language can really spell. clauses introduced by conjunctions. Definition. pronoun. Some of these are imitative sounds. A general idea of analysis was needed in our study of the parts of speech. verb." PART II.: for example. Interjections are exclamations used to express emotion. that is. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. "Books! lighthouses built on the sea of time [noun].. entering into the structure of a sentence. etc.

but according to how many statements there are. not according to the form in which a thought is put.Kinds of sentences as to form. 338. always friends?" imperative. (3) Imperative. there are only the three kinds of sentences already named. 339. let us examine two specimen sentences:² 1. interrogative." 340. This is the most common one. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement. hence. But now all is to be changed. A rare old plant is the ivy green. which puts the thought in the form of a declaration or assertion. (2) Interrogative." "What wouldst thou do. question. old man?" "Be thou familiar. you must not die!" interrogative. declarative. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division. Division according to number of statements. sentences may be of three kinds:² (1) Declarative. entreaty. Definition.²a subject and a predicate. Every sentence must contain two parts. In order to get a correct definition of the subject. "The quality of mercy is not strained. or command: for example. Death!" CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF STATEMENTS. 2. . Examples of these three kinds are. "Come to the bridal chamber. which puts the thought in a question. but the sentence would still be declarative. 337. but by no means vulgar. Any one of these may be put in the form of an exclamation. SIMPLE SENTENCES. The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject. according to form. or request. or imperative. The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence. According to the way in which a thought is put before a listener or reader. which expresses command. "Hath he not always treasures. "Old year. Definition: Predicate.

²What is to be changed? Answer. "[You] behold her single in the field. thou. 3. The shadow of the dome of pleasureFloated midway on the waves. Thus. and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something. But if we try this with the second sentence. all. In the interrogative sentence. especially in poetry. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence. not of a rare old plant. on the other hand. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions.In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate. to suit all cases:² Subject. but about the ivy green. or an interrogative pronoun. 4. adjective. In analyzing such sentences. always reduce them to the order of a statement. the subject (you. we say all is the subject of the sentence. The last of all the Bards was he. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards! 9. or ye) is in most cases omitted. The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate.² (1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?" (2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?" (3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?" (4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?" In the imperative sentence. 8. The subject in interrogative and imperative simple sentences. Listen. the subject is frequently after the verb. and is to be supplied.²What is the ivy green? Answer. and the real subject is the latter. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general. 5. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift. as. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made. 6. . to an ignorant man. we have some trouble. 2. 341. or adverb that asks about the subject." Exercise. and our definition must be the following. Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:² 1. 7. a rare old plant. Consequently. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order. Slavery they can have anywhere.

or second object. direct. (2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed. (3) The object. "I give thee this to wear at the collar. It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object. but chief belongs to the verb. 342. "Ye honor me. a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object. (5) Modifiers. and by object we mean the direct object. "Ye call me chief. and means summoned. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning. Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds. just as if to say. Of a transitive verb. The subject and predicate have been discussed." indirect. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races! ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. (2) The predicate. Examples of direct and indirect objects are.²transitive and intransitive. Indirect object. in addition to the object." Complement: 344. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:² (1) The subject. but of call chief." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief). (4) The complements. (6) Independent elements.10. The transitive verb often requires. for example. or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed. . "She seldom saw her course at a glance. and me here is not the object simply of call. Direct Object. but it is a true complement. The object may be of two kinds:² Definitions. but for the present we speak of the object of the verb. 343. (1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb.

and. An intransitive verb. See sentence 19. 347. or. must often have a word to complete the meaning: as. not containing a verb. 346. but used as a single modifier." "Nothing could be more copious than his talk." (2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote. Complement of an intransitive verb. seem." "The good man." (4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave. 352. "A cheery. The subject of a simple sentence may be² (1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness. 'Ay. (1) PREPOSITIONAL. introduced by a preposition: for example." "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary. he was now getting old. A phrase is a group of words. As to form. for instance. become. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house. 355." "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter. in the popular judgment. as in the sentence. consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs." (3) INFINITIVE. in exercise following Sec. etc." "He was termed Thomas.. consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. ay. 351. above sixty." (2) PARTICIPIAL. especially the forms of be. and of massive weight. in the original Opium Confessions. 364. "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation. and barring the door. "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court. more familiarly. phrases are of three kinds:² Three kinds. I mentioned a case of that nature. as in drowning." Things used as Subject. to the completion of this man of the world. sir!' rang out in response. as. feel. appear.The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive." 345. "Brow and head were round. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." (3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. Thom of the Gills." "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?" . taste." All these complete intransitive verbs." Also an expression used as a noun. Phrases. she sat down to undress the two youngest children.

prowling eyes. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb. asserting eyes. 341. my deficiency." 348." (6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects. for which see Sec. though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party." In this sentence." Things used as Complement. (3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud. it stands in the position of a grammatical subject. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust). or their religion from their sect." (5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral. Disguised infinitive subject. (4) After "there introductory." "Never." (3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office. or the thundering of organs. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time. (2) In interrogative sentences.(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect. from their lips. The subject is often found after the verb² (1) By simple inversion: as. There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive. "'By God." "There are asking eyes. and by Saint George!' said the King. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject. etc. and ever will be.²the talent of starting the game." "The dead are there.²the infinitive phrase." etc. but obscures the real subject. Complement: Of an intransitive verb." (4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies." Things used as Direct Object. for the sake of presenting examples:² (1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation. I saw the quick and the dead. but the real or logical subject is to print. 349. was heard one syllable to justify." (2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile. ." Also expressions used as nouns: for example. but they will be given in detail here." The for did not belong there originally." which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. "Therein has been.

the object is made the subject by being passive." (2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly." (3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous.² (1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot. and whenever the complement is a noun. (3) Infinitive. Like all the complements in this list. As complement of a transitive verb." (5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny." Modifiers. are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation. it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object." In this last sentence." . 351." (2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she." "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken.²heads or tails. or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on. or Complement." "She asked her father's permission." "Their tempers.350. trusting the hearts of his countrymen. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun. doubtless. and explaining or modifying the subject. I." (4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method. at the same time.² (1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards. Object. or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways. the shepherd girl. Of a transitive verb. As complement of an intransitive verb." "I hear the echoes throng. and the words italicized are still complements." (4) Participle. or the equivalent of the noun. These modifiers are as follows:² (1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this." It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office. they are adjuncts of the object. Modifiers of Subject. the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective." "Serving others is serving us.²completing the predicate. complements of the predicate. and." (6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale." (5) Prepositional phrase: "My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me.

was the scene from King John." "Him." "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve.²proud. object. unforgiving. "He died like a God. ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing. at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on. 357-363.²In each sentence in Sec." (4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation. Tells how. tell whether the subject. not with nature.) (5) Indirect object: "I gave every man a trumpet. this young idolater." "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter. and modify the predicate in the same way." "Give them not only noble teachings. 351. given at the request of a Dutch lady." In such a sentence as." Exercise. but noble teachers. 352. see further Secs." (For participial and infinitive phrases." (3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies. no sociable angel." These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them. but with other men.(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland. the verb being omitted." the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase." (2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour. the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:² (1) Adverb: "Slowly and sadly we laid him down. II. or . and leading him from star to star." (5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him. Retained with passive. was now called upon for his defense. Modifiers of the Predicate." "In the twinkling of an eye. but it is really a contracted clause. our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle. Since the predicate is always a verb. interpreting for him the most difficult truths. I have seasoned for thee." "Her father was a prince in Lebanon. austere. the prisoner at the bar." (4) Infinitive phrase: "No imprudent. (3) Participial phrase: "She comes down from heaven to his help." "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written. or complement is modified." (6) Participial phrase: "Another reading.

. and (direct) object:² 1. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light. or how long. in this center? 4. Evil. and the direct object is retained: for example. he liked. gives wonderful animation. is good in the making. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation. 7. 4. I took. as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why." Exercises. with my joy and grief. the man of ideas appears out of his reason. But anger drives a man to say anything. no relief to the dead prosaic level. 8. and as many to oppose it. "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause. according to old philosophers." "All such knowledge should be given her. predicate. To the men of this world." "One way lies hope. 5. (b) Pick out the subject. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious. negative. Fashion does not often caress the great. in regard to particulars. and other measures of precaution. 6. and. Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive. 3. how far. His books have no melody. 2. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain. On the voyage to Egypt. These answer the question when. A merciless oppressor hast thou been. They do not wish to be lovely.When the verb is changed from active to passive. . to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition. 6. Why does the horizon hold me fast." "I was shown an immense sarcophagus." "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster. to the animal strength and spirits. no humor. and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour. 3. This. 5. 7. but the children of the great. but to be loved. the indirect object is retained." subject of passive verb and direct object retained. no emotion. (a) Pick out subject. etc. a sort of personality to the whole writing." (6) Adverbial objective. 2. after dinner. and complement: y y y y y y y 1. predicate.

that was thy portion in life. happy dinner. 4. That night. (c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:² y y y y y y 1. 2. must visit again the home of her childhood. at length the warrior lady. I promised her protection against all ghosts. 2.. after their long confinement to a ship. 5. the present Archbishop of Dublin. downwards. 2. Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott. I gave him an address to my friend. then. this nun so martial. y y (e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:² y 1. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore. y y y y Compound Subject. etc. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately. the attorney. burthened with the anxieties of a man. In one feature. for the first time. 3. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth. 3. this imperial rider. Compound Predicate. Not compound sentences. 5. in little peaceful Easedale. Their intention was to have a gay. Paint me. I felt myself. (d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:² y y y 1. Unhorse me. Not the less I owe thee justice.²the river Meuse.y 8. 4. 3. 6. then. at the chief hotel. . upwards. A river formed the boundary. a room seventeen feet by twelve.The cry of battle rises along their changing line. 4. six children sat by a peat fire. this dragoon so lovely. to the right and to the left. viz. expecting the return of their parents. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light. the blooming cornet. Yes. and a member of the world. To suffer and to do. in the dramatic character of his mind and taste.

the simple subject is situation. "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer. above: thus. For example. ulcer. 354." "Ye crags and peaks. shouldered the rusty firelock. same as (1). "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided." "The name of the child. "Ah.353. my brave young man!" . etc. the tone of her voice. with a heart full of trouble and anxiety. Larger view of a sentence. together with all its modifiers. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject. The exclamatory expression. and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. do not enter into its structure:² (1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them. 355. Bishop. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject. then the grammatical subject and predicate.²all awakened a train of recollections in his mind. but it is to be noticed that. that is. the air of the mother. turned his steps homeward. and.." Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are. Examples of compound subjects are. modifiers. etc." Sentences with compound predicates are. the predicate. several modifiers. and its object or complement." "Voyages and travels I would also have. I'm with you once again. exposes. two or more subjects of the same predicate. "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms. and returned to the more important concerns of the election." "He shook his head. and the rest is the logical predicate. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. forming a sentence: "Oh. Logical Subject and Logical Predicate. Of this. hurry. lurking far down in the depths of human nature. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements. etc. Independent Elements of the Sentence." And so with complements. "The company broke up. The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is." the logical subject is the situation here contemplated. in all such sentences as we quote below. young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative. hurry. the object. in the sentence. heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?" Caution. It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first. may be the person or thing addressed. however. the verb). complements. together with its modifiers." (2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady²! Oh. the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements. they are not a necessary part.

not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples. 3. and some conjunctions." (2) Adverbial. then. and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify. modifying a noun. 6). generally speaking. modifying the predicate. nevertheless. her noticing even this is creditable." "At all events. 351. undoubtedly. therefore." (6) Single words: as. see Sec. he was a conscientious man. now.." "No." "Why. truly. moreover. "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion. he closed his literary toils at dinner. already noticed. as follows:² y (a) As a complement of a transitive verb. six quill-driving gentlemen. 352. and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example.(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short. this story runs thus." "Well." "Considering the burnish of her French tastes. see Sec. pronoun. the company broke up. PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPIAL PHRASES. that have an office in the sentence. 350. 357.. such as however. or complement (see Sec. etc. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb. etc. why. besides." (5) Participial phrase: "But. The words well." (3) Independent. 356. the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared. grandma. These need close watching. are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary. 4). prepositional phrases may be. y (2) The adverbial use. There are some adverbs. "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases. (1) Adjectival. or word used as a noun: for example. and so on. really. such as perhaps. "Oh. to the best of my remembrance. . object. instances of which were seen in Sec. yes! everybody knew them." (4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat. limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as. (b) As a modifier of subject. 4)." "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon. how you're winking!" "Now. he somehow lived along. and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. let him perish." Another caution." "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. 355. and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:² (1) The adjectival use. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES." "Truth to say. In their use.

thus." y y (2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb. (5). The verbal use. both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule. the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15. "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes. and they will be presented here in full. I. ought. being equivalent to a future with obligation. he should not have known them at all. but having no other office than a verbal one. or as nearly so as the student will require. y (a) With may (might). therefore. equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings." "There. and hence is adverbial. necessity." "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening. This case excepted. "Because I was. and these additional examples:² Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water. but require somewhat closer attention." (b) With the forms of be. my dear. (1) Completing an incomplete verb." "He would instruct her in the white man's religion." etc." (c) With the definite forms of go. containing no matters of business. Wilt thou. the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter. Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public.seem. being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts. Notice these additional examples:² Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason.can (could).should. I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes. INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVE PHRASES. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every ." In this sentence.000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years. suffer God to give by seeming to refuse? (3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar.would. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble. 355.: as in the sentences. but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business. and teach her how to be happy and good. modifying was speedily run through. etc. etc. but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing. 358." "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor. was speedily run through. "The letter of introduction.]. See Sec.There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially.

result. The substantive use.." "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation. sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you.moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive)." 360." "Isn't it enough to bring us to death." "To teach is to learn. etc. etc." (3) As complement: See examples under (1). Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose. "But there was no time to be lost. to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry. to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?" (2) Result: "Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck." "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again. but see the following examples for further illustration:² (1) As the subject: "To have the wall there. it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence." (5) Condition: "You would fancy.: for example." "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. III. to please is equivalent to that he may please. object. to hear McOrator after dinner. (4) In apposition. and the eyes to fill?" 359." "He insisted on his right to forget her. which may be to express² (1) Purpose: "The governor. hang the idiot. such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions. 351." "Are you mad. The adjectival use." "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this. modifying a noun that may be a subject. The adverbial use. 361. 5). "Do they not cause the heart to beat. explanatory of a noun preceding: as. was to have the foe's life at their mercy." (2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories. above. . II. notice the following:² In (1)." "To say what good of fashion we can. 362. To test this. to bring me such stuff!" (4) Degree: "We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives. Don Guzman. "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French.²both purpose clauses. IV. already examined. but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive). 361 are used adverbially. is evident from the meaning of the sentences. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. the Scotch fighting all the battles. to look means that he might look. may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause. complement." "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?" (3) Reason: "I am quite sorry to part with them.

) OUTLINE OF ANALYSIS. not in a book. (2) Exclamatory: "I a philosopher! I advance pretensions. 4. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. as in Sec. and "too sad to talk" also shows degree. etc. savage and serene in one hour. etc. 364. must be in a life. 349).² (1) Thrown loosely into the sentence. This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have. 355. (3). 3. etc. 363. and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it. V. 351).. If it is an incomplete verb. 2. (4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec.In (2). give² (1) The predicate. not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity. equivalent to that you betray. object. give the complement (Secs. which is of two kinds. (7) Independent elements (Sec. The independent use. (6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences.. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these. but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers. to hear means if you should hear. 351). Our life is March weather. to part means because I part. (2) The object of the verb (Sec. In (5). . to find shows the result of the return. 347). (5) The subject (Sec. 268. 352)." "'He to die!' resumed the bishop. 351). (3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. In (3)." (See also Sec. and to say is equivalent to if we say. to serve and to talk are equivalent to [as much gold] as will serve us. 355). Analyze the following according to the directions given:² 1. In analyzing simple sentences.²both expressing condition. and to betray and to bring express the reason. I will try to keep the balance true. In (4).

To be hurried away by every event. We are always in peril. 11. 5. Old Adam. 10. with eager energy. Through the years and the centuries. is to have no political system at all.²a getting-out of their bodies to think. I have heard Coleridge talk. through evil agents.He sat in the shower. to keep England out of war. might be called flabby and irresolute. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings. 13. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning. 12. and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual. 17. Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune. just on the edge of destruction. The whole figure and air. through toys and atoms. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men. The word conscience has become almost confined. in popular use. and to the purpose. 6. 7. nor money. and only to be saved by invention and courage. Her aims were simple and obvious. 9. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy. and every moment discover something new. You may ramble a whole day together. a good shot. 18. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language. nor himself. the carrion crow. two stricken hours. neither ammunition. 19. to the moral sphere. 15. always in a bad plight. 14. 22. good and amiable otherwise. nor troops. and spared nothing. a graceful dancer. To these gifts of nature. He risked everything.²to preserve her throne. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance. The water.4. 24. a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams. an accomplished scholar.The old crow of Cairo. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman. 8. 20. a skilled musician. . to restore civil and religious order. 23. His opinion is always original. 21. It is easy to sugar to be sweet. and let it flowUnder his tail and over his crest. nor generals. like a witch's oils.Burnt green and blue and white. 16.

