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Varchar means fixed length char 2. Difference between oracle8i and oracle9i? a. The biggest difference between Oracle8i and Oracle9i is that Oracle9i lets you resize the SGA memory areas dynamically i.e., the Database Buffer Cache DB_CACHE_SIZE or the SHARED_POOL_SIZE, etc., can be resized when the database is up and running. The same is not possible with Oracle8i. You can get more information from OTN b. Oracle 9i is an enhanced version of the Oracle 8i.Oracle 8i does not time stamping facility, which is provided in Oracle 9i. provided this is varchar2 means variable length char
c. you can drop a column in oracle 9i using alter table command where as not available in oracle 8i
d. Database performance ease of management scalability security availability Windows 2000 integration and application areas: Internet content management commerce integration packaged applications Business Intelligence native compilation of PL/SQL reduction in latch contention (SGA locks) and I/O improvements better Java performance (better compilation, improved garbage collection) distributed database performance enhancements enhanced 3-tier security (integration with LDAP...) improved hosting security (through use of virtual private databases), fine-grained auditing and single sign-on improved user security (more password management features, etc.)Ability to encrypt stored data row-level access control (Oracle Label Security) e. Listed below are some of the features of 9i: 1) U has automatic undo management. 2) U has automatic segment space management 3) U got these locally managed tablespaces which is better than the dictionary managed tablespaces as u can avoid fragmentation with locally managed tablespaces. 4) U has a new dbms_metadata package to extract object definitions from database. 5) Multi table insert is possible with 9i 6) Importantly u has this spfile in 9i. 7) Also u has dynamic memory management facility with 9i. 8) U has tuning advisories with 9i. 9) U has multi block size parameter with 9i and many more features like these.
3.What is Pro*C? What is OCI?
Pro *C The Pro* c/C++ precompiler takes the SQL statement that embedded in C/C++ code convert into standard C/C++ code. When successfully precompile this code, the result is a C or C++ program that we compile and used to build the application that access the Oracle Application. OCI: - OCI refer to Oracle Call interface is set of Low Level API (Application Program Interface Call) used to interact with Oracle Database. By OCI one can use the operation such as Logon, Fatch, parse, execute etc. Generally these are written in C/C++. 4. What is the difference between "NULL in C" and "NULL in Oracle? The NULL in C treated as Zero or void. But in SQL NULL value is Non or blank represented it can't manipulated 5. In Oracle varchar2 takes dynamic space for storage then why char is still in oracle? The major difference between varchar2 and char is fixed length and variable length. Varchar2 have variable length mean if we declare as 20 space and its use only 5 space the memory assign only 5. But in char takes declare space while use any number space less than declare 6. What are the difference between and constraints and triggers? Constraints are used to maintain the integrity and atomicity of database .in other words it can be said they are used to prevent invalid data entry. The main 5 constraints are NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY, FOREIGN KEY, UNIQUE KEY and CHECK Triggers are basically stored procedures, which automatically fired when any insert, update or delete is issued on table Another most imp, Diff. is that trigger affected only those row after which trigger applied but constraint affected all row of table. 7. What is normalization? What is the advantage of normalization (briefly?) 1. The process of separating data into distinct, unique sets is called normalization. This is implemented to improve the performance of the RDBMS, such as reduces redundancy of data and data inconsistency. 2. Normalization is the process of removing redundant data from your tables in order to improve storage efficiency, data integrity and scalability. 3. Database normalization is a series of steps followed to obtain a database design that allows for consistent storage and efficient access of data in a relational database. These steps reduce data redundancy and the risk of data becoming inconsistent.
