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WESTON JESUIT SCHOOL OF
THEOLOGY LIBRARY
99 BRATTLE STREET
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02138
^s presenteb for

JOHN GERARD SHAUGHNESSEY

m MRS . WILLIAM MCDONOUGH


Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2011 with funding from
Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries

http://www.archive.org/details/bibliographyoneaOObret
Bibliography on East Asian
Religion and Philosophy
Bibliography on East Asian
Religion and Philosophy

Compiled and Annotated by


James T. Bretzke

Studies in Asian Thought and Rehgion


Volume 23

The Edwin Mellen Press


Lewiston»Queenston« Lampeter
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Bretzke, James T., 1952-


Bibliography on East Asian religion and philosophy / James T. Bretzke.
p. cm. ~ (Studies in Asian thought and religion ; vol. 23)
Includes index.
ISBN 0-7734-7318-1
1 . Philosophy and religion-East Asia—Bibliography. I. Title: East Asian religion and
philosophy. 11. Title. EI. Series.

Z7821 .B74 2001


[BL51]
016.200'95-dc21
2001030999
This volume 23 in the continuing series
is

Studies in Asian Thought and Religion


Volume 23 ISBN 0-7734-7318-1
SATR Series ISBN 0-88946-050-7

A CIP catalog record for this book is available from the British Library.

Copyright © 2001 James T. Bretzke

All rights reserved. For information contact

The Edwin Mellen Press The Edwin Mellen Press


Box 450 Box 67
Lewiston, New York Queenston, Ontario
USA 14092-0450 CANADA LOS ILO

The Edwin Mellen Press, Ltd.


Lampeter, Ceredigion, Wales
UNITED KINGDOM SA48 8LT

Printed in the United States of America

F
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For

Jacques Dupuis, S.J.

In grateful appreciation for being a mentor in cross-cultural theology


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE i

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii

INTRODUCTION 1

Focus of the Sections and Sub-sections 1

East Asian Internet Resources 1

A Note on Using the Index 2

GENERAL WORKS ON PHILOSOPHY& RELIGION IN ASIA 5


BUDDHISM 37
Primary Sources 37
Buddhist Ethics 38
Buddhism and Judeo-Christianity 52
Zen Buddhism 69
Other Works on Buddhism 76
CONFUCIANISM 95
Chinese and Confucian Classics 95
Translations of the Four Books 95
Translations of other Chinese Classics 97
Secondary Works on Confucianism and/or the Chinese Classics
100
Neo-Confucianism 136
Confucian Ethics 150
Works on Confucianism and Judeo-Christianity 172
TAOISM 191
Primary Sources in Translation 191
Secondary Works on Chuang-tzu, Lao-tse and/or Taoism .... 1 92

Taoism and Judaeo-Christianity 205

CHINESE/ CONFUCIAN UNDERSTANDING OF RELIGION 209

BUSINESS & ECONOMIC ETHICS IN ASIA 223


General, Miscellaneous, and/or Background Material 223
Business & Economic Ethics: China 225
Business & Economic Ethics: Japan 226
Business & Economic Ethics: Korea 228

HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE EAST ASIAN CONTEXT 231

ASIAN WOMEN'S PHILOSOPHY «&THEOLOGY 247


SELECTED COUNTRIES OF EAST ASIA 261
CHINA 261
China and Christianity 261
JesuitApproach to Evangelization in China 261
Other Works on China and Roman Catholicism 270
China and Protestantism 279
Other Works on China and Christianity 283
Other Works on Chinese Culture and Philosophy 296
JAPAN 326
Buddhism inJapan 326
Shintoism and Confucianism in Japan 331
Christianity in Japan 336
Other Works on Japanese Culture, Philosophy and Religion . . 349
KOREA 359
Buddhism in Korea 359
Christianity in Korea 363
Confucianism and Christianity in Korea 363
General Works on Christianity in Korea 368
Korea and Catholicism 380
Korean-American Christianity 390
Confucianism in Korea 394
Minjung Theology 404
Women's Issues and Feminist Theology in Korea 423
Shamanism in Korea 432
Other Works on Korea, Including General Works on Religion
437

EAST ASIAN INTERNET RESOURCES 455


SUBJECT-AREA WEB-SITES 455
MISCELLANEOUS PHILOSOPHICAL/RELIGIOUS
STUDIES SITES 456
EAST ASIAN ART, GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, AND/OR
CULTURE SITES 466
OTHER ASIAN INTEREST WEB-SITES 471
CHINA 471
JAPAN 480
KOREA 481
SINGAPORE 486
DISCUSSION AND/OR NEWS GROUPS 486
ONLINE (ELECTRONIC) JOURNALS AND NEWSLETTERS ... 488
EAST ASIAN ENGLISH-LANGUAGE NEWSPAPERS 494
LIBRARIES AND/OR UNIVERSITY WEB-PAGES 496
SEARCH ENGINES 501

INDEX 503
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND FOREIGN CONVENTIONS

AAR American Academy of Religion

AA. VV. Various authors (i.e., a work made of up of contributions of many


authors, and not entered under any one individual as editor).

AISA Asia Institute for Social Action

AWRC Asian Women's Resource Centre for Culture and Theology

CCA Christian Conference of Asia (Singapore)

CDF Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (Vatican)

CTC Commission on Theological Concerns of the Christian Conference of


Asia (CTC-CCA)

DPRK Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)

DTSM Documents of the Three-Self Movement (New York, 1963)

EAPI East Asian Pastoral Institute (located at the Ateneo de Manila,


Philippines)

EATWOT Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians

FABC Federation of Asian Bishops Conferences

Festschrift Essays done in honor of an individual, usually by former students


and/or professional colleagues. (German, though used in English)

Hrsg(s)Herausgegeber(s) [German for "Editor{s}"]

KAWT Korean Association of Women Theologians

Religious order initials: Initials name indicate that


following an individual's
person member of a Roman Catholic Religious
is a
Order of either men or women (i.e., priest, brother, or
sister). Some of the more common examples found in

this bibliography are MM (Maryknoll Missionaries,


SSC (Society of Saint Columban) and S.J. (Society of
Jesus— Jesuit).
ROK Republic of Korea (South Korea)

S.T.D. Doctor of Sacred Theology; terminal degree in theology according to


the ecclesiastical academic system. Equivalent to a Ph.D.

URL Uniform Resource Locator. This refers to the electronic address for
Web-sites found on the Internet. The URL usually begins with http://
followed by the more precise information which allows the user's
Internet browser to find the exact Web-site desired. See also WWW.
WCC World Council of Churches. International body of Protestant,
Anglican, and Orthodox Churches. Its headquarters are in Geneva.

WWW World- Wide- Web. Many of the Internet Wed-sites have an electronic
address which begins with these letters. See also URL.
PREFACE
by Judith A. Berling, Ph.D.

The advent of the information age has brought many blessings but also a

curse: those who seek information are confronted with an avalanche of sources, with
no way to judge their quality or helpfulness. This volume meets a real and

increasingly pressing need: reliable and helpful sources on East Asian religious and

philosophical studies, both primary sources in translation and excellent secondary

sources. Persons of East Asian descent seek sources to understand their pasts more

fully or to help them articulate their heritage in Western languages. Persons who will

travel to Asia, whose relatives are marrying or working with East Asians, who meet
East Asians in their work places or their parishes, seek to understand those cultures

and their values more fully. This volume offers helpful information not only such

persons, but also to the specialists to whom they come for assistance. Asian scholars
are frequently asked for information beyond their own narrow expertise, and thus will

be grateful for a reliable general bibliography that covers a broad range of issues of

general interest.

The bibliography is selective in two very important senses. First, it is

manageable; it does not list so many sources that the user is overwhelmed. Second,

it has selective works of quality, and thus steers the newcomer past an avalanche of

unhelpful books in bookstores and on-line to solid and useful resources.

The bibliography also has the virtue of setting its core bibliography on East

Asian Philosophy and Religion in the larger context of five important themes which

immediately arise for anyone reading about these philosophies and religions in

Western languages. First, each section of the "general works" ends with a sub-

section on the relation of the religion/philosophy to Judaeo-Christianity. This

acknowledges the growing interest in dialogue between East Asian thought and

Christianity on both shores of the Pacific. Second, the bibliography includes a

generous section on Chinese and/or Confucian Understanding of Religion. This

recognizes that Chinese and East Asian cultural understandings of religion stretch or

challenge Euro-American understandings, and that this has caused confusion on both
sides of the Pacific. The bibliography introduces the reader to a significant and

helpful literature on this topic. Third, the bibliography includes helpful sections on

Business and Economics Ethics in Asia, Human Rights in the East Asian Contexts,

and Asian Women's Philosophy and Theology, acknowledging that each of these

issues have been significantly shaped by the religious and philosophical heritage of

East Asia.

The bibliography will be an invaluable resource for persons seeking to deepen

their understanding of the religious and philosophical heritage of East Asia in relation

to contemporary issues in cross-cultural understanding.

Judith A. Berling
Professor, Chinese and Comparative Religions
Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Sustained bibliographical research of the nature of this work hardly represents

the work of the compiler alone. While I did do the compiling alone, I was

nevertheless aided by so many others through whose own research, reviews, Internet
postings, web-pages, and the like enabled me to gather these myriad sources into one
location. My grateful acknowledgment for their scholarly contribution hopefully is
best expressed in the bibliography itself.

My own interest in East Asia came from what was originally meant as a

summer teaching experience at Sogang University in Seoul, Korea shortly after the

Kwangju Uprising of May 1980. That experience touched me deeply and led to my
return to Korea following the completion of my priesthood studies, and the beginning

of the study of both the Korean language and classical Chinese, so as to study the

Four Books of Confucianism. A gentle and patient old Korean man educated in

China, Mr. Peter Han Se-ch'an, tutored, inspired, and encouraged me in my efforts
to master the basic Chinese ideograms and then move on to the Confucian classics.

The example of Br. Michael Daniels, S.J. sustained me along this task. These two

men in particular helped fan an interest which later took shape in my doctoral

research and writing.

This book is dedicated to Rev. Jacques Dupuis, S.J., a long-time missionary

and theologian in India and the director of my dissertation done at the Pontifical

Gregorian University in Rome. From him I learned much practical wisdom of the

value of the "other," as well as the dangers of being too quick to read "foreign" texts

through our own uncorrected cultural lenses.

I am also very grateful to my colleagues at the Graduate Theological Union

who have shared my interest and enthusiasm for East Asian religious and

philosophical resources. In particular I should like to thank Professor Judith A.

Berling who kindly consented to write the preface to this work, as well as Professors
FumitakaMatsuoka, Ronald Nakasone, C. S. Song, Philip Wickeri, Antoinette Wire,

and Edmund Yee, all of whom helped and inspired me in a variety of ways.
IV

While it would be virtually impossible to aim at "completeness" in a

bibliographical work whose interests range so widely all responsibility for errors and

omissions is mine alone.

Berkeley, California
6 February 2001
Feast of St. Paul Miki and Companions, Martyrs in Japan
1

INTRODUCTION
This research bibliography aims to bring together resources in the principal

Western languages of English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish which focus on

East Asia (principally China, Japan, and Korea) in the primary areas of philosophy

and religious studies, with supporting resources in theology, history, culture, and

related social sciences. The bibliography is organized both thematically and

geographically, and the index gives not only author's and subject's names, but

includes a wide range of topics and sub-topics as well.

Focus of the Sections and Sub-sections

The initial section of the bibliography treats general and/or miscellaneous

works on philosophy or religion in Asia as a whole, i.e., without particular reference

to one of the specific themes or geographical areas treated in the other sections. This

section also lists a number of resources concerned with the theme of the inculturation

or contextualization of Christianity into the various areas of Asia and Asian life.

The next major section of the bibliography concentrates on the major

religious and philosophical traditions of East Asia, namely. Buddhism,

Confucianism, and Taoism. Each of these sub-sections begins with a listing of

primary sources in translation of the principal sacred texts, and then moves on to a

listing of secondary resources, divided according to fiirther specializations of the

individual tradition (e.g., Zen Buddhism orNeo-Confiicianism), followed in turn by

works dealing with inter-religious dialogue and/or interaction with the Judeo-

Christian tradition.

Following treatment of these three major religious traditions of East Asia

there are separate sections dealing the Chinese and/or Confucian Understanding of

Religion, Business and Economic Ethics in East Asia, and Human Rights in the East

Asian Context, and Asian Feminist Philosophy and/or Theology. These sections in

turn are followed by a geographical breakdown of China, Japan, and Korea, and these

three geographical areas are further sub-divided into religious thematic areas.

East Asian Internet Resources


An innovation to the standard research bibliography found in this book is a

comprehensive (though obviously not exhaustive!) listing of a wide variety of

Internet resources dealing with East Asia. These Internet resources include the

relevant URL and/or e-mail addresses and should be particularly helpful for those

who wish to stay abreast of continuing research endeavors, or who wish to pursue

more in depth a particular topic or geographical area. The Internet resources section

is organized both geographically and thematically and includes sections of libraries,

virtual libraries, on-line electronic journals, Internet discussion groups and the like.

A Note on Using the Index

This bibliography is quite extensively indexed according to both authors and

topics, in order to facilitate a breadth of research possibilities. However, since the

primary focus of this bibliography is on China, Japan, and Korea, references to these

three geographical and cultural areas as such are not separately indexed. However,

other areas of Asia, such as Burma, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Melanesia, the

Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, etc. have been indexed when reference

to this particular area occurs in the title of the given work or when the author is

noted for her/his association with a particular given area. Asian names are often

puzzling to the non-Asian and frequently several spellings are foimd for the same

individual's name, especially if this person is Chinese, Japanese, or Korean. Every

effort has been made to standardize these different spellings, using the version found

most frequently, and as a rule the Asian word order of names is used in the brief

aimotations, namely Family name first, followed by the given name, e.g., Kim Chi

Ha (Kim is the family name, and Chi Ha is the given name). The exception to this

general rule occurs when a given author is better known in the academic world by

either the Western order of one's name (e.g. Whalen Lai), or by a "Western" given

name rather than the Asian given name (e.g., Julia Ching). Since this bibliography

covers works written over an extensive period of time, various transliteration systems

(such as the Wade-Giles and Pinyin systems for Chinese romanization) have been

used. Attempts have been made to cross-reference the same name which would be
rendered quite differently in the various systems (such Hsiin Tzu and Xunzi), but

there is no way in which this could be done in each and every instance, and so the

researcher would be well-advised to check through closely related spellings in order

to obtain as many references as possible for a given individual and/or subject.

Since this bibliography contains many entries written by Roman Catholic

nuns, brothers, and priests, the addition of an individual's religious order initials

(e.g., S.J. = Society of Jesus [Jesuits], SSC = Society of St. Columban [Columbans])
would indicate that the author is (or was) a member of the given religious order at

the time the work was authored. No attempt has been made to index the principal

names which appear extremely often such as: Buddha, Confucius, dtnd Jesus Christ.

Finally, since the bibliography itself is arranged topically, the items listed in a

particular topical subsection (e.g. Buddhist ethics, minjimg theology, shamanism) are

not separately indexed here.

A Final Note

A project such as this makes no pretensions to absolute completeness; such


an attempt would delay if not prevent the publication of the material gathered here.

Since my interest in these research areas will continue though I would be very

grateful of notice of missing items, new items, and correction of any errors or

incomplete entries.

James T. Bretzke, S.J., S.T.D.


Associate Professor of Christian Ethics
Jesuit School of Theology /Graduate Theological Union
1735 LeRoy Avenue
Berkeley, C A 94709-1193
E-mail: jbretzke@jstb.edu
5

GENERAL WORKS ON PHILOSOPHYi& RELIGION IN ASIA


Adams, Daniel J. Cross-Cultural Theology: Western Reflections in Asia. Atlanta:
John Knox Press, 1987.

Akinade, Akin. "The Meaning of Liberation in EATWOT." Asia Journal of


Theology 7 (1993): 297-306.

EATWOT is the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians.

Akira, Tsujimura. "Contrast in 'Way of Thinking' between East and West." In The
World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 4 The Confusion in Ethics
and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to
Redefinitions, 159-167. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok
Publishing Co., 1988.

All- Asia Conference on Evangelization [Suwon, Korea, 1988]. "Evangelization in


Asia Today: A Message to the Churches." East Asian Pastoral Review 25
(1988): 334-337.

Amaladoss, Michael, S.J. "Evangelization in Asia: A New Focus?" Vidyajyoti 51


(1987): 7-28.

Amaladoss is an Indian Jesuit, and served as one of the General Consultors


to the Jesuit Superior General in Rome from 1983 to 1995, and now teaches
at the Vidyajyoti College of Theology in Delhi, India.

Life in Freedom: Liberation Theologies from Asia. Maryknoll: Orbis Books,


1997.

In Part I Amaladoss discusses current liberation movements and thought in


Korea, the Philippines, and India. Part II addresses non-Christian approaches
to human liberation and freedom, showing how the lives and thought of
influential figures of other faiths have given distinctive shape to Asian
approaches to liberation.

. Making All Things New: Dialogue, Pluralism, and Evangelization in Asia.

Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1990.

Amalorpavadass, Duraisamy. "The Church as a Community of Faith in the Asian


Context." Japan Missionary Bulletin 37 (1983): 45-51.
Excerpt of contribution for the FABC (Federation of Asian Bishops
Conferences) Plenary Assembly (1982) on the church as a community of
faith, contrasted with the Hindu concept of community.

"Theology of Evangelization in the Asian Context." In Service and Salvation,


19-39. Edited by Joseph Pathrapankal. Bangalore: CMI, St. Peter's
Seminary, 1973.

Ames, Roger T., and Wimal Dissanayake, eds. Selfand Deception. Albany: SUNY
Press, 1996.

Reviewed by Vera Schwarcz in The Journal ofAsian Studies 56 (November


1997): 1043-1044.

Ames, Roger T., Wimal Dissanayake, and Thomas P. Kasulis, eds. Self as Body in
Asian Theory and Practice. Albany: State University of New York Press,
1992.

, eds. Self as Person in Asian Theory and Practice. Albany: State University
of New York Press (SUNY), 1994.

The authors examine the relationship between self and image and its

significance in attaining a deeper knowledge of Chinese, Japanese, and Indian


cultures.

Anderson, Gerald H. and Stransky, Thomas F., C.S.P., eds. Third World Theologies.
Mission Trends No. 3. New York: Paulist Press, 1976.

Anderson, Gerald H. Asian Voices in Christian Theology. MaryknoU: Orbis Books,


1976.

Athyal, Saphir. "Asian Views of Dialogue." Christianity Today (Jime 1977): 44-45.

Aumann, Jordan, et. al. Asian Religious Traditions and Christianity. Thomasian
Forum, no. 2. Manila: Faculty of Theology of the University of Santo Tomas,
1983.

Balasuriya, Tissa. Planetary Theology. MaryknoU: Orbis Books, 1984.

Author is from Sri Lanka and proposes Creation and Exodus as continuing
themes for Asian theology.
Reviewed by Philip L. Wickeri in his article, "Asian Theologies in Review,"
in TheologyToday 41 (1985): 4459-460.

Bamhart, Michael G. "Ideas of Nature in an Asian Context." Philosophy East and


West Al {My \991): A\1-A1>2.

Argues that the Asian ideas of nature and their ethical consequences are no
worse that those of the postmodern concept of nature endorsed by Holmes
Rolston, J. Baird Callicott, and others.

Bastes, Bishop Arturo. "Asian Formation for Consecrated Life." Origins 27 (7 May
1998): 115-111.

Address given by Bishop Bastes, Bishop of Romblon, Philippines, on 22


April 1998 at the Special Synod for Asia held in Rome. Bastes began his
address with the observation that "There are still strong indications that Asian
realities have not yet been taken seriously enough in the present practice of
the church's pastoral mission" (p. 775) and went on to focus on four areas
needing a "change of perspective: a shift from the perspective of a Euro-
centered church to an authentically Asian view, a shift in the understanding
of history, a shift in the model of the church, [and] a shift in the
understanding of spirituality." (p. 775). He went out to observe that world
religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism who considerably antedate
Christianity have "found a home in the hearts of Asians. Christianity itself

was bom in Asia, but it has been alienated from Asia because of the
perspective of a Euro-centered church." (p. 776). Finally, Bastes concluded
the judgment that a particular vocation of Asian religious is "to save Asia
fi-om the onslaught of materialismcoming from global market forces by the
wisdom and depth of Asian spirituality with which Asian feel [sic] at home,
which is not opposed to the teachings of Christ because they are a true
manifestation of God's Spirit working in all peoples." (p. 777).

Baum, William Cardinal. "Proclaiming the Truth about Jesus Christ." Origins 27
(7 May 1998): 772-773.

Address given by Baum, the head of the Vatican Penitentiary, on 27 April


1998 at the Special Synod for Asia held in Rome.

Bellah, Robert N., ed. Religion and Progress in Modern Asia. New York: Free
Press, 1965.

Bellah is (now retired) professor of sociology of religion at the University of


California, Berkeley, and taught prior to that at Harvard University.
8

Bettscheider, Heribet, S.V.D., ed. Das asiatische Gesicht Christi.


Veroffentlichungen des Missionspriester-Seminars St. Augustin bei Bonn, no.
25. St. Augustin: Steyler Verlag, 1976.

Billington, Ray. Understanding Eastern Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Discusses the main principles of Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Jainism, and


Confucianism, and draws comparisons and contrasts with Western religious
and philosophical traditions.

Boff, Leonardo, and Elizondo, Virgil, eds. "Any Room for Christ in Asia?"
Concilium (2/1993).

Issue devoted to the theme of Christianity in Asia.

Brarmigan, Michael C. Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values.


New York: Seven Bridges Press, 1 999.

Looks at Hindu, Buddhist, Zen, Taoist, and Confucian ethics. Each chapter
includes historical background, central ethical themes, primary sources,
review essay questions and an aimotated bibliography.

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "Cultural Particularity and the Globalization of Ethics in the
Light of Inculturation." Pacifica 9 (1996): 69-86.

Increased interest in the so-called "globalization of ethics" has led to a


number of studies which utilize various hermeneutical and conmiunicative
theories to sketch out viable paradigms for developing a fundamental
Christian ethics as a whole, as well as its various components such as moral
reasoning, which together would be capable of entering into and maintaining
such discourse. The accent of most of these studies falls on the
universalizability of ethical discourse and scant attention has been given to
the cultural particularity of each and every ethos and ethical system. This
article briefly rehearses the principal elements of the concerns raised by the

globalization of ethics and then focuses on Xh& particularity of culture using


insights from both cultural anthropology and inculturation. The Confucian
context of Korea is employed to illustrate some of the issues raised by greater
attention to cultural particularity.

Bretzke served as a missionary in Korea, teaching at Sogang University in


Seoul, before doing his doctorate in moral theology at the Pontifical
Gregorian University in Rome, at which institution he taught for three years
before joining the faculty of the Jesuit School of Theology/Graduate
Theological Union in Berkeley, California.

. "Moral Theology Out of East Asia." Theological Studies 61 (March 2000):


106-121.

Also digested version found in Tinig Loyola (Quezon City, Philippines) 2


(September 2000): 11-14; 29-29

Review of some of the main issues, recent developments and contributions


of Christian ethicians and others working in East Asia. Special attention is

paid to the recent Synod on Asia.

Brock, Rita Nakashima, and Thistlethwaite, Susan Brooks. Casting Stones:


Prostitution and Liberation in Asia and the United States. Minneapolis:
Fortress Press, 1 996.

Examines how the dynamics of religion, culture, history, politics, and


economics all play a role in the prostitution industry in Asia and the United
States. Countries particularly emphasized include South Korea, Japan, and
the Philippines, though this is a far-reaching and analytical study.

Reviewed by Margaret Eletta Guider in Journal ofthe American Academy of


Religion 66 (3/1998): 654-658.

Brock, Rita Nakashima. "Facing Sexual Exploitation: Understanding Prostitution in


Asia and the United States." Journal ofAsian and Asian American Theology
2 (Summer 1997): 4-20.

Biirkle, Horst. "How Can We Bring the Ephhapax of the Historical Christ Closer to
Asiatic Patterns of Thought?" Communio 15 (1988): 423-435.

Callicott, J. Baird, and Roger T. Ames, eds. Nature in Asian Traditions of Thought:
Essays in Environmental Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York
Press, 1989.

Carr, Brian, ed. Morals and Society in Asian Philosophy. Curzon Studies in Asian
Philosophy. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996.

This collection arises from the First Conference of the recently formed
European Society for Asian Philosophy. It explores issues in Indian, Chinese,
Japanese and Islamic philosophical traditions both ancient and modem.
10

Cairo, Daniel, and Wilson, Richard F., eds. Contemporary Gospel Accents: Doing
Theology in Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. Macon GA:
Mercer University Press, 1997.

Fourteen papers given by Baptist theologians at the 1995 Baptist World


Congress in Buenos Aires.

Reviewed by Jeff B. Pool in Religious Studies Review 24 (July 1998): 274.

Chang, Aloysius B., S.J. "Inter-religious dialogue: Basic Conditions and their
Theological Justification." East Asian Pastoral Review 18 (1981): 54-57.

Chang is the former Provincial of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in Taiwan.

. "The Spirituality of Dialogue." East Asian Pastoral Review 19 (1982): 398-


400.

Chia, Edmund, FSC. "Of Fork and Spoon or Fingers and Chopsticks: Interreligious
Dialogue in Ecclesia in Asia:' SEDOS Bulletin 32 (July 2000): 200-205.

Critical analysis of both the text of John Paul II's Apostolic Exhortation,
Ecclesia in Asia, as well as the process which led to the drafting of the text.
Chia notes that the document seems primarily an exhortation to the Church
in Asia (on the part of the Pope) rather than a genuine reflection of what
transpired at the Synod for Asia itself.

. "Turning 20, Embracing Dialogue: New Way of Being Church." Inter-


Religio 35 (Summer 1999): 3-15.

Argues be a key undertaking as the Church


that inter-religious dialogue will
comes of age and that in particular the Church in
in the third millennium,
Asia will lead the way in this area, and model to the universal Church the
importance of dialogue with the other great religions of the world. Moreover,
interreligious dialogue will be essential if the multi-faceted religious and
ethical challenges facing the world are to be effectively met.

Ching, Julia. The Butterfly Healing: A Life Between East and West. Maryknoll:
Orbis, 1998.

Deals with Ching' s personal accounts of physical and spiritual healing, using
resources from both the West and the East.
11

Ching was bom in Shanghai, was a Roman Catholic nun for several years,
and is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Toronto.

Clarke, J.J. Oriental Enlightenment: The Encounter between Asian and Western
Thought. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Reviewed by by J. Russell Kirkland in Religious Studies Review 25 (January


1 999): 1 20; and by Jeffrey L. Richey for H-Net Reviews in October 2000 and

cross-posted to the H-Asia e-mail list on 30 November 2000.

Clasper, Paul. "Christian Faith and Asia." Ching Feng 20 (1977): 89-97.

Clooney, Francis X., S.J. "A Response to Six Essays in Asian Hermeneutics."
Biblical Interpretation 11(1994): 367-370.

Clooney is an Indologist who teaches at Boston College.

Consultation on African and Asian Spirituality. "African and Asian Spirituality: New
Awareness and Orientation. Statement of Consultation on African and Asian
Spirituality. International Review of Mission 82 (1993): 229-234.

Cordes, Archbishop Paul. "Reflections on Dialogue, Harmony and Truth." Origins


27 (7 May 1998): 777-778.

Address given by Cordes, the president of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum,
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DiLorenzo outlined a number of concrete steps American "host" churches


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DiLorenzo is bishop of Honolulu.


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15

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First fruits of the new humanity, by Masao Takenaka. The impact of the
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of belief: as aspect of Christian mission, by Tsotomu shoji Tsutomu.
Theological reorientation, by Kuang Hsun Ting. God's politics of
construction, by Choan-Seng Song. Evangelism today, by Raymond Fung.
The Filipino Christian: guidelines for a response to Maoism, by E. de la
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by Bao. Recovering the power of life, by K. Sristang. Justing love, by A
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sense in theology, by Aloysius Pieris, S.J. Jesus of Nazareth and human
by P. Caspersz. Alienated church and signs of the times, by C.
liberation,
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1 979- 1 980 Gifford Lectures], Ninian Smart. Introduction, Frank Flinn. The
missionizing of the East and the meaning of mission in the New Testament,
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17

handmaiden of imperial expansion: the Church of England Pacific missions


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Donald W. Dayton. San-Chiao: religious dimensions of Pacific culture,
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of Watsuji Tetsuro's phenomenology, T. James Kodera. The Buddha's
thoughts on thinking: implications for ecumenical dialogue, Cromwell
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Francesco did his doctoral studies in systematic theology at the Graduate


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Address by Bishop Hadisimiarta of Monkwari-Sarong, Indonesia on behalf


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19

Address given by Jun Leo Ikenaga, Archbishop of Osaka, on 21 April 1998


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Homily of Pope John Paul II delivered on 14 May 1998 at the closing of the
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Homily of Pope John Paul II delivered on 19 April 1998 opening the Special
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21

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International Congress on Mission (IMC) Manila, 2-7 December, 1979.


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better
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Lee (1935-1996) is a Korean who taught first at the University of North


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24

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A series of articles, written by various Indian theologians, giving reflections


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ReviewedbyFrancisX.Clooney, S.J. in yimenca 179(31 October 1998): 16-


18.

Morse, Merrill. Kosuke Koyama: A Modelfor Intercidtural Theology. Studies in the


Intercultural History of Christianity 71.
, New York: Peter Lang, 1991.

Nacpil, Emerito and Elwood, Douglas J., eds. The Human and the Holy: Asian
Perspectives in Christian Theology. MaryknoU: Orbis Books, 1978.

Nacpil, Emerito P. "The Critical Asian Principle." In What Asian Christians Are
Thinking, 3-6. Edited by Douglas J. Elwood. Quezon City: New Day
Publishers, 1976.

Nemeshegyi, Peter, S.J. "Concepts and Experiences of God in Asia," Concilium 103
(1977): 37-47.

Jesuit missionary in Japan.

. "The Problem of Transposing the Judeo-Christian Idea of God into Greek and
Oriental Terms," Proceedings of the LX International Congress for History
of Religions. Tokyo: Maruzen, 1960. 161-171.

Nicholls, Bruce. "Towards an Asian Theology of Mission." Evangelical Missions


Quarterly 6 (2, \970y.65-7S.

O'Grady, Ron and Jin, Lee Soo. Suffering and Hope: An Anthology of Asian
Writings. Singapore: CCA, 1978.
27

Oh, Jae Shik, ed. Towards a Theology of People: I. Singapore: CCA, 1977.

Parkes, Graham, ed. Nietzsche and Asian Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1991.

Phan, Peter C, and Lee, Jung Young, eds. Journeys at the Margin: Toward an
Autobiographical Theology in American-Asian Perspective. Collegeville:
Liturgical Press, 1999.

Contains essays by nine Asian theologians who have lived and taught in
North America.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in The Living Light 36 (Summer 2000);


79-81.

Phan, Peter C. "Fides et Ratio and Asian Philosophies. Sharing the Banquet of
Truth." Science et Esprit 2>\ (3/1999): 333-349.

Analyzes the understanding of Asian philosophies in Pope John Paul IPs


1 998 encyclical Fides et Ratio (On Faith and Reason), and concludes that the
encyclical pays insufficient attention to the specific characteristics of Asian
philosophies and religions. Phan concludes by critiquing the encyclical's
suggested method of inculturation, and offers his own views on an authentic
Asian inculturation of the Christian faith.

Phan is professor of theology at the Catholic University of America in


Washington, D.C.

:_. "Kingdom of God: A Theological Symbol for Asians?" Gregorianum 79


(1998): 295-322.

Digested also in Theology Digest 47 (Spring 2000): 21-26.

Phan reviews the work of several Asian theologians, dealing with the
question of the theological appropriateness of the metaphor"Kingdom of
God," given the negative concrete experience many Asian peoples have had
with oppressive monarchical political structures. He concludes that the
metaphor can be properly understood within the context of liberation, and
that the signs of "anti-kingdom of God" should be clearly identified and
eradicated.
28

. Mission and Catechesis: Alexandre de Rhodes and Inculturation in


Seventeenth-Century Vietnam. Faith and Culture Series. Maryknoll: Orbis
Press, 1998.

Reviewed by Aram Berard, S.J. in Theological Studies 60 (June 1999): 386-


387.

Pieris, Aloysius, S.J. "An Asian Paradigm: Inter-religious Dialogue and Theology
of Religions." The Month 26 (April 1993)" 129-134.

First published in Qoholet in October 1992.

Pieris is a well-imown theologian from Sri Lanka.

. An Asian Theology ofLiberation. Faith Meets Faith Series. Maryknoll: Orbis


Books; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988.

Pieris is a Sri Lankan Jesuit, and has a doctorate in Buddhist studies. This
book is The book
a collection of several previously published essays.
appeared German as, Theologie der Befreiung in Asien: Christentum
first in

im Kontext der Armut undder Religonen, (Freiburg: Herder, 1986), and also
has been translated into French, Une theologie asiatique de la liberation,
(Paris: Centurion, 1990).

Reviewed by James Haire in Pacifica 3 (1990): 359-361; and by James H.


Kroeger, M.M. in Landas 3 (January 1989): 134-137.

. "Does Christ Have a Place in Asia? A Panoramic View." Concilium (2/1 993):
33-47.

Article in an entire issue devoted to the theme of Christianity in Asia.

. "Inculturation in non-Semitic Asia," The Month. 19 (March 1986): 83-87.

. Love Meets Wisdom. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1988.

. "The Non-Semitic Religions of Asia." In Mission in Dialogue, 426-441 Edited .

by M. Motte and J.R. Lange. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1982.

. "The Place of Non-Christian Religions and Cultures in the Evolution of a


Third World Theology," East Asian Pastoral Review 19 (2,1982), 17-18, 21-
25.
29

. "Speaking of the Son of God in Non-Christian Cultures, e.g., in Asia."


Concilium 153 (1982): 75-70.

. Theologie der Befreiung in Asien: Christentum im Kontext der Armut und der
Religonen. Freiburg: Herder, 1986.

See the English version: An Asian Theology ofLiberation. Faith Meets Faith
Series. Maryknoll: Orbis; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988.

. "A Theology of Liberation in Asian Churches?" East Asian Pastoral Review


23(2,1986): 117-137.

. "Towards an Asian Theology of Liberation: Some Religio-cultural


Guidelines." The Month (May, 1979): 148-159.

Prior, John Mansford, S.V.D. "Apostles and Martyrs: Consecrated Life at the

Bishops' Synod for Asia." Review for Religious 58 (1999): 6-27.

Reflections on religious life in light of the Asian Bishops' Synod held in


Rome from 19 April to 14 May 1998.

Prior has worked in Indonesia since 1973, and was liaison officer for the
English-speaking press at the Synod for Asia.

. "A Tale of Two Synods: Observations on the Special Assembly for Asia."
SEDOS Bulletin 30 (August/September 1998): 219-224.

Overview of the Synod for Asia, stressing the agenda and interventions of the
Asian bishops, with the agenda and control of the synodal process by the
Vatican curia.

Quevedo, Archbishop Orlando. "Formation in the Social Teaching of the Church."


Landas 6 (1/1992): 3-17.

Revised address given as the Keynote to the Asian Seminary Rectors and
Formators meeting in Tagaytay City, Philippines on 25 October 1991.

. "Steps Toward Renewing the Church in Asia." Origins 29 (10 February


2000): 545; 547-548.

Quevedo is Archbishop of Cotabato, Philippines, and this is the inaugural


address of the Federation of Asian Bishops Conferences (FABC) which met
in Sam Phran, Thailand on 4-14 January 2000 (which meeting followed the
publication of Pope John Paul IPs Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation
Ecclesia in Asia. For a related address, in a different vein, see Cardinal Jozef
Tomko's "Dialogue, Inculturation and Evangelization in Asia," published in
thesame issue of Origins.

Quiring, John. "The Two-Self Concept: East and West." Journal of Asian and
Asian American Theology 1 (Summer 1996): 63-76.

Raguin, Yves, S.J. "The Dialogue of Communities of Faith in Asia." East Asian
Pastoral Review 20(1983): 167-169.

Raguin was a French Jesuit missionary in Taiwan who lived froml912 to


1998.

. Ways of Contemplation East and West. Taipei: Taipei Ricci Institute for
Chinese Studies, 1997.

Roest CroUius, Ary A.,S.J., ed. Inculturation: Working Papers on Living Faith and
Cultures, 14 vols. Rome: Centre "Cultures and Religions" - Pontifical
Gregorian University, 1982-1993.

Ro, Bong Rin, and Eschenaur, Ruth, eds. The Bible and Theology in Asian Contexts:
An Evangelical Perspective on Asian Theology. Taichung: Asia Theological
Association, 1984.

Ro, Bong Rin, ed. The Voice of the Church in Asia: Third Asia Theological
Association Consultation papers on Biblical Salvation, TEE, and Theological
Education. Taichung: Asia Theological Association, 1975.

Ro, Bong Rin. "Contextualization: Asian Theology." in What Asian Christians are
Thinking: A Theological Source Book, 47-58. Edited by Douglas J. Elwood.
Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 1978.

Rousseau, Richard W., S.J., ed. Christianity and the Religions of the East: Models
for a Dynamic Relationship. Scranton: Ridge Row, Press, 1 982.

Samy, Ama, S.J. "May a Christian Practice Zen or Yoga?" Inculturation 5 (Spring,
1990): 28-32.

Samy, an Indian Jesuit Zen master, addresses this question in the light of a
critique of the 1989 "Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on some
Aspects of Christian Meditation" of the Congregation for Doctrine of the
Faith (CDF).
31

Sartori, Luigi. "The Theological Theme of Salvation and Liberation and the Maoist
Concept of a New Humanity." Concilium 126 (1979): 65-74.

Seda, Frans. "The Task of the Catholic University in the Dialogue Between Faith
and Culture in a Plural Multireligious Society (The Indonesian Experience)."
In Faith and Culture: The Role of the Catholic University, 98-110.
Inculturation: Working Papers on Living Faith and Cultures, no. 1 1 Edited .

by Ary A. Roest Crollius, S.J.,. Rome: Centre "Cultures and Religions" -


Pontifical Gregorian University, 1989.

Segovia, Fernando F. "The Emerging Project of Asian Biblical Hermeneutics:


Reading Asian Readers." Theology & Sexuality 1(1994): 371-373.

Sin, Jaime L. Cardinal. "Carving Out the 'Asian Face' of Christ: Challenge to a New
Ecclesiastical Faculty." Landas 13 (2/1999): 100-105.

Address given by Cardinal Sin on the occasion of the official declaration of


the Loyola School of Theology as a Pontifical Ecclesiastical Faculty on 10
September 1999.

Sin is Cardinal Archbishop of Manila.

Singh, S.B.B.B. "How Cultures of East and West Meet the Challenge of
Acculturation in Global Industrialization." In The World Community in Post-
Industrial Society. Vol. 4 The Confusion in Ethics and Values in
Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 138-146.
Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988.

Smart, Ninian. "The Comparative View of the Person: East and West." In East-
West Encounters in Philosophy and Religion, 3-8. Edited by Ninian Smart
and B. Srinivasa Murthy. Long Beach: Long Beach Publications, 1996.

Sodano, Angelo Cardinal. "The Roman Curia's Role." Origins 27 (7 May 1998):
774-775.

Address given by Cardinal Sodano, the Vatican's Secretary of State, on 28


April 1 998 at the Special Synod for Asia in Rome.

Song, Choan-Seng. The Believing Heart: An Invitation to Story Theology.


Minneapolis: Augsburg Press, 1999.

Song is Professor of Theology and Asian Cultures at the Pacific School of


Religion in Berkeley, California.
32

Christian Mission in Reconstruction: An Asian Analysis. Maryknoll: Orbis


Books, 1977.

The Compassionate God. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1982.

Jesus, The Crucified People. New York: Crossroads, 1990.

Volume I of Song's three-volume work on Christology.

Jesus and the Reign of God. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993.

Volume II of Song's three-volume work on Christology.

Jesus in the Power of the Spirit. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1994.

Volume III of Song's three-volume work on Christology.

"New Frontiers of Theology in Asia." Ching Feng 22 (1979): 1-28.

. The Tears of Lady Meng: A Parable of People's Political Theology.


Maryknoll: Orbis, 1982.

. Tell Us Our Names: Story Theology from an Asian Perspective. Maryknoll:


Orbis, 1984.

. Theology from the Womb ofAsia. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1986.

. Third-Eye Theology: Theology in Formation in Asian Settings. Maryknoll:


Orbis, 1979.

Special Synod for Asia. "Lineamenta: Jesus Christ the Savior: Mission of Love and
Service in Asia. Origins 26 (23 January 1997): 501; 503-520.

The working document prepared by the Vatican in preparation for the Special
Synod of Asian Bishops help in Rome in 1998. All of the major documents
of this Synod are found in subsequent issues of Origins. See "Synod for
Asia" in the Index for other articles and addresses given in conjunction with
this meeting.

. "Message to the People of God." Or/gm5 28 (28 May 1998): 17; 19-22.

Final message of the Synod for Asia which was meant to take up many of the
key points discussed during the Synod itself According to one observer
33

present (John Mansford Prior), the Synodal final message "erased" many of
the voices of individual bishops and the small working groups, but
nevertheless the final document did touch upon many items such as respect
for Asian non-Christian religions and recognition of many of the particular
ethical challenges facing Asia, including globalization, international debt,
pastoral care of migrant workers, refugees, the dignity and equality of
women, and so on. In reference to respect for the strong Asian humanist
heritage the document expressed "esteem [for] the ethical values in the
customs and practices found in the teachings of the great philosophers of
Asia, which promote natural virtues and pious devotion to ancestors" (p. 1
9)
and the necessity for the three-fold "dialogue with the cultures of Asia,
dialogue with the religions of Asia, and with the peoples of Asia, especially
the poor." (p. 20).