31. baggage far in the rear. on the shores of the Basin of Minas. surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes. I dare this. I hate him and myself. exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter. This amiable relative. proud foe. In the Acadian land. 39. 32. But yield. 38. the same Condé Olivarez. 29. The villain. time-honored. Few in number. the ship was in an uproar. "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches. it must have been in the latitude of Boston. the present capital of New England. 35. an elderly man. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground. ready to receive her. upon my own ground. 26. or perhaps one virtue. was the patriotism of Peel in recent history. and the why. in front of all this mighty crowd.²their minds were filled with doleful forebodings. She had made a two days' march. 37. haply. Fair name might he have handed down. 30. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest. to bid you leave the place now and forever. the little village of Grand-PréLay in the fruitful valley. it would not have been filial or ladylike. 33. Of the same grandeur. 34. still. 27. Supposing this computation to be correct.Effacing many a stain of former crime. and the wherefore? . 41. and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships. The cry. 40. in less heroic and poetic form. the prime minister of Spain. Must we in all things look for the how. Oxford.25. had but one foible. Upon this shore stood. and.Distant. timeshattered power²I owe thee nothing! 28. to be a reproach to such goodness. and no provisions but wild berries. and in my own garden. 36. Now. secluded. thy fleetWith the crews at England's feet. in this world. ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors.

Such are the following:² "There is no country more worthy of our study than England [is worthy of our study]. are really contracted clauses. Our investigations have now included all the machinery of the simple sentence. the expressions of manner introduced by like. 366.² "She is like some tender tree. 333).CONTRACTED SENTENCES. as would be the connective instead of like. compare with them the two following:² "The nobility and gentry are more popular among the inferior orders than they are in any other country. The simple sentence the basis. the pride and beauty of the grove." "This is not so universally the case at present as it was formerly." This must. 367. Words left out after than or as. but have an essential part omitted that is so readily supplied by the mind as not to need expressing. Some sentences look like simple ones in form. if they were expanded. as. COMPLEX SENTENCES." Such contracted sentences form a connecting link between our study of simple and complex sentences." Sentences with like. which is the unit of speech. Our further study will be in sentences which are combinations of simple sentences." To show that these words are really omitted. 365." "The ruby seemed like a spark of fire burning upon her white bosom. As shown in Part I. like [as] a smile from the west [would shine]. to avoid the tiresome repetition of short ones of monotonous similarity. made merely for convenience and smoothness. though often treated as phrases. but. be carefully discriminated from cases where like is an adjective complement. ." "The distinctions between them do not seem to be so marked as [they are marked] in the cities.From her own loved island of sorrow.² "They'll shine o'er her sleep. (Sec. however. thus.

²the dependent or subordinate clauses. 370. and one or more subordinate or dependent clauses.. suffering. and modifier. 368.Next to the simple sentence stands the complex sentence.²the backbone. we are aware. we are aware how great must be the suffering that extorts the murmur.. complements.²how the first clause is held in suspense by the mind till the second. the complex sentence has statements or clauses for these places. Independent clause. as in this sentence. or independent clause is one making a statement without the help of any other clause. that is. predicate. modifiers. A clause is a division of a sentence. then we recognize this as the main statement. and the next one. Hence the term clause may refer to the main division of the complex sentence. or it may be applied to the others. . etc. The basis of it is two or more simple sentences. 369. object. each clause has its subject. This arrangement shows to the eye the picture that the sentence forms in the mind. containing a verb with its subject. Definition. CLAUSES. But there is this difference: whereas the simple sentence always has a word or a phrase for subject. that . is taken in. which are so united that one member is the main one.²the other members subordinate to it... A principal. how great . A complex sentence is one containing one main or independent clause (also called the principal proposition or clause). drops into its place as subordinate to we are aware. complement. 371. logically depends on suffering. main. The elements of a complex sentence are the same as those of the simple sentence. Hence the following definition:² Definition." The relation of the parts is as follows:² we are aware _______ _____ | | __| when such a spirit breaks | forth into complaint. object. | how great must be the suffering | that extorts the murmur.² "When such a spirit breaks forth into complaint. or dependent on it. murmur. and the last.

so the object clause is retained. for example. "We are persuaded that a thread runs through all things. A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement depending upon or modifying some word in the principal clause." (b) "I am aware [I know] that a skillful illustrator of the immortal bard would have swelled the materials. but logically the sentence is.. verbal. but logically they are nothing but simple sentences. Noun clauses have the following uses:² (1) Subject: "That such men should give prejudiced views of America is not a matter of surprise.. is retained after a passive verb (Sec. for example. Kinds. ADJECTIVE." (b) After "it introductory" (logically this is a subject clause. (b) that are . over which the torrent came tumbling. and should not be called an adjunct of the subject. (a) Ordinary apposition. and the whole clause is not. "The rocks presented a high impenetrable wall. 'I know that he can toil terribly." "I was told that the house had not been shut. or adverbs. pronoun. put an end to my fancies. and it is . or the equivalent of a verb: (a) "I confess these stories. infinitive.Dependent clause.' is an electric touch. attention is called to them here. etc. 5). explanatory of some noun or its equivalent: "Cecil's saying of Sir Walter Raleigh. Noun Clauses. but it is often treated as in apposition with it): "It was the opinion of some. and ADVERB clauses." Just as the object noun. that he have a certain solid and intelligible way of living." 374. .. adjectives." (3) Complement: "The terms of admission to this spectacle are. for a hundred years. night or day." (2) Object of a verb." (4) Apposition. 372. with a noun clause in apposition with it." Notice that frequently only the introductory word is the object of the preposition.. Here are to be noticed certain sentences seemingly complex.." (5) Object of a preposition: "At length he reached to where the ravine had opened through the cliffs. impertinences. thus. for a time. As to their office in the sentence. 352. We ourselves are getting . impertinences²would be grammatical. clauses are divided into NOUN. 373... But since they are complex in form." To divide this into two clauses²(a) It is we ourselves. according as they are equivalent in use to nouns.² "Alas! it is we ourselves that are getting buried alive under this avalanche of earthly impertinences. that this might be the wild huntsman famous in German legend.

that is merely a framework used to effect emphasis. 10.² "It is on the understanding. The sentence shows how it may lose its pronominal force. 4. the only use of an adjective clause is to limit or describe some noun. Whatever he looks upon discloses a second sense. which. Examples of adjective clauses. whereby. 5. Other examples of this construction are. 2. no man will ever know. Our current hypothesis about Mohammed. etc. that he was a scheming impostor. The adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who. The reply of Socrates. begins really to be no longer tenable to any one. he could know nothing. 9. where. a falsehood incarnate. As the office of an adjective is to modify. Tell how each noun clause is used in these sentences:² 1. I felt that I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. 8. he would repent it. whither. of a nation. whether he should choose one or not. how it changed from shape to shape. as. or equivalent of a noun. I was napping. It will not be pretended that a success in either of these kinds is quite coincident with what is best and inmost in his mind. What history it had. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. and not on the sentiment. Frequently there is no connecting word. I scanned more narrowly the aspect of the building. 7. wherein. in the sentence. still remains reasonable. Except by what he could see for himself." Exercise. 375. but. Such a man is what we call an original man." "Then it is that deliberative Eloquence lays aside the plain attire of her daily occupation. . whence. Adjective Clauses. that. a relative pronoun being understood. But the fact is. or equivalent of a noun: consequently the adjective may modify any noun. 3. 6. to him who asked whether he should choose a wife. that. that all safe legislation must be based. sometimes by the conjunctions when.

. whether subject. One of the maidens presented a silver cup. 9." (3) The complement: "The animal he bestrode was a broken-down plow-horse.e. he begins to help us more as an effect." (4) Other words: "He rode with short stirrups. etc. Socrates took away all ignominy from the place.376. which formed the center of the mansion. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear ghosts except in our long-established Dutch settlements. object. or that essence we were looking for. There were passages that reminded me perhaps too much of Massillon. 2. i. Adverbial Clauses. 10." "Charity covereth a multitude of sins. which could not be a prison whilst he was there." "It was such an apparition as is seldom to be met with in broad daylight. the champions advanced through the lists." (2) The object: "From this piazza Ichabod entered the hall. In the moment when he ceases to help us as a cause. and tell what each one modifies. that had outlived almost everything but his usefulness." "No whit anticipating the oblivion which awaited their names and feats. which brought his knees nearly up to the pommel of the saddle. Adjective clauses may modify² (1) The subject: "The themes it offers for contemplation are too vast for their capacities. who said that the principles which I had avowed were just and noble. Other men are lenses through which we read our own minds. Pick out the adjective clauses. Nature waited tranquilly for the hour to be struck when man should arrive. . From the moment you lose sight of the land you have left." Exercise. 11. 3. all is vacancy. 4. 7. No man is reason or illumination. it seems a pity that we can only spend it once. which Rowena tasted. In one of those celestial days when heaven and earth meet and adorn each other. are apt to form an unfavorable opinion of his social character. 8." "Those who see the Englishman only in town. 1. containing a rich mixture of wine and spice. in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. I walked home with Calhoun. 5. 6.

it takes precedence of everything else. with examples. a verbal." (5) DEGREE." These mean no matter how good. the wider is the horizon of their thought. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. and will be given in detail. Adverb clauses are of the following kinds: (1) TIME: "As we go." "The broader their education is. Exercise. but they require careful study. Shakespeare is our city of refuge." "Master Simon was in as chirping a humor as a grasshopper filled with dew [is]. the milestones are grave-stones." "After leaving the whole party under the table. that we should try." (7) RESULT. whatever." "When he was come up to Christian. where he does not seem to have attracted any attention." (4) MANNER: "The knowledge of the past is valuable only as it leads us to form just calculations with respect to the future. he goes away as if nothing had happened. etc. that the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification." "He had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming." "The window was so far superior to every other in the church.377. The student has met with many adverb clauses in his study of the subjunctive mood and of subordinate conjunctions. shaping our actions. there is always something illiberal in the severer aspects of study." The first clause in the last sentence is dependent. tell what kind each is. so that we might not be ended untimely by too gross disobedience." (3) REASON. and as goddesses would die were goddesses mortal. or an adverb. and what it modifies:² ." "I give you joy that truth is altogether wholesome. (6) PURPOSE: "Nature took us in hand. The adverb clause takes the place of an adverb in modifying a verb. etc. 378." (9) CONCESSION.. an adjective. Pick out the adverbial clauses in the following sentences. adverbs. or CONSEQUENCE: "He wrote on the scale of the mind itself. however. is wider." "The right conclusion is." "Whatever there may remain of illiberal in discussion. etc." "He went several times to England." "Who cares for that. so thou gain aught wider and nobler?" "You can die grandly." (8) CONDITION: "If we tire of the saints. and adverbial conjunctions. expressing the degree in which the horizon.: "But still. however good she may be as a witness. to make up our shortcomings. no matter what remains. so far as we can. or CAUSE: "His English editor lays no stress on his discoveries." (2) PLACE: "Wherever the sentiment of right comes in. or COMPARISON: "They all become wiser than they were. since he was too great to care to be original.² whoever. introduced by indefinite relatives. so that all things have symmetry in his tablet. Joanna is better.

'" This may be represented as follows:² I cannot help thinking ____________________ | _______________________| | | (a) THAT THE FAULT IS IN THEMSELVES. if you are those men of whom we have heard so much. as a torch kindles a flame wherever it may be applied. the little sexton drew me on one side with a mysterious air. 'Well. when the wind was unruly. 3. and modifiers. object. that made her mother tremble because they had so much the sound of a witch's anathemas. the ghost of honest Preston was attracted by the wellknown call of "waiter. and informed me in a low voice that once upon a time. "Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality?" we is the principal subject. and communicated itself to a thousand objects. It is sometimes of great advantage to map out a sentence after analyzing it. (3) Analyze each clause as a simple sentence. ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES. to tell the truth. and twirling weathercocks. they might perhaps say of their visitors. then treat noun clauses as nouns. and even the dead could not sleep quietly in their graves. AND | | (b) [THAT] THEY MIGHT (PERHAPS) SAY OF THEIR VISITORS | ___________________ | | | _____________________________|_________________________________ . As I was clearing away the weeds from this epitaph. we are a little disappointed. Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath. 379. of which clause Odin is the subject. snatching up stones to fling at them. (2) First take the sentence as a whole. as they sometimes did. The spell of life went forth from her ever-creative spirit. with shrill. its object is that Odin was a reality. If the children gathered about her.1. To take a sentence:² "I cannot help thinking that the fault is in themselves. predicate. on a dark wintry night. etc." and made its sudden appearance just as the parish clerk was singing a stave from the "mirrie garland of Captain Death. For example. and adverb clauses as single modifying adverbs. 380. howling and whistling. find the principal subject and principal predicate. incoherent exclamations. These suggestions will be found helpful:² (1) See that the sentence and all its parts are placed in the natural order of subject. so as to picture the parts and their relations. so that the living were frightened out of their beds." 2. and that if the church and the cataract were in the habit of giving away their thoughts with that rash generosity which characterizes tourists. in the sentence. cannot conceive is the principal predicate. banging about doors and windows. adjective clauses as adjectives modifying certain words.

. 364.| | | | | | O| | b| | j| | e| | c| | t| | | | | | | | | | O| b| (a) We are (a little) disappointed ___________________________ ________________________| j| M| e| o| c| d| t| i| | f| | i| | e| \ r\ (b) If you are those men ___ _________________________| M| o| Of whom we have heard so much. True art is only possible on the condition that every talent has its apotheosis somewhere. That mood into which a friend brings us is his dominion over us. that rash generosity | d| __________ | i| | | f| _______________________________________________| | i| | | e| | (b) Which characterizes tourists. (a) Analyze the following complex sentences:² 1. d. . (3) Analyze the dependent clauses according to Sec. 364. This of course includes dependent clauses that depend on other dependent clauses. | r| | \ \ \ OUTLINE 381. 2. Take the place and attitude which belong to you. 380). (2) Analyze it according to Sec.. Exercises. \ | _____________________________________________________| | M| | o| (a) If the church and . 3. as seen in the "map" (Sec. (1) Find the principal clause.

14. Whether she said the word is uncertain. It was haunted to that degree by fairies. not so much for travelers that were few. that pressed her with an objection. bishop. so that the two principals had to tie white handkerchiefs round their elbows in order to descry each other. She has never lost sight of the truth that the product human nature is composed of the sum of flesh and spirit. that. namely. Here lay two great roads. the flower should revive for us. 9. 22. 15. Next came a wretched Dominican. I like that representation they have of the tree. were as full of sorrow as of inspiration. 17. 7. of a light hazel. whom I choose. the shepherd girl. Michelet is anxious to keep us in mind that this bishop was but an agent of the English. had we been worse. 23. And those will often pity that weakness most. could not have been effected. as for armies that were too many by half.4. This is she. where it was uncertain what game you would catch. The deep eyes. But now that she has become an establishment. The night proved unusually dark. Whether she would ever awake seemed to depend upon an accident. if applied to the Bible. 19. Had they been better chemists. 12. the mixed result. she begins to perceive that she made a blunder in trusting herself to the intellect alone. She is the only church that has been loyal to the heart and soul of man. counselor that had none for herself. dying for them. Before long his talk would wander into all the universe. 5. As surely as the wolf retires before cities. 20. 13. 24. does the fairy sequester herself from the haunts of the licensed victualer. that the parish priest was obliged to read mass there once a year. it would have argued nothing at all but the weakness of a genial nature. 21. More than one military plan was entered upon which she did not approve. 11. would tax every miracle with unsoundness. that has clung to her faith in the imagination. He was what our country people call an old one. for yours. who would yield to it least. 18. 10. The reader ought to be reminded that Joanna D'Arc was subject to an unusually unfair trial. had she really testified this willingness on the scaffold. Now. or whether any. which. 16. 8. M. . 6.

There is good reason why we should prize this liberation. questions. and what content I can find in conversing with each. 2. the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements. and temper. 5. until the hour arrives when the mind is ripened. "No book. 7. "was ever written down by any but itself. speed. 383. though we may repeat the words never so often. It makes no difference how many friends I have. if continuously extended. 6. is to speak and write sincerely. if we must consider the effort of Plato to dispose of Nature. (b) First analyze. 380. We say so because we feel that what we love is not in your will. and stamped with his right number. 28. if there be one to whom I am not equal. The way to speak and write what shall not go out of fashion. as if he had undergone a formal trial of his strength. The writer who takes his subject from his ear. These things we are forced to say. 3. .² Definition. He showed one who was afraid to go on foot to Olympia. 30. The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences.²which will not be disposed of. should know that he has lost as much as he has gained." said Bentley." 4. COMPOUND SENTENCES. A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses. that it was no more than his daily walk. we cannot adequately say. then map out as in Sec. 26. and not from his heart. Our eyes are holden that we cannot see things that stare us in the face. would easily reach. the following complex sentences:² 1. a new-comer is as well and accurately weighed in the course of a few days. In every troop of boys that whoop and run in each yard and square. While the complex sentence has only one main clause. or commands.25. Hence the definition. but above it. 382. How formed. That which we do not believe. What can we see or acquire but what we are? 29. 27. He thought not any evil happened to men of such magnitude as false opinion.

now adverbs or prepositions. and connects the first and second complex members. as in Sec. The division into members will be easier. But the conjunction is often omitted in copulative and adversative clauses. for." (2) Simple with complex: "The trees of the forest. Of the following illustrative sentences. introduce independent clauses (see Sec. Connectives. sometimes subordinate conjunctions. The student must watch the logical connection of the members of the sentence. Another example is. for the inmost in due time becomes the outmost. or but. which are simple statements. if there are any. The one point that will give trouble is the variable use of some connectives. nor does he know until he has tried. in (3). moon-like ray" (adversative). "Only the star dazzles. as but. and he almost fears to trust them with the secret which they seem to invite. nor. while (whilst). however. others sometimes coördinate." (3) Complex with complex: "The power which resides in him is new in nature. from the second. and it shall be the universal sense." 384. Speak your latent conviction. Examples of compound sentences:² Examples. a simple member. tell which are compound.This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses. Exercise. the semicolons cut apart the independent members. the semicolon separates the first. Thus in (1). the planet has a faint. . From this it is evident that nothing new is added to the work of analysis already done. and what was done in complex sentences is repeated in (2) and (3). and none but he knows what that is which he can do. etc. a complex member.. 297). whereas. (1) Simple sentences united: "He is a palace of sweet sounds and sights. and not the form of the connective. and the peeping flowers have grown intelligent. for the coördinate independent statements are readily taken apart with the subordinate clauses attached. The same analysis of simple sentences is repeated in (1) and (2) above. the waving grass. Some of these are now conjunctions. 385. yet. he walks with arms akimbo. 386. etc. he soliloquizes. 383 (1). and which complex:² 1. he is twice a man. and nor the second and third complex members. The coördinate conjunctions and. he dilates. in (2). Study the thought.