Oracle 9i. segments. There can be one and only one row for each unique key value. FormIIndNormal. Surrogate Key: A system generated key with no business value. redundant data.e from DBMS to RDBMS.Oracle database usually contains one database and a single instance. control file(s).. formIIIrdNormal. 10g RAC (Real Application Clusters) can have multiple instances to interact with a single database for high availability. 9. and surrogate key? Primary Key: A column in a table whose values uniquely identify the rows in the table. unique key.Physical Structure of Database: One or more data files. How the logs are escalated? There are different types are logs which are logged by Oracle Database Engine. It is of step-by-step process IstNotmal. extents. But. which is redundant and makes the data in a normalized format. There may be more than 1 Unique Key in table 2. disk based. blocks 10. A DBA has to look in for alter log which exist background dump dust. what are the diffrent file types that are supported by SQL*Loader? a. formIVthNormal form or Boyce odd Normal form By performing this we will get the data in the Normalized formati.. data and control files 2. It can contain Null Value 1.4.e. The seviourity of the problem are analysed and escalated based on the information provided by the alter log.What is structure of Database? 1. Redo log file(s) and init. A primary key value cannot be NULL.direct method (skips dbcache. no redo generation) b.There is only one Primary key for I table 2. Instance is non-persistent. It is performed on the data. Usually implemented with database-generated sequences.what is the difference between primary key. Normalization is the process used to reduce the unnecessary repetition of data i.ora file Logical Structure of Database: Table spaces. memory based background processes and structures.It can contain Null Value Unique key 1. conventional method (just opposite of direct load) . 8. Database is persistent. Unique Key: Unique Keys are used to uniquely identify each row in an Oracle table. Primary Key 1.
Creating Virtual Index . c.What are the attributes of the Virtual Indexes? a. DBA_INDEXES will not show this either). and control structures. Only sessions marked for Virtual Index usage will become aware of their existence. These are permanent and continue to exist unless we drop them. buffers for parallel execution messages. however.How to find how many database reside in Oracle server in query? select count(*) from v$database. b. the hidden parameter d. Their creation will not affect existing and new sessions.What spfile/init. 5. in Oracle 9i onwards. The table DBA_INDEXES and DBA_OBJECTS will have an entry for them in Oracle 8i. CBO recognizes them.2. In all of my examples. even if the index scan may appear to be calculated as more costly? CBO (Cost Based Optimizer): Generates an execution plan for a SQL statement Optimizer_index_cost_adj parameter can be set to help CBO to decide an execution plan.How many memory layers are in the shared pool? The shared pool portion of the SGA contains three major areas: library cache. Dictionary view DBA_SEGMENTS will not show an entry for Virtual Indexes. 3. but the statistics cannot be viewed (in Oracle 8i. Virtual Indexes can be analyzed.ora file parameter exists to force the CBO to make the execution path of a given statement use an index. I did not carry out intensive testing in RBO and you may come across exceptions to this view. dictionary cache. which affects the speed of SQL query. Such indexes will be used only when "_use_nosegment_indexes" is set to true. The Rule based optimizer did not recognize Virtual Indexes when I Tested. DBA_INDEXES no longer show Virtual Indexes. However. Oracle may be generating artificial statistics and storing it somewhere for referring it later. e. We can also make necessary changes to the following parameters to effect CBO performance: Optimizer_search_limit & optimizer_max_permutations 4. Virtual Indexes cannot be altered and throw a "fake index" error! f. I have used CBO. d. using the ANALYZE command or DBMS_STATS package.
and are meant for a very specific purpose.What is meant by Virtual Indexes in Oracle? clause Virtual Indexes are another undocumented feature used by Oracle.As per Oracle. Use of Meterialized view:Expensive operations such as joins and aggregations do not need to be re executed.. It uses a query as the bases and the query is executated at the time the view is created and the results are stored in a table. the server transforms the query to reference the view rather than the base tables. this functionality is not intended for standalone usage. A virtual index is created in a slightly different manner than the normal indexes. Queries using expressions can use the index.Creating a Virtual Index can be achieved by using the NOSEGMENT with the CREATE INDEX command. You can also index and partition the Materialized view table like other tables to improve performance of queries executed aginst them.explain? Function-based indexes can use any Function or Object method that is declared as repeatable.CREATE INDEX sales_margin_inx . You can define the Materialized view with the same storage parametes as any other table and place it in any tablespace of your choice.What are materialized views? When are they used? Materialized view is like a view but stores both definition of a view plus the rows resulting from execution of the view. Virtual indexes. as the name suggests are pseudo-indexes that will not behave the same way that normal indexes behave. If the query is astisfied with data in a Meterialized view. It is part of the Oracle Enterprise Manger Tuning Pack (Virtual Index Wizard). Oracle handles such indexes internally and few required dictionary tables are updated so that the optimizer can be made aware of its presence and generate an execution plan considering such indexes.What is a functional index . the DBA_SEGMENTS view will not show an entry for this. i. 8.It allows the CBO to evaluate the potential new index for a selected SQL statement by building an explain plan that is aware of the potential new index. The virtual index wizard functionality allows the user to test a potential new index prior to actually building the new index in the database. 6. Ex: . A virtual index has no segment pegged to it. This allows the user to determine if the optimizer would use the index. once implemented.e. 7.
