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THE FUNDAMENTALS OF I N T R O D U C T I O N Finally, we will put it all together in or deep snow.

skiing sequences that apply
CROSS COUNTRY SKI technique to terrain and music. The kick turn is used on a single track
It may take a lifetime to master cross-
TECHNIQUE BY XCZONE country skiing technique, refining trail, were there is little room to
nuances, while always returning to T H E B A S I C S manoeuver. This turn requires a little
The XCZONE Technique video more balance. Place one pole behind
certain fundamentals.
presents the fundamentals of cross the ski tip and the other behind the
country ski technique through visual FALLING 101 AND GETTING tales. Raise, turn and lower the front
cues, narration and generous tips by “Understand the UP ski. Followed by the other ski placed
elite athletes and coaches. A video is fundamental technical in parallel position with the first ski.
best used with sufficient practice and Before you go, it is best to learn how Re-plant the poles beside the feet. And
under the guidance of a qualified
concepts and
to stop. off you go.
instructor. mechanics.”
- Tom Silletta, NCCP Level 4 Cross-Country
Skiing, Level 2 Biathlon
Falling is all part of the experience. T E C H N I Q U E S
"Ski every race and every Stay relaxed when it happens. Sort
out your polls and skis so that they
workout like it is your All the answers are out there. Technique in cross-country skiing is
are perpendicular with the slop of the the efficient means by which you
last." - Erich Wilbrecht - Olympian, US hill. Slide your hips and weight over apply your effort to moving yourself
Masters Champion, Subaru Factory Team C O N T E N T S your skis in a low crouched position, forward, over the snow.
then stand up.
The aide memoire “Tao of Skiing” on The format of this video follows that
All skiing techniques share the same
CD and DVD-ROM provides an in of the XCZONE Master’s Ski Camps.
depth explanation of the principles
STAR TURN fundamentals. The differences in the
skiing techniques are primarily that
shown on this video. Let’s start at the beginning, with some
You are up now, but you do not want of variations in the timing
basics: falling down, getting up and
to go this way. relationship between the arms and
“It is easy to go out there turning around. When you are ready,
the legs. It is easy to think of
just say go.
and train day after day. The star turn is the most common techniques as different gears for
means of reorientating yourself from varied terrain and conditions.
The difficulty lies in “Learn how to ski well at a static position. Lift the tip of the ski, Let’s start in the groomed track.
making every day slow speeds.” - Tom Silletta, NCCP and step around until you are facing
count.” Level 4 Cross-Country Skiing, Level 2 Biathlon where you want to go. Keep the tail CLASSIC EXPERIENCE
-Philippe Villeneuve, xNational Team
end of the skis and a least one pole in Classic or traditional technique is
We will take you on a classic the snow, especially when you are adapted for single track trails. The skis
experience skiing in the track before turning on a hill. glide in parallel down the tracks and a
introducing ski skating; initially on special wax is used under the middle
rudimentary flats then climbing and KICK TURN cambered section of the ski to grip the
descending in the vertical realities snow when required. A different
segment of the video. Imagine that you are in thick woods glide wax on the tips and tails of the