14. We denote the primary wisdom as intuition. I sometimes seemed to have lived for seventy or one hundred years in one night. . I sometimes had feelings representative of a millennium. he grew up to be a mild. but with more intelligence than is seen in many lads from the schools. In this manner. 2.2. Analyze the following compound sentences:² 1. I can still receive. yield to them heart and life. 4. 387. If I feel overshadowed and outdone by great neighbors. (3) Analyze each simple member as in Sec. 5. you have gained something else. All loss. and thou shalt be loved. Exercise. I no longer wish to meet a good I do not earn. 10. the universe remains to the heart unhurt. I can yet love. for example. I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May. 8. nor is his genius admonished to stay at home. (2) Analyze each complex member as in Sec. and for everything you gain. and as yet very early in the morning. and not by what each is. 9. yet when the devout motions of the soul come. and sun-browned with labor in the fields. 12. 3. However some may think him wanting in zeal. Love. unobtrusive boy. 7. but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of other men. They measure the esteem of each other by what each has. from a happy yet often pensive child. 6. Whilst the world is thus dual. The gain is apparent. that it was Easter Sunday. the tax is certain. A man cannot speak but he judges himself. 4. whilst all later teachings are tuitions. 381. of a duration far beyond the limits of experience. is particular. quiet. OUTLINE FOR ANALYZING COMPOUND SENTENCES. the most fanatical can find no taint of apostasy in any measure of his. 13. Man does not stand in awe of man. all pain. so is every one of its parts. you lose something. however. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity. 3. and he that loveth maketh his own the grandeur that he loves. 364. Your goodness must have some edge to it²else it is none. (i) Separate it into its main members. passed in that time. nay. 11. or. to find a pot of buried gold. For everything you have missed.

treat them greatly. and the cart as nigh the rake. He teaches who gives. but the day never shines in which this element may not work. or hope. They will shuffle and crow. 18. and they will show themselves great. but the tough world had its revenge the moment they put their horses of the sun to plow in its furrow. A gay and pleasant sound is the whetting of the scythe in the mornings of June. 21. "as nigh the scythe as you can. 11. abide by it. Whatever he knows and thinks. or sail with God the seas. and the peace of society is often kept. as children. . Times of heroism are generally times of terror. or we read books. Life is a train of moods like a string of beads. which always make the Actual ridiculous. or men will never know and honor him aright. The sturdiest offender of your peace and of the neighborhood. and they will be true to you. The magic they used was the ideal tendencies. in the instinctive faith that these will call it out and reveal us to ourselves. puts the parties on a convenient footing. that let him communicate. and as we pass through them they prove to be many-colored lenses which paint the world their own hue. 16. 8. or we pursue persons. 14. 17. is as thin and timid as any. crook and hide." "keep the rake. feign to confess here. one is afraid. and makes their business a friendship. 6. 19. Come into port greatly. because." says the smith. modesty. 9. Stand aside. 7. "the iron is white. and he learns who receives. and do not weakly try to reconcile yourself with the world. only that they may brag and conquer there. We see the noble afar off. whatever in his apprehension is worth doing. and you are without effort impelled to truth. and they repel us. give those merits room. On the most profitable lie the course of events presently lays a destructive tax. Trust men. and not an emotion of bravery. 15. "Strike. Place yourself in the middle of the stream of power and wisdom which animates all whom it floats. though they make an exception in your favor to all their rules of trade. 20. whilst frankness invites frankness. why should we intrude? 10.5." 13. yet what is more lonesome and sad than the sound of a whetstone or mower's rifle when it is too late in the season to make hay? 12. let them mount and expand. if you rip up his claims. and not a thought has enriched either party. and the other dares not. We go to Europe." says the haymaker. and each shows only what lies at its focus. When you have chosen your part.

Following the Latin method. Do not craze yourself with thinking. Considering the scarcity of inflections in English. pronoun and antecedent. that English syntax is founded upon the meaning and the logical connection of words rather than upon their . INTRODUCTORY. but they never acquit the debt. SYNTAX. and dodge the account. We see young men who owe us a new world. 388. Syntax deals with the relation of words to each other as component parts of a sentence. 23. So does culture with us. Government has to do with verbs and prepositions. Thus journeys the mighty Ideal before us. the department of syntax will be a small affair. if they live. But there is a good deal else to watch in addition to the few forms. but its leading characteristic is. for there is an important and marked difference between Latin and English syntax. it is clear that if we merely follow the Latin treatment. 390.²agreement and government. it never was known to fall into the rear. 380. but go about your business anywhere. 25. Agreement is concerned with the following relations of words: words in apposition. so readily and lavishly they promise. it ends in headache. and with their proper arrangement to express clearly the intended meaning. they die young. Syntax is from a Greek word meaning order or arrangement. writers on English grammar usually divide syntax into the two general heads. Essential point in English syntax.22. Ground covered by syntax. verb and subject. 24. adjective and noun. PART III. or. By way of introduction. English syntax follows the Latin to a limited extent. It is this:² Latin syntax depends upon fixed rules governing the use of inflected forms: hence the position of words in a sentence is of little grammatical importance. they lose themselves in the crowd. both of which are said to govern words by having them in the objective case.

take the sentence. standard writers²differ as to which of two constructions should be used. while some are idiomatic (peculiar to our own language). Instances will be found in treating of the pronoun or noun with a gerund. it is not consistent with the general rules of grammar: but none the less it is good English. The constructions presented as general will be justified by quotations from modern writers of English who are regarded as "standard. To study the rules regarding the use of inflected forms. yet the expression is sustained by good authority. "The savage here the settler slew. the sentence. The basis of syntax. writers whose style is generally acknowledged as superior." grammatical rules would require him instead of he after the preposition. In some cases. This is not logical. and particularly when the grammatical and the logical conception of a sentence do not agree. Some rules not rigid. distinct forms would be used. or settler may be the subject. 392. To find out the logical methods which control us in the arrangement of words. and it would not matter which one stood first. 393." In this there is a possessive form. "None remained but he. Reference will also be made to spoken English when its constructions differ from those of the literary language. but are not now. There is. Also in the sentence. also expressing a possessive relation. and to vulgar English when it preserves forms which were once. When usage varies as to a given construction." that is. Our treatment of syntax will be an endeavor to record the best usage of the present time on important points. the order being inverted. Why study syntax? 391.form: consequently it is quite as necessary to place words properly. pronoun and antecedent. both forms will be given in the following pages. or the same writer will use both indifferently. or when they exist side by side in good usage." is ambiguous. and added to it the preposition of. authorities²that is. a double reason for not omitting syntax as a department of grammar. As an illustration of the last remark. then. good English. It may be suggested to the student that the only way to acquire correctness is to watch good usage everywhere. following the regular order of subject. will be accepted by those in quest of authoritative opinion. and imitate it. there is a copious 'Life' by Sheridan. Second.² First. For example. Savage may be the subject. etc. and to think clearly of the meaning of words. "Besides these famous books of Scott's and Johnson's. In Latin. sometimes verb and subject. and whose judgment. therefore. some of which conform to classical grammar. . for it is easy to confuse a student with too many obtrusive don'ts. and nothing but important points will be considered. as to study inflected forms.

Separate possession. When two or more possessives modify the same noun.²ROWE. Nouns have no distinct forms for the nominative and objective cases: hence no mistake can be made in using them.² Live your king and country's best support. He kept Bolingbroke's. and Pope's. In Beaumont and Fletcher's "Sea Voyage. 396." Juletta tells.²MCCULLOCH. PRONOUNS. Swift did not keep Stella's letters. or indicate joint ownership or possession. Mill's and Mr. Joint possession. Putting Mr. The possessive preceding the gerund will be considered under the possessive of pronouns (Sec. An actor in one of Morton's or Kotzebue's plays.²MILTON. but imply separate possession or ownership. Oliver and Boyd's printing office. the possessive sign is used with each noun. etc. Bentham's principles together.NOUNS. Adam and Eve's morning hymn.² He lands us on a grassy stage.²BYRON. . and Harley's. 395. for example. the antechamber of the High Priest. 408). ²ID.²EMERSON. the possessive sign is added to the last noun only. as. sense and nature's easy fool. Levi's station in life was the receipt of custom. and Peterborough's. But some remarks are required concerning the use of the possessive case. and Paul's. When two or more possessives stand before the same noun. the shore of Galilee. Woman. Safe from the storm's and prelate's rage. 394.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. 397. and Peter's. Use of the possessive.²MACAULAY.²MARVELL Where were the sons of Peers and Members of Parliament in Anne's and George's time?² THACKERAY.

Objective for the nominative. I.²TROLLOPE.²THACKERAY. for example. 399.²WHITCHER.² He and me once went in the dead of winter in a one-hoss shay out to Boonville. (1) The nominative use is usually marked by the nominative form of the pronoun. General rules. and should be the nominative form. the true relation of the words is misunderstood. The objective is sometimes found instead of the nominative in the following instances:² (1) By a common vulgarism of ignorance or carelessness. who. (2) By faulty analysis of the sentence. the last expression has the support of many good writers. This should be "as she. It seems strange to me that them that preach up the doctrine don't admire one who carrys it out. "Whom think ye that I am?" (In this. the real thought being forgotten. Bedott Papers. Especially is this fault to be noticed after an ellipsis with than or as. These simple rules are sometimes violated in spoken and in literary English.PERSONAL PRONOUNS. NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE FORMS. Still.²SOUTHEY.²SHAKESPEARE.²POPE.²BYRON." 400. there are two general rules that require attention. if not universally. 398. have separate forms for nominative and objective use. But he must be a stronger than thee.² JOSIAH ALLENS WIFE. as. whom they agree was rather nicelooking" (whom is the subject of the verb was)." because the full expression would be "such a one as she is. . no notice is taken of the proper form to be used as subject. Some of the violations are universally condemned. thus. No mightier than thyself or me.) "The young Harper. whom is the complement after the verb am. Since most of the personal pronouns. others are generally. (2) The objective use is usually marked by the objective form of the pronoun. as shown in the following examples:² She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. together with the relative who. sanctioned. Lin'd with Giants deadlier than 'em all. Not to render up my soul to such as thee.² But the consolation coming from devotion did not go far with such a one as her.

²SCOTT."²WM.²THACKERAY.²COLERIDGE. as illustrated in the following sentences:² If so. She had a companion who had been ever agreeable.²LONGFELLOW. Patrick the Porter. BLACK. I have no other saint than thou to pray to. The expression than whom seems to be used universally instead of "than who. The following are examples of spoken English from conversations:² "Rose Satterne. as. It will be safer for the student to follow the general rule. It may be stated with assurance that the literary language prefers the nominative in this instance. "If there is any one embarrassed. and her estate a steward than whom no one living was supposed to be more competent. are. the objective form is regularly found." 401. "Than whom. both in England and America. is. they are yet holier than we. In spoken English. Do we seeThe robber and the murd'rer weak as we?²MILTON. on the other hand. careful effort is made to adopt the standard usage.²KINGSLEY.²MACAULAY. A safe rule.²RUSKIN. Who would suppose it is the game of such as he?²DICKENS. it will not be me. . And it was heThat made the ship to go."²WINTHROP.²PARTON. The usage is too common to need further examples. "It was he" or "It was him"? 402."²KINGSLEY. and the other forms of the verb be.²one than whom I never met a bandit more gallant.I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. unless a special.² One I remember especially. The camp of Richard of England." There is no special reason for this. for example. One exception is to be noted. whether the nominative or the objective form should be used in the predicate after was. than whom none knows better how to do honor to a noble foe. but such is the fact.² For there was little doubt that it was he. "Who's there?"²"Me. namely. But still it is not she.²FIELDING. the mayor's daughter?"²"That's her. And there is one question about which grammarians are not agreed.

(3) By forgetting the construction. I speak not to" (he should be him. giving reasons from the analysis of the sentence:² 1. or us). If there ever was a rogue in the world. the object of to). verbals.²KINGSLEY Alas! miserable me! Alas! unhappy Señors!²ID. . 403. 7. "Seems to me as if them as writes must hev a kinder gift fur it. 5. 8. Whom they were I really cannot specify. object of saw). The sign of the Good Samaritan is written on the face of whomsoever opens to the stranger. "All debts are cleared between you and I" (for you and me). 10." 6. 3. or this. in the case of words used in apposition with the object. The same affinity will exert its influence on whomsoever is as noble as these men and women. We shall soon see which is the fittest object of scorn. 11. and prepositions. as. 404. It is to be remembered that the objective form is used in exclamations which turn the attention upon a person. you or me. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following sentences. Truth is mightier than us all. but not he" (he should be him. now. You know whom it is that you thus charge. 9. Ay me! I fondly dream²had ye been there." the word being in apposition with murderer). It was him that Horace Walpole called a man who never made a bad figure but as an author. Me in exclamations. "He that can doubt whether he be anything or no.Exercise. 4. 2. (2) In the case of certain pairs of pronouns. as. he who has steeped his hands in the blood of another" (instead of "him who. It is not me you are in love with. "I saw men very like him at each of the places mentioned. or preposition which governs it. They were the very two individuals whom we thought were far away. "Ask the murderer.² Unhappy me! That I cannot risk my own worthless life. Nominative for the objective. as this from Shakespeare. as. it is me. The rule for the objective form is wrongly departed from² (1) When the object is far removed from the verb.²MILTON. used after verbs. verbal. "Let thou and I the battle try" (for thee and me.

but he. The Chieftains thenReturned rejoicing. who interrogative. all but he. Rich are the sea gods:²who gives gifts but they?²EMERSON.²KINGSLEY.² Knows he now to whom he lies under obligation?²SCOTT. I've sworn. 406. In literary English the objective form whom is preferred for objective use.²BYRON.Shall be left upon the morn. Thou. Who the devil is he talking to?²SHERIDAN. and is usually avoided. Who should we find there but Eustache?²MARRVAT. Exercise. Correct the italicized pronouns in the following. Yet the nominative form is found quite frequently to divide the work of the objective use. Who have we here?²ID.²SOUTHEY No man strikes him but I. He hath given away half his fortune to the Lord knows who. It is a well-established usage to put the nominative form. partial Nature. None. etc. 2.²KINGSLEY. Nature. Let you and I look at these.²BYRON. Exception 2. as. for example. Who have we got here?²SMOLLETT. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend. The interrogative pronoun who may be said to have no objective form in spoken English. as well as the objective. "Who were they talking to?" etc. 405. changed in all save thee. The more formal "To whom were they talking?" sounds stilted in conversation. What doth she look on? Whom doth she behold?²WORDSWORTH. "Who did you see?" or.²GOLDSMITH. as.Exception 1.²STEELE. save thou and thine.² All were knocked down but us two. for they say there are none such in the world.²KINGSLEY. giving reasons from the analysis of the quotation:² 1. . I arraign. We regularly say. after the preposition but (sometimes save). Thy shores are empires.² My son is going to be married to I don't know who.

11. "we could kill every soul of them in half an hour. They are coming for a visit to she and I. 12. 9. 5.²MACAULAY. who. He saw her smile and slip money into the man's hand who was ordered to ride behind the coach. POSSESSIVE FORMS. Johnson calls three contemporaries of great eminence. and by hers whom I most worship on earth. with Jortin and Thirlby. Markland. and they know that as well as me. "Nonsense!" said Amyas. To send me away for a whole year²I who had never crept from under the parental wing² was a startling idea. BROWN. They crowned him long ago. We should augur ill of any gentleman's property to whom this happened every other day in his drawing room.²DE QUINCEY. Now by His name that I most reverence in Heaven. 7.²possessive. Besides my father and Uncle Haddock²he of the silver plates. Ye against whose familiar names not yetThe fatal asterisk of death is set. For boys with hearts as boldAs his who kept the bridge so well. 6. It can't be worth much to they that hasn't larning.²RUSKIN. II. Bartholomew. as the use of the possessive is less likely to be clear. The possessive forms of personal pronouns and also of nouns are sometimes found as antecedents of relatives.²THACKERAY. He doubted whether his signature whose expectations were so much more bounded would avail. or objective? .²SCOTT.3. 407.But who they got to put it onNobody seems to know. B. 10.Ye I salute. This usage is not frequent. Preceding a gerund. As antecedent of a relative.²C. I experienced little difficulty in distinguishing among the pedestrians they who had business with St. The great difference lies between the laborer who moves to Yorkshire and he who moves to Canada. 8. For their sakes whose distance disabled them from knowing me." 4. The antecedent is usually nominative or objective.