Staffner, Hans, S.J. The Significance ofJesus Christ in Asia. Anand: Gujarat Sahitya
Prakash, 1985.

Stilwell, Ewan. "Towards a Melanesian Theology of Conversion." Melanesian


Journal of Theology 9 (1993): 29-42.

Sugirtharajah, R.S., ed. Frontiers in Asian Christian Theology : Emerging Trends.


Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1994.

Contributors include Chung Hyun Kyung, Aloysius Pieris, Kwok Pui Lan,
Peter K.H. Lee,, Arvind P. Nirmal, Stanley J. Samartha, M. M. Thomas, and
Samuel Rayan.

Sugirtharajah, R.S. Asian Biblical Hermeneutics and Postcolonialism. The Bible


and Liberation. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1998.

Looks at biblical hermeneutics from a postcolonial perspective which seeks


to "write back" and work against colonial ideology.

Sugirtharajah is from Sri Lanka and is senior lecturer in Third World


Theologies at Selly Oak Colleges in Birmingham, England.

Reviewed by Yeo, Khiok-khng in Catholic Biblical Quarterly 62 (January


2000): 166-168.

. "Introduction, and Some Thoughts on Asian Biblical Hermeneutics."


Theology & Sexuality 1(1994): 251-263.
34

. "Lady Meng." In Frontiers in Asian Christian Theology: Emerging Trends,


130-137. Edited by. R. S. Sugirtharajah. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1994.

. Voices from the Margin: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World. 2d ed.
Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1995.

Tagle, Luis Antonio G. "The Renewal That Awaits the Church in Asia: A
Theological and Ecclesiological Reflection on Renewal." Landas 13
(1/1999): 14-35.

Originally presented at the Seventh Plenary Assembly of the FABC on 4


January 2000 in Sampran, Thailand.

Takenaka, Masao. God is Rice: Asian Culture and Christian Faith. The Risk Book
Series. Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1986.

Dr. Takenaka is a well-known ecumenical Asian theologian who teaches at


Doshisha University in Kyoto. Book contains an Introduction and four
essays: "God is Rice," "Christ and Culture in Asia," "The Ethics of
Betweenness," (a case study of Shozo Tanaka who was a pioneer of the
ecological and people's movement in Japan); and "Christ of Wabi" (a
Christian reflection on beauty in the Japanese cultural context).

Tang, Edmund. "East Asia: The Politics of Inculturation," Pro Mundi Vita Bulletin
104(1/1986).

Thomas, M.M. "Some Issues for Christian Ethics in Asia." Religion and Society 23
(December 1976): 63-73.

Thomas, T.K., ed. Christianity in Asia: North-East Asia. Singapore: CCA, 1979.

Titaley, John A. "A sociohistorical analysis of the Pancasila as Indonesia's state


ideology in the light of the royal ideology in the Davidic state." Thesis (D.
Th)— Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, 1991.

Tomko, Jozef Cardinal. "Dialogue, Inculturation and Evangelization in Asia."


Origins 29 (10 February 2000): 549-553

Keynote address given by the Cardinal Prefect of the Vatican's Congregation


for the Evangelization of Peoples (Propaganda Fide) to the Federation of
Asian Bishops Conferences (FABC) which met in Sam Phran, Thailand on
4-14 January 2000 (which meeting followed the publication of Pope John
Paul II's Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Asia. For a related
35

address, in a different vein, see Archbishop Orlando Quevedo's inaugural


address, "Steps Toward Renewing the Church in Asia," published in the same
issue of Origins.

. "The Uniqueness of Jesus Christ." Origins 27 (7 May 1998): 779-780.

Address given by Cardinal Tomko, the head of the Vatican's Congregation


for the Evangelization of Peoples, on 28 April 1998 at the Special Synod for
Asia held in Rome.

Tweed, Thomas A., and Prothero, Stephen, eds. Asian Religions in America. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Covers the period from 1788 to the present.

Waliggo, J.M., Roest Crollius, A., S.J., Nkeramihigo, T., S.J., and Mutiso-Mbinda,
J. Inculturation: Its Meaning and Urgency. Nairobi: St. Paul Publications-
Africa, 1986.

Not specifically about Asia, but important for seminal essays on


inculturation.

Wickeri, Philip L. "Asian Theologies in Review." Theology Today 41 (1985): 458-


462.

Wickeri, who taught at the Tao Fong Shan Ecumenical Centre in Hong Kong,
and is currently professor of world religion at San Francisco Theological
Seminary (a member school of the Graduate Theological Union), reviews
four works on Asian theology, all published by Orbis Books (Maryknoll,
NY): Parig Digan's Churches in Contestation: Asian Christian Social Protest,
(1984); Tissa Balasuriya's Planetary Theology ( 1984); Minjung Theology:
People as Subjects ofHistory, CCA, ed., (1 984), and C.S. Song's Tell Us Our
Names: Story Theology from an Asian Perspective, (1984).

Wilfred, Felix. "Inculturation: Reflections in the Asian Context." SEDOS Bulletin


6(15 June 1989): 185-194.

Wilfred is an Indian theologian.

Wolfe, Regina Wentzel, and Gudorf, Christine E., eds. Ethics and World Religions:
Cross-Cultural Case Studies. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1999.
36

Presents a variety of case studies using a moral quandary and then gives
responses by two or three authors who represent a variety of different
religious and/or cultural backgrounds.

Wong, Bosco C.K. "The Transposition of Christ: A Critical Examination of Choan-


Seng Song's Vision of Incarnating the Gospel Message and Its Implications
for Evangelization in the Asian Context." S.T.D. Dissertation, Pontificia
Universita Gregoriana. Rome, 1990.

Directed by Jacques Dupuis, S.J. Has a good bibliography.

Yap, Kim Hao, ed. Asian Theological Reflections on Suffering and Hope. Asia
Focus Series. Singapore: CCA, 1977.

Yewangoe, Andreas Anangguru. Theologia Crucis in Asia: Asian Christian Views


on Suffering in the Face of Overwhelming Poverty and Multifaceted
Religiosity in Asia. Amsterdam Studies in Theology, 7. Amsterdam: Rodopi,
1987.

Published doctoral dissertation. Author is from Indonesia and considers first

Asia as a whole, and then presents separate chapters on India, Korea


(including MinjungXh&oXogy), Japan, and Indonesia, and then concludes with
a final overview and analysis. Has an extensive bibliography, which
unfortunately is not subdivided in any way.

Zago, Marcello, O.M.I. "Dialogue in the Mission of the Churches of Asia:


Theological Bases and Pastoral Perspectives." East Asian Pastoral Review
19 (1982): 388-397.

Zago was a missionary in Asian, and former superior general of the Oblates
of Mary Immaculate (O.M.I.).

. "Evangelization in the Religious Situation of Asia," Concilium 114 (1978):


72-84.

The bulk of this article is on the possibility of being a Christian Buddhist, but
Zago's knowledge of Buddhism seems to be limited to the Thai-Laos variety.
37

EAST ASIAN RELIGIONS AND PHILOSOPHY

BUDDHISM

N.B. See also the sub-sections on Buddhism in the geographical sections


of Japan and Korea in this bibliography.

Primary Sources

Carter, John Ross, and Palihawadana, Mahinda, trans. The Dhammapada. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Chang, Garma C.C. The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa. 2 vols. Boston:
Shambhala, 1962, 1989.

Chinul. The Korean Approach to Zen: The Collected Works ofChinul. Translated
with an Introduction by Robert E. Buswell, Jr. Honolulu: University of
Hawaii Press, 1983.

Cleary, Thomas, trans. Dhammapada: The Sayings ofBuddha. New York: Wisdom
(Bantam), 1995.

Conze, Edward, trans. Buddhist Scriptures. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin


Books, 1959.

Conze, Edward, trans. Buddhist Wisdom Books: The Diamond Sutra. The Heart
Sutra. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.

Conze, Edward, LB. Homer, David Snellgrove, and Arthur Waley, trans, and eds.
Buddhist Texts through the Ages. Oxford: Oneworld Publications.

Crosby, Kate, and Skilton, Andrew, trans. The Bodhicaryavatara: A Guide to the
Buddhist Path to Awakening [Santideva]. New York: Oxford University
Press, 1996.

Garfield Jay L., trans, and commentary. The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle
Way: Nagarjuna s Mulamadhyamakakarika. New York: Oxford University
Press, 1995.

Nagarjuna was a Buddhist saint who lived in South India in the first century,
C.E.
38

Green, James, trans. The Recorded Sayings ofZen Master Joshu. With a foreword
by Keido Fukisima Roshi. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1998.

First full English translation of the sayings, lectures, dialogues, poetry, and
records from the pilgrimages of the Zen master Joshu (778-897 CE).

Kapleau, Roshi Philip. The Three Pillars of Zen: Teaching, Practice, and
Enlightenment. Compiled and edited, with translations, introductions, and
notes by Philip Kapleau. Foreword by Huston Smith. Revised and expanded
edition. New York: Doubleday Anchor Press, 1960, 1985.

Kim, Tae-Keo, Taesan [The Prime Master]. The Essentials of the Chongjon (The
Canon of Won Buddhism) Translated by Bongkil Chung. Iri (South Korea):
.

Wongkwang Publishing, 1988.

Contains a side-by-side English and Hangul (Korean alphabet) translation of


the Chongjon.

Leggett, Trevor, comp. and trans. A First Zen Reader. Rutland VT and Tokyo:
Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1960.

Price, A. F. and Wong Mou-lam, trans. The Diamond Sutra and The Sutra ofHui-
Neng. With Forwards by W. Y. Evans- Wentz and Christmas Humphreys.
Boston: Shambhala, 1990.

Radhakrishnan, S. The Dhammapada. With Introductory Essays, English


Translation and Notes. New York: Oxford University Press, 1950, 1997.

Thurman, Robert A.F., trans. The Tibetan Book of the Dead: Liberation through
Understanding in the Between. New York: Bantam, 1 994.

Zibo. Zibo: The Last Great Zen Master of China. Translation and Commentary by
J.C. Cleary. Forward by Thomas Cleary. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press,
AHP Paperbacks, 1989.

Buddhist Ethics

Abe, Masao. "A Buddhist View of Human Rights." In Human Rights and Religious
Values: An Uneasy Relationship?, 144-153. Edited by Abdullah! A. An-
Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, and Hendrik M. Vroom, Amsterdam:
39

Editions Rodopi, 1995; Grand Rapids, MI: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing


Company, 1995.

Masao Abe, a Japanese Buddhist scholar who has worked closely with
Westerners in various ecumenical settings, states unequivocally that "the
exact equivalent of the phrase 'human rights' in the Western sense carmot be
found anywhere in the Buddhist goes on to explain
literature" (p. 144), but
that themore than a simple lack of an equivalent term is missing in
Buddhism, there are fundamental differences between Buddhist and Western
religious anthropologies that account for these divergences. For example.
Buddhism could not speak of "human" rights apart from a point of view
which embraced all sentient beings, and more importantly, "in Buddhism,
human rights and human freedom cannot be legitimately grasped without a
proper understanding of the self (p. 145), and in Buddhism the self is always
understood as "not an absolute but a relative entity." (P. 145). Nevertheless,
Abe does point to some contributions Buddhism could make to the larger area
of religious tolerance and human rights, though at least one of his suggestions
may not be easily embraced, since he argues for the "elimination of the
attachment to doctrine and dogma" and a "new understanding of
(p. 147),
monotheism" which may be with an affirmation of the
difficult to reconcile
uniqueness of Jesus Christ as universal savior. However, some of his other
suggestions, such as emphasizing wisdom and compassion, rather than just
stressing "justice" and "righteousness" may certainly find a resonance not
only within the East Asian religious ethos, but also with a number of the
interventions made by Asian bishops and other theologians.

Aitken, Robert. The Mind of Clover: Essays in Zen Buddhist Ethics. San Francisco:
North Point Press, 1984.

Anesaki, M. Buddhist Ethics and Morality. Monograph from Dr. Hastings'


Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 1912.

Aronson, Harvey B. "The Relationship of Karmic to Nirvanic in Theravada


Buddhism." Journal of Religious Ethics 7(1979):

Part of this issue's "Focus" section on Theravada Buddhist Ethics.

Becker, Carl B. "Buddhist Views of Suicide and Euthanasia." Philosophy East and
Pfe^r 40 (1990): 543-556.

Originally presented as a paper at the 19th armual convention of the


California State University, Fullerton, Philosophy Symposium, held from 1 -3

March 1 989, and whose theme was "Japanese Morality: East/West Dialogue."
40

Berry, Thomas, C.P. "The Problem of Moral Evil and Guilt in Early Buddhism."
Concilium 6 (1970): 126-133.

One of a series of articles on various aspects of evil, guilt, psychology, sin,

and ethics.

Brear, A.D. "The Nature and Status of Moral Behavior in Zen Buddhist Tradition."
Philosophy East and West 24 (1974): 429-441.

Burford, Grace G. Desire, Death and Goodness: The Conflict of Ultimate Value in
Theravada Buddhism. New York: Peter Lang, 1991.

Reviewed by Charles Hallisey in Religious Studies Review 18 (1992): 276-


285.

Camps, Amulf "The Pursuit of Full Humanity: An Asian Christian View of Human
Rights." In Human Rights and Religious Values: An Uneasy Relationship?,
183-191. Edited by. Abdullahi A. An-Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen,
and Hendrik M. Vroom. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1 995; Grand Rapids,
MI: Wm
B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995.

Carmody, Denise Lardner, and Carmody, John Tully. "Buddhist Ethics." Chapter
5 in Id. How to Live Well: Ethics in the World Religions, 1 14-136. Belmont
CA: Wadsworth, 1988.

As a whole the book is organized into two major sections, Western Religious
Ethics and Eastern Religious Ethics. The former considers Jewish, Christian,
and Islamic ethics, while the up Hindu, Buddhist, Chinese, and
latter takes

Japanese ethics.

Cams, Paul. Karma: A Study of Buddhist Ethics. 6"" ed. Chicago: Open Court
Press, 1903, 1917.

Cams was a well-known Asian scholar who lived from 1852-1919.

Chappell, David W. "Searching for a Mahayana Social Ethic." Journal ofReligious


Ethics 24 (Fall 1996): 351-275.

One of several articles in this issue on Buddhist ethics.

Clasquin, Michel. "Contemporary Theravada and Zen Buddhist Attitudes to Human


Sexuality: An Exercise in Comparative Ethics." Religion 22 (1992): 63-83.
.

41

Dalai Lama. Ethics for a New Millennium. Riverhead Book, 1999.

De Silva, Padmasiri. "Human Rights in Buddhist Perspective." In Human Rights and


Religious Values: An Uneasy Relationship? 133-143. Edited by Abdullahi
,

A. An-Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, and Hendrik M. Vroom.


Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1995; Grand Rapids, MI: Wm B. Eerdmans
Publishing Company, 1995.

Dharmasiri, Gunapala. The Fundamentals ofBuddhist Ethics. Antioch C A: Golden


Leaves Publishing, 1988.

Reviewed by Charles Hallisey in Religious Studies Review 18 (1992): 276-


285.

Fu, Charles Wei-Hsun, and Wawrytko, Sandra A., eds. Buddhist Ethics and Modern
Society: An International Symposium. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1 99.1

Reviewed by Charles Hallisey in Religious Studies Review 18 (1992): 276-


285.

. Buddhist Behavioral Codes and the Modern World. Westport CT:


Greenwood Press, 1994.

Gilkey, Langdon. "Ethics in Christianity and Buddhism." Chapter 10 in Id.,


Through The Tempest: Theological Voyages in a Pluralistic Culture, 1 57-
165. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991.

Gilkey is Shailer Matthews Professor Emeritus at the University of Chicago


Divinity School.

Gross, Rita M. Soaring and Settling: Buddhist Perspectives on Social and


Theological Issues. New York: Continuum, 1998.

Discusses issues ranging from environmental ethics to children's rights, as


well as a variety of religious issues.

Gruzalski, Bart. "Four Aspects of Buddhist Ethics Unfamiliar in the West." In East-
-West Encounters in Philosophy and Religion, 166-175. Edited by Ninian

Smart and B. Srinivasa Murthy. Long Beach: Long Beach Publications,


1996.

Hall, Bruce C. "The Virtues of Listening: Some Buddhist Perspectives on the Role
of Ethics in the Dialogue Among World Religions." Chapter 7 in Ethics,
42

Religion, and the Good Society: New Direction in a Pluralistic World, 1 72-
177. Edited by Joseph Runzo. Westminster: John Knox Press, 1992.

Hallisey, Charles, and Hansen, Anne. "Narrative, Sub-Ethics, and the Moral Life:
Some Evidence from Theravada Buddhism." Journal ofReligious Ethics 24
(Fall 1996): 305-327.

One of several articles in this issue on Buddhist ethics.

Hallisey, Charles. "Ethical Particularism in Theravada Buddhism." Journal of


Buddhist Ethics 3 (1996): 32-43.

. "Recent Works on Buddhist Ethics." Religious Studies Review 1 8 (1 992):


276-285.

Harris, Ian. "Buddhist Environmental Ethics and Detraditionalization: The Case of


EcoBuddhism." Religion 25 {My 1995): 199-211.

. "Causation and Telos: The Problem of Buddhist Environmental Ethics."


Journal of Buddhist Ethics 1 (1994): 45-56.

Harvey, Peter. "Criteria for Judging the Unwholesome of Actions in the Texts of
Theravada Buddhism." Journal of Buddhist Ethics 2 (1995): 140-150.

Herman, A.L. "The Way of the Lotus: Critical Reflections on the Ethics of the
Saddharmapundarika Sutra." Asian Philosophy 7 (March 1997): 5-22.

Hoffman, Frank J. Rationality and Mind in Early Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal


Banarsidass, 1987.

Hoshino, Eiki; and Takeda, Dosho. "Indebtedness and Comfort: The Undercurrents
of Mizuko Kuyo in Contemporary Japan." Japan Missionary Bulletin 42
(1988): 146-158.

The understanding of the dead and spirits as background for the attitude
shown for children lost in abortion in Japan.

Ikeda, Daisaku. "Peace and Human Security: A Buddhist Perspective for the
Twenty-First Century." With Commentary by Robert Thurman and Tu
Weiming. Boston: Boston Research Center, 1995.

Ikeda (bom 1928), president of the Sokka Gakkai, delivered this address on
26 January 1 995 at the East- West Center in Hawaii.
43

Inada, Kenneth K. "The Buddhist Perspective on Human Rights." In Human Rights


in Religious Traditions, 66-76. Edited by Arlene Swidler. New York: Pilgrim
Press, 1982.

. "A Buddhist Response to the Nature of Human Rights." In Asian


Perspectives on Human Rights, 91-103. Edited by Welch, Claude E., Jr., and
Virginia A. Leary. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1990.

Also found in Journal of Buddhist Ethics 2 (1995):


http://wA\av.psu.edu/ibe/ibe.html

Jackson, Roger R. "Ambiguous Sexuality: Imagery and Interpretation in Tantric


Buddhism." Religion 22 (1992): 85-100.

Jayatilleke, K.N. Ethics in Buddhist Perspective. Kandy: Buddhist Publication


Society, 1972.

Jones, Ken J. The Social Face of Buddhism: An Approach to Political and Social
Activism. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1989.

Katz, Steven T. "Ethics and Mysticism in Eastern Mystical Traditions." Religious


Studies 2S (1992): 253-267.

Discusses Hindu and Buddhist traditions.

Originally delivered as the first of two David Baumgardt Memorial Lectures,


sponsored by the American Philosophical Association, at Harvard University
on 10 November 1984.

Kalupahana, David J. Ethics in Early Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii


Press, 1995.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Theological Studies 58 (1997): 197-


198.

Keown, Damien V., Prebish, Charles S., and Husted, Wayne R., eds. Buddhism and
Human Rights. London: Curzon Press, 1998.

Keown, Damien, ed. Buddhism and Abortion. Honolulu : University of Hawaii


Press, 1999.

Keovm, Damien. "Are There 'Human Rights' in Buddhism?" Journal of Buddhist


Ethics 2 (1995): 3-27.
44

This article is available electronically via


ftp://ftp, cac.psu. edii/pub/jbe/vol2/keown. txt.

. Buddhism & Bioethics. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

. "Karma, Character, and Consequentialism." Journal of Religious Ethics 24


(Fall 1996): 329-350.

Relates the doctrine of karma to Western ethical concepts, and disputes the
common view that Buddhist ethics is essentially consequentialistic. In his
discussion Keown makes use of Philip J. Ivanhoe's notion of "character
consequentialism" (which the latter developed in relation to Confucian
ethics). One of several articles in this issue on Buddhist ethics.

. The Nature of Buddhist Ethics. London: Macmillan, 1990.

Reviewed by L.S. Cousins in Religious Studies 30 (1994): 252-254.

King, Sallie B. "Human Rights in Contemporary Engaged Buddhism. " In Buddhist


Theology: Critical Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars, ed.
Roger R. Jackson and John J. Makransky, 293-311. Richmond, Surrey:
Curzon Press, 2000.

King, Winston. In the Hope ofNibbana: An Essay on Theravada Buddhist Ethics.


LaSalle Open Court, 1964.

Kochumuttom, Thomas. "Ethics-Based Society of Buddhism." Journal ofDharma


16 (1991): 410-420.

Kraft, Kenneth. "Prospects of a Socially Engaged Buddhism." In Inner Peace,


World Peace: Essays on Buddhism and Non-Violence, 11-30. Edited by
Kenneth Kraft. Albany, New York: SUNY Press, 1992.

Kupperman, Joel J. "The Supra-moral in Religious Ethics: The Case of Buddhism."


Journal of Religious Ethics 1 (1973): 65-72.

LaFleur, William R. Liquid Life: Abortion and Buddhism in Japan. Princeton:


Princeton University Press, 1 994.

Treats the Japanese ritual practice of mizuko kuyo of atonement for abortion.

La Fleur is professor of Japanese in the Department of Oriental Studies at the


University of Pennsylvania.
45

Lee, Chung Ok. "Unity Beyond Religious and Ethnic Conflict Based on a Universal
Declaration of a Global Ethic: A Buddhist Perspective."

Little, David, and Twiss, Sumner B. "Religion and Morality in Theravada


Buddhism." Chapter 8 in Id. Comparative Religious Ethics, 210-250. New
York: Harper & Row, 1978.

Little, David. "Ethical Analysis and Wealth in Theravada Buddhism: A Response


to Frank Reynolds." In Ethics, Wealth and Salvation: A Study in Buddhist
Ethics, 77-86. Edited by Russell F. Sizemore and Donald K. Swearer.
Studies in Comparative Religion. Columbia: University of South Carolina
Press. 1990.

See Reynolds' own essay in the same volume, pp. 59-76.

Macy, Joarma Rogers. "Dependent Co-Arising: The Distinctiveness of Buddhist


Ethics." Journal of Religious Ethics 7 (1979): 38-53.

Part of this issue's "Focus" section on Theravada Buddhist Ethics.

May, John D'Arcy. "'Rights of the Earth' and 'Care for the Earth': Two Paradigms
for a Buddhist-Christian Ecological Ethic." Horizons 21 (1994): 48-61.

Mikkelson, Douglas K. "Who Is Arguing about the Cat? Moral Action and
Enlightenment according to Dogen." Philosophy East and West 47 (July
1997): 383-398.

An analysis of Dogen' s commentary on Nan-ch'uan's Cutting of the Cat, as


found of the Shobogenzo Zuimonki. Argues that Dogen's
in section 1.6
conception of /zw/z/ryo ("without thinking") is the key to understanding his
moral vision.

Nakasone, Ronald Y. Ethics of Enlightenment: Essays and Sermons in Search of a


Buddhist Ethic. Fremont CA: Dharma Cloud Publishers, 1990.

Reviewed by Charles Hallisey in Religious Studies Review 18 (1992): 276-


285.

Nakasone has taught for several years at the Graduate Theological Union in
Berkeley, California.

Niwano, Nikkyo. A Buddhist Approach to Peace. Translated by Masuo Ne2xi.


Tokyo: Kosei Publishing, 1977.
46

Uses the Lotus Sutra as the center for his reflection on a Buddhist approach
to world peace in the context of inter-religious cooperation. Author is
president of the Buddhist lay organization Rissho Kosei-kai, and also
participated as an observer in Vatican II.

O'Connor, June. "Ritual Recognition of Abortion: Japanese Buddhist Practices and


American Jewish and Christian Proposals."

Discusses the Japanese ritual practice of mizuko kuyo for atonement for
abortions. Paper discussed at the Special Interest Session on Comparative
Ethics at the Annual Convention of the Society of Christian Ethics, 7-9
January 1994 in Chicago and also presented at the aimual meeting of the
Society of Christian Ethics (Western Region) held at the University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1 8 February 1 994.

O'Cormor teaches in the Department of Religious Studies at the University


of California, Riverside.

Omatowski, Gregory. "Continuity and Change in the Economic Ethics of Buddhism


- Evidence from the History of Buddhism in India, China and Japan." The
Journal of Buddhist Ethics 3 (1996): 198-240.

This article can be found on the journal's World Wide Web site in the Adobe
Acrobat version at http://www.psu.edu/jbe/omatowl .html

Abstract (provided by the Journal of Buddhist Ethics): Buddhist economic


ethics for monks and laity historically shared a common principle of non-
attachment to wealth. At the same time, while lay economic ethics have
consistently stressed merchant-type values and the importance of giving to
the sangha (daana), monastic ethics underwent major changes. This is true
especially in Chinese and Japanese Mahayana Buddhism where monasteries
and monks engaged in major commercial activities, including usury, pawn-
brokering, and the like. These activities led to large accumulations of wealth,
held by both monasteries and individual monks. While Buddhism historically
thus was not inimical to economic development nor to the rise of capitalism,
Buddhist ethics ultimately did not play the same type of role attributed to the
Protestant ethic in the West. Moreover an analysis of Buddhist soteriologies
and major concepts such as anaatman, karma, patiitya-samutpaada, daana,
and karu.naa, reveals that issues of economic equality and justice in
Buddhism are dealt with less by attempting to change the existing distribution
of wealth than by cultivating the proper ethical attitudes toward wealth and
giving.
47

Omatowski teaches at Boston University.

Paige, Glenn D., and Gilliatt, Sarah, eds. Buddhism and Nonviolent Global
Problem-solving: Ulan Bator Explorations. Honolulu: Center for Global
Nonviolence Planning Project, Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace,

University of Hawaii, 1991.

Seminar on Buddhism and Leadership for Peace held in Ulan Bator,


Mongolia, Aug. 15-20, 1989.

Perera, L.P.N. Buddhism and Human Rights. A Buddhist Commentary on the


Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights. Colombo: Kanmaratne and Sons,
1991.

Perrett, Roy. "Egoism, Altruism, and Intentionalism in Buddhist Ethics." Journal


of Indian Philosophy 15 (1987): 71-85.

Piryns, Ernest D. "Buddhist Contributions to the Japanese Ethic." The Japan


Mission Journal 5\ (Spring 1997): 42-45.

Powers, John, and Curtin, Deane. "Mothering: Moral Cultivation in Buddhist and
Feminist Ethics. " Philosophy East and West 44 (1 994): 1-18.

Prebish, Charles S. "Ambiguity and Conflict in the Study of Buddhist Ethics: An


Introduction." Journal of Religious Ethics 24 (Fall 1996): 329-350.

Introduction to the four articles in this issue on Buddhist ethics (see separate
headings for Charles Hallisey and Anne Hansen, Damien Keown, David
Chappell, and Joe Branford Wilson..

Premasiri, P.D. "Ethics of the Theravada Buddhist Tradition." In World Religions


and Global Ethics, 36-64. Edited by S. Cromwell Crawford A New
Economical Research Book. New York: Paragon House, 1988.

Queen, Christopher S., and King, Sallie B., eds. Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist
Liberation Movements in Asia. Albany: SUNY Press, 1996.

Contains essays by each of the editors plus nine others which address various
ways in which Buddhism has engaged a variety of social issues and concerns.

Reviewed by Bardwell Smith in Journal of the American Academy of


Religion 67 (June 1999): 500-502.
48

Quintos, Lily, R.C. The Moral System of Buddhism; According to the Milanda
Panha with a Christian-Theological Reflection. Cardinal Bea Studies, 6.
Manila: Cardinal Bea Institute for Ecumenical Studies.

Quintos served as dean of the Franciscan School of Theology in Berkeley,


California and is now is an adjunct professor of moral theology on the faculty
of the Loyola School of Theology in Manila.

Ratanakul, Pinit. "Buddhist Health Care Ethics." In A Cross-Cultural Dialogue on


Healthcare Ethics, 119-127. Edited by Harold Coward and Pinit Ratanakul.
Centre for Studies in Religion and Society, University of Victoria. Waterloo,
Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1999.

Reynolds, Frank E. "Buddhist Ethics: A Bibliographical Essay." Religious Studies


Review 5 (1979): 40-48.

Reynolds is professor of History of Religions and Buddhist Studies at the


University of Chicago.

. "Ethics and Wealth in Theravada Buddhism: A Study in Comparative


Religious Ethics." In Ethics, Wealth and Salvation: A Study in Buddhist
Ethics, 59-76. Edited by Russell F. Sizemore and Donald K. Swearer.
Studies in Comparative Religion. Columbia: University of South Carolina
Press. 1990.

See David Little's response, "Ethical Analysis and Wealth in Theravada


Buddhism: A Response to Frank Reynolds," in the same volume, pp. 77-86.

. "Four Modes of Theravada Action." Journal of Religious Ethics 7 (1979):


12-27.

Part of this issue's "Focus" section on Theravada Buddhist Ethics.

. "Multiple Cosmogonies and Ethics:The Case of Theravada Buddhism." In


Cosmogony and Ethical Order: New Studies in Comparative Ethics, 203-224.
Edited by Robin W. Lovin and Frank E. Reynolds. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1985.

One of 1 5 essays on the relation of comogonical and ethical beliefs. 1 3 of


these originated as papers presented at conferences at the University of
Chicago Divinity School in 1981 and 1982.
49

Rhys Davids, C.A.F. A Buddhist Manual ofPsychological Ethics. 3"^ ed. London:
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Robertson, Alec. The Triple Gem and the Uposatha: Buddhist Ethics and Culture.
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Saddatissa, H. Buddhist Ethics: Essence ofBuddhism. New York: George Braziller,


1970.

Saddatissa presents the position of ethics within the whole system of


Buddhist philosophy and practice, while drawing both on the Buddhist
scriptures as well as their development within the Mahay ana School.

Sharma, Arvind. "Is Karma a Moral or Natural Law?" The Council of Societies for

the Study of Religion Bulletin 19 (1990): 92-94.

Discusses the opinions of several Buddhist scholars, and concludes that


Karma is a moral law if understood in a precise way that views volitional
actions in their relation to physical laws.

"Buddhist Ethics." In A Companion to Ethics: Blackwell's


Silva, Padmasiri de.
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1991.

Sizemore, Russell F. and Swearer, Donald K., eds. Ethics, Wealth and Salvation: A
Study in Buddhist Ethics. Studies in Comparative Religion. Columbia:
University of South Carolina Press. 1 990.

Reviewed by Charles Hallisey in Religious Studies Review 18 (1992): 276-


285.

Smith, Bardwell. "Buddhism and Abortion in Contemporary Japan: Mizuko Kuyo


and the Confrontation with Death." Japan Missionary Bulletin 42 (1988):
199-216.

The problem of abortion in Japan seen from a sociological point of view, and
attempts described to tackle its aftermath with the help of Buddhist ritual
concepts.

Soko, Keith. "Human Rights and the Poor in World Religions." Horizons 26
(Spring 1999): 31-53.
50

Argues that concern for the poor is found in all major religions, and can thus
help support a universal concern for the rights of the poor and marginalized.
Soko looks not only at Judeo-Christianity, but also at Buddhism,
Confucianism, Taoism, Hinduism, and Islam.

Stott, David. "Buddhadharma and Contemporary Ethics: Some Notes on the Attitude
of Tibetan Buddhism to Abortion and Related Procedures." Religion 22
(1992): 171-182.

Straus, Virginia. "Peace, Culture, and Education Activities: A Buddhist Response


to the Global Ethic." Buddhist-Christian Studies 15 (1995): 199-21 1.

Straus is affiliated with the Boston Research Center for the 2 1 ^' Century, Soka
Gakkai International in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Swearer, Donald K. "Bhikkhu Buddhadasa on Ethics and Society." Journal of


Religious Ethics 7 (1979): 54-64.

Part of this issue's "Focus" section on Theravada Buddhist Ethics.

Swearer is the Charles and Harriet Cox McDowell Professor of Religion at

Swarthmore College.

. "Buddhist Virtue, Voluntary Poverty, and Extensive Benevolence." Journal


of Religious Ethics 26 (Spring 1998): 71-104.

One of several "Focus" articles on Benevolence, Special Relations, and


Voluntary Poverty in this issue.

Tachibana, Shundo. The Ethics of Buddhism. London: Curzon Press, 1975, 1993.

Tanaka, Kenneth K. "Concern for Others in Pure Land Soteriological and Ethical
Considerations: The Case of Jogyo-dailhi in Yodo-Shinshu Buddhism." In
Buddhist Theology: Critical Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars,
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Curzon Press, 2000.

Taniguchi, Shoyo. "Methodology of Buddhist Biomedical Ethics." In Religious


Methods and Resources in Bioethics, 31-65. Edited by Paul F. Camenisch.
Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994.

Taniguchi did her doctorate under Karen Lebacqz at the Graduate


Theological Union in Berkeley, California.
51

Tashibana, Shundo. See Tachibana, Shundo.

Taye, Jamgon Kongrul Lodro. Buddhist Ethics. Translated and edited by the
International Translation Committee. Ithaca: Snow Lion, 1998.

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Lanka) 7 (1980).

Thurman, Robert A.F. "Social and Cultural Rights in Buddhism." In Human Rights
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Reviewed by Charles Hallisey in Religious Studies Review 18 (1992): 276-


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Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and Williams, Duncan Ryuken, eds. Buddhism and Ecology:
The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Religions of the World and
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Urmo, Taitetsu. "Personal Rights and Contemporary Buddhism." In Human Rights


and the World's Religions, 129-147. Edited by Leroy S. Rouner. Notre
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Wang, Sally A. "Can Man Go Beyond Ethics? The System of Padmasambhava."


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See reply by James F. Smurl, "Cross-Cultural Comparisons in Ethics: A


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Wayman, Alex. See Tson-Kha-Pa.


52

Whitehill, James. "Buddhist Ethics in Western Context: The 'Virtues' Approach."


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Wilson, Joe Branford. "The Monk as Bodhisattva: A Tibetan Integration of Buddhist


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One of several articles in this issue on Buddhist ethics.

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A critical appreciation of Buddhist and Confucian tradition in an essential


prerequisite for the inculturation of Christianity in moral life.

Yoshiyama is professor of moral theology at Sophia University in Tokyo.

Buddhism and Judeo-Christianity

Abe, Masao. Buddhism and Interfaith Dialogue. Edited by Steven Heine. Honolulu:
University of Hawaii Press, 1995.

This is the first of a two-part sequel to Abe's Zen and Western Thought. (The
second volume, listed below, is Zen and Comparative Studies). It contains
many of Abe's previously published essays and papers wherein he attempts
to clarify a Buddhist view of interfaith dialogue. He discusses how the
Buddhist notion of sunyata (emptiness) works dynamically for mutual
understanding and transformation of world religions and analyzes the
dialogue between Buddhism and contemporary Christian theology, especially
that of Tillich and Gilkey.

Abe is a Buddhist scholar well-versed in Buddhist-Christian dialogue, and


who also was on the faculty for a time of the Pacific School of Religion, a
member school of the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California.
53

. Divine Emptiness and Historical Fullness: a Buddhist-Jewish-Christian


Conversation with Masao Abe. Edited by Christopher Ives. Valley Forge PA
: Trinity Press International, 1995.

. The Emptying God a Buddhist-Jewish-Christian Conversation. Faith Meets


Faith Series. Edited by John B. Cobb, Jr., and Christopher Ives. Maryknoll:
Orbis Books, 1990.

Essays by Masao Abe, with responses by seven Jewish and Christian writers.

. "The Impact of Dialogue with Christianity on My Self-Understanding as a


Buddhist." Buddhist-Christian Studies 9 (1989): 63-70.

. "Transformation in Buddhism in Comparison with Platonic and Christian


Notions." Concilium 196 (1988):41-60.

. Zen and Comparative Studies: Part Two of a Two-Volume Sequel to Zen and
Western Thought. Edited by Steven Heine. Honolulu: University of Hawaii
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Reviewed by Leo D. Lefebure in Religious Studies Review 24 (April 1998):


180-181.

Aitken, Robert and David Steindl-Rast. The Ground We Share: Everyday Practice,
Buddhist and Christian. Conversations edited by Nelson Foster. Liguori MO:
Liguori Publications, 1994; London: Shambala, 1996..

Akizuki, Ryomin. "Christian-Buddhist Dialogue." Inter-Religio 14(1988): 38-54.

Report of a Zen-Buddhist monk about dialogue in Japan.

Anbeek, Christa. "Buddhist Spirituality: A Possible Source of Inspiration for


Christians?" Studies in Interreligious Dialogue 1 (1997): 56-65.

Arraj, James. God, Zen and the Intuition of Being. Chiloquin OR: Inner Growth
Books, 1988.

Discusses Zen in terms of an encounter with Thomism as presented in the


thought of Jacques Maritain, especially the ways in which the former can re-
animate the spirit of the latter in reference to Buddhist— Christian dialogue.

Reviewed by Jay C. Rochelle and Richard Sherbune, S.J. in Buddhist-


Christian Studies 10 (1990): 283-284.
54

Bartholomeusz, Tessa. "Catholics, Buddhists, and the Church of England: The 1 883
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Bemadicou, Paul, S.J. "Catholic Guides in Dialogue with Buddhist Practice."


Review for Religious 58 (1999): 28-34.

Overview of some of the major Catholic leaders in Zen-Christian practice,


as well as a brief discussion of some recent books in the field.

Bemadicou was professor of theology at the University of San Francisco and


is now at Loyola Mary mount University in Los Angeles.

Boisvert, Mathieu. "A Comparison of The Early Forms of Buddhist and Christian
Monastic Traditions." Buddhist-Christian Studies 12(1992): 123-141.

Boorstein, Sylvia. That 's Funny, You Don Look Buddhist: On Being a Faithful Jew
't

and a Passionate Buddhist. With a Foreword by Stephen Mitchell. San


Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1998.

The author is both a Jew and a Buddhist.

Borg, Marcus, and Kornfield, Jack. Jesus and Buddha: The Parallel Sayings.
Berkeley: Ulysses, 1997.

Designed for a popular audience aimed to stimulate reflection. The book


consists of short amounts of material (verses, paragraphs, etc.) from the
canonical gospels on one side, with similar passages from Buddhist sources
on the other. The book is organized according to topics such as compassion,
wisdom, materialism, etc. An opening essay considers the history of
comparing Jesus with Buddha and points to parallels which illustrate

common religious experience.

Brinkman, John T. "Harmony: Attribute of the Sacred and Phenomenal in Aquinas


andKukai." Buddhist-Christian Studies 15 (1995): 105-118.

Bunchua, Kirti. "Buddhist—Christian Interchange: An Attempt at a Definition."

Inter-Religio 16 (1989): 58-67.

Edited version of a lecture presented at a 1989 interdenominational


conference of Christian pastors held in Kyoto. Religion has been seen from
a variety of perspectives throughout history, but only a perspective of
"detachment" which opens up the possibility of imity in diversity, as well as
55

an atmosphere for true interchange~i.e., one where there is mutual give-and-take.

Burl, Fritz. The Buddha-Christ as the Lord of the True Self: The Religious
Philosophy of the Kyoto School and Christianity. Translated with an
introduction by Harold H. Oliver. Macon GA: Mercer University Press,
1997.

Reviewed by Leo D. Lefebure in Religious Studies Review 24 (April 1998):


181.

Byun, Sun-Hwan. "The Finality of Christ in the Perspective of Christian—Zen


Encounter." Dr. Theol. Dissertation. Basel University, 1975.

Carmody, Denise Lardner and John Carmody. In the Path of the Masters:
Understanding the Spirituality ofBuddha, Confucius, Jesus, and Muhammad.
New York: Paragon House, 1 994.

Cams, Paul. Buddhism and Its Christian Critics. Rev. ed. Chicago: Open Court
Press, 1897, 1905.

Cams was a well-known Asian scholar who lived from 1852-1919.

Chu, Bhikkhu Chao. "Buddhism and Dialogue Among the World Religions:
Meeting the Challenge of Materialistic Skepticism." Chapter 7 in Ethics,
Religion, and the Good Society: New Direction in a Pluralistic World, 167-
171. Edited by Joseph Runzo. Westminster: John Knox Press, 1992.

Clasper, Paul and Janet. "The Ox-Herder Pictures: Zen Buddhism's Version of The
Pilgrim's Progress'." Ching Feng 21 {\9U): 115-136.

Cobb, John B., and Ives, Christopher. The Emptying God: A Buddhist-Jewish-
Christian Conversation. Maryknoll: Orbis Press, 1990.

Cobb, John. Beyond Dialogue: Toward a Mutual Transformation of Christianity


and Buddhism. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982.

Corless, Roger and Knitter, Paul F., eds. Buddhist Emptiness and Christian Trinity:
Essays and Explorations. New York: Paulist Press, 1990.

Six essays which discuss the possibility of Buddhist—Christian dialogue in


terms of the Buddhist concept of sunyata (emptiness) and the Christian
concept of the Trinity.
56

Corless, Roger. "A Christian Perspective on Buddhist Liberation." Concilium 116


(1978): 74-87.

Covell, Ralph R. Confucius, The Buddha and Christ. MaryknollrOrbis Books, 1986.

Coward, Harold. The Possibility of Paradigm Choice in Buddhist-Christian


Dialogue. Journal of Ecumenical Studies 25 (1988): 370-382.

