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Lecture 9:

Stability and Control

G. Dimitriadis

Stability and Control

H Aircraft stability deals with the ability to

keep an aircraft in the air in the chosen

flight attitude.

H Aircraft control deals with the ability to

change the flight direction and attitude

of an aircraft.

H Both these issues must be investigated

during the preliminary design process.

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Design criteria?

H Stability and control are not design criteria

H In other words, civil aircraft are not

designed specifically for stability and

control

H They are designed for performance.

H Once a preliminary design that meets the

performance criteria is created, then its

stability is assessed and its control is

designed.

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Flight Mechanics

H Stability and control are collectively

referred to as flight mechanics

H The study of the mechanics and dynamics

of flight is the means by which :

– We can design an airplane to accomplish

efficiently a specific task

– We can make the task of the pilot easier by

ensuring good handling qualities

– We can avoid unwanted or unexpected

phenomena that can be encountered in flight

Aircraft description

System Airplane Response Task

System. However, he can tailor his inputs to the FCS by

observing the airplane’s response while always keeping an

eye on the task at hand.

Control Surfaces

H Aircraft control is accomplished through

control surfaces and power

– Ailerons

– Elevators

– Rudder

– Throttle

H Control deflections were first developed by

the Wright brothers from watching birds

Modern control surfaces

Rudder

Aileron

Elevator

Rudderon

(rudder+aileron)

Elevon

Introduction to Aircraft Design (elevator+aileron)

Other devices

Flaps Airbreak

Spoilers

H Combinations of control surfaces and other devices: flaperons,

spoilerons, decelerons (aileron and airbrake)

H VIntroduction

ectoredto Aircraft

thrust Design

Aircraft degrees of freedom

Six degrees of

freedom:

3 displacements

x: horizontal motion

y: side motion ω

z: vertical motion v

cg

3 rotations

x

x: roll

y: pitch y

z

z: yaw

ω: resultant

Introduction angular velocity

to Aircraft Design

Airplane geometry

c

s = b /2

c(y)

y

c /4 cg c /4

lT

lt

c

Airplane references (1)

H Standard mean

s

chord

s

(smc)

c= ∫ c ( y )dy / ∫ dy

−s −s

c = ∫ c ( y )dy / ∫ c ( y )dy

2

−s −s

H Wing area

S = bc

H Aspect Ratio

AR = b 2 /S

Airplane references (2)

H Centre of gravity (cg)

H Tailplane area (ST)

H Tail moment arm (lT)

H Tail volume ratio: A measure of the

aerodynamic effectiveness of the

tailplane

ST lT

VT =

Sc

Airplane references (3)

c /4 cg c /4

lF

lf

SF lF

H Fin volume ratio VF = Sc

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Aerodynamic Reference Centres

H Centre of pressure (cp): The point at which

the resultant aerodynamic force F acts. There

is no aerodynamic moment around the cp.

H Half-chord: The point at which the

aerodynamic force due to camber, Fc, acts

H Quarter-chord (or aerodynamic centre): The

point at which the aerodynamic force due to

angle of attack, Fa, acts. The aerodynamic

moment around the quarter-chord, M0, is

constant with angle of attack

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Airfoil with centres

By placing all of

the lift and drag La

Lc L

on the

Camber line

aerodynamic F Fa

Fc

centre we move cp ac

the lift and drag D Da

Dc

due to camber V0

from the half- L

chord to the

M0

quarter chord. D

This is c /2 hn c c /4

balanced by the

c

moment M0

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Static Stability

H Most aircraft (apart from high performance

fighters) are statically stable

H Static stability implies:

– All the forces and moments around the aircraft’s

cg at a fixed flight condition and attitude are

balanced

– After any small perturbation in flight attitude the

aircraft returns to its equilibrium position

H The equilibrium position is usually called the

trim position and is adjusted using the trim

tabs

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Pitching moment equation

LT Lw

ac cg

MT

M0

lT hc

mg

h denotes the cg

c position

h 0c

Equilibrium equations

H Steady level flight is assumed

H Thrust balances drag and they both

pass by the cg

H Force equilibrium:

Lw + LT − mg = 0

H Pitching moment around cg equilibrium:

M = M 0 + Lw (h − h0 )c − LT lT + MT = 0

(nose up moment is taken to be positive)

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Stable or Unstable?

