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AC Dri ves Basics INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 1
AC Dri ves Basics
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 1
   

Course c ontent

   

Topics covered in this section -

 

AC Drive (Variable Frequency Drive) subsystems

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 2

Rectifier, Inverter, Motor, Control Interface, Cable Softw are tools, Efficiency, Applications of AC Drives(VFD)

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 2 Rectifier, Inverter, Motor, Control Interface, Cable Softw are tools, Efficiency, Applications of
   

Variable Freque nc y Drive ( VFD ):

   

An adjustable frequency AC drive converts an input line constant voltage and frequency to an adjustable voltage and frequency output .

 

Normally speed and current control are provided.

More sophisticated drives also provide torque control.

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 3

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 3
Main c omponent s of AC Drive : Eq u ip m e n t Wa
Main c omponent s of AC Drive :
Eq u ip m e n t
Wa ve f o rm
Op e ra t io n
Lin e
Lin e vo lt a g e
Lin e S u p p ly
Un it
Re c t if ic
a t io n
DC
b u s ,
c a p a c it o r
a n d c h o ke
S m o o t hin g
In ve rt e r
Un it
In ve rs io n
Mo t o r
Mo t o r
M
3
Functional principle of the drive system
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 4
Out put waveform of AC Drive INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 5
Out put waveform of AC Drive
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 5
   

Variable Frequ enc y Drive ( VFD )Pa nel:

 
   

FREQ. CONVERTER

M

ODULE O/P CONTACTOR

I/P SWITCH & FUSE(OPTIO NAL)

SEMICON FUSE dU/dT FILTER
SEMICON
FUSE
dU/dT
FILTER
FREQ. CONVERTER M ODULE O/P CONTACTOR I/P SWITCH & FUSE(OPTIO NAL) SEMICON FUSE dU/dT FILTER 3
FREQ. CONVERTER M ODULE O/P CONTACTOR I/P SWITCH & FUSE(OPTIO NAL) SEMICON FUSE dU/dT FILTER 3
FREQ. CONVERTER M ODULE O/P CONTACTOR I/P SWITCH & FUSE(OPTIO NAL) SEMICON FUSE dU/dT FILTER 3

3 PHASE

SC IM

3 PHASE

SUPPLY

I/P CONTACTOR

(OPTIONAL)

(OPTIONAL)

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 6

Plus: CONTROL TRAFO, CONTROL FUSES, METERS, PUSH BUTTONS, INDICATIONS, CABLES,AUX. CONTACTORS ETC.

DOL BYPASS CONTACTOR (OPTIONAL)

 
Variable Frequ enc y Drive ( VFD )Pa nel: FREQ. CONVERTER M ODULE O/P CONTACTOR I/P
   

AC Drive Technolog y

   

AC Dr ive Types

 

Current Source Invertors (CSI)

Constant current principle

Large inductor in DC link

T ypes Six Step

Voltage Source Invertors (VSI)

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 7

Constant voltage principle Large capacitor in DC link T ypes Six Step (Variable Voltage) Pulse Width Modulated (PWM)

Our Focus
Our Focus
AC Drive Technolog y AC Dr ive Types Current Source Invertors (CSI) Constant current principle Large
   

AC Drive Control principle s

   

AC Dr ive Control Principles

 

Scalar (simple constant volts per hertz i.e. V / f )

Vector (field oriented) Sensorless Vector Direct Torque Control (ABB exclusive)

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 8

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 8
AC Drives Control principles Flux vector control Flux vector control can calculate torque control only at
AC Drives Control principles
Flux vector control
Flux vector control can calculate torque
control only at 1-3 ms intervals.
A modulator is needed to calculate
switching times
Control response is around 10 ms
Direct Torque Control DTC
DTC can calculate torque control at 0.025
ms intervals
Each switching is directly activated by
torque control
Control response is around 1 ms
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 9
   

AC Drives

   

AC Dr ive Capabilities:

 

Controllable Speed Controllable Acceleration / Deceleration Electronic Reversing

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 10

Current Limiting Torque Limiting Intelligent Process Interfacing Integral Process Control Possible Multiple Motors Possible Bypass Possible Programmable Settings

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 10 Current Limiting Torque Limiting Intelligent Process Interfacing Integral Process Control Possible Multiple
   

AC Drives

   

AC Dr ive Performance Advantages:

 

Accurate Speed Regulation Dynamic Speed Response

High Process Efficiency High Input Power Factor Low Operating Cost

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 11

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 11
Application T ype s Constant Torque Applications Constant Torque (CT) Constant Power (CP) Torque 100 %
Application T ype s
Constant Torque Applications
Constant
Torque (CT)
Constant Power (CP)
Torque
100
%
Torque
HP
Torque
& HP
50
50
100
150
(Base)
% Speed
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 12
 

Const ant torque applications

 
   

Example: Positive Displacement Pumps,Conveyors,Mixers, Extruders, Cranes,etc.

