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Capacity Building
& Technology Transfer
Programme on
Alternative Materials
for Low Cost Housing
Housing in Developing Countries
– A Perspective
• Severe shortage of adequate housing and
infrastructure in most developing countries of
Asia and Africa
• Severe problems of city wastes, their
management and need to reduce waste through
clean green technologies
• Need for energy efficiency in manufacturing
• Need to develop and strengthen industrial base
of domestic construction industry
Housing in Developing Countries
– A Perspective ( continued)
• Need to substitute imported building materials
and components by locally available low cost
• Need to create employment and skill
improvement opportunities
• Need to develop government policies and
supportive mechanisms
• Need to develop access to appropriate
technologies and information on expertise and
delivery mechanisms.
Technology for Alternative
Materials for Low Cost Housing

¾Energy Efficient

¾Environment Friendly

¾Employment Generating
Technology for Alternative
Materials for Low Cost Housing

¾Energy Efficient
z Simple machines – saves energy in production
z Raw Materials – derived from agro-industrial
wastes and natural fibres, requires less energy
in production
z Products – when used in house, buildings
provide better thermal comfort that results in
conservation of operational energy.
Technology for Alternative
Materials for Low Cost Housing

¾Environment Friendly
zConverts agro-industrial waste into
alternative material for low cost housing,
thus improving waste management &
environmental protection
zUtilises local resources
zSubstitutes wood – preserving forest cover
zSubstitutes top soil – preserving soil for
Technology for Alternative
Materials for Low Cost Housing

¾Employment Generating
• Simple machines – with manual
handling, increases employment for
unskilled and semi-skilled workers
• Small enterprises – can be set up at
decentralized locations
• Production of components – involves
local people after short training
Technology for Alternative
Materials for Low Cost Housing
Resource and Energy Saving through Use of Natural
Fibres and Agro-Wastes in Building Materials
S. Waste and Commercial product Traditional resource Energy
N. source using natural fibre fully or partly saved Save %
& agro-waste
1. Coir fibre Coir fibre-cement Asbestos 10
(coir industry) roofing sheet & panels
2. Rice husk Rick-husk- cement Resin (PF or UF) 20
(rice mill) building board bonded particle
board timber
3. Ground nut Ground nut- hull- Resin-bonded 20
hulls (oil mills) cement building board particle board timber
4. Jute fibre Jute-fibre-polymer Timber, metal 10
(jute mills) bonded panel;
door and window
5. Cotton waste Cotton-lint-cement Gypsum, timber 25
(textile mills) bonded board
Technology for Alternative
Materials for Low Cost Housing
Resource and Energy Saving through Use of Natural
Fibres and Agro-Wastes in Building Materials (Contd.)
S. Waste and Commercial product Traditional resource Energy
N. source using natural fibre fully or partly saved Save %
& agro-waste
6. Bagasse Bagasse-polymer- Timber fibres 30
(sugar mills) bonded boards (in insulation board)
7. Corn cobs Corn cobs-cement Timber, polymer 40
(corn mill) bonded boards
8. Sisal fibre Sisal fibre-polymer/ Asbestos fibre, 15-20
(sisal plant) cement bonded Timber
roofing sheet, door, window
9. Rice straw Compressed and Timber, Polymer 40
& wheat straw paper covered
(farms) board
10 Banana fibre Banana fibre + Timber, Traditional 25
(banana plant) cotton pulp/paper Timber, Traditional
pulp and polymer light weight mineral
insulation boards viz. vermiculite or mica
Technology for Alternative
Materials for Low Cost Housing
Industrial wastes, main chemical constituents, source
and potential use
S. No. Industrial Average Chemical Constituent (%) Source Particulate composite in
SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO which used
1 Flyash 55 25 12 2.5 2.0 Thermal power plants Aggregate, cement, brick,
cellular concrete
2 Blast furnace slag 35 15 1.5 40 6 Steel plants Aggregate, cement, block
3 Byproduct gypsum 95 1.0 2.0 1.5 0.5 Phosphoric acid Hydrofluoric Gypsum plaster, boards,
acid plants cement additive, block
4 Mine tailings 60 5 10 12 5 Fl, Cu,Zn, Ni, Sn ore Blended cement, filler in
beneficiation concrete, calcium silicate
cellular concrete, brick
5 Byproduct lime 10 3.5 2.5 80 5 Sugar, paper, leather, Lime, masonry cement,
sludge acety lime plants mortar, plaster
6 Laterite waste 20 40 30 5 5 Cutting of laterite blocks Building block, aggregate
7 Red mud 15 18 35 4 5 Aluminium plants Cement, Cement, brick paints,
(15 Tio2) tiles, filler in FRP
8. Metallurgical slag 32 35 10 2.5 1.5 Alloys plants Aggregate, blended cement
bricks and blocks
9. Broken glass 70 5 2 10 5 Glass, ceramic, brick plants Aggregate, flooring, roofing
& ceramics
10. Stone quarry waste80 5 5 5 5 Stone quarrying Blocks, aggregate, flooring
11. Limestone waste 10 7 5 70 3 Limestone quarrying Aggregate, flooring, masonry
and lime kilns cement, blocks
Note : Each mineral waste has variable composition according to source of the main rock.
Technology for Alternative
Materials for Low Cost Housing
Energy Saving in Recycling of some Wastes
S. Material Total energy Total energy Saving %
No. in primary in recycled
product (MJ/kg) product (MJ/kg)