H An equilibrium point can be stable,

unstable or neutrally stable

H A stable equilibrium point is

characterized by

dM

M = 0 and <0

dα

H A more general condition (takes into

account compressibility effects) is

dM dC m

M = 0 and <0 or Cm = 0 and <0

dL dCL

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Degree of stability

Cm

1

3

Trim point α

4

1: Very stable

2: Stable

3: Neutrally stable

4: Unstable

Pitching moment stability (1)

H The pitching moment equation can be

written as

Cm = Cm + CL (h − h0 ) − CL VT = 0

0 w T

H Where

M Lw LT

Cm = , CL w = , CL T =

1 1 1

ρV02 Sc ρV02 S ρV02 ST

2 2 2

H And the tailplane is assumed to be

symmetric so that MT=0

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Pitching moment stability (2)

H For static stability dC m /dCL < 0 or,

approximately, dC m /dCL w < 0

H Then

dCm /dCL = (h − h0 ) − VT dCL /dCL

w T w

H Since M0 is a constant.

H Unfortunately, the derivative of the tail

lift with respect to the wing lift is

unknown

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Wing-tail flow geometry

H The downwash effect of the wing deflects the

free stream flow seen by the tailplane by an

angle ε.

H Total angle of attack of tail: αT=α-ε+ηT

Tailplane Wing

ηT

α αT

V0 α

η Elevator ε V0

Trim tab

βη

H The total lift on the tailplane is given by:

CLT = α 0 + a1α T + a2η + a3βη

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Pitching moment stability (3)

H For small disturbances the downwash

angle is a linear function of wing

incidence α: dε

ε= α

dα

H Wing lift is also a linear function of α:

CL = aα or α = CL /a

w w

H So that

CLw % dε (

αT = '1− * + ηT

a & dα )

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Pitching moment stability (4)

H The tail lift coefficient can then be

written as a1 % dε (

CL T = CL w '1− * + a1ηT + a2η + a3βη

a & dα )

H And the derivative of the pitching

moment coefficient becomes

dCm % a % dε ( dη dβ η (

= (h − h0 ) − VT '' '1−

1

* + a2 + a3 **

dCLw & a & dα ) dCLw dCLw )

H since ηT is a constant

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Controls fixed stability

H Assume that the aircraft has reached

trim position and the controls are locked

H What will happen if there is a small

perturbation to the aircraft’s position

(due to a gust, say)?

H The pitching moment equation becomes

dCm a1 % dε (

= (h − h0 ) − VT '1− *

dCLw a & dα )

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Stability margin

H Define the controls fixed stability margin as

dCm

Kn = −

dCLw

H And the controls fixed neutral point as

a1 % dε (

K n = hn − h, so that hn = h0 + VT '1− *

a & dα )

H A stable aircraft has positive stability margin.

The more positive, the more stable.

H If the cg position (h) is ahead of the neutral

point (hn) the aircraft will by definition be

stable

H Too much stability can be a bad thing!

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Stability margin

H Certification authorities specify that

K n ≥ 0.05

at all times

H Of course, the stability margin can change:

– If fuel is used up

– If payload is released:

H Bombs

H Missiles

H External fuel tanks

H Paratroopers

H Anything else you can dump from a plane

Controls Free Stability

H Pilots don’t want to hold the controls

throughout the flight.

H The trim tab can be adjusted such that, if the

elevator is allowed to float freely, it will at an

angle corresponding to the desired trim

condition.

H This is sometimes called a hands-off trim

condition.

H Therefore the pilot can take his hands off the

elevator control and the aircraft will remain in

trim.