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skis allows the skis to glide under the "Always make the most the mid-section keeping your legs body finishes its downward arc just as
weight of the skier. nearly straight. All the time respect the arms have extended. The body
of your upper body in the angle of your arms. You should starts and finishes one cycle of
"Clean and wax your skis double-poling and feel as though your lats are being movement one position to another -
stretched as you hang on the poles. as one unit. All motion originates
after every workout." - Dave skating." - Beckie Scott, Olympian, from the centre and progresses
Chamberlain, NCAA All American, Subaru World Cup Bronze Medalist
“A skier uses ski poles to outwards; from big joints to smaller
Factory Team
joints; starting with big muscles and
The components or phases within produce propulsive finishing with smaller ones. All upper
We have chosen to begin skiing with double poll are: the Planting of the
double poling. poles, the Pull, Follow-Through, glide forces when skiing body movement in skiing follow this
rule. The polling action is a pull, not
and Recovery. efficiently and not as a push.
DOUBLE POLE balance sticks.”- Tom Silletta,
Begin at the ready upright position
NCCP Level 4 Cross-Country Skiing, Level 2 To recover, you reverse the order of
Double poling is one of the with a slight lean forward from the Biathlon
the movements. First, the hips drive
fundamental upper body movements hip. Arms are shoulder width apart
forward and the body begins to
and as a technique on its own. It is and are bent 90 to120 degrees. The The abdominal muscles contract and
extend upright to make room for the
not strictly a classic technique, poles are near vertical. The hands the skier feels the power come from
hips. The arms bend back to
because it is used in all skating remain relaxed on the pole grip. the mid-section and radiate from the
approximately 90 degrees and the
techniques. Propulsion is achieved Movement is initiated from the hips larger muscles in the upper body to
elbows drive forward directly with
by applying your weight onto the with the force of the abdominals the shoulders and arms. Keeping the
little to no swing.
polls and not by straining your which bring the poles down to the hand grip relaxed will help focus the
triceps. By itself, double poling is used snow, just ahead of the ski bindings. power to come from the core. The
on flats and slight hills. Some World Your body position is far more poles take the most direct and simple DIAGONAL STRIDE
Loppet Cup races have been won important than the position of your line, along the body and for a full
polls. The arms and shoulder joints double pole will end up passing beside Diagonal stride is the only technique
using this technique exclusively.
remain locked through the first phase the knees. Drive down and back with unique to classic technique and is
of the motion. your elbows by rotating at the used on the greatest variety of single
shoulder, only when your torso has track terrain.

“Emphasize falling completed the majority of the work.

The poles go straight back, parallel to The basic mechanics at the early
forward in double poling the skis. Your back may be parallel to stages can look a lot like walking with
with and without skis the ground. Finish the movement by a glide, aided by poles. The diagonal
extending and relaxing the arms, stride technique is easy to do poorly.
on.” - Chris Waller - CANSI 3 Power efficiency, and glide come with
hands, and the fingers. The duration
of the glide and tempo may vary practice.
Apply your body weight onto the
depending on snow conditions.
poles, using first your stomach then
back muscles to drive the pulling
“Practice diagonal stride
The timing is such that the upper
motion. Rotate forward and down at

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without poles. Start by the snow so that you get sufficient perfect balance, so that technique because they are
grip to pull back with your ski and counterbalanced by their extended
walking with skis on to move your body forward of that you can move your trailing leg. A skier can use step double
get the feel. Progress to a position. You will want the snow to weight over your ski with poll as change from double poling or
remain on the ground and your body extend it into a steeper hill. Kick
glide with each stride. to glide over it.
confidence" - Gordon Jewett - 4x double pole can also substitute for
National team, 9x Canadian Junior
This develops balance Champion.
diagonal stride on many hills. It is
and weight shift.” - Chris Good grip under a properly cambered best if you have practised both
Waller - CANSI 3 ski in the kick zone is essential to The skier must commit their body diagonal stride and double poling
achieve traction. The wax's job is to weight from the pushing ski to the before trying to coordinate the
The movement involves into a push adhere to the snow for a moment in glide ski. A fully weighted kick will movements of step double poll.
from one ski, weight transfer and time, stopping long enough to use it provide the power for good weight
glide onto glide onto the other ski. as a platform to be able to transfer the transfer. The position of the centre of A quick way to learn the timing of
The motion is supported by opposite weight forward on to the other ski. gravity plays an important role. The this technique is to start with a
arm polling. This poling action is hips move forward onto the glide ski. double pole. At the end of the
similar to double poling except the The ski 's camber is compressed by As the hip aligns over the glide ski, it recovery phase, perform a kick as the
arms work individually and bending at the hip, knee and ankle, rotates towards the trajectory of the poles and arms are extended forward
alternately with the legs. and pushing off. The skier feels the glide ski. The power comes from the in preparation for the double pole
weight and compression on the heel hips and assures full weight transfer. plant. Meanwhile the other non-
and rolls to the ball of the foot during kicking leg, extends to the back in a
the kick. The maximum The now trailing leg can extend when recovery and relaxed position.
compression occurs when the ski the weight shift onto the new glide leg The legs come back together to
passes underneath your hips. By the has taken place. While one leg is prepare for the next kick, during the
time, the weight is on the ball of the double pole pull.
gliding and carrying all the body
foot, the kick is over. Pushing off the weight the other leg extends back and
toes is often too late and results in relaxes. The trailing leg recovers The kick and pole recovery occur in
backslip. forward at the moment that the front one motion.
glide leg begins to compress down
The kick and poling actions occur onto the snow and pull back. The kicking kick foot starts the pull
together. It is important to use as slightly ahead of the other foot.
The components of the diagonal much upper body as possible; do not
rely on the arms to do the work.
KICK OR STEP DOUBLE The hips should be forward to bring
stride are the Kick, the Weight shift,
the Glide and Leg Recovery. POLE the centre of gravity up and forward.
The arms travel front to back and
The kick referred to in diagonal stride return by the most direct means. The kick double poll fills in the gap Glide on the heels to mid foot.
is not a kick in the strict sense of between double poling and diagonal
stride. In step double pole a skier can
word. In skiing you want to "Weight shift is the key to CLASSIC ON VARIED
momentarily compress your ski onto extend their reach past that which
skiing well.. focus on they could get in a double poll TERRAIN TRANSITIONS