Cowdell, Scott. "Buddhism and Christianity." The Asia Journal of Theology 4, no.
1 (1990): 190-98.

Crawford, Cromwell. "The Buddha's Thoughts on Thinking: Implications for


Ecumenical Dialogue." In Religion in the Pacific Era, 155-178. Edited by
Frank K. Flirm and Tyler Hendricks. New York: Paragon Publishers, 1985.

Dalai Lama. Spiritual Advice for Buddhists and Christians. Edited by Donald W.
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Dharmasiri, Gunapala. A Buddhist Critique of the Christian Concept of God.


AntiochCA: Golden Leaves, 1988.

Drummond, Richard Henry. A Broader Vision: Perspectives on the Buddha and the
Christ. Virginia Beach VA: ARE Press, 1995.

Dubarle, Dominique, O.P. "Buddhist Spirituality and the Christian Understanding of


God." Concilium 116 (1978): 64-73.

Dumoulin, Heinrich. Christianity Meets Buddhism. Peru IL: Open Court, 1974.

Dwan, Sean, SSC. "How to Undermine Buddhism: The Dialogue Conspiracy."


Inculturation 5 (Summer, 1990): 42-46.

Reacts to a series of articles in the Korean Buddhist magazine, Daewon,


claiming the Roman Catholic Church was using inter-religious dialogue as
a secret method to subvert Buddhism

Dwan is an Irish Columban who worked for several years in Korea.

Enomiya-Lassalle, Hugo, S.J. "Buddhist-Christian Dialogue in Japan." Concilium


116(1978): 113-117.

Enomiya-Lassalle is a German Jesuit missionary in Japan.


57

_. Zen Meditations for Christians. Peru IL: Open Court Publishers, 1974.

Eusden, John Dykstra. Zen and Christian: The Journey Between. New York:
Crossroad, 1981.

Fernando, Antony, with Leonard Swidler. Buddhism Made Plain: An Introduction


for Christians and Jews. Maryknoll: Orbis Press, 19?

Fernando, Mervyn. "The Buddhist Challenge to Christianity." Concilium 1 16(1978):


88-96.

Foster, Nelson, ed. The Ground We Share: Everyday Practice, Buddhist and
Christian. London: Shambala, 1996.

A conversation between the well-known Zen master Robert Aitken and


Benedictine monk David Steindl-Rast.

Fuss, Michael. Buddhavacana and Dei Verbum: A Phenomenological and


Theological Study of Scriptural Inspiration in the Saddharmapundarika
Sutra. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1991.

Using the guidelines of the Dei Verbum, Vatican II Dogmatic Constitution on


Divine Revelation, Fuss approaches a consideration of the religious
composition of the Sutra as well as developing a "Christology of the Word"
in which non-Biblical scriptures might offer contributions to inter-religious
dialogue.

Geffre, Claude, O.P. and Dhavamony, Mariasusai, S.J., eds. "Buddhism and
Christianity." Concilium 116 (1978).

Several articles on Buddhism and Christianity in this issue.

The Gethsemani Encounter: A Dialogue on the Spiritual Life by Buddhist and


Christian Monastics. Foreword by the Dalai Lama. Edited by Donald W.
Mitchell and James Wiseman. New York: Continuum, 1997.

Presentations given at a meeting of Buddhist and Christian monks which


occurred in July., 1996 at the Abbey of Gethsemani.

Gilkey, Langdon. "Ethics in Christianity and Buddhism." Chapter 1 in his Through


The Tempest: Theological Voyages in a Pluralistic Culture, 157-165.
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991.
58

Gilkey is Shailer Matthews Professor Emeritus at the University of Chicago


Divinity School.

Glass, Newman Robert. "Splits and Gaps in Buddhism and Postmodern Theology."
Journal of the American Academy of Religion 63 (Summer 1995): 303-19.

Graham, Aelred. Conversations: Christian and Buddhist Encounters in Japan. New


York: Harcourt, Brace, 1968.

Grayson, James Huntley. Early Buddhism and Christianity in Korea: A Study in the
Emplantation ofReligion. Supplements to Numen, no. 47. Leiden: E.J. Brill,

1985.

. "The Impact of Korean Protestant Christianity on Buddhism and the New


Religions." Papers of the British Association for Korean Studies 1 (1991):
57-73.

Gross, Rita M., and Muck, Terry C, eds. Buddhists Talk about Jesus, Christians
Talk about the Buddha. New York: Continuum, 19?

Twelve scholars, six Buddhist and six Christian tell of their personal
experiences in inter-religious dialogue.

Group of the Defendants of Security of Buddhism. The Catholic Plot Against


Buddhism: Classified Excerpts from the Bulletin of the Secretariat for Non-
Christians (Confidential Publication of the Vatican) and Some Interesting
Evidences [sicj and Data. Bangkok: SivaPhom, 1986.

Gunaratne, Neville. "An Evaluation by a Buddhist of Mother Teresa's Boundless


Compassion and Voluntary Poverty." Dialogue (Colombo, Sri Lanka) 8
(1981).

Habito, Ruben L.F. "A Christian Reflects on His Zen-Experience." East Asian
Pastoral Review 20 (1983): 351-352.

Habito was a former Jesuit priest who worked in Japan for many years. This
work was done while he was still a Jesuit.

. Total Liberation: Zen Spirituality and the Social Dimension. Maryknoll:


Orbis Books, 1989.

Hackett, David G. The Silent Dialogue: Zen Letters to a Trappist Monk. New York
Continuum, 1996.
59

Harris, Elizabeth J. "A Case of Distortion: The Evangelical Missionary


Interpretation of Buddhism in Nineteenth Century Sri Lanka." Dialogue 21
(1994): 19-42.

Ikeda, Daisaku and Wilson, Bryan. Human Values In A Changing World: A


Dialogue on the Social Role of Religion. Seacaucus NJ: Lyie Stuart, 1984,
1987.

Ingram, Paul O. The Modern Buddhist-Christian Dialogue: Two Universalistic


Religions in Transformation. Studies in Comparative Religion, 2. Lewiston:
Edwin Mellen Press, 1988.

. Wrestling with the Ox: A Theology of Religious Experience. New York:


Continuum, 1997.

Looks primarily at religious experience through the lens of Buddhism and


Christianity.

Ingram, Paul O., and Frederick J. Streng, eds. Buddhist-Christian Dialogue: Mutual
Renewal and Transformation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996.

Jaoudi, Maria. Christian Mysticism East and West: What the Masters Teach Us.
New York: Paulist Press, 1999.

Explores parallels between Christian mysticism and Eastern traditions


including Hinduism, Taoism, Islam, Sufism, and Buddhism.

Johnston, William, S.J. Christian Zen: A Way of Meditation. 2""^


rev. ed. New
York: Fordham University Press, 1998.

. The Mirror Mind: Zen-Christian Dialogue. New York: Fordham University


Press, 19.

. The Still Point: Reflections on Zen and Christian Mysticism. New York:
Fordham University Press, 19.

Kadowaki, Kakichi, S.J. "Ways of Knowing: A Buddhist-Thomist Dialogue."


International Philosophy Quarterly 6 (1966): 574-595.

Kadowaki is a professor of theology at Sophia University in Tokyo.

. Zen and the Bible: A Priest's Experience. Translated by Joan Rieck. London:
Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980.
60

Kamenetz, Rodger. The Jew in the Lotus: A Poet 's Re-Discovery ofJewish Identity
in Buddhist India. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1995.

Reflections based on a trip with Jewish delegates to a Buddhist- Jewish


dialogue with the Dalai Lama held in Dharmasala, India.

Keel, Hee-Sung. "Salvation According to the Korean Zen Master Chinul and Karl
Barth." Buddhist-Christian Studies 9 {\9%9): 13-23.

Keel teaches in the Department of Religious Studies at Sogang University in


Seoul, Korea.

Keenan, John P. The Gospel of Mark: A Mahayana Reading. Faith Meets Faith
Series. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1995.

Keenan is an Episcopal priest and former resident scholar at the Nanzan


Institute for Religion and Culture in Japan.

. The Meaning of Christ: A Mahayana Theology. Maryknoll: Orbis Books,


1989.

Reinterprets the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and the Incarnation with a
survey of the Bible and the Christian tradition, especially noting the patristic
mysticism of light and darkness. He then turns to consider the understanding
of consciousness according to Mahayana thinkers, showing how this thought
can be the theologiae ancilla, substituting the Mahayana themes of
emptiness, dependent co-arising, three bodies of awakening, and the doctrine
of the two truths for the Greek terms used by the fathers in interpreting the
doctrines of Christ and the Trinity.

Kermedy, Robert E., S.J. Zen Spirit, Christian Spirit: The Place ofZen in Christian

Life. New York: Continuum Books, 1995.

Kermedy teaches theology at St. Peter's College and is a psychotherapist as


well conducting Zen retreats.

, Zen Gifts to Christians: How Zen Experience Can Enrich Christians'


Emotional Orientation. New York: Continuum, 2001.

Keown, Damien. "New Occasions Teach New Duties?: 14. Christian Ethics in the

Light of Buddhist Ethics." The Expository Times 106 (1995): 132-137.


61

King, Sallie B., and Ingram, Paul O., eds. The Sound ofLiberating Truth: Buddhist
and Christian Dialogues in Memory of Frederick J. Streng. Curzon Press,
(forthcoming).

King, Sallie B. "Toward a Buddhist Model of Interreligious Dialogue." Buddhist-


Christian Studies 10 (1990): 121-126.

Seeks to outline a "model" for inter-religious dialogue based on Buddhist


principles and a Buddhist world-view.

King, Winston Lee. Buddhism and Christianity: Some Bridges of Understanding.


Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1962.

Kramer, Kenneth P. "A Silent Dialogue: The Intrareligious Dimension." Buddhist-


Christian Studies 10(1 990): 127-132.

Discusses an oft-overlooked dimension of interreligious dialogue, namely,


the "dialogue" which goes on within each dialogue partner. Briefly mentions
the work of Wilfred Cantwell Smith, Raimundo Panikkar, T.S. Eliot and Paul
Tillich.

Lai, Whalen W. "Chinese Buddhist and Christian Charities: A Comparative


History." Buddhist-Christian Studies 12(1992): 5-33.

Lai is the director of the Religious Studies Program at the University of


California at Davis.

. "Tillich on Death and Suffering: A Key to Buddho-Christian Dialogue."


Journal of Ecumenical Studies 2S (1991): 566-580.

Ledoux, Arthur. "On the Complimentary [sic] Core Paradoxes of Effort and Grace
in Theravada Buddhism and Christianity." In East— West Encounters in
Philosophy and Religion, 93-1 04. Edited by Ninian Smart and B. Srinivasa
Murthy Long Beach: Long Beach Publications,
. 1 996.

Lee, Chwen Jiuan A[gnes]. and Hand, Thomas G. A Taste of Water: Christianity
Through Taoist— Buddhist Eyes. New York: Paulist Press, 1990.

(Sr. Agnes) Lee, a Taiwanese, is a member of the Missionary' Sisters of the


Immaculate Conception who converted to Christianity during high school.
She holds a Ph.D. in the philosophy of religion from the University of
Hawaii, and is currently formation director of her community in Taiwan.
Hand is a Jesuit priest who spent 29 years in Japan. Currently he is on the
62

staff of the Mercy Center Institute of Contemporary Spirituality in


Burlingame, California. The two share autobiographical reflections on how
have been enriched by their encounters with Taoism
their lives as Christians
and Buddhism. They seek to present Christianity through Asian traditions
and encourage others to do the same.

Lee, Agnes, C[hwen]. J[iuan]. "Mahayana Teaching of No-Self and Christian


Kenosis." ChingFenglS (1985): 130-151.

Lee, Peter K.H. and Shih, Heng-Ching. "A Christian-Buddhist Dialogue on


Causality and Good and Evil." Ching Feng 30 (1987): 39-57.

Lee is the Director of the Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion &
Culture in Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Lefebure, Leo. "Buddhism and Catholic Spirituality." Chicago Studies 36 (April


1997): 47-61.

Lefebure is a priest of the archdiocese of Chicago and dean of the faculty of


theology at Mundelein Seminary.

. Life Transformed: Meditations on the Christian Scriptures in Light of


Buddhist Perspectives. Chicago: Acta Publications, 1989.

Reviewed by Charles B. iontsm Buddhist-Christian Studies 10(1990): 278-


279.

Little, Mary, M.M. "Encounter with Buddhism.— Journey in Faith." Inculturation 5


(Spring, 1990): 20-21.

Report on how Sr. Little's, a missionary in Korea since 1976, study of


Buddhism has enriched her understanding of Christianity (with reference to
John Dunne's concept of "Passing Over").

Lorgunpai, Seree. "The Book of Ecclesiastes and Thai Buddhism." Asia Journal of
Theology S (1994): 155-162.

Loy, David. "Comparing Zen Koan Practice with The Cloud of Unknowing."
Buddhist-Christian Studies 9 (1989): 43-60.

Loy, David, ed. Healing Deconstruction: Postmodern Thought in Buddhism and


Christianity. American Academy of Religion: Reflection and Theory in the
Study of Religion, 3. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1996.
63

Reviewed by John Keenan in Religious Studies Review 24 (April 1 998): 1 80.

Magliola, Robert. On Deconstructing Life-World: Buddhism, Christianity, Culture.


American Academy of Religion Cultural Criticism Series. Atlanta: Scholars
Press, 1997.

Most of the book is devoted to Magliola' s reflective autobiography, followed


by four essays on the connections between Buddhism, Derridean
deconstruction, and Christian theology.

Reviewed by Charles B. Jones in Theological Studies 59 (June 1998): 349-


351; and by Roger Corless in Religious Studies Review 24 (July 1 998): 276..

May, John D'Arcy. "'Rights of the Earth' and Xare for the Earth': Two Paradigms
for a Buddhist-Christian Ecological Ethic." Horizons 21 (1994): 48-61.

. "What Do Socially Engaged Buddhists and Christian Liberation Theologians


Have to Say to One Another?" Dialogue 21(1994): 1-18.

McDaniel, Jay B. "Revisioning God and the Self: Lessons from Buddhism. In
Liberating Life: Contemporary Approaches to Ecological Theology, 228-258.
Edited by Charles Birch, William Eakin, and Jay B. McDaniel. Maryknoll:
Orbis Press, 1990.

Briefly reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Gregorianum 72 (1991): 782-


783.

Merton, Thomas. Mystics & Zen Masters. New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1967.

Merton was a well-known Roman Catholic Trappist monk who had a strong
interest in mysticism and inter-religious dialogue with Eastern traditions. He
died suddenly at a Buddhist-Christian dialogue in Bangkok in 1968.

Mitchell, Donald W. "A Buddhist Philosophy of Karma and Christian Spirituality."


Ching Feng 29 {\9%6):5-\9.

Investigation into the inner relationship between the Buddhist doctrine of


Karma and Christian spirituality.

. Spirituality and Emptiness: the Dynamics of Spiritual Life in Buddhism and


Christianity. New York: Paulist Press, 1991.
64

Mitchell, Donald W., and Wiseman, James, eds. The Gethsemani Encounter: A
Dialogue on the Spiritual Life by Buddhist and Christian Monastics.
Foreword by the Dalai Lama. New York: Continuum, 1997.

Presentations given at a meeting of Buddhist and Christian monks which


occurred in July., 1996 at the Abbey of Gethsemani.

Mommaers, Paul, and Van Bragt, Jan. Mysticism: Buddhist and Christian. New
York: Herder and Herder/Crossroad, 1995.

Moon, Simon Young-suck. Korean and American Monastic Practices: A


Comparative Case Study. Songgwang-Sa Son Buddhist Monastery, Korea
and The Abbey ofthe Genesee, Cistercian Monastery, U.S.A. LewistonNY:
Edwin Mellen Press, 1997.

Nagel, Bruno. "Beyond a Personal God? Shizuteru Ueda's Zen Buddhist


Interpretation of Meister Eckart." Studies in Interreligious Dialogue 8
(1/1998): 74-98.

Nanbu, Kimiko. "The Shinto-Buddhist Soil of Japan." Japan Missionary Bulletin


38 (1984): 501-508.

Experience of a Christian woman with Shinto—Buddhist roots.

Newman, John W. Disciplines of Attention: Buddhist Insight Meditation, the


Ignatian Spiritual Exercises, and Classical Psychoanalysis. Asian Thought
and Culture. New York: Peter Lang, 1996.

Reviewed by William J. Sneck, S.J. in Theological Studies 59 (March 1998):


180.

Noble, Colin. "Portraying Christian Grace: A Response to the Doctrine of Grace in


Shin Buddhism." Asia Journal of Theology 1 1 (1997): 54-71.

Nobuhara, Tokiyuki. "Toward a Global Hermeneutic of Justification in Process


Perspective: Luther and Shinran Comparatively Considered." Buddhist-
Christian Studies 12 (1992): 103-120.

O'Cormor, June. "Ritual Recognition of Abortion: Japanese Buddhist Practices and


American Jewish and Christian Proposals."

Discusses the Japanese ritual practice of mizuko kuyo for atonement for
abortions. Paper discussed at the Special Interest Session on Comparative
65

Ethics at the Annual Convention of the Society of Christian Ethics, 7-9


January 1994 in Chicago and also presented at the annual meeting of the
Society of Christian Ethics (Western Region) held at the University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1 8 February 1 994.

O'Connor teaches in the Department of Religious Studies at the University


of California, Riverside.

Panikkar, Raimundo. The Silence of God: The Answer of the Buddha. Faith Meets
Faith Series. Translated from the Italian by Robert R. Barr. Maryknoll:
Orbis Books, 1989.

Originally published as El Silencio del Dios. Madrid: Guadiana De


Publicaciones, 1970.

Deals with Buddhist-Christian Dialogue.

Phongphit, Seri. "The Cooperation between Christians and Buddhists (Thailand as


Model)." Concilium 183 (1986): 67-71.

Pieris, Aloysius, S.J. "Buddhism as a Challenge for Christians." Concilium 183


(1986): 60-66.

Pieris is a well-known theologian from Sri Lanka, with a doctorate in


Buddhist studies.

. "Christianity and Buddhism in Core-to-Core Dialogue." Cross Currents 37


(1987): 47-75.

. Fire and Water: Basic Issues in Asian Buddhism and Christianity. With a
Foreword by David Tracy. Faith Meets Faith Series. Maryknoll: Orbis Books,
1996.

. Love Meets Wisdom: A Christian Experience ofBuddhism. Maryknoll: Orbis


Books, 1988.

Reviewed by Jay C. Rochelle in Buddhist-Christian Studies 10 (1990): 277-


278.

. "Women and Religion in Asia: Towards a Buddhist and Christian


Appropriation ofthe Feminist Critique." Dialogue 19-20(1992-1993): 119-
203.
66

One of several articles on the place of women in Buddhism.

Prothero, Stephen. "Henry Steel Olcott and 'Protestant Buddhism.'" Journal of the
American Academy of Religion 63 (Summer 1995): 281-302.

Pym, Jim. "A Buddhist View [of interfaith spirituality]." The Way Supplement 78
(Autumn 1993): 13-22.

One of a series of articles on Interfaith Spirituality.

Raguin, Yves, S.J. "Christianity and Zen." East Asian Pastoral Review 20 (1983):
345-350.

Raguin is a French Jesuit missionary in Taiwan whoIivedfroml912to 1998.

Raymaker, John A. "Shinran and East-West Religious Convergence." Japan


Missionary Bulletin 38 (1984): 185-191.

Role of Shinran's Amida Buddhism for an encounter between Japan and


Christianity.

. "Zen's Transcending of Dualism as a Help to Religious Convergence." Japan


Missionary Bulletin 38 (1984): 559-565.

Contribution of Zen Buddhism in overcoming dualism and fostering greater


unity among world religions.

Rodrigo, Michael. "Buddhist-Christian Dialogue in Sri Lanka." Concilium 116


(1978): 99-106.

Samy, Ama, S.J. "May a Christian Practice Zen or Yoga?" Inculturation 5 (Spring,
1990): 28-32.

Samy, an Indian Jesuit Zen master, addresses this question in the light of a
critique of the 1989 "Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on some
Aspects of Christian Meditation" of the Congregation for Doctrine of the
Faith (CDF).

Sangharakshita, Maha Sthavira. "Dialogue between Buddhism and Christianity."


Concilium \\6{\91%): 55-63.

Sharma, Arvind. "'Skill in Means' in Early Buddhism and Christianity." Buddhist-


Christian Studies 10 (1990): 23-33.
67

Discusses the possible use of the Buddhist concept of upaya-ksusalya, "skill-

in-means," as a basis for a comparative study of Buddhism and Christianity.

Silber.Friedrich liana. Virtuosity, Charisma and Social Order A Comparative Study


:

of Monasticism in Theravada Buddhism and Medieval Catholicism. New


York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Sivaraksa, Sulak. "Christianity in the Reflection of Buddhism." Concilium 183


(1986): 55-59.

Smart, Ninian. Buddhism and Christianity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press,


1996.

Soares-Prabhu, George M. "Two Mission Commands: An Interpretation of Matthew


28: 16-20 in the Light of a Buddhist Text." Theology & Sexuality 1 (1994):
264-282.

Spae, Joseph J. "The Influence of Buddhism in Europe and America." Concilium


116(1978): 118-123.

Suzuki, Daisetz Teitaro. Mysticism: Christian and Buddhist. World Perspectives.


12. New York: Harper,1957; Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1975.

Suzuki lived from 1870-1966.

Takeda, John Makoto. "The Spirits of the Dead: Christianity, Buddhism and
Traditional Belief in Japan." Anglican Theological Review 79 (Winter 1997):
27-37.

Takeuchi, Yoshinori. The Heart of Buddhism: In Search of the Timeless Spirit of


Primitive Buddhism. New York: Herder and Herder/Crossroad, 1983.

Dialogues with Western theology, philosophy, and the Bible.

Thelle, Notto R. Buddhism and Christianity in Japan: From Conflict to Dialogue,


1854-1899. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1987, 1996.

Trapnell, Judson R. "Suffering and Compassion: A Jewish-Buddhist-Christian


Dialogue." Horizons 27 (Spring 2000): 98-1 13.

Describes an undergraduate course offered at Hampden-Sydney College,


Virginia which featured dialogue with both texts and representatives of the
three religions.
68

Van Bragt, Jan. "Apocalyptic Thought in Christianity and Buddhism." Inter-Religio


31 (Summer 1997): 3-20.

Vroom, Hendrik M . No Other Gods: Christian Belief in Dialogue with Buddhism,


Hinduism, and Islam. Grand Rapids MI: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing
Company, 1996.

Waldenfels, Hans. "Buddhism and Christianity in Dialogue: Notes on the


Intellectual Presuppositions." Communio 15 (1988): 411-422.

Walker, Susan, ed. Speaking of Silence: Christians and Buddhists on the


Contemplative Way. New York: Paulist Press, 1987.

Wong, Timothy Man Kong. "Matteo Ricci's Mission to Chinese Buddhism." Ching
Fe«g 33 (1990): 205-231.

Wren, Benjamin Lee. Zen Among the Magnolias . LanhamMD: University Press of
America, 1999.

Looks at the integration of Zen and Christianity.

Wren is Associate Professor of History at Loyola University, New Orleans.

Yagi, Dickson Kazuo. "Protestant Perspectives on Ancestor Worship in Japanese


Buddhism: The Funeral and the Buddhist Altar." Buddhist-Christian Studies
15 (1995): 43-60.

Yagi, Seiichi, and Swidler, Leonard. A Bridge to Buddhist— Christian Dialogue.


New York: Paulist Press, 1990.

Presents S widler's translation from the German of Yagi's The Front Structure
as a Bridge to Buddhist— Christian Thought, along with an extensive
introduction by Swidler to both Buddhist—Christian dialogue and Yagi's own
theology.

Zago, Marcello, O.M.I. "Buddhist-Christian Dialogue in South-East Asia."


Concilium 116(1978): 107-112.

Zago was a missionary in Asian, and former superior general of the Oblates
of Mary Immaculate (O.M.I.).

. "Evangelization in the Religious Situation of Asia," Concilium 1 14 (1978):


72-84.
69

The bulk of this article is on the possibility of being a Christian Buddhist, but
Zago's knowledge of Buddhism seems to be limited to the Thai-Laos variety.

Zen Buddhism

Abe, Masao. Buddhism and Interfaith Dialogue. Edited by Steven Heine. Honolulu:
University of Hawaii Press, 1995.

This is the first of a two-part sequel to Abe's Zen and Western Thought. (The
second volume, listed below, is Zen and Comparative Studies). It contains
many of Abe's previously published essays and papers wherein he attempts
to clarify a Buddhist view of interfaith dialogue. He discusses how the
Buddhist notion of sunyata (emptiness) works dynamically for mutual
understanding and transformation of world religions and analyzes the
dialogue between Buddhism and contemporary Christian theology, especially
that of Tillich and Gilkey.

Abe is a Buddhist scholar well-versed in Buddhist-Christian dialogue, and


who also was on the faculty for a time of the Pacific School of Religion, a
member school of the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California.

. A Study ofDogen: His Philosophy and Religion. Edited by Steven Heine.


Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.

. Zen and Comparative Studies: Part Two of a Two- Volume Sequel to Zen and
Western Thought. Edited by Steven Heine. Honolulu: University of Hawaii
Press, 1997.

Reviewed by Leo D. Lefebure in Religious Studies Review 24 (April 1998):


180-181;and by RobertE. Carter inMo«M;77e«ra7Vz/7pomca53 (Spring 1998):
124-127.

. Zen and Western Thought. Edited by William R. LaFleur; Foreword by John


Hick. Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press, 1985.

Aitken, Robert. Taking the Path of Zen. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1982.

Arai, Paula Kane Robinson. Women Living Zen: Japanese Soto Buddhist Nuns.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
70

Demonstrates that nuns were instrumental in the founding of Buddhism in


Japan in the sixth century, and continue to be active participants in the Soto
Zen sect up to the present.

Arai is on the faculty of Vanderbilt University.

Arraj, James. God, Zen and the Intuition of Being. Chiloquin OR: Inner Growth
Books, 1988.

Discusses Zen in terms of an encounter with Thomism as presented in the


thought of Jacques Maritain, especially the ways in which the former can re-
animate the spirit of the latter in reference to Buddhist— Christian dialogue.

Reviewed by Jay C. Rochelle and Richard Sherbune, S.J. in Buddhist-


Christian Studies 10 (1990): 283-284.

Batchelor, Stephen. Buddhism without Beliefs: A Contemporary Guide to

Awakening. New York: Riverhead Books, 1 997.

Stresses that Buddha envisioned his teachings as challenges to act, rather than
propositions to be "believed."

Batchelor was bom in Scotland, but has been a monk in the Zen and Tibetan
traditions for some ten years, and now lives in a Buddhist monastery in
Devon, England.

Buswell, Robert. The Formation ofCh'an Ideology in China and Korea. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1989.

{Ch 'an is the Chinese pronunciation and Son is the Korean pronunciation of
the ideogram which is rendered as Zen in Japanese; the meaning of the
ideogram is the same in all three linguistic traditions).

. The Zen Monastic Experience: Buddhist Practice in Contemporary Korea.


Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Chadwick, David. Crooked Cucumber: The Life and Zen Teaching of Shunryu
Suzuki. New York: Broadway, 1998.

Chadwick studied with Suzuki at the San Francisco Zen Center until the
latter' s death in 1971.
71

Chinul. The Korean Approach to Zen: The Collected Works ofChinul. Translated
with an Introduction by Robert E. Buswell, Jr. Honolulu: University of
Hawaii Press, 1983.

Clear>\J.C. See Zibo.

Cleary, Thomas, ed. and trans. The Five Houses of Zen. Boston: Shambhala, 1997.

Contains selections from 1 9 different masters representing the "Five Houses"


or stales of Zen teaching which arose in China during the 9"" and 10""

centuries.

. Teachings of Zen. Boston: Shambhala, 1998.

Cook, Francis H. Sounds of Valley Streams. Enlightenment in Dogen 's Zen:


Translations ofNine Essays from Shobogenzo. Albany: SUN Y Press, 1989.

Dumoulin, Heinrich, S.J. Zen Buddhism: A History, Japan. Vol. 2. New York:
Macmillan, 1990.

Eilert, Hakan. "The Zen Koan." Om^ Feng 38 (September 1995): 179-186.

Faure, Bernard. Chan Insights and Oversights: An Epistemological Critique of the


Chan Tradition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

{Ch 'an is the Chinese pronunciation and Son is the Korean pronunciation of
the ideogram which is rendered as Zen in Japanese; the meaning of the
ideogram is the same in all three linguistic traditions).

Faure is currently Professor of Religion at Stanford University.

. The Rhetoric of Immediacy: A Cultural Critique of Chan/Zen Buddhism.


Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.

{Ch 'an is the Chinese pronunciation and Son is the Korean pronunciation of

the ideogram which is rendered as Zen in Japanese; the meaning of the


ideogram is the same in all three linguistic traditions).

. Visions of Power: Imagining Medieval Buddhism. Translated from the French


by Phyllis Brooks. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Faure now probes the imaginaire, or mental universe, of the Buddhist Soto
Zen master Keizan Jokin (1268-1325).
72

. The Will to Orthodoxy: A Critical Genealogy of Northern Chan Buddhism.


Translated by Phyllis Brooks. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997.

Green, James, trans. The Recorded Sayings of Zen Master Joshu. With a foreword
by Keido Fukisima Roshi. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1998.

First ftill English translation of the sayings, lectures, dialogues, poetry, and
records from the pilgrimages of the Zen master Joshu (778-897 CE).

Hanh, Thich Nhat. Zen Keys: A Guide to Zen Practice. New York: Image
(Doubleday), 1995.

Heisig, James W., and Maraldo, John C, eds. Rude Awakenings: Zen, The Kyoto
School and Questions ofNationalism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press,
1995.

Reviewed by Stuart Picken in Asian Philosophy 8 (March 1998): 69-71.

Hershock, Peter D. Liberating Intimacy: Enlightenment and Social Virtuosity in

Ch 'an Buddhism. Albany: SUNY Press, 1996.

Ch 'an is the Chinese pronunciation for the ideogram which is rendered Zen
in Japanese and Son on Korean. Hershock maintains that enlightenment is

ultimately connected to intimacy, sociality, and virtuosity.

Kapleau, Roshi Philip. The Three Pillars of Zen: Teaching, Practice, and
Enlightenment. Compiled and edited, with translations, introductions, and
notes by Philip Kapleau. Foreword by Huston Smith. Revised and expanded
edition. New York: Doubleday Anchor Press, 1960, 1985.

Kasulis, Thomas P. "Truth and Zen." Philosophy East and West 30 (October 1980).

. "The Two Strands of Nothingness in Zen Buddhism." International


Philosophy Quarterly 19 (1979): 61-72.

Zen Action, Zen Person. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1981.

Keel, Hee-Sung. Chinul: The Founder of the Korean Son [Zen] Tradition.
Berkeley Buddhist Studies Series, no. 6. Seoul: Po Chin Chai, 1984.

{Son is the Korean pronunciation and Ch 'an is the Chinese pronunciation of


the ideogram which is rendered as Zen in Japanese; the meaning of the
ideogram is the same in all three linguistic traditions).
73

Kennedy, Robert E., S.J. Zen Spirit, Christian Spirit: The Place ofZen in Christian
Life. New York: Continuum Books, 1995.

Kennedy teaches theology at St. Peter's College and is a psychotherapist as


well conducting Zen retreats.

, Zen Gifts to Christians: How Zen Experience Can Enrich Christians'


Emotional Orientation. New York: Continuum, 2001.

Kim, Hee-Jin. Dogen Kigen, Mystical Realist. Tucson: University of Arizona Press,
1987.

King, Winston L. Zen and the Way ofthe Sword: Arming the Samurai Psyche. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Kusan, Sunim ["Honorable Monk"/ The Way of Korean Zen. Edited with an
introduction by Stephen Batchelor. Translated by Martine Pages. New York
and Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1985.

Lee, Jung H. A Zen Critique of John Hick's


"Problems of Religious Pluralism:
Ontological Monomorphism." Philosophy East and West 48 (July 1998):
453-476.

Suggests that Zen Buddhism challenges Hick's basic categories of


transcendental unity and soteriological identity of all religions, and presses
for an alternative understanding of the epistemological, metaphysical, and
soteriological issues.

Leggett, Trevor, comp. and trans. A First Zen Reader. Rutland VT and Tokyo:
Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1960.

Loy, David. "The Path of No-Path: Sankara and Dogen on the Paradox of Practice."
Philosophy East and West 38 (April 1988).

Martin, Philip. Zen Path through Depression. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco,


1999.

Discusses the basic practices and ideas of Zen Buddhism as they relate to the
healing of depression.

Merton, Thomas. Mystics & Zen Masters. New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1967.
74

Merton was a well-known Roman Catholic Trappist monk who had a strong
interest in mysticism and inter-religious dialogue with Eastern traditions. He

died suddenly at a Buddhist-Christian dialogue in Bangkok in 1968.

Mitchell, Donald W., ed. Masao Abe: a Zen Life of Dialogue. Boston: C.E. Tuttle,
1998.

Mitchell, Donald W. "Faith in Zen Buddhism." International Philosophy Quarterly


20(1980): 183-197.

Nagel, Bruno. "Beyond a Personal God? Shizuteru Ueda's Zen Buddhist


Interpretation of Meister Eckart." Studies in Interreligious Dialogue 8
(1/1998): 74-98.

Ng, On-Cho. "An Early Qing Critique of the Philosophy of the Mind-Heart {xin):
The Confucian Quest for Doctrinal Purity and the Doxic Role of Chan
Buddhism." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 26 (March 1999): 89-120.

Pollack, David. Zen Poems of the Five Mountains. American Academy of Religion
Studies in Religion, 37. New York: Crossroad Publishing; Decatur GA:
Scholars Press, 1985.

Reader, Ian. "Zazenless Zen? The Position of Zazen in Institutional Zen Buddhism."
Japan Missionary Bulletin A\ (1987): 18-29.

Report about the discrepancy between theory and praxis of meditation in


Japanese Zen monasteries. Zazen is the practice of Zen meditation.

Samy, Ama, S.J. "May a Christian Practice Zen or Yoga?" Inculturation 5 (Spring,
1990): 28-32.

Samy, an Indian Jesuit Zen master, addresses this question in the light of a
critiqueof the 1989 "Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on some
Aspects of Christian Meditation" of the Congregation for Doctrine of the
Faith (CDF).

Sawada, Janine Anderson. Confucian Values and Popular Zen: Sekimon Shingaku
in Eighteenth-Century Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993.

Sheng, Yen. The Advantages OneMay derive from Zen Meditation. Translated by
Kang Chen. Elmhurst NY: Dharma Drum Publications, 1967.
75

. Getting the Buddha Mind: On the Practice ofCh'an Retreat. Edited by Ernest
Heau. Translated by Ming-Yee Wang, Paul Kennedy and Karen Swaine.
Elmhurst NY: Dharma Drum Publications, 1982.

Suzuki, Daisetz Teitaro. Essays in Zen Buddhism (First Series). Foreword by

Christmas Humphreys. London: Rider and Company, 1949; New York:


Grove Press, 1961.

Suzuki lived from 1870-1966.

. "An Interpretation of Zen Experience." In The Japanese Mind: Essentials of


Japanese Philosophy and Culture, 122-142. Edited by Miymoto Shoson.
Honolulu: East- West Center Press, University of Hawaii Press, 1967.

. Zen and Japanese Culture. Mythos/BoUingen Series 64. Princeton, NJ:


Princeton University Press, 1993.

. Zen Buddhism: Selected Writings ofD. T. Suzuki. Edited by William Barrett.


Garden City: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1956; New York: Image, 1996.

Suzuki, Shunryu. Zen Mind, Beginner 's Mind. New York: Weatherhill, 1 970.

Tanahashi, Kazuaki, and Schneider, David Tensho. Essential Zen. San Francisco:
HarperSanFrancisco, 1995.

Wren, Benjamin Lee. Zen Among the Magnolias Lanham . MD: University Press of
America, 1999.

Looks at the integration of Zen and Christianity.

Wren is Associate Professor of History at Loyola University, New Orleans.

Wright, Dale S. Philosophical Meditations on Zen Buddhism. Cambridge Studies


in Religious Traditions, 13. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Focuses on the Zen master Huang Po who was active in medieval China and
discusses this tradition from a perspective of Western philosophical and
religious thought.

Zibo. Zibo: The Last Great Zen Master of China. Translation and Commentary by
J.C. Cleary. Forward by Thomas Cleary. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press,
AHP Paperbacks, 1989.
76

Other Works on Buddhism

Aiko, Ogoshi. "Women and Sexism in Japanese Buddhism." The Japan Christian
Review 59(1993): 19-26.

One of several articles dealing with feminist issues in Japan.

Aronson, Harvey B. Love and Sympathy in Theravada Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal


Banarsidass, 1980.

Bareau, Andre. "The Experience of Suffering and the Human Condition in


Buddhism." Concilium 116 (1978): 3-10.

. "Conquest of Violence, Search for Peace and the Ultimate: The Buddhist
Perspective." Dialogue & Alliance 8(1994): 21-27.

Barrett, T.H. Li Ao: Buddhist, Taoist or Neo-Confucian? London Oriental. Series,


39. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Basham, A.L. The Wonder that was Lndia: A Survey ofthe Culture ofthe Indian Sub-
continent before the Coming ofthe Muslims. London: Sidgvsdck and Jackson.

Batchelor, Stephen. The Awakening of the West: The Encounter of Buddhism and
Western Culture. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1994.

Discussed by Michelle Spuler in "Buddhism in the West: An Emerging


Genre." Religious Studies Review 26 (October 2000): 343-350.

Batchelor was bom in Scotland, but has been a monk in the Zen and Tibetan
traditions for some ten years, and now lives in a Buddhist monastery in
Devon, England.

Bauer, Wolfgang. "The Hidden Hero: Creation and Disintegration of the Ideal of
Eremitism." In Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist
Values, 157-197. Edited by Donald J. Munro. Arm Arbor: Center for
Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan, 1985.

Berling, Judith A. The Syncretic Religion of Lin Chao-en. New York: Columbia
University Press, 1 980.
77

Deals with the syncretic approach of Lin Chao-en, (Lin Zhao'en, 1 5 1 7-1 598)
which sought to combine Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in the cult
of the Lord of the Three in One (Sanyijiao).

Berling was Dean of the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California


and is now professor Chinese religions there.

Biematzki, William E., S.J. "Bodhidharma: The Adaptation ofBuddhism to China."


Chapter 3 of Roots of Acceptance: The Intercultural Communication of
Religious Meanings, 37-67. Inculturation: Working Papers on Living Faith
and Cultures, no. 13, edited by Ary A. Roest CroUius, S.J. Rome: Centre
"Cultures and Religions" - Pontifical Gregorian University, 1991.

Biematzki is a cultural anthropologist who taught for many years at Sogang


University in Seoul, Korea.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Gregorianum 73 (1992): 167-169.

Billington, Ray. Understanding Eastern Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Discusses the main principles ofHinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Jainism, and


Confucianism, and draws comparisons and contrasts with Western religious
and philosophical traditions.

Blackstone, Kathryn R. Women in the Footsteps of the Buddha: Struggle for


Liberation in the Therigatha. London: Curzon Press, 1998.

Reviewed by Rita M. Gross in in Journal of the American Academy of


Religion 67 (June 1999): 476-478; and by Ursula King in Asian Philosophy
9 (November 1999).

Bond, George D. "The Arahant: Sainthood in Teravada Buddhism." In Sainthood:


Its Manifestations in World Religions, 140-171. Edited by Richard
Kieckhefer and George Bond. Berkeley: University of California Press,
1988.

Boyd, James W. "The Path of Liberation from Suffering in Buddhism." Concilium


116(1978): 11-21.

Brook, Tim. "Traveling to the Trigram Mountains; Buddhism after the Gang of
Four." Contemporary China 2 (Winter 1978): 70-75.
78

Brauen, Martin. The Mandala: Sacred Circle in Tibetan Buddhism. Translated by


Martin Willson. Boston: Shambhala, 1997.

Reviewed by Dan Cozort in Religious Studies Review 25 (July 1999): 322.

Burford, Grace G. "Believing and Seeing: The Role of Faith, Reason, and
Experience in Theravada Buddhism." Horizons 17 (1990): 217-227.

Buford teaches Buddhist religious traditions in the Theology Department of


Georgetown University.

Butterfield, Stephen. The Double Mirror: A SkepticalJourney into Buddhist Tantra.


Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1994.

Reviewed by Jeffrey J. Kripal in Religious Studies Review 25 (July 1999):


233-238.

Cams, Paul. Amitaba: The Story of Buddhist Theology. St. Clair Shores MI:
Scholarly Press, 1979.

Cams was a well-knovm Asian scholar who lived from 1852-1919.

. The Buddha: A Drama in Three Acts and Four Interludes. Chicago: Open
Court Press, 1911.

. 777^ Dharma, or the Religion of the Enlightenment. An Exposition of


Buddhism. 7"'rev. ed. Chicago: Open Court Press, 1896, 1943.

. The Gospel of Buddha. Chicago: Open Court Press, 1894, 1973.

Cai, Zong-qi. "Derrida and Madhyamika Buddhism: From Linguistic


Deconstmctionto Criticism of Onto-theologies." International Philosophical
Quarterly T:> (June 1993): 183-196.

Cams, Paul. The Gospel of Buddha. Oxford: Oneworld Publications.

Chang, Hui-Ching, and Holt, G. Richard. "The Concept of Yuan and Chinese
Interpersonal Relationships." Cross-Cultural Interpersonal
In
Communication, 28-57. Edited by Stella Ting-Toomey, and Felipe
Korzenny. London and Delhi: Sage Publications, 1991.
79

Argues that not just Confucian philosophy, but also the Buddhist concept of
reciprocity (Yuan) has also played a significant role in Chinese understanding
of inter-personal relationships.

