DESIGN AND COLOUR
The elements and principles of design are the building blocks used to create a work of art. The elements of design can be thought of as the things that make up a painting, drawing, design etc. Good or bad - all paintings will contain most of if not all, the seven elements of design. The Principles of design can be thought of as what we do to the elements of design. How we apply the Principles of design determines how successful we are in creating a work of art.
THE ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
LINE Line can be considered in two ways. The linear marks made with a pen or brush or the edge created when two shapes meet. SHAPE A shape is a self contained defined area of geometric or organic form. A positive shape in a painting automatically creates a negative shape. DIRECTION All lines have direction - Horizontal, Vertical or Oblique. Horizontal suggests calmness, stability and tranquillity. Vertical gives a feeling of balance, formality and alertness. Oblique suggests movement and action see notes on direction SIZE Size is simply the relationship of the area occupied by one shape to that of another. TEXTURE Texture is the surface quality of a shape - rough, smooth, soft hard glossy etc. Texture can be physical (tactile) or visual. see notes on texture COLOUR Also called Hue see notes on colour VALUE Value is the lightness or darkness of a colour. Value is also called Tone see notes on tonal contrast
THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
BALANCE Balance in design is similar to balance in physics
A large shape close to the center can be balanced by a small shape close to the edge. A large light toned shape will be balanced by a small dark toned shape (the darker the shape the heavier it appears to be) GRADATION Gradation of size and direction produce linear perspective. Gradation of of colour from warm to cool and tone from dark to light produce aerial perspective. Gradation can add interest and movement to a shape. A gradation from dark to light will cause the eye to move along a shape.
REPETITION Repetition with variation is interesting, without variation repetition can become monotonous.
The five squares above are all the same. They can be taken in and understood with a single glance.
When variation is introduced, the five squares, although similar, are much more interesting to look at. They can no longer be absorbed properly with a single glance. The individual character of each square needs to be considered. If you wish to create interest, any repeating element should include a degree of variation. CONTRAST Contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing elements eg. opposite colours on the colour wheel red / green, blue / orange etc. Contrast in tone or value - light / dark. Contrast in direction horizontal / vertical. The major contrast in a painting should be located at the center of interest. Too much contrast scattered throughout a painting can destroy unity and make a work difficult to look at. Unless a feeling of chaos and confusion are what you are seeking, it is a good idea to carefully consider where to place your areas of maximum contrast. HARMONY Harmony in painting is the visually satisfying effect of combining similar, related elements. eg.adjacent colours on the colour wheel, similar shapes etc. DOMINANCE Dominance gives a painting interest, counteracting confusion and monotony. Dominance can be applied to one or more of the elements to give emphasis
UNITY Relating the design elements to the the idea being expressed in a painting reinforces the principal of unity.eg. a painting with an active aggressive subject would work better with a dominant
try this exercise © JOHN LOVETT 1999
Elements of design
Design elements are the basic units of a visual image.oblique direction. angular lines etc. rough texture. Unity in a painting also refers to the visual linking of various elements of the work. These elements include:
. whereas a quiet passive subject would benefit from horizontal lines. course.
After studying these notes on the elements and principals of design. soft texture and less tonal contrast.
and direction. style. and height). These can be used to create color harmony. dash. Monochromatic colors are tints and shades of one color. Balance also refers to a sense that dominant focal points don't give a feeling of being pulled too much to any specific part of the artwork. width. Shape in interior design depends on the function of the object like a kitchen cabinet door. greens. color. secondary colors. between or within components of a piece. and dotted lines. Natural shapes forming patterns on wood or stone may help increase visual appeal in interior design. They can be geometric or organic. such as by a pencil or brush. Cool colors are group of colors that consist of purples. and by color. there are two types of texture: tactile and implied. Color and particularly contrasting color is also used to draw the attention to a particular part of the image. such as a floor. horizontal. There are curve. vertical. Shapes can also show perspective by overlapping. puppy fur. or because of differences of value. wavy. thickness. There are two type of space: positive and negative space. yellows. Warm colors are a group of colors that consist of reds. zigzag. and blues. Every line has length. Positive space refers to the space of a shape representing the subject matter. theme to a design like a door. Implied texture is the way the surface on an object looks like it feels. such as trees contrast with geometric such as houses.Space Space is the area provided for a particular purpose. or texture. or it may have three dimensions (length. Space refers to the distances or areas around. Tactile texture (real texture) is the way the surface of an object actual feels.