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Variations in terrain and snow more advanced skating techniques as underneath and is placed forward of or pushing back.
conditions dictate technique. Change well as being useful techniques on your centre of gravity along the
tempo and techniques to match the their own. direction of travel. The hips must be ARMS ONLY (DOUBLE
resistance you feel under your ski. engaged or pressed forward. Repeat
Diagonal stride works in the majority LEGS ONLY (FREE SKATE) the cycle maintaining a balance
of single track conditions. In fast between left and right legs. As with all
All skating techniques uses the same
conditions double pole. As the Free skating (legs-only) is used as both skiing techniques, the hips and
basic double poling action. Small
resistance increases transfer to step a drill and where conditions are too shoulders should be squared with the
concessions may have to be made to
double pole and then to diagonal fast for polls, but still not fast enough direction of travel. Avoid twisting.
accommodate a wider stance, but the
stride. As the hill gets steeper, the to go into a tuck. Motion should be linear with
skier should always strive to
compression and push phase in minimal rotational elements. The
incorporate textbook double poling
diagonal stride becomes more Propulsion in the legs comes from a motion with the legs should always
into a full skating technique.
aggressive and shortened. Emphasis decisive weight transfer on to a flat take the shortest path.
is given to higher tempo and stepping gliding ski while driving down and
up the hill. forward with the heel. Edging at the As the hill gets steeper lower your “I'm a big believer in
end of the phase aids the motion but centre of gravity to achieve greater focus on arms, as I feel
HERRINGBONE does not drive it. step length. Climbing also requires
more forward body lean, this is done they control the legs and
As the hill steepens even more, the To begin, step forward onto the centre from the hips. Maintain a consistent what they will do when
line and glide forward. Project your height over the surface (avoid
diagonal stride is widened and the it comes to tempo and
skis are edged enough to prevent back hips forward maintaining the same bobbing up and down)
slip. Keep the weight mostly on the height and keep your heel on the stride length.” - Marty Hall,
Do not persist in weighting a ski or former Head National Team Coach
heels. At a certain point there is no glide ski pressed forward of your knee
more glide left in the technique and it and centre of gravity. You may wish pushing off of if it has pass behind
your body. The three most common upper body
is all about climbing. One step at a to emphasize stepping on an outside
errors in skating are:
time. The power in herringbone edge to coax the ski flat.
comes mostly from the legs. The poles Disengage foot from snow as soon as
weight is transferred to new glide leg, 1. Recovering upright before
assist the motion. The baskets are At the moment your weight is
recover the free trailing leg forward by the arms have completed a
placed beside and behind the committed to the front glide leg, raise
the most direct route. polling action;
bindings. The tempo for herring bone your trailing ski a minimal distance
2. Wide or high elbows; and
can vary from a walk to a run. over the snow surface and recover it
The majority of the work done by the 3. Allowing the arms to work
forward directly along the centre line.
legs is done with the skis forward of independently.
During which, remember to keep the
S K A T I N G the centre of gravity.
front weighted glide ski pressing
The whole upper body has to act and
Ski Skating can be decomposed into forward heal first. Feel the
Ski skating has more in common recover together as one unit, in all
free skating (legs only) and double acceleration of the ski as the weight is
with hiking than it does with hockey skating techniques.
poling. These drills are the transferred on to the ski through the
heels. The recovered ski moved skating and you should avoid placing
fundamental building blocks for the
weight on the toes, onto an edged ski MARATHON SKATE