Here I state them only in brief. But in common use there is no such distinction. Why both are found. Objective.² SCOTT. should the possessive case of a noun or pronoun always be used with the gerund to indicate the active agent? Closely scrutinizing these two sentences quoted. both are gerunds. There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass.²MACAULAY." That is. We think with far less pleasure of Cato tearing out his entrails than of Russell saying. object of heard of. etc." or "We heard of Brown's studying law.²BREWER. The fact of the Romans not burying their dead within the city walls proper is a strong reason.²DE QUINCEY. sometimes it has the objective. and in keeping with the old way of regarding the person as the chief object before the mind: the possessive use is more modern. The last incident which I recollect. As to his having good grounds on which to rest an action for life.²RUSKIN. that the bitterness of death was past. Both types of sentences are found.² THACKERAY. The use of the objective is older.²CARLYLE. I remember Wordsworth once laughingly reporting to me a little personal anecdote. and asked why it was not made.408. In the examples quoted.²DICKENS. The old sexton even expressed a doubt as to Shakespeare having been born in her house. we might find a difference between them: saying that in the first one studying is a participle.² IRVING. as he turned away from his wife. Possessive.² CARLYLE. [who was] studying law. . and to make the action substantive the chief idea before the mind. and the meaning is. it will be noticed that the possessive of the pronoun is more common than that of the noun. sometimes the gerund has the possessive form before it. was my learned and worthy patron falling from a chair. and modified by the possessive case as any other substantive would be. to prevent the reader casting about in alarm for my ultimate meaning. studying is a gerund. He spoke of some one coming to drink tea with him. Another point on which there is some variance in usage is such a construction as this: "We heard of Brown studying law. and that in the second. There is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this earth. in keeping with the disposition to proceed from the material thing to the abstract idea. We heard of Brown.

²when the antecedent.² Those of us who can only maintain themselves by continuing in some business or salaried office. in one person.²HOLMES.²the preferred method is to put the pronoun following in the masculine singular.²AUDUBON. is followed by a phrase containing a pronoun of a different person.The case was made known to me by a man's holding out the little creature dead. The pale realms of shade. Watch for the real antecedent. Everybody had his own life to think of. Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess.² BRYANT. The two strangers gave me an account of their once having been themselves in a somewhat similar condition. The pronouns of the third person usually refer back to some preceding noun or pronoun. preceded by a distributive.²DE QUINCEY.²C. There was a chance of their being sent to a new school.²THACKERAY.²RUSKIN. if the antecedent is neuter.²when the antecedent includes both masculine and feminine. number. and ought to agree with them in person. BROCKDEN BROWN. There are two constructions in which the student will need to watch the pronoun. Examples of these constructions are. or is a distributive word. In such a case as the last three sentences.²DE QUINCEY. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS. 409. where there were examinations. taking in each of many persons.²CABLE.² RUSKIN This can only be by his preferring truth to his past apprehension of truth.²THOREAU.²EMERSON III. the pronoun will be neuter singular. The following are additional examples:² The next correspondent wants you to mark out a whole course of life for him. Every city threw open its gates.²HUXLEY. . It informs me of the previous circumstances of my laying aside my clothes. and gender. where each shall takeHis chamber in the silent halls of death. Every person who turns this page has his own little diary. 410. If any one did not know it.²DEFOE. There may be reason for a savage's preferring many kinds of food which the civilized man rejects. and when the antecedent is of such a form that the pronoun following cannot indicate exactly the gender. it was his own fault.

every considering Christian will make it themselves as they go. but uses what spark of perception and faculty is left.² Not the feeblest grandame. as anybody in their senses would have done. It is a game which has been played for untold ages. If the part deserve any comment.Avoided: By using both pronouns. each almost bursting their sinews to force the other off. is to use the plural of the pronoun following.²DEFOE.²PALGRAVE. Each of the nations acted according to their national custom.²FIELDING. to chuckle and triumph in his or her opinion. let them break it off. By using the plural pronoun. Urging every one within reach of your influence to be neat.²PAULDING.²PALEY. Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world. Everybody will become of use in their own fittest way.²SCOTT. Had the doctor been contented to take my dining tables. till they have lost him. the logical analysis requiring the singular pronoun in each case. The masculine does not really represent a feminine antecedent. Nobody knows what it is to lose a friend.²AUSTEN.²HUXLEY. Everybody said they thought it was the newest thing there. Another way of referring to an antecedent which is a distributive pronoun or a noun modified by a distributive adjective. This is not considered the best usage. and giving them means of being so. and the expression his or her is avoided as being cumbrous.²WENDELL PHILLIPS. Neither gave vent to their feelings in words.²ID. but the construction is frequently found when the antecedent includes or implies both genders.²BYRON. Notice the following examples of the plural:² Neither of the sisters were very much deceived. Every nation have their refinements²STERNE. which pleases everybody with it and with themselves.²THACKERAY. Every one must judge of their own feelings. 411.²EMERSON. .²RUSKIN. Struggling for life. The sun.²ID.²BIBLE. Sometimes this is avoided by using both the masculine and the feminine pronoun. every man and woman of us being one of the two players in a game of his or her own. Whosoever hath any gold. not a mowing idiot. for example.

unless both genders are implied." A relative. it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as. That is in most cases restrictive. A relative.²HAWTHORNE. etc." It defines beggar. Exercise. when coördinating. is equivalent to a conjunction (and. 2. but. no one could take upon them to say. the coördinating use not being often found among careful writers.Where she was gone. It adds a new statement to what precedes. 1. or what was become of her. and that always restrictive. the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide." This means. Who and which are either coördinating or restrictive.²In the above sentences. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. when restrictive. He could overhear the remarks of various individuals. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be coördinating. RESTRICTIVE AND UNRESTRICTIVE RELATIVES. "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate. the definite relatives who. change the pronoun to agree with its antecedent. who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side. who went away. but. in each instance:² Who. What these terms mean. As to their conjunctive use. because. introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word.²ID. and that are restrictive or not. the usage must be stated as follows:² A loose rule the only one to be formulated.²ADDISON. and does not add a new statement. according to the practice of every modern writer. tell whether who. I do not mean that I think any one to blame for taking due care of their health. and that may be coördinating or restrictive. "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one]. and he went away. which. which. I.² SHERIDAN.) and a personal pronoun. "I gave it to the beggar. that being considered already clear. 413. The clause is restricted to the antecedent. or unrestrictive. Exercise. as. . 412. In the following examples.

414. 8. This cannot be true as to the form of the pronoun. the relative carries over the agreement from the antecedent before to the verb following." that is invariable as to person and number. which Mr. II. but. that the relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person and number. that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced. RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.²ID. these or that which. With narrow shoulders.²THOREAU. The general rule is. or it might have gone hard with the tutor. who. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him. For example. hard-mouthed horses at Westport. they. as that does not vary for person or number.²ADDISON. Hare has printed. So different from the wild. That. 12. that were often vicious. On hearing their plan. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety. The rule. whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old. and it is called logic. etc. etc. 9. BEECHER 5. Yet how many are there who up.²H.² CARLYLE. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first. 14. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand. he. you.² MOTLEY.²HOLMES. hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves. down. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand.²DE QUINCEY. 6. However. which was to go over the Cordilleras.²ID. etc. long arms and legs. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind. in the sentence. . Which. 10. because of its antecedent. so far as the verb has forms to show its agreement with a substantive. she agreed to join the party. A grizzly-looking man appeared. and over England are saying. 13.²DE QUINCEY. In what sense true. "He that writes to himself writes to an eternal public. 4. 11. We say I.² NEWMAN..² IRVING.3. W. it makes the verb third person singular. 7.

and write the verb in the plural..²HOLMES. in winning a battle. ARNOLD.²whether we should say..²LOWELL.Notice the agreement in the following sentences:² There is not one of the company. O Time! who know'st a lenient hand to lay Softest on sorrow's wound. and in improving a victory.²HOWELLS. He is one of those that deserve very well.²J. Singular. remembering that the misfortunes hardest to bear are those which never come.²ADDISON. What man's life is not overtaken by one or more of those tornadoes that send us out of our course?²THACKERAY. etc. when he derided the shams of society. The following quotations show both sides:² Plural. T. "one of the finest books that has been published. Franklin.²M. He was one of the most distinguished scientists who have ever lived.. The latter is rather more frequent." or. [singular or plural. Some consider it to be one [book] of the finest books. struck down one of those who was pressing hardest. others regard books as the antecedent. The fiery youth . . with one as the principal word. who rarely speak at all. or which . "one of the finest books that have been published. one of the most powerful agencies that have ever existed. JR..²SCOTT. but the former has good authority.] Both constructions are frequently found. 415.²LOWELL. A very little encouragement brought back one of those overflows which make one more ashamed.. A disputed point. I am one of those who believe that the real will never find an irremovable basis till it rests on the ideal. but myself.²ADDISON. the reason being a difference of opinion as to the antecedent. French literature of the eighteenth century.²LECKY. but speaks of him as that sort. He was one of the very few commanders who appear to have shown equal skill in directing a campaign. Let us be of good cheer.²MACAULAY. etc.." One of . He appeared to me one of the noblest creatures that ever was.. This prepares the way for the consideration of one of the vexed questions.²BOWLES. MORSE. It is one of those periods which shine with an unnatural and delusive splendor. the true antecedent. [plural] that who.

or where] he died. and see if the sentence is made clearer. The vulgar historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. The richly canopied monument of one of the most earnest souls that ever gave itself to the arts. "He returned by the same route [by which] he came." "India is the place [in which. The "Economy of the Animal Kingdom" is one of those books which is an honor to the human race. insert the omitted conjunction or phrase. Exercise. that is.²EMERSON.²DEFOE.²CARLYLE. The same day I went aboard we set sail. OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE. object of a preposition understood.²BURNS. at the time he was plowing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. and such like: as. there is an omission which is not frequently found in careful writers.²SCOTT." Notice these sentences:² In the posture I lay. It is very rarely that we find such sentences as. IV. But I by backward steps would move.²VAUGHAN.²ID. Tom Puzzle is one of the most eminent immethodical disputants of any that has fallen under my observation. return.²GOLDSMITH. Valancourt was the hero of one of the most famous romances which ever was published in this country. "I am going to breakfast with one of these fellows who is at the Piazza Hotel. 417.²one of the very best that has ever appeared in this series. The night was concluded in the manner we began the morning. or is equivalent to the conjunction when.²ADDISON. THE RELATIVE AS AFTER SAME. To pass under the canvas in the manner he had entered required time and attention. III."²DICKENS. 416.²IRVING.²In the above sentences.²SWIFT.And.²EMERSON. Welcome the hour my aged limbsAre laid with thee to rest.A rare Roundabout performance. whence. when this dust falls to the urn.In that same state I came.² THACKERAY. where. It is one of the errors which has been diligently propagated by designing writers. I could see nothing except the sky.² . when the relative word is a pronoun. Although the omission of the relative is common when it would be the object of the verb or preposition expressed. This is he that should marshal us the way we were going.² RUSKIN.

Examples of the use of as in a contracted clause:² Looking to the same end as Turner. which. W. or that. and working in the same spirit. They believe the same of all the works of art.² Which.²R.² MACAULAY.. 418. he.He considered. The regular construction. That.²WORDSWORTH. Billings vowed that he would follow him to Jerusalem. I rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. but we find the relative who.²DEFOE Which if he attempted to as his apprentice. For the same sound is in my earsWhich in those days I heard. for example. or lack of proper connection between the clauses.² BURKE. I might as well have staid at home. CHURCH.²FRANKLIN. if same is followed by a complete clause.. if I had resolved to go on with. she passed the lamp over her face and person. etc. but which is usually carefully avoided. and accordingly expected the same service from me as he would from another. MISUSE OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS. ²GOLDSMITH. Examples of relatives following same in full clauses:² Who. Anacoluthic use of which. This is the very same rogue who sold us the spectacles. With the same minuteness which her predecessor had exhibited. with Turner. as of knives. There is now and then found in the pages of literature a construction which imitates the Latin. Mr. looking-glasses. The usual way is to use the relative as after same if no verb follows as. It is a use of the relative which so as to make an anacoluthon.²ADDISON. was a discoverer. Which. The same person who had clapped his thrilling hands at the first representation of the Tempest. This has the same effect in natural faults as maiming and mutilation produce from accidents. Caution.²SWIFT.² THACKERAY. . boats. Remember this applies only to as when used as a relative. V. as is not used.²SCOTT. but.

3. but. Hester bestowed all her means on wretches less miserable than herself. he said that all submission was now too late.²SHAKESPEARE. once a great favorite of M. and who would in the lowest walk of life have been truly judged to possess a noble figure. (2) "Among the poorer sort. or.² Direction for rewriting. Thornhill had read. After this came Elizabeth herself. but which is always regarded as an oversight and a blemish. now thrown upon their. who are now thrown.. With an albatross perched on his shoulder. (3) "Among the poorer sort. But still the house affairs would draw her thence. or leave out both connective and relative.She'd come again. and who not unfrequently insulted the hand that fed them. This was a gentleman. There is another kind of expression which slips into the lines of even standard authors. which really has no office in the sentence: it should be changed to a demonstrative or a personal pronoun. and who are now. and who are now thrown upon their compassion.²SCOTT. That is. Exercise. But who." etc. le Conte. which when Mr. (1) "Among those who are poor.We know not the incantation of the heart that would wake them. He delivered the letter. 419.²HAWTHORNE." The trouble is that such conjunctions as and. and which. etc. and this be placed in the proper clause. Express both relatives. they would start up to meet us in the power of long ago.²which if they once heard. and who might be introduced to the congregation as the immediate organ of his conversion. or omit the conjunction. etc.²GOLDSMITH.²Rewrite the above five sentences so as to make the proper grammatical connection in each. then in the full glow of what in a sovereign was called beauty. Exercise..²THACKERAY. And who. . Rewrite the following examples according to the direction just given:² And who.²DE QUINCEY.. 1. There are three ways to remedy the sentence quoted: thus." etc. The following sentence affords an example: "The rich are now engaged in distributing what remains among the poorer sort. 2. but none is expressed. As the sentences stand. 4. should connect expressions of the same kind: and who makes us look for a preceding who.²RUSKIN." etc. and in whom I myself was not a little interested.Which ever as she could with haste dispatch.

8. That . Or who.. English by name. The old British tongue was replaced by a debased Latin. 9. but whose mind was thrown off its just bias. and repeat this for any further reference. 420. And which. and which has never been described. 10. Rewrite the following quotations by repeating one relative instead of using two for the same antecedent:² That . and to whom no door is closed. There are peculiar quavers still to be heard in that church..²DE QUINCEY. and in which inscriptions are found in the western counties. whereas the better practice is to choose one relative. etc. like that spoken in the towns. Akin to the above is another fault.. one of signal interest. and which. Ferguson considered him as a man of a powerful capacity. Still in the confidence of children that tread without fear every chamber in their father's house.²SCOTT. but in which the soul trifled with itself!"²HAWTHORNE. indeed. but which yet the power of dreams had reconciled into harmony.²IRVING. 11. but who had long dwelt in Amsterdam. Dr. Yonder woman was the wife of a certain learned man. 13. "A mockery. 6.. "that he would not have been more than a match for the stoutest adversary. as a false and astucious mark. which is likewise a variation from the best usage. the French. which the Scotch had learned. who.²DE QUINCEY. He accounted the fair-spoken courtesy.² MOTLEY.²PEARSON. Or which. I shall have complete copies. etc. or which might have arisen from their own proud and reserved character.²HAWTHORNE.5. then. or who would not have lost his life a thousand times sooner than return dishonored by the lady of his love?"²PRESCOTT. 12. either from imitation of their frequent allies. 1. Exercise. 7. "What knight so craven. . and which may even be heard a mile off. But which.²SCOTT. I saw upon the left a scene far different." exclaims the chivalrous Venetian. Two different relatives are sometimes found referring back to the same antecedent in one sentence.