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Controls Free Stability Margin

H This is an expression for η that can be

substituted into the pitching moment

equation.

H Differentiating the latter with respect to wing

lift coefficient gives

dCm a1 % dε (% a2b1 (

= ( h − h0 ) − VT '1− *'1− *

dCLw a & dα )& a1b2 )

moment coefficient

Tailplane

Elevator hinge H

C H = b1α T + b2η + b3βη ηT

α αΤ

V

η Elevator ε 0

βη Trim tab

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Controls Free Neutral Point

H Define the Controls Free Stability

Margin, K'n, such that

dCm

K n! = − = hn! − h

dC Lw

H The controls free neutral point is then

a1 & dε )& a2b1 )

hn" = h0 + VT (1− +(1− +

a ' dα *' a1b2 *

a2b1 & dε (

or hn" = hn − VT 1−

ab2 ' dα )

Discussion

H As with the controls fixed stability margin, the

controls free stability margin is positive when

the aircraft is stable.

H Similarly, the centre of gravity position must

be ahead of the controls free neutral point if

the aircraft is to be stable.

H Usually, the constants of the elevator and tab

are such that h'n>hn.

H An aircraft that is stable controls fixed will

usually be also stable controls free

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Summary of Longitudinal

Stability

K n" c

K nc

cg ac

h0c

hc

hn c

hn" c

c

Lateral stability

H There are two types of lateral motion for

an aircraft:

– Roll

– Yaw

H The aircraft must be stable in both of

these directions of motion

Roll Stability Mechanism

H There is no active stabilizing mechanism for

lateral stability (e.g. tail for longitudinal

stability, rudder for yaw stability)

H Wing dihedral, Γ, is the only stabilizing

mechanism

H The higher the dihedral angle, the more

stable the aircraft

H As usual, too much stability can be a bad

thing

Roll Motion

Lcosφ

L L

Lsinφ

φ’

v φ

mg y

mg

Steady level flight: L=mg

However, Lcosφ < mg and there is a sideslip force Lsinφ.

Therefore the aircraft is moving to the side and down, with

speed v.

36

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Sideslip angle

H Using trigonometry it can be shown that,

the angle φ’ between the sideslip vector

v and the horizontal is always φ/2.

Lcosφ

L

Lsinφ

φ’

v φ

y

mg

z 37

High-wing aircraft

L

CP

CG

mg

causes a restoring

moment around the

CP: centre of pressure L centre of pressure

(point of application of CP

φ

lift vector) CG

mgsinφ

CG: centre of gravity mgcosφ

Conclusion: high-wing

aircraft are inherently stable

in roll

Low-wing aircraft

L

CG

CP

mg

The mgsinφ component

causes a destabilising

moment around the

L centre of pressure

CG mgsinφ

CP

φ

Conclusion: low-wing mgcosφ

aircraft are inherently

unstable in roll

Dihedral

High-wing

aircraft: Γ

Dihedral

reduces stability

Low-wing

aircraft:

Dihedral Γ

increases

stability

Restoring moment

l=leading

Stabilising moment, R = (Lt − Ll ) y

t=trailing

y

Lt

-R

Ll>Lt

Γ φ’ v’

φ

v

41

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Roll stability

H For a stable aircraft in roll, dCR/dφ<0.

CR

42

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Aircraft with negative dihedral

C5 Galaxy

Antonov 225

43

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Roll Control

H Roll control can be accomplished using

the ailerons

Less lift, less drag

‘Adverse yaw’

δ2

angle is given by

δa=(δ1+δ2)/2 δ1

44

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Aileron adverse yaw

H Increasing the lift also increases the

drag and vice versa.

H When deflecting ailerons, there is a net

yawing moment in an opposite direction

to the rolling moment.

– When rolling left (in order to turn left), there

is a yawing moment to the right

– This can make turning very difficult,

especially for high aspect ratio wings

45

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Roll control by spoilers

H Another way of performing roll control is

by deforming a spoiler on the wing

towards which we want to turn. To turn

left: ‘Proverse yaw’

The spoiler

decreases lift and

increases drag.