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Marathon skating technique, when ONE SKATE finish is just in front of muscles progressively. To catch the
used as a drill, re-enforces correct correct timing of the next cycle,
weight transfer and follow-through you. Try to keep the recover both the arms and the trailing
Let’s combine legs and arms only
with the leg push. It also introduces drills into a full ski skating technique. angle between your skis leg forward, back to centre together.
upper body double poling motion The foot of the unweighted free leg
into coordinated skating technique.
All of the principles of free skating and as narrow as possible" - should recover to a point just ahead of
double poling should be respected. Gudrun Pflueger, World Loppet Champion
and 4x World Mountain Running Champion the binding on its way to the snow.
Marathon skate remains a legitimate In one-skate the skier performs a
technique even in races when the double pole and recovery first on one The path of the glide ski should start TWO-SKATE
classic track is faster, or passing on glide leg then the other. Most alpine at the centre line and continue as
narrow skating trails. skiers already have done this close to the intended direction of Combine free skating equally with
technique to get to the lift line. travel. The glide ski should track double poling and you have two-
Marathon skate is essentially a double straight ahead, in the case of one- skate.
poling action coordinated with a One skate is great for accelerating, skating on the flats in fast conditions.
single skate push on one side. The sprinting or cruising the flats and In slower conditions or on steeper This technique is often used on flats,
glide ski remains the same and moderate uphills. The technique terrain, you may concede a wider gradual uphills and downhills. It is a
usually in the tracks requires good balance and upper stance and the skis will have to track cruising and smooth technique,
body work. more to the outside. In all cases the gliders love it.
To start, both poles and one ski hit the head, shoulders and hips should
snow simultaneously. The poles do a Propulsion comes from a decisive remain squared off with the direction You can think of it simplistically as
double poling motion, while one ski weight transfer on to a flat glide ski of travel. the upper body going down over one
presses forward at 45 degrees with assisted by the first phase of the leg and coming up over the other.
most weight committed on to the double poling motion. Here it is important to make sure the
heel. The hips project forward to hip, and centre of gravity, is over the
remain square with the primary The second propulsive phase occurs glide ski - as if it were attached to the
direction of travel. The glide ski when the hips, arms and trailing free ski so that the whole body tracks with
remains in the track. leg recover forward to centre together. the glide ski together.

The weight is transferred back to the Then we repeat the sequence on the Weight is committed forcefully onto
track gliding ski by the end of the on the other side. the new glide ski creating forward
push phase, and the ski is fully momentum that is encouraged by a
extended to the side. The poles plant simultaneously beside double poling action.
the bindings as the weighted leg
During the recovery, the poles return compresses at the hip, knee and ankle, The upper body motion within one-
just like in double poling, and recover and pushes off onto the other ski skate is the same as it is in double The initial propulsion, again, comes
just forward of the centre of gravity which is now moving forward. poling. Your weight drives the poles from a decisive weight transfer on to
ready for the next step and push. through the motion with the a flat glide ski assisted by the first
stomach, back, shoulder and arm phase of the double poling motion,
"Imagine that the the

