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09

Homework Questions

1. Define relative velocity

Sol: Relative velocity of one body with respect another body/ observer is the velocity with which one

body moves with respect to another.

Relative velocity is the rate of change of relative change of position of one object with respect to

another.

2. When is the relative velocity of two moving objects zero?

Sol: When the two objects are moving with same speed along the same direction (is same velocity), the

relative velocity is zero.

3. Two cars A and B move towards each other with constant velocity v A and vB . The distance between

them decreases by 10 ms1. When they move along the same direction, with the same speed, the

vA vB 5ms1 2

From (1) and (2)

vA 7.5ms1, vB 2.5ms1

4. One train A 120 m long is moving in a direction with a speed of 20 ms1. Another train B 130 m long is

moving with a speed of 30 ms1 in the opposite direction. The train B crosses the train A in a time

Sol: Total length of two trains, x 130 120 250 m

30 20 50 ms1

x 250

5s

50 50

Ans: (a)

5. Two cars started simultaneously towards each other from towns A and B which are 480 km apart. It

took first car travelling from A to B 8 hours to cover the distance and the second car travelling from B to

A took 12 hours. Determine when the cars meet after starting and at what distance from town A.

Assume that both the cars travel at constant speed.

480

Sol: Speed of car travelling from town A is v A 60 km h 1

8

RFT Motion in a Straight Line – 2.09

480

Speed of car travelling from town B is vB 40 km h 1

12

Let the two cars meet after time t hours. In this time, the distance travelled from A is 60t and the

distance travelled from B is 40t . When the cars meet, the total distance traveled 480 km .

60 t 40 t 480

480

or t 4.8 hours

60 40

The distance from town A at the meeting point

vA t 60 4.8 288km

6. Two cars are moving in the same direction with the same of 30 km h 1 . They are separated by a

distance of 5 km. A truck moving in the opposite direction meets these two cars at an interval of

4 minutes. Find the speed of the truck.

Sol: Suppose the truck is moving with a speed of 30 km hr 1 30 km hr 1

Car A Car B

v km h 1 as shown in figure. Apply a velocity of

of the truck. The two cars come to rest with a fixed distance of 5 km while the velocity of truck becomes

v 30 km h 1 . The time t hours taken by the truck to cover a distance of 5 km with a speed of

Distance 5

t

Velocity v 30

1 5 1

or t 4minutes hours

15 v 30 15

v 45 km h 1

Ans: 45 km h 1

7. Two trains are moving in opposite directions. Trains A moves east with a speed of 72 km h 1 and train

B moves west with a speed of 90 km h 1. What is the (i) relative velocity of B w.r.t. A? (ii) the relative

velocity of ground w.r.t. B (iii) the velocity of a dog running on the roof of the train A against its

motion (with a velocity of 54 km h 1 w.r.t to train A) as observed by a man standing on the ground.

Sol: If not mentioned, the speeds are understood to be w.r.t. earth or ground. Therefore, speeds of

trains A and B are w.r.t. earth.

RFT Motion in a Straight Line – 2.09

72 1000

(i) Speed of train A, v AE 75 km h 1 20 ms1

60 60

90 1000

Speed of train B, vBE 90 km h 1 25ms 1

60 60

Let us choose the positive direction from west to east.

54 1000

vDA 54 km h 1 15ms1

60 60

8. Two cars A and B are at positions 100 m and 200 m from the origin at t 0. They start simultaneously

with velocities 10 ms1 and 5ms1 respectively. Calculate the time and position at which they will

overtake one another. Assume that they are moving in the same direction.

xB xA xBO xAO vB vA t

or 0 100 5t

100

t 20s

5

x 100 10 20 100 200 300m

Ans: 300 m

RFT Motion in a Straight Line – 2.09

9. The motion of a particle along X-axis is given by the equation x 20 4t 2 where x is in meters and t in

seconds. Find (i) the displacement of the particle in time interval t1 2s and t2 5s (ii) the average

velocity in the same time interval (iii) the instantaneous velocity at t 2s.

Sol: x 20 4t 2

2

2

x2 x1 120 36 84m

x x 84 84

(ii) Average velocity 2 1 28ms1

t2 t1 5 2 3

x 20 4t 2

Instantaneous velocity is given by;

v

dx d

dt dt

20 4t 2 8t

At t 2s; v 8 2 16 ms1

10. A jet aero plane travelling at the speed of 500 km h 1 ejects its products of combustion at the speed of

1500 km h 1 relative to jet plane. What is the speed of the latter w.r.t an observer on the ground?

Sol: Considering the positive direction of x axis to be the direction in which the jet plane moves, we

have,

Ans: 1000 km h 1

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