Ch'en, Kenneth K.S. The Chinese Transformation of Buddhism. Princeton:


Princeton University Press, 1973.

Cheng, Chih-ming. "Harmony in Popular Belief and its Relation to Confucianism,


Buddhism and Taoism." Inter-Religio 35 (Summer 1999): 31-36.

English summary prepared by Jac Kuepers, S.V.D. of a longer paper


presented in Chinese at the Federation of Asian Bishops' Conferences
(FABC) colloquium on Taoist and Confucian Contributions to Harmony in
East Asia held at Lei Li-0, Taiwan in April 1996.

Chogyam, Ngakpa. Wearing the Body of Visions. Ramsey N J: Aro Books, 1995.

Chogyam is an Englishman who gives instructions in the Tibetan Buddhist


tradition.

Reviewed by Kiddar Smith in Religious Studies Review 25 (July 1999): 323.

Clasquin, Michel., and Kriiger, J.S., ed. Buddhism and Africa. Pretoria: Unisa Press,
1999.

Discussed by Michelle Spuler in "Buddhism in the West: An Emerging


Genre." Religious Studies Review 26 (October 2000): 343-350.

Collins, Steven. Selfless Persons: Imagery and Thought in Theravada Buddhism.


New York: Cambridge University Press.

Explains the doctrine of annattd ("not-self), which denies the existence of


any self, soul, or enduring essence in the human. Collins relates this doctrine
to is cultural and historical context, and in particular to its Brahmin
background.

Conze, Edward. Buddhism: Its Essence and Development. Preface by Arthur Waley.
New York: Harper and Row, 1951, 1959.

. A Short History of Buddhism. Oxford: Oneworld Publications.

Cook, Francis H. Hua-Yen Buddhism: The Jewel Net oflndra. University Park and
London: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1 977.
80

Corless, Roger J. The Vision of Buddhism: The Space Under the Tree. New York:
Paragon House, 1990.

Introduction to Buddhism.

Dalai Lama. Awakening the Mind, Lightening the Heart: Core Teachings of Tibetan
Buddhism. Edited by Donald S. Lopez, Jr. San Francisco:
HarperSanFrancisco, 1995.

. The Buddha Nature: Death and Eternal Soul in Buddhism. Bluestar


Communication, 1998.

. Essential Teachings: His Holiness the Dalai Lama. North Atlantic Books,
1995.

. A Flash ofLightning in the Dark ofNight : A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way


of Life. Boston, Shambala, 1994.

. The Four Noble Truths: Fundamentals of the Buddhist Teachings His


Holiness the XIV Dalai Lama. Thorsons Publishing, 1998.

. Healing Anger: The Power of Patience from a Buddhist Perspective. Snow


Lion, 1997.

. The Joy ofLiving and Dying in Peace: Core Teachings of Tibetan Buddhism.
Edited by Donald S. Lopez, Jr. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1997.

. My Land and My People: The Original Autobiography of His Holiness the


Dalai Lama of Tibet. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962; Warner Books, 1977,
1997.

. Opening of the Wisdom Eye. Theosophical Publishing House, 1 986.

. Path to Bliss: A Practical Guide to Stages ofMeditation. Snow Lion, 1991.

. The Path to Enlightenment. Snow Lion, 1994.

. The Way to Freedom: Core Teachings of Tibetan Buddhism. Edited by


Donald S. Lopez, Jr. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1994.

Das, Lama Surya. Awakening the Buddha Within: Eight Steps to Enlightenment:
Tibetan Wisdom for the Western World. New York: Bantam, 1997.
81

Seeks to present the teachings of Tibetan Buddhism to Western students.

DeSila.Lily. "Place ofWomen in Buddhism." Dialogue 19-20(1992-1993): 24-35.

One of several articles on the place of women in Buddhism.

Deal, William E. "The Lotus Sutra and the Rhetoric of Legitimization in Eleventh-
Centur}' Japanese Buddhism." Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 20
(1993): 261-296.

Dean, Kenneth. Lord of the Three in One: The Spread of a Cult in Southeast China.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Analyzes thecult of the Lord of the Three in One (Sanyijiao) which sought
tocombine Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, primarily associated with
Lin Zhao'en (Lin Chao-en, 1517-1598).

Reviewed by Chi-Tim Lai in The Journal of Religion 80 (April 2000): 365-


366.

Dhavamony, Mariasusai, S.J. "The Buddha as Saviour." Concilium 1 16 (1978): 43-


54.

Dhavamony is an Indian Jesuit who teaches Hinduism in the Missiology


Faculty of the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome.

Dumoulin, Heinrich, S.J. "Buddhism—A Rehgion of Liberation." Concilium 116


(1978): 22-30.

Dwan, Sean, SSC. "The Structure of a Korean Buddhist Temple." Inculturation 5


(Summer, 1990): 2-15.

Gives an excellent "walk-through" of a typical Buddhist temple, explaining


the various aspects of the iconography. Well illustrated.

Dwan is an Irish Columban who worked for several years in Korea.

Ellinger, Herbert. Buddhism. The Basics. Translated by John Bowden. Harrisburg


PA: Trinity Press International, 1 996.

Faure, Bernard. The Red Thread: Buddhist Approaches to Sexuality. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 1998.
82

A revised and expanded edition of Sexualites bouddhiques: Entre desirs et

realites. LQMdi\\,\99A.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Theological Studies.

Faure is currently Professor of Religion at Stanford University.

French, Rebecca Redwood. "The Cosmology of Law in Buddhist Tibet." Journal of


the International Association ofBuddhist Studies 1 8 (Summer 1 995): 97- 1 1 6.

. The Golden Yoke: The Legal Cosmology of Buddhist Tibet. Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, 1995.

Reviewed by Andrew Huxley in the Yale Law Journal 1 06 (April 1 997): 393-
450.

Gethin, Rupert. The Foundations of Buddhism. New York: Oxford University


Press, 1998.

Reviewed by Richard S. Cohen in Religious Studies Review 25 (July 1999):


322.

Goldstein, Melvyn C, and Kapstein, Matthew T., eds. Buddhism in Contemporary


Tibet: Religious Revivaland Cultural Identity. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1998.

Essays investigate the results of the 1978 liberalization by China on some of


the restrictions placed on the practice of Buddhism in Tibet.

Reviewed by Kiddar Smith in Religious Studies Review 25 (July 1 999): 323.

Gombrich, Richard Francis. How Buddhism Began: The Conditioned Genesis ofthe
Early Teachings. Atlantic Highlands NJ: School of Oriental and African
Studies, Jordan Lectures in Comparative Religion, 1996.

Revised version of the 1994 Jordan Lectures. Gombrich treats how


Buddhism emerged through debate with other religious movements of its day,
and how Buddha's followers have changed in subtle ways his teachings.

Gombrich is Boden Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford.

Gregory, Peter N. Tsung-Mi and the Sinification ofBuddhism. Princeton: Princeton


University Press, 1 9?
83

Tsung-mi was a Chinese Buddhist who Hved from 780-841 C.E.

Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang. Essence ofVajrayana: The Highest Yoga Tantra Practice
ofHeruka Body Mandala. London: Tharpa, 1 997.

Reviewed by John Powers in Religious Studies Review 25 (July 1999): 323.

Gyatso, Janet. "Healing Bums with Fire: The Facilitations of Experience in Tibetan
Buddhism." Journal ofthe American Academy ofReligion 67 (March 1999):
113-148.

Halifax, Joan. A Buddhist Life in America: Simplicity in the Complex. Foreword by


Thich Nhat Hanh. 1998 Wit Lecture. New York: Paulist Press, 1998.

Halifax is a medical anthropologist and a Buddhist priest, who recounts much


of her own life in this book about Buddhist spirituality.

Harris, Elizabeth J. "The Female in Buddhism." Dialogue 19-20(1992-1993): 336-


60.

One of several articles on the place of women in Buddhism.

Harris did doctoral studies in Buddhism and is currently Secretary for Inter-
Faith Relations for the Methodist Church.

. What Buddhists Believe. Oxford: Oneworld Publications.

Based on interviews with Buddhists living both in the east and the west.

Harris, Ian, ed. Buddhism and Politics in Twentieth-Century Asia. London: Pinter,
1999.

Heller, Agnes. "Moses, Hsiian-Tsang, and History." In Culture and Modernity:


East-West Perspectives, 535-547. Edited by Eliot Deutsch. Honolulu:
University of Hawaii Press, 1991.

Hsiian-Tsang was supposedly an important transmitter of Chinese Buddhist


texts and ideas from India whose story is told in the Chinese novel. The
Journey to the West, trans, and ed. by Anthony C. Yu (Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1977).

One of several essays presented at the Sixth East- West Philosophers'


Conference held in August 1989 in Honolulu.
.

84

Hopkins, Jeffrey. Kindness, Clarity, and Insight: The Fourteenth Dalai Lama, His
Holiness Tehzin Gyatso. Snow Lion, 1984.

Holt, John Clifford. Buddha in the Crown: Avalokitesvara in the Buddhist


Traditions of Sri Lanka. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991

Holt teaches at Bowdoin College.

Hsiian-Tsang. The Journey to the West. Translated and edited by Anthony C. Yu.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.

Hsiian-Tsang was supposedly an important transmitter of Chinese Buddhist


texts and ideas from India whose story is told in this Chinese novel.

Hubbard, Jamie. "Buddhist-Buddhist Dialogue? The Lotus Sutra and the Polemic
of Accommodation." Buddhist-Christian Studies 15 (1995): 119-138.

Hunter, Allen. "The Fate of Buddhism in Deng Xiaoping's China." Ching Feng 35
(December 1992): 178-99.

Huxley, Andrew. "Buddhism and Law— The View From Mandalay." Journal of the
International Association of Buddhist Studies 18 (Summer 1995): 47-95.

Ishigami-Iagolnitzer, Mitchiko. "The Self and the Person as Treated in Some


Buddhist Texts." Asian Philosophy 7 (March 1997):37-46.

Jackson, Roger R., and Makransky, John J. , eds. Buddhist Theology: Critical
Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon
Press, 2000.

Jan, Yun-hua. "Buddhist Self-immolation in Medieval China." History ofReligions


4 (1964): 243-268.

Kalupahana, David J. Buddhist Philosophy: A Historical Analysis. Honolulu:


University Press of Hawaii, 1976.

Presents the basic tenets of Buddhist philosophy in the context of its

historical development. Discusses origin of Buddhism as well as the


emergence of various schools. Short bibliography of both primary and
secondary sources follows each chapter.

. Causality: The Central Philosophy ofBuddhism. Honolulu: University Press


of Hawaii, 1975.
85

Karetzky, Patricia E. Early Buddhist Narrative Art: Illustrations of the Life of


Buddha from Central Asia to China, Korea and Japan. Lanham MD:
University Press of America. 2000.

Keown, Damien. Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford


University Press, 1997.

Kern, H. Manual of Indian Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1898, 1974.

Khantipalo, Bhikku. Buddhism Explained: An Introduction to the Teachings of the


Lord Buddha. Bangkok: Thai Watana Panich Press, 1970.

Kieschnick, John. The Emminent Monk: Buddhist Ideals in Medieval Chinese


Hagiography. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

Reviewed by J. Russell Kirkland in Religious Studies Review 25 (January


1999): 120.

King, Richard. Early Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism: The Mahayana Context ofthe
Guadapadiya-karika. Albany: SUN Y Press, 1995.

Reviewed by John Grimes in the Journal of the American Academy of


Religion 66 (3/\99S).

King, Sallie B. Buddha Nature. Albany: SUN Y Press, 1991.

Kinnard, Jacob N. "When Is the Buddha Not the Buddha? The Hindu/Buddhist
Battle over Bodhgaya and Its Buddha Image." AAR: Journal ofthe American
Academy of Religion 66 (Winter 1998): 817-840.

Kitagawa, Joseph M., ed. Buddhism and Asian History. New York: Macmillan,
1989.

Klostermaier, Klaus K. Buddhism: A Short Introduction. Oxford: Oneworld


Publications, 1999.

Klostermaier if Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Manitoba.

Kohn, Livia. Laughing at the Tao: Debates among Buddhists and Taoists in

Medieval China. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.

The Xiaodao lun (Laughing at the Tao) is an important document of the


debates among Buddhists and Taoists, debates that contributed to the process
.

86

of cultural adaptation. Written by the Taoist renegade Zhen Luan in the year
570, this text aims to expose the absurdity and inconsistency of Taoist
doctrine, mythology, ritual and religious practice. In a complete and fully
annotated translation of the Xiaodao lun, Livia Kohn draws on the rich
Japanese scholarship to place the work within the context of the debates and
expose the political schemes behind the apparently religious disputes.

Lai, Whalen W. "Kang Yuwei and Buddhism: From Enlightenment to Sagehood."


Ching Feng 26 (1983): 14-34.

The enlightenment experience of Kang Yuwei as the background to his later


reform activities in China in the 19th century.

Lai teaches at the University of California-Davis.

. "Kung-Sun Lung on the Point of Pointing: The Moral Rhetoric of Names."


Asian Philosophy 7 (March 1997): 47-58.

Lancaster, Lewis, and Yu, C.S., eds. Assimilation of Buddhism to Korea: Religious
Maturity and Innovation in the Silla Dynasty. Asian Humanities Press, 1 99 1

Leidy, Denise Patry, and Thurman, Robert A.F. Mandala: The Architecture of
Enlightenment. New York: Asia Society Galleries and Tibet House, 1997.

Reviewed by Dan Cozort in Religious Studies Review 25 (July 1999): 322-


323.

Ling, Trevor O. Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil: A Study in Theravada


Buddhism. London, Allen and Unwin, 1962; Oxford: Oneworld
Publications.

2"**
. Buddha, Marx and God: Some Aspects ofReligion in the Modern World.
ed. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1966, 1979.

. Buddhism, Confucianism and the Secular State in Singapore. Singapore :

Dept. of Sociology, National University of Singapore, 1987.

. A Dictionary of Buddhism, Indian and South-East Asian. Calcutta ; New


Delhi:K.P. Bagchi, 1981.

Lingpa, Dudjom. Buddhahood without Meditation: A Visionary Account Known as


Refining Apparent Phenomena. Translated by Richard Barron. Junction City
CA: Padma Publishing, 1994.
.

87

Dudjom Linpa lived from 1835 to 1904 and was a master of the Nyingma
lineage of Tibetan Buddhism.

Reviewed by Kiddar Smith in Religious Studies Review 25 (July 1 999): 323

Liu, Jiahe. "Early Buddhism and Taoism in China (A.D. 65-420)." Buddhist-
Christian Studies 12 (1992): 35-41.

Lopez, Donald S., Jr. Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Discusses how the myths of Tibet pervade both popular and academic culture
in the West.

Reviewed by Amy Lavine in The Journal of Religion 80 (April 2000): 368-


369.

. on the Bodhisattva Path." In Sainthood: Its Manifestations in


"Sanctification
World Religions, 172-217. Edited by Richard Kieckhefer and George Bond.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Makransky, John J. Buddhahood Embodied: Sources of Controversy in India and


Tibet. Albany: SUNY Press, 1997.

Reviewed by Jose Ignacio Cabezon in Journal of the American Academy of


Religion 67 (March 1 999): 23 1 -234.

Mather. Richard B. "The Bonze's Begging Bowl." Inculturation 4 (Winter, 1989):


33-36.

Mather, a professor of history at the University of Minnesota, discusses


eating practices in the early Buddhist monasteries in India and China.

Mitchell, Robert Allen. The Buddha: His Life Retold. New York: Paragon, 1989.

Montalvo, David. "The Buddhist Empiricism Thesis: An Extensive Critique." Asian


Philosophy 9 (March 1999): 51-70.

Morreale, Donald, ed. Buddhist America: Centers, Retreats. Foreword by Jack


Komfield. Santa Fe: John Muir Publications, 1988.
88

, ed. The Complete Guide to Buddhist America. Foreword by H.H. the Dalai
Lama; Introductions by Jack Komfieid and Joseph Goldstein. Boston:
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Morrison, Robert G. Nietzsche and Buddhism: A Study in Nihilism and Ironic


Affinities. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Reviewed by David R. Loy m Asian Philosophy 8 (July 1998): 129-131.

Muller, Charles. Dictionary of East Asian Buddhist Terms (DEABT)

http://www.human.tovogakuen-u.ac.ip/~acmuller/dicts

The dictionary is available in two kinds of encoding: Shift- JIS and UCS-2
(Unicode) and has two new indexes: a full CJK index and a non-diacritical
index of all terms. Prepared by Charles Muller.

Muzika, Edward G. "Object Relations Theory, Buddhism, and the Self: Synthesis
of Eastern and Western Approaches." International Philosophical Quarterly
30 (1990): 59-74.

Discusses various Buddhist concepts related to the Self in terms of some


Western psychoanalytic theories, with some suggestions for the therapeutic
use of Zen mediation.

Overmyer, Daniel L. Folk Buddhist Religion: Dissenting Sects in Late Traditional


China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Palihawadana, Mahinda. "The Two 'Eyes' of Development: Globalization and the


Buddhist World View." Dialogue n.s. 24 (1997): 37-52.

One of several articles in this issue which treat various aspects of


globalization.

Park, Sung Bae. Buddhist Faith and Sudden Enlightenment. Albany: SUNY Press,
1983.

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Pibum, Sidney. The Dalai Lama a Policy ofKindness: An Anthology of Writings by


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Designed as an introduction to the history, philosophy, and practice of


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One of several articles in this issue which treat various aspects of religion and
slavery.

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One of several articles in this issue which treat various aspects of


globalization.

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Variety of essays on dimensions of the cross-cultural Buddhist women's


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Unno, Taitetsu. River of Fire, River of Water: An Introduction to the Pure Land
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Xuanzang was a seventh century (C.E.) Chinese monk who made a sixteen
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Reviewed by Eric Reinders in Religious Studies Review 24 (July 1998): 330.

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Discussed by Michelle Spuler in "Buddhism in the West: An Emerging


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6 lectures originally given at the University of Chicago spaiming the entire


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Yamplosky, Philip B. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch. New York:
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Yin-shun. The Way to Buddhahood: Instructions from a Modern Chinese Master.


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Hsiian-Tsang was supposedly an important transmitter of Chinese Buddhist


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CONFUCIANISM

Chinese and Confucian Classics

Translations of the Four Books

N.B. Translations are entered alphabetically according to the name of the


translator.

Brooks, A. Taeko, and E. Bruce. The Original Analects: Sayings of Confucius and
His Successors. New York Columbia University Press, 1998.

Cleary, Thomas, trans. The Essential Confucius: The Heart ofConfucius' Teachings
in Authentic IChing Order. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1992.

Sayings of Confucius re-arranged according to the order of the 64 hexagrams


of the I-Ching.

Couvreur, Seraphim, S.J. Les Ouartre Livres avec un commentaire abrege en


chinois une double traduction enfrangais et en latin et un vocabulaire des
lettres et des nom propres. 2nd ed. Ho Kien Fou: La Mission Catholique,
1910.
96

Giles, Lionel. The Sayings of Confucius: A New Translation of the Greater Part of
the Confucian Analects. Translated with introduction and notes by Lionel
Giles. The Wisdom of the East Series. London: John Murray, 1907; New
York: Dutton, 1910.

Huang, Chichung. The Analects of Confucius: A Literal Translation with an


Introduction and Notes. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Reviewed by Linda L. Lam-Easton in Religious Studies Review 24 (July


1998): 328-329.

Huang is on the faculty of Bennington College.

Jennings, William. The Confucian Analects. Translated with annotations and


introduced by William Jennings. Sir John Lubbock's Hundred Books Series,
no. 93. New York and London: George Routledge and Sons, Ltd. 1 895; Arm
Arbor ML University Microfilms International, 1980.

Ku, Hung-ming. English Translation of The Four Books. Revised edition. Taipei:
The Council of Chinese Cultural Renaissance, 1979.

Lau, D.C. The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yii). Translated and introduced by Dim
Cheuk Lau. Penguin Classics Series. Harmondsworth, England and New
York: Penguin Books, 1979. Chinese Classics: Chinese-English Series. Hong
Kong: Chinese University Press, 1983.

. Mencius. 2 vols. Chinese Classics: Chinese-English Series. Hong Kong:


Chinese University Press, 1979, 1984.

Legge, James. Confucian Analects, The Great Learning and the Doctrine of The
Mean. Chinese Text; Translation with Exegetical Notes and Dictionary of all
Characters. New York: Dover Publications, 1971 (republication of the
second revised edition, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1893 as Volume I in "The
Chinese Classics" Series).

. The Works of Mencius. Translated, with critical and exegetical notes,


prolegomena, and copious indexes by James Legge. New York: Dover
Publications, 1970 (republication of the second revised edition, Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1895 as Volume II in "The Chinese Classics" Series).

Lin, Yutang, trans. The Wisdom of Confucius. New York: Random House, 1938.
97

Lyall, Leonard A. The Sayings of Confucius. 2nd revised edition. London:


Longman Green, 1925.

Moran, Patrick Edwin. Three Smaller Wisdom Books: Lao Zi's Dao de jing, the
Great Learning (Da xue), and the Doctrine of the Mean (Zhong yong).
Translated with introductions and commentaries by Patrick Edwin Moran.
Lanham: University Press of America, 1993.

Pound, Ezra. Confucian Analects. Translated and introduced by Ezra Pound.


London: Peter Owen Ltd., 1933; Washington, DC: Square Dollar Series,
1950.

Shimomura, Kojin. A Book of Heaven and the Earth: Stories from the Confucian
Analects. Translated by Nobuyoshi Okumuar. Tokyo: University of Tokyo
Press, 1973.

Waley, Arthur. The Analects of Confucius. Vintage Books. New York: Random
House, 1938.

Ware, James R. The Sayings of Confucius, A New Translation. New York: New
American Library, 1959.

Translations of other Chinese Classics

N.B., These titles are listed alphabetically according to author and not according
to translator.

The Book of Songs. Translated by Arthur Waley. New York: Grove Press, Inc.,

1960.

Chan, Wing-tsit, trans, and compiler. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy.


Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.

Chu Hsi, and Lu Tsu-ch'ien. Reflections on Things at Hand. Records of Civilization


Sources and Studies, 75. Translated with notes by Wing-tsit Chan. New
York and London: Columbia University Press, 1977.

Chu Hsi. Chu Hsi's Family Rituals: A Twelfth-Century Chinese Manual for the
Performance of Cappings, Weddings, Funerals, and Ancestral Rites.
98

Princeton Library of Asian Translations. Translated and introduced by


Patricia Buckley Ebrey . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1 990?.

. Learning to Be a Sage: Selections from the Conversations of Master Chu,


Arranged Topically. Translated with a commentary by Daniel K. Gardner.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

. The Philosophy of Human Nature by Chu Hsi. Translated by J. Percy Bruce.


London: Probsthain, 1922.

Chuang Tzu. Chuang Tzu: Basic Writings. Translated by Burton Watson. New
York: Columbia University Press, 1964.

The Ch'un Ts'ew, with the Tso Chuen (two parts). [Spring Autumn Annals].
Translated by James Legge. Vol. 5 of the Chinese Classics. Revised edition.
Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1960.

Dubs, Homer H. The Works of Hsiintze. Taipei: Ch'eng-wen, 1966.

Graham, Angus C, trans. Lieh Tzu. London: John Murray, 1960.

Han Fei Tzu. Han Fei Tzu: Basic Writings. Translated by Burton Watson. New
York: Columbia University Press, 1964.

The Hsiao Ching. [The Classic of Filial Piety]. Translated by Mary Leiia Makra.
Edited by Paul K.T. Sih. Asian Institute of Translations, no. 2. New York:
St. John's University Press, 1961.

Hsiao King and Hsiao Ching are differently transliterations of the Chinese
ideograms; they refer to the same document. Hsiao means "filial piety" and
ching or king refers to a "classic" or "sacred" or "canonical" text.

Hsiao King: he Livre de la piete filiale ou de I'amour fdial. Translated and


annotated by Byun, Kyu-Yong. In Revue de Coree 5 (2: 1973): 39-70.

Hsiao King and Hsiao Ching are differently transliterations of the Chinese
ideograms; they refer to the same document. Hsiao means "filial piety" and
ching or king refers to a "classic" or "sacred" or "canonical" text.

Hsiung, Yang. The Canon ofSupreme Mystery. Translation with commentary of the
T'ai hsiian ching by Michael Nylan. Albany: State University of New York
Press, 1993.
99

Hsiin Tzu. Hsiin Tzu: Basic Writings. Translated by Burton Watson. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1 964.

Hui Ming Ching. See The Secret of the Golden Flower.

The I Ching (The Book of Changes). Translated by James Legge. In Sacred Books
of the East, vol. 16. Edited by F. Max Muller. 2nd edition. New York:
Dover Publications, 1963. Reprint of 1899 Clarendon Press edition.

The I Ching or Book of Changes. Translated by Richard Wilhelm. Rendered into


Englishby Cary F.Baynes. Forwardby C.G.Jung. BoUingen Series, no. 29.
2 vols. New York: Pantheon, 1950.

Ivanhoe, Philip J., and Van Norden, Bryan W. Readings in Classical Chinese
Philosophy. New York: Seven Bridges Press, 1999.

Anthology of texts from Confiicius, Mencius, Mozi, Lao-tse, Zhuangzi,


Xunzi, and Han Feizi.

Kleeman, Terry F. A God's Own Tale: The Book of Transformations ofWenchang,


the Divine Lord of Zitong. Albany: State University of New York Press,
1994.

Lao-tse. Tao Te Ching. Translated with an introduction by D. C. Lau. Penguin


Classics Series, no. L131, Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1963; Hong Kong:
Chinese University Press, 1982, rev. ed, 1989.

. The Way and its Power: A Study of the Tao Te Ching and its Place in Chinese
Thought. By Arthur Waley. New York: Grove Press, 1958.

The LiKi. Translated by James Legge. Vols. 27-28 of the Sacred Books of the East.
Edited by F. Max Muller. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1875.

Mo Tzu. Mo Tzu: Basic Writings. Translated by Burton Watson. New York:


Columbia University Press, 1963.

Rutt, Richard. Zhouyi, The Book ofChanges-A New Translation with Commentary.
Richmond: Curzon Press, 1996.

Reviewed by Xinzhong Yao and Helene McMurtrie in Asian Philosophy 8


(July 1998): 136-139.
100

The Secret of the Golden Flower: A Chinese Book of Life [The T^ai I Chin Hua
Tsung ChihJ and part of The Book ofConsciousness and Life [The Hui Ming
ChingJ. Translated and explained by Richard Wilhelm, with a Foreword and
Commentary by Carl G. Jung. Translated from the German by Gary F.
Baynes. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1931, 1962.

Shaughnessy, Edward L. / Ching: The Classic of Changes. Classics of Ancient


China. New York: Ballantine Books, 1996.

For an online index by name to the hexagrams as listed in Shaughnessy 's


translation see Nathan Sivin's web-site at
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~hss/changes.html

The She King or the Book OfPoetry (two parts). Translated by James Legge. Vol.
4 of the Chinese Classics. Revised edition. Hong Kong: Hong Kong
University Press, 1960.

The Shoo King or the Book of Historical Documents (two parts). Translated by
James Legge. Vol. 3 of the Chinese Classics. Revised edition. Hong Kong:
Hong Kong University Press, 1960.

The Shu King, Shih King, and Hsiao King. Translated by James Legge. Vol. 3 of the
Sacred Books of the East. Edited by F. Max Miiller. Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1879.

Tai Chen on Mencius: Explorations in Words and Meanings. A Translation of the


Meng Tzu tzu-i shu cheng. With a Critical Introduction by Arm-ping Chin
and Mansfield Freeman. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.

The T'ai I Chin Hua Tsung Chih. See The Secret of the Golden Flower.

Wang, Yang-Ming. Instructions for Practical Living and Other Neo-Confucian


Writings by Wang Yang Ming. Translated, with Notes, by Wing Tsit Chan.
New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1963.

Yates, Robin D.S. Five Lost Classics: Tao, Huang-Lao, and Yin-Yang in Han
China. New York: Ballantine, 1997.

Secondary Works on Confucianism and/or the Chinese Classics

Allan, Sarah. The Way of Water and Sprouts of Virtue. Albany: SUNY Press, 1997.
:

101

Treats Mencius as well as Taoist classics. Allan argues that "in the absence
of a transcendental concept, the ancient Chinese turned directly to the natural
world, to water and the plant life that it nourishes' assuming "that the same
principles are found in the human and natural worlds." The author maintains
that early Chinese philosophy, whatever its philosophical school, assumed
common principles that informed the natural and human worlds and that one
could understand the nature of man by studying the principles which govern
nature. Accordingly, the natural world rather than a religious tradition
provided the root metaphors of early Chinese thought. Water, with its rich
capacity for generating imagery, providedmodel
the primary for
conceptualizing general cosmic principles while plants provided a model for
the continuous sequence of generation, growth, reproduction, and death and
was the basis for the Chinese understanding of the nature of the human in
both religion and philosophy.

Reviewed by Aihe Wang in The Journal ofAsian Studies 5 8 (February 1 999)


153-154.

Allinson, Robert E., ed. Understanding the Chinese Mind: The Philosophical Roots.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1 989.

Nine essays on various themes in Chinese thought. Contains a good


bibliography as well.

Allinson, Robert E. "The Debate between Mencius and Hsiin Tzu: Contemporary
Applications." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 25 (March 1998): 31-50.

Alitto, G.S. The Last Confucian: Liang Shu-ming and the Chinese Dilemma of
Modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979, 1986.

Alt, Wayne. "Revisiting the Shop of Confucius." Review of The East Asian Region:
Confucian Heritage And Its Modern Adaptation, by Gilbert Rozman. In Asian
Philosophy 4, no. 1 (1994): 81-87.

Ames, Roger T., Chan, Sin-wai, and Mau-sang Ng, eds. Interpreting Culture through
Translation: A Festschrift for D.C Lau. Hong Kong: Chinese University
Press, 1991.

Ames, Roger T. "The Focus-Field Self in Classical Confiicianism." In Self as


Person in Asian Theory and Practice. Edited by Roger T. Ames, Thomas P.
Kasulis, and Wimal Dissanayake. Albany: SUNY Press, 1994.
102

Ames is Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for Chinese


Studies at the University of Hawaii.

. "Meaning as Imaging: Prolegomena to a Confucian Epistemology." In


Culture and Modernity: East-West Perspectives, 227-244. Edited by Eliot
Deutsch. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1991.

One of several essays presented at the Sixth East- West Philosophers'


Conference held in August 1 989 in Honolulu.

. "The Mencian Conception of Ren Xing: Does it Mean 'Human Nature'?" In


Chinese Texts and Philosophical Contexts, 143-178. Edited by Henry
Rosemont, Jr. Lasalle II: Open Court, 1991.

Anthony, Carol K. The Philosophy of the I Ching. Stow MA: Anthony Publishing
Co., 1981.

Bauer, Wolfgang. "The Hidden Hero: Creation and Disintegration of the Ideal of
Eremitism." In Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist
Values, 157-1 97. Edited by Donald J. Munro. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese
Studies, The University of Michigan, 1985.

Beattie, Paul H. "The Religion of Confucius: The First Humanist." Religious


Humanism 22 (1988): 11-17.

States that Confucius' ultimate goal as a redeemed social order brought about
by redeemed individuals who would then inspire emulation by the rest of
human society.

Behuniak, Jim P. "Poem as Proposition in the Analects: a Whiteheadian Reading of


a Confucian Sensibility." Asian Philosophy 8 (November 1998): 191-202.

Berling, Judith A. The Syncretic Religion of Lin Chao-en. New York: Columbia
University Press, 1980.

Deals with the syncretic approach of Lin Chao-en, (Lin Zhao'en, 1 5 1 7-1 598)
which sought to combine Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in the cult
of the Lord of the Three in One (Sanyijiao).

Berling was Dean of the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California


and is now professor Chinese religions there.
103

Berthrong, John, and Evelyn Nagai Berthrong. Confucianism: A Short Introduction.


Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2000.

Berthrong, John. "Confucian Piety and the Religious Dimension of Japanese


Confucianism." Philosophy East and West A% (January 1998): 46-79.

One of several articles in this issue on the religious dimension of


Confucianism in Japan.

Berthrong is Associate Dean for Academic and Administrative Affairs and


Director of the Institute for Dialogue among Religious Traditions at Boston
University's School of Theology.

. Transformations of the Confucian Way. Explorations: Contemporary


Perspectives on Religion. Boulder CO: Westview, 1998.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Theological Studies 60 (March 1999):


52-53.

. "Trends in the Interpretation of Confucian Religiosity." In


Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and
Contemporary
Perspective, 226-254. Edited by Peter K.H. Lee. Lewiston: E. Mellen Press,
1991.

Paper from an international Confucian-Christian conference held in Hong


Kong, June 8-15, 1988.

Also foimd in Berthrong's All under Heaven: Transforming Paradigms in

Confucian— Christian Dialogue, 189-206. SUNY Series in Chinese


Philosophy and Culture. Albany: SUNY Press, 1994.

Basically a bibliographical essay on recent studies on Confucianism, as well


as some Confucian—Christian studies.

Birdwhistell, Anne D. Li Yong (1627-1705) and Epistemological Dimensions of


Confucian Philosophy. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.

Billington, Ray. Understanding Eastern Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Discusses the main principles ofHinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Jainism, and


Confucianism, and draws comparisons and contrasts with Western religious
and philosophical traditions.
.

104

Bloom, Irene. Approaches to the Asian Classics. New York: Columbia University
Press, 1990.

. "Human Nature and Biological Nature in Mencius." Philosophy East and


West 47 (January 1997): 21-32.

Argues that Mencius' concept of human nature (Ren-xing [Jen-hsing] and


humanity involved concern for the most fundamental realities of human life
and that his thought is valuable for comparative philosophy in that it is
"translatable" across both time and cultures.

. Knowledge Painfully Acquired: The K'un-chih chi ofLo Ch 'in-shun. Rev.


ed.New York: Columbia University Press, 1989, 1995.

. "Mencian Arguments on Human Nature (Jen-hsing)." Philosophy East and


West 44 (\994): 19-54.

. "On the Matter of the Mind: The Metaphysical Basis of the Expanded Self"
In Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist Values, 293-
330. Edited by Donald J. Munro. Arm Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies,
The University of Michigan, 1985.

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. "The Evolution of the Confucian Concept Jen." Philosophy East and West 4
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English summary prepared by Jac Kuepers, S.V.D. of a longer paper


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. "Confucius, Heidegger, and the Philosophy of the I Ching." Philosophy East


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Primarily discusses the concept of// as functioning as a liberating concept in


the Confucian tradition, despite negative perceptions which hold
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Throughout the article Cheng contrasts the Confucian tradition with a
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Cheng, Yang En. "The Idea of Tien-Ming in the Book of Historical Documents."
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While Zhuang Zi was fond of highlighting what he felt were absurdities in the
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and harmonious freedom, then traces the Confucian notion of self-cultivation
through Mencius' passage on the "full-flowing energy" and finally concludes
v^th a look at Zhuang Zi's "Butcher Ding" story, showing that even though
Zhuang Zi's concept of self-nurturing is approached from a different angle
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Journal of the American Academy of Religion Thematic Issue 47, no. 3S
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Cua, A.S. "The Conceptual Aspect of Hsiin Tzu's Philosophy of Human Nature."
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108

Cua, is professor emeritus of philosophy at The Catholic University of


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the History of Philosophy. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of
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Originally published in Self and Deception. Edited by Roger T. Ames and


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_. "The Confucian Tradition (Tao-t'ung)." Ch. 12 in Id. Moral Vision and


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History of Philosophy . Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America
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A revised version of "The Idea of Confucian Tradition." Review of


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"Confiician Vision and Experience of the World." Philosophy East and West
25 (1975).

Also foimd as Ch. 2 in Cua's Moral Vision and Tradition: Essays in Chinese
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, "The Idea of Confucian Tradition." Review of Metaphysics 45 (1992): 803-


840.

. "The Possibility of a Confucian Theory of Rhetoric." Ch. 10 in Id. Moral


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Originally presented in June 1988 at the NEH Conference on Rhetoric: East


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"Reasonable Challenges and Preconditions of Adjudication." In Culture and


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Discusses Hsiin-tzu and Chu Hsi, as well as the problem of responding to


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One of several essays presented at the Sixth East- West Philosophers'


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Originally presented at the 1988 International Confucian—Christian


Conference in Hong Kong, de Bary argues that the ideal of the Confucian
Superior Person includes a "prophetic voice" which should be seen in
counterpoint to the Sage King.
.

110

Also found in Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and


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. The Trouble with Confucianism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1 991

An expanded version of Professor de Bary's recent lectures, in which he notes


the eclipse of Confucianism in China during the Cultural Revolution, the
difficulty involved in determining just what "Confucianism" is, and two
divergent views held in the 1930s and 1940s, one of which held that
Confucianism was responsible for all of China's ills; the other that Confucius
was the quintessential Chinese sage.

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Analyzes thecult of the Lord of the Three in One (Sanyijiao) which sought
tocombine Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, primarily associated with
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366.

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. Confucianism and Family Rituals in Imperial China: A Social History of


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. "Following the "One Thread" of the Analects." Journal of the American


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Abstract: The essay what Confucius calls the "one thread" of all his
traces
teaching. It is him with two ideas: chung ("loyalty") and shu
defined by
("reciprocity"). By intensive analysis of the meaning these terms have in the
Analects, the distinctive sense Confucius gives them is exhibited, and on this
basis other major concepts in the Analects are logically derived and
elucidated.

Contains a reply by H.G. Creel, "Discussion of Professor Fingarette on


Confucius." Journal ofthe American Academy ofReligionThemaliclssue 47,
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112

. "Human Community as Holy Rite: An Interpretation of the Confucian


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volume, pp., 267-322.

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After four centuries Western global dominance may be on the wane, and the
next century may see the ascendency of Pacific globalism, which balances
fireedom and order on a world scale.

Gluer, Winfried. "Contemporary Confucianism." Ching Feng 13 (1970): 17-33.

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Graham, A.C. "The Background of the Mencian Theory of Human Nature." Tsing
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Also found in Graham's Studies in Chinese Philosophy and Philosophical


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Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist Values, 73-84.
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. Studies in Chinese Philosophy and Philosophical Literature. Albany: SUNY


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Rationality and Humaneness. Frankfurt-am-Main, Bern, New York, Paris:
Peter Lang, 1990.

Hall, David, and Ames, Roger. "Getting It Right: On Saving Confucius from the
Confucians." Philosophy East and West 34 (1984): 3-24.

Hall, David L., and Ames, Roger T. Thinking Through Confucius. Albany: SUNY
Press, 1987.

Hall is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas and Ames is

Professor of Philosophy at the University of Hawaii.

Hamberger, Max. "Aristotle and Confucius: A Comparison." Journal ofthe History


of Ideas 20 (1959): 236-249.

. "Aristotle and Confucius: A Study in Comparative Philosophy." Philosophy


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Harbsmeier, Christopher. "Confucius Ridens: Humor in the Analects." Harvard


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. "The Mass Noun Hypothesis and the Part- Whole Analysis of the White Horse
Dialogue." In Chinese Texts and Philosophical Contexts: Essays Dedicated
to Angus C Graham, 49-66. Edited by Henry Rosemont, Jr. Lasalle II: Open
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See also Graham's concluding essay, "Reflections and Replies," in the same
volume, pp., 267-322.

Henderson, John B. Scripture, Canon and Commentary: A Comparison of


Confucian and Western Exegesis. Princeton: Princeton University Press,
1991.

A comparative consideration of commentarial strategies used in major


classics, with the emphasis on the Chinese canon of the Five Classics and the
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Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Gregorianum 73 (1992): 560-561.


114

Higgens, Kathleen. "Music in Confucian and Neo-Confucian Philosophy."


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Hsii, Leonard Shihlien. The Political Philosophy ofConfucianism: An Interpretation


of the Social and Political Ideas of Confucius, His Forerunners and His
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Im, Manyul. "Emotional Control and Virtue in the Mencius." Philosophy East and
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Jensen, Lionel M. Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese Traditions and Universal


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Reviewed by by J. Russell Kirkland in Religious Studies Review 25 (January


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Jiang, Joseph P., ed. Confucianism and Modernization: A Symposium. Taipei:


Freedom Council, 1987.

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Kim, Sung Hei. "Silent Heaven Giving Birth to the Multitude of People." In
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Kim, Sung-Hae. "The Confucian Sage." Inter-Religio 22 (1992): 52-60.


.

115

Taken from a conference given in Hong Kong (no date indicated) on the
notion of "saint" in various religious traditions (e.g., Confucian, Catholic,
Hasidic).

Sr. Kim Sung-hae has a doctorate in comparative religions from Harvard and
teaches in the Religious Studies Department of Sogang University in Seoul.

King, Ambrose Y.C. "The Individual and Group in Confucianism: A Relational


Perspective." In Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist
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Koh, Byong-ik. "Confucianism in Asia's Modem Transformation." Korea Journal


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Originally presented at a colloquium at the Woodrow Wilson International


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und Trauzettel, Rolf, Hrsgs. Konfuzianismus unddie Modernisierung


Krieger, Silke,
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In English: Confucianism and the Modernization of China. English Series,


1 6. Mainz: Hase und Koehler Verlag, 1 99 1

Papers presented at an international symposium held at Sankt Augustin,


Germany from 3 1 October to 2 November 1988 and sponsored by the Konrad
Adenauer Foundation (KAS) in cooperation with the Confucian Foundation
of the People's Republic of China (CKS).