. Lines and curves are the basic building blocks of two dimensional shapes like a house's plan. parallel. The edges of shapes and forms also create lines. Space includes the background. tree bark. It may have two dimensions (length and width). Texture Texture is perceived surface quality. It can also be achieved by balancing lighter colors with darker colors. Complementary colors are colors that are opposite to each other on the color wheel. or in colored light sources. diagonal. Red colors seem to come forward while blue seems to recede into the distance. Examples of this include sandpaper. and oranges. Line Line is the basic element that refers to the continuous movement of a point along a surface. or bold colors with light neutral colors. In a landscape. Balance Balance can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical. In art. The texture may look rough. foreground and middle ground. volume or sizes of objects. Shapes in house decor and interior design can be used to add interest. etc. Balance can be achieved by the location of objects. Color Color is seen either by the way light reflects off a surface. cotton balls. Complementary colors are used to create contrast. There are primary colors. and tertiary colors. Negative space refers to the space around and between the subject matter. Analogous colors are colors that are found side by side on the color wheel. Shape A shape is defined as an area that stands out from the space next to or around it due to a defined or implied boundary. It is the basic component of a shape drawn on paper. natural shapes.
and indeed from other art forms in general. line. Form Form is any three dimensional object.
The elements of design discuss the components of the composition itself. To achieve this. but limited. Form can be measured. Alone it can provide a powerful relation between negative and positive space. In The Principles of Design we looked at half of the basic tenets that underlie the field of design. side to side (width). Value Value is an element of art that refers to the relationship between light and dark on a surface or object and also helps with Form. The principles of design represent the basic assumptions of the world that guide the design practice. geometric (man-made) and natural (organic form). the elements of design. and from back to front (depth). There are two types of form. form (shape). but no extension. We will be focusing on the elements of point. They are the objects to be arranged. texture and color. and the elements described in this column are arranged as such. This means that we need to momentarily step away from the medium of the Web and adopt a broader perspective. and provide the designer with a basic set of tools to begin working with.
What are Elements of Design?
The elements of design are the basic components used as part of any composition. texture and color. It may be enhanced by tone. from top to bottom (height). This type of texture is used by artist when drawing or painting. we need to realize that the discipline of Web design is inherently part of a larger whole. In most situations the elements of design build upon one another. The fundamental concepts underlying Web design have been inherited from the larger field of design.fizzy. Value is also referred to as tone. It can be illustrated or constructed. The first step in this process is getting a grasp on the fundamentals. in an effort to bring together a solid foundation on which we can base all future investigations. the constituent parts used to create the composition itself. the former element helping to create the latter. but when grouped with other points the Gestalt grouping principal of closure
. Form is also defined by light and dark. Form may be created by the combining of two or more shapes.
A point is an element that has position. It gives objects depth and perception. but cannot actually be felt. It is a single mark in space with a precise. In this column we investigate the other half of the tenets. and deal with the arrangements of objects in any given composition. gritty. location. The Design in Theory and Practice column is dedicated to helping the reader gain a better understanding of Web design.
Form is the shape and structure of a dimensional element within a given composition. Form can be both two-dimensional and threedimensional and can be realistic. rectangle (square) and triangle. lines that are grouped together often create a sense of value. and dominant directional lines are often adopted to create a sense of continuance in a composition. abstract or somewhere in between.
Multiple points in space
A line is an element characterized by length and direction. In addition.