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and a unweighted push of the free leg. is so doing identify errors, achieve assist the climb. arms are extended to the rear and the
proper timing, balance and upper body is the lowest it will be in
The second propulsive phase occurs biomechanics with legs or arms only OFF-SET the cycle. The upper body remains
when the hips, arms and trailing free before incorporating them into a full lowered until the arms, upper body
leg recover forward together. Your ski skating technique. This is the way The offset technique is your lowest and trailing leg recovers. The cycle
weight is shifted onto the free leg as it to teach yourself to ski. With time the gear in skiing, and is used on steeper will begin again when the body
continues past your centre of gravity skier actually transfers the skills from terrain or slow conditions. The comes up to do the three point plant
and forward onto the snow. a more basic technique to a more emphasis here is on climbing with again, in the first position. Movement
complex one. legs, where the upper body assists in between these positions is by the
The skier uses the pole recovery in a maintaining momentum throughout most direct and efficient path. It is
dynamic way along with a flexion of DIAGONAL-V SKATE the cycle. There is very little delay key that the upper body and arms go
the glide leg. between positions in offset. down, and recover up together.
Diagonal-V can best be described as
The upper body motion within two- herringbone with a glide. This Keep your hips pressed forward and
skate is the same as it is in double
“The timing in offset is: onto hill. Head, shoulders and hips
technique can be used as a drill to
poling. Your weight drives the poles balance left-right leg movement three point landing on should be square with the direction
through the motion with the of travel. Avoid twisting or rotation,
before fully integrating a double one, full extension on
stomach, back, shoulder and arm poling action, or when negotiating especially in the torso.
muscles progressively. steep terrain especially for the novice
two.”- Chris Waller - CANSI 3
skier. As with all techniques, the steeper the
The first position starts with a three hill the more climbing and less glide.
point plant involving both poles and Maintaining a lower centre of gravity
PROGRESSION FOR “Diagonal V Skate has the front leg. Step forward and up the will facilitate stepping up the hill.
SKATING the same timing as hill along the centre line onto a flat Naturally, you will have to concede a
ski. Use the front weighted ski as a wider position in both your arms and
A great drill to re-enforce the ski
herringbone but with platform or step. As you commit legs so as not to get entangled. But you
skating fundamentals is to use a glide” - Chris Waller - CANSI 3 weight onto the heel of the lead ski, should deviate from text book double
progression of free skating, and immediately disengage the trailing leg poling motion, only as much as is
double poling with a full skating As with herring bone, the skier steps from the snow and move it forward. strictly necessary. As the hill
technique such as: one-skate, two- up the hill onto a flat ski. Weight is It is the front leg which will pull you moderates, you should try and adopt
skate or offset. applied to the heal of the lead ski up the hill and not pushing off the a much narrower position in both
which is then used to pull the body back leg. The poles are planted at the arms and legs.
The secret is to alternate between free up the slope. The trailing leg same time, are weighted evenly, and
skating, a full skating technique, disengages from the snow and steps pull down to complete their The most common errors in offset
double poling and back to a full forward of the centre of gravity. It is extension together as in a double are:
skating technique. Do a few minutes important to maintain a forward leg poling action.
of each and repeat. and hip position to generate glide. 1. Letting the upper body and
Unlike, other skating techniques, an In the end position, the weight is arms move in opposite
These drills help to isolate basics and alternating poling action is used to supported on the opposite leg, the directions;

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2. Failure to lower centre of asymmetric techniques such as offset terrain at high speed, skiers may down and stopping, mostly in
gravity and step forward or 2-skate, to balance the work over a never complete a full cycle of a given narrower trails. For the younger
onto a heal. period of time. technique before they have to skier, we refer to it as a pizza slice..
3. Letting one arm or side change. In these cases, changes are
dominate the technique; The transition normally occurs at a made on the half or quarter periods of Here the skis adopt an open angle at
4. Over rotation; position in the technique where the cycle; in what can be referred to the tails. The tips must remain
5. Pushing off the back leg; movement starts, stops or reverses as broken rhythm. The necessity for together, even pressure is applied to
6. Skewed or unbalanced such as when the cycle of one change is provoked by the feeling of both skis. Keep the heels down on the
climbing by legs; and technique passes through or ends at a resistance in each step or poll plant skis with knees bent all the time with
7. Relying too much on arms common starting position for the throughout the movement. the whole inside edge of both skis
to power the technique. new technique. edged in. The amount of pressure on
DOWNHILL FOR XC SKIING the edges can be controlled with the
Try to relax the force of the arm pull if As a symmetric technique, a cycle of width of the angle of the snowplow.
you run into timing problems. Often one-skate can be used to ease the Everything that goes up, must come You can slow down by applying more
incorrect use of the arms do more to transition between techniques or the down. One third to a half of a ski outward pressure to the edge
arrest movement then help it. change of sides in an asymmetric course will involve downhills. The underneath the. The arms should be
Practising legs-only in a climb will technique.The double-tap change-up first concern is staying in control, the held clearly in front of the body, like
help a skier use both legs equally in in offset left to offset right is quick next will be going fast. the steering wheel of a car, driving
offset. cycle of one-skate. where you want to go.
The technique that a cross-country
VARIED TERRAIN FOR Here we have a typical example of skier will use to descent is nearly SNOWPLOW TURN
technique adapting to terrain. Two identical to that of a downhill racer.
SKATING skate is used in fast gliding Nordic skis are designed to go fast and Now start with a snow plow. To turn,
conditions. Switch to one-skate as straight at three times the speed of an apply more weight on to the inside
It becomes necessary to switch
the slope increases. As it gets even alpine board. The advantage they edge of one ski.
techniques over varied terrain to
steeper, we switch to offset. And then have in speed, is tempered with
remain efficient in skiing, similar to
change sides. inherent instability and challenge to
changing gears on a bike. SKATE TURN /STEP TURN
carve a turn especially through deep
"Listen to your body - self snow or on ice. The skate or step turn is one of the
“Develop efficient ski
explanatory, but most most efficient means of changing
technique at high A racer can often reach speeds in direction at moderate speeds.
people are not confident excess of 80kph on a course sporting
- Tom Silletta, NCCP Level 4 Cross-Country enough to do it." - Trond Nystad tight changes in direction. The skier takes small steps into the
Skiing, Level 2 Biathlon - Subaru Factory Team direction of the turn using the arms
SNOWPLOW & SNOW PLOW to guide the around the turn. The
Transitions either change the relative Transitions and change-ups are weight is transfered from ski to ski,
timing of the arms and legs for important to maintain continuous always starting with the inside ski
gearing, or switch sides in the case of propulsion. On extremely technical into the turn and following with the
The snowplow is useful in slowing