6. was hung in air. I grudge the dollar.²SCOTT.²HOWELLS. but which. appeared an insult sufficient to drive the fiery monarch into a frenzy of passion. 5.²EMERSON. but which now first interpreted itself to my ear. Such as . and whose boughs overspread the highest heaven!²CARLYLE.²BEECHER. That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house.. that has its roots down in the kingdoms of Hela and Death. and which commends him to the unbounded love of his brethren..²HOLMES.. He flung into literature... and whose examples and principles we inherit.. such as they have very probably been bred to. and to whom I do not belong. and which will at least give them a chance of becoming President. the dime. that hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of making my fortune. Gutenburg might also have struck out an idea that surely did not require any extraordinary ingenuity.. That . Such as . which. Which . whom. 12. and which left the most important difficulties to be surmounted. 7. and what little his feet could secure the irregular crevices. that . 15. Those renowned men that were our ancestors as much as yours. in his present condition.²W. He. 4. 10..²HALLAM.. now without any effort but that which he derived from the sill. which. even when he stood high in the roles of chivalry.. Christianity is a religion that reveals men as the object of God's infinite love. E. He will do this amiable little service out of what one may say old civilization has established in place of goodness of heart. half a century ago. I recommend some honest manual calling. the cent. His recollection of what he considered as extreme presumption in the Knight of the Leopard. I give to such men as do not belong to me. In my native town of Salem. . such as my heart had always dimly craved and hungered after.²HAWTHORNE. SIMMS. CHANNING. in his Mephistopheles.2. 13.² but which is now burdened with decayed wooden warehouses. was a bustling wharf. The Tree Igdrasil. 8. the first organic figure that has been added for some ages.²SCOTT That which . and that impressed these conceits so forcibly upon me.. 3. G. It rose into a thrilling passion. 14.²EMERSON. Do me the justice to tell me what I have a title to be acquainted with. and which will remain as long as the Prometheus.²DE QUINCEY.. at the head of what. and which I am certain to know more truly from you than from others. but which is perhaps not so different from it. what. that. 11.²W. 9.²DEFOE.

for example. as. may be gathered from a study of the following sentences:² They [Ernest and the poet] led one another. 422. as. The student is sometimes troubled whether to use each other or one another in expressing reciprocal relation or action. let us not increase them by dissension among each other. always at war with one another. in which case any should be used instead. and in want of his gold²or his corn.²BREWER The topics follow each other in the happiest order.² Was it the winter's storm? was it hard labor and spare meals? was it disease? was it the tomahawk? Is it possible that neither of these causes. By their original meaning. as it were. Sometimes these are made to refer to several objects. The Peers at a conference begin to pommel each other. carrying off each other's cattle and wives. . Use of any.²EMERSON. England was then divided between kings and Druids. that not all combined.² HAWTHORNE. into the high pavilion of their thoughts. whether or not the two are equivalent. and made delightful music which neither could have claimed as all his own. Distributives either and neither.ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Assume that no one is in want of either.²GOLDSMITH. The unjust purchaser forces the two to bid against each other.² Some one must be poor.²RUSKIN. We call ourselves a rich nation.²RUSKIN Their [Ernest's and the poet's] minds accorded into one strain. Whether either one refers to a certain number of persons or objects. Each other.²MACAULAY. one another. In a moment we were all shaking hands with one another. You ruffian! do you fancy I forget that we were fond of each other?²THACKERAY. 421.²RUSKIN. and we are filthy and foolish enough to thumb each other's books out of circulating libraries. were able to blast this bud of hope?²EVERETT. The real hardships of life are now coming fast upon us.²DICKENS. Men take each other's measure when they meet for the first time.²ID.²HAWTHORNE. either and neither refer to only two persons or objects.

even in Bettine. that I know of. before that. during his stay at Yuste. None of Nature's powers do better service.² Here is a poet doubtless as much affected by his own descriptions as any that reads them can be. Examples of its use are. as none of the French philosophers were. 423. at one time in Bacon. he had been punctual in doing honor to their memory. . then in Plutarch.² In earnest. But I enjoy the company and conversation of its inhabitants. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children. and is isolated. DANA One man answers some question which none of his contemporaries put. if ever man was.²THACKERAY.Once I took such delight in Montaigne . I beseech you. in Shakespeare.²PROF. speak. when I spoke anon of the ghosts of Pryor's children.²BIBLE. In earlier Modern English.²CARLYLE.²BURKE. afterwards in Goethe. in the prose of the present day. Do you think. then in Plotinus.. as.² EMERSON.. The above instances are to be distinguished from the adjective any.²STIRLING. any of his friends had died. Do you think. any was often singular. etc. The adjective pronoun none is. whilst I still cherish their genius. If any of you lack wisdom. None obey the command of duty so well as those who are free from the observance of slavish bondage. let him ask of God. None usually plural. I mean that any of them are dead? None are..²BEECHER Whenever. as.²EMERSON.²SHAKESPEARE.² If any. The adjective pronoun any is nearly always regarded as plural. although it is historically a contraction of ne n (not one). Caution.²SCOTT.²FRANKLIN. when any of them are so good as to visit me. which is plural as often as singular. as shown in the following sentences:² If any of you have been accustomed to look upon these hours as mere visionary hours. 424. Any usually plural. but now I turn the pages of either of them languidly. Very rarely the singular is met with in later times. for him have I offended. I mean that any of them are dead?²THACKERAY. usually plural.

²PRESCOTT All singular and plural. and none [no fires] were lighted in their own dwellings. Compare with the above the following sentences having the adjective none:² Reflecting a summer evening sky in its bosom.Early apples begin to be ripe about the first of August.. that all was lost. fixing his eyes on the mace.² Perhaps none of our Presidents since Washington has stood so firm in the confidence of the people.² THOREAU The holy fires were suffered to go out in the temples. etc. as. are treated as units. or somebody else's? 426. The pronoun all has the singular construction when it means everything. but the regular usage is shown in the following selections:² . and less rarely in poetry. the plural.² PEARSON. The singular use of none is often found in the Bible.²BAYNE Having done all that was just toward others. etc.²THOREAU. When all were gone. and Ford has nobody's else. any one else. when it means all persons: for example. etc. etc.² None of them was cleansed.²LOWELL In signal none his steed should spare. Thackeray has the expression somebody's else. which is used absolutely.²LINGARD All who did not understand French were compelled. saving Naaman the Syrian.²NAPIER Plural.. but I think none of them are so good to eat as some to smell.²LUKE IV 27 Also the singular is sometimes found in present-day English in prose. But the King's treatment of the great lords will be judged leniently by all who remember. and all was lost on the other.²McMASTER. the pronoun none should be distinguished from the adjective none.²SCOTT Like the use of any. though none [no sky] was visible overhead. for example. and hence is more likely to confuse the student. 425.²PALGRAVE All was won on the one side.. and the apostrophe is regularly added to the final word else instead of the first. The light troops thought . Somebody's else. nobody else.² Singular. The compounds somebody else.

or some other such great man as a bishop. all manner of.²AUSTEN. Then everybody wanted some of somebody else's.²THACKERAY.curled once all over it in long tendrils.² These kind of knaves I know. I always delight in overthrowing those kind of schemes. as these are the only adjectives that have separate forms for singular and plural. or those sort of people. You have been so used to those sort of impertinences. These expressions are all but universal in spoken English. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS. etc.²N.SYDNEY SMITH.²SWEET. .²in such as "these sort of books. I hoped we had done with those sort of things.A boy who is fond of somebody else's pencil case. London. The statement that adjectives agree with their nouns in number is restricted to the words this and that (with these and those). STOWE." "all manner of men.² FIELDING.²RUSKIN.. 427. Certainly not! nor any one else's ropes.²SHAKESPEARE All these sort of things. etc." the nouns being singular. unlike anybody else's in the world. WILLIS. for example. A suit of clothes like somebody else's. ELIOT."²MRS. which in this plainnessHarbor more craft. ADJECTIVES. the adjectives plural. "Ye see. His hair." "those kind of trees.²G.. Whitefield or Wesley. my pronunciation²like everyone else's²is in some cases more archaic.²DICKENS. there ain't nothin' wakes folks up like somebody else's wantin' what you've got. There are women as well as men who can thoroughly enjoy those sort of romantic spots.² Saturday Review.²RUSKIN.²MULOCH. Drawing off his gloves and warming his hands before the fire as benevolently as if they were somebody else's. and it is only in one set of expressions that the concord seems to be violated.²SHERIDAN. P. These sort. and may be found not infrequently in literary English. Again.

with all manner of amusing books." A question. At the source." COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS. The reason for the prevalence of these expressions must be sought in the history of the language: it cannot be found in the statement that the adjective is made plural by the attraction of a noun following. and in this way may take a plural verb. Later form. We may well doubt which has the stronger claim to civilization. more alarming than a total silence. Of two such lessons.²RUSKIN.² PRESCOTT." but "alles cunnes wilde deor" (wild animals of-every-kind).The library was open. as. Burke's sentence. "A sort of uncertain sounds are. for example. In Old and Middle English. in spoken English. or the nouns to the plural. in keeping with the custom of looking at things concretely rather than in the abstract. and the adjective is. the victor or the vanquished. Use of the comparative degree. The comparative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used when we wish to compare two objects or sets of objects. The inconvenience of the logical construction is seen when we wish to use a predicate with number forms. . not "all kinds of wild animals. which accounts for the construction. why forgetThe nobler and the manlier one?²BYRON. such as. But in early Middle English the modern way of regarding such expressions also appeared. or a paralytic cripple encumbered with a sword which he cannot lift?²MACAULAY. they said. "This sort of trees should be planted. gradually displacing the old. "This kind of rules are the best.² Which is the better able to defend himself. Consequently we have a confused expression. made to agree with it. to express a higher degree of quality. This the modern expression reverses.²a strong man with nothing but his fists. when the necessary dispositions concur. The result. "These kind of trees are best." but at the same time the noun following kind of is felt to be the real subject." or "This kind of rules is the best?" Kind or sort may be treated as a collective noun. We keep the form of logical agreement in standard English. 428. According to the approved usage of Modern English. Should we say. History of this construction. or one object with a class of objects. each one of the above adjectives would have to be changed to the singular.

428 with the following:² Which do you love best to behold. Compare the first three sentences in Sec.²HUXLEY."²ID. the lamb or the lion? ²THACKERAY.²TROLLOPE.²CARLYLE. who was one of the greatest humbugs who ever lived. but is also frequently used in comparing only two things.²LOWELL. Use of the superlative degree. etc. I am concerned to see that Mr. In "Thaddeus of Warsaw" there is more crying than in any novel I remember to have read. would not have had the face. the highest stakes are paid. 429. I used to watch this patriarchal personage with livelier curiosity than any other form of humanity. To the man who plays well. 2.²MACAULAY.²MACAULAY. Superlative with two objects.²SCOTT. Even Dodd himself.A braver ne'er to battle rode.²WIRT.²SWIFT. There is no country in which wealth is so sensible of its obligations as our own. There was no man who could make a more graceful bow than Mr. Exercise. Henry. .²HAWTHORNE. Examples of superlative with several objects:² It is a case of which the simplest statement is the strongest. 6.² THACKERAY. This is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any mythology I know. 430. The heroes of another writer [Cooper] are quite the equals of Scott's men. the object would really be compared with itself: thus. by almost the breadth of my nail. 5. it is regularly excluded from that class by the word other. has sanctioned. Gary. perhaps Leatherstocking is better than any one in "Scott's lot.² The character of Lady Castlewood has required more delicacy in its manipulation than perhaps any other which Thackeray has drawn. to whom Dante owes more than ever poet owed to translator. The superlative degree of the adjective (or adverb) is used regularly in comparing more than two things. See if the word other should be inserted in the following sentences:² 1. if not. When an object is compared with the class to which it belongs. 4. 3. than any of his court.²THACKERAY. He is taller. Other after the comparative form.

She thought him and Olivia extremely of a size. the weaker is often so in a minor degree. 1611. Of the two great parties which at this hour almost share the nation between them. "There's nothing comes out but the most lowest stuff in nature."²BULWER. The following examples are used purposely.²SCOTT.²MRS. The eldest. .² How much more elder art thou than thy looks!²Merchant of Venice. and the other contains the best men. It is hard to say whether the man of wisdom or the man of folly contributed most to the amusement of the party. 431.²HAMLET. Come you more nearer. was like the Stuarts²the younger was a fair English child.²GOLDSMITH. Rip was one of those . who eat white bread or brown. Nor that I am more better than Prospero.²BEN JONSON. "Let us see which will laugh loudest. to represent the characters as ignorant persons:² The artful saddler persuaded the young traveler to look at "the most convenientest and handsomest saddle that ever was seen. There was an interval of three years between Mary and Anne. I should say that one has the best cause. Examples from Shakespeare are.. Double comparative and superlative.Which of these methods has the best effect? Both of them are the same to the sense. and differ only in form."²HAWTHORNE.²ADDISON.²DR BLAIR. ha. In all disputes between States. and would bid both to stand up to see which was the tallest. OLIPHANT. With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. though the strongest is nearly always mainly in the wrong. CÆSAR.²J. whichever can be got easiest.²IRVING. not a bit of high life among them. After the most straitest sect of our religion. ha!" roared Goodman Brown when the wind laughed at him. Mary. more particularly the last of them.²Bible.² Imitating the manner of the most ancientest and finest Grecians.²EMERSON.²RUSKIN.."²GOLDSMITH.²TEMPEST. These two properties seem essential to wit. Also from the same period. Such expressions are now heard only in vulgar English. In Shakespeare's time it was quite common to use a double comparative and superlative by using more or most before the word already having -er or -est. "Ha.

Instances of both are given below. The definite article is repeated before each of two modifiers of the same noun. but in literary English. Mankind for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. The meaning intended is the same. ARTICLES. 433. when the purpose is to call attention to the noun expressed and the one understood. In my two last you had so much of Lismahago that I suppose you are glad he is gone. In such a case two or more separate objects are usually indicated by the separation of the modifiers.²PRESCOTT.² With a singular noun.²ADDISON. and the English breed is derived from a mixture of Arabian blood.²RUSKIN. As to these two expressions. Three first. over which a little war has so long been buzzing.²DE QUINCEY.² SMOLLETT. He has already finished the three first sticks of it. have been helping them heart and soul for the last two years. First three. . The last dozen miles before you reach the suburbs. Examples of this construction are. The first five had specific names.²GIBBON. and conceit in the last. I have not numbered the lines except of the four first books. Definite article. the Spanish.²RUSKIN. and Secretary Walsingham also. not only so in popular speech. For Carlyle. etc.²GIBBON.²KINGSLEY. The merit of the Barb. The first twenty numbers were expressed by a corresponding number of dots.²LAMB. etc. The delay in the first three lines. and the reader gets the same idea from both: hence there is properly a perfect liberty in the use of either or both. ²COWPER.THREE FIRST OR FIRST THREE? 432. we think it not necessary to say more than that both are in good use. These are the three first needs of civilized life. The seven first centuries were filled with a succession of triumphs. jar upon us constantly.

the article is not repeated before each of two or more adjectives. 433.²TAYLOR.²PRESCOTT. of the eighteenth century. without a Yesterday or a To-morrow?²CARLYLE.²TENNYSON. but inseparable from each other. It is difficult to imagine a greater contrast than that between the first and the second part of the volume.²CARLYLE. The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. . At Talavera the English and French troops for a moment suspended their conflict. as. the hour of parting came.² RUSKIN. and the presents.² Or fanciest thou the red and yellow Clothes-screen yonder is but of To-day. as. distinct. Origin of the Aryans.²ID. with a singular noun. the thought and the word. melodious.² In every line of the Philip and the Saul. The same repetition of the article is sometimes found before nouns alone. and flexible language.. I think. or to emphasize the meaning. as in Sec. of the higher and middling orders.²MACAULAY.²SCOTT. The not repeated. The flowers. With a plural noun. and the trunks and bonnet boxes . Meaning same as in Sec. No. having been arranged.²THACKERAY. however. Here the youth of both sexes. One object and several modifiers. Frequently.²NEWMAN. but is used with one only. 1508.²HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS. 434. There was also a fundamental difference of opinion as to whether the earliest cleavage was between the Northern and the Southern languages. with a plural noun. The lofty. The Crusades brought to the rising commonwealths of the Adriatic and Tyrrhene seas a large increase of wealth.The righteous man is distinguished from the unrighteous by his desire and hope of justice. 435.²THE NATION. the greatest poems. He is master of the two-fold Logos. were placed at a very tender age. He seemed deficient in sympathy for concrete human things either on the sunny or the stormy side.² MACAULAY.. Indefinite article. to distinguish clearly. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town. 433.

to limit two or more modified nouns. 437. as. As if the difference between an accurate and an inaccurate statement was not worth the trouble of looking into the most common book of reference. 433 and 436.²JOHNSON.²B.² James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. It is easy to see the difference between the expressions "a redand-white geranium." Examples of several adjectives describing the same object:² To inspire us with a free and quiet mind. Usually the article is not repeated when the several adjectives unite in describing one and the same noun. rich. The indefinite article (compare Sec.436. In the sentences of Secs. The indefinite article is used. The difference between the products of a well-disciplined and those of an uncultivated understanding is often and admirably exhibited by our great dramatist. One article with several adjectives. a tyrant.² We shall live a better and a higher and a nobler life.²MACAULAY. Examples of this use are. COLERIDGE.An early. James was declared a mortal and bloody enemy. . 436). a collegian. and a usurper. Here and there a desolate and uninhabited house. like the definite article. as in the first three of Sec. To every room there was an open and a secret passage. 434) is used to lend special emphasis. But in the following sentences. a round and a square one alternately. interest.²S.² MACAULAY. 438.² BURKE. only one of which is expressed.²MACAULAY. T. Let us suppose that the pillars succeed each other. or clearness to each of several nouns. and inexhausted vein. Thou hast spoken as a patriot and a Christian. The article is repeated for the purpose of separating or emphasizing the modified nouns. one noun is expressed. For rhetorical effect. He saw him in his mind's eye.²DICKENS.²BEECHER. 435." and "a red and a white geranium. a parliament man²a Baronet perhaps. JONSON. So wert thou born into a tuneful strain.²THACKERAY.²BULWER. a murderer. yet the same word understood with the other adjectives has a different meaning (except in the first sentence of Sec. Notice that in the above sentences (except the first) the noun expressed is in contrast with the modified noun omitted.²DRYDEN. the adjectives assist each other in describing the same noun.

