Experiment No.

5

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Experiment No. 5
1.0 2.0 TITLE :
To determine the Blood group of the subject by ABO system and rhesus system.

PRIOR CONCEPTS:
The blood contains various antigens. Blood group : The type of blood according to different agglutinogen (antigens) present in R.B.C.

3.0

NEW CONCEPTS:
Proposition 1 : RBCs of different individuals have the different types of Antigens. Depending on types of antigen present or absent the four types of blood groups. Blood group depends upon types of antigen present or absent in the blood. There are four types of blood groups Concept Structure : Type of blood group depends on presents or absent of rhesus factor in blood cells

Proposition 2 ABO system of blood grouping is based on presence of agglutinogen (Antigen) and absence of antigen in RBCs and clumping of RBC in Antiserum A and B and if no clumping of RBCs in Antiserum. Concept Structure : Types of blood group based on presence or absence of rhesus factor in blood cells

14 ♦

MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

2 7. Anti-D Serum. two drops of blood are mixed with sodium citrate solution placed in depression. 2 5. 5. 6.Human Anatomy and Physiology Experiment No. After 15 minutes A. mix it well. Glass slides. 5 4. 5. Test Tube 7.1 No Clumping of RBCs Fig 5.0 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS : 1 Apparatus : 1. 4. 6. Anti-A . 70 % alcohol or spirit. To Observe the agglutination of blood cells. Chemicals : 1. Normal Saline 2. 5. 2. Glass marking pencil 3. 'B' and 'C'. MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦ 15 . 4. 3-4 drop of sodium citrate solution are in one of the depressions on the porcelain tile . 2. Pricking needle.0 DIAGRAM : Clumping of RBCs Fig. 3. Whole procedure is to be repeated. Convex lens.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES : 1 Intellectual skills : 1. Anti-B. Special porcelain tile with 12 depressions.It is labeled as . With usual aseptic precaution finger is pricked with pricking needle. Ability in proper mixing of blood and antisera 2. If by any chance agglutination occurs in this control.0 STEPWISE PROCEDURE : 1. Motor Skills : 1. To correlate the data. "C" depression acts as a control (for comparing between agglutination and no agglutination) In depression "C" agglutination does not occur. 2 6. The RBCs suspension is obtained. 1 % sodium citrate prepared in normal saline. Antiserum B and normal saline are put separately in three different depressions and they are labeled as 'A' . 2. Two drops of Anti serum-A. Two drops of cell suspension (from D) are put in each of these depression (A. To detect the agglutination or No agglutination of RBC with antiserum. Dropper 4.B and C) It ismixed well by blowing.B and C depression are observed for presence or absence of agglutination. 3.

5 Human Anatomy and Physiology 7. If clumping of RBC in Antiserum D = Rh+ve. A group person's serum contains Anti B agglutinogen 7. ' AB ' group person's serum does not contain any of the above agglutinins.= No Agglutination ) 9.B = B group If clumping of RBC Anti A and Anti B = AB group. Agglutination is conformed by taking a drop from each depressions on the slide and observing the slide under the microscope. 11. 3. AB group containing both 'A' or 'B' agglutinogen 5.group --------. 4.Experiment No. If no clumping of RBC in Anti A and Anti B = O group.D serum Rh group of person is determined.0 CONCLUSION : 1.not containing either 'A' or 'B' agglutinogen . If clumping of RBC in Antiserum A = A group If clumping of RBC in Anti .containing "B" agglutinogen 3. ' O' group person's serum contains both Anti-A & Anti. 6.0 OBSERVATION TABLE : Blood group determination parameter. A. 1. 9. O group ---. 5.B agglutinins. 10. B group person's serum contains Anti B agglutinogen 8. If no clumping of RBC in Antiserum D = Rh-ve. . 11.containing AB agglutinogen 4.0 RESULT : Blood group of subject (own) is ………………. Red blood cells of individuals have different types of antigens (Agglutinogens) depending on the type of agglutination present there are four types of blood groups. ( + = Agglutination. By usuing Ant .0 OBSERVATIONS : 10. 16 ♦ MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION . 6. 8.group ----------containing "A" agglutinogen 2. 2. B. AB -group ------.

3. State two precaution should be taken while selecting the donor . 7. Why blood group AB is called universal recipient ? Give two reasons. State the Landsteiner's law. 8. 13. 14. Q…………….0 QUESTIONS : (Note:.Student to answer Q…………. 10. Space for writing answers MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ♦ 17 . State four complications of blood transfusion . 11. Name various blood fractions used for transfusion. Give the importance of blood group ( 3 points). State cross matching of blood. 5. State three precautions should be taken during blood transfusion . 4. 2. What are the mismatch blood transfusion? Give three hazards of mismatch transfusion. State the basis of classification of blood group. 6. 5 12. 12. Q…………… and the question numbers shall be allotted by the teacher.Human Anatomy and Physiology Experiment No.) 1. State three the indications for blood transfusion. Why blood group O is called universal donor ? Give reason. State three parameters for storage of blood. 9.

5 Human Anatomy and Physiology Space for writing answers Remarks : Signature of Teacher 18 ♦ MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION .Experiment No.