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American English British English

Diaper Nappy
Collect charge Reverse charge
Liquor store Off-licence (a shop that sells alcoholic drink)
Mailman Postman
Angry Mad
Patrolmen Policeman
Pants Trousers
Trunk Boot
Hood Bonnet
Gas Petrol/ Fuel
Fender Bumper
Alumni Former students
Anyplace Anywhere
Flashlight Torch
Tire Tyre
Real (cool) Really (cool)
Check Cheque
Chips Crisps
Lower Barrister
Write me Write to me
… met with the president at … met the president at
I just changed it I have just changed it
Lighted Lit
Have gotten Have got
She’s never gotten over it She’s never got over it
Suspenders Braces
The Clash is The Clash are

Prefix Meaning Example
Post After post-mortem, postpone,
post-natal
postreform
postmodernism

Ex Former ex-president, ex-boyfriend,
exterminate
ex-husband
Sub Under submerge, submarine, sub-
category, subtitle
subway
Pseudo Pretending to be something Pseudo-intellectual, pseudo-
religious
Bi Two ways Bilingual, bipolar, bicolor,
biannual, bisexual
Tri Three triangle, tripod, tricycle
triathlon
Uni Together in one unicycle, universal,
unilateral, unanimous
uniform

underarm. reiterate. overheat. 3) Blending – Creating a port Wine by blending two or more wines in the desired proportions to obtain a predetermined final result. opposing antibiotic. antidote antibullying antichrist Re again return. overconfident Pro supporting or approving of Proactive. 5) Decanting – Passing the wine from the original bottle to another so as to separate the wine from the crust. alcoholic wine. mistake. bouquet and body of a wine. underclothes. disapprove disable. underestimate. misfire. monolithic monolingual Mis Wrongly misinterpret. in favor of pro-European Anti against. incalculable PORT 1) Fortified wine – An especially sweet. unknown In not Indefinite. Over Too much. antidepressant. 4) Bouquet – The combination of the wine’s aromas. This operation should be carried out before drinking unfiltered wines. not disagree. rediscover. 2) Taste-vin – glass or silver utensil in the shape of a disc used to evaluate the colour. disintegrate. something. Mono Singular monotone. exaggeration Overreact. disappear. accentuated with fermentation and aging. monobrow. specifically the traditional Vintages and LBVs. undone. to which aguardente was added during fermentation to prevent the total transformation of sugars into alcohol. 6) Cooperage – Art and workshop dedicated to making and preserving the vessels . inaccurate. misunderstand Under Below Undervalue. In this book the fortified wine referred to is Port Wine. prodemocracy. unfriendly. reunite refund Dis opposite of. disconnect Un not unfinished.

chosen from the shipper’s own estates and carefully selected other Quintas. not grafted. It is the wine of an exceptional year. 14) Phylloxera – Insect which attacks the vine roots and which causes a disease of the same name. Single-quinta vintage Ports are made from a single year’s wines from a named estates. They can be made of cement or stainless steel.” in other words. These wines are bottled at two years old. Ports are either matured in bottles or in caks. 11) Lágrima – Very sweet Port Wine. 15) Rootstock – The root of an American vine onto which a determined grape variety is grafted. The same as cask. but the overall quality of the wine is not such as to warrant an vintage declaration. 7) Fermentation – The processes fundamental in transforming grapes into wine. 9) Keg – Vessel made of wood with a capacity for 550 litres.storing the Port Wine. Vintage Port. Used since the end of the 19th century after Phylloxera. ages in the bottle after its second year. . or quinta. 12) Must – The juice which is obtained from crushing the grapes. it was particularly devastating to the Douro region in the second half of the 19th century. a small fraction white. 13) Nacional – A planting of vines at Quinta do Noval “planted directly into national soil. And they are either of single harvest or a blend of different years. and are made in years when these top quintas produce first-class Port. using white grapes from the hottest areas of the Douro region and which are exposed to more sun. Originating in North America. Port comes in a variety of styles. the law demands that it be bottled at two years old. The other variable is colour: most Port is red. the flagship of any shipper. The chief variables are the ageing process and the colour. 8) Grafting – Operation which consists of introducing a living part of a vine of a certain grape variety onto the rootstock of another variety so that it can develop as if it was on the plant it was taken from. No-one can be sure that a year will produce a declared vintage until the wine is in its second summer having spent two winters and a summer in cask. 10) Vat – Deposit to store the wine or for the fermentation of the must.

the cask topped up to avoid oxidation. Late bottled Vintage is a Port of a single year. racked carefully to keep them bright. they give out combustion gases. Being unfiltered. saída) Clock – hand (ponteiros) Comb – tooth (dente do pente) Cow udder – milk . 30 or 40 years . Dated tawnies of a single vintage – also called Colheitas – are by law at least 7 years old and the label must state both vintage and the year of bottling. As Port ages in oak casks and vats in the cellars. the wood aged Ports represent a different kind of excellence. it gradually loses its deep red colour and acquires a golden hue.is an average of the Ports that make up the blend. If the vintage wines show off a port house’s style and skill to perfection. almost mahogany. Neither sort of tawny matures further in the bottle. The wines are carefully stored in the vast airy lodges. it may form a crust or deposit. which is usually filtered prior to bottling to avoid any deposit forming. is a blend of vintages which is aged 3-4 years before bottling. and all the time tasted and assessed. These will be bottled at two to three years and do not age in the bottle. From the great wealth of wines in stock. These old tawnies are prized by Port lovers. which are carried out of the home by a flue – tubo. The age stated 10. These stocks form the palette of tastes and styles from which the various Ports are selected. aged in wood for 4-6 years. or crusting. After a decade or so. Crusted. Athletics – Relay (A race between teams of runners) Bicycle – Spoke (Each of the bars or wire rods connecting the centre of a wheel to its outer edge) Billiards – Cushion Book – Jacket (cover) Candle – Wick (the cotton that burns) Chimney – flue (As fires burn. and by the shippers themselves. the shipper will select young ports of moderate quality as his simple ruby and tawny wines. the wine is distinctly tawny. 20. Vintage character Port is bottled at 4-5 years and will not continue to improve in the bottle.