Now the yawing

moment is in the

same direction as

the roll.

46

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Frise Ailerons

The idea is to counteract the higher lift induced drag of

the down wing with higher profile drag on the up wing.

Frise ailerons are

especially designed to

create very high

profile drag when

deflected upwards.

When deflected

downwards the profile

drag is kept low. Thus,

they alleviate or, even,

eliminate adverse yaw

47

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Differential Aileron Deflection

H The roll rate of the aircraft depends on

the mean aileron deflection angle. The

individual deflections δ1 and δ2 do not

have to be equal.

Differential deflection

means that the up

aileron is deflected by a

lot while the down aileron

is deflected by a little.

48

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Yaw Stability

V β x

x V

cg y

LF

In this case the flow is symmetric; In this case the vertical stabilizer (fin) is at a

There is no net moment around the z axis positive angle of attack. It produces a

Introduction to Aircraft Design stabilizing moment around the z axis

Fin Moment

The lift coefficient of the fin can be

expressed as

CL = c1α F + c 2δ = c1 (−β + σ ) + c 2δ

F

αF

cg Where σ is the sidewash

σ

-β velocity, a local windspeed

V lF component induced by the

LF effect of the fuselage, wing

c /4

N and possibly propellers.

SF lF

HR Cn = CLF VF , where VF =

δ Sc

Yaw stability

H The stability condition for yaw motion is

then dC & dσ dδ )

n

< 0, or, VF ( −c1 + c1 + c2 + < 0

dβ ' dβ dβ *

H Note that, in this case, it makes no

sense to differentiate the yawing

moment by the lift since the two are

independent.

H The sidewash factor, dσ/dβ, is very

difficult to estimate

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Sidewash factor

H There are three main contributions to

sidewash:

– Fuselage: It acts as a lifting body when at a yaw

angle

– Wing: The flow over the wing is asymmetric. The

resulting sidewash is more pronounced for low

aspect ratio sweptback wings.

– Propeller: The flow behind the propeller is also

yawed, causing additional asymmetry.

H Sidewash factors can be estimated most

accurately by carefully designed wind tunnel

experiments.

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Yaw control

H During most flight conditions the yaw angle

must be zero - this minimizes drag

H This is achieved through the deflection of the

rudder.

H Rudder power: Rate of change of fin moment

with rudder angle dCn dCL

= VF = c 2VF

F

dδ dδ

H This quantity must be large enough to

maintain zero yaw even at the most extreme

flight conditions.

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Take off and landing (1)

H During cruise, aircraft tend to turn towards

the wind in order to minimize their drag.

Therefore, the objective is to achieve 0o

yaw.

H At take-off and landing this is not possible.

The aircraft must remain aligned with the

runway, even in the presence of a very

strong sidewind.

H Therefore, the rudder must be able to

provide a moment that can keep the

aircraft aligned with the runway.

54

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Take off and landing (2)

β Runway direction β Runway direction

Relative wind, V Relative wind, V

y y

LF LF=0

Undeflected rudder: fin has a sizeable lift Deflected rudder: fin creates 0 lift and 0

causing a moment around the c.g. moment around the c.g.

55

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Roll-Yaw coupling

H Roll and yaw are always coupled.

H There are several reasons for the

coupling:

– Rolling produces sideslip

– Ailerons cause adverse yaw

– Dihedral cases additional coupling

– Wingtip vortices cause additional coupling

– Sweepback causes additional coupling

– The fin causes additional coupling

Summary on Control surfaces

H Elevators contribute to pitch stability and

control pitch angle.

H Rudder contributes to yaw stability and

controls yaw angle.

H Ailerons do not contribute to stability.

Furthermore, they control the roll rate, not the

roll angle. There is no moment to balance the

effect of the ailerons: They provide a constant

moment that causes continuous roll rotation,

whose rate also depends on the moment of

inertia of the aircraft.