Another school professes entirely opposite principles. without academies. (3) When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns connected by or or nor. was the earliest American land. CONCORD OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN NUMBER. Such. like some others in this series. as. .VERBS. Something like a horse load of books has been written to prove that it was the beauty who blew up the booby. In English. Singular verb. then.²The Nation. Sec. as. has got already. or the great intellectual life of our nation. and the following illustrations prove it.²M.²FROUDE.. ELIOT. all that academies can give. Collective noun of singular meaning. 276. (2) When the subject is a collective noun which represents a number of persons or things taken as one unit. In this work there was grouped around him a score of men.² The larger breed [of camels] is capable of transporting a weight of a thousand pounds. It will not do to state as a general rule that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number. He was certainly a happy fellow at this time.² It is by no means sure that either our literature.²GIBBON. A broad and loose rule. (1) When the subject has a singular form and a singular meaning. This was spoken of in Part I.²COOPER. 439. The statements and illustrations of course refer to such verbs as have separate forms for singular and plural number. prefer a plural verb after number in Froude's sentence above.²CARLYLE This usage. ARNOLD.²AGASSIZ.²W. for example. depends mostly on the writer's own judgment. He sees that it is better to live in peace. Singulars connected by or or nor. the number of the verb follows the meaning rather than the form of its subject. PHILLIPS A number of jeweled paternosters was attached to her girdle. The singular form of the verb is used² Subject of singular form. 440. Another writer might.²G.

a loss of friends.² Thirty-four years affects one's remembrance of some circumstances. (5) With several singular subjects not disjoined by or or nor. Q. No.²BURKE. A fever.²SHERIDAN The singular form is also used with book titles. Plural form and singular meaning.²GIBBON. a cruel disappointment. three pounds five shillings and two pence is no bad day's work. nor Paul.² The unbought grace of life. but considered as meaning about the same thing. and every four hours.²J. Every twenty paces gives you the prospect of some villa.² Politics is the only field now open for me.² GOLDSMITH. or considered as appositional. as. (b) Not joined by a conjunction. and other singulars of plural form. (4) When the subject is plural in form. "Sesame and Lilies" is Ruskin's creed for young girls.²EMERSON .² In a word.²MONTAGUE Two thirds of this is mine by right.²GOLDSMITH.²WHITTIER.²DE QUINCEY.²DE QUINCEY The genius and merit of a rising poet was celebrated. for example. other names. that of a large town. all his conversation and knowledge has been in the female world²ADDISON.²CARLYLE In a world where even to fold and seal a letter adroitly is not the least of accomplishments. but each one emphatic. as. nor John. seems at the moment unpaid loss. Between ourselves. but represents a number of things to be taken together as forming one unit. is gone. 674 The Three Pigeons expects me down every moment.Jesus is not dead. the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. The strength and glare of each [color] is considerably abated. a loss of wealth. ²EMERSON. Several singular subjects to one singular verb. a mutilation. When the cause of ages and the fate of nations hangs upon the thread of a debate. in the following cases:² (a) Joined by and. nor Mahomet.²CRITIC. the cheap defense of nations. ADAMS.²BURKE To imagine that debating and logic is the triumph. or as making up one general idea. for example.

the wit.²DE QUINCEY Every dome and hollow has the figure of Christ.²ID. an impassioned countenance.²LONGFELLOW. to be guilty of collusion in any way with a suitor. is a man of wit. The plural form of the verb is used² (1) When the subject is plural in form and in meaning.²EMERSON. was punished. with death.²RUSKIN. Plural verb. every valet. no discontinuity. a cuirass. as. is divided into tragedy and Comedy. every boor. the ruin. Every week.²MACAULAY. Every sound.²FIELDING (d) When each of two or more singular subjects is preceded by every.²PRESCOTT.The author. wineBegins to stir itself.²BUTLER.²M ARNOLD. as well as sides.²BURKE There was a steel headpiece. no matter if the second is plural).²SCOTT. nay. each. as well as Europe. (c) Joined by as well as (in this case the verb agrees with the first of the two. thus. as well as the newest. Her back.²ID.²NEWMAN.²MACAULAY. every echo.²HAWTHORNE. sir!" and the "What then.²PRESCOTT. many a. with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath. Subjects after the verb. in a judge. and greaves. Each particular hue and tint stands by itself. a gorget. the fine gentleman. Here is no ruin. 441. an agitated gesture. For wide is heard the thundering fray. sir!"²MACAULAY. the partisan.² . does not take the place of the man. The Epic. sir?" and the "No. This use of several subjects with a singular verb is especially frequent when the subjects are after the verb. no spent ball. There is a moving tone of voice. as well as the Drama. was like to crack. To receive presents or a bribe. Every law and usage was a man's expedient. Every fop. and such like adjectives.² Asia.² There is a right and a wrong in them. was set down in their calendar for some appropriate celebration. the dismay. Then comes the "Why. as. almost every day. was dazzled. was listened to for five hours. The oldest.The rout. no.

and skin were all of the same color²SWIFT. Aristotle and Longinus are better understood by him than Littleton or Coke.These bits of wood were covered on every square. as.²ADDISON. a green pasture.²FROUDE. making up a plural subject. the verb agrees with the one nearest it. The Arabian poets were the historians and moralists. a stream of fresh water. A great number of people were collected at a vendue.²DE QUINCEY. shirt. Far. Conjunction omitted.² A multitude go mad about it.²EMERSON. His clothes.²SWIFT.²B. A party of workmen were removing the horses. Philip of Anjou. All our household are at rest. The Dauphin.²THACKERAY One or two of whom were more entertaining. far away thy children leave the land.²THOREAU.²COLERIDGE.²GOLDSMITH.²FROUDE. the Duke of Berri. The travelers. as with a subject of plural form.² One or two of these perhaps survive. One or two of the ladies were going to leave.²CARLYLE But its authorship. as.² GIBBON.² MACAULAY (4) When a singular is joined with a plural by a disjunctive word.²FRANKLIN.² Only Vice and Misery are abroad.²SCOTT. its date. (3) When the subject consists of several singulars connected by and. are sufficient to attract a colony. One or two persons in the crowd were insolent. b). A shady grove. . 440 (5.²GIBBON. for example. as in Sec. (2) When the subject is a collective noun in which the individuals of the collection are thought of. and its history are alike a mystery to us. The conjunction may be omitted.²LEW WALLACE The fraternity were inclined to claim for him the honors of canonization. but the verb is plural. of whom there were a number.²ADDISON One or two of these old Cromwellian soldiers were still alive in the village. TAYLOR. were men of insignificant characters.

nor has she"). the subject being really equivalent to we.²DE QUINCEY. Not Altamont.²THACKERAY.²ROWE.²GOLDSMITH. the verb usually agrees with the pronoun nearest to it. as.²D. 442. AGREEMENT OF VERB AND SUBJECT IN PERSON. ARNOLD. "You would not be wiser. If she or you are resolved to be miserable. General usage. of different persons. Second or third and first person in the subject. It hath been said my Lord would never take the oath.²THACKERAY. When the subjects. It is avoided either by using a verb which has no forms for person (as. Not I.But notice the construction of this. 444. Cocke and I have felt it in our bones²GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE With adversative or disjunctive connectives. but thou. are connected by adversative or disjunctive conjunctions. "He or I can go.² Never once didst thou revel in the vision. we never talk politics.²RUSKIN." or. If there is only one person in the subject. This construction is at the best a little awkward.²LOWELL. You and I are tolerably modest people." "She or you may be sure. his blood dost shed. the verb takes the construction of the first person. Exceptional examples.² A ray or two wanders into the darkness. If the subject is made up of the first person joined with the second or third by and. nor should I. or by rearranging the sentence so as to throw each subject before its proper person form (as.²M. brother! only I and thouAre left of all that circle now. "I have never said so. You and I are farmers. WEBSTER.² I flatter myself you and I shall meet again.²SMOLLETT.² Neither you nor I should be a bit the better or wiser. but thou. Nothing which Mr. hadst been my lord.²WHITTIER. for example. . Romanism wisely provides for the childish in men.²RUSKIN. Ah. the ending of the verb indicates the person of its subject.). 443. in those few cases where there are forms for different persons: as. Pattison or I have said. that is." etc.²BYRON.

²MILTON. nor tree. SEQUENCE OF TENSES (VERBS AND VERBALS). And sharp Adversity will teach at lastMan. the whole nation seems to be running out of their wits. Neither of their counselors were to be present. 12. "I expected every wave would swallow" etc. 2. In this sentence from Defoe. which it is proper to mention. Also in verbals. 5. nor bush are there. In the following sentence. 446. Lack of logical sequence in verbs.² TROLLOPE. If one or more verbs depend on some leading verb. A lampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder. In a word.²ADDISON.²EMERSON. 6. How each of these professions are crowded. each should be in the tense that will convey the meaning intended by the writer. as illustrated above (Secs. while would have swallowed represents something completed in past time: hence the meaning intended was. 11. 4. 440-444):² 1. "I expected every wave would have swallowed us up.²and.²perhaps the devil. Neither of them.²ADDISON. the infinitive also fails to express the exact thought:² . 10. Neither the red nor the white are strong and glaring. 9. BANCROFT. as we would hope. Neither of the sisters were very much deceived.²ID.Her course to intercept.That neither of their intellects are vast." the verb expected looks forward to something in the future. Exercise. Nor wood. The following illustrate exceptional usage. 7. 3.²BYRON.²G. at last they came upon the district of Little Prairie.²SCOTT. Either of them are equally good to the person to whom they are significant.445.²SMOLLETT. 8.²BURKE.²THACKERAY. give so accurate an idea of the man as a statuette in bronze. In ascending the Mississippi the party was often obliged to wade through morasses. Both death and I am found eternal. in my opinion. Change each of the following sentences to accord with standard usage. but the student is cautioned to follow the regular usage rather than the unusual and irregular.

a direct quotation or a direct question²means the identical words the writer or speaker used.²IRVING. Direct discourse²that is. The trouble is the same as in the previous sentence. on my return. change them to a better form:² 1. Two samples of indirect discourse. the perfect infinitive would be the very thing. I could even have suffered them to have broken Everet Ducking's head.²FRANKLIN 6. Exercise. The present rule is recent. I gave one quarter to Ann.²R. The propositions of William are stated to have contained a proposition for a compromise.²DE QUINCEY 2. Indirect discourse means reported speech. 448. I can't sketch "The Five Drapers. that such sentences as those just quoted are in keeping with the older idea of the unity of the sentence. as. for exact connection. Indirect discourse may be of two kinds:² . 3. if not. meaning. 447.²KINGSLEY.² PALGRAVE 5.²THACKERAY. Definitions. It should be remarked.²MACAULAY.² "I hope you have not killed him?" said Amyas. W.. 4. to have divided with her whatever might remain.I had hoped never to have seen the statues again. Explain whether the verbs and infinitives in the following sentences convey the right meaning..²the thoughts of a writer or speaker put in the words of the one reporting them. Of course. to have seen should be changed to to see. which I thought I should have acquired before that time. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. But I found I wanted a stock of words. however. He would have done more wisely to have left them to find their own apology than to have given reasons which seemed paradoxes. but can look and be thankful to have seen such a masterpiece." . if the purpose were to represent a prior fact or completed action. CHURCH.

Sebastian's. She thought to herself.. Direct. Summary of the expressions. "I cannot oblige you . the unseen treasure that had been spent upon that girl! Oh. The following examples of both are from De Quincey:² Indirect. unseen treasure has been spent upon that girl! Untold sums of money have I sunk. The past tense is sometimes changed to the past perfect." etc. Reyes remarked that it was not in his power to oblige the clerk as to that. 2. (2) The indirect quotation is usually introduced by that... This includes the auxiliaries be. Sometimes it is clearer to introduce the antecedent of the pronoun instead. and the indirect question by whether or if. His exact words were. will. From these illustrations will be readily seen the grammatical changes made in transferring from direct to indirect discourse. under interrogative pronouns. "Safety there is none for me until I have laid." etc. "Oh. Other examples of indirect discourse have been given in Part I. (3) Verbs in the present-tense form are changed to the past-tense form. that safety there was none for her until she had laid the Atlantic between herself and St." Indirect. but I can oblige you by cutting your throat. Direct. and the subjunctive mood of verbs. the untold sums of money that he had sunk in that unhappy speculation! Direct synopsis.(1) Following the thoughts and also the exact words as far as consistent with the rules of logical sequence of verbs. . introductory verb is in the past tense. but that he could oblige him by cutting his throat. (2) Merely a concise representation of the original words. Her prudence whispered eternally. interrogative adverbs. The substance of his lamentation was. etc.. or regular interrogatives. 449. 1. not attempting to follow the entire quotation. Oh. (4) The pronouns of the first and second persons are all changed to the third person. Remember the following facts:² (1) Usually the main. have. Then he laid bare the unparalleled ingratitude of such a step.

he assured me that nothing was more easy. having given a hundred pounds for my predecessor's goodwill." my first collection was of John Bunyan's works." and change it to a direct quotation:² He assured the company that it was a fact. the sound of their balls. Having thus run through the causes of the sublime. The following sentences illustrate a misuse of the participial phrase:² Pleased with the "Pilgrim's Progress.²ID. I had the misfortune to find his whole family very much dejected. in the sentences first quoted.²BURKE He therefore remained silent till he had repeated a paternoster. one summer afternoon. that his father had once seen them in their old Dutch dresses playing at ninepins in a hollow of the mountain.²ADDISON. Careless use of the participial phrase. Going yesterday to dine with an old acquaintance. handed down from his ancestor the historian. and keep a guardian eye upon the river and the great city called by his name. . the first discoverer of the river and country. 450. Rewrite the following extract from Irving's "Sketch Book. My farm consisted of about twenty acres of excellent land. being the course which his confessor had enjoined. VERBALS. my first observation will be found nearly true. being permitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise. with his crew of the Half-moon. that it was affirmed that the great Hendrick Hudson.²B. that the main subject of the sentence is not the same word that would be the subject of the participle. Notice this. that the Catskill Mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. and that he himself had heard.Exercise. FRANKLIN. kept a kind of vigil there every twenty years. PARTICIPLES. The trouble is. Upon asking how he had been taught the art of a cognoscente so suddenly.²GOLDSMITH.²SCOTT Compare with these the following:² A correct example. like distant peals of thunder. if this were expanded into a verb.

avoid it..Correction. There is a construction which is becoming more and more common among good writers. either "As I was pleased." Exercise.²ID. leaving the principal statement as it is.²LAUGHLIN. . and often. yet frequently the desire seems to be to get the adverb snugly against the infinitive. than to first imperfectly conceive such idea. Standard writers often use it. The practice is condemned by many grammarians.' I made my first collection John Bunyan's works. while defended or excused by others. to modify it as closely and clearly as possible. . purposely or not. or "Pleased with the 'Pilgrim's Progress.²RUSKIN. Consequently one of two courses must be taken... if a strike is to succeed. That the mind may not have to go backwards and forwards in order to rightly connect them. It is a solemn.²Rewrite the other four sentences so as to correct the careless use of the participial phrase. There are. He handled it with such nicety of address as sufficiently to show that he fully understood the business. or change the principal proposition so it shall make logical connection with the participial phrase. then. universal assertion. 3. The following two examples show the adverb before the infinitive:² The more common usage. 451.² the placing an adverb between to of the infinitive and the infinitive itself. 2. This is the more common arrangement.²SCOTT. many things to be carefully considered. my first collection was. see if the adverbs can be placed before or after the infinitive and still modify it as clearly as they now do:² 1. For example. It may be easier to bear along all the qualifications of an idea . In the following citations." etc. the first sentence would be.² HERBERT SPENCER.²either change the participle to a verb with its appropriate subject.. Adverb between to and the infinitive. INFINITIVES. Exercise. deeply to be kept in mind by all sects..

7. therefore. A little sketch of his. etc. etc. The ladies seem to have been expressly created to form helps meet for such gentlemen. That virtue which requires to be ever guarded is scarcely worth the sentinel. from Irving." Here only modifies the phrase by fragments of bricks. No.A very careful writer will so place the modifiers of a verb that the reader will not mistake the meaning. 10. 13.²BURKE. Burke said that such "little arts and devices" were not to be wholly condemned. which consists in multitude. is to be very cautiously admitted. but it is placed before the infinitive.²GOLDSMITH. Transactions which seem to be most widely separated from one another. etc. of those opposed to them seemed to be considerably damped by their continued success. BLAIR.² ADDISON. 8..²DR. Position of only. Would earnestly advise them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up. this kind of grandeur. In works of art. if they modify single words.²RUSKIN. 5. are used. if they modify phrases or clauses: for example. Sufficient to disgust a people whose manners were beginning to be strongly tinctured with austerity. in which a cannon ball is supposed to have just carried off the head of an aide-de-camp. Now. 1533. 452. 11. to put the modifier in such a position that the reader not only can understand the meaning intended.²The Nation. 12.²TROLLOPE. and see if it is placed in the proper position:² . even.²SCOTT..²ID. but cannot misunderstand the thought. "The site is only to be traced by fragments of bricks. and earthenware. 6. The spirits. Exercise. when such adverbs as only. I wish the reader to clearly understand. Tell what the adverb modifies in each quotation. they are usually placed in a strictly correct position. 9. but they are often removed from the exact position. ADVERBS. china. even. The rigid rule in such a case would be.² MACAULAY. This misplacement of the adverb can be detected only by analysis of the sentence.4.

²MACAULAY. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me.²MOTLEY. The perfect loveliness of a woman's countenance can only consist in that majestic peace which is founded in the memory of happy and useful years.²EMERSON.1. 9. Such disputes can only be settled by arms. GROTE. During the whole course of his administration. piercing tones that could be even heard among the roaring of the cannon. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. two negatives strengthened a negative idea. The old usage. I never remember to have felt an event more deeply than his death. I have only noted one or two topics which I thought most likely to interest an American reader.²SYDNEY SMITH. The arrangement of this machinery could only be accounted for by supposing the motive power to have been steam. WILLIS. he scarcely befriended a single man of genius.²THACKERAY. 8. 14.²ID.²COOPER.²ID. 6. 5. 3.²WENDELL PHILLIPS.²HIGGINSON.² He nevere yet no vileineye ne sayde.In al his lyf unto no maner wight. for example. In Old and Middle English. In relating these and the following laws.²PALGRAVE.²CHAUCER. whence he was never destined to return. 17. My master. In one of those celestial days it seems a poverty that we can only spend it once. Irving could only live very modestly. USE OF DOUBLE NEGATIVES. 4. to avoid a crowd. No sonne.²ID.²stillness broken only by two whippoorwills. ²ASCHAM. He shouted in those clear.²RUSKIN. 15. Do you remember pea shooters? I think we only had them on going home for holidays. 10. 16. were he never so old of yeares.²SWIFT. P. 453. Only the name of one obscure epigrammatist has been embalmed for us in the verses of his rival. 11. 13. His suspicions were not even excited by the ominous face of Gérard. 7.²N. The silence of the first night at the farmhouse. . He could only afford to keep one old horse. might not marry.²MRS. My lord was only anxious as long as his wife's anxious face or behavior seemed to upbraid him.² THACKERAY. 2. His last journey to Cannes. 12.