The simplest definition of shape is a closed contour. Lines create contours and form. line and shape. The terms form and shape are often used synonymously. Line or form is a natural result of multiple points in space. an element defined by its perimeter. density or texture. In reality. which is why they are both included here. The three basic shapes are: circle. form is derived from the combination of point.
. and are often used to convey a specific kind of feeling or point to an important feature in a design. Lines are also used to create perspective.tends to kick in and the brain compulsively connects the points together.
Texture often refers to the material that something is made of. and relates to the physical make-up of a given form. Terms such as red. blue-green. of a color. There are three main components of color:
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Hue: Where the color is positioned on the color wheel. Texture is both a visual and a tactile phenomenon.Contour
Texture is used to create surface appearance. The typical human eye will respond to wavelengths between 400-700 nanometers (nm). It is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see. The more gray a color has in it. or level of chroma. The visible spectrum is what we perceive as light. Value: The general lightness or darkness of a color. and many different theories on color. with red being at one end (700 nm). For now we will focus on the basics.
. There are many different kinds of color systems. how close to black or white a given color is. using a color wheel for illustration purposes. violet at the other (400 nm) and every other color in between these two. the less chroma it has. and mauve all define the hue of a given color. We will get into that kind of detail in a later column. In general. Saturation: The intensity.
Color is the response of the eye to differing wavelengths of radiation within the visible spectrum. and can be created using any of the elements previously discussed.
. When complementary colors are placed side-by-side they tend to enhance the intensity (chroma) of each other. Primary colors and secondary colors are examples of color triads. and how they can be combined to create a palette of color. blue-violet. blue-green) and yellows (yellow. Triadic: A triadic relationship is a harmony of three colors equidistant from one another on the color wheel. yellow-orange. and when they are blended together they tend to decrease the intensity of each other.Color harmonies
Color harmonies serve to describe the relationships certain colors have to one another. a subtractive color space was used for illustrative purposes.
In these examples. Analogous colors tend to be families of colors such as blues (blue. yellow-green).
Complementary: A complementary relationship is a harmony of two colors on the opposite side of the color wheel. Analogous: An analogous relationship is a harmony of colors whose hues are adjacent to one another on the color wheel.
blue o Secondary colors: Yellow. and only a brief investigation will be started here based around some common terms. Beardline: The line reached by the descenders of lowercase letters.Color spaces
Color is typically organized in a hierarchal fashion. o Primary colors: Red. There are two different kinds of color spaces:
Subtractive: A subtractive color space is the traditional color space that most people refer to when they talk about color. It is lightbased color. A color space helps to define how the colors are mixed. violet Additive: An additive color space is an electronic color space. the presence of all light. as in the mixing of color on the computer. These can include specific terms and/or techniques that are in some way based on one or more of the above ideas.
Baseline: The line on which all letters rest. based on the medium in which the colors are used. based on how colors are mixed. green. or light at full intensity.
Typography is the art of arranging typefaces. cyan
Subtractive color space
Additive color space
There are many additional concepts that are related to the elements of design. There are many facets to typography.
. line spacing. blue o Secondary colors: Orange. It is pigment-based color. In a subtractive color space. layout and design as a means of solidifying language. they add to the collection of compositional tools available for use by the designer. o Primary colors: Red. The absence of any light is black. In they end. In an additive color space. is white. the pigments manipulate the wavelengths that our eyes see. The absence of any pigment produces white. green. light is added to the screen in differing amounts to produce color. magenta. yellow. as in the mixing of paint. selecting style. and all pigments blended together produces black.
Compositional: Compositional movement is the movement of the viewer’s eye through a given composition. Serif: A stroke added to either the beginning or end of one of the main strokes of a letter. or patterns of deviation. Midline: The top of lowercase letters such as a. and is often described in one of two ways:
Literal: Literal movement is physical movement. X-height: The distance between the baseline and midline of an alphabet. e and the top of the torso of lowercase letters such as b. d. Branching: A branching pattern is the repetition of forking lines. Static movement jumps between isolated parts of a
. Counter: The white space enclosed by a letterform. Examples of literal movement include: Products such as the automobile.