   
 

Features

 

High starting torque

Intermitent overloads Typical kW Range - 0.12 to 2800 Typical Speed Range - 10 to 100%

 

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 13

Speed Controlled with Coast to Stop/ Regeneration /braking Chopper

 

Typical Speed Regulation is 1 to 5% Acceleration Time From 2 to 90 Seconds Breakaway Torque From 150% to 225%

Typical Speed Regulation is 1 to 5% Acceleration Time From 2 to 90 Seconds Breakaway
Application T ype s Constant Power (CP) HP 100 % Torque & HP HP 50 Torque
Application T ype s
Constant Power (CP)
HP
100
%
Torque
& HP
HP
50
Torque
100
150
200
(Base)
% Speed
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 14
 

Application T ype s

 
 

Example: Winders (Center Driven)

   

Speed is Slow

Speed is Slow Low Speed is High
Speed is Slow Low Speed is High

Low

Speed is High

Speed is Slow Low Speed is High

Speed is Low

Speed is Low High Torque Required

High Torque Required

Torque Required

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 15

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 15
Application T ype s Variable Torque (VT) 100 % Torque (square) Torque, Flow , & HP
Application T ype s
Variable Torque (VT)
100
%
Torque (square)
Torque,
Flow ,
& HP
50
Flow
HP (cube)
50
100
(Base)
% Speed
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 16
   

Application T ype s

   

Example: Centrifugal Fan

 

Move Air or Other Gaseous Materials Typical kW Range >2.2 to 3000kW Speed Range From 25 to 100%

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 17

Coast To Stop Speed Controlled With 3 to 5% Speed Regulation Acceleration From 2 to 90 Seconds StartingTorque From 50 to 100% No overload requriments

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 17 Coast To Stop Speed Controlled With 3 to 5% Speed Regulation Acceleration
   

Application T ype s

   

Example: Centrifugal Pump

 

Move Air or Other Gaseous Materials Typical kW Range >2.2 to 3000kW Speed Range From 25 to 100%

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 18

Coast To Stop Speed Controlled With 3 to 5% Speed Regulation Acceleration From 2 to 90 Seconds StartingTorque From 50 to 100% No overload requriments

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 18 Coast To Stop Speed Controlled With 3 to 5% Speed Regulation Acceleration
Application T ype s Fan Operation 125 Operating Point 100 % Pressure Fan 50 Cur ve
Application T ype s
Fan Operation
125
Operating
Point
100
%
Pressure
Fan
50
Cur ve
S ys
tem
Cur
ve
50
100
150
% Flow
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 19
 

Application T ype s

 
   

Volume Control Methods : Outlet Dampers : Inlet Guide Vanes : Variable Frequency Drives

   

Power Requirements For All Types

 

%

%
 

Input

Pow er

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 20

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 20
Energ y s aving - Example T hrottling by a valve By-passing by a valve On-off
Energ y s aving - Example
T hrottling by a valve
By-passing by a valve
On-off control of the pump
Variable speed control of the pump
Parallel running of Pumps
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 21
Relative Power c onsumpt ion • Softw are tools - FanSave, PumpSave INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 22
Relative Power c onsumpt ion
• Softw are tools - FanSave, PumpSave
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 22
   

Contr ol Acc urac y & Re gulation

 
   

Speed Regulation

 

Simple Scalar

1% to 3%

Scalar with Slip Compensation

0.5% to 1%

Vector with Encoder

0.01%

Direct Torque Control (DTC)

0.1% to 0.5%

DTC with Encoder

0.01%

Speed Response

Simple Scalar

3 %s

Scalar with Slip Compensation

3 %s

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 23

Vector with Encoder

0.3 %s

0.4 %s

Direct Torque Control (DTC) DTC with Encoder

0.1 %s

Direct Torque Control (DTC) DTC with Encoder — 0.1 %s
   

Application Iss ue s

   

Other

 

Drive Efficiency

98%

Power Factor

0.97 (displacement)

Current Harmonics

35% to 45% THD (network dependent)

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 24

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 24
Rectifier Configur ations 6-pulse Rectifier 12-pulse Rectifier 12-pulse Rectifier 24-pulse Rectifier 3 ~ 3~ 3~ 3~
Rectifier Configur ations
6-pulse Rectifier
12-pulse Rectifier
12-pulse Rectifier
24-pulse Rectifier
3 ~
3~
3~
3~
Current Wa veforms
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 25

IGBT Re ctifier

Best is to use an IGBT rectifier.

IGBT can be switched off if the current starts to grow. It is full regenerative It can boost the motor voltage when line voltage is lo w. T he power fact or is 1 Current harmonics are lo wer due to higher switching frequency.