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outside ski. This can involve many Champion, Subaru Factory Team elbows placed on the front the knees. power of positive thinking
small steps. Knees are always bent
and relaxed, ready to react to any Approaching a turn, start wide, cut In a more relaxed tuck the elbows in sport." - Scott Loomis, National
the apex of the turn and carve Team, Subaru Factory Team
bumps. Lean into the turn, hips first. may rest on the knees.
Sharper turns may require more around. Skiers frequently, start the
turn too much on the inside, cut in This video is meant as just one tool at
edging. A high tuck is used as in transition
prematurely and skid wide into the your disposal to help visualize the
just before or after you are running
bushes. fundamentals of skiing technique
SLALOM / PARALLEL TURN out of gravity to do your work for
before you venture out on the trails.
Common mistakes in turning on
Negotiating turns at fast speed
requires a slalom or parallel turn. This
downhills include: Keeping the hands in front at all times "Think of XC skiing as
is nearly the same as in alpine skiing is essential, they are your guide and dancing on snow. Feel
1. Adopting too wide of a keep your direction in check.
except that you will have to weight
stance; the rhythm. One, two,
the heel more and coax the skinny
2. Not weighting edge of the The skier can use a wider stance for, two,
skis more deliberately into carving.
downhill ski; stability, if there are no set tracks
3. Unparalleled skis; three..... push, glide,
Learning this technique is best done
on an open hill where you will not
4. Dropping arms; and Look at a downhill racer and study the glide.....push, glide,
5. Having straight legs, hips tuck position how it may open up or
meet trees or tourists.
back, face first posture.
glide..... and smell the
tighten while reacting to variations in
the terrain Feel your skis on the snow fresh air." - Jan Vopalensky, CANSI
Edge the outside ski to initiate the
turn and transfer the majority of your TUCK & AERODYNAMICS and let them ride flat, unless you are
edging for a turn. The knees absorb Now let’s see the technique as it is
weight on to it. Lower your centre of
Good aerodynamics are the easiest the contours and variations terrain. trained and applied on those trails.
gravity and bend your knees. Project
with your arms and hips around the and is likely the most ignored means
turn, looking where you want to go. of maintaining speed in skiing. Not C O N C L U S I O N "Lose with grace and rest
only is it faster but it is a stable
Continue to weight the downhill ski. with confidence."
That is one that is lower on the hill. position. Technique is the means by which -2x Olympian, Pete Vordenberg, Subaru
Skis should be held close together in you can efficiently transfer your Factory Team
parallel. The skier crouches in an egg like efforts into skiing, and not just an
position. The back is parallel to the exercise in creative snow removal.
ground. The poles are tucked under
"Keep your body low and The best news is that skill is persistent; "Have enough spare time
the arms and are also held parallel fitness may vary from year to year
steer with your outside with the snow surface. Your hands but the proficiency you achieve in to reflect, but not enough
arm. Look in the should be in front of your face. Skis skiing technique, you will always to stagnate."- Barb Jones, American
are parallel and the weight is held on have. Ski Series Champion, Subaru Factory Team
direction you want to the heels.
turn."- Nathan Schultz, National In a seriously aerodynamic tuck, the
"Never underestimate the

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