Control file: control file is read in the mount state of database. 10. 5> archive log file: its offline copy of redo log files 6>-password file: used to make normal user to behave as a super user. Physical components of oracle database are control files. ALTER SESSION SET QUERY_REWRITE_INTEGRITY = TRUSTED. Redo/archive log files 5. Control files 2. which includes Database name b. We have to enable Function-based indexes by enableing the following initialization parameters ALTER SESSION SET QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED = TRUE. Sql> SELECT ordid FROM sales WHERE (revenue . b. 1.cost) > 1000. We can use bitmap index where cardinality is very low like gender column or color column. Init file 3. Control file is a small binary file.cost). Well an extent is a chunk of a space that is used by database segments when a segment is created it allocates extents. b. An extent is the smallest unit of storage allocation comprising collection of Blocks. 3> redo log file: stores changed/committed data Three optional files are 4>-parameter file: stores all size related parameters note: this file is mandatory for a1st time u create a database. Totally there are 6 files (components) of physical database structure. redo log files and datafiles.What are the components of physical database structure of Oracle database? A. . Bitmap indexes are most appropriate for columns having low distinct values.3 mandatory & 3 optional.Where we use bitmap index? a. 9.How to you move from dedicated server Process to a Shared Server Process Use DBCA (DATABASE CONFIGUARATION ASSISTANT) toolYou will get the option to select shared server mode. which records the physical structure of database. 12.ON sales (revenue . and then it is optional. Log files 4. data files C. 11. Three mandatory files are 1> data file: store actual data 2> control file: stores structural & status information of database.What is an extent? a.
data Blocks. 13. which stores data of all logical structure. Select sum (bytes)/1024/1024 from v_$datafile + select sum (bytes)/1024/1024 from v_$logfile will give u the total size of the database .What are the different types of segments? table segment. Select sum (bytes)/1024/1024 size_in_mb from v$log. cluster.register('myregister'). extents. Extents: Space allocated to a segments. Redo log files: This files saves all the changes that are made to the database as they occur.How can be determine the size of the database? A. 15. Timestamp of database creation Checkpoint information current logs sequence number. A segment is a space allocated for a specific logical storage structure within a tablespace. data segment. temp segment. This plays a great role in the database recovery. IOT. segments. Print out the strings DBMS_UTILITY.get_time () get the current time DBMS_ALERT e. Select sum (bytes)/1024/1024/1024 Size_in_GB from dba_data_files. index segment. 12. A logical unit of storage of database is called Tablespace.Can you name few DBMS packages and their use? DBMS_OUTPUT.How can be determine the size of the log files. 11. Datablocks: Oracle server manage the storage space in the datafiles in units is called data blocks or oracle blocks.g begin dbms_alert. B. end To register interst in a named alert 14.PUT_LINE ('strings').What are the components of logical database structure of Oracle database Tablespace. Datafiles: datafiles are the physical files.Names and locations of datafiles and online redo log files.