Pattern is the repetition of shape or form. Stem: The main stroke of a letter that is generally straight and not part of a bowl. There are many different kinds of patterns:
Flowing: A flowing pattern is based on the repetition of an undulating line. Compositional movement can be either static or dynamic. Extenders: Extenders are the parts of letters that extend either below the baseline (descenders) or above the midline (ascenders). It can also reflect the underlying structure of a design by organizing the surfaces or objects in the composition. Topline: The line reached by the ascenders of lowercase letters. or a pattern that winds in and around itself. The x-height is usually the height of the unextended lowercase letters. motion pictures and dance. whether completely or partially.• • • • • • • • •
Bowl: The round or elliptical parts of a letterform. and reflects a natural meandering through a composition. Spiraling: A circular pattern. c.
Movement can be defined as motion of objects in space over time. and in many other places in the natural world. Cap line: The line reached by the top of uppercase letters. These kinds of patterns can be found in almost all plants.
We have thoroughly explored the fundamental concepts of the field of design. the outlines of objects. graphics compression and color mixing in additive spaces. Horizontal lines are calm and quiet. We will look at medium-specific concepts. Artists use lines to create edges. A line is created by the movement of the artist's pen. Line Direction The direction of a line can convey mood. In order to explore the fundamentals of design.composition. In the next column we will investigate the constraints of designing for the Web that can effect how we make use of the principles and elements of design.
A line is a form with width and length. but no depth. Dynamic movement flows smoothly from one part of the composition to another. and provide guidance for any composition. The elements of design discuss the components of the composition itself. we needed to step back a bit away from any one medium. The overarching axioms of the profession affect the designer universally. such as screen resolution. The principles of design give us a way of looking at the world. and provide the designer with a basic set of tools to begin working with. Now it is time to focus in on the Web.
called areas of value.
Line as Value Lines or crosshatching can also be used to create areas of grey inside a drawing. can give a more three-dimensional feeling to an object.vertical lines suggest more of a potential for movement. These areas of darker shading inside a figure.
Contour and gesture Lines used to follow the edges of forms are called contour drawings
Drawings which seem to depict more movement than actual outline are called gesture drawings.
while a sculpture has volume and mass.A shape is an enclosed object. The spaces around the shapes are the negative spaces. the shapes that the artist has placed are considered the positive shapes. Sometimes artists create pieces that have no distinction between positive and negative spaces. Positive/Negative shapes In a picture. Shapes can be created by line. It is just as important to consider the negative space in a picture as the positive shapes. Escher was a master at creating drawings where there was no distinction between positive and negative space. Volume and Mass Shape is considered to be a two-dimensional element. a painting has shapes. while three-dimensional elements have volume or mass. Therefore. Here are two examples of Escher's work which show the interplay between positive and negative space:
. or by color and value changes which define their edges. C. M.
We experience texture when we touch objects and feel their roughness. smoothness or patterns. Texture is the artist's way of mapping these tactile impressions on to the two-dimensional picture. Texture is created by varying the pattern of light and dark areas on an object.
. Notice how the areas of light and dark give the impression of depth to the image below.Texture is the surface quality of an object.
For example. grass can appear gray in the morning or evening or bright green at noon. Objects have no color of their own. A light figure on a dark background will be immediately recognized as the center of attention. similarly for a dark figure on a mostly white background. Colors appear different depending on whether you view them under incandescent. Areas of light and dark can give a three-dimensional impression. Colors also change according to their surroundings.Color Properties of Color:
• • •
• • • •
Hue Color Value Intensity
Monochromatic Analogous Complementary Triadic
Optical Color Mixing
Value refers to the relative lightness or darkness of a certain area. As you know. Value can be used for emphasis. Variations in value are used to create a focal point for the design of a picture. Gradations of value are also used to create the illusion of depth.