the final result of an activity or process 4) There was a twenty‐minute hold-up at the start of the concert owing to technical problems with the lighting. the amount of something that is produced . Delate.Fish – gills (gelras) Flower – stem (Caule) Horse – Mane (rédea) Ladder – Rung (step) Nut – kernel (the part of a nut or seed inside the hard shell that you can usually eat) Piano – hammer Roof – rafter (any of the large. the moment at which something unpleasant begins 2) The start of the tennis match had to be delayed for half an hour because of a sudden downpour. something that makes you move slowly or makes you late 5) The factory’s daily output has increased by more than 25% in the past six months. a period when it suddenly rains a lot – aguaceiro 3) The final outcome of the talks between the Union and the employers is not yet known. sloping pieces of wood that support a roof: viga) Ship – funnel Shirt – cuff (punhos camisa) Telephone – handset Violin – bridge (holds the streams) Nouns from phrasal verbs 1) The onset of the disease is marked by a high temperature and a feeling of nausea.

to search for something or someone 13) The country has experienced a large number of setbacks in recent years. such as a war or disease 12) The police are on the lookout for two men suspected of robbing a department store recently. a reduction in something.6) The President denied that he had been involved in the recent cover-up. a vehicle that is damaged so badly in an accident that it cannot be repaired 10) The play got a very bad write-up in the paper a report or article that makes a judgment about something. further cutbacks in the public sector are to be expected. . a time when something unpleasant suddenly starts. a problem or disadvantage 8) According to a Government spokesman. an amount of money spent by a business or government 15) I have to go to the doctor’s next week for a checkup next week. such as a play or movie 11) This is the third outbreak of the disease in the last year. an attempt to prevent the public from discovering information about a serious crime or mistake 7) One of the main drawbacks of living in Brighton and working in London is that you have to spend so much time travelling every day. made in order to save money 9) The car was a complete write-off after the accident.500. something that happens that delays or prevents a process from developing 14) Our total outlay in the project was €3.

ancinho Skip – contentor Magpie .alicate Keg .estroninho Bradawl – sovela Beaker .something Trowel .maço Caddy – Caixa de chá Starling . the beginning Flowers Herbs Fish Kitchen Utensils Dandelion . output.dente-de. especially by helping its enemies .the crime of telling lies in court when you have promised to tell the truth Treason.barril Jackdaw .espátula Crate – Caixa de madeira Wren . Basil – majericão Cod Spatula leão Sage – salva Trout Funnel Poppy . violent expression of emotion.the crime of doing something that harms your country.cravo Marjoram .papoula Tarragon . anger 17) The firm has an annual turnout of almost two billion pounds. I don’t usually lose my temper. a sudden.pega Fraud .copo medidor Budgie – periquito Perjury.gralho order to get money Mallet . 18) The out look for the future is not very bright.manjerona Plaice – solha Whisk Cowslip – primula Lovage – levístico Perch – perca Ladle – concha Foxglove – campanhia Tools/Gardening Containers/Receptacles Birds Crimes equipment Rake . usually after committing a crime 20) From the outset we knew the plan was doomed to failure. I’m afraid. quantity of production.estragão Haddock – arnica Grater Carnation . the likely future situation 19) The thieves made their getaway in a stolen post office van.carriça illegal a person does in Pliers . esp.a medical examination to test your general state of health 16) I apologize for my outburst just now. an occasion when someone leaves a place quickly.

such as a building Embezzlement . In addition (to this fact) moreover besides furthermore Now link the two contrasting paragraphs.to steal money that belongs to the company or organization that you work for 1. Arson . Use instrumental in. Choose two or three of these words and phrases to link similar ideas in both paragraphs.the crime of intentionally burning something. Now link your sentences to write two paragraphs only. . Tourism is instrumental in creating employment.” Begin Tourism…. one expressing the arguments for and one against tourism. using one of the following words or phrases. Explain “ jobs can be directly attributed to tourism. Nevertheless in contrast on the other hand conversely .

Catalogue / catalog (us) licence / license Defence / defense (us) recognise / recognize Analyse / analyze (us) oesophagus / esophagus diarrhoea / diarrhea (us) cancelled / canceled fulfilment / fulfillment (us) centre / center ageing / aging (us) likeable / likable matt/matte (us) programme / program aeroplane /airplane (us) aluminium/ aluminum carburettor / carburetor furore / furor moustache / mustache Orientated / oriented pyjamas / pajamas artefact /artifact cheque / check grey / gray mould / mold sceptic / skeptic through / thru tyre /tire axe /ax behaviour / behavior manoeuvre / maneuver prologue /prolog .