16.C. Can you start a database without SPfile in oracle 9i? While starting database Oracle reads spfiledb. 17. date period wise) and each partition can have separate tablespace for better performance. desc dba_tab_privs (OR) Can use ROLE_TAB_PRIVS also (OR) select * from dba_role_privs order by grantee. and the table would reside in the user's default tablespace A. 19. initdb.ora.ora file. it needs to be refreshed. Select (select sum (bytes/1024/1024/1024) from v$datafile) +( select sum(bytes/1024/1024/1024) from v$tempfile) + (select sum(bytes/1024/1024/1024) from v$log) "Size of Database in GB" from dual. spfile.ora or init. but is like a window through which data from other tables can be viewed and changed The answer depends on the type of view. . Table is a segment (type of Segments). The Collection of informations stored in the structured format that is called a table. YES it does contain data and for the updated data in the base table. the ans is NO it only contains query based on a base table but in case of materialized view. Yes it is possible to start the database using init. A table is used to store the information in form of rows &columns in the database.ora is only to make changes to the dynamic initialization parameters without restarting the database using the SCOPE option. Yes: Schema objects can stored in different tablespace and a tablespace can contained one or more schema objects data. Tables can have partitions (value wise. In case of normal view. which is used to store user data. it can. The changes will be stored in the spfile only and if you start the database using "pfile" option those changes wont be applicable to the database. 20.ora. 18.Can objects of the same schema reside in different tablespaces? Yes. NO: Because view is for view one or more tables data like query. How can you check which user has which Role. For example if you specify a different tablepace (B) for indexes.ora file only. The main advantage of using the SPFILE.Do a view contain data? A view does not contain any data of its own.What is Oracle table? A table is the most commonly used form of storing user data. the indexes of the tables that the user create would be residing in B.
the corresponding indexes are also dropped.What are clusters? Groups of tables physically stored together because they share common columns and are often used together is called clusters. Its purpose is to reduce disk I/O by using an indexed path to locate data quickly.One or more data files form a logical unit of database storage called a Tablespace. 23.What is an Oracle index? An Index is a tree structure that allows direct access to a row in a table.A Data file can be associated with only one database. The users cannot see the indexes. The Logical classification groups indexes from an application perspective. If a table is dropped.What are the characteristics of data files? Characterstics of Data File: . It is created in existing table to locate rows more quickly&efficiently.What is the basic element of base configuration of an Oracle database? It consists of .One or more control files . . while the physical classification is derived from the way the indexes are stored An index is a schema object that can speed up the retrieval of rows by using pointers. User objects (table.One or more tablespaces .What is the function of redo log? The primary function of the redo log is to record all changes made to data. 26.) 24. a data file cannot change is size.Multiple users/schema's .Data dictionary tables.Two or more redo log files The database contains .one or more data files .Once created. . Indexes can be classified based on their logical design or on their physical implementation. If you do not have an index. they are just used to speed up the queries 22. then a full table scan occurs.21. . 25.One or more rollback segments .Can we create index on long raw column? NO we can't create index on long raw column. views etc. indexes.
..What is a temporary segment Temporary Segments are created by ORACLE when a SQL statement needs a temporary work area to complete execution... 2.... ORACLE DBA INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1.RESIZE command..What process writes from data files to buffer cache? .. When the statement finishes execution...Datafile size can be change by using ALTER DATABASE ...to maintain read consistency between multiple transactions.. the temporary segments extents are released to the system for future use.. 3.What are the uses of rollback segment The use of RollBack Segment is Database is ..
What is a on-line redo log? The On-line Redo Log is a set of tow or more on-line redo files that record all committed changes made to the database.What does LGWR do ? It is one of the main background process in oracle . In oracle and unix environment you can check this process using ps -ef |pg command . (or) Log Writer (LGWR) writes redo log entries generated in the redo log buffer of the SGA to on-line Redo Log File. You can provide a minimum of input and allow Oracle to make . These are the Parameters for init. the corresponding redo entries temporarily stores in redo log buffers of the SGA are written to an on-line redo log file by the background process LGWR.ora DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS SHARED_POOL_SIZE SORT_AREA_SIZE DBWR_IO_SLAVES ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE DB_BLOCK_LRU_EXTENDED_STATISTICS SHARED_POOL_RESERVE_SIZE 8.What is a database instance and Explain An Oracle instance is a combination of background processes and memory structures (SGA). 7.What are the Advantages of Using DBCA These are a few of the advantages of using DBCA: You can use its wizards to guide you through a selection of options providing an easy means of creating and tailoring your database. 9. 6.What is a redo log? Redo log contains the before and after image copies of changed data. Whenever a transaction is committed..Name init. which is writting all the uncommited transaction from SGA to redologfile . The on-line redo log files are used in cyclical fashion. It allows you to provide varying levels of detail. 5.Server Process (OR) it is an server process not DBWR(DataBase Writer) 4.ora parameters which effects system performance.
