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ae451 metu aerospace engineering past exam questions

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Final Examination

1. a) (8 pts) In what aspects an instantaneous turn performance is different from sustained turn?

b) (8 pts) A low wing loading will always increase aircraft weight and cost. Explain why.

c) (8 pts) What is a cruise climb? Explain.

d) (8 pts) Explain how and why T/W and W/S affects the takeoff distance?

2. Consider a jet trainer aircraft with two turbojet engines.

a) (4 pts) Considering a simple cruise mission without loitering, sketch the mission profile.

b) (24 pts) Calculate the fuel weight fraction for this mission if Mcruise=0.9, range=1200 nm, cruise

altitude=36000 ft. Assume that C=0.9/h, (L/D)max=11.

c) (16 pts) Calculate the gross weight of this aircraft taking We/Wo=1.59Wo-0.10. Take student and

instructor pilot weights as 90 kg each. Assume payload weight = 0.

3. (24 pts) Select a T/W and W/S for the same airplane as in Q.2 for the following requirements (take

payload weight = 0):

i. Stall speed < 160 ft/s @ sea level (assume CL,max=1.5),

ii. Instantaneous turn > 16o/s at 280 knots at h=36 000 ft.

aSL, speed of sound at sea level = 1116.4 ft/s

a, speed of sound at 36000 ft = 968.7 ft/s

1 kg = 2.2046 lb

1 knot = 1.689 ft/s

1 nm = 6076 ft

Write neatly. Show all steps of your work including iterations. Good luck!

AE 451

Aeronautical Engineering Design

Final Examination

1. a) (8 pts) What is the importance of specific excess power for an airplane? Why is this particularly

important for a fighter?

b) (8 pts) What are the design approaches that can be employed in order to reduce the wave drag

of an airplane? Explain briefly.

c) (8 pts) What is the most important difference in the way trailing edge and leading edge devices

increase lift? Explain.

d) (8 pts) Name three design approaches for reducing the radar cross section of an airplane.

2. Consider an airplane with the following characteristics:

W/S = 70 lb/ft2,

Drag polar: CD = 0.02 + 0.15CL2,

T/W)SL = 0.9

If the airplane runs out of fuel at an altitude of 36 000 ft,

a) (12 pts) what is the furthest distance it can glide (neglect density variation)?

b) (12 pts) what is the maximum duration that it can stay in the air (neglect density variation)?

3. Assume that the same airplane defined in question 2 is flying at an altitude of 36 000 ft and M=0.8.

(neglect variations in the drag polar and weight)

a) (12 pts) What is the maximum rate of climb for this airplane at the specified condition?

b) (8 pts) What is the maximum acceleration for this airplane at the specified condition?

c) (12 pts) What is the maximum load factor that can be achieved in a sustained turn for the

specified condition?

4. (12 pts) What must be the maximum lift coefficient for the same airplane above so that it can

perform a 18o/s instantaneous turn at an altitude of 36 000 ft and a speed of 350 knots?

aSL, speed of sound at sea level = 1116.4 ft/s

a, speed of sound at 36000 ft = 968.7 ft/s

1 kg = 2.2046 lb

1 knot = 1.689 ft/s

1 nm = 6076 ft

Write neatly. Show all steps of your work including iterations. Good luck!

AE 451

Midterm Examination 1

1. a) Explain why high speed airplanes are aerodynamically more smooth compared

to low speed airplanes.

b) Explain why the airfoil stall characteristics are directly related to wing stall

characteristics only for high aspect ratio wings.

c) Explain why required thrust increases during a sustained turn.

d) What is the condition for an airplane to climb with a given climb gradient.

Explain.

T/W = 0.45,

CD = 0.016 + 0.15CL2,

CL,max = 1.4 (with maneuvering flaps),

CL,max = 1.5 (with trailing edge and maneuvering flaps).

Select a wing loading for this airplane if the takeoff distance (ground roll only)

is to be less than 2000 ft, the stall speed less than 150 ft/s and the maximum

instantaneous load factor to be greater than 7 at 350 knots, all at sea level.

3. For the same airplane above, calculate the maximum climb gradient at sea level.

Good Luck!

Note: In the explanations try to use your own words. Show all steps of your work

and write neatly.