Contents: Opening address, B. Heck. Modem values of the positive elements


in Confucius' ideas concerning the study of man, Y. Kuang. Confucius and
Confucianism - on their history and status and on their present theoretical and
practical potential, H. Stumpfeldt. A Confucian perspective on the rise of
industrial East Asia, Wei-ming Tu. On the problem of the universal
applicability- of Confucianism, R. Trauzettel. The concept of "great harmony"
in the Book of Changes (Zhou Yi), D. Yu. On the problem of the self in
Confucianism, W. Kubin. The dichotomy of loyalty and filial piety in
Confucianism: historical development and modem significance, C. Lee. The
image of Confucius in China, B. Staiger. On the horror vacui: Confucian
tendencies in the present-day Chinese morality debate, M. Quirin. A brief
account of the positive factors in Confucius' thinking, S. Fu. Confucian
ethics and moral education of contemporary students, H. Cheng. The thoughts
116

of Confucius and the contemporary world, Q. Zhang. An interpretation of


Confucian virtues and their relevance to China's modernization, K. Lau.
Confucianism in the Republic of China and its role in Mainland China's
reform, K. Chang. Max Weber's interest in Confucianism, H.
Schmidt-Glintzer. Some effects of China's political and economic system on
Confucian ethics, X. Wang. Confucian elitism: interpretation of tradition in
the 20th century, S. Belousov. Confucian thoughts and the modem Chinese
quest for moral autonomy, T. Metzger. Confucianism and China's policy of
reform, T. Wu.
Confucius' humanitarianist ideas and the contemporary
international community, D. Gong. Tradition and modernity in the Chinese
policy of reform, T. Scharping. The economic reform in China-the order
policy of a Confucian country, G. Kirsch and K. Mackscheidt. The Chinese
economic reform versus Confucianism, A. Bohnet and K. Waldkirch. Some
observations on relations between Confucianism, development and
modernization, S. Eisenstadt. Three approaches to war and struggle in
Chinese classical thought, K. Gawlikowski. Confucianism and communism
revisited, H. Van de Ven. Chinese society, Chinese Confucianism, and the
modernization of China, C. Shun. Between Marxism and metaconfucianism:
China on the way "back to normality", O. Weggel. Confucius, P. Opitz.
Confucianism in France: historical approach, assessment for the present and
perspectives for the future, A. Cheng. On the limits of anti-Confucianism,
B. Csongor. Confucius and modernization in China: an educational
perspective, A. Sprenger.

Kuehner, Hans. "Plurality and Confucian Orthodoxy: The Views of a Neglected


Qing School of Thought." Journal ofChinese Philosophy 26 (March 1999):
49-88.

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Lai is professor of religious studies at University of California, Davis.

. "Growing up Rational, Puritanical and Weaned of Gods: Confucian Education


of the Son after Age Six." Ching Feng 33 (1990): 232-247.

. "Kao-tzu and Mencius on Mind: Analyzing a Paradigm Shift in Classical


China. " Philosophy Eastand West 34(1 984): 1 47- 1 60.

Kao-tzu is considered as a foil to Mencius' theory of human nature.

. "Yung andthe Tradition of the Shih: The Confucian Restructuring ofHeroic


Courage." Religious Studies 2\ (1986): 181-203.
117

Absti-act: Following Alasdair Maclntyre, the essay traces how the heroic
virtue of courage changed in time and in a culture of a de-militarized literati

in China.The analysis focuses on Mencius' discussion on his difference with


Kao-tzu on the "immovable mind" and the three ways of managing the
passion (ch'i) and the will (chih). There is courage due a singular passion
that moves the will; the courage of a singular will that moves the passion.
Kao-tzu like Socrates accepted a higher moral courage based on social reason
and repute (yen), but as classical society collapsed, Mencius redefined
courage as Plato would as a transcendental imperative based on mystical
union of a moral mind with a moral universe.

Lau, D.C. "Theories of Human Nature in Mencius and Shyuntzyy." Bulletin of


Oriental and African Studies 15 (1953): 541-565.

Lee, Peter K.H. "'Civil Religion' and 'Secularization' in Confucianism: Han Yii and
Liu Chang-yiian. Implications for Theological Critique in Asia Today."
Ching Feng 34 (1991): 28-50.

Addresses four contemporary theological issues in Asian Christianity


(orthodoxy and social progress, a spiritual basis for social action, the
relationship of peace and justice, and the problem of ultimate loyalty in a
situation of religious pluralism) by referring to the contrasting positions of
Han Yii (768-824) and Liu Chang-yiian (773-819), two key figures in the
Chinese Literary Movement of their generation.

Based on a presentation made to a FABC sponsored conference on "Asian


Theological Perspectives on Church and Politics" held at Mary knoll House,
Stanley, Hong Kong, 15-23 April 1991.

Lee, a Protestant, is Director of the Christian Study Centre on Chinese


Religion and Culture in Hong Kong.

Legge, James. The Prolegomena to the Chinese Classics. Oxford: Oxford


University Press, 1 907.

Levenson, Joseph R. Confucian China and Its Modern Fate: The Problem of
Intellectual Continuity. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1958.

Li, Chenyang. "Shifting Perspectives: Filial Morality Revisited." Philosophy East


and West 47 (April 1 997) 2 1 1 -232.
:

Compares Western accounts of filial morality (Jane English, Jeffrey Blustein,


etc.) and argues that Confucianism provides a sensible alternative.
.

118

Lin, Tian-Min. "Thought and Action in Confucius. " Religious Humanism 22 (Winter
1988): 7-10.

Liou, Kia-Hway. L'Esprit Synthetique de la Chine: Etude de la mentalite chinoise


selon les textes des philosophes de I'antiquite. Bibliotheque de Philosophic
Contemporaine. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1 96 1

Little, Reg, and Reed, Warren. The Confucian Renaissance— Origin of Asia's
Economic Development. The Simul Press, 1989.

Liu, Kwang-Ching, ed. Orthodoxy in Late Imperial China. Studies on China, 10.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Liu, Shu-Hsien. "The Confucian Approach to the Problem of Transcendence and


Immanence." Philosophy East and West 22:4 (1972): 417-425.

Liu is Professor and Chair of the Department of Philosophy at the Chinese


University of Hong Kong.

. "On Confucius' Attitude towards Gods, Sacrifice, and Heaven." Ching Feng
34(1991): 16-27.

Paper presented at an international conference on "China and Confucianism"


held at the California State University in Los Angeles, 15-17 June 1990.

. "The Religious Import of Confiician Philosophy: Its Traditional Outlook and


Contemporary Significance." Philosophy East and West 21:2 (1971): 157-
175.

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123

Richey did his doctorate under Judith Berling in cuhural and historical study
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124

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Done under Julia Ching.

Abstract: Yi T'oegye (1501-1570) and Yi Yulgok (1536-1584) are two most


eminent Korean Neo-Confucian thinkers, who dominated the characteristic
pattern of Korean thought. The "Four-Seven Debate" is the most important
event in all of Korean intellectual history. As far as I know, studies of
T'oegye and Yulgok, which are available in Korean, Japanese, and English
do not treat it seriously enough. This is an attempt to interpret T'oegye's and
Yulgok's "Four-Seven Thesis" of human nature and emotions and its practical
implications in acquiring sagehood. The argument that I shall present in its
work is its crucial importance in moral life. I consider my task to be that of
a textual analysis. As an interpreter of words and their meanings, I have
attempted to make myself transparent, allowing T'oegye and Yulgok to speak
through me through my translations and analyses of their philosophical
letters, treatises and other principal writings. My method is philosophically
a dialectical one that provides a way of comparison and criticism. Throughout
the entire study, care is given to indicate similarities and differences between
both thinkers' insights into metaphysics and ethics, with respect to the
Neo-Confiician norm. One of my main objectives is to see to what extent
T'oegye and Yulgok depart from Chu Hsi's philosophy, each in a divergent
way. In the introductory chapter, I point out the inherent ambiguity of the

relationship between the Four Beginnings and the Seven Emotions. I also
briefly discuss the key questions and issues involved in the Korean
Four-Seven controversy. In the final chapter of inquiry, I interpret the results
of the textual analysis of the preceding five chapters. I shall do a critical
analysis of certain theoretical problems that are evident in both men. I also
intend to mention the uniqueness of each thinker's philosophy and its
important contribution to the East Asian Confucian tradition as a whole.
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142

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Also found in Taylor's The Religious Dimensions of Confucianism. SUNY


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Taylor is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Colorado at


Boulder.

. The Cultivation of Sagehood as a Religious Goal in Neo-Confucianism: A


Study of Selected Writings of Kao P'an-lung (1562-1626). Ann Arbor:
Scholars Press, 1978.

. "Neo-Confiicianism, Sagehood and the Religious Dimension." Journal of


Chinese Philosophy 2 (1975): 398-415.

Tillman, Hoyt Cleveland. Confucian Discourse and Chu Hsi's Ascendancy.


Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1992.

. "Consciousness of Tien in Chu Hsi's Thought." Harvard Journal ofAsiatic


Studies 47 (1987): 31-50.
148

. Utilitarian Confucianism: Cheng Liang's Challenge to Chu Hsi. Cambridge:


Harvard University Press, 1982.

Tu, Wei-ming. "'Inner Experience': The Basis of Creativity in Neo-Confucian


Thinking." In Artists and Traditions: Uses ofthe Past in Chinese Culture, 9-
15. Edited by Christian F. Murck. Princeton: The Art Museum, Princeton
University, 1976.

. "The Neo-Confiician Concept of Man." Philosophy East and West 21 (1971):


72-81.

. "Neo-Confucian Ontology: A Preliminary Questioning." Journal of Chinese


Philosophy 7 (1980): 93-1 14.

. Neo-Confucian Thought in Action: Wang Yang-ming's Youth (1 472- J 509).

Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

. "On Neo-Confucianism and Human-Relatedness." In Religion and the Family


in East Asia,l\ I -\25. Edited by George A. DeVos and Takao Sofue. Osaka:
National Museum of Ethnology, 1984.

Previously published in Senri ethnological studies, 11, 1984.

. "Subjectivity and Ontological Reality: An Interpretation of Wang Yang-ming's


Mode of Thinking." Philosophy East and West 23 (1973): 187-205.

. "The Unity of Knowing and Acting: From a Neo-Confucian Perspective." In


Philosophy: Theory and Practice, 190-205. Edited by T.M.P. Mahedevan,.
Madras: Proceedings of the International Seminar on World Philosophy, 7-17
December 1970.

Tucker, Mary Evelyn. Moral and Spiritual Cultivation in Japanese Neo-


Confucianism: The Life and Thought of Kaibara Ekken (1 630-1 71 4).
Albany: SUNY Press, 1989.

Reviewed by Joseph Kitagawa, "Dimensions of the East Asian Religious


UmweiSQ," History of Religions 3\ (1991): 181-214.

. "Religious Dimensions of Confucianism: Cosmology and Cultivation."


Philosophy East and West 48 (January 1998); 5-46.

Suggests that Confucianism has religious dimensions which need to be


further explored. The central dialectic for establishing inner and outer
149

harmony is the interaction of the microcosm of the self with the macrocosm
of the universe. This leads to a view that cultivating oneself, responding
morally to the social and political order, and resonating with the patterns of
nature are at the heart of Confucian religiosity. Uses examples of two
Japanese Neo-Confucians: Yamazaki Ansai (1618-1682) and Kaibara Ekken
(1630-1714). This article is one of several in this issue devoted to the
religious dimension of Confucianism in Japan.

Wang, Yang-Ming. Instructions for Practical Living and Other Neo-Confucian


Writings by Wang Yang Ming. Translated, with Notes, by Wing Tsit Chan.
New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1963.

Wei, Cheng-t'ung. "Chu Hsi on the Standard [Ching] and the Expedient [Ch 'tian]."

In Chu Hsi and Neo-Confucianism. Edited by Wing-tsit Chan. Honolulu:


University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

Wyatt, Don J. "Chu Hsi's Critique of Shao Yung: One Instance ofthe Stand Against
Fatalism." Harvard Journal ofAsiatic Studies 45 (1985): 649-666.

. The Recluse ofLoyang: Shao Yung and the Moral Evolution of Early Sung
Thought. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996.

Reviewed by Whalen Lai in Asian Philosophy 8 (March 1998): 68-69.

Yi, Hwang [Yi, T'oegye]. See Kalton, Michael C.

Yi, Tae-jin. "Historical Functions of Korean Neo-Conflicianism—A Proposal for its

Revaluation." Upper-Class Culture in Yi-Dynasty Korea, 93- 11 3 . Edited by


Chun Shin-yong. Seoul: Si-sa-yong-o-sa Publishers, 1982.

Yi, T'oegye [Yi Hwang]. See Kalton, Michael C.

Youn, Sa-Soon. "T'oegye's Identification of 'To Be' and 'Ought': T'oegye's Theory
of Value." In The Rise of Neo-Confucianism in Korea, 223-242. Edited by
William Theodore de Bary and JaHyun Kim Haboush. New York: Columbia
University Press, 1985.

Yii, Ying-shih. "Morality andKnowledge in Chu Hsi's Philosophical System." In


Chu Hsi and Neo-Confucianism, 228-254. Edited by Wing-tsit Chan.
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.
150

Confucian Ethics

Adler, Joseph A. "Descriptive and Normative Principle (Li) in Confucian Moral


Metaphysics: Is/ought from the Chinese Perspective." Zygon 16 (1981):
285-293.

Abstract: The Confucian approach to the relation of objective fact and


subjective value (the "is/ought problem") is examined, primarily in terms of
Mencius' (4th c. BCE) discussion of hsing (human nature) and ming (what is
given), Chu Hsi's (1130-1200) understanding of li (principle), and
correlations in Chinese cosmology. The Confucian view is that moral value
inheres objectively in the natural world in the form of human beings' innate
moral tendencies; moral principles and natural principles are coordinate
aspects of the intelligibility of the cosmos. Moral knowledge is achieved
through self-understanding and investigation of external things, and is

ontologically grounded. Includes a glossary of Chinese terms.

Alexander, Donald Leroy. "The Concept of T'ien in the Confucian Thought of the
Late Chou Dynasty and its Ethical Implications." Ph.D. diss., University of
California, Santa Barbara, 1 980.

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to unravel the origin and nature of the
concept of the deity of Heaven, T'ien, in the classical Confucian literature of
the late Chou dynasty (551-233 B.C.) with the objective of uncovering the
Confucian "god-concept" and thus gaining a possible new insight into the
nature of Chinese religion. The study concentrates principally on the works
of Confucius, Mencius, and Hsun-tzu, with a philological excursus into the
etymological backgroimd of the word, T'ien. The approach of the study, and
therefore its primary interest, is philosophical; that is, it is interpretative

rather than exegetical. While exegetical scholarship is extensively used,


since one cannot divorce a philosophical reading of a text from careful
historical linguistic analysis, the goal is to progress beyond commentaries to
an interpretation of the meaning of the texts as a whole. And it is this concem
for wholeness that guides the interpretative approach of the study, an
approach in which structuralism provides a methodological model but only
with the understanding that the approach of the study is not intended to be a
form of structuralism. The argument is simply the conviction that there is a
deep, integral structure inherent in the notion of T'ien and that only through
a holistic understanding and approach can one penetrate the surface semantics
around the deity of Heaven and arrive at an appreciation and understanding

of its meaning. The first specific problem of the smdy centers on the origin
or etymological background of the word, T'ien. Here the philological theory
of H. G. Creel is explicated and critiqued, resulting in an alternate theory for
.

151

the origin or "original function" of the deity of Heaven. The theory is

twofold: (1) That the Confucian religious metaphysical thought expressed in


the notion of T'ien finds its origin in the evolution of the Chinese religious
consciousness; that is, in a movement away from an analogical way of
thinking to an ethical symbolic way of thinking; and (2) that this evolution of
thinking was prompted by two historical-sociological factors; namely, a
religious factor inwhich the deity of Heaven finds its original function in
association with the cult of ancestor worship and its highest deity, and,
secondly, a political-ethical factor prompted by the introduction of the
T'ien-ming. Now these two factors, it is argued, constitute the architectonic
foundation or structure in the Confucian bi-polar conception of the deity of
Heaven in the writings of Confucius and Mencius. Philosophically stated.
Heaven is, on the one hand, the symbolic expression of the
universal-principle of creativity. On the other hand. Heaven is the symbolic
expression of the concrete function of the universal-principle of creativity.
This same structure underlies the explicit concept of Heaven in Hsun-tzu's
thought. Hsun-tzu, however, went decidedly beyond the traditional
formulation, drawing out the logical implications already inherent within the
early Confucian belief structure. The study concludes with an attempt to
draw out the of Heaven for
religious-ethical implications of the notion
interpreting the nature of Chinese religion. The implications are threefold:

(1) That the notion of Heaven requires an understanding of God in terms of


an "immanent-transcendence;" (2) That the notion of Heaven requires an
emphasis upon the "concrete" as centered in human nature in its
religious-ethical outlook; and (3) That the notion of Heaven in Confucian
thought advocates a moral-himiane community as the destiny or goal of
religious practice.

AUinson, Robert E. "The Ethics of Confucianism and Christianity: The Delicate


Balance." Ching Feng 33 (1990): 157-175.

Also found in Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and


Contemporary Perspective, 295-313. Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York:
The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991

. "The Negative Formulation of the Golden Rule in Confucius." Journal of


Chinese Philosophy 2 (1985): 305-315.

Ames, Roger T. "Rites as Rights: The Confucian Alternative." In Human Rights


and the World's Religions, 199-216. Edited by Leroy S. Rouner. Notre
Dame: Universit>' of Notre Dame Press, 1988.
152

Ames is Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for Chinese


Studies at the University of Hawaii.

Angle, Stephen C. "The Possibility of Sagehood: Reverence and Ethical Perfection


in ZhuXi's Thought." Journal ofChinese Philosophy 25 (September 1998):
281-304.

Bosley, Richard. "Do Mencius and Hume Make the Same Ethical Mistake?"
Philosophy East and West 38 (1988): 3-18.

Bosley argues against confusing virtue with a natural property.

Bosley is professor of philosophy at the University of Alberta.

. "What Is a Mean? The Question Considered Comparatively and


Systematically." Philosophy East and West 36 (1986): 3-12.

Brannigan, Michael C. Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values.


New York: Seven Bridges Press, 1999.

Looks at Hindu, Buddhist, Zen, Taoist, and Confucian ethics. Each chapter
includes historical background, central ethical themes, primary sources,
review essay questions and an annotated bibliography.

Bretzke, James T., S.J. "The Common Good in a Cross-Cultural Perspective:


Insights from the Confucian Moral Community." In Religion, Ethics & the
Common Good, Annual Publication of the College Theology
83-105.
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Twenty-Third Publications, 1996.

Recent discussion concerning multiculturalism, pluralism, globalization of


ethics and the prospects for a "common morality" all provide a challenging
context for critical ethical reflection on the notions of the common good as
these are found in various cultural and religious traditions. This article

investigates the possibility of enriching our liberal Western notion of the


common good from a cross-cultural perspective afforded by Confucianism
and what might be called the Confucian notion of the "common good," even
though the precise terminological equivalent is not found in the Confucian

literature or philosophical tradition. An original exposition of the notion of


the common good exegeted from the Confucian canon is presented and
discussed in reference to the Confucian cardinal virtues, the notion of the
chiin-tzu (paradigmatic moral individual); the four cardinal virtues ofJen, yi.
.

153

//, and chih; an understanding of community as fiduciary; and the moral force
of the notion of the T'ien-ming or Mandate of Heaven.

Bretzke served as a missionary in Korea, teaching at Sogang University in


Seoul, before doing his doctorate in moral theology at the Pontifical
Gregorian University in Rome, at which institution he taught for three years
before joining the faculty of the Jesuit School of Theology/Graduate
Theological Union in Berkeley, California.

. "The Tao of Confucian Virtue Ethics." International Philosophical Quarterly


35 (1995): 25-41.

Investigates the key aspects of the Confucian virtue ethics in relation to the
notions of the chun-tzu (Superior Person), the Five Relationships of society,
the particular Confucian virtues ofJen (benevolence) and // (propriety), the
moral vision of the tao (Way), and the understanding of the t'ien-ming
(Mandate of Heaven). The thesis of the article is that the moral matrix
provided by the web of social relationships is what allows the Confucian
ethics of virtue to function well.

California State University, Fullerton (CSUF). 1 8th Annual Philosophy Symposium:


"Moral Reasoning in China: An East/West Dialogue." 24-26 February 1988.

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Cheng Chung-ying is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Hawaii at


Manoa and founder of the International Society of Chinese Philosophy and
the Journal of Chinese Philosophy.
154

. "On Yi as a Universal Principle of Specific Application in Confucian


Morality." Chapter 8 in New Dimensions of Confucian and Neo-Confucian
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Besides this essay see the other chapters in Part II: Confucian Dimensions..

Cheng, Hanbang. "Confucian Ethics and Moral Education of Contemporary


Students." In Confucianism and the Modernization of China, 193-202.
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InGerman: In Konfuzianismus und die Modernisierung Chinas. Deutsche


Schriftenreihe des Intemationalen Instituts der Konrad
Adenauer Stiftung, 20.
Mainz: Hase und Koehler Verlag, 1990.

Paper presented at an international symposium held at Sankt Augustin,

Germany fi"om 3 1 October to 2 November 1 988 and sponsored by the Konrad


Adenauer Foundation (KAS) in cooperation with the Confucian Foundation
of the People's Republic of China (CKS).

Cheng, Hsueh-li. "Reasoning in Confucian Ethics." In International Symposium on


Confucianism and the Modern World, 147-169. Taipei: Proceedings of the
International Symposium on Confucianism, 1988.

Cheng, Kevin Shun Kai. "Karl Barth and Tang Junyi on the Nature of Ethics and the
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Doctoral dissertation done under Kenan Osborne, O.F.M. at the Graduate


Theological Union.

Chong, Kim Chong. "Confucius' Virtue Ethics: Li, Yi, Wen, and Chih in the

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Choi, Chongko. "Traditional Korean Law and Its Modernization." Transactions of


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Discusses the Korean contact with, and reception of. Western jurisprudence
within the context of traditional Korean Confucian law categories and
historical training and practice.
155

Chow, Kai-wing. "Ritual, Cosmology, and Ontology: Chang Tsai's Moral


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1993): 201-228.

Christian, Joachim. "Ethical Analysis of an Ancient Debate: Moists versus


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Chung, Bongkil. "The Relevance of Confucian Ethics." Journal of Chinese


Philosophy 18 (June 1991): 143-159.

Cua, .Ajitonio S. "Basic Concepts of Confucian Ethics." Ch. 13 in Cua's Moral


Vision and Tradition: Essays in Chinese Ethics, 267-302. Studies in
Philosophy and the History of Philosophy. Washington, D.C.: Catholic
University of America Press, 1998.

Cua, is professor emeritus of philosophy at The Catholic University of


America.

. "Between Commitment and Realization: Wang Yang-Ming's Vision of the


Universe as a Moral Community." Philosophy East and West 43 (1993):
611-647.

Also found as Ch. 9 in Cua's Moral Vision and Tradition: Essays in Chinese
Ethics, 156-191. Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy.
Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1998.

. "The Concept of Zf in Confucian Moral Theory." In Understanding the


Chinese Mind: The Philosophical Roots, 209-236. Edited by Robert E.
Allinson. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

. "The Concept of the Paradigmatic Individual in the Ethics of Confucius."


Inquiry 14 (197 \): 41-55.

Also found in Invitation to Chinese Philosophy, 41-55. Edited by Ame Naess


and Alastair Hannary. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1972.

. "Chinese Moral Vision, Responsive Agency, and Factual Beliefs." Journal


of Chinese Philosophy 7 (1980).

Also found as Ch. 4 in Cua's Moral Vision and Tradition: Essays in Chinese
Ethics, 59-79. Studies in Philosophy and the Histor\' of Philosophy.
Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1998.
156

"Competence, Concern, and the Role of Paradigmatic Individuals {Chun tzu)


in Moral Education." Philosophy East and West 42 (1992).

Also found as Ch. 8 in Cua's Moral Vision and Tradition: Essays in Chinese
Ethics, 138-155. Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy.
Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1998.

_. "The Concept of Paradigmatic Individuals in the Ethics of Confucius."


Inquiry \A{\91\yA\-55.

_. "Dimensions of Zz (Propriety): Reflections on an Aspect of Hsiin Tzu's


Ethics." Philosophy East and West 29 (1979): 373-394.

. Dimensions of Moral Creativity: Paradigms, Principles, and Ideals.


University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1978.

Develops the notion of the Confucian concept of chiin-tzu [Superior Person]


as a paradigmatic moral person in the community.

. Ethical Argumentation: A Study in Hsun Tzu's Moral Epistemology.


Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985.

Reviewed by Matthew Levey in Journal of Religion 66 (1986): 352-353.

"The Ethical Uses of the Past in Early Confucianism: The Case of Hsiin Tzu."
Philosophy East and West 35 (1985): 133-156.

. "Harmony and the Neo-Confucian Sage." Philosophical Inquiry: An


International Quarterly (5 (1983).

Also found as Ch. 7 in Cua's Moral Vision and Tradition: Essays in Chinese
Ethics, 119-137. Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy.
Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1998.

. "Hsiin Tzu and the Unity of Virtues." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 14


(1987).

. "Li and Moral Justification: A Study in the Li Chi." Philosophy East and
^£5/ 33 (1983).

. Moral Vision and Tradition: Essays in Chinese Ethics. Studies in Philosophy


and the History of Philosophy. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of
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Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Theological Studies 60 (September


1999): 588; and by '
Jeffrey L. Richey in Journal of Chinese Religions 27
(1999): 147-149.

"Morality and Human Nature. Philosophy East and West 32 (1982).

. "Morality and Paradigmatic Individuals." American Philosophical Quarterly


6 (1969): 324-329.

. "The Possibility of Ethical Knowledge: Reflections on a Theme in the Hstin


TzuT In Epistemological Issues in Classical Chinese Philosophy. Edited by
Hans Lenk and Gregor Paul. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993.

. "Practical Causation and Confucian Ethics." Philosophy East and West 25


(January 1975): 1-10.

. "Principles as Preconditions of Adjudication." Ch. 14inCua's Moral Vision


and Tradition: Essays in Chinese Ethics, 303-330. Studies in Philosophy and
the History of Philosophy. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of
America Press, 1998.

Revision of an earlier essay published as "Reasonable Challenges and


Preconditions of Adjudication" in In Culture and Modernity: East-West
Perspectives, 279-298. Edited by Eliot Deutsch. Honolulu: University of
Hawaii Press, 1991.

Discusses Hsiin-tzu and Chu Hsi, as well as the problem of responding to


normative ethics.

One of several essays presented at the Sixth East- West Philosophers'


Conference held in August 1989 in Honolulu.

. "Reason and Principle in Chinese Philosophy: An Interpretation of Li" In


Blackwell Companion to World Philosophy. Edited by Eliot Deutsch and
RonBontekoe. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997.

. "Reasonable Action and Confucian Argumentation." Journal of Chinese


Philosophy 1 (1973).

Also found as Ch. 1 in Cua's Moral Vision and Tradition: Essays in Chinese
Ethics, 1-18. Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy.
Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1998.
158

. "Reasonable Challenges and Preconditions of Adjudication." In Culture and


Modernity: East-West Perspectives, 279-298. Edited by Eliot Deutsch.
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1991.

Discusses Hsiin-tzu and Chu Hsi, as well as the problem of responding to


normative ethics.

One of several essays presented at the Sixth East- West Philosophers'


Conference held in August 1989 in Honolulu.

. "Reflections on Moral Theory and Understanding Moral Traditions." In


Interpreting across Boundaries, 280-293. Edited by G. Larson and Eliot
Deutsch. 1988.

. "Some Reflections on the Structure of Confucian Ethics." Philosophy East


and West 27 (\97\y. 125-140.

. "The Status of Principles in Confucian Ethics." In International Symposium


on Confucianism and the Modern World, 207-236. Taipei: Proceedings of
the International Symposium on Confucianism, 1988.

Also found in Journal of Chinese Philosophy 1 6 (September-December


1989): 273-296.

Also was a paper presented at the California State University, FuUerton 1 8th
Annual Philosophy Symposium, ("Moral Reasoning in China: An East/West
Dialogue"), 24-26 February 1988.

. "Tasks of Confucian Ethics." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 6 (1979): 55-


67.

. The Unity of Knowledge and Action: A Study in Wang Yang-ming's Moral


Psychology. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1982.

. "Uses of Dialogue and Moral Understanding." Journal ofChinese Philosophy


2(1975): 131-148.

Dahlstrom, Daniel. "The Tao of Ethical Argumentation." Journal of Chinese


Philosophy U i\9S7).
de Bary, William Theodore. "Neo-Confucianism and Human Rights." In Human
Rights and the World's Religions, 183-198. Edited by Leroy S. Rouner.
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de Bary, William Theodore, and Tu, Weiming, eds. Confucianism and Human
Rights. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Forum on the Role of Culture in Industrial East Asia-The Relationship between


Confucian Ethics and Modernisation. Singapore: Institute of East Asian
Philosophies, 1988.

Geaney, Jane. "Chinese Cosmology and Recent Studies in Confucian Ethics."


Journal of Religious Ethics 28 (Fall 2000): 451-470.

Discusses recent works by Philip


J. Ivanhoe, David S. Nivison, Randall
Peerenboom, Henry Rosemont, and Tu Weiming.

Geaney is Assistant Professor of Religion at the University of Richmond,


Virginia.

Graham, A.C. Later Mohist Logic, Ethics and Science. Hong Kong: University of
Hong Kong Press, 1978.

Grimm, Tilemann. "Moralische Religion oder religiose Moral - der Fall des
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Gladigow. 1976.

Gunatilleke, Godfrey. "The Ethics of Order and Change: An Analytical Framework."


In Ethical Dilemmas ofDevelopment in Asia. Edited by Godfrey Gunatilleke,
Neelan Tiruchelvam, and Radhika Coomaraswamy. Lexington MA:
Lexington Books, 1983.

Among other things, critiques the Confucian ethos of personal cultivation.

Gurdak, Thaddeus J. "Benevolence: Confucian Ethics and Ecstasy." In Essays in


Morality and Ethics. The Annual Publication of the College Theology
Society, 76-84. Edited by James Gaffney. New York and Ramsey: Paulist
Press, 1980.

Hansen, Chad. "Freedom and Moral Responsibility in Confucian Ethics."


Philosophy East and West 22 (April 1972): 169-186.

Hansen teaches at the University of Vermont.

. "Mozi: Langauge Utilitarianism. The Structure of Ethics in Classical China."


Paper presented at the California State University, FuUerton 1 8th Annual
160

Philosophy Symposium, ("Moral Reasoning in China: An East/West


Dialogue"), 24-26 February, 1988.

Hsieh, Kao-Chiao. "Attitudes in Flux." Free China Review 38 (December, 1988):


22-27.

Hsieh, Yu-wei. "The Status of the Individual in Chinese Ethics." In The Chinese
Mind: Essentials of Chinese Philosophy and Culture, 307-322. Edited by
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Huang, Joe C. "Ideology and Confucian Ethics in the Characterization of Bad


Women in Socialist Literature." In Deviance and Social Control in Chinese
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1 .

W. Wilson. New York: Praeger, 1977.

Hunt, Arnold D., Marie T. Crotty and Robert B. Crotty, eds. Ethics of World
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Ihara, Craig. "Guiltless Morality." In Anxiety, Guilt and Freedom: Religious Studies
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Ivanhoe, Philip J. "Character Consequentialism: An Early Confucian Contribution

to Contemporary Ethical Theory." Journal ofReligious Ethics 19 (1991): 55-


70.

Early Confucian ethics can be seen as an example of "character


consequentialism," a theory concerned with the effects which actions have
upon the cultivation of virtues and which concentrates on key psychological
values, such as kinship relationships. In this theory the way to maximize the
good is number of virtuous people in a given society, who in
to increase the
turn are viewed as embodying the ideals of the virtuous life. For another use
of this notion of character consequentialism see Damien Keown's "Karma,
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. Confucian Moral Self Cultivation. The Rockwell Lecture Series, 3. New


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Based on the 54th Rockwell Lectures delivered at Rice University in March


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161

. Ethics in the Confucian Tradition: The Thought ofMencius and Wang Yang-
ming. American Academy of Religion and Academy Series, 70. Atlanta:
Scholars Press, 1990.

Examines five issues held in common by both thinkers: the nature of


morality, human nature, the origin of evil, self-cultivation, and sagehood,
illustrating how the Confucian tradition was both continued and transformed
by Wang Yang-ming, especially to the extent that he was influenced by
Buddhism. The author argues that in the transition from Mencius to Wang
Yang-ming there occurred a significant shift from a morality based on human
nature to one based on metaphysical theories derived from Buddhism.

. "A Happy Symmetry: Xunzi's Ethical Thought." Journal of the American


Academy of Religion 59 (1991): 309-322.

. "Retrieving the 'One Thread' of the Analects." Philosophy East and West 40
(1990): 17-33.

Considers the Golden Rule in the Analects and four major interpretations
(Fung Yu-Lan, D.C. Lau, Herbert Fingarette, and David Nivison), before
offering Ivanhoe's own reading of this theme.

Keum, Jang-Tae. "The Redefinition of Confrician of Confucian Ethics in


Contemporary Society." In The World Community in Post-Industrial Society.
Vol. 3 The Confusion in Ethics and Values in Contemporary Society and

Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 185-192. Edited by Christian


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Kim, Jung-Hi. "Caritas": bei Thomas von Aquin im Blick aufden konfuzianischen
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Kuo, Eddie. 'The Promotion of Confucian Ethics in Singapore: A Sociological


Analysis." Commentary 7 (May 1989): 24-25.

Kupperman, Joel J. "Confrician Ethics and Weakness of Will." Journal of Chinese


Philosophy 8 (March 1981): 1-8.

Kwan, Thomas Tsun-tong. "Impact of I-Ching on Chinese Morality." Asia Focus


(22 August 1987).

Lai, Karyn L. "Confrician Moral Thinking." Philosophy East and West 45 (1995):
249-272.
162

Lai, Whalen W. "The Chinese Universe of Moral Discourse—A Postmodern


Approach." Ching Feng 32 {\9S9): 85-100.

Lai, who teaches at the University of California-Davis, examines the unique


role that moral discourse has played in the history of Chinese philosophy.
Treats the "Sincerity" of Heaven and Earth, and the "instruction" offered by
Nature, as well as establishing the basis for the ethico-politico order. These
themes are treated in a broad historical overview, from pre-Confucius to
Postmodern China.

. "Of One Mind or Two? Query on the Iimate Good inMencius." Religious
Studies 26 {1990): 247-255.

Using two well-known "parables" of the child-about-to-fall-in-the-well


[2 A. 6] and the drowning sister-in-law [4A.17] Lai analyzes an apparent
moral "conflict of values" situation in order to clarify the relation betweenyen
and li, as well as their relations to the other virtues of chih and /. Lai
concludes that these four are not "separate germs but a singular will of the
good."

. "Popular moral tracts and the Chinese personality [su-xen]." Ching Feng 25
(1982): 22-31.

Abstract: There is "classical learning" and there are "popular instructions".


Scholars might pay attention only to the first genre but it is the latter that
The essay examines one set
rules the actual social behavior of the Chinese.
of simple rules in this category from a work that reflects the later-day
Neo-Confucians' concern to bring toned-down moralism to the masses.

. "Rectifying the theory of 'rectification of names': humanism and ethical


religion in China [Confucius and Cheng-ming]." Journal ofHumanism and
Ethical Religion 3 (1990): 124-140.

Lau, Wai Har. "Shaping Moral and Social Development through Conflician Ethics:
A Singapore Experience." Southeast Journal ofEducation Studies 26 (1 989):
35-41.

Lee, Seung-Hwan. "Was There a Concept of Rights in Confucian Virtue-Based


Morality?" Journal of Chinese Philosophy 19 (September 1992): 241-261.

Lee, Shui-Chuen. "Conscience, Morality and Creativity." Irv Phenomenology ofLife,


179-185. Edited by A.T. Tymieniecka. 1984.
163

Lin, Tian-Min. "Thought and Action in Confucius." Religious Humanism 22


(1988): 7-10, 17.

Highlights the priority of action in Confucius' teachings and argues that he


viewed religion as a moral practice, and thus represents a transition from
ritual to ethical religion.

Lin, Yii-sheng. "The Evolution of the Pre-Confiician Meaning of Jen and the
Confucian Concept of Moral Autonomy." Monumenta Serica 3 1 (1974-75):
172-204.

Lo, Ping-cheung. "Confucian Ethic of Death with Dignity and Its Contemporary
Relevance." The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics 19 (1999): 313-
333.

Treats the issues of physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia from


a Confucian perspective and while noting both consonance and dissonance
with the current Western debate, Lo concludes that from the Confucian
perspective the arguments in favor of these two practices is "less than
compelling."

Lo did doctorates in philosophy and theological ethics in the United States


and is currently Associate Professor in the Dept. of Religion and Philosophy
and Research Fellow at the Center for Applied Ethics at Hong Kong Baptist
Seminary.

. "Confucian Views on Suicide." Occasional Paper Series. Center for


Applied Ethics, Hong Kong Baptist Seminary, 1997.

Traces the treatment of taking one'sown life in classical Confiicianism and


compares these views with some of the current debate regarding "death with
dignity" and euthanasia. Lo concludes that traditional Confucian views on
suicide would support euthanasia in the sense of death with dignity, but that
Confucianism would be less supportive of so-called "altruistic suicides" (e.g.,
to request euthanasia in order to relieve burden on others, such as family
members) since removal of such burdens would tend to negate the web of
family relationship, and especially reverence for the elderly, which are key to
the Confucian vision of a good society.

Good in the Analects: A Confucian Solution to


Lu, Martin. "Jen (Humanity) as the
Contemporary Value Confusion." In The World Community in Post-
Industrial Society. Vol. 3 The Confusion in Ethics and Values in
164

Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 229-245.


Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988.

Ma, Li-Chen, and Smith, Kevin. "Social Correlates of Confucian Ethics in Taiwan."
Journal of Social Psychology 132 (1992?): 655-659.

Using data from a recent nationwide social survey in Taiwan, this study
investigates the extent of support for Confucian ethical beliefs across socio-
demographic groups in the Taiwanese population. Although the extent of
such support varied across occupation, residence, and place of origin, it did
not vary across most socioeconomic groups. The convergence of
Confucianism is suggested and explained in terms of the recent economic
development and social changes in the country.

The authors are members of the Department of Sociology, Social Work, and
Criminal Justice at Lamar University.

Maclntyre, Alasdair. "Incommensurability, Truth, and the Conversation Between


Confricians and Aristotelians about the Virtues." In Culture and Modernity:
East-West Perspectives, 104-123. Edited by Eliot Deutsch. Honolulu:
University of Hawaii Press, 1991.

One of several essays presented at the Sixth East- West Philosophers'


Conference held in August 1989 in Honolulu.

Marshall, John. "Hsiin Tzu's Moral Epistemology." Journal of Chinese Philosophy


14(1987).

Masson, Michel E., S.J. "Neo-Confucianism: Ethics of Fung Yu-Lan." In God in


Contemporary Thought, 113-154. Edited by S. Matczak. 1977.

Mei, Y. P. "The Basis of Social, Ethical, and Spiritual Values in Chinese


Philosophy." In The Chinese Mind: Essentials of Chinese Philosophy and
Culture, 149-166. Edited by Charles A. Moore. Honolulu: East- West Center
Press, 1967.

Metzger, Thomas A. Escape from Predicament: Neo-Confucianism and China's


Evolving Political Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977.

Moeran, Brian. "Confucian Confusion: The Good, the Bad and Noodle Western."
In The Anthropology of Evil, 92-109. Edited by David Parkin. Oxford and
New York: Basil Blackwell, 1985.
165

Discusses Confucian ethics depicted on Japanese television.

Mollgaard, Eske Janus. "Aspects of Early Confucian Ethics." Ph.D. diss., Harvard
Universit>'. 1993.

Abstract: This dissertation concerns aspects of early Confucian ethics as


found in the Analects, the collected sayings of Confucius (55 1 -479 B.C.), and
the Mencius, the book of Mencius (ca. 390-305 B.C.). I show, in chapter one,
that the fundamental religious/philosophical orientation of the Analects is

revealed in the experience of "learning" (xue [chih]), which, on the one hand,
must be understood on the background of a peculiar act of negation found in
the Feng poems of the Book of Odes, and which, on the other hand,
determines Confucius' notion of "humanity" (ren O^n]). In chapters two and
three I show that the restraining function of the "rituals" (li) in the Analects
must be understood within the scope of the dynamic equilibrium between
transgression and prohibition in the "learning" (xue) experience. Furthermore,
I argue that the measure inherent in the notions of "thinking" (si) and the

"right" (yi) and view of choice and judgement in the Analects


in the implicit
in important ways differs from the measure inherent in practical reasoning of
the Aristotelian kind. Finally I point to an important function of speech in the
Analects: I show that the word passed from Master to disciple institutes,
binds and transforms. In chapter four I show that the basic
religious/philosophical orientation of the Mencius is revealed in the
experience of the "heart of compassion" (chuti ceyin zhi xin), which, on the
one hand, can be understood (and indeed is explicated by Mencius) in terms
of the experience of the sacrifice, and which, on the other hand, is the basis
for the Mencian notion of "humanity" (ren). In chapter five I show that the
measure inherent in the Mencian notions of "thinking" (si), the "right" (yi),
"wisdom" (zhi), "weighing" (quan) and extending, in important ways differs
from the measure inherent in Aristotelian practical reasoning. I further argue
that Mencian discourse gains its perfectionist thrust by distancing itself from
practical reasoning. Finally, I show that the ultimate goal of Mencian
discourse, like speech in the Analects, is to institute and transform.

Nakajima, Mineo. "Economic Development in East Asia and Confucian Ethics."


Social Compass ^\ (1994), p. 113-1 19.

Cummings. "The Puritan Ethic'


Neville, Robert ' in Confucianism and Christianity."
ChingFeng3A{\99\): 100-103.

Also found in Pacific Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 30-33. This


was a paper presented at the session which dealt with the question of whether
Confucianism and Christianity both have some version of the Puritan Ethic
166

of the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference held at the

Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1 1 July 1991.