ORA.) Setting the storage parameters directly affects the efficiency of data retrieval and storage 12.PFILE.What is public database link You can create a public database link for a database. Like in unix. and if the count is zero then it is using a pfile: By Default oracle will look into the default location depends on the o/s. //This query will return NULL if you are using PFILE 2) SHOW PARAMETER spfile // This query will returns NULL in the value column if you are using pfile and not spfile 3) SELECT COUNT(*) FROM v$spparameter WHERE value IS NOT NULL. PFILE<SID>. whereby database files and administrative files. All users and PL/SQL subprograms in the database can use a public database link to access data and database objects in the corresponding remote database.What is an index segment Oracle creates the index segment for an index or an index partition when you issue the CREATE INDEX statement. eliminating the need to spend time deciding how best to set parameters or structure the database. oracle will check in $oracle_home/dbs directory and on windows it will check in oracle_home/database directory. Optionally. but spfile content is in binary format. it allows you to be very specific about parameter settings and file allocations.ORA.ORA. including initialization files. you can specify storage parameters for the extents of the index segment and a tablespace in which to create the index segment.decisions for you.ORA 11. (The segments of a table and an index associated with it do not have to occupy the same tablespace. value FROM v$parameter WHERE name = 'spfile'.How do you find whether the instance was started with pfile or spfile There are 3 different ways :1) SELECT name. In this statement. . and the content of pfile is just text based. It uses Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA). follow standard naming and placement practices 10. It builds efficient and effective databases that take advantage of Oracle's new features. that is understandable by oracle very well. Also oracle server always check the spfile or pfile with these sequence :SPFILE<SID>. SPFILE. // if the count is non-zero then the instance is using a spfile.
db_name. PROFILE. tablespaces information..What is row chaining if any of the empty row is not sufficient to hold the row.User creation date Profile .What is SYSTEM tablespace and when is it created SYSTEM TABLESPACE USAGE NOTES: Username . TEMPORARY_TABLESPACE from dba_users order by USERNAME Objects in SYSTEM TS .When many users require an access path to a remote Oracle database. maxdatafiles.Name of the user Created . 13. CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK . SYSTEM and possibly DBSNMP should have their default tablespace set to SYSTEM. it happenes when the block size is small and rows are of large size.Default tablespace for temporary objects Only SYS. then row is placed in multiple blocks..Default tablespace for data objects Temporary Tablespace . DEFAULT_TABLESPACE.What is the use of control file Control file is binary file which is having all the information realted to database.Name of resource profile assigned to the user Default Tablespace . Init.datafiles and logfiles.ora parameter file showing the location of the controlfile. Due to chaining performance degrades and will cause more IOs 14.dbcreated. an administrator can create a single public database link for all users in a database.. 16. Without this u cannot open your database. select USERNAME. CREATED.What is a tablespace Tablespace is nothing but a logical object comprisiing of one or more data files which actually stores the data. maxlogfiles.checkpoint information. then it cause chaining. (or) A tablespace is a collection of one or more datafile. 15. (or) control file is a binary file which contains db_name.