. You can see this by looking at the color squares below .the reddish outline box is the same color in all the examples. color can vary in differing circumstances. such as when Drawing by Marguerite Smith. only the ability to reflect a certain wavelength of light back to our eyes. florescent or natural sunlight. Saskatoon shading areas of a person's face.
Color occurs when light in different wavelengths strikes our eyes.
Computer colors are produced by Things get even dicier on computers when you go to combining the three colors of red. green and print out these colors. Mix enough colors together. such as green. green. orange. White light broken in a prism has seven hues: red.Properties of Color
Hue refers to the color itself. when using color pigments. Pretty strange. Looking at the color wheel above. things get quite messy. the three primary colors used are yellow. Printing uses the CYMK
. These three colors are blended together to produce other colors.
When it comes to using color in art. yellow. indigo and violet. and you get black. blue. and black light occurs when no light is reflected to your eye. White light occurs when all the wavelengths are reflected back to your eye. called secondary colors. blue and red. orange and purple. This is the physics of light. Each different hue is a different reflected wavelength of light.
Adding white to a hue produces a highvalue color. you can get yellow by combining these colors (I've never been able to figure out why. Inside the triangle.each color simultaneously intensifies the visual brightness of the other color. You can change the intensity of a color. you produce a dull tone. the color produced is called a tone. making it duller or more neutral by adding gray to the color.
Intensity. Below are some examples of how this works. Adding black to a hue produces a low-value color. you choose a hue from the outer ring. When changing colors this way. refers to the brightness of a color. A color is at full intensity when not mixed with black or white . often called a tint. You can also change the intensity of a color by adding its complement (this is the color found directly opposite on the traditional color wheel).
. you can vary the saturation of the hue (amount of color). green and blue light.
Color value refers to the lightness or darkness of the hue. but you can!)
convention which takes cyan (light blue). When you mix complementary colors together. magenta (pinky red) and black inks and tries to recreate the color that your computer created with red.blue together. the triangle. the tint or the shade.
Above: choosing a less saturated color of blue Above: choosing a pure color of blue (hue) by (tone) by moving the cursor toward the center of moving the cursor all the way to the right. This effect is called simultaneous contrast . As you can see. also called chroma or saturation. Believe it or not. yellow.a pure hue. when you put complementary colors side by side. using a program called Metacreations painter. you increase their intensity. often called a shade. However.
In the atmosphere. yellow and black are distributed in a pattern on the paper. and black or white may be added to create various shades or tints. This is the principle used when printing color in magazines.
. distant objects appear bluish and the further away an object appears. Color and Space Certain colors have an advancing or receding quality. your eye will combine the colors into a blended color. the less colorful and distinct it becomes. Warm colors such as red. you will see a specific color on the page. The hue can vary in value. View Port St.Above: adding white (tint) to the color by moving the cursor to the top part of the triangle
Above: adding black (shade) to the color by moving the cursor toward the bottom part of the triangle
Optical Color Mixing When small dots of color are placed adjacent to each other. Paul Signac used a technique called pointillism that involved creating art using the combination of dots to form images. Artists use this to give an illusion of depth. based on how our eye has to adjust to see them. orange or yellow seem to come forward while cool colors such as blue and green seem to recede slightly. Dots of cyan. and depending on the quantity of a certain dot. Color Schemes
This color scheme involves the use of only one hue. by using more neutral and grayish colors in the background. magenta. Tropez.
Color Picker 2. dynamic pattern. Complementary colors produce a very exciting. The primary colors of yellow. The hues may vary in value.This color scheme involves the use of colors that are located adjacent on the color wheel. there are some color schemes considered dissonant.
This color scheme involves the use of colors that are located opposite on the color wheel such as red and green. complementary or triadic color schemes are considered to be harmonious. with the colors varying only slightly from each other.
Check out Color Picker web software. Hint: read the instructions first.