There weren't no pies to equal hers.²MRS."²MRS. or else a purpose to make an affirmative effect.²HAWTHORNE. the usual way of regarding the question now is. neither. There is no thoughtful man in America who would not consider a war with England the greatest of calamities. STOWE. as. can so agreeably affect. Not only could man not acquire such information. nor never shall. Regular law of negative in modern English. STOWE.²GROTE.²LOWELL. I did not act so hastily. one of the negatives is often a prefix. In the execution of this task.²DEFOE. This. there is no man who would not find it an arduous effort. But. Her younger sister was a wide-awake girl. and why:² 1. uncommon."²four negatives.The first of these is equivalent to "He didn't never say no villainy in all his life to no manner of man. 7. however. is not common.²BAYNE.²HOLMES. who hadn't been to school for nothing. The red men were not so infrequent visitors of the English settlements. "Huldy was so up to everything about the house. ²PAGE. 2. but ought not to labor after it. I never did see him again. Tell whether the two or more negatives are properly used in each of the following sentences. etc. . as infrequent.² I tell you she ain' been nowhar ef she don' know we all. denying each other. This idiom was common in the older stages of the language. nor the grandeur of no king. in Ole Virginia. that two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative.²DE QUINCEY. 3.² HAMILTON. if two negatives are found together. under the influence of Latin syntax. You will find no battle which does not exhibit the most cautious circumspection. 5. There are sometimes found two negatives in modern English with a negative effect. Exceptional use. In the latter case. that the doctor didn't miss nothin' in a temporal way. Exercise. 6. 4. The prosperity of no empire. Therefore. it is a sign of ignorance or carelessness. and is still kept in vulgar English. when one of the negatives is a connective.²BURKE. However.

"This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. there we were. and which. as well as of the pronoun. neither . either.. Both the common soldiery and their leaders and commanders lowered on each other as if their union had not been more essential than ever. not only to the success of their common cause. 454." Besides neither .²PRESCOTT."²SCOTT." may be changed to "This loose . In the sentence. and an equivalent pronoun by the other. not merely . Correction. The sentences given in Secs. should be scrutinized.. if the last precedes a verb. The most frequent mistakes in using conjunctions are in handling correlatives.²SCOTT. but. In these examples it will be noticed that nor. nor has it been laid on an undeserving shoulder. either .. CONJUNCTIONS. or. "I am neither in spirits to enjoy it.. "A weapon. and that all correlatives in a sentence ought to have corresponding positions: that is... or to reply to it.. a standing menace to all earthly paradises of that kind.... The following examples illustrate the correct use of correlatives as to both choice of words and position:² Whether at war or at peace. This is necessary to make the sentence clear and symmetrical.. nor is often changed to not²either ." ..." said the King. the first ought to be placed before a verb. not or is the proper correlative of neither. The sentence.. or to reply to it. as the use of the conjunction." both of the above requirements are violated..8. not only . And who. A noun may be preceded by one of the correlatives. as the negation is sometimes too far from the verb to which it belongs. and. 455. Choice and proper position of correlatives.. but to their own safety. or with advantage.. the first should also. or. especially both . The word neither in such a case had better be changed to not .²LOWELL. nor.²"I am not in spirits either to enjoy it. misled us both in the theory of taste and in that of morals.. These idols of wood can neither hear nor feel. even neither .. but (also). 419 and 420 on the connecting of pronouns with different expressions may again be referred to here. if the second precedes a phrase. "well worthy to confer honor. Things to be watched..

2. Try and avoid the pronoun.²S. This was done probably to show that he was neither ashamed of his name or family. render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. or but that. An ordinary man would neither have incurred the danger of succoring Essex. but grown-up persons. it is possible to use but what when what is a relative pronoun. 456. We will try and get a clearer notion of them. I had even the satisfaction to see her lavish some kind looks upon my unfortunate son. The doctor used to say 'twas her young heart.²GIBBON. as. Occasionally there is found the expression try and instead of the better authorized try to. or but that for the words but what:² 1. substitute that. 457. They will. I could neither bear walking nor riding in a carriage over its pebbled streets. Instead of the subordinate conjunction that. murder. JEWETT. but.²THACKERAY. but they will outrage. Some exceptions. Correct the following sentences:² 1. not merely interest children.²THACKERAY. Try and for try to. 4. Those ogres will stab about and kill not only strangers. we sometimes find the bulky and needless but what. O. nor the disgrace of assailing him.²RUSKIN. as. but.²ID.²GOLDSMITH. Now. and I don't know but what he was right. "He never had any money but what he absolutely needed. In the following sentences. 6. .²BAIN. or the negative relative but. Exercise. which the other could neither extort by his fortune nor assiduity. 5.² ADDISON. 8. Did any of you ever try and read "Blackmore's Poems"?²ID. 7. But what. etc.²WESTMINSTER REVIEW.² We will try and avoid personalities altogether. In the course of his reading (which was neither pursued with that seriousness or that devout mind which such a study requires) the youth found himself. that can neither be dissembled nor eluded. too.Exercise.²FRANKLIN. 3. and chop up their own kin." but in the following sentences what usurps the place of a conjunction.²MACAULAY.

459.²EMERSON. 6.²ADDISON. 305. Between and among. Examples of the distinctive use of the two words:² Two things.²SCOTT. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science. There are few persons of distinction but what can hold conversation in both languages.²BURKE.² BULWER. Hence the differences between men in natural endowment are insignificant in comparison with their common wealth. 3. As to the placing of a preposition after its object in certain cases.²TROLLOPE. 458. no separation or division by twos being implied. Who knows but what there might be English among those sun-browned half-naked masses of panting wretches?²KINGSLEY. They maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans.²EMERSON. Examples of the looser use of between:² A number of things. some relation or connection between two at a time being implied. 4. 5. 313. No little wound of the kind ever came to him but what he disclosed it at once. several objects being spoken of in the aggregate. At the first stroke of the pickax it is ten to one but what you are taken up for a trespass. . Between is used most often with two things only.²ADDISON.² SWIFT. Among is used in the same way as amid (though not with exactly the same meaning).2. but still it is frequently used in speaking of several objects. see Sec. PREPOSITIONS. but in Modern English the difference is not so marked. Natural objects affect us by the laws of that connection which Providence has established between certain motions of bodies. In the primary meaning of between and among there is a sharp distinction. The contentions that arise between the parson and the squire. They are not so distant from the camp of Saladin but what they might be in a moment surprised. as already seen in Sec.

and Stewart. averse. etc. between the three adventurers and the faithful Yeo. and philosophers like Locke. . correspond.²KINGSLEY.²RUSKIN What have I. Different from. different. Certain words are followed by particular prepositions. List I. involve. by custom. Affinity between. ²EMERSON. Abhorrent to. LIST I. come to take prepositions not in keeping with the original meaning of the words. Acquit of. Dissent from. Averse to. Paley.² A council of war is going on beside the watch fire. Comply with. or one object and a group. The great distinction between teachers sacred or literary. and another to convey a different meaning. Such are derogatory. Some of these words show by their composition what preposition should follow. Dependent on (upon). and Coleridge.Looking up at its deep-pointed porches and the dark places between their pillars where there were statues once. a soldier of the Cross. Conversant with. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Absolve from. Conform to. Bestow on (upon).²between philosophers like Spinoza. Also between may express relation or connection in speaking of two groups of objects. Mackintosh. Accord with. Derogatory to. Many words take one preposition to express one meaning. as. confer. as. Such are absolve. And yet others may take several prepositions indifferently to express the same meaning.: Words with particular prepositions.²between poets like Herbert and poets like Pope. Two groups or one and a group. Kant. Some of them have. 461. 460. to do with recollections of war betwixt Christian nations?² SCOTT.

"The statement must be reconciled with his previous conduct. Change for (a thing). Differ with (note below).: Words taking different prepositions for different meanings. List II. etc. Correspond to (a thing)." also of persons. A taste of (food). Disappointed of (a thing not obtained). as meaning to be in keeping with. Correspond with (write to). Confer on (upon) (give to). "The king is reconciled to his minister.: Words taking anyone of several prepositions for the same meaning. "Differ from" is used in speaking of unlikeness between things or persons. in the sense of making friends with. A taste for (art. LIST II. as. Change to (become). y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Agree with (a person). and sometimes creeps into standard books. . Confide in (trust in). Confide to (intrust to). Reconcile with (note below)." "Reconcile with" is used with the meaning of make to agree with. 463. Differ from (note below). as. "The exile became reconciled to his fate. Confer with (talk with). Involve in. as.y y y Deprive of. "Reconcile to" is used with the meaning of resigned to." List III. Disappointed in (a thing obtained). Independent of. but it is not good usage. Change with (a person).). Reconcile to (note below). LIST III. "Different to" is frequently heard in spoken English in England. 462. "differ from" and "differ with" are both used in speaking of persons disagreeing as to opinions. "Correspond with" is sometimes used of things. Agree to (a proposal).

and ill treatment. One of them said he would die for her. No one died from want at Longfeld.²ADDISON. "Die for. "Die by." (material cause. died for love of the fair Marcella." She saw her husband at last literally die from hunger. It is a man of quality who dies for her. ²THACKERAY. expect from. It would take me long to die of hunger. part with." She would have been ready to die with shame. Some officers had died for want of a morsel of bread. "Die for. He died at last without disease.²POPE. People do not die of trifling little colds." etc. He must purge himself to the satisfaction of a vigilant tribunal or die by fire. Expect of.²GOLDSMITH. they shall die by this hand." The author died of a fit of apoplexy.y y y Die by. instrument).²BOSWELL. She died of hard work. simply from old age. Illustrations of "die of. "Die from." (because of). die of.²BURNETT.²SHAKESPEARE. die from.²G.²BULWER. I wish that the happiest here may not die with envy.²CHAMBERS' JOURNAL.²MACAULAY. If I meet with any of 'em.²MACAULAY. I am positively dying with hunger.²MACAULAY. die for. "Die with.²SCOTT. die with.²G. ELIOT. Who. Part from.²FIELDING. as Cervantes informs us. privation. I thought the two Miss Flamboroughs would have died with laughing." (in behalf of). . ELIOT.²GOLDSMITH." "die from. ²ATHENÆUM.:² "Die of. Take thought and die for Cæsar.²AUSTEN Fifteen officers died of fever in a day.

²SHAW. ELIOT.²MACAULAY. That is more than I expected of you.²MACAULAY. Illustrations of "expect of. How cruel of me!²COLLINS. ." To part from you would be misery.²MARRYAT. It was a little bad of you. kind of you. Of Doctor P. ELIOT. "Expect from.²G. and hated to part with them.²G. I have long expected something remarkable from you. nothing better was to be expected.²SCOTT. which he would by no means part from. ELIOT. Illustrations of "part with.²WALLER." "expect from:"² "Expect of. 464. Kind in you. There was a certain grace and decorum hardly to be expected from a man.²POE. 465. "Part from.²BULWER." He was fond of everybody that he was used to. Burke parted from him with deep emotion. but "part from" is less often found in speaking of things. I can part with my children for their good.²AUSTEN." "part from:"² "Part with.²BULWER.²DICKENS. Cleveland was sorry to part with him.²G. as shown in the following quotations:² Of. His precious bag.He died by suicide before he completed his eighteenth year. 466. I have just seen her." What do I expect of Dublin?²PUNCH.²WALPOLE. just parted from her.²TROLLOPE. I part with all that grew so near my heart. as my friend. "Part with" is used with both persons and things." She will expect more attention from you. Not knowing what might be expected of men in general. With words implying behavior or disposition. either of or in is used indifferently.

. nor explained by accuracy of speaking. 4. Hampden. None of them are in any wise willing to give his life for the life of his chief. or artillery. This narrative. nor yellow. may serve to explain the state of intelligence betwixt the lovers. and ran up the alley. with seraphims.²DICKENS. 10. That is very unreasonable in a person so young. Miscellaneous Examples for Correction. tedious perhaps. it is commonly said that his profits are high. 7. The noise of vast cataracts. It will be anything but shrewd in you. This does not prove that an idea of use and beauty are the same thing. 3. nor of a pale red. or which we are most imperatively required to do. 13. That which can be done with perfect convenience and without loss. 15.²BEACONSFIELD.²BULWER.²BULWER. is not always the thing that most needs to be done. Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking. 5. or that they are any way dependent on each other. But this is idle of you. raging storms.²TENNYSON. In. To such as thee the fathers owe their fame. We tread upon the ancient granite that first divided the waters into a northern and southern ocean. I am wasting your whole morning²too bad in me. 8. Thou tread'st.²CARLYLE. Very natural in Mr. 6. but which the story renders necessary. To the shame and eternal infamy of whomsoever shall turn back from the plow on which he hath laid his hand! 12. In the friction between an employer and workman. 11. The materials and ornaments ought neither to be white. thunder.He did not think it handsome of you. nor blue. thrown it over Amyas's head. 9. nor green. the vast abyss. awake a great and awful sensation in the mind. 14. 1. Can you imagine Indians or a semi-civilized people engaged on a work like the canal connecting the Mediterranean and the Red seas? 2. Eustace had slipped off his long cloak.

38. There is not one in a thousand of these human souls that cares to think where this estate is. whom he thinks would be better than a dog. you or me. 16. but which are accepted without complaint by the inhabitants themselves. 24. 35. The difference between the just and unjust procedure does not lie in the number of men hired. Squares. what is a just and unjust act. 25. so far at least as they proceed from a mere consideration of the work itself. 18. and most of us do know. We were only permitted to stop for refreshment once.) 34. 20. These are scattered along the coast for several hundred miles. were down with raging fever. 33. the light is sometimes softened in the passage. 27. It comes to whomsoever will put off what is foreign and proud. Friday. 17. 22. (Sec. and almost as good as a pony. 31. The effect of proportion and fitness. Every one of these letters are in my name. 411. and from which the angry nobles shrunk appalled. Surely none of our readers are so unfortunate as not to know some man or woman who carry this atmosphere of peace and good-will about with them. I never remember the heather so rich and abundant. . produce approbation. 29. 28.I would wish me only he. 21. 36. Neither of them are remarkable for precision. That night every man of the boat's crew. in conditions of life that seem forbidding enough. 19. You have seen Cassio and she together.And were I anything but what I am. save Amyas. Dryden and Rowe's manner are quite out of fashion. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. But every man may know. 23. For there nor yew nor cypress spread their gloom. and other angular figures. The sight of the manner in which the meals were served were enough to turn our stomach. or what kind of life they are to lead in it. These kind of books fill up the long tapestry of history with little bits of detail which give human interest to it. The moody and savage state of mind of the sullen and ambitious man are admirably drawn. the acquiescence of the understanding. triangles. 26. Richard glared round him with an eye that seemed to seek an enemy. or how beautiful it is. When the glass or liquor are transparent. are neither beautiful to the sight nor feeling. 37. 32. 30. but in the price paid to them.

as. FOOTNOTES: [1] More for convenience than for absolute accuracy. (3) Modern English. 20. origin of. THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 260. 239. 124. Adjective Adjective distinguished distributive. from nominative clauses. adjectives. voice. 89. 119. adverbs used complements. (2) Middle English.000 between them. 133. 107. as comparison definition demonstrative. syntax uses Absolute. nominative. of. 47. of. pronouns. 90. 25. . from about the twelfth century to the sixteenth century. article. 98. of. 92. 310. Between each was an interval where lay a musket. demonstrative. 91. from about 1500 to the present time. 102. He had four children. A. 47. the stages of our language have been roughly divided into three:² (1) Old English (with Anglo-Saxon) down to the twelfth century. 40. nouns. Adjectives. of. of. Abstract with Active Address. INDEX. numeral. 116.39. and it was confidently expected that they would receive a fortune of at least $200. 124.

316. quantity. of adjective of personal of relative of verb All. adjectives. 114. 183. adjectives. of. 27. 303. antecedent. 242. 275. parse. syntax Adverbial Adverbial Adverbs. compared. modify. 207. 187. Alternative kinds pronoun pronoun with syntax noun. with with with subject. 115. 97. Against. 262. 42. form as as they to in as uses uses of. 99. 116. 190. antecedent. 302. 27. 184. 323. of. 195. 190. 287. 106. 103. 207. of. of. parse. 148. 116. to used of. conjunction. 194. as nouns. 328. 325. objective. between of. Alms. quality. 194. Agreement. 325. from to of. infinitive. nouns. 104. conjunctions. adjectives. 48. of.from function how in not of of ordinal. 303. plural pronominal. 101. classes definition distinguished how position same syntax used used what Adversative After. nouns. of. predicate. 109. 239. clauses. 191. . 291. sentence. and 185. of.

287. 331. pronouns. syntax As. 294. derivation in definite. 264. Arrangement Articles. See 74. syntax. of of of And Antecedent. 296. of. of. of. 120. Are. 252. . of. and. 51. 198. which. 208. 127. uses As At. in in. Agreement. A. Anacoluthon Analysis. possessive. same. words between. agreement personal as pronoun. sentences. 240. adjective. as uses verbs. 124. 49. 300. 84. 101. to of. 207. 150. 90. 225. 231. sentences. 47. 120. of. it. 295. 67. 275. 271. 148. parse. though. which. 67. 309. definition how indefinite. as syntax Apostrophe Apposition. of and pronoun of. An.Among. sentences. See with definition complex compound simple who. Auxiliary if. 74. definition of of of Any. which. after of. 79.

46. 210. 260. 278. 84. definition could. Bridegroom. of. Case. of pronouns. of nouns. 161. clauses of. 39. Be. 262. 111. 66. adjective. of. uses Better. adverb. 48. 62. of pronouns. 54. in Old and Modern English. of nouns. Brethren. Between. comparison conjugation of. 63. See of. 45. 64. 283. number of. 279. forms.Bad. 149. of what. Cause. Clause. 224. of. conjunctions Cherub. pronoun. 110. But. with But By. 39. plurals of. Children. possessive. uses nominative of. syntax of. of nouns. best. 37. 330. of pronouns. objective. 47. Among. 110. of pronouns. 279. Can. 150. 195. double possessive. uses of. 262. 194. 49. nominative. . 278. 46. of nouns. Case.

predicate. 239. of. 257. of of syntax Complement Complementary Complex definition Compound possessive Compound Compound analysis Concessive clause. of. 108. Collective syntax Colloquial Common derived derived Comparative syntax Comparison. 307. proper. superlative. material. . and sentence. 18. adjectives. 244. Cleave. plural of. of. clothes. 315. of. 312. 263. Clomb. nouns. double. of. 307. 23. Cloths. 264. of. 108. 111. nouns. adverbs. infinitive. 24. analysis of. 257. subject. 257. 113. 43. and forms of. verb. sentence. 271. 12. 18. definition degrees irregular. 157. predicate of and from from of. 110. 158. 258. in analysis. of. 305. nouns.definition kinds noun. 107. English. defective. of. 43. of. 248. 53. 189. 268.