Holds that the Confucian and Christian traditions converge on certain points
of the "Puritan ethic," especially in terms of the ontological community,
essential conventions, this-worldly excellence, and ultimate normative
meaning. The common outlook on life assumes that each person is a public
person, and that ministering to the conventions and institutions of life are not
seen primarily as instruments to other ends, but as a key part of morality and
moral identity.

Ong, Yong Peng. "Confucian Ethics Education in Singapore." Chinese American


Forum 5 (October 1989): 3-4.

Pas, Julian F. "Virtue under Attack: Chuang-tzu's Rejection of Confucian Ethics


and the Foundation of Morality ." Synthesis Philosophica 4 (1 989): 68 1 -692.

Peerenboom, R.P. "Confucian Justice: Achieving a Human Society." International


Philosophical Quarterly 30(1990): 17-32.

Discusses Confucian notion of a just society in contrast to John Rawls' well-


known concept of "justice as fairness." Suggests that the Confucian concept
might be both a challenge and a corrective to Rawls'.

. "Natural Law in the Huang-Lao Boshu." Philosophy East and West 40


(1990): 309-329.

Discusses a Confucian approach to natural law, based on the Huang-Lao


Boshu.

Richard, Paul. "Valeurs confuceennes." In Travail - cultures - religions, 19-38.


Edited by J. Lucal. 1988.

Ro, Young Chan. "The Place of Ethics in the Christian Tradition and the Confucian
Tradition: A Methodological Prolegomenon." Religious Studies 22 (1986):
51-62.

Roetz, Heiner. Confucian Ethics of the Axial Age: A Reconstruction under the
Aspect of the Breakthrough toward Postconventional Thinking. SUNY
Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993.

Revision and translation of the author's Die chineisische Ethik der


Achesenzeit,'S>\}hrksiVcvp, 1992. Attempts to give a reconstruction of Chinese
167

ethics of the "axial age" (c. 600-200 B.C.E.), especially of the early
Confucian school.

Rosemont, Henry, Jr. "Notes From a Confucian Perspective: Which Human Acts Are
Moral Acts?" International Philosophy Quarterly 16 (1976): 49-61.

Rosemont uses the famous Duke of Sheh episode in the Analects.

. "Why Take Rights Seriously? A Confucian Critique." In Human Rights and


the World's Religions, 167-182. Edited by Leroy S. Rouner. Notre Dame:
University of Notre Dame Press, 1988.

Ryan, James A. "A Defence of Mencius' Ethical Naturalism." Asian Philosophy


7 (March 1997): 23-36.

. "Moral Philosophy and Moral Psychology in Mencius." Asian Philosophy 8


(March 1998): 47-64.

Santangelo, Paolo. II "peccato [sin]" in Cina. Bene [good] e male [evil] nel
neoconfucianesimo dalla metd del XIV alia metd del XIX secolo. Collana
"Studi religiosi, iniziatici edesoterici." Bari: Giuseppe Laterza e Figli, 1991.

Selover, Thomas. "Neo-Confucian religious ethics [survey of central ethical themes


with annotated bibliography]." In a Bibliographic Guide to Comparative
Study of Ethics, 195-227. Edited by J. Carman. 1991.

Shen, Vincent. "Ethics Shaping Architecture." Free China Review 38 (December,


1988): 32-35.

Shun, Kwong-loi. "Moral Reasons in Confucian Ethics." Journal of Chinese


Philosophy 16 (September-December 1989): 317-343.

Also was a paper presented at the California State University, Fullerton 1 8th
Annual Philosophy Symposium, ("Moral Reasoning in China: An East/West
Dialogue"), 24-26 February, 1988.

. "The Self in Confucian Ethics." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 1 8 (March


1991): 25-35.

. "Virtue, Mind and Morality: A Study in Mencian Ethics." Ph.D. diss., Stanford
University, 1986.
168

Abstract: The essay moral thinking as a theory of


interprets Mencius'
character development. Such a theory has three main components—a
description of the virtuous person, an account of how one can become
virtuous, and a discussion of related theoretical issues. These three aspects of
Mencius' moral thinking are discussed in chapters 2, 4 and 5 respectively.
Chapter 2 considers the four Mencian virtues, Mencius' conception of the
urmioved mind, his discussion of fear and temptation, his idea that virtuous
action is enjoyable, and his various observations concerning the motivation
of the virtuous person. Chapter 4 considers his account of what one needs to
do to become virtuous, the justification one has for so behaving, and the
explanation of why people may fail to so behave. Chapter 5 considers his
conception of human nature and the role his metaphysics plays in his moral
philosophy. A greater part of Mencius' view of morality is shaped by his
conception of the relation between morality and the mind. This conception
is discussed in chapter 3, and its relation to other parts of his moral
philosophy is discussed in chapters 4 and 5. A study of Mencius' moral
thinking, and of Confucian ethics generally, has significant implications for
contemporary moral philosophy. It deepens our understanding of character
development, an aspect of our moral life relatively neglected by
contemporary moral philosophers. This observation about the significance of
the study is defended in chapter 1, and the idea of a theory of character
development is explored further in chapter 6. Chapter 6 argues that we should
work with the idea of a theory of character development in our attempt to do
justice to the importance of the virtues to our moral life, and it clarifies

certain aspects of the idea using Mencius' moral theory as an example of such
a theory. However, this chapter is not intended to provide an exhaustive
discussion of the idea. Instead, the present study of Mencius is intended only
as a first which will explore in greater detail the idea
step in a larger project
of a theory of character development and the various ways in which a study
of Confucian ethics helps us better understand the nature of such a theory.

Soko, Keith. "Human Rights and the Poor in World Religions." Horizons 26
(Spring 1999): 31-53.

Argues that concern for the poor is found in all major religions, and can thus
help support a universal concern for the rights of the poor and marginalized.
Soko looks not only at Judeo-Christianity, but also at Buddhism,
Confucianism, Taoism, Hinduism, and Islam.

Soles, David E. "Mo Tzu and the Foundations of Morality." Journal of Chinese
Philosophy 26 (March 1999): 37-48.
169

Takenaka, Masao. God is Rice: Asian Culture and Christian Faith. The Risk Book
Series. Geneva: Worid Council of Churches, 1986.

Dr. Takenaka is a well-known ecumenical Asian theologian who teaches at


Doshisha University in Kyoto. Book contains an Introduction and four
essays: "God is Rice," "Christ and Culture in Asia," "The Ethics of
Betweenness," (a case study of Shozo Tanaka who was a pioneer of the
ecological and people's movement in Japan); and "Christ of Wabi" (a
Christian reflection on beauty in the Japanese cultural context).

Tang, Chun-I. "The Development of the Concept of Moral Mind from Wang Yang-
ming to Wang Chi." In Self and Society in Ming Thought. Studies in
by William Theodore de Bary and the
Oriental Culture, no. 4, 93-1 19. Edited
Conference on Ming Thought. New York and London: Columbia University
Press, 1970.

Thompson, Kirill O. "How to Rejuvenate Ethics: Suggestions from Chu Hsi."


Philosophy East and West 41 (1991): 493-513.

T'ien, Ju-k'ang. Male Anxiety and Female Chastity: A Comparative Study ofChinese
Ethical Values in Ming-Ch'ing Times. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1988.

Reviewed by Susan Maim in Harvard Journal ofAsiatic Studies 52 (1992):


362-369.

Tran, Van Doan. "The Confusion in Ethics and Values in Contemporary Society:
The Case of Confucian Values and Its Crisis (Devaluation and Evaluation)."
In The World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 3 The Confusion
in Ethics and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to

Redefinitions, 216-228. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok


Publishing Co., 1988.

Trianosky, Gregory W. "On Cultivating Moral Character: Comments on Moral


Reasons in Confucian Ethics." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 16
(September-December 1989): 345-354.

Tse, Chung M. "Confucianism and Contemporary Ethical Issues." In World


Religions and Global Ethics, 91-125. Edited by S. Cromwell Crawford A
New Economical Research Book. New York: Paragon House, 1988.

Tu, Wei-ming, ed. Confucian Traditions in East Asian Modernity: Moral Education
and Economic Culture in Japan and the Four Mini-Dragons. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1996.
170

Seventeen articles from a 1991 conference at the American Academy of Arts


and Sciences, which treat China, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan,
Singapore, as well as overseas Chinese.

Reviewed by James A. Ryan in Asian Philosophy 8 (March 1998): 65-67.

. The Triadic Chord: Confucian Ethics, Industrial East Asia, and Max Weber.
Proceedings of the 1987 Singapore Conference on Confucian Ethics and
Modernisation of Industrial East Asia. Singapore: Institute of East Asian
Philosophies, 1991.

Tu, Wei-ming. Confucian Ethics Today: The Singapore Challenge. Singapore:


Federal Publications, 1984.

. "The 'Moral Universal' from the Perspectives of East Asian Thought." In


Morality as a Biological Phenomenon, 1 87-207. Edited by Gunther S. Stent.
Berlin: Dahlem Konferenzen, 1978.

Twiss, Sumner B. "A Constructive Framework for Discussing Confucianism and


Human Rights." In Confucianism and Human Rights, 27-53. Edited by
William Theodore de Bary and Tu, Weiming. New York: Columbia
University Press, 1998.

Twiss is Professor of Religious Studies at Brown University.

Wang, Tch'ang-tche. La philosophic morale de Wang Yang-ming. Shanghai" T'ou-


Se- We Press, 1936.

Wang, Xin Yang. "Some Effects of China's Political and Economic System on
Confucian Ethics. In Confucianism and the Modernization of China,
248-255. Edited by Silke Krieger and Rolf Trauzettel. Mainz: Hase und
Koehler Verlag, 1991.

In German: In Konfuzianismus und die Modernisierung Chinas Deutsche


.

Schriftenreihe des Intemationalen Instituts der Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 20.


Mainz: Hase und Koehler Verlag, 1990.

Paper presented at an international symposium held at Sankt Augustin,

Germany from 3 1 October to 2 November 1 988 and sponsored by the Konrad


Adenauer Foundation (KAS) in cooperation with the Confucian Foundation
of the People's Republic of China (CKS).

Wattles, Jeffrey. The Golden Rule. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
171

Looks at the evolving meaning and application of the Golden Rule in various
cultures and religious traditions, including Confucianism, Christianity, and
Judaism.

Reviewed by Gerald Gleeson in Theological Studies 59 (March 1998): 165-


167.

. "Levels of Meaning in the Golden Rule." Journal of Religious Ethics 15


(1987): 106-129.

Wilson, Stephen A. "Conformity, Individuality, and the Nature of Virtue: A


Classical Confucian Contribution to Contemporary Ethical Reflection."
Journal ofReligious Ethics 23 (1995): 263-289.

Rehearses and critiques the positions of Herbert Fingarette, and David Hall
and Roger Ames on the ethical import of the notion of //. An alternative
reading to these two main strands is then offered.

Wong, Wai-Ying. "Confucian Ethics: Universalistic or Particularistic?" Journal of


Chinese Philosophy 25 (September 1998): 361-374.

Yearley, Lee H. "A Confucian Crisis: Mencius' Two Cosmogonies and Their Ethics."
In Cosmogony and Ethical Order: New Studies in Comparative Ethics, 310-
327. Edited by Robin W. Lovin and Frank E. Reynolds. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1985.

Yearley is professor of Religious Studies at Stanford University.

. Mencius and Aquinas: Theories of Virtue and Conceptions of Courage.


SUNY Series, Toward a Comparative Philosophy of Religions. Albany:
SUNY Press, 1990.

Reviewed by J. Witek, S.J. in Theological Studies 52 (1991); and Philip


^ovakin Journal ofthe American Academy ofReligion 60 (1992): 365-367.
See also the several articles which were published in Journal of Religious
Ethics 2\ (1993): 343-395.

Yoim, Sa-Soon. "Confucian Ethics Reconsidered: The Concept of Humanity in


Confucian Ethics." In International Symposium on Confucianism and the
Modern World, 707-723. Taipei: Proceedings of the International
Symposium on Confticianism, 1988.
172

Yu, James Chung-Min. "The Concept of Moral Purification in Confucian Philosophy


and in Christian Teachings." Ph.D. diss., California Institute of Integral
Studies, 1991.

Abstract: Historically, the Chinese people consider both the healing of a


community and the healing of a sick person as beneficent deeds. For
Confucian scholars, making an effort to heal society more than a good idea;
is

it is an actual duty. For Christians, curing the soul within the body constitutes

the great plan of individual salvation. Yet there is also a cultural mandate to
claim the culture for Christ, to bring morality to those who are not yet leading
ethically enlightened lives, and thus are infecting the society around them.
This present study of two forms of classical literature— either Confucian or
Christian in background or association—is both analytical and practical. The
author's procedure involves three steps: (1) examining some key documents
that represent these two cultural mainstreams; (2) analyzing them for
materials pertaining to ethical behavior, particularly when resulting from
what is called "moral purification"; and (3) seeking possible solutions posed
in them to present-day moral dilemmas faced by individuals and the society.
The literature examined includes ancient and more modem writings, both
Oriental and Occidental, which provide ethical perspectives on the society
firom which they originated—whether the truths they proclaim are considered
products of literature, philosophy, or religion. Excerpts are quoted in
translations into English, but sometimes words or phrases are given in the
original language. Literary data are analyzed in these terms: (1) what the
written records say; (2) why their authors wrote as they did within their own
time; and (3) how both factors may relate to our current cultural dilemma in
regard to establishing and maintaining standards of ethical human
conduct— an issue linked to any society's very survival. Using this critical
inquiry as his base, the author concludes that contemporary civilization lacks
a special kind of wisdom which has been traditionally instilled in a citizenry
and then perpetuated through various socialization and educational means.

Yu, Paul. "Confucian Ethics and Western Ethics: A Comparative Study."


Commentary 6 (September 1983): 10-18.

Yu, Ying-shih. "Morality and Knowledge in Chu Hsi's Philosophical System." In


Chu Hsi and Neo-Confucianism, 228-254. Edited by Wing-tsit Chan. 1 986.

Works on Confucianism and Judeo-Christianity


. 1

173

AUinson, Robert E. "The Ethics of Confucianism and Christianity: The Delicate


Balance." In Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and
Contemporary Perspective, 295-3 1 3 Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York:
.

The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991

Berling, Judith A. "Reflections on Confucian-Christian Dialogue in a Global


Context." In Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and
Contemporary Perspective, ^13-419. Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York:
The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

Berling was the dean of the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley,


California and is currently professor of Chinese religions there.

. "The Role of Tradition." Pacific Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 23-


26.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1991 . This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the role
of tradition for religious and cultural identity.

Berthrong, John. All under Heaven: Transforming Paradigms in Confucian-


Christian Dialogue. SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture.
Albany: SUNY Press, 1994.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Journal of Ecumenical Studies 32


(1995): 292-293.

Berthrong is Associate Dean for Academic and Administrative Affairs and


Director of the Institute for Dialogue among Religious Traditions at Boston
University's School of Theology.

. "Syncretism Revisited: Multiple Religious Participation." Pacific Theological


Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 57-60.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1 99 1 . This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the issue
of so-called "dual identity" (i.e. Christian and Confucian).

. Transformations of the Confucian Way: Explorations: Contemporary


Perspectives on Religion. Boulder CO: Westview, 1998.
5

174

. "Trends in the Interpretation of Confucian Religiosity." In


Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and
Contemporary
Perspective, 226-254. Edited by Peter K.H. Lee. Lewiston: E. Mellen Press,
1991.

Paper from an international Confucian-Christian conference held in Hong


Kong, June 8-15, 1988.

Also found in Berthrong's All under Heaven: Transforming Paradigms in


Confucian— Christian Dialogue, 189-206. SUNY Series in Chinese
Philosophy and Culture. Albany: SUNY Press, 1994.

Basically a bibliographical essay on recent studies on Confucianism, as well


as some Confucian—Christian studies.

. "Human Nature Revisited: Projects for Contemporary Confucian—Christian


Dialogue." In Pluralism, Tolerance and Dialogue: Six Studies, 103-124.
Edited by M. Darrol Bryant. Waterloo: University of Waterloo Press, 1989.

Bresciani, Umberto. "The New Confucians and Christianity." Tripod 1 8 (May- June
1998): 8-24.

Bush, Richard C. "From Youth to Age and Beyond." Ching FengU (\9S4): 19-29.

Life and death in Chinese life philosophy exemplified by filial piety and
aging.

Carmody, Denise Lardner and John Carmody. In the Path of the Masters:
Understanding the Spirituality ofBuddha, Confucius, Jesus, and Muhammad.
New York: Paragon House, 1994.

Chao, Samuel H. "Confucian Chinese and the Gospel: Methodological


Considerations." Asia Journal of Theology 1 (April, 1987): 17-40.

Following a presentation of the main doctrines of Confucianism and the


history of its encounter with Christianity, the article concludes with some
methodological considerations for the Chinese apostolate.

Ch'en, Chien-fu. "Christianity in China Seen by a New Confiician." Ching Feng 1

(1972): 144-161.
1

175

Cheng, Kevin Shun Kai. "Karl Barth and Tang Junyi on the Nature of Ethics and the
Realization of Moral Life: A Comparative Study." ThD Dissertation.
Berkeley: Graduate Theological Union, 1995.

Doctoral dissertation done under Kenan Osborne, O.F.M.

Ching, Julia. Confucianism and Christianity: A Comparative Study. New York and
Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1977.

German translation: Konfuzianismus und Christentum. Mainz: Matthias-


Griinewald Verlag, 1989.

A very good introduction to a consideration of the possibility of a Confucian


Christianity.

Ching was bom in Shanghai, was a Roman Catholic nun for several years,
and is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Toronto.

. "The Problem of Self-Transcendence in Confucianism and Christianity."


Ching Feng \9{\91 6): U-91.

Choong, Chee Pang. "The Prospect of Confucian-Christian Dialogue in Singapore."


Ching Feng 38 (March 1995): 42-68.

Choong is Professor of New Testament at Trinity Theological College,


Singapore.

Chung, Chai-sik. "Humanizing Modernity: Notes on the Agenda for Confucianism


and Christianity." Pacific Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 37-39.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-11
July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the
question of whether Confucianism and Christianity both have some version
of the Puritan Ethic.

Covell, Ralph R. Con/wcm5, The Buddha and Christ Maryknoll: Orbis Books,
. 1986.

Fang, Mark, S.J. "Between Tradition and the Future." Pacific Theological Review
25-26 (1992-1993): 39-44.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
1

176

July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the
divergence and convergence of Christianity and Confucianism in the ethical
life required of the adherent.

Fang is on the faculty of Fujen University in Taipei.

Fu, Pei-jung. "The Confucian Heaven and the Christian God." Ching Feng 31
(1988): 177-188.

Also found in Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and


Contemporary Perspective, 213-222. Edited by Peter K.H.Lee. New York:
The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991 See also the response by Bartholemew P. M.
.

Tsui, "Response to Fu Pei-jung's Paper: The Confucian Heaven and the


Christian God." Ching Feng 3\ (1988): 189-191. Tsui's Response is also
found as "A Response: God Is Not Only Judg,." likewise in Confucian-
Christian Encounters in Historical and Contemporary Perspective, 223-225.

Goldman, Rene. "Moral Leadership in Society: Some Parallels between the


Confucian 'Noble Man' and the Jewish Zaddik." Philosophy East & West 45
(July 1995): 329-65.

Hang, Thaddeus T'ui-chieh. "Do Confucian and Christian Conceptions of the


Human Being Converge?" Pacific Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993):
50-53.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1 99 1 . This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the
divergence and convergence of Christianity and Confucianism in the ethical
life required of the adherent.

Henshaw, Richard A. "Justice and Righteousness in the Bible and the Ancient Near
East: A Recapitulation in Dialogue with Confucian Thought." In Confucian-
Christian Encounters in Historical and Contemporary Perspective, 339-352.
Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

Kim, Heup Young. "Jen and Agape: Towards a Confucian Christology." Asia
Journal of Theology 8 (2/1994): 355-364.

Kim teaches systematic theology at Kang Nam University in South Korea.

This paper was originally presented at the AAR on 21 November 1992.


1

177

"Sanctification and Self-Cultivation:


. A Study of Karl Barth and
Neo-Confucianism (Wang Yang-Ming)." Thesis (Ph. D.)~Graduate
Theological Union, 1992.

. "Two 'Concrete-Universal' Ways: Their Convergence and Divergence."


Pacific Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 44-50.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the
divergence and convergence of Christianity and Confucianism in the ethical
life required of the adherent.

. Wang Yang-Ming and Karl Barth: A Confucian—Christian Dialogue.


Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1996.

Published version of Kim's 1992 doctoral dissertation done at the Graduate


Theological Union in Berkeley, California.

Reviewed by Peter Phan in Theological Studies 58 (1997): 579-580.

Kim, Sung-hae. "A Christian Social Ethos of Woman in the Conftician and Taoist
Culture of East Asia." Studies in World Christianity 3 (1997): 38-55.

Gives a good overview of Confucian and Taoist spiritualities of moral ethos,


both personal and social. Kim argues that these traditions are part of the
contemporary cultural ethos in East Asia and can offer many positive
resources if reinterpreted according to their true moral meaning, and therefore
are not inimical to feminist concerns.

Sr. Kim Sung-hae has a doctorate in comparative religions from Harvard and
teaches in the Religious Studies Department of Sogang University in Seoul.

. "A Contemporary Ideal for a Democratic and Equal Community: A Challenge


to Confucianism and Christianity." Pacific Theological Review 25-26 (1 992-
1993): 64-67.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the
effects of modernization on Confucianism and Christianity.
1

178

. The Righteous and the Sage: A Comparative Study on the Ideal Images of
Man in Biblical Israel and Classical China. Seoul: Sogang University Press,
1985.

Kim, Young Ae. "The Religious Identity of Korean Christian Women." Pacific
Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 53-57.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the issue
of so-called "dual identity" (i.e. Christian and Confucian).

Kramers, Robert P. "The Sense of Predicament in Neo-Confijcian Thought as a


Topic for Christian Reflection." Ching Feng2\ (1978): 107-1 14.

Lai, Whalen W. "Puritanism and Neo-Confucianism." Ching Feng 39 (September


1996): 149- 172.

Lai is professor of religious studies at University of California, Davis.

Lee, Archie. "The Recitation of the Past: A Cross-textual Reading of Ps. 78 and the
Odes." C/2/>2^Fe«g 39 (September 1996): 173-200.

Lee, Hwain Chang. Confucius, Christ, and Co-Partnership: Competing Liturgiesfor


the Soul of Korean American Women. Lanham MD: University Press of
America, 1994.

Essentially a story of Han, using much of the minjung theological


methodology, such as social autobiography to identify "male" theologies
allied with Confucianism which are then denounced in distinction to a
feminist theology allied with the struggle for the liberation of the minjung.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in iht Journal ofEcumenical Studies 32


(1995): 292-293.

Lee Jung Young. Embracing Change: Postmodern Interpretations of the I Ching


from a Christian Perspective. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press,
1994.

Lee (1935-1996) is a Korean who taught until his death in 1996 at Drew
University in Madison, New Jersey.
1

179

_. The Theology of Change: A Christian Concept of God in an Eastern


Perspective. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1979.

_. "The Yin- Yang Way of Thinking: A Possible Method for Ecumenical


Theology." In What Asian Christians Are Thinking, 59-67. Edited by
Douglas J. Elwood. Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 1976.

Lee, Peter K.H., and Yuk, Wong. "Ta-Tung and the Kingdom of God." Ching Feng
31 (1988): 225-245.

Discussion of the Confucian concept of Ta-tong (grand unity) and the biblical
concept of the Kingdom of God.

Also found in Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and


Contemporary Perspective, A52-A12. Edited by PeterK. H.Lee. New York:
The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

Lee is the Director of the Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion &
Culture in Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Lee, Peter K.H., ed. Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and


Contemporary Perspective. Religions in dialogue, 5. Lewiston: E. Mellen
Press, 1991.

Papers from an international Confucian-Christian conference held in Hong


Kong, June 8-15, 1988.

Lee, Peter K.H. "Contextualization and Inculturation of Christianity and


Confucianism in the Contemporary World." Asia Journal of Theology 1
(1993): 84-91.

Lee is the Director of the Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion &
Culture in Kowloon, Hong Kong.

. "Contextualization/Inculturation/Enculturation of Christianity and


Confucianism in the Contextual World?" Pacific Theological Review 25-26
(1992-1993): 82-89.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt with
and contextualization of Confucianism and Christianity
inculturation in the
contemporary world.
1

180

. "Preparation for Christian-Confucian Encounter: the Protestant Story." In


Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and Contemporary
Perspective, 10-28. Edited by Peter K.H. Lee. Lewiston: E. Mellen Press,
1991.

Paper from an international Confucian-Christian conference held in Hong


Kong, June 8-15, 1988.

. "Some Critical Issues in Asian Theological Thinking." Ching Feng 31


(1988): 124-152.

. "Two Stories of Loyalty." Ching Feng 32 (1989): 24-20.

Legge, James. "Confucianism in relation to Christianity: a paper read before the


Missionary Conference in Shanghai on May 1 1th, 1 877." Shanghai : Kelly &
Walsh, 1877.

Available through the ATLA (American Theological Library Association)


monograph preservation program ; ATLA fiche 1990-2674.

. The Religions of China. Confucianism and Taoism Described and Compared


with Christianity. New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1881.

Spring lecture of the Presbyterian church of England for 1880; delivered in


the college, Guilford street, London.

Also available on ATLA ( American Theological Library Association) fiche


1990-2890.

Lin, Timothy Tian-min. "The Confucian Concept of Jen and the Christian Concept
of Love." Ching Feng 15 (1972): 162-175.

Liu, Shu-hsien, and Peter K.H. Lee. "A Confucian-Christian Dialogue: Liberating
Life as a Commitment to Truth."Ching Feng 33 (September 1990): 1 13-35.

Liu, Shu-hsien. "Modernization of Confucianism and Christianity." Pacific


Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 67-71.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the
effects of modernization on Confucianism and Christianity.
1

181

. "Some Reflection on What Contemporary Neo-Confucianists May Learn


from Christianity." In Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and
Contemporary Perspective, 68-81. Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York:
The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

Liu, Xiaofeng. "On the Theological Commentary of 'Tao' and 'Word'." Pacific
Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 18-23.

Paper presented at the Second International Confiician-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1 99 1 . This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the role
of tradition for religious and cultural identity.

Lokuang, Msgr. Stanislaus. "Convergence Between Modernized Confiician Thought


and Christian Belief" In Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and
Contemporary Perspective, 159-170. Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York:
The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

. "Rapprochement between Modernized Confiician Thought and Christian


Belief" ChingFengZX (1988): 153-165.

Martinson, Paul V. "Confucian and Christian Thinking across Cultures." Pacific


Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 89-94.

Paper presented at the Second International Confiician-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt with
inculturation and contextualization of Confucianism and Christianity in the
contemporary world.

. "Ponderings on the Confucian— Christian Encounter." Ching Feng 31 (1988):


89-123.

Also found in Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and


Contemporary Perspective, 82-1 14. Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York:
The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

McCaffree, Joe E. Bible and I Ching Relationships. Hong Kong and Seattle: South
Sky Book Co., 1982.

Traces purported inter-relationships between the Bible (mostly the Old


Testament) and the I Ching, with an aim of demonstrating an interdependence
geared to the promotion of an inherent cosmic order.
182

Masson, Michel. "Neither Confucian Nor Christian: Max Weber's Puritan in China."
Ching Feng 34 (I99\y. 104-108.

Also found Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 33-37, which


in Pacific Theological
was presented Second International Confucian-Christian
as a paper at the
Conference held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California
from 7-1 1 July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt
with the question of whether Confucianism and Christianity both have some
version of the Puritan Ethic.

Neville, Robert Cununings. "Individuation in Christianity and Confucianism."


Ching Feng 32 (1989): 3-23.

Also found in Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and


Contemporary Perspective, 274-294. Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York:
The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

. "The Puritan Ethic in Confucianism and Christianity." Ching Feng 34 (1991):


100-103.

Also found in Pacific Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 30-33. This


was a paper presented at the session which dealt with the question of whether
Confucianism and Christianity both have some version of the Puritan Ethic
of the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference held at the
Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1 1 July 1991.

Holds that the Confucian and Christian traditions converge on certain points
of the "Puritan ethic," especially in terms of the ontological community,
essential conventions, this-worldly excellence, and ultimate normative
meaning. The common outlook on life assumes that each person is a public
person, and that ministering to the conventions and institutions of life are not
seen primarily as instruments to other ends, but as a key part of morality and
moral identity.

Pao Tao, Chia-lin. "Confucianism and Christianity." Pacific Theological Review


25-26 (1992-1993): 60-61.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-11
July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the issue
of so-called "dual identity" (i.e. Christian and Confucian).
. 1

183

. "Yin- Yang Thought and the Status of Women." In Confucian-Christian


Encounters and Contemporary Perspective, 314-338. Edited
in Historical

by Peter K. H. Lee. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

Ro, Young Chan. "The Place of Ethics in the Christian Tradition and the Confucian
Tradition: a Methodological Prolegomenon." Religious Studies 22 (1986):
1:51-62.

Robinson, Lewis. "The Treatment of Christianity in the Fiction of Chen Yingchen."


Ching Feng 32 (1989): 41-81.

Shen, Vincent Tsing-song. "Points of Encounter between Confucianism and


Christianity." Pacific Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 61-64.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the
effects of modernization on Confucianism and Christianity.

Shen, Yifan. "Confucian Thought and Theological Reflection in China Today." In


Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and Contemporary
Perspective, \36-\46. Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York: The Edwin
Mellen Press, 1991.

Sherley-Price, Leo. Confucius and Christ: A Christian Estimate of Confucius.


Westminster: Dacre Press, 1 95 1

Sim, Luke Jong-Hyeok, S.J. The Christological Vision ofthe Spiritual Exercises of
St. Ignatius Loyola and the Hermeneutical Principles of ^Sincerity' (Ch'eng)
in the Confucian Tradition. Dissertatio ad Doctoratum in Facultate
Theologiae Pontificae Universitatis Gregorianae. Roma, 1992.

Doctoral dissertation done under Jacques Dupuis, S.J.

Sim is a professor of theology and spirituality at Sogang University in Seoul


and Dean of its Graduate School of Religious Studies.

Smith, Carl T. "Radical Theology and the Confucian Tradition." Ching Feng 10
(1967): 20-33.

Song, Young-bae. "Conflict and Dialogue between Confucianism and


Christianity-An Analysis of the Tianzhu shiyi [Teaching of the Lord of
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184

One of several articles in this issue on the theme "Defining Korean


Philosophy in the 20* Century." {

Standaert, Nicholas, S.J. "Confucian-Christian Dual Citizenship: A Political


Conflict?" Ching Feng 34 (1991): 109-1 14.

Discusses the world-views of Christianity and Confucianism, as well as


Buddhism and Taoism. While inter-religious dialogue with Buddhists or
Taoists can center on theological questions, a conflict between Christianity
and Confucianism is that what Christianity considers to be theological
problems, such as Church-State relationships, prophetic role in society, etc.,

Confucianism views as political problems. Standaert's article is followed by


a discussion by Peter K.H. Lee (pp. 115-117).

Taylor, Rodney. "Modernization and the Limits of Freedom." Pacific Theological


Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 78-82.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-11
July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the
legacy of Confucianism and Christianity in the contemporary world which is

becoming increasingly secularized.

Taylor is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Colorado at


Boulder.

. "The Problem of Suffering: Christian and Confucian Dimensions." In The


Religious Dimensions of Confucianism, 115-134. Albany: SUNY Press,
1990.

Thomberry, Mike. "The Encounter of Christianity and Confucianism: How Modern


Confiicianism Views the Encounter." South East Asia Journal ofTheology 1
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Confi^cian-Christian Encounters in Historical andContemporary
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1991.

Paper from an international Confucian-Christian conference held in Hong


Kong, June 8-15, 1988.
. 1

185

Tsai, Denis Hsin-An. "Tradition, Identity, and Understanding." Pacific Theological


Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 26-30.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1 991 . This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the role
of tradition for religious and cultural identity.

Tsui, Bartholemew P. M. "Response to Fu Pei-jung's Paper: The Confucian Heaven


and the Christian God." Ching Feng 3 1 (1 988): 1 89-1 91

Also found as "A Response: God Is Not Only Judge." In Confucian-


Christian Encounters in Historical and Contemporary Perspective, 223-225.
Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991 . For
Fu Pei-jung's original paper see "The Confucian Heaven and the Christian
God." Ching Feng 31 (1988): 177-188. Fu's paper is likewise found in
Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and Contemporary
Perspective, 213-222.

Tucker, Mary Evelyn. "Confucianism and Christianity: Resources for an Ecological


Ching Feng 34 ( 1 99 1 ): 94-99.
Spirituality."

Also found in Pacific Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 71-76. This


was a paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian
Conference held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California
from 7-1 1 July 1991 . This paper was presented at the session which dealt
with the legacy of Confucianism and Christianity in the contemporary world
which is becoming increasingly secularized.

Considers resources for an ecological spirituality using the Confucian ethics


of self-cuhivation and the process theology of Teilhard de Chardin.

Wang, Weifan. "Destruction, Reflection and Rebirth." In Confucian-Christian


Encounters in Historical and Contemporary Perspective, 147-149. Edited
by Peter K. H. Lee. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

Whaling, Frank. "Christianity and Confucianism and our Coming World


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Whaling is Professor Religious Studies, New College, Edinburgh University.


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186

_. "Jen and Love." In Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and


Contemporary Perspective, 255-273. Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York:
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_. "The Present World Stage for Confucian-Christian Interchange." In


Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and Contemporary
Perspective, 29-37. Edited by Peter K.H. Lee. Lewiston: E. Mellen Press,
1991.

Paper from an international Confucian-Christian conference held in Hong


Kong, June 8-15, 1988.

Weblowsky, R.J.Z. "Confucius and Christ." Numen 27 (1980): 173-178.

Woo, Franklin J. "The Dynamics of the Enlightenment and Chinese Traditions."


Pacific Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 76-78.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1991. This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the
legacy of Confucianism and Christianity in the contemporary world which is

becoming increasingly secularized

Wu, S. "Confucianism and its Significance to Christianity in China." Ching Feng 12


(1969): 4-23.

Yang, You-Sub. Vollkommenheit nach paulinischem und konfuzianischem


Verstandnis: ein Vergleich der Begriffe "teleios" bei Paulus und "Cheng"
beim Verfasser des Buches "Chung-Yung. " Dissertationen Theologische
Reihe, 4. St. Ottilien: EOS Verlag, 1984.

1981 doctoral thesis done at Julius-Maximilian-Universitat, Wurzburg.

\
Yao, Xinzhong. Confucianism and Christianity; A Comparative Study of Jen and
Agape. Sussex Academic Press, 1996.

Supplied note from Book News, Inc., August L 1996: Yao, who teaches
Chinese religion and ethics a the University of Wales-Lampeter, analyzes the
similarities and differences between Christianity as atheocentric religion and
Confucianism as a humanistic tradition. The axis of his comparison links
agape, which describes the relationship individual Christians have with their
God and with other people, and jen, which describes the relationship
187

individual Confucians have with their ideal and with other people. Assumes
no background in either tradition.

. "Jesus and Confucius: A Comparison." The Scottish Journal of Religious


Studies 16, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 37-50.

Yearley, Lee. "Teachers and Saviors." The Journal ofReligion 65 (1985): 225-243.

Yearley is professor of Religious Studies at Stanford University.

Yeh, Theodore T. Y. Confucianism, Christianity & China. New York:


Philosophical Library, 1969.

Yeo, Khiok-Khng. "Amos (4:4-5) and Confucius: The Will (Ming) of God (Thien)."
The Asia Journal of Theology 4, no. 2 (1 990): 472-488.

Young, John D. Confucianism and Christianity: The First Encounter. Hong Kong:
Hong Kong University Press, 1983.

Yu, Chi-ping. "Confucian and Biblical Concepts of Filial Piety: Implications for
Pastoral Care in the Chinese Church in Taiwan." ThD Dissertation. Boston
University School of Theology, 1984.

Abstract: The purpose of this dissertation is to assess the meanings of filial


piety with a view to drawing implications for pastoral care in the Chinese
church in Taiwan. The method this dissertation employs is a combination of
a literature search and case studies. First, the origin and the Confucian
understanding of filial piety and a tragic ancient ballad of filial obedience,
"Southeast the Peacock Flies," are discussed. Next, attention is drawn to a
biblical perspective of filial piety, which includes the Old Testament, Jewish,
and the New Testament understandings. Subsequently, a brief comparison is
made between a Chinese perspective and a biblical perspective of filial piety.
Third, the status of filial piety and social changes in the Republic of China are
focused upon. The impact of the May Fourth Movement upon filial piety is

assessed, and the role of filial Taiwan updated.


piety in the modernized
Fourth, two contemporary filial cases in Taiwan are discussed. The first case
is related to the conflict between the role of a filial son and that of a caring

husband. The second has to do with the tension between discipleship and
filial piety. From the preceding presentation, implications are drawn for
pastoral care in the Chinese church in Taiwan: (1) Filial piety should be a
focus for Chinese pastoral care. (2) A pastoral perspective of filial piety must
be formulated in order to guide the practice of pastoral care in the Chinese
church. Such a perspective should contain: (a) a proper distinction and
relation between worshiping God and honoring parents; (b) a view of filial
piety as the principle of spontaneity, the principle of solidarity, the principle
of spontaneity, the principle of solidarity, the principle of mutuality, and the
principle of continuity; and (c) the integration of the last name and the first

name. (3) A pastoral methodology which is based upon the pastoral


perspective of filial piety should be developed. This should include: (a) a

family orientation in Chinese pastoral care; (b) a proper understanding and


judicious use of authority in the Chinese context; (c) the ministry of
sustaining, guiding, and reconciling; and (d) the emphasis of family education
in the parish. (4) Filial piety needs to be made a subject of moral inquiry in
the Chinese church in order that Chinese pastoral care may be both Chinese
and pastoral. (5) Chinese pastoral care should make the facilitation of
Chinese Christians toward filial maturity one of the chief goals of its
ministry.

Yu was bom in 1941.

. "Theology of Filial Piety: An Initial Formulation." Asia Journal of Theology


3 (1989): 496-508.

Discussion of traditional Chinese concept of filial piety in the context of


biblical theology.

Yu, James Chung-Min. "The Concept of Moral Purification in Confucian Philosophy


and in Christian Teachings." Ph.D. diss., California Institute of Integral
Studies, 1991.

Abstract: Historically, the Chinese people consider both the healing of a


community and the healing of a sick person as beneficent deeds. For
Confucian scholars, making an effort to heal society is more than a good idea;
it is an actual duty. For Christians, curing the soul within the body constitutes

the great plan of individual salvation. Yet there is also a cultural mandate to
claim the culture for Christ, to bring morality to those who are not yet leading
ethically enlightened lives, and thus are infecting the society around them.
This present study of two forms of classical literature-either Confucian or
Christian in background or association—is both analytical and practical. The
author's procedure involves three steps: (1) examining some key documents
that represent these two cultural mainstreams; (2) analyzing them for
materials pertaining to ethical behavior, particularly when resulting fi^om
what is called "moral purification"; and (3) seeking possible solutions posed
in them to present-day moral dilemmas faced by individuals and the society.
The literature examined includes ancient and more modem writings, both
Oriental and Occidental, which provide ethical perspectives on the society
189

from which they originated— whether the truths they proclaim are considered
products of hterature, philosophy, or religion. Excerpts are quoted in
translations into English, but sometimes words or phrases are given in the
original language. Literary data are analyzed in these terms: (1) what the
written records say; (2) why their authors wrote as they did within their own
time; and (3) how both factors may relate to our current cultural dilemma in
regard to establishing and maintaining standards of ethical human
conduct— an issue linked to any society's very survival. Using this critical

inquiry as his base, the author concludes that contemporary civilization lacks
a special kind of wisdom which has been traditionally instilled in a citizenry
and then perpetuated through various socialization and educational means.

Yu, Pin Paul Cardinal. "Roman Catholicism and Confucianism." Chinese Essays
on Religion and Faith. Translated by Douglas Lancashire. Hong Kong:
Chinese Materials Center, 198L
191

TAOISM

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Translations of six major Daoist scriptures from the third to fifth centuries,
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New translation of the Tao Te Ching and Chuang-tzu.

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of the Taoist Classic Wen-Tzu. London: Shambala, 1991.

The authorship of the text at hand though is much disputed, and may be a
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LaFargue, Michael. The Tao of the Tao Te Ching: A Translation and Commentary.
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Hendricks. Classics of Ancient China. New York: Ballantine Books, 1989.

Li, Tao-ch'iin. The Book of Balance and Harmony [Chung-ho chij. Translated by
Thomas Cleary. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1989.

Li, Ying-chang. Lao-Tzu's Treatise on the Response of the Tao. Translated by Eva
Wong. San Francisco: Harper, 1994.

Lynn, Richard John, trans. The Classic of the Way and Virtue: A New Translation

of the Tao-te Ching of Laozi as Interpreted by Wang Bi. New York:


Columbia University Press, 1999.

Reviewed by Jeffrey L. Richey in Education About Asia (forthcoming, 200 1 ).

Mair, Victor H., trans. Tao Te Ching: The Classic Book of Integrity and the Way.
New York: Bantam, 1990.

Moran, Patrick Edwin, trans. Three Smaller Wisdom Books; Lao Zi's "Dao De Jing,
The Great Learning ("Da Xue "), and The Doctrine of The Mean ("Zhong
Yong"). Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1993.

Roth, Harold. Original Tao: Inward Training (Nei-Yeh) and the Foundations of
Taoist Mysticism. Translations from the Asian Classics. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1999.

Briefly reviewed by Kiddar Smith in Religious Studies Review 26 (October


2000): 406.

Walker, Brian. HuaHu Ching: The Unknown Teachings ofLao Tzu. San Francisco:
Harper, 1993.