This color scheme involves the use of colors that are equally spaced on the color wheel. yellow and purple.we say they clash. or orange and blue. Some sources for information about color:
Illusion of Space and Depth
. This application will allow you to choose a color and then display its complementary or triadic match.
Color Discord While monochromatic. red and green could be used together in a color scheme to produce a lively result. Colors that are widely separated on the color wheel (but not complementary or triadic) are considered to be discordant. Discordant colors can be eye-catching and are often used for attention-getting devices in advertising. Discordant colors are visually disturbing . The color scheme for this site is analogous. then click on the link which says "Open Color Picker 2". analogous.
We live in a three-dimensional world of depth. we perceive objects that are higher on the page and smaller as being further away than objects which are in the forefront of a picture. some further away. the easiest way to show depth is to vary the size of objects. The artist can also show the illusion of depth by using the following means:
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Size & Vertical Location Overlapping Detail (Aerial or Atmospheric Perspective) Linear Perspective
Size & Vertical Location
Since objects in our environment look smaller when they are farther away. We do not see them as incomplete forms. As well. some things seem closer.
When objects are partially obscured by other objects in front of them. When we look around us.
. we perceive them as further back than the covering objects. with closer objects being larger and more distant objects being smaller. just further back.
Here is a link to Leonardo da Vinci's use of aerial perspective: Investigating aerial perspective
. The foreground objects will be clear with sharper contrast.Detail (Aerial or Atmospheric Perspective)
Atmospheric perspective uses color and value contrasts to show depth.they may fade into the background or become indistinct dark areas. Objects which are further away generally have less distinct contrast .
Any walls. ceilings.Linear Perspective (Converging Lines)
Linear perspective is based on the idea that all lines will converge on a common point on the horizon called the vanishing point. Often. To learn the mechanics of setting up a picture using linear or multipoint perspective check out this site: Art Studio Chalkboard Here is a web page which investigates linear perspective in Leonardo da Vinci's work:
. Two-point perspective. floors or other objects with lines will appear to come together at the horizon line. as opposed to a front view. These lines converging lead our eyes towards that point. which occurs when you display a building from a corner view. You have observed linear perspective when you notice that the lines on the highway appear to meet at a point in the distance. You can see in the drawing above how all the lines in the drawing seem to lead your eye toward the church in the center back of the drawing. the most important object or person in the picture will be located at that point. is often used by architects to show a more three-dimensional view of a building. Artists use linear perspective to create a focal point for a picture. such as two-point or multipoint perspective are also used. Other types of perspective.
or it can communicate emotion through its character and direction
Line is not necessarily an artificial creation of the artist or designer. and the variations in its direction and weight. it exists in nature as a structural feature such as branches. such as striping on a tiger or a seashell. even when the lines are limited in extent. which convey a great deal of information about the figure with the most limited line.The Elements: Line
A line is a mark made by a moving point and having psychological impact according to its direction. It is an enormously useful and versatile graphic device that is made to function in both visual and verbal ways. It can act as as a symbolic language. or as surface design. weight.
It can function independently to suggest forms that can be recognized. This is common in engravings and pen and ink drawings such as the one on the right
Lines can be combined with other lines to create textures and patterns. This can be seen in drawings such as the Saul Steinberg illustration shown here. or in Alexander Calder's minimal wire sculptures.
Calligraphic imagery is often used by modern artists simply because of the mysterious messages implied in the "code" of unknown language. we understand it to be a device by which we can understand the relationship between places.(click and enlarge to see linear detail)." or the "lines" of a car or a fashion silhouette. even though we know there is no literal line present. such as a subway map. calligraphy is recognizable as a representation of words. or a stylized diagram. line is not always explicit. how to get from "here" to "there.
However. or the entire world. Gradually we learn that objects do not have such outlines and we let color changes define the edges of shapes. The use of line in combination results in the development of form and value. It can exist by implication. even when we do not know the language. sky. Thus we can speak of a horizon "line. creating implicit lines. In either case."