194. 199. 193. analysis. adverbs. replaced by objective. 149. 66. 188. same words. pronoun. syntax Conjunctive Conjunctive Contracted Coördinate Coördinate Coördinating Copulative Could. conjunction. 194. 269. parse. verbs. pronoun. 195. in Old vs. sentence. pronouns. conjunctions. sentences. Conditional with Conditional Conditional Conjugation. See English. 138. 149. 73. 289. 255. definition be. 143. See analysis clauses. subjunctive. other other parts of speech. coördinate. to of. 196. Can. 151. definition how subordinate. 139. Agreement. 195.with Concord. 328. of. 194. of of Conjunctions. See in subjunctive. restrictive use of See relative Relative of. Conjunctions. and clause. conjunctions. 231. 207. 263. sentences. interrogative pronouns. Dative Declarative Declension of case. correlative. of. .

pronouns. See 148. article. See adjectives. 333. indirect. of. pronouns. 287. discourse. of personal relative verbs. 60.Declension. 320. object. tenses. Die Direct Direct retained Distributive syntax Distributive syntax Double Double Drake. pronouns. 300. by. 160. Comparison. comparative. 91. of. verb. 43. Case. Comparative. 242. 152. 242. 303. See See 48. Subordinate clause. for. 185. from. with of. vs. 102. 90. Demonstrative syntax Demonstrative Dependent Descriptive Descriptive Dice. . passive adjectives. use of dies. 102. of. possessive. 26. with. 288. pronouns. 315. duck. 80. Articles. Degrees. of. nouns. adverbs See adjectives. 35. 51. of of Defective Definite Definite Degree. nouns. 99. clause.

syntax as syntax as syntax Elder. error in sentence. 255. Empress. complement. suffix. of. in 'Em. 112. 38. 92. object. 300. 257. 90. Each. 39. 12. ending. vulgar. 51. Either. 299. Elements Ellipsis. plural. pronoun. 32. the of sentence. 158. 287. -En. possessive suffix. adjective. feminine plural English. pronouns. of. 280. one ( t). 158. 194. 40. pronoun. of. adjective. syntax Each Eat Eaves. periods Enlargement of -Es plural -Ess. older. original. 42. 90. literary. 328. 34. . predicate. 234. 33. 241. 62. of. to suffix. 240.Drank. conjunction. spoken. 102. 92. drunk. 33. other. another. added suffix. of subject. 92. 110. of. of. original of feminine a of source complex origin as 102. 287.

319. 334. of. object. two. fishes. 189. modes "common goose. Few. Further.. plurals. 32. definition distinguished in English. 211. 212. 43. For. 30. of. adjective. etc. 308. 152. 212. uses redundant. 29." 31. 235. 238. 287. pronoun. uses Foreign Former. 48. 45. Gender. 91. as a noun. from. 36. nouns. perfect. First. First Fish. 148. few. 112. Future Future tense. the. Farther. two a further. Feminine. of. expect gone. 30. syntax Expect Expected Factitive Farther. with in sex.. 152. .Every. etc. 102. 30. have adjective. gender. as of from compared marking. to of. 102. 103. 126. first. From. other languages. used of. See Gander. 110. 147. with infinitive. 112.

. and case verbal with. 12. adjective. 35. 61. Government. forms in Girl. she. 101. its. 12. possessive pronouns. Imperative of Imperative Imperfect Indefinite personal mood. for before. Grammar. had hung. kinds of. His Husband. from participle of. noun. person. I. 177. definition basis of. 159. of. 36. Got. 144. definition divisions opinions province H. on. 9. 275. 145. of. of. 173. 10. rather. an better. pronouns. 175. He. 43. 13. 159. participle. 60. 285. 61. 120. 176. personal relative geniuses. 231. pronoun. Gerund.of of Genii. of. distinguished syntax. first sentence. 60. it. Had Hanged. 80.

233. your. 283. 136. See you. questions. Indicative Indirect Indirect Indirect Infinitive. Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative declension in syntax Interrogative Intransitive made Irregularities Irregularly active. 67. transitive. 131. 257. Questions. 245. pronoun. 110. meaning. 188. See Articles. 73. 85. use article. adverbs. of. 248. adjectives. 323. 231. pronouns. of clause. 93. mood. 276. . 43. uses discourse. indices. 131. in compared syntax. indirect of. Direct object. words.Indefinite Indefinite Indefinite Independent Independent Indexes. of. not syntax uses -Ing Interjections. of. 178. of. summary See passive mood. with of. 72. 176. 153. 319. adjectives. 320. elements. 105. questions. 227. sentence. a object. verbs.

Latter. syntax. in little. Kine. .adverbs. was uses me. Lady. lord. 61. 39. 227. -Ly. 126. 91. Like. Lie. lie. lesser. 36.. adjective. a vs. It. predicate. queen. latest. 36. pronoun. these double kind. 226. 113. of. syntax the. Less. Lay. Lady. 190. 110. and See words in. 63. 113. uses Literary Little. 67. of.." history etc. 36. 102. 110. English. of. of. 281. Kind. See Madam. 189. subject form. 303. King. Last. etc. 12. 245. 276. 170. "It Its. Logic Logical Lord. Lay. plural.

conjunctions Many. Modifiers. 110. Enlargement. 110. 126. 188. 185. might. Much. Mighty Mine. syntax conjunction. 112. 195. imperative. 256. 287. 328. of. Mood. Master. sentences. Means. Modifier. 325. 41. 112. Neither. 102. 36. construction as of adverb. of. 137. superlatives. of. subjunctive. comparison Near. of. Negative. 161. 326. 34.Manner. 112. of.. position adverb. See definition 136. 114. etc. May. of. mine. 113. nigh. 135. syntax nearer. 265. mistress. adjective. -Most. of. of. Must. 160. Many Mapping Mare. indicative. . 189. 187. 144. 137-144. 64. 189. out of. 194. in adverbs comparison a. double. 110.

foreign. abstract. to of. 18. 27. 124. of of of of of a. 20. 126. Nor. 30. number once other plural.pronoun. etc. analysis. 25. 30. 328. definition according of. 30. 17. become neuter. 45. parse. 17. class used singular. of. Case. 38. syntax in gender nouns. proper. 38-41. syntax Neuter or two News. letters as 24. 41 43. 26. of. 32. to use. gender nouns. 301. 125. No Nominative. definition descriptive. 258. 300. 41. Not Noun Nouns. half abstract. kinds 90. 29. 46. 246. gender how kinds material. abstract. and figures. etc. formed. in. clause. of. of. 46. become become formation case collective. None. 17 19. of. 92. See 194. nouns. used as. nouns. of. 56. words how compound. of. 19. 41. 25. common. . material. 21. 42. now plural.

with with with Now Number. conjunction. 240. 41. 242. plural. 242. of different possessive definite of. 101. 42. 60. preposition.. common. of. 41. passive adverbial. 102. 282. pronouns. adverbial. as forms titles. Numeral Object. 48. of. and analysis. 278. See verb. 18. spoken of instead nouns. adjectives. 195. English. article. adjectives. nominative. 48. . 42 44. meanings. indefinite. 23. pronouns. of. of. become syntax use with with with Nouns. or plural. 92. of. 285. 278. 48. plural no two singular construction. plural form. 106. definition direct in of modifiers retained Objective in instead nominative of of proper. 281. Preposition. meaning. 279. 42. 41. with case. personal. 39. 196. 148. 101. form meaning indefinite with one plural singular as definition pronouns. 121. 48. 124. singular. See in in in Numeral distributive. in nouns. verbs. 48. 43.of same two with proper. Nouns. in article. form. dative. etc. 235. singular. definite. 66. of. indirect.

See pronoun. Parsing. 116. of. 94. 38. as other. as of. 56. of. Oxen. definite relative uses of. inverted. of upon. 91. . 103. adjective. 69. part analysis. 56. 103. 237.syntax Of. treatment comparatives. Ourself. adverb. One. articles. Older. of. 199. Ordinal Other Ought. 41. 117. nouns. position Order. 127. for. conjunction. uses numeral pronoun. a in adjectives. indefinite possessive One One as Only. 64. pronoun. 325 275. 279. of of of of of models adjectives. 233. 306. Each adjective. ours. 191. Pains. of syntax. 161. conjunctions. Our. 87. 213. See the as of. another. 101. 216. adverbs. 194. Elder. with (the). Omission On. 93 other. 115. 293.

100. phrase. part adjective. 172. 43. used as voice. phrases. 335. or of. article 150. in. predicate use of. 119. verbs. and subject in. 59. 80. pease. 219. antecedent. of. -ing words. verb idioms it from. pronouns. 56. 28. them. 134. relatives. from definition other of. 177. 247. 62. reflexive. 61. absolute with of. 62. of of of Personal agreement as case compound. with. 59. of. 174. 322. pennies.of of of of of of some what Part Participial Participial Participle. 43. of. . 56. agreement of verb nouns. Pence. 27. 181. 63. speech. parsed. not is. 148. included various. 172. 173. 281. 317. 180. of. 64. verbs. of. uses definition double 'em history of prepositions. 287. distinguished forms kinds syntax uses Parts words Passive Peas. 59. 95. of. 70. Person. 69. nominative. verbals. pronouns. possessive and of. of. 179. pronoun.

61. as double. pronouns. 303. 51. 232. it. of. prepositional. objective of of omission origin syntax with with Predicate. 285. Personification. 241. 247. Personal subjective. nouns. 281. 236. 's. 25. 247. or See of of See 185. complete. 303. of Phrase. nouns. of. relative. vs. 41. singular degree. for nominative possessive of of other definition in of. 206. noun nouns. 52. definition logical modifiers abstract nouns. 278. simple. pronoun. 49. singular. kinds infinitive. 106. plural. 236. 248. 281. 67. syntax of of Politics. of nouns. of. Place. 64. Comparison. of. 188. 235. 245.objective syntax table triple uses of. nouns. 245. double. 63. in of. See 60. 53. of. antecedent of of pronouns. omitted. adverbs of. English. conjunctions prepositions Plural. 278. Positive Possessive. 54. objects. of. of. Nouns. 50. pronoun. adjectives. 53. . 195. of. spoken of. 37. appositional. participial. and compound indefinite of s of modified two complement of. 60.

32. interrogative. 280. 129. same used as adjectives. possessive nominative to of. 203. what. 203. 206. with tense certain. words. and form form form form of. by with shown certain of. plural. 332. adjective. Pronouns. case. 300. singular usually other. meaning. 93. . 287. each either. 105. 104. after but. expressed as other of. of. 331. of. 95. for predicate nominative. parse.Prefixes. as 54. of. 303. adverb. Present Pretty Pronominal relative. speech. of. who personal. of. as. future. and one with else's. any. by. 105. 208. 299. by parts of of. all. exclamatory. 219. forms of. somebody definition how indefinite. 300. 281. interrogative. 59. objective. verbs. 89. 186. of. 282. 284. parse. 205. usually to as than. 301. Prepositions. 283. 202. 283. case. 302. none. 64. 132. 72. 187. after antecedents nominative nominative objective objective possessive gender certain. 195. in exclamations. as antecedent of relative. plural. 147. 58. classification definition followed by how objects position relations same words syntax uses various. objective. 207. plural. another. 279. 333. 285. 58. neither. of.

188. nouns. 279. and relatives. pronouns. Nouns. 101. of. 289. 289. See of. unrestrictive. or of. use of history formed. 69. Rank. 87. 263. 105. 58. from and interrogative. of. indirect. in. Quotations. of. 85.possessive relative. which after same. pronoun. Questions. in. 291. 68. and antecedent. of. how omission restrictive two syntax usefulness Proper Purpose. parse. of. 74. of. 295. 195. 142. Reflexive how Reflexive Relative but distinguished function indefinite omission restrictive form of. and which. agreement anacoluthon and as. indirect compound. of. 84. 87. Rather. of. 296. 83. Quantity. clauses adjectives adjectives direct and adjectives subjunctive See adjectives of 115. with with gerund. 286. in. 80. questions. . same antecedent. that. pronominal pronouns indirect. 293. 74. which. use in as. discourse. 74. adverbs in. 69. 85. of. 297. personal pronoun. conjunctions Quality. 99. 293. with who. 295. 189. to of. Direct same and different. who.

231. 159. 159. 259. Seeing. conjunction. simple. 74. Sex Shall. 294. will. elliptical. 196. that. simple of. conjunctions Retained Riches. 263. 40. in form. gender. of sit. of of of complex Sentences. Simple in sate. Self Sentences. object. and should. of. forms shots. 51. 69. 170. clauses of. 29. definition . See Sentences. tenses. complex. sentence. who. effect. 319. in of. reflexive analysis of compound. 43. 289. of.syntax use Result. S. would. which. ending. of. 196. 231. plural possessive as. Shear. Same Sat. of. 'S. 255. kinds Sequence Set. 195. Shot. 252. 242. 26 271. 42. 162. pronoun. suffix.

233. in Middle English. 38. of. definition grammatical modifiers things Subjunctive gradual uses in Subordinate adjective. adverb. . 303. 258. sort. English. 12. 262. Somebody Sort. 138. 323. 169. 258. Split Spoken -Ster. 258. disuse in spoken complete.Singular Sir. adverb. 245. etc. English. of. of. 257. 144. in feminine suffix. 32. of. vs. these number. Spelling Spinster. English. English. 270. 186. 237. definition 67. 257. used mood. 260. 257. 33. 137. logical. -en. names as a. Modern use becoming else's. distinguish. 303.. literary clause. -es. 33. See -En. 144. other Such Such Suffix -s. 38. of. 126. definition how kinds noun. 245. 36. Subject. verbs. of. phonetic in infinitive. as. of. 257. to of. 240. for.

of. this. 309. coördinating. adverbs. as history syntax Their. . 280. of. 147. in Modern number sequence table Than That. Kind. article. of. English. 87. they. 186. Superlative in not of of syntax with Syntax.Suffixes. Then. in double. meaning made up in Old of. Tenses. 186. meaning. which. 106. There These kind. 88. 61. 120. 275. form. adjectives. auxiliaries. object. when as of. king. 119. 222. when relative.. degree. classical of. of." introductory. two basis not same definition definite. as history The. 189. 33. 290. 306. objects. not suggesting adjectives. 277.. 275. as adverbs. subject. 106. 152. 191. than of. 116.. of. 307. and and of. of languages. of. of . 147. of. definition in English Tense. See etc. 107. 109. omission whom. 108. 306. English. 319. 147. 123. me. 148. 289. plural as adverb. of. restrictive. syntax of. "the then foreign. that uses That. 297. in comparison.

308. tother. phrases. 176. conjunctions prepositions To. thy. of. 207. gerund. 217. 195. kinds participle. carelessly uses syntax this. 20. uses history of. of. 114. other noun. analysis. 114. Utter. 330. of. of. Time. first. 185. of. used. Verb parsing Verbal distinguished Verbals. 322. infinitive. in of. try two.. 322. 323. 175. Upon. Upper. . 128. parse. Thou. first adjective. in omitted uses T'other. thee. -ing 111. -Trix. to. words. 61. See That. from cleft to 174. verbs. 114. 173. See On. of. certain as the before with of. Try Two Under. 21. 181. 119. 172. 33. uttermost. 188. suffix. exclamations. 172.These. feminine and. preposition. of. how infinitive. etc. 180. uses of. 175. 248. 247. 175. adverbs those. infinitive.

of English. 47. passive. 129. . transitive and intransitive. becoming irregular. 159. of. remarks on certain. analysis. definition of. 147. 151. verbs. active. agreement of. definition of. 167. sequence of. 330. 148. table of. 312-316. in indirect discourse. table of irregular. defective. strong. made transitive. syntax of. 319. verbs by. 160. 223. of incomplete predication. spelling of. Vocative in Voice. 245. regular. 131. conjugation of. 12. past tense formed nominative. of. 154. passive form. retained object with passive. 236. with subject in number. What. 130. in person. person and number of. 154. 167.Verbs. 33. 148. 169. weak. 135. 312. 317. formed by. mood of. auxiliary. 179. intransitive. 149. 134. active meaning. 133. 133. phonetic. but uses what. 154. tense of. 169. change. 242. definition of. Vixen. 320. Vowel plural Vulgar Weak spelling Went. 157. 39. 150. voice of. 155. how to parse.

75. Y. questions. 111. 72. questions. direct of. 295-299. 77. relative. questions. pronoun. a. 40. 72. uses See Shall. 190. 299. 79. 104. 126. worser. Yes ending analysis. interrogative Which. Who. 296. wizard. conjunction. 246. Witch. animals. pronoun possessive as direct indirect in to of. 78. Whether. Wife. of. 72. 75. Woman. 85. pronoun. 218. 85. plural of in nouns -ing. whereto. 105. 83. referring syntax Widower. 36. English. relative. would. etc. in -ly. 178. 85.. of. in. 37. 105. as as in indefinite interrogative syntax whose. 36. 73. 194. Will.what Whereby. . in in indefinite objective. With. relative indirect relative. Words in Worse. 83. 32. antecedent adjective. questions. spoken in of.

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