1. Steel sheet 33.50 21.00 30.00

2. Aluminium sheet 235.00 11.00 94.00
3. Paper 28.00 25.00 10.30
4. Rubber 100.00 56.00 44.00
5. Plastics (PVC) 54.10 14.50 80.00
6. Glass 23.00 17.00 26.00
7. Wood products 3.00 2.00 33.00
India-UNIDO Co-operation
z MoU signed on 20th June 2000
z Pilot Phase Project Document for promotion of
technologies for low cost housing signed on 20th June
z Promotional project for selected African countries (8)
z Exhibition /Seminar in Tanzania (June-July 2000) and
Venezuela (April 2002) for selected Latin American
countries organized.
z Large-scale international capacity building & technology
transfer programme for South-South cooperation
developed (Africa, Asia, Latin America and the
Caribbean) with total budget US$ 1,2 million.
Development Objectives of
UNIDO Programme
z Sustainable development of small and medium
enterprises in two sectors:
¾Production of materials.
¾Manufacturing of machines.
z Create livelihoods for poor.
z Shelter for all.
z Apply best available technologies for low cost
houses from India, China & other countries.
Major Components of
UNIDO Programme
• International:
¾Awareness building on new technologies & facilitation of
international cooperation in promoting clean, green & with
high socio-economic impact technologies and techniques.
• Regional:
¾Joint R&D projects & standards.
¾Exchange of technologies and best practices.
• National:
¾Capacity building for technology transfer, diffusion &
further development based on country’s needs and
resources available.
Major Activities of
UNIDO Programme
¾Major activities:
• Assessment, characterization & standardization
of locally available raw material resources,
including natural fibres & agro-industrial wastes
• Exhibitions/Workshops
• Capacity building programmes through training
• Demonstration projects
• Establishment of Product Design, Development
& Testing Centres
• Entrepreneurship Development Programmes
Cooperation with Governments &
z UNIDO has received the requests from 15 countries.
z Projects have already been prepared on the requests of
international donors:
¾ Human Security Fund (Japan) – in Afghanistan
(US$ 840,000).
¾ DANIDA – in Mozambique (US$ 500,000).
¾ MDTF (Multi-donor Trust Fund) and other Donors
– in Sudan (US$ 8,2 million).
¾ BADEA (a Regional Bank in Africa) has expressed
an interest in the development of a regional
programme for Eastern African countries. .
Future Action Plan
z Implement long-term international programme on
technology transfer and South-South cooperation
in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
z National capacity building programmes based on
needs of and resources available in individual
z Initial projects in Afghanistan, Bolivia,
Mozambique, Peru & Sudan, establishment of a
regional centre in Venezuela.
z Donor countries/agencies to be approached for
z Strengthening inter-agency cooperation.
For more information about the
Programme, please contact:
Vladimir Kozharnovich
Programme Manager
Industrial Promotion and Technology Branch
Programme Development and Technical Cooperation Division
UNIDO, P. O. Box 300
A-1400 Vienna, AUSTRIA

Phone: (+43-1) 26026-3720/3702

Fax: (+43-1) 26026-6870