In this translation of Lao Tzu's oral teachings. Walker presents eighty-one


simple, and revelatory lessons on the
direct, attainutnent of mastery,

enlightenment, and peace of mind.

Secondary Works on Chuang-tzu, Lao-tse and/or Taoism

N.B. See also the Bibliographical section on Confucianism.


:

193

Allan, Sarah. The Way of Water and Sprouts of Virtue. Albany: SUNY Press, 1997.

Treats Mencius as well as Taoist classics. Allan argues that "in the absence
of a transcendental concept, the ancient Chinese turned directly to the natural
world, to water and the plant life that it nourishes' assuming "that the same
principles are foimd in the human and natural worlds." The author maintains
that early Chinese philosophy, whatever its philosophical school, assumed
common principles that informed the natural and human worlds and that one
could understand the nature of man by studying the principles which govern
nature. Accordingly, the natural world rather than a religious tradition
provided the root metaphors of early Chinese thought. Water, with its rich
capacity for generating imagery, provided model for
the primary
conceptualizing general cosmic principles while plants provided a model for
the continuous sequence of generation, growth, reproduction, and death and
was the basis for the Chinese understanding of the nature of the human in
both religion and philosophy.

Reviewed by Aihe Wang in The Journal ofAsian Studies 5 8 (February 1 999)


153-154.

Allinson, Robert E. Chuang-Tzu for Spiritual Transformation: An Analysis of the


Inner Chapters. Albany: SUNY Press, 1989.

Ames, Roger T., ed. Wandering at Ease in the Zhuangzi- SUNY Series in Chinese
Philosophy and Culture. Albany: SUNY Press, 1998.

Articles on the interpretation of this Third Century, B.C.E. Taoist classic.

Besides Ames, contributors include Kirill Ole Thompson, Chris Jochim, John
Makeham, Henry G. Skaja, Randall P. Peerenboom, Lisa Raphals, James D.
Sellmann, William A. Callahan, Daniel Coyle, and Brian Lundberg.

Ames is Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for Chinese


Studies at the University of Hawaii.

Barrett, T.H. Li Ao: Buddhist, Taoist or Neo-Confucian? London Oriental


. Series,
39. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Bauer, Wolfgang. "The Hidden Hero: Creation and Disintegration of the Ideal of
Eremitism." In Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist
Values, 157-197. EditedbyDonaldJ.Munro. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese
Studies, The University of Michigan, 1985.
194

Berling, Judith. Whole in Chuang Tzu." In Individualism and Holism:


"Self and
Studies in Confucian and Taoist Values, 101-120. Edited by Donald J.
Munro. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan,
1985.

Berling was the Dean of the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley,


California and is now professor of Chinese religions there.

. The Syncretic Religion of Lin Chao-en. New York: Columbia University


Press, 1980.

Deals with the syncretic approach of Lin Chao-en, (Lin Zhao'en, 1 5 1 7-1 598)
which sought to combine Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in the cult
of the Lord of the Three in One (Sanyijiao).

BiUington, Ray. Understanding Eastern Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Discusses the main principles of Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Jainism, and


Confucianism, and draws comparisons and contrasts with Western religious
and philosophical traditions.

Brannigan, Michael C. Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values.


New York: Seven Bridges Press, 1 999.

Looks at Hindu, Buddhist, Zen, Taoist, and Confiician ethics. Each chapter
includes historical background, central ethical themes, primary sources,
review essay questions and an annotated bibliography.

Campany, Robert F. "Taoist Bioethics in the Final Age: Therapy and Salvation in
the Book of Divine Incantations for Penetrating the Abyss." In Religious
Methods and Resources in Bioethics, 67-92. Edited by Paul F. Camenisch.
Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1 994.

Carr, Karen L., and Ivanhoe, Philip J. The Sense ofAnti-Rationalism: The Religious
Thought of Zhuangzi and Kierkegaard. New York: Seven Bridges Press,
1999.

Looks at "anti-rationalism" as a religious category in distinction from


rationalist approaches to religious truth and ethics.

Chang, Chung-yuan. Creativity and Taoism: A Study of Chinese Philosophy, Art,

and Poetry. New York: Harper and Row, 1963, 1970.


195

Chen, Ellen Marie. "Nothingness and the Mother Principle in Early Chinese
Taoism." International Philosophical Quarterly 9 (1969): 391-405.

. "The Origin and Development of Being (Yu) from Non-Being (Wu) according
to the Tao Te Ching." International Philosophical Quarterly \2 (1973): 403-
418.

Cheng, Chih-ming. "Harmony in Popular Belief and its Relation to Confucianism,


Buddhism and Taoism." Inter-Religio 35 (Summer 1999): 31-36.

English summary prepared by Jac Kuepers, S.V.D. of a longer paper


presented in Chinese at the Federation of Asian Bishops' Conferences
(FABC) colloquium on Taoist and Confucian Contributions to Harmony in
East Asia held at Lei Li-0, Taiwan in April 1 996.

Cheng, Chung-ying. "Chinese Metaphysics as Non-Metaphysics." In Understanding


the Chinese Mind: The Philosophical Roots, 167-208. Edited by Robert E.
Allinson. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Cheng Chung-ying is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Hawaii at


Manoa and founder of the International Society of Chinese Philosophy and
the Journal of Chinese Philosophy.

Cho, Francisca. "Leaping into the Boundless: A Daoist Reading of Comparative


Religious Ethics." Journal of Religious Ethics 26 (Spring 1998): 139-166.

Uses Taoist philosophy to critique the two main streams of contemporary


comparative ethics, namely ethical formalism (e.g., Ronald Green), and
ethical naturalism (Robin Lovin, Frank Reynolds, etc.). Cho's "Daoist
reading" calls into question (or at least re-examination) some of the
fundamental premises of this methodology debate. "The premise of rational
evaluation as the key to meaningful action is decentered by the Daoist point

of departure, which takes for granted that propositions cannot describe an


unstable world and that propositions themselves do not exhibit any constancy
in meaning or value. Although life confronts us with endless options, the
premise that we know our world and make choices is more the fiction of
narrative hindsight than the groimd of action." p. 161.

See also "responses" in the same issue by Robin Lovin, Ronald M. Green,
and a "response" to the responses by Cho herself.

Cho is Asst. Professor of Buddhist Studies at Georgetown University.


196

Cook, "Zhuang Zi and His Carving of the Confucian Ox." Philosophy East
Scott.
and West 47 (October 1997): 521-553.

While Zhuang Zi was fond of highlighting what he felt were absurdities in the
Confucian tradition, he nevertheless showed a great respect for the central
core of the Confucian vision. This article looks at Confucius' image of
musical perfection as representing the total concordance of ritual restraints
and harmonious freedom, then traces the Confucian notion of self-cultivation
through Mencius' passage on the "fiill-flowing energy" and finally concludes
with a look at Zhuang Zi's "Butcher Ding" story, showing that even though
Zhuang Zi's concept of self-nurturing is approached fi-om a different angle

he still ends up holding a state of mastery and freedom similar in many ways
to the Confucian notion of musical perfection.

Creel, Herrlee Glessner. What is Taoism? And Other Studies in Chinese Cultural
History, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mark, and Ivanhoe Philip J., eds. Religious and Philosophical
Aspects of the Laozi. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.

Cua, A.S. "Forgetting Morality: Reflections on a Theme in Chuang Tzu." Journal


of Chinese Philosophy 4 (1977).

Also found as Ch. 3 in Cua's Moral Vision and Tradition: Essays in Chinese
Ethics, 37-58. Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy.
Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1998.

Cua, is professor emeritus of philosophy at The Catholic University of


America.

. "Opposites as Complements: Reflections on the Significance of Tao."


Philosophy East and West 3 1 ( 1 98 1 ).

Also foimd as Ch. 5 in Cua's Moral Vision and Tradition: Essays in Chinese
Ethics, 8-99. Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy.
Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1998.

Dean, Kenneth. Lord ofthe Three in One: The Spread ofa Cult in Southeast China.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

in One (Sanyijiao) which sought


Analyzes the cult of the Lord of the Three
tocombine Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, primarily associated with
Lin Zhao'en (Lin Chao-en, 1517-1598).
197

Reviewed by Chi-Tim Lai in The Journal of Religion 80 (April 2000): 365-


366.

. Taoist Ritual and Popular Cults of Southeast China. Princeton: Princeton


University Press, 1993.

Since 1 979, when the Chinese government relaxed some of its most stringent
controls on religion, villagers in the isolated areas of Southeast China have
maintained an "underground" effort to restore traditional rituals and local
cults.

Eichhom, Werner. La Cina: Culto degli antenati, Confucianesimo, Taoismo,


Buddismo, Cristianesimo dal 1700 A.C ainostrigiorni. Translated from the
German Die Religionen Chinas into Italian by Lorenza Terenziani. Milan:
Jaca, 1983.

Eskildsen, Stephen. Asceticism in Early Taoist Religion. Albany: SUNY Press,


1998.

Using a variety of original sources, this book discusses how and why
asceticism was carried out by Taoists during the first six centuries C.E. By
examining the practice of fasting, celibacy, self-imposed poverty, wilderness
seclusion and sleep-avoidance, and it discusses the beliefs and attitudes that
motivated and justified such actions.

Eskildsen is Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Religion, The Chinese


University of Hong Kong.

Fleming, Jesse. "On Translation of Taoist Philosophical Texts: Preservation of


Ambiguity and Contradiction." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 25 (March
1998): 147-156.

Giradot, Norman J. "Behaving Cosmogonically in Early Taoism." In Cosmogony


and Ethical Order: New Studies in Comparative Ethics, 67-97. Edited by
Robin W. Lovin and Frank E. Reynolds. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1985.

One of 15 essays on the relation of comogonical and ethical beliefs. 13 of


these originated as papers presented at conferences at the University of
Chicago Divinity School in 1981 and 1982.

Giradot teaches Religious Studies at Lehigh University.


198

. Myth and Meaning in Early Taoism. Berkeley: University of California Press,


1983.

Goodman, Russell B. "Skepticism and Realism in the Chuang Tzu." Philosophy


East and West 35 (1985): 231-238.

Graham, A.C. "Daoist Spontaneity and the Dichotomy of 'Is' and 'Ought'."
Experimental Essays on Chuang-tzu, 3-23. Edited by Victor Mair.
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1983.

. "How Much oi Chuang Tzu Did Chuang Tzu Write?" Journal ofthe American
Academy ofReligion Thematic Issue 47, no. 3S (September 1979): 459-502.

. "The Right Yangism, Later Mohism, Chuang Tzu." In


to Selfishness:
Individualismand Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist Values, 73-84.
Edited by Donald J. Munro. Arm Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, The
University of Michigan, 1985.

Hansen, Chad. A Daoist Theory of Chinese Thought: A Philosophical


Interpretation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Hansen presents a unified theory of classical Chinese thought in which he


uses Taoism, rather than Confucianism, as the central and unifying principle.

Hansen teaches at the University of Vermont.

Herman, Stanley M. The Tao at Work: On Leading and Following. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass Publishers, 19?

Adapts the 81 passages from the Tao Te Ching to modem business


organizational life, and illustrates them with further contemporary parables.

Hsu, Sung-peng. "Lao Tzu's Conception of Ultimate Reality: A Comparative Study."


International Philosophy Quarterly 16(1976): 197-218.

. "Two Kinds of Changes in Lao Tzu's Thought." Journal of Chinese


Philosophy 4 (1977): 329-355.

Ivanhoe, Philip J. "Zhuangzi on Skepticism, Skill and the Ineffable Dao." Journal

of the American Academy of Religion 6\ (Winter, 1993): 639-654.

Kaltenmark, Max. Lao tseu et le taoisme. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1965.


199

English translation: Lao Tzu and Taoism. Translated by Roger Greaves.


Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1969.

Kirkland, J. Russell. "The Roots of Altruism in the Taoist Tradition." Journal of


the American Academy of Religion 54 (1986): 59-77.

Kjellberg, Paul. "Skepticism, Truth, and the Good Life: A Comparison of


Zhuangzi." Philosophy East and West 44 (1994): 1 1 1-134.

Kjellberg, Paul, and Philip J. Ivanhoe. Essays on Skepticism, Relativism, and Ethics
in the Zhuangzi. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.

Discussion on the Third Century, B.C.E. Taoist classic.

Kohn, Livia, ed. The Taoist Experience: An Anthology. Albany: SUN Y Press, 1993.

Kohn, Livia, and LaF argue, Michael, eds. Lao-Tzu and the Tao-Te-Ching. Albany:
SUNY Press, 1998.

Twelve articles on a variety of topics. Also contains an appendix listing in

chronological order the major English translations of the Tao Te Ching, pp.
299-301.

Reviewed by J. Russell Kirkland in Religious Studies Review 25 (January


1999): 120.

Kohn, Livia. Early Chinese Mysticism: Philosophy and Soteriology in the Taoist
Tradition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

. Laughing at the Tao: Debates among Buddhists and Taoists in Medieval


China. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.

The Xiaodao lun (Laughing at the Tao) is an important document of the


debates among Buddhists and Taoists, debates that contributed to the process
of cultural adaptation. Written by the Taoist renegade Zhen Luan in the year
570, this text aims to expose the absurdity and inconsistency of Taoist
doctrine, mythology, ritual and religious practice. In a complete and fully
annotated translation of the Xiaodao lun, Livia Kohn draws on the Japanese
scholarship to place the work within the context of the debates and expose the
political schemes behind the apparently religious disputes.

Reviewed by Whalen Lai in Asian Philosophy 7 (March 1997): 1Q-1\.


200

. Yoshinobu Sakade: Taoist Meditation and Longevity Techniques. Michigan


Monographs in Chinese Studies, 6 1 . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan,
Center for Chinese Studies, 1989.

LaF argue, Michael. Tao and Method: A Reasoned Approach to the Tao Te Ching.
Suny Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture. Albany: State University of
New York Press, 1994.

Lee, Agnes, Chwen-Jiuan. "Echoes of Karma Liberation in the Tao Te Ching."


Ching Feng 29 i\9S6): 180-198.

Traces the doctrine of Karma from the Bhagavadghita through Buddhism and
the Tao Te Ching.

. "Movement within Stillness and Stillness within Movement: The


Contemplative Character of T'ai Chi Chuan." Ching Feng 30 (1987): 25-38.

Description of the Taoist background and contemplative method of T'ai Chi


Chuan.

. "The Philosophy of Liberation in Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu." Ching Feng 33
(1990): 191-204.

Lee, Peter K.H. "T'ai-p'ing and Liberation: Implications for Liberation in the T'ai-
p'ing Ching." Ching Feng 35 (1992): 65-84.

Lee is the Director of the Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion &
Culture in Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Lee, Young Ho (Jinwol). "Samga Kwigam of Hyujong and the Three Religions."
Buddhist-Christian Studies 12 (1992): 43-64.

The "Three Religions" refer to Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism in


Korea.

Leung, Thomas In-Sing. "Tao and Logos." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 25


(March 1998): 121-146.

Compares the notion of Tao with the Greek concept of Logos.

LeGuin, Ursula K. Tao Te Ching: A Book About the Way and the Power of the Way.
Boston: Shambhala Publications. 1997.
.

201

Reviewed by Jonathan R. Herman in the Journal of the American Academy


of Religion 66 {y\99%):

Li, Chenyang. The Tao Encounters the West: Explorations in Comparative


Philosophy. Albany: SUN Y Press, 1999.

. "What-Being: Chuang Tzu versus Aristotle." International Philosophical


Quarterly 33 (September 1993): 341-354.

Li, Ying-Chang. Lao-Tzu's Treatise on the Response of the Tao to Human Actions.
Translated by Eva Wong. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1994.

Liu, Jiahe. "Early Buddhism and Taoism in China (A.D. 65-420)." Buddhist-
Christian Studies 12 (1992): 35-41.

Lukashevich, Stephen. Thus Spake Master Chuang: A Structural Exegesis ofTaoist


Philosophy. American University Studies: Series 5, Philosophy, 33.
Frankfurt-am-Main, Bern, New York, Paris: Peter Lang, 1987.

Mair, Victor H., ed. Experimental Essays on Chuang-tzu. Honolulu: University of


Hawaii Press, 1983.

Mair, Victor H. "Chuang-tzu and Erasmus: Kindred Wits." In Experimental Essays


on Chuang-tzu, 85-100. Edited by Victor Mair. Honolulu: University of
Hawaii Press, 1983.

Maspero, H. Le Taoisme et les religions chinoises. Civilisation du Sud. Paris:


Gallimard, 1971.

English translation: Taoism and Chinese Religion. Amherst: The University


of Massachusetts Press, 1 98 1

Mou, Zhongian. "Laozi's Discourse on the Way and Its Significance Today."
Contemporary Chinese Thought 30 (Fall 1998): 75-97.

One of a series of articles in this issue on Taoism.

Munro, Donald J.,ed. Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist
Values. Michigan Monographs in Chinese Studies, 52. Ann Arbor: Center
for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan, 1985.

Neville, Robert Cummings. The Tao and the Daimon: Segments of a Religious
Inquiry. Albany: SUNY Press, 1982.
202

Looks at the question of the authority and authenticity of traditional religious


faith and practice (represented by the Tao) in light of critical reason
(represented by Socrates' daimon).

Nivison, David S. "Hsun Tzu and Chuang Tzu." In Chinese Texts and
Philosophical Contexts, 129-142. Edited by Henry Rosemont, Jr. Lasalle II:

Open Court, 1991.

. "TaoandTe." In The Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.14. Edited by Mircea


Eliade. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

Pas, Julian F. Historical Dictionary of Taoism. Religions, Philosophies, and


Movements Series 18. Lanham MD: Scarecrow Press, 1998.

. "Virtue under Attack: Chuang-tzxi's Rejection of Confucian Ethics and the


Foundation of Morality." Synthesis Philosophica 4 (1989): 681-692.

. The Wisdom of the Tao. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2000.

Peerenboom, R. P. Law and Morality in Ancient China: The Silk Manuscripts of


Huang-Lao. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.

Huang-Lao thought, a unique and sophisticated political philosophy which


combines elements of Daoism and Legalism, dominated the intellectual life
of late Warring States and Early Han China, providing the ideological
foundation for post-Qin reforms.

Reviewed by Andrew Hiixley in the Yale Law Journal 1 06 (April 1 997): 393-
450.

Raguin, Yves, S.J. Legons sur le Taoisme. Taipei: Taipei Ricci Institute for
Chinese Studies, 1989.

Raguin was a French Jesuit missionary in Taiwan who lived froml912 to


1998.

Ren, Jiyu. "Why Has the Influence of Confucian and Daoist Thought Been So
Profound and So Long-Lasting in China?" Contemporary Chinese Thought
30 (Fall 1998): 35-44.

One of a series of articles in this issue on Taoism.


.

203

Ren (bom 1 9 1 6) is director of the Institute of World Religions in the Chinese


Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing.

Robinet, Isabelle. Taoism: Growth ofa Religion. Translated and adapted by Phyllis
Brooks. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.

Following an introduction to Taoist beliefs the author traces its development


from the 3"^ century B.C.E. up to the present.

Robinet is professor of Chinese at the University of Aix-en-Provence.

Reviewed by Terry F. Kleeman in the Journal of the American Academy of


Religion 66 (3/1998):

. Taoist Meditation: The Mao-Shan Tradition of Great Purity. Albany NY:


State University of New York Press, 1993.

Roth, Harold. "Who Compiled the Chuang Tzu?" In Chinese Texts and
Philosophical Contexts, 79-128. Edited by Henry Rosemont, Jr. Lasalle II:

Open Court, 1991.

Saso, Michael R. Taoism and the Rite of Cosmic Renewal. Pullman: Washington
State University Press, 1972.

Schipper, Kristofer. The Taoist Body. Berkeley: University of California Press,


1993.

French original: Le corps taoiste. Corps sociale et corps physique. Paris:


Fayard, 1982.

Schluchter, Wolfgang. "World Adjustment: Max Weber on Confucianism and


Taoism." In The Triadic Chord: Confucian Ethics, Industrial East Asia, and
Max Weber. Proceedings of the 1987 Singapore Conference on Confucian
Ethics and Modernisation ofIndustrial East Asia, 3-56. Edited by Tu, Wei-
ming. Singapore: Institute of East Asian Philosophies, 1991.

Sellmann, James D. "Three Models of Self-Integration {Tzu Te) in Early China."


Philosophy East and West 37 (1987): 372-391

Considers this concept in terms of Confucianism, Taoism, and the Legalist


School {Fa Chia).
204

Soko, Keith. "Human Rights and the Poor in World Rehgions." Horizons 26
(Spring 1999): 31-53.

Argues that concern for the poor is found in all major religions, and can thus
help support a universal concern for the rights of the poor and marginalized.
Soko looks not only at Judeo-Christianity, but also at Buddhism,
Confucianism, Taoism, Hinduism, and Islam.

Soles, Deborah H. and David E. Soles. "Fish Traps and Rabbit Snares: Zhuangzi on
Judgement, Truth and Knowledge." Asian Philosophy 8 (November 1998):
149-164.

Torchinov, Evgeny. Daosizm (Daoism). Dao-De Jing. St. Petersburg: St.

Petersburg Centre for Oriental Studies, 1999.

Looks at the history, authorship and teaching of the Tao Te Ching.

Tsui, Bartholomew P.M. "The Transmission of Taost Complete Perfection Sect in


South China." Ching Feng 33 (1 990): 248-257.

Tu, Youguang. "Daoism Stresses Individual Objects." Contemporary Chinese


Thought 30 (Fall 1998): 45-57.

One of a series of articles in this issue on Taoism.

Tucker, Mary Evelyn. "Religious Values Derived from Other Traditions: The
Ecological Dimensions of Taoism and Confiicianism." Dialogue & Alliance
7 (2,1993): 86-97.

Wagner, Rudolf G. The Craft of a Chinese Commentator: Wang Bi on the Laozi.


Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000.

Waley, Arthur. Three Ways of Thought in Ancient China. London: George Allen and
Unwin Ltd., 1939.

Wang, Zhongjiang. "Daoist Philosophy: Modem Interpretations Based on Yan Fu,


Zhang Taiyan, Liang Aichao, Wang Gowei, and Hu Shi." Contemporary
Chinese Thought 30 (Fall 1998): 7-34.

One of a series of articles in this issue on Taoism.

Whitman, Christina. "Privacy in Confucian and Taoist Thought." In Individualism


and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist Values, 85-100. Edited by
205

Donald J. Munro. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, The University of
Michigan, 1985.

\Vu, John C.H. "The Wisdom of Chuang Tzu: A New Appraisal." International
Philosophy Quarterly 3 (1963): 5-36.

Wu, Kuang-ming. The Butterfly as Companion: Meditations on the First Three


Chapters of the Chuang Tzu. Albany: State University of New York Press,
1989.

Xiao, Jiefu. "A Sketch of the Daoist Character." Contemporary Chinese Thought
30 (Fall 1998): 58-74.

One of a series of articles in this issue on Taoism.

Taoism and Judaeo-Christianity

Buri, Fritz. "Ethics in the Sign of the In The World Community


Tao and the Cross."
in Post-Industrial Society. The Confusion in Ethics and Values in
Vol. 3

Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions, 252-257.


Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok Publishing Co., 1988.

Ching, Julia. "The Challenge of Chinese Religion (Taoism)." Concilium 183


(1986):84-89.

Courtney, Charles, ed. East Wind: Taoist and Cosmological Implications of


Christian Theology. Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1997.

Collection of essays by students of the late Jung Young Lee, based on


seminar papers done in 1995-1996.

Jaoudi, Maria. Christian Mysticism East and West: What the Masters Teach Us.
New York: Paulist Press, 1999.

Explores parallels between Christian mysticism and Eastern traditions


including Hinduism, Taoism, Islam, Sufism, and Buddhism.

Kadowaki, Kakichi, S.J. "From Chuang-tzu's Way to Jesus Christ as the Way." East
Asian Pastoral Review 26 (1989): 31 1-327.
206

Also found in Inter-Religio (Summer, 1989).

Presents a sketch of Chuang-tzu's concept of the Way, then treats Matsuo


Basho's idea of the Way, and finally moves to an account of Jesus Christ as
the way in the light of these two philosophers.

Kadowaki is a professor of theology at Sophia University in Tokyo.

Lee, Archie C.C. "Death and the Perception of the Divine in Qohelet and Zhuang
Zi." ChingFeng 38 (March 1995): 68ff

Lee is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Religion at the Chinese


University of Hong Kong.

Lee, Chwen Jiuan A[gnes]. and Hand, Thomas G. A Taste of Water: Christianity
Through Taoist— Buddhist Eyes. New York: Paulist Press, 1990.

(Sr. Agnes) Lee, a Taiwanese, is a member of the Missionary Sisters of the


Immaculate Conception who converted to Christianity during high school.
She holds a Ph.D. in the philosophy of religion from the University of
Hawaii, and is currently formation director of her community in Taiwan.
Hand is a Jesuit priest who spent 29 years in Japan. Currently he is on the
staff of the Mercy Center Institute of Contemporary Spirituality in
Burlingame, California. The two share autobiographical reflections on how
their lives as Christians have been enriched by their encounters with Taoism
and Buddhism. They seek to present Christianity through Asian traditions
and encourage others to do the same.

Lee, Agnes C[hwen]. J[iuan]. "Francis of Assisi and Chuang Tzu: A Comparative
Study in Religious Consciousness." Ching Feng 27 (1984): 94-1 14.

Lee, Peter K.H. "Nothingness and Fulfillment." Ching Feng 29 {19^6): 106-128.

The concept of "nothingness" (vm/mu) in the understanding of Lao-tse in


comparison with the biblical saying of "poverty" as a key concept to
understand the inner relationship between nothingness and fulfillment.

Lee is the Director of the Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion &
Culture in Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Legge, James. The Religions of China. Confucianism and Taoism Described and
Compared with Christianity. New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1881.
207

Spring lecture of the Presbyterian church of England for 1880; delivered in


the college, Guilford street, London.

Also available on ATLA ( American Theological Library Association) fiche


1990-2890.

Loya, Joseph A., O.S.A., Wan-li Ho, and Chang-Shin Jih. The Too of Jesus? An
Exercise in Inter-Traditional Understanding. Illustrations by YuPeng. New
York: Paulist Press, 1998.

Introduces Taoism to Christian readers in the context of inter-religious


dialogue by providing a thematic juxtaposition of the teachings of Jesus with
those of Lao-tse and Chuang-tse.

Mabry, John R. "The Way of Non-Direction: Insights on Spiritual Direction from


the Tao Te Ching." Tripod 19 (May- June 1999): 22-29.

Petulla, Joseph. The Tao Te Ching. A New English Version with Christian
Meditations. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1998.

Looks at the similarities between the Tao Te Ching and Christianity by giving
reflections on the Christian teachings and biblical sayings inspired by the
Taoist texts.

Shih, Joseph, S.J. "The Tao: Its Essence, Its Dynamism, and Its Fitness as a Vehicle
of Christian Revelation," L'Eglise et les Religions. Studia Missionalia 15
(1966): 117-134.

Shih was professor of Chinese religions for many years in the faculty of
missiology of the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome.

Weber, Max. The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism. Translated and
edited by Hans H. Gerth. New York: Free Press, 1968.
209

CHINESE/ CONFUCIAN UNDERSTANDING OF RELIGION

N.B. See also the subsection under China: Other Works on Chinese Culture and
Philosophy

Beattie, Paul H. "The Religion of Confucius: The First Humanist." Religious


Humanism 22 (19SS): 11-17.

States that Confucius' ultimate goal as a redeemed social order brought about
by redeemed individuals who would then inspire emulation by the rest of
human society.

Bell, Catherine. "Religion and Chinese Culture: Toward an Assessment of 'Popular


Religion'." History of Religions 29 (1989): 35-57.

Review article of recent literature on the topic.

Bell is a Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Santa Clara,


California.

Berling, Judith A. A Pilgrim in Chinese Culture: Negotiating Religious Diversity.


Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1997.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in GTU (Graduate Theological Union)


Bridges (Spring 1998): 1-2; 6.

Berling was the Dean of the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley,


California and is now professor of Chinese religions there.

. The Syncretic Religion of Lin Chao-en. New York: Columbia University


Press, 1980.

Deals with the syncretic approach of Lin Chao-en, (Lin Zhao'en, 1 5 1 7-1 598)
which sought to combine Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in the cult
of the Lord of the Three in One (iSanji/'/^afo).

Berthrong, John. "Confucian Piety and the Religious Dimension of Japanese


Confucianism." Philosophy East and West 48 (January 1998): 46-79.

One of several articles in this issue on the religious dimension of


Confucianism in Japan.
210

Berthrong is Associate Dean for Academic and Administrative Affairs and


Director of the Institute for Dialogue among Religious Traditions at Boston
University's School of Theology.

_. Transformations of the Confucian Way. Explorations: Contemporary


Perspectives on Religion. Boulder CO: Westview, 1998.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Theological Studies 60 (March 1999):


52-53; and by J. Russell Kirkland in Religious Studies Review 25 (January
1999): 120.

. "Trends in the Interpretation of Confucian Religiosity." In


Confucian-Christian Encounters in Contemporary
Historical and
Perspective, 226-254. Edited by Peter K.H. Lee. Lewiston: E. Mellen Press,
1991.

Paper from an international Confucian-Christian conference held in Hong


Kong, June 8-15, 1988.

Also found in Berthrong's All under Heaven: Transforming Paradigms in

Confucian— Christian Dialogue, 189-206. SUNY Series in Chinese


Philosophy and Culture. Albany: SUNY Press, 1994.

Basically a bibliographical essay on recent studies on Confucianism, as well


as some Confucian-Christian studies.

Biematzki, William E., S.J. "Bodhidharma: The Adaptation ofBuddhism to China."


Chapter 3 oi Roots of Acceptance: The Intercultural Communication of
Religious Meanings, 37-67. Inculturation: Working Papers on Living Faith
and Cultures, no. 13, edited by Ary A. Roest Crollius, S.J. Rome: Centre
"Cultures and Religions" - Pontifical Gregorian University, 1991.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Gregorianum 73 (1992): 167-169.

Biematzki is a cultural anthropologist who taught for many years at Sogang


University in Seoul, Korea.

Bloom, Irene, and Fogel, Joshua A., eds. Meeting of Minds: Intellectual and
Religious Interaction in East Asian Traditions of Thought. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1990.

Reviewed by John B. Henderson in AAR: Journal ofthe American Academy


of Religion 66 (Winter 1998): 927-930.
.

211

Bresciani, Umberto. "The Religious Thought of Confucius." Ching Feng 29


(1986): 129-144.

Bush, Richard C. Religion in China. Major World Religion Seris. Niles IL: Argus
Communications, 1977.

Brief illustrated overview of Chinese religions written for a popular audience.

Ch'en, Kenneth K.S. The Chinese Transformation of Buddhism. Princeton:


Princeton University Press, 1973.

. "Filial Piety in Chinese Buddhism." Harvard Journal ofAsiatic Studies 28


(1968): 81-97.

Chen, Linshu. "Studies on Religions in Modem China." Numen 41 (1994): 11-%1

Survey article on publications on religious studies in modem China.

Cheng, Chung-ying. "Religious Reality and Religious Understanding in


Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism." International Philosophical
Quarterly U 0973): 33-62.
Cheng, Yang En. "The Idea of Tien-Ming in the Book of Historical Documents."
Ching Feng 29 (1986): 207-220.

Ching, Julia. "The Challenge of Chinese Religion (Taoism)." Concilium 183


(1986):84-89.

Ching was bom in Shanghai, was a Roman Catholic nun for several years,
and is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Toronto.

. Chinese Religions. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1993.

. "The Chinese Rehgious Sense." Concilium 126 (1979): 19-25.

. "Ethical Encounter: Chinese and Christian." Concilium 150 (1981): 30-35.

Mysticism and Kingship in China: the Heart of Chinese Wisdom. Cambridge


Studies in Religious Traditions 1 1
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1997.

. Probing China's Soul: Religion, Politics, and Protest in the People's

Republic. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1990.


212

Discusses the events of the June 1989 Tiananmen Square events in light of
China's communist system, and deeper roots in Confucianism, etc.

. The Religious Thought ofChu Hsi. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

. "What Future does Religion have in China?" Studies in Interreligious


Dialogue 3 (1993): 12-27,

. "Why Did God Make Me?: An Asian Answer." Concilium 108 (1978): 91-
94.

Clasper, Paul. "The Persistence of the 'Religious Man' in an Urbanized World."


Ching Feng 27 (1984): 209-216.

Cleary, J.C. See Zibo.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mark, and Ivanhoe, Philip J., eds. Religious and Philosophical
Aspects of the Laozi. Albany: SLWY Press, 1999.

de Bary, William Theodore, and Chan, Hok-lam, eds. Yuan Thought: Chinese
Thought and Religion under the Mongols. Neo-Confucian Studies. New^
York Columbia University
: Press, 1982.

Papers originally presented at a conference, Issaquah, WA in Januar 1978,


sponsored by the Committee on Studies of Chinese Civilization of the
American Council of Learned Societies.

Dean, Kenneth. Lord of the Three in One: The Spread ofa Cult in Southeast China.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

in One (Sanyijiao) which sought


Analyzes the cult of the Lord of the Three
tocombine Confiicianism, Buddhism and Taoism, primarily associated with
Lin Zhao'en (Lin Chao-en, 1517-1598).

Reviewed by Chi-Tim Lai in The Journal of Religion 80 (April 2000): 365-


366.

DeGroot, J.J.M. The Religious System of China. 6 vols. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1892.

DeMeyer, Jan A.M., and Englefriet, Peter M., eds. Linked Faiths: Essays on Chinese
Religions and Traditional Cidture in Honour ofKristofer Schipper. Leiden:
E.J. Brill 2000.
213

Reviewed briefly by Russell Kirkland in Religious Studies Review 26


(October 2000): 406.

Dhavamony, Mariasusai, S.J. "Chinese Religion in the Phenomenology of Religion."


In International Symposium on Chinese-Western Cultural Interchange in
Commemoration ofthe 400th Anniversary ofthe Arrival ofMatteo Ricci, S.J.
in China, 213-227. Taipei, 1983.

Dhavamony is a professor in the faculty of missiology at the Pontifical


Gregorian University in Rome.

Do-Dinh, Pierre. Confucius and Chinese Humanism. Translated by Charles Lam


Markmann. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1 969.

Eberhard, Wolfram. Guilt and Sin in Traditional China. Berkeley and Los Angeles:
University of California Press, 1967.

Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, and Gregory, Peter N., eds. Religion and Society in TANG
and SUNG China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993.

Collection of nine scholarly articles originated at a 1989 conference in


California.

Edner, Mattias. Chinese Religion. Tokyo: Society for Asian Folklore, 1973.

Eno, Robert. The Confucian Creation of Heaven: Philosophy and the Defense of
Ritual Mastery. Albany: SUNY Press, 1990.

Feuchtwang, Stephan. The Imperial Metaphor: Popular Religion in China. London:


Routledge, 1992.

Finazzo, Giancarlo. The Principle of Tien: Essay on its Theoretical Relevancy in


early Confucian Philosophy. Taipei: Mei Ya Publications, 1967.

Fingarette, Herbert. Confucius— The Secular as Sacred. New York: Harper


Torchbooks, 1972.

Fu, Charles Wei-hseun [Hsun]. "On the Modernisation of Confucianism as a


Philosophy/Moral Religion." In The Triadic Chord: Confucian Ethics,
Industrial East Asia, and Max Weber. Proceedings of the 1987 Singapore
Conference on Confucian Ethics and Modernisation ofIndustrial East Asia,
357-376. Edited by Tu, Wei-ming. Singapore: Institute of East Asian
Philosophies, 1991.
214

Granet, Marcel. The Religion of the Chinese People. New York: Harper and Row
Publishers, 1977.

ter Haar, Barend J. Bibliography for the Study of Yao Religion. URL:
http://sun.sino.uni-heidelberg.de/staff/bth/vao.htm

Self description: "The following bibliography has started as a personal tool


and comments are my own, based on cursory survey or reading. I have
attempted to be complete with respect to religion, but not with respect to the
Yao in general. Since this is not an active project, information after 1994
may be incomplete." An annotated bibliography in which most sections are
preceded by short introductory remarks.

Site contents: (1) General comments on the secondary literature; (2) Source
publications; (3) Language (Vocabularies, Linguistic work); (4) Secondary
research (Bibliographical surveys. General, Charters, Religion).

He, Guang-hu. "The Reformation of Chinese Religions Today." Inter-Religio 26


(1994): 60-71.

Hunter, Allen. "The Fate of Buddhism in Deng Xiaoping's China." Ching Feng 35
(December 1992): 178-99.

Jordan, David K. Gods, Ghosts and Ancestors: The Folk Religion of a Taiwanese
Village. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1972.

Kim, Sung Hei. "Silent Heaven Giving Birth to the Multitude of People." In
Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and Contemporary
Perspective, 182-212. Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York: The Edwin
Mellen Press, 1991.

Kitagawa, Joseph M., ed. The Religious Traditions ofAsia. New York: Macmillan,
1989.

. "Some Reflections on Chinese Religion," Ching Feng. 29:2-3 (1986): 145-


152.

Kramers, Robert P. "On Religion and Religious Values in China Today." Ching
Feng 27 i\9S4): 196-203.

Kiing, Hans, and Ching, Julia. Christianity and Chinese Religions. Translated by
Peter Beyer. New York: Doubleday, 1989.
.

215

Translations in German and French as well.

Ching was bom in Shanghai, was a Roman Catholic nun for several years,
and is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Toronto.

Kiing is a well-known Swiss theologian.

Lee, Archie C.C. "Syncretism from the Perspectives of Chinese Religion and
Biblical Tradition." Ching Feng 39 (March 1996): 1-24.

Lee, Peter K.H. "Personal Observations on Religion and Culture in the Four Little
Dragons of Asia." Ching Feng 30 (1987): 154-169.

Lee is the Director of the Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion &
Culture in Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Liu, Shu-Hsien. "The Confucian Approach to the Problem of Transcendence and


Immanence." Philosophy East and West 22:4 (1972): 417-425.

. "On Confucius' Attitude towards Gods, Sacrifice, and Heaven." Ching Feng
34(1991): 16-27.

Paper presented at an international conference on "China and Confucianism"


held at the California State University in Los Angeles, 15-17 June 1990.

. "The Religious Import of Confucian Philosophy: Its Traditional Outlook and


Contemporary Significance." Philosophy East and West 21:2 (1971): 157-
175.

Liu, Zehua, and Ge, Quan. "On the 'Human' in Confucianism." Journal of
Ecumenical Studies 26 (1 989) 3 1 3 -3 3 5
:

The authors, from the People's Republic of China, take a rather negative view
of Confucianism as negating the independence and individuality of the
human being. A response by Julia Ching, disagreeing with their
interpretation, follows on pp. 336-338.

Luo, Zhufeng, ed. Religion Under Socialism in China. Translated by Donald


Maclnnis and Zheng Xi'an, with an Introduction by Donald E. Maclnnis and
a Foreword by Bishop K.H. Ting. Armonk NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.

Chapters include historical and sociological treatment of religions in China


before and after the rise of the Communist State.
216

Maspero, H. Le Taoisme et les religions chinoises. Civilisation du Slid. Paris:


Gallimard, 1971.

English translation: Taoism and Chinese Religion. Amherst: The University


of Massachusetts Press, 1981.

Masson, Michel, S.J. "Religious Roots and Implications of Maoism." Concilium 126
(1979): 26-32.

Neville, Robert C. "The Chinese Case in a Philosophy of World Religions." In


Understanding the Chinese Mind: The Philosophical Roots, 48-74. Edited
by Robert E. Allinson. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Paper, Jordan. "The Ritual Core of Chinese Religion." Religious Studies and
Theology l{\m): 19-35.

Argues that a singular, specific core of Chinese ritual can be determined and
traced from the neolithic period to the present: a communal mean often
shared with, or sacrificed to, spirits, who are usually ancestral.

. The Spirits are Drunk: Comparative Approaches to Chinese Religion. Albany


NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Looks at Chinese religion as a complex, but singular construct which has

been the basis of Chinese culture from its beginnings up to the present. The
book focuses on the development and role of ecstatic religious experience as
well as the importance of the feminine in religious perceptions.

Park, O'Hyun. Oriental Ideas in Religious Thought. Lakemont GA: CSA Press,
1974.

Parker, Edward Harper. Studies in Chinese Religion. London: Chapman and Hall,
1910.

Poo, Mu-chou. "The Images of Immortals and Eminent Monks: Religious Mentality
in Early Medieval China (4-6 c. A.D.)." Numen 42 (1995): 172-96.

. InSearchof Personal Welfare: A View ofAncient Chinese Religion. Albany:


SUNY Press, 1998.

Reviewed by J. Russell Kirkland in Religious Studies Review 25 (January


1999): 120; and by Jeffrey L. Richey in Gravitas 1 (Spring 1999) [online
joumal: http://www.gtu.edu/librarv/Gravitas/Springl999-7.html ]
217

Reinders, Eric. "The Iconoclasm of Obeisance: Protestant Images of Chinese


Religion and the CathoUc Church." Niimen 44 (1997): 296-322.

Richey, Jeffrey L. "Enduring Myths and Emerging Trends in the Study of Early
Chinese Philosophy and Religion." Asian Studies Newsletter (forthcoming,
2001).

Richey did his doctorate under Judith Berling in cultural and historical study
of religions at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California, and
is currently Asst. Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Findlay.

. "Magical Power and Moral Law in Early Chinese Thought." Ph.D.


dissertation, Cultural and Historical Study of Religions, Graduate Theological
Union, Berkeley, California, 2000.

This dissertation, done under Judith Berling, analyzes four important early
Chinese religious texts - Lunyu (Analects), Mengzi (Mencius), Laozi (Tao
Te Ching), and Zhuangzi (Chuang-tzu) - as the composite products of
multiple authors, each rooted in differentiated but related groups of masters
and disciples. It challenges traditional classifications of these texts (and their
historical communities of thought and practice) into separate "Confucian"
and "Daoist" categories, and presents evidence for understanding early
Chinese spiritual lineages as unified by a common interest in "magical"
cosmology and causality and "moral" psychology.