What is an Oracle sequence A sequence is a database object created by a user that can be used to generate unique integers.Name of object Object Type .What is schema Databases. tablespaces and datafiles are closely related.A Oracle Database consists of one or more tablespaces --. SEGMENT_NAME 17. but they have important differences: --.'SYSTEM') order by OWNER.A database's data is collectively stored in the datafiles that constitute each tablespace of the database (or) . 19.Each Table space in an Oracle database consists of one or more files called datafiles. SEGMENT_TYPE. A sequence can be used instead of writing an application code for sequence-generating routine. SYSTEM) should have their objects moved out of the SYSTEM tablespace select OWNER. SEGMENT_NAME.How to define data block size The primary block size is defined by the Initiaization parameter DB_BLOCK_SIZE.Type of object Tablespace . tablespace and data file.Explain the relationship among database.Size (bytes) of object Any user (other than SYS.Owner of the object Object Name . BYTES from dba_segments where TABLESPACE_NAME = 'SYSTEM' and OWNER not in ('SYS'.Tablespace name Size . TABLESPACE_NAME. It is generated and incremented (or decremented) by an internal Oracle routine. A typical usage of sequences is to generate primary key values which are unique for each row. It can be used by multiple users and for multiple tables too. --.OBJECTS IN SYSTEM TABLESPACE NOTES: Owner . 18.
The implementation of latches is operating system dependent. 21.g. i. Latches are typically used to prevent more than one process from executing the same piece of code at a given time. Views etc. .e the mode in which we are requesting it. One difference is that the enqueue is obtained using an OS specific locking mechanism. Another difference between latches and enqueues is that in latches there is no ordered queue of waiters like in enqueues. Username and schema are often used interchangeably. We allow varying levels of sharing on tables e. A latch is a type of a lock that can be very quickly acquired and freed. Indexes. The OS lock manager keeps track of the resources locked. two processes can lock a table in share mode or in share update mode etc. Associated with each latch is a cleanup procedure that will be called if a process dies while holding the latch.DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN Latches vs Enqueues Enqueues are another type of locking mechanism used in Oracle. A good example is of locks on tables. If a process cannot be granted the lock because it is incompatible with the mode requested and the lock is requested with wait. 20. constraints. Latch waiters may either use timers to wakeup and retry or spin (only in multiprocessors). An enqueue allows the user to store a value in the lock. and that is the same name as the user's. An enqueue is a more sophisticated mechanism which permits several concurrent processes to have varying degree of sharing of "known" resources. a corresponding schema with the same name is created for that user.When a database user is created. A user can only be associated with one schema.What is a latch? Latches are low level serialization mechanisms used to protect shared data structures in the SGA. Any object which can be concurrently used. Once a process acquires a latch at a certain level it cannot subsequently acquire a latch at a level that is equal to or less than that level (unless it acquires it nowait). Latches have an associated level that is used to prevent deadlocks. A schema is a named collection of objects that include Tables. the OS puts the requesting process on a wait queue which is serviced in FIFO. Since all waiters are concurrently retrying (depending on the scheduler). Triggers. anyone might get the latch and conceivably the first one to try might be the last one to get. particularly in regard to whether a process will wait for a latch and for how long. can be protected with enqueues.
? 1. The downside. is that logical standby is based on newer technologies (logical standby is new in Oracle 9. though. -.To change the name of the database -. EXECUTE DBMS_SHARED_POOL. while physical standby is always an exact structural duplicate of the master database. 22.2) and tends to be generally regarded as more tempramental than physical standby.. indexes.time out occurs (3 secs) 3 1/3 of log is full 4.Shutdown the database to make the changes SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE. etc) to the database.Backup the Control fiel to Trace ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO TRACE. Checkpoint occurs 23.CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE SET DATABASE "NEW_SID_NAME" RESETLOGS -.ora -. .Startup the datbase nomount with changed PFile STARTUP NOMOUNT. -.ora The first line of Control file should be "CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE SET DATABASE "" RESETLOGS ARCHIVELOG" .modify the db_name parameter in the init. Use dbms_shared_pool procedure. 24.How do you rename a database? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------.What is difference between Logical Standby Database and Physical Standby database? The primary functional difference between logical and physical standby database setups is that logical standby permits you to add additional objects (tables.How do you pin an object.What is the frequency of log Updated.For this script to run properly do the following: -.KEEP(OBJECTNAME).COMMIT or ROLLABCK 2.(note the SET keyword) Change the name in Control file and Init.Edit the trace file and change the CREATE CONTROLFILE command -.1 mb of redo 5.