1

2

AE 451

Aeronautical Engineering Design

Final Examination

1. a) (8 pts) What is the energy height of an airplane? Why is this concept particularly important for

a fighter airplane?

b) (8 pts) What is the supersonic area rule? Why is it important?

c) (8 pts) What is the most important difference in the way trailing edge and leading edge devices

increase lift? Explain.

d) (8 pts) Which two wing planforms will minimize the RCS of an airplane? Explain briefly how.

2. Consider a wing with the following characteristics:

AR = 2.5, ΛLE =50o, λ=0.25.

a) Calculate the lift curve slope of this wing at M=1.4.

b) What is the induced drag factor for the same wing at the same Mach number?

W/S=60lb/ft2, T/W)M=0.9, 30000ft=0.5, CD)M=0.9, 30000ft=0.017+0.2CL2.

a) Determine whether this airplane will be able to perform a sustained turn at M=0.9

corresponding to n=4 at an altitude of 30 000ft.

b) What is the climb rate that can be achieved by this airplane at M=0.9 and h=30 000ft.

c) What must be the limit load factor nlimit so that the airplane is capable of achieving an

instantaneous turn rate of 22o/s if CL,max=1.3 at h=30000 ft?

ρ/ρSL=0.375 at 30000 ft, ρSL =0.002377 slug/ft3

aSL, speed of sound at sea level = 1116.4 ft/s

a, speed of sound at 30000 ft = 994.8 ft/s

1 kg = 2.2046 lb

1 knot = 1.689 ft/s

1 nm = 6076.1 ft

Write neatly. Show all steps of your work including iterations. Good luck!

AE 451

Aeronautical Engineering Design I

Midterm Examination

1. a) (8) Give two examples to the cases where aerodynamical and structural

considerations suggest contradicting design characteristics.

b) (8) What is a spoiler? Explain why it is used and its advantages.

c) (12) Consider a tailless (flying wing) airplane. Give two advantages and two

disadvantages of such a design.

d) (8) Explain how the empty weight of an airplane varies with airfoil

thickness and wing loading. Explain.

2. Consider a jet trainer with a wing leading edge sweep angle of ΛLE = 45o and a

maximum takeoff gross weight of 12 000 lb.

b) (24) Assuming that the airplane is a typical jet trainer estimate the empty

weight fraction of this airplane.

3. The wing reference area of a general aviation aircraft is 14.5 m2 and wing

mean aerodynamic chord is 1.8 m. The longitudinal stability requirements

dictate the tail volume coefficient to be 0.9. If the maximum fuselage

diameter is 1.6 m, estimate:

b) (8) the horizontal tail area.

Hint: there is no single correct answer for this question. You will need to make

justifiable assumptions.

In the explanations try to use your own words. Show all steps of your work and

write neatly.

AE 451

Aeronautical Engineering Design I

Final Examination

1. a) (8) Explain how leading edge and trailing edge devices increase the lift of a wing in

different ways.

b) (8) Explain the reasons why the tricycle is the most common landing gear configuration.

c) (8) Explain the reasons why the longitudinal and vertical positions of the CG of an airplane

are important.

d) (10) What is the major inlet type that a chin inlet usually belongs to? Explain the reasons

why a chin inlet may be advantageous for an airplane.

2. Consider a single engine general aviation airplane with the following characteristics:

Wing loading: 17 lb/ft2,

Power-to-weight ratio: 0.07 hp/lb,

Aspect ratio: 8,

Vmax: 160 knots,

Vcruise: 100 knots,

Maximum takeoff gross weight: 2200 lb,

CDo = 0.02.

a) (10) What is the empty weight fraction of this airplane?

b) (24) Assume that the airplane is redesigned and the aspect ratio of the wing is

increased to 10. How much will the weight of the airplane change if the wing loading,

taper ratio, parasite drag coefficient, fuel weight fraction, power-to-weight ratio and

the maximum speed of the airplane is not changed? The airplane carries two crew

members and no payload.

3. (32) How much will the L/D of the same airplane change during cruise? Assume that the

cruise speed does not change. Take ambient density as 0.002157 slug/ft3.

1 knot = 1.688 ft/s.

In the explanations try to use your own words. Show all steps of your work and write neatly.

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