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PROBLEM 1.

8
KNOWN: Net power output, average compressor and turbine temperatures, shaft dimensions and
thermal conductivity.
FIND: (a) Comparison of the conduction rate through the shaft to the predicted net power output of
the device, (b) Plot of the ratio of the shaft conduction heat rate to the anticipated net power output of
the device over the range 0.005 m ≤ L ≤ 1 m and feasibility of a L = 0.005 m device.
SCHEMATIC:
Combustion
Compressor chamber Turbine
d = 70 mm

Tc = 400°C
Th = 1000°C
Shaft P = 5 MW
k = 40 W/m·K

L = 1m

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Constant properties, (3) Net power output is
proportional to the volume of the gas turbine.
PROPERTIES: Shaft (given): k = 40 W/m⋅K.
ANALYSIS: (a) The conduction through the shaft may be evaluated using Fourier’s law, yielding

q = q " Ac =
L
(
k (Th − Tc )
πd2 /4 = )
40W/m ⋅ K(1000 − 400)°C
1m
(
π (70 × 10−3 m)2 / 4 = 92.4W )
The ratio of the conduction heat rate to the net power output is

q 92.4W
r= = = 18.5 × 10−6 <
P 5 × 10 W
6

(b) The volume of the turbine is proportional to L3. Designating La = 1 m, da = 70 mm and Pa as the
shaft length, shaft diameter, and net power output, respectively, in part (a),

d = da × (L/La); P = Pa × (L/La)3

and the ratio of the conduction heat rate to the net power output is

r=
q " Ac
=
k (Th − Tc )
L
(
πd2 /4
=
)
k (Th − Tc )
L
(
π ( d a L / La ) / 4
2

=
)
k (Th − Tc )π 2
4
d a La / Pa
P P Pa ( L / La )3 L2
40W/m ⋅ K(1000 − 400)°Cπ
(70 × 10−3 m)2 × 1m / 5 × 106 W
4 18.5 × 10−6 m2
= =
L2 L2

Continued…
PROBLEM 1.8 (Cont.)

The ratio of the shaft conduction to net power is shown below. At L = 0.005 m = 5 mm, the shaft
conduction to net power output ratio is 0.74. The concept of the very small turbine is not feasible since
it will be unlikely that the large temperature difference between the compressor and turbine can be
maintained. <

Ratio of shaft conduction to net power

0.1

0.01
r

0.001

0.0001
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

L (m)

COMMENTS: (1) The thermodynamics analysis does not account for heat transfer effects and is
therefore meaningful only when heat transfer can be safely ignored, as is the case for the shaft in part
(a). (2) Successful miniaturization of thermal devices is often hindered by heat transfer effects that
must be overcome with innovative design.