Cancel base recovery of the database Recover database USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE until cancel. IF required give NAME and PATH of the PFILE CREATE SPFILE FROM PFILE. 4. Oracle has two memory structures in the computer’s RAM. select name from v$database. user process. And your database name will be changed 25. The PGA contains data and control information for a single.What are memory structures in Oracle? The basic memory structures associated with Oracle include: • System Global Area (SGA). 2. The Oracle RDBMS creates and uses storage on the computer hard disk and in random access memory (RAM). -. CANCEL -.sql.Rename GLOBAL_NAME to ALTER DATABASE RENAME GLOBAL_NAME TO . @create_control. which is shared by all server and background . Change the Database name there and in init. Startup mount 6. create new control file by running script (from backup control file) 5. (or) You can change Database my by simple do some steps. The two structures are the Program Global Area (PGA) and the System Global Area (SGA).What is the use of redo log information Redo log information are used to recover database if it get currept. 26. -. The SGA is the memory segment that stores data that the user has retrieved from the database or data that the user wants to place into the database 27.Execute the create controlfile command.Open resetlogs the database ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS.open database resetlogs. -.ora file. 3.-. 1.Explain Oracle memory structure. Above step will create a text control file. The portion in the computer’s RAM is called memory structure.Create SPFile. Alter Database backup control file to trace.
What does database do during mounting process? During database mount process. Dynamic Memomry Management Default tablespace at the db levele temporary tablespace at the dba level Undo tablespace managemnet (auto/manual) 29. 1.sum(bytes) from segment_name='TABLE_NAME' AND OWNER='OWNER segment_name 31. make sure that the oratab entry is also removed.How to DROP an Oracle Database? You can do it at the OS level by deleting all the files of the database. BDUMP. The PGA holds the following: o Stack areas o Data areas 28. select * from v$controlfile. The files to be deleted can be found using: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) select * from dba_data_files.processes and holds the following: o Database buffer cache o Redo log buffer o Shared pool o Large pool (if configured) • Program Global Areas (PGA). which is private to each server and background process. 30.ora and the tnsnames.What is Parallel Server ? .State new features of Oracle 9i.ora. Oracle would check for the existence of controlfiles mentioned in init. there is one PGA for each process. scripts etc of dba_segmentswhere the table'group by Clean up the listener. 4.What is the view name where i can get the space in MB for tables or views? select segment_name. select * from v$logfile. 2. 3. archive log list initSID.ora file but it wont check the contents of the controlfile which is done during the opening of database.ora In addition you can clean the UDUMP. (or) Go To Dbca And Click On Delete Database 32.
(OR) A deadlock is a condition where two or more users are waiting for data locked by each other. Redo log buffers. two or more redo log files..What are the basic element of Base configuration of an oracle Database ? It consists of one or more data files. These locks will be released automatically when a commit/rollback operation performed or any one of this processes being killed externally. Poor design of front-end application may cause this situation and the performance of server will reduce drastically. Statement rolled back is usually the one which detects the deadlock.What is a deadlock ? Explain . Two processes wating to update the rows of a table which are locked by the other process then deadlock arises.Multiple instances environments) accessing the same database (Only In Multi-CPU 33. Oracle automatically detects a deadlock and resolves them by rolling back one of the statements involved in the deadlock. The Database contains multiple users/schemas one or more rollback segments one or more tablespaces Data dictionary tables User objects (table.views etc. Multitable deadlocks can be . thus releasing one set of data locked by that statement. one or more control files. In a database environment this will often happen because of not issuing proper row lock commands. Dictionary Cache Buffers. Deadlocks are mostly caused by explicit locking because oracle does not do lock escalation and does not use read locks.indexes.) The server that access the database consists of SGA (Database buffer. Shared SQL pool) SMON (System MONito) PMON (Process MONitor) LGWR (LoG Write) DBWR (Data Base Write) ARCH (ARCHiver) CKPT (Check Point) RECO Dispatcher User Process with associated PGS 34.
(OR) System waiting for an event that may or may not happens and can be rectified using round robin algorithm which implemented internally by operating systems . thus precluding a deadlock.avoided by locking the tables in same order in all the applications.