57

Introduction to Aircraft Design

More control surfaces

H Elevons contribute to stability and control of

both pitch and roll. They are ailerons that can

also move up or down in unison, just like

elevators.

H Flaperons contribute to stability and control of

both pitch and roll. They are ailerons that can

also move downwards only, just like flaps.

H Spoilerons contribute to stability and control of

both pitch and roll. They are ailerons that can

also move upwards only, just like spoilers.

58

Introduction to Aircraft Design

Modes of vibration of aircraft

H Stability must also be investigated in a

dynamic sense

H Aircraft have several modes of vibration:

– Longitudinal modes:

H Short Period Oscillation

H Phugoid

– Lateral modes:

H Spiral mode

H Roll subsidence

H Dutch roll

Phugoid oscillations

H Phugoids are long period oscillations that occur

only in the longitudinal direction.

H The angle of attack is constant; the aircraft climbs

and descends in an oscillatory manner.

H Phugoids are also very lightly damped.

H Phugoid periods:

– Microlight aircraft: 15-25s

– Light aircraft: over 30s

– Jet aircraft: minutes

H Phugoids are neutralized by re-trimming the

aircraft in the new flight condition.

Phugoid Videos

Phugoid approximation

phugoid damping ratio and frequency are given

by:

gCD g 2

ζ pω p = , ωp =

CLV0 V0

More about Phugoids

H Phugoid period

increases with

airspeed. Phugoid

damping increases

with airspeed.

H Compressibility effects

H Period and damping

for a Boeing 747 at

several altitudes and

Mach numbers

Nhalf= number of periods until the

amplitude is halved

Short period oscillations

H Short period oscillations have a much higher

frequency than Phugoids.

H They are driven by the angle of attack (in

french they are called oscillations

d’incidence).

H Speed changes are negligible

H They occur after abrupt input changes.

Slower input changes do not cause significant

short period oscillations

Short Period Dependencies

H The period generally

decreases with

airspeed. The

damping can either

decrease or increase

H Compressibility effects

H Period and damping

for a Boeing 747 at

several altitudes and

Mach numbers

Spiral mode

H This mode is quite visible in the impulse

response of the lateral equations

H It is the non-oscillatory mode with large time

constant

H It is mainly a yaw movement with a little roll

H This mode can be stable or unstable. It is

unstable quite often but that is not a problem

because of its large time constant

H The typical half-life of a spiral mode is of the

order of a minute.

H The spiral movement is usually stopped by a

corrective control input

Spiral Mode Video

Roll subsidence

H An impulse aileron input will start the aircraft

rolling.

H In general, the aircraft will stop rolling with

time (i.e. the roll rate becomes zero after

sufficient time)

H The aircraft will find itself at a roll angle which

depends on how fast the roll rate tends to

zero.

H This phenomenon is called roll subsidence.

Roll Subsidence Video

Dutch Roll

H The name Dutch Roll is due to the fact that the

phenomenon resembles an ice skating figure

called Dutch Roll.

H The centre of gravity remains on a straight

trajectory while the roll and yaw angles oscillate.

H The roll velocity also oscillates but the yaw

velocity is very low.

H The Dutch roll damping increases with airspeed

while its period first increases and then

decreases with airspeed.

H The typical period of a Dutch roll is in the order of

5 to 10 seconds.

Dutch Roll Videos

Lateral Modes of Boeing 747

Spiral Dutch Roll

Altitude Mach Half-life Period Nhalf

0 0.45 35.7 5.98 0.87

0 0.65 34.1 4.54 0.71

20,000 0.5 76.7 7.3 1.58

20,000 0.65 64.2 5.89 1.33

20,000 0.8 67.3 4.82 1.12

40,000 0.7 -296 7.99 1.93

40,000 0.8 94.9 6.64 3.15

40,000 0.9 -89.2 6.19 1.18

Introduction to Aircraft Design

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