U+
U+
U
U
W
W
U-
U-
U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V
U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V
U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V
U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V
U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V
U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V
U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V

U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26

U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V
U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V
U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V
U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V
U+ U W U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 26 V
V
V
IGBT Re ctifier Best is to use an IGBT rectifier. IGBT can be switched off if
IGBT Re ctifier Best is to use an IGBT rectifier. IGBT can be switched off if
IGBT Re ctifier Best is to use an IGBT rectifier. IGBT can be switched off if

Th yrist or bridge in mot oring

T hyristors are controlled to diode mode( Fully fired ) so the bridge al ways selects the highest of AC voltages (U,V,W) for U+

We study how U+ (DC) voltage is developed.

Anywa y line inductance L slows do wn the transfer of current from phase to phase. T his transfer is called commutation.

U V W U+ U- L INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 27 E
U
V
W
U+
U-
L
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 27
E
Th yrist or bridge in mot oring T hyristors are controlled to diode mode( Fully fired
Th yrist or bridge in mot oring T hyristors are controlled to diode mode( Fully fired
Th yrist or bridge in mot oring T hyristors are controlled to diode mode( Fully fired

Th yrist or bridge in ge nera ting

In generating mode the DC bridge is supporting the current so if the AC voltage disappears, the current will grow high.

A Thyristor cannot be turned of by control, so it will continue conducting and the current will increase until the the fuses interrupt the current.

U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+
U+
U-
U-
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W
U+ U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28 U V W

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 28

U

V

W

Th yrist or bridge in ge nera ting In generating mode the DC bridge is supporting
Th yrist or bridge in ge nera ting In generating mode the DC bridge is supporting
Th yrist or bridge in ge nera ting In generating mode the DC bridge is supporting

Improving commutation

T he infeed transformer can be selected to give e.g. 20 % higher voltage.

Risk for problems can be reduced by higher AC voltage. This gives more margin for commutation. The alternatives:

T here can be an autotransformer in the converter boosting the generating bridge voltage by 20 %

M

U-

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 29

M U- INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 29 U V W U+ U - U+
U V W
U
V
W
U+ U - U+
U+
U
-
U+
Improving commutation T he infeed transformer can be selected to give e.g. 20 % higher voltage.
Improving commutation T he infeed transformer can be selected to give e.g. 20 % higher voltage.
Improving commutation T he infeed transformer can be selected to give e.g. 20 % higher voltage.
Braking to resistor motor as line rectifier motor converter generator M Net 3 mechanical electrical CH
Braking to resistor
motor as
line rectifier
motor converter
generator
M
Net
3
mechanical
electrical
CH
braking chopper
energy
energy
braking resistor
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 30

ACS 600 Power Plates

Basic construction
Basic construction
ACS 600 Power Plates Basic construction P3 P2 P1 INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 31
P3 P2 P1 INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 31
P3
P2
P1
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 31
ACS 600 Power Plates Basic construction P3 P2 P1 INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 31
ACS 600 Power Plates Basic construction P3 P2 P1 INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 31
ACS 600 Power Plates Basic construction P3 P2 P1 INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 31

ACS 600 Power Plates

P1 P2 P3 Power Plat e connections, single inverters P1 P2 P3 R4 - R7 P1
P1 P2 P3
Power Plat e connections, single inverters
P1
P2 P3
R4 - R7
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
R8, R9
ACS 600 Power Plates P1 P2 P3 Power Plat e connections, single inverters P1 P2 P3
ACS 600 Power Plates P1 P2 P3 Power Plat e connections, single inverters P1 P2 P3
V W U U U V V W W INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 32 U V W
V W
U
U
U
V
V
W
W
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 32
U
V
W
R10i, R11i
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
R12i
Phase module
Phase module
Phase module
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
ACS 600 Power Plates P1 P2 P3 Power Plat e connections, single inverters P1 P2 P3
ACS 600 Power Plates P1 P2 P3 Power Plat e connections, single inverters P1 P2 P3
ACS 600 Power Plates P1 P2 P3 Power Plat e connections, single inverters P1 P2 P3

ACS 600 Power Plates

P1 P2 P3 Power Plate connections, parallel inverters P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2
P1 P2 P3
Power Plate connections, parallel inverters
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
R8, R9
P1 P2 P3
P1 P2 P3
R8, R9
2 x R8,R9
ACS 600 Power Plates P1 P2 P3 Power Plate connections, parallel inverters P1 P2 P3 P1
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 33 U U V W V W 3P1P2P3P1P2P3 P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3 P1P2P3 3P1P2P3 P1P2P P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 33