. As young children we usually begin drawing landscapes by making outlines for earth. It may be a carefully measured representation. For additional visual examples of
Expressive Qualities of Line
Certain arrangements of line are commonly understood to carry certain kinds of information. which are other elements of design. The place may be a local neighborhood. as the edge of forms.
Line in the form of maps is readily recognized as a symbolic representation of a place. and other objects.
Graphs are another readily recognizable linear device. The variations of meaning generally relate to our bodily experience of line and direction. Therefore compositions in which horizontal lines dominate tend to be quiet and restful in feeling.
Diagonal lines suggest a feeling of movement or direction. toward the sky.
Horizontal line suggests a feeling of rest or repose. they are either about to fall. One of the hallmarks of Frank Lloyd Wright's architectural style is its use of strong horizontal elements which stress the relationship of the structure to the land. They often dominate public architecture. From the time we first meet them in basic algebra. from cathedrals to corporate headquarters. Objects parallel to the earth are at rest in relation to gravity.Floor plans are a specialized kind of map. This linear language can be understood even when the building is as unusual as this one. to the last time we picked up a copy of USA Today.
Vertical lines communicate a feeling of loftiness and spirituality. as is certainly the case for this group of dancers.
Line also communicates emotion and states of mind through its character and direction. which was to be constructed of a sprayed foam material in a decidedly unconventional form. being neither vertical nor horizontal. Extended perpendicular lines suggest an overpowering grandeur. Erect lines seem to extend upwards beyond human reach. Since objects in a diagonal position are unstable in relation to gravity. we encounter and interpret graphs. beyond ordinary human measure. In
. They are widely used to communicate quantitative information and relationships in a visual way. a commonly understood device which describes a building. or are already in motion.
Rectilinear forms stay put in relation to gravity. The quality of the line is in itself a fundamental visual language.
. In the case of the man in this family group. irregular lines of a quick sketch from life. It is possible to recognize the soft. frivolous personality. or a feeling of activity.a two dimensional composition diagonal lines are also used to indicate depth. reliability and safety.
Horizontal and vertical lines in combination communicate stability and solidity. familiarity. even frenzy. The complicated curves used to form the mother in the family group shown above suggest a fussy. Even without an artist's training. however.
Curved lines do vary in meaning. The lines suggest that this was not drawn from life. This is also evident from the fact that Durer drew this rather inaccurate image in fifteenth century Europe when he could only have known of this African animal from travellers' tales. They recall the curves of the human body. This stability suggests permanence. Its use is so universal that we are all profoundly sensitive to it. relaxation. as in the violence of waves in a storm. Soft. sensual quality. acute curves. and therefore have a pleasing. but from hearsay.
On the other hand. the chaos of a tangled thread. we can extract considerable meaning from the kind of line used in a drawing. as seen in this study of a lion. the crisp. the lines seem to imply stability to the point of stodginess. and are not likely to tip over. scrupulously worked studio drawing. safety. Thus if a feeling of movement or speed is desired. turbulence. Deep. on the other hand. an illusion of perspective that pulls the viewer into the picture-creating an illusion of a space that one could move about within. suggest confusion. to an extent that cannot be claimed for any other single element. diagonal lines can be used. or the turmoil of lines suggested by the forms of a crowd. carefully placed lines of the rhinocerous are typical of a more studied. shallow curves suggest comfort.
curved. our sun) hits an object. This drawing of a nude by Matisse demonstrates his ability to create his image through a minimal number of expertly placed lines-lines that by their placement and movement on the page identify this work with this artist as surely as a signature. or zigzag. A line can be straight. For images to have a sense of balance positive and negative space can be used to counter balance each other. A line is an effective element of design because it can lead the viewer's eye. that is filled in by the mind when several points are positioned geometrically within a frame. Lines imply motion and suggest direction or orientation. triangles and hexagons all of which appear in nature in some form or another. which is due in part to light.