U

U

V

W

V

W

3P1P2P3P1P2P3 P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3 P1P2P3 3P1P2P3 P1P2P P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3 P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3 P1P2P3 P1P2P3P1P2P3 P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3 P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3 P1P2P3PP1 2P3P1P2P3 4 x R12i
3P1P2P3P1P2P3
P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3
P1P2P3
3P1P2P3
P1P2P
P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3
P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3
P1P2P3
P1P2P3P1P2P3
P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3
P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3
P1P2P3PP1 2P3P1P2P3
4 x R12i
P1P2P
P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3
3PP1 2P3P1P2P3
P1P2P
3P1P2P3P1P2P3
P1P2P
R12i
R12i
R12i
R12i
ACS 600 Power Plates P1 P2 P3 Power Plate connections, parallel inverters P1 P2 P3 P1
ACS 600 Power Plates P1 P2 P3 Power Plate connections, parallel inverters P1 P2 P3 P1
ACS 600 Power Plates P1 P2 P3 Power Plate connections, parallel inverters P1 P2 P3 P1
Contr ol Cards - Example INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 34
Contr ol Cards - Example
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 34
Contr ol Cards - Example INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 35
Contr ol Cards - Example
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 35
Multi Drive DSU = Diode Supply Unit ISU = IGBT Supply Unit ACU = Control Unit
Multi Drive
DSU = Diode Supply Unit
ISU = IGBT Supply Unit
ACU = Control Unit
TSU = Thyristor Supply U nit
DBU = D ynamic Braking Unit
ICU = Main Sw itch
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 36
Efficienc y INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 37
Efficienc y
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 37
 

AC mot or general bene fits

 
   

Robust and simple construction =>High reliability Closed structure =>Protected against harsh environment

Robust and simple construction =>High reliability Closed structure =>Protected against harsh environment
 

=>Saves cost of additional clean air cooling system No brushes or sliprings in the motor

=>Minimal maintenance High efficiency

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 38

=>Substantial energy savings

 
AC mot or general bene fits Robust and simple construction =>High reliability Closed structure =>Protected against
Motor Torque Spe ed curve Tm a x 2 no mina l t o rque 1
Motor Torque Spe ed curve
Tm a x
2
no mina l t o rque
1
m o t o r m o de
0
1
2
S PEED
g e
ne ra t o r m o de
Typical torque/speed cur ve of a cage induction motor
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 39
TORQUE
Motor Torque Spe ed curve with Freq.. Conv. T n Torque cur ves of a cage
Motor Torque Spe ed curve with
Freq..
Conv.
T
n
Torque cur ves of a cage induction motor fed by
frequency con verter
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 40
Motor eff icienc y - T ypic al (DOL) INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 41
Motor eff icienc y - T ypic al (DOL)
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 41
Motor losses INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 42
Motor losses
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 42
Line harmonics INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 43
Line harmonics
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 43
Ca bling INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 44
Ca bling
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 44
Rec ommende d ca ble t ype s INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 45
Rec ommende d ca ble t ype s
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 45
   

Fieldbus

 

Definition of a Fieldbus

 
 

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 46

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 46
Fieldbus Fieldbus System Ethernet, TCP/IP Backbone Operation HMI HMI level Sys tem Bus Control level PROFIBUS-DP
Fieldbus
Fieldbus System
Ethernet, TCP/IP Backbone
Operation
HMI
HMI
level
Sys tem Bus
Control
level
PROFIBUS-DP
PROFI BUS-PA
Device
level
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 47
 

Software tools

 
 

Supporting the lifecycle of drives

   
 

DriveSize - Advanced dimensioning tool for drives DriveBuilder - Configuration tool producing cabinet dimensions and

DriveSize - Advanced dimensioning tool for drives DriveBuilder - Configuration tool producing cabinet dimensions and

INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 48

line dra wings DriveWindo w - Comprehensive set of features for commissioning, maintenance and training DriveLink - Communication interface bet ween Windo ws-based monitoring soft wares and ABB drives DriveSupport - Clear, concise service tool for ABB drives

line dra wings DriveWindo w - Comprehensive set of features for commissioning, maintenance and training DriveLink
 
Software tools Supporting the lifecycle of drives DriveSize - Advanced dimensioning tool for drives DriveBuilder -
AC drives a re the mos t eco-e fficient products w e know of During the
AC drives a re the mos t eco-e fficient products w e know of
During the past ten years, ABB AC Drives have been reducing
energy consumption in pumps and fans by about 46 T Wh ever y year.
T his corresponds to 38 million tons less CO 2 emissions per year.
1
9 9 9
1
9 9 8
1
9 9 7
1
9 9 6
1
9 9 5
1
9 9 4
1
9 9 3
1
9 9 2
1
9 9 1
1
9 9 0
0
1 0 0 0
2 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
4 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
6 0 0 0
7 0 0 0
8 0 0 0
G W h
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 49
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 50
INABB/ATDPL1/ac drive basics 50