Shape Shapes are the result of closed lines. The direction and orientation of a line can also imply certain feelings. To create more effective photographs actively look for lines and arrange them within your viewfinder to invoke specific feelings. However shapes can be visible without lines when an artist establishes a color area or an arrangement of objects within the camera's viewfinder.
line A line represents a "path" between two points. Oblique lines imply movement. negative space is the empty space around shapes and forms. Factors that can affect our feelings towards an
.The quality of line in itself contributes to the mood of the work. Space is defined and determined by shapes and forms. vertical. scale and distance . and dark areas. diagonal. part of the object is in shadow. Some primary shapes include circles. Placing four dots on a page in the shape of a square can imply the points are linked as the mind searches for recognizable patterns. Positive space is where shapes and forms exist. horizontal. A line can also be implied.a fence or roadway converges into the distance provides the illusion that a flat two-dimensional image has three-dimensional depth. Horizontal lines imply tranquility and rest. squares. action and change. calm and sensual feelings. and for the master artist. whereas vertical lines imply power and strength.Light & Dark Form refers to the three-dimensional quality of an object. Curved lines or S shaped lines imply quiet.
Form . When light from a single direction (e. Lines that converge imply depth.g. Light and dark areas within an image provide contrast that can suggest volume. the quality of line is a fundamental expression of his/her style.
image include the direction of the light source. with different colors evoking different emotions. Value: lightness and darkness of the color . Intensity: the purity or saturation of the color Monochromatic color: use of one color where only the value of the color changes Analogous colors: colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel. from above or below. Silhouettes appear as two-dimensional shapes lacking form. Light emitted from above and to the side when applied to portraits creates what is often referred to as "Rembrandt lighting". In landscape photography oblique lighting occurs early and late in the day where it enhances the natural texture of the landscape and is often accompanied by warm or cool color casts. This form of lighting emphasizes edges and depth. red. Color affects us emotionally. yellow and green
. Light coming from behind a subject can form a silhouette resulting in object that is completely black against a lighter colored background. green and blue.g. and the gentleness or abruptness of the half tones. The absence of color often enhances our perception of form for instance in black and white photographs.
Color There has been a tremendous amount of research on how color affects human beings and some of this research suggests that men and women may respond to colors differently. e. In short color has the capacity to affect the human nervous system.the amount of white or black added.
The vocabulary of color includes: Hue: refers to the names of the primary colors.
.g.Analogous colors next to each other on the color wheel "get along" and are referred to as being harmonious. Blue-violet and yellow. represent colors positioned across from each other on the color wheel. Analogous colors are often used in visual design and have a soothing affect. Complimentary colors exhibit more contrast when positioned adjacent to each other -for example yellow appears more intense when positioned on or beside blue or violet (see picture below). Complementary colors: colors opposite to each other on the color wheel.
red and orange we associate these with blood.
Sunrise behind a popular tree at Writing-on-Stone has a warm fire like feel to it.In the photograph above .green and yellow are analogous colors that harmonize where as the violet color of the shooting stars appears more intense against a complementary colored background. Warm colors include: yellows. sun and fire.
Cool colors include: violet. but would be considered warm next to blue-violet. These contrasts are relative since yellow-green are cool next to red. orange or yellow. cool colors tend to recede into the distance whereas warm colors appear to advance (see image below). Photographers can position different colors in an image to maximize contrast between them and also to provide perspective.
. green and violet are considered cool colors.
Banff Springs Hotel with light blue filter emphasizes the coldness of winter (Monochromatic color) Colors are called warm or cool because of our association with various elements in our surroundings. Perceptually. Red. yellow and orange are considered warm colors whereas blue. blue and green because of our association with snow and ice.
Loaf Mountain .
Texture Texture refers to the surface quality or "feel" of an object .
.smooth. Texture is often emphasized in oblique lighting as it strikes the objects from one side.tactile) or implied (suggested by the way an artist has created the work of art -visual). Textures may be actual (felt with touch . soft. etc.warm glow of sunrise advances where the cool blue shadows recede. rough.