Saint-Ina, Marie de, F.M.M. "China's Contribution to the Spiritual Foundation of


Humanity." International Philosophy Quarterly 6 (1966): 445-454.

Shahar, Meir, and Weller, Robert P., eds. Unruly Gods: Divinity and Society in
China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996.

Reviewed by Eric Reinders in Religious Studies Review 24 (July 1 998): 330.

Shih, Joseph, S.J. "The Ancient Chinese Cosmogony." The Origin of Cosmos and
Man. Studia Missionalia 18 (1969): 1 1 1-130.

Shih was professor of Chinese religions for many years in the faculty of
missiology of the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome.

. "The Notion of God in the Ancient Chinese Religion." Numen 16 (1969): 107-
114.
218

. "The Place of Confucius in the History of Chinese Religion." Gregorianum


51 (1970): 485-508.

. "La preghiera nella religione cinese." Studia Missionalia 24 (1 975): 1 65-1 84.

. "Religion Against Development: The Case of China." In Theology Meets


Progress, 207 -24S. Edited by Philip Land, S.J. Rome: Pontifical Gregorian
University Press, 1971.

In terms of the background of the traditional moral and socio-economic


system of China Shih discusses the broad context of the 1919 May Fourth
Movement, from 1917 to 1921, and its relation to religion and development
and modernization.

. "I riti nella Religione Cinese." Studia Missionalia 23 (1974): 145-160.

. "Revelation in Chinese Religion." Studia Missionalia 20 (1971): 237-266.

. "The Tao: Its Essence, Its Dynamism, and Its Fitness as a Vehicle of Christian
Revelation," L'Eglise et les Religions. Studia Missionalia 15 (1966): 117-
134.

Smart, Ninian, and Murthy, B. Srinivasa, eds. East— West Encounters in Philosophy
and Religion. Long Beach: Long Beach Publications, 1996.

Essays focus on issues concerning the human person in comparative and


cross-cultural perspectives, including Indian, Chinese and Western thought.

Smith, D. Howard. Chinese Religions: From 1000 B.C. to the Present Day. History
of Religion Series. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968.

Sommer, Deborah, ed. Chinese Religion: An Anthology ofSources. Oxford: Oxford


University Press, 1995.

Provides Chinese primary religious texts for undergraduate students in


introductory courses.

T'ang, Chiin-I. "The Development of Ideas of Spiritual Value in Chinese


Philosophy." In Philosophy and Culture East and West: East-West
Philosophy in Practical Perspective, 225-244. Edited by Charles A. Moore.
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Tang, Yijie. "Transcendence and Immanence in Confucian Philosophy." In


Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and Contemporary
Perspective, \l\-\'&\. Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York: The Edwin
Mellen Press, 1991.

Taylor, Rodney L. "The Religious Character of the Confucian Tradition."


Philosophy East and West 48 (January 1998): 80-107.

Discusses whether Confucianism can be described as a religion using a


definition of religion which identifies an Absolute and the transformation of
the individual toward the Absolute. Taylor argues that in Confucianism the
Absolute can be identified with Tien (Heaven), or Tien-li (Principle of
Heaven), and that sagehood can be seen as the transformative process which
leads the individual to the Absolute.

. The Religious Dimensions of Confucianism. SUNY Series in Religion.


Albany: SUNY Press, 1990.

All of the chapters of this book are articles or papers previously published
elsewhere, with minor changes in their titles.

. The Way of Heaven: An Introduction to the Confucian Religious Life.


Iconography of Religions, Section XII. East and Central Asia, 3. Leiden: E.J.
Brill, 1986.

Thompson, Laurence G. Chinese Religion: An Introduction. Encino CA: Dickenson


Publishing Co., 1975.

Tran, Van Doan. "Is Chinese Humanism Atheistic?" In International Symposium


on Chinese-Western Cultural Interchange in Commemoration of the 400th
Anniversary of the Arrival ofMatteo Ricci, S.J. in China, 746-761. Taipei,
1983.

Treadgold, Donald W. The West in Russia and China: Religious and Secular
Thought in Modern Times. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1973.

Tucker, Mary Evelyn. "Religious Values Derived from Other Traditions: The
Ecological Dimensions of Taoism and Confucianism." Dialogue & Alliance
7 (2,1993): 86-97.

Weber, Max. The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism. Translated and
edited by Hans H. Gerth. New York: Free Press, 1968.
220

Wilhelm, Helmut. Heaven, Earth, and Man in the Book of Changes. Seven Eranos
Lectures. Publications on Asia of the Institute for Comparative and Foreign
Area Studies, no. 28. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977.

Wolf, Arthur P., ed. Religion and Ritual in Chinese Society. Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1974.

Wolf, Arthur P. and Smith, Robert J. "China, Korea, and Japan." Chapter 10 in
Religion and Ritual Korean Society, 185-200. Edited by Laurel Kendall
in
and Griffin Dix. Korean Research Monograph. Berkeley CA: University of
California Press for Institute of East Asian Studies, Center for Korean
Studies, 1987.

Wright, Arthur F. Studies in Chinese Buddhism. New Haven: Yale University


Press, 1990.

Wu, Pei-Yi. "Self-examination and Confession of Sins in Traditional China."


Harvard Journal ofAsiatic Studies 39 (1979): 5-38.

Yang, C.K. "The Functional Relationship between Confucian Thought and Chinese
Religion." In Chinese Thought and Institutions, 269-290. Edited by John K.
Fairbank. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957.

. Religion in Chinese Society. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of


California Press, 1967.

Yearley, Lee H. "Toward a Typology of Religious Thought: A Chinese Example."


Journal of Religion 55 (1975): 426-443.

Yearley is professor of Religious Studies at Stanford.

Yeung, Kwok-keung. "Insufficiencies of Reductionist Reading of Religion: The Past


Interpretations of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom." Ching Feng 39
(September 1996): 201-236.

Young, John D. "Regarding The Chinese Religious Sense.'" Ching Feng 22 (1 979):
150-155.

Yu, David C. Guide to Chinese Religion. With contributions by Laurence G.


Thompson. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1985.

. Religion in Postwar China: A Critical Analysis and Annotated Bibliography.


Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
221

Zibo. Zibo: The Last Great Zen Master of China. Translation and Commentary by
J.C.Cleary. Forward by Thomas Cleary. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press,
AHP Paperbacks, 1989.
223

BUSINESS & ECONOMIC ETHICS IN ASIA

General, Miscellaneous, and/or Background Material

Allinson, Robert E., ed. Understanding the Chinese Mind: The Philosophical Roots.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Allinson, Robert E. "An Overview of the Chinese Mind." In Understanding the


Chinese Mind: The Philosophical Roots, 1-25. Edited by Robert E. Allinson.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Frank, Andre Gunder. Re-orient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. Berkeley:
University of California-Berkeley Press, 1998.

Gong, Yooshik, and Jang, Wonho. "Culture and Development: Reassessing Cultural
Explanations on Asian Economic Development." Development and Society
27 (June 1998): 77-98.

Little, Reg, and Reed, Warren. The Confucian Renaissance—Origin of Asia's


Economic Development. The Simul Press, 1989.

Moore, Charles A., ed. Essays in East-West Philosophy. Honolulu: University of


Hawaii Press, 1951.

. Philosophy and Culture East and West: East- West Philosophy in Practical
Perspective. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1962.

Nakajima, Mineo. "Economic Development in East Asia and Confucian Ethics."


Social Compass 41 (1994), p. 1 13-1 19.

Northrop, F.S.C. The Meeting of East and West: An Inquiry Concerning World
Understanding. New York: MacMillan, 1946.

Nuyen, A.T. "Chinese Philosophy and Western Capitalism." Asian Philosophy 9


(March 1999): 71-79.

Omatowski, Gregory. "Continuity and Change in the Economic Ethics of Buddhism


- Evidence from the History of Buddhism in India, China and Japan." The
Journal of Buddhist Ethics 1, (1996): 198-240.

This article can be found on the journal's World Wide Web site in the Adobe
Acrobat version at http://w\vw.psu.edu/jbe/omatowl.html
224

Abstract (provided by the Journal of Buddhist Ethics): Buddhist economic


ethics for monks and laity historically shared a common principle of non-
attachment to wealth. At the same time, while lay economic ethics have
consistently stressed merchant-type values and the importance of giving to
the sangha {daana), monastic ethics underwent major changes. This is true
especially in Chinese and Japanese Mahayana Buddhism where monasteries
and monks engaged in major commercial activities, including usury, pawn-
brokering, and the like. These activities led to large accumulations of wealth,
held by both monasteries and individual monks. While Buddhism historically
thus was not inimical to economic development nor to the rise of capitalism,
Buddhist ethics ultimately did not play the same type of role attributed to the
Moreover an analysis of Buddhist soteriologies
Protestant ethic in the West.
and major concepts such as anaatman, karma, patiitya-samutpaada, daana,
and karu.naa, reveals that issues of economic equality and justice in
Buddhism are dealt with less by attempting to change the existing distribution
of wealth than by cultivating the proper ethical attitudes toward wealth and
giving.

Omatowski teaches at Boston University.

Pieris, Aloysius, S.J. "Globalization: Buddhists and Christians in a World Colonized


by the Market." Dialogue n.s. 24 (1997): i.

Introductory editorial to the issue which contains several articles which treat
various aspects of globalization.

Tai, Hung-chao, ed. Confucianism and Economic Development: An Oriental


Alternative? Washington, DC: The Washington Institute Press, 1989.

Tilakaratne, Asanga. "Globalization: A Buddhist Perspective on Economics."


Dialogue n.s. 24 (1997): 53-65.

One of several articles in this issue which treat various aspects of


globalization.

Yoshiyama, Noboru, C.Ss.R. "A Christian Reflection: Confucianism and Economics


in East Asia." Tripod 15 (March- April 1995): 6-21.

In French: "Confucianisme et Economic en Asie de I'Est: Reflexion


chretienne." SEDOS Bulletin 28 (Feb. 1996): 41-47.

Yoshiyama is professor of moral theology at Sophia University in Tokyo.


.

225

Business & Economic Ethics: China

De Mente, Boye. Chinese Etiquette & Ethics in Business. Lincolnwood IL: NTC
Business Books, 1989.

Omatowski, Gregoty. "Continuity and Change in the Economic Ethics of Buddhism


- Evidence from the History of Buddhism in India, China and Japan." The
Journal of Buddhist Ethics 3(1996):! 98-240

This article can be found on the journal's World Wide Web site in the Adobe
Acrobat version at http://www.psu.edu/jbe/omatowl.html

Abstract (provided by the Journal of Buddhist Ethics): Buddhist economic


ethics for monks and laity historically shared a common principle of non-
attachment to wealth. At the same time, while lay economic ethics have
consistently stressed merchant-type values and the importance of giving to
the sangha (daana), monastic ethics underwent major changes. This is true
especially in Chinese and Japanese Mahayana Buddhism where monasteries
and monks engaged in major commercial activities, including usury, pawn-
brokering, and the like. These activities led to large accumulations of wealth,
held by both monasteries and individual monks. While Buddhism historically
thus was not inimical to economic development nor to the rise of capitalism,
Buddhist ethics ultimately did not play the same type of role attributed to the
Protestant ethic in the West. Moreover an analysis of Buddhist soteriologies
and major concepts such as anaatman, karma, patiitya-samutpaada, daana,
and karu.naa, reveals that issues of economic equality and justice in

Buddhism are dealt with less by attempting to change the existing distribution
of wealth than by cultivating the proper ethical attitudes toward wealth and
giving.

Omatowski teaches at Boston University.

Redding, Godon. "The Function of Business-Related Reciprocity in Chinese Non-


S.

Civil Societies." In Democratic Civility: The History and Cross-Cultural


Possibility of a Modern Political Ideal, 249-264. Edited by Robert W.
Hefner. New Bmnswick and London: Transaction Publishers, 1998.

Tu, Wei-ming, ed. Confucian Traditions in East Asian Modernity: Moral Education
and Economic Culture in Japan and the Four Mini-Dragons. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1996.
226

Seventeen articles from a 1991 conference at the American Academy of Arts


and Sciences, which treat China, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan,
Singapore, as well as overseas Chinese.

Reviewed by James A. Ryan in Asian Philosophy 8 (March 1998): 65-67.

Ziegler, L.[uther] Harmon. Pluralism, Corporation, and Confucianism: Political


Association and Conflict Regulation in the United States, Europe, and
Taiwan.

Business & Economic Ethics: Japan

AA.VV. Philosophy East and West 40 (October, 1990).

Entire issue is devoted to various aspects of Japanese values.

Biematzki, William E., S.J. "Business Bushido: The Industrialization of Japan."


Chapter 6 in Roots of Acceptance: The Intercultural Communication of
Religious Meanings, 105-123. Inculturation: Working Papers on Living
Faith and Cultures, no. 13, edited by Ary A. Roest Crollius, S.J. Rome:
Centre "Cultures and Religions" - Pontifical Gregorian University, 1991.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Gregorianum 73 (1992): 167-169.

Biematzki is a cultural anthropologist who taught for many years at Sogang


University in Seoul, Korea.

De Mente, Boye. Japanese Etiquette and Ethics in Business. Lincolnwood IL:


Passport Books, 1987.

DeVos, George, with Wagatsuma, Hiroshi, Claudill, William, and Mizushima,


Keiichi. Socialization for Achievement: Essayson the Cultural Psychology
of the Japanese. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press,
1973.

DeVos is professor emeritus of anthropology at the University of California


at Berkeley.

Dore, Ronald Philip. Taking Japan Seriously: A Confucian Perspective on Leading


Economic Issues. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987.
227

Lewis, David C. "Religious Rites in a Japanese Factory." Japan Missionary Bulletin


41 (1987): 99-109.

Investigation of religious rites in a factory from a socio-religious point of


view.

Omatowski, Gregory. "Continuity and Change in the Economic Ethics of Buddhism


- Evidence from the History of Buddhism in India, China and Japan." The
Journal of Buddhist Ethics 3 (1996): 198-240.

This article can be found on the journal's World Wide Web site in the Adobe
Acrobat version at http://www.psu.edu/jbe/omatowl .html

Abstract (provided by the Journal of Buddhist Ethics): Buddhist economic


ethics for monks and laity historically shared a common principle of non-
attachment to wealth. At the same time, while lay economic ethics have
consistently stressed merchant-type values and the importance of giving to
the sangha {daana), monastic ethics underwent major changes. This is true
especially in Chinese and Japanese Mahayana Buddhism where monasteries
and monks engaged in major commercial activities, including usury, pawn-
brokering, and the like. These activities led to large accumulations of wealth,
held by both monasteries and individual monks. While Buddhism historically
thus was not inimical to economic development nor to the rise of capitalism,
Buddhist ethics ultimately did not play the same type of role attributed to the
Protestant ethic in the West.Moreover an analysis of Buddhist soteriologies
and major concepts such as anaatman, karma, patiitya-samutpaada, daana,
and karu.naa, reveals that issues of economic equality and justice in
Buddhism are dealt with less by attempting to change the existing distribution
of wealth than by cultivating the proper ethical attitudes toward wealth and
giving.

Omatowski teaches at Boston University.

Shulman, Frank Joseph. Doctoral Dissertations on Japan and Korea, 1969—1979:


An Annotated Bibliography of Studies in Western Languages. Seattle:
University of Washington Press, 1982.

Tu, Wei-ming, ed. Confucian Traditions in East Asian Modernity: Moral Education
and Economic Culture in Japan and the Four Mini-Dragons. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1996.
228

Seventeen articles from a 1 991 conference American Academy of Arts


at the

and Sciences, which treat China, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan,
Singapore, as well as overseas Chinese.

Reviewed by James A. Ryan in Asian Philosophy 8 (March 1998): 65-67.

Business & Economic Ethics: Korea

Clifford, Mark L. Troubled Tiger: Businessmen, Bureaucrats, and Generals in


South Korea. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1998.

Reviewed by Timothy C. Lim in Acta Koreana 1 (1998): 143-147. The


review is also available electronically at the Korean Studies site:

http://www.mailbase.ac.uk/lists/korean-studies/files/ksr98-Q8.htm

Gong, Yooshik, and Jang, Wonho. "Culture and Development: Reassessing Cultural
Explanations on Asian Economic Development." Development and Society
27 (June 1998): 77-98.

Janelli, Roger L. and Dawnhee Yim Janelli. Making Capitalism: The Social And
Cultural Construction of a Korean Conglomerate. Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1993.

Based largely on the authors' nine months of participant-observation in the


offices of one of South Korea's largest conglomerates (with annual sales of
about $15 billion and approximately 80,000 employees), the book explores
the constructions of "traditional" Korean culture and transformations of
cultural knowledge prompted by new political-economic conditions, and how
both inform practices prevailing in the large conglomerates - and ultimately
shape South Korea's capitalism and the new Korean middle class.

For a critique of this work see C. Fred Alford's Think No Evil: Korean
Values in The Age of Globalization (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999).

Kearney, Robert. The Warrior Worker: The Challenge of the Korean Way of
Working. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1991.

Kim, Han-Kyo, ed., with Park, Hong-Kyoo. Studies on Korea: A Scholar's Guide.

A Study from the Center for Korean Studies, University of Hawaii.


229

Honolulu: Korean National Commission for UNESCO, and University Press


of Hawaii, 1980.

Bibliographical aid.

Kim, Tai-jun, ed. and trans. A Bibliographical Guide to Traditional Korean


Sources. [Han-guk Ko-chon Hae-chae]. Seoul: Asiatic Research Center of
Korea University, 1976.

Bibliographical aid.

Korean Overseas Information Service. A Handbook of Korea. 8th ed. Seoul:


Samwha Printing Co., Ltd., 1990.

Government publication with encyclopedic information on virtually every


area of South Korean life.

Shulman, Frank Joseph. Doctoral Dissertations on Japan and Korea, 1969—1979:


An Annotated Bibliography of Studies in Western Languages. Seattle:
University of Washington Press, 1982.

Tu, Wei-ming, ed. Confucian Traditions in East Asian Modernity: Moral Education
and Economic Culture in Japan and the Four Mini-Dragons. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1 996.

Seventeen articles from a 1991 conference at the American Academy of Arts


and Sciences, which treat China, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan,
Singapore, as well as overseas Chinese.

Reviewed by James A. Ryan in Asian Philosophy 8 (March 1998): 65-67.


231

HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE EAST ASIAN CONTEXT

Abe, Masao. "A Buddhist View of Human Rights." In Human Rights and Religious
Values: An Uneasy Relationship?, 144-153. Edited by AbduUahi A. An-
Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, and Hendrik M. Vroom. Amsterdam:
Editions Rodopi, 1995; Grand Rapids, MI: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing
Company, 1995.

Masao Abe, a Japanese Buddhist scholar who has worked closely with
Westerners in various ecumenical settings, states unequivocally that "the
exact equivalent of the phrase 'human rights' in the Western sense cannot be
found anywhere in the Buddhist literature" (p. 144), but goes on to explain

that the more than a simple lack of an equivalent term is missing in


Buddhism, there are fundamental differences between Buddhist and Westem
religious anthropologies that account for these divergences. For example.
Buddhism could not speak of "human" rights apart from a point of view
which embraced all sentient beings, and more importantly, "in Buddhism,
human rights and human freedom cannot be legitimately grasped without a
proper understanding of the self (p. 145), and in Buddhism the self is always
understood as "not an absolute but a relative entity." (P. 145). Nevertheless,
Abe does point to some contributions Buddhism could make to the larger area
of religious tolerance and human rights, though at least one of his suggestions
may not be easily embraced, since he argues for the "elimination of the
attachment to doctrine and dogma" (p. 147), and a "new understanding of
monotheism" which may be difficult to reconcile with an affirmation of the
uniqueness of Jesus Christ as universal savior. However, some of his other
suggestions, such as emphasizing wisdom and compassion, rather than just
stressing "justice" and "righteousness" may certainly find a resonance not
only within the East Asian religious ethos, but also with a number of the
interventions made by Asian bishops and other theologians.

Ames, Roger T. "Rites as Rights: The Confucian Alternative." In Human Rights


and the World's Religions, 199-216. Edited by Leroy S. Rouner. Notre
Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1988.

Ames is Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for Chinese


Studies at the University of Hawaii.

Bangkok Declaration. 1993. Appendix 1 in Human Rights and International


Relations in the Asia-Pacific Region, 204-207. Edited by James T.H. Tang.
London and 'Hew York: Printer. 1995.
,

232

See several other titles in this section that give further commentary on this
Declaration.

Bauer, Joanne R. and Bell, Daniel A. eds. The East Asian Challenge for Human
Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1999.

Bloom, Irene. "Confucian Perspectives on the Individual and Collectivity." In


Religious Diversity and Human Rights, 114-151. Edited by Irene Bloom, J.

Paul Martin, and Wayne L. Proudfoot. New York: Columbia University


I
Press, 1996.

. "Mencius and Human Rights." In Confucianism and Human Rights, 94-1 16.
Edited by William Theodore de Bary and Tu, Weiming. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1998.

Brill, Julie. Assessing Reform in South Korea: A Supplement to the Asia Watch
Report on Legal Process and Human Rights. An Asia Watch Report.
Washington, D.C.: Asia Watch, 1988.

Burks, Ardath W. "Japan: The Bellwether of East Asian Human Rights?" In Human
Rights In East Asia: A Cultural Perspective, 31-54. Edited by James C.
Hsiung. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1985.

Camps, Amulf. "The Pursuit of Full Humanity: An Asian Christian View of Human
Rights." In Human Rights and Religious Values: An Uneasy Relationship?
183-91 . Edited by A. An-Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, and Hendrik
M. Vroom. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1995; Grand Rapids, MI: Wm B.
Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995.

Cema, Christina M. "East Asian Approaches to Human Rights." The Buffalo


Journal of International Law 2 (Winter 1995-96): 201-14.

Considers different Asian conceptions of human rights by analyzing selected


speeches of Asian leaders on the subject. Cema argues that "East-Asian
states and the Asian region in general are accepting the so-called 'Western
catalogue' of internationalhuman rights as defined in the United Nations
human rights treaties by becoming parties to those treaties." p. 210.

Chan, Johannes, and Yash Ghai, eds. The Hong Kong Bill ofRights: A Comparative
Approach. Hong Kong: Butterwortsh, 1993.
233

Chang, Wejen. "The Confucian Theory of Norms and Human Rights." In


Confucianism and Human Rights, 117-141. Edited by William Theodore de
Bary and Tu, Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Cheng, Chung-ying. "Transforming Confucian Virtues Into Human Rights." In


Confucianism and Human Rights, 1 42- 153. Edited by William Theodore de
Bary and Tu, Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Cheng Chung-ying is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Hawaii at


Manoa and founder of the International Society of Chinese Philosophy and
the Journal of Chinese Philosophy.

Cheng, Kevin Shun-Kai. "The Social Dimension of Liberation in Early Confucian


Tradition." Ching Feng 36 (1993): 61-81.

Primarily discusses the concept of// as functioning as a liberating concept in


the Confucian tradition, despite negative perceptions which hold
Confucianism and // in particular to be stultifying societal influences.
Throughout the article Cheng contrasts the Confucian tradition with a
Western general notion of human rights.

Ching, Julia. "Human Rights: A Valid Chinese Concept?" In Confucianism and


Human Rights, 67-82. Edited by William Theodore de Bary and Tu,
Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Ching accepts that "human rights" can be a valid Chinese concept, and that
vestiges of the basic term are foimd in Chinese traditions, especially
Confucianism. Nevertheless, she is very cognizant of the failure of China to
develop a political structure which would guarantee the protection and
flourishing of individual human rights, and of abuses and tensions within
contemporary political regimes. However, Ching concludes that human
and observance of democratic practices in particular are not
rights in general,
incompatible with Confucian traditions, though some adaptation will be
required.

This paper was presented by Dr. Ching on a panel convened by the Religious
Consultation on Population, Reproductive Health and Ethics at the NGO
Forum of the United Nation's World Summit on Social Development, March,
1995, and is also available in the booklet Human Rights in China and Islam
published by The Religious Consultation on Population, Reproductive Health
and Ethics, (Milwaukee, 1995), and also on the Internet at

http://www.consultation.org/consultationyhumrgtpu.htm
234

Ching was bom in Shanghai, was a Roman Cathohc nun for several years,
and is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Toronto.

Chu, Ron Guey. "Rites and Rights in Ming China." In Confucianism and Human
Rights, 169-178. Edited by William Theodore de Bary and Tu, Weiming.
New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Civic, Melanne Andromecca. "A Comparative Analysis of International and Chinese


Human Rights Law— Universality versus Cultural Relativism." The Buffalo
Journal of International La\^' 2 (Winter 1995-96): 285-322.

Clancey, Jack. "Theological Reflections on Yin Yang and Human Rights." Tripod
16 (November—December 1996): 5-21.

Conner, Alison W. "Confucianism and Due Process." In Confucianism and Human


Rights, 179-192. Edited by William Theodore de Bary and Tu, Weiming.
New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Copper, John F.; Michael, Franz; and Wu, Yuan-li. Human Rights in Post-Mao
China. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1985.

Davis, Michael C. "Human Rights in Asia: China and the Bangkok Declaration."
The Buffalo Journal of International Law 2 (Winter 1995-96): 215-30.

Davis, Michael C, ed. Human Rights and Chinese Values: Legal, Philosophical,
and Political Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Discussion firom 1993 meeting in Bangkok which resulted in the Bangkok


Declaration, in which the participants, while accepting the concept of
universal standards in human rights, declared that these standards must take
into account unique Asian regional and cultural differences, economic
development issues, and the principles of national sovereignty.

Davis, Winston. "The Exhaustion of Heaven: Constructing and Deconstructing


Natural Rights in Meiji Japan." Fourteenth Annual University Lecture in
Religion, Arizona State University, 15 April 1993.

Uses a cross-cultural comparison with Western human rights theories to look


at Japan.

Davis teaches at Washington and Lee University.


235

de Bary, William Theodore. Asian Values and Human Rights: A Confucian


Communitarian Perspective. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Wm. Theodore de Bary is John Mitchell Mason Professor of the University


Emeritus and Provost Emeritus at Columbia University.

. "Neo-Confiicianism and Human Rights." In Human Rights and the World's


Religions, 183-198. Edited by Leroy S. Rouner. Notre Dame: University of
Notre Dame Press, 1988.

de Bary, William Theodore, and Tu, Weiming, eds. Confucianism and Human
Rights. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

De Silva, Padmasiri. "Human Rights in Buddhist Perspective." In Human Rights and


Religious Values: An Uneasy Relationship?, 133-143. Edited by AbduUahi
A. An-Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen, and Hendrik M. Vroom.
Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1995; Grand Rapids, MI: Wm B. Eerdmans
Publishing Company, 1995.

Edwards, R. Randle; Henkin, Louis; and Nathan, Andrew J. Human Rights in


Contemporary China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

Edwards, R. Randle. "Civil and Social Rights: Theory and Practice in Chinese Law
Today." In R. Randle Edwards, Louis Henkin, and Andrew J Nathan. .

Human Rights in Contemporary China, 41-75. New York: Columbia


University Press, 1 986.

Evans, Robert A., and Evans, Alice Frazer, eds. Human Rights: A Dialogue
Between the First and Third Worlds. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1983.

Contains case studies including verbatim accounts, responses, and teaching


notes.

Feng, Yu. "The Yellow Emperor Tradition as Compared to Confucianism." In


Confucianism and Human Rights, 154-168. Edited by William Theodore de
Bary and Tu, Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Ghai, Yash. "Human Rights and Governance: The Asian Debate." Occasional
Paper No. 4 The Asia Foundation: Center for Asian Pacific Affairs, 1994.

Girling, John, ed. Human Rights in the Asia-Pacific Region. Canberra Studies in
World Affairs, 29. Canberra: Dept. of International Relations, Research
School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1991.
236

Goldman, Merle. "Confucian Influence on Intellectuals in the Peoples' Republic of


China." In Confucianism and Human Rights, 261-269. Edited by William
Theodore de Bary and Tu, Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press,
1998.

Goodroad, Scott L. "The Challenge of Free Speech: Asian Values v. Unfettered Free
Speech. An Analysis of Singapore and Malaysia in the New Global Order."
Indiana International and Comparative Law Review 9 (259/1998): 4-79.

Henkin, Louis. "Epilogue: Confucianism, Human Rights, and 'Cultural Relativism'."


In Confucianism and Human Rights, 308-3 14 Edited by William Theodore
.

de Bary and Tu, Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Has a good thumbnail sketch of the positive contributions Confucianism


could make to Western human rights, and vice versa.

. "The Human Rights Idea in Contemporary China: A Comparative


Perspective." In R. Randle Edwards, Louis Henkin, and Andrew J. Nathan.
Human Rights in Contemporary China, 7-39. New York: Columbia
University Press, 1986.

Hom, Sharon K. "Commentary: Re-Positioning Human Rights Discourse on 'Asian'


Perspectives." The Buffalo Journal ofInternational Law 3 (Summer 1996):
209-234.

One of several articles in this issue devoted to various aspects of human


The current article is derived from an address given at the
rights in the world.
Asian Perspectives on Human Rights Panel at the ASIL Annual Meeting on
6 April 1995.

Hom is Professor of Law at the CUNY (City University of New York) School
of Law.

Hsiung, James Chieh, ed. Human Rights in East Asia: A Cultural Perspective. New
York: Paragon House Publishers, 1985.

Hsiung, James Chieh. "Human Rights in an East Asian Perspective." Chapter 1

Human Rights in East Asia: A Cultural Perspective, 1-30. Edited by James


Chieh Hsiung. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1985.

Discusses conceptions and approaches to human rights in Japan, Taiwan,


South Korea (which he calls a consensual model), and contrasts this to North
Korea and mainland China (which he calls the Communist model). In turn
237

these models are contrasted with a Western Hberal model which Hsiung terms
as being essentially "adversarial" in its conception and practice.

Human Rights in China (HRIC) Webs-site. (This site is also listed in the section

under "Other Asian Interest Web-Sites, China" in the East Asian Internet
Resources section at the end of this bibliography.

http://www.hrichina.org

Self-description: "An international non-governmental organization founded


by Chinese scientists and scholars in March 1989. HRIC monitors the
implementation of international human rights standards in the People's
Republic of China and carries out human rights advocacy and education
among Chinese people inside and outside the country."

Site contents: About HRIC; Current Human Rights Situation in China;


'Human Rights Forum' and other HRIC publications; Human Rights
Educational Materials [United Nations Documents] Take Action The HRIC
;
!
;

Gopher.

Inada, Kenneth K. "The Buddhist Perspective on Human Rights." In Human Rights


in Religious Traditions, 66-76. Edited by ed. Arlene Swidler. New York:
Pilgrim Press, 1982.

. "A Buddhist Response to the Nature of Human Rights." In Asian


Perspectives on Human Rights, 91-103. Edited by Welch, Claude E., Jr., and
Virginia A. Leary. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1990.

Also found in Journal of Buddhist Ethics 2 (1995):


http://www.psu.edu/ibe/ibe.html

Judge, Joan. "The Concept of People's Rights (Minquan) in the Late Qing." In
Confucianism and Human Rights, 193-208. Edited by William Theodore de
Bary and Tu, Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Kamstra, Jacques H. "Shinkoku (Divine Country) and the Violation of Human


Rights." In Human Rights and Religious Values: An Uneasy Relationship?,
154-168. Edited by Abdullah! A. An-Na'im, Jerald D. Gort, Henry Jansen,
and Hendrik M. Vroom. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1995; Grand Rapids
MI: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995.
238

Kang, Wi-Jo. "Christian Mission and Human Rights in South Korea." Mission
Studies 1 (2.1984): 62-66.

Kang is Wiihelm Loehe Professor of World Religions and Mission at the


Wartburg Theological Seminary.

Kausikan, Bilahari Kim Hee P. S. "An East Asian Approach to Human Rights." The
Buffalo Journal of International Law 2 (Winter 1995-96): 263-83.

Argues for a somewhat middle position on the question of a "distinctive"


East Asian conception of human rights: "Is there, or can there be, a
distinctively Asian approach to human rights? On one level, the answer must
logically be no if human rights are those rights which everyone has simply by
being human. Yet, cultural diversity is also a reality. As a matter of
empirical record, rights, order and justice are obtained in diverse ways in
different countries at different times." p. 263.

Kausikan is the Permanent Representative of Singapore to the United


Nations.

Kent, Ann. BetweenFreedom and Subsistence: China and Human Rights. Hong
Kong and New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Keown, Damien. "Are There Human Rights in Buddhism?" Journal of Buddhist


Ethics 2 (1995): 3-27. .

Available electronically at http://www.psu.edu/jbe/ibe.html

Kim, Dae Jung. "Is Culture Destiny? The Myth of Asia's Anti-Democratic Values."
Foreign Affairs 73 (November/December 1994): 189-194.

Kim was a well-known opposition politician and is now president of South


Korea.

King, Sallie B. "Human Rights in Contemporary Engaged Buddhism. " In Buddhist


Theology: Critical Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars, ed.
Roger R. Jackson and John J. Makransky, 293-311. Richmond, Surrey:
Curzon Press, 2000.

Kurata, Masahiko. "Asian Perspective: Human Rights~A Western Standard?"


Japan Christian Quarterly 51 (1985): 110-112.
239

Argues that human rights is not a Western imperialistic ethical concept, but
must be integrated into Asian cultures. In particular, Kurata denounces
arguments by certain Asian political and economic figures that "human
rights" is a Western concept which would hinder Asian development, and
thus must be "sacrificed" for the greater good of the whole society.

Kent, Ann. Between Freedom and Substance: China and Human Rights. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1993.

Keown, Damien V., Prebish, Charles S., and Husted, Wayne R., eds. Buddhism and
Human Rights. London: Curzon Press, 1998.

Keown, Damien. "Are There 'Human Rights' in Buddhism?" Journal of Buddhist


Ethics 2 (1995): 3-27.

This article is available electronically via


ftp: //ftp, cac. psu. edu/pub/jbe/vol2/keown. txt.

Kim, Ilpyong. "Human Rights in South Korea and U.S. Relations." In Human
Rights In East Asia: A Cultural Perspective, 55-76. Edited by James C.
Hsiung. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1985.

Kolodner, Eric. "Religious Rights in China: A Comparison of International Human


Rights Law and Chinese Domestic Legislation." Human Rights Quarterly 16
(1994): 455-490.

Kurata, Masahiko. "Asian Perspective: Human Rights—A Western Standard?"


Japan Christian Quarterly 51 (1985): 110-112.

Argues that human rights is not a Western imperialistic ethical concept, but
must be integrated into Asian cultures. In particular, Kurata denounces
arguments by certain Asian political and economic figures that "human
rights" is a Western concept which would hinder Asian development, and
thus must be "sacrificed" for the greater good of the whole society.

Kwok, D.W.Y. "On the Rites and Rights of Being Human." In Confucianism and
Human Rights, 83-92. Edited by William Theodore de Bary and Tu,
Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Lee, Manwoo. "North Korea and the Western Notion of Human Rights." In Human
Rights In East Asia: A Cultural Perspective, 129-151. Edited by James C.
Hsiung. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1985.
240

Lee, Seung-Hwan. "Was There a Concept of Rights in Confucian Virtue-Based


MoraUty?" Journal of Chinese Philosophy 19 (September 1992): 241-261.

Little, David. "Rethinking Human Rights: A Review Essay on Religion, Relativism


and Other Matters." Journal ofReligious Ethics 27 (Spring 1999): 151-177.

Discusses some of the issues regarding Asian difficulties with accepting


"Western" notions of human rights. Little acknowledges those positions
which raise questions about the cultural applicability of Western-based
human rights discourse in non- Western cultures but ultimately he dismisses
these concerns as being grounded in a false (i.e., non-existent) notion of
cultural relativism.

Lum, Linda L., ed. Cross-cultural Aspects of Human Rights: Asia. Symposium
Proceedings (Center for the Study ofForeign Affairs), 1. Washington, D.C.:
Center for the Study of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Service Institute, U.S. Dept.
of State, 1988.

Nathan, Andrew J. "Political Rights in Chinese Constitutions." In R. Randle


Edwards, Louis Henkin, Louis and Andrew J. Nathan. Human Rights in
Contemporary China, 77-124. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

. "Sources of Chinese Rights Thinking." In R. Randle Edwards, Louis Henkin,


and Andrew J. Nathan. Human Rights in Contemporary China, 121-164.
New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

Neary, Ian, and Roger Goodman, eds. Case Studies on Human Rights in Japan.
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996.

Paltiel, Jeremy T. "Confucianism Contested: Human Rights and the Chinese


Tradition in Contemporary Chinese Political Discourse." In Confucianism
and Human Rights, 270-296. Edited by William Theodore de Bary and Tu,
Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Peerenboom, Randall. "Confucian Harmony and Freedom of Thought." In


Confucianism and Human Rights, 234-260. Edited by William Theodore de
Bary and Tu, Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

. "What's Wrong with Chinese Rights?" Harvard Human Rights Journal 6


(1993).
241

Perera, L.P.N. Buddhism and Human Rights. A Buddhist Commentary on the


Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights. Colombo: Kanmaratne and Sons,
1991.

Religious Consultation on Population, Reproductive Health and Ethics. Human


Rights in China and Islam. Milwaukee WI: Religious Consultation, 1995.

Contains a paper given by Julia Ching "Human Rights: A Valid Chinese


Concept?" (listed separately under Julia Ching's entries in this section).

Rosemont, Henry, Jr. "Human Rights: A Bill of Worries." In Confucianism and


Human Rights, 54-66. Edited by William Theodore de Bary and Tu,
Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Rosemont critiques both the supposed "universalism" of contemporary


notions of "human rights" as developed in the West, and trends in
approaching Confucian studies which try to "find" those same rights in
traditional Confucianism. Rosemont argues instead that Confucianism would
better studied "as a genuine alternative to modem Western theories of rights,
rather than merely as a potentially early version of them." (p. 64).

. "Rights-Bearing Individuals and Role-Bearing Persons." In Rules, Rituals,


and Responsibility: Essays Dedicated to Herbert Fingarette. Edited by Mary
I. Bockover. LaSalle IL: Open Court Publishers, 1991.

. "Why Take Rights Seriously? A Confucian Critique." In Human Rights and


the World's Religions, 167-182. Edited by Leroy S. Rouner. Notre Dame:
University of Notre Dame Press, 1988.

Sen, Amartya. "Asian Values and Human Rights." The New Republic (14 July
1997): 33-40.

Given as the Hans Morgenthau Memorial Lecture for the Carnegie Council
on Ethics and International Affairs in New York on 1 May 1997.

Shaw, William, ed. Human Rights in Korea: Historical and Policy Perspectives.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 19?.

Papers by eight Korea specialists tracing the human rights movement from
the late-nineteenth century Independence Club through the Sixth Republic of
Roh Tae Woo. Concluding selections discuss the appropriateness of U.S.
policies in regards to human rights in Korea.
242

Soko, Keith. "Human Rights and the Poor in World Rehgions." Horizons 26
(Spring 1999): 31-53.

Argues that concern for the poor is found in all major religions, and can thus
help support a universal concern for the rights of the poor and marginalized.
Soko looks not only at Judeo-Christianity, but also at Buddhism,
Confucianism, Taoism, Hinduism, and Islam.

Tai, Hung-Chao. "Human Rights in Taiwan: Convergence of Two Political


Cultures?" In Human Rights in East Asia: A Cultural Perspective, 77-108.
Edited by James C. Hsiung. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1985.

Takeyoshi, Kawashima. "The Status of the Individual in the Notion of Law, Right,
and Social Order in Japan." In The Japanese Mind: Essentials ofJapanese
Philosophy and Culture, 262-287. Edited by Miymoto Shoson. Honolulu:
East- West Center Press, University of Hawaii Press, 1967.

Tang, James T.H., ed. Human Rights and International Relations in the Asia-Pacific
Region. London and New York: Printer, 1995.

Also contains the 1993 Bangkok Declaration as Appendix 1, pp. 204-207.

Thurman, Robert A.F. "Social and Cultural Rights in Buddhism." In Human Rights
and the World's Religions, 148-163. Edited by Leroy S. Rouner. Notre
Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1988.

Tu, Weiming. "Epilogue: Human Rights as a Confucian Moral Discourse." In


Confucianism and Human Rights, 297-307. Edited by William Theodore de
Bary and Tu, Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press, 1 998.

Twiss, Simmer B. "Comparative Ethics and Intercultural Human-Rights Dialogues:


A Programmatic Inquiry." In Christian Ethics: Problems and Prospects,
357-378. Edited by Lisa Sowle Cahill and James F. Childress. Cleveland:
Pilgrim Press, 1996.

Article done for the Festschrift for James M. Gustafson made up of


contributions from his former students.

Twiss is Professor of Religious Studies at Brown University.

. "A Constructive Framework for Discussing Confucianism and Human


Rights." In Confucianismand Human Rights, 27-53. Edited by William
243

Theodore de Bary and Tu, Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press,
1998.

Argues first that a "simplistic" concern is misplaced over a supposed


"hegemonic" Western moral ideology present in the United Nations
Universal Declaration of Human Rights" since the Declaration was reached
through a pragmatic process of negotiation between representatives of
different nations and cultural traditions" (p. 30). Twiss then goes to argue
that Confucianism has moral content which overlaps contemporary
international human rights.

. "Moral Grounds and Plural Cultures: Interpreting Human Rights in the


Community." Journal ofReligious Ethics 26 (Fall 1 998): 27 1 -
International
282.

The United Nations and the World's Religions: Prospects for a Global Ethic.
Proceedings of a Conference held October 7, 1994 at Columbia University.
Cosponsored by School of International and Public Affairs and the
Department of Religion Columbia University, and Boston Research Center
for the 2 1 st Century, in collaboration with International Mahvir Jain Mission
and Soka Gakkai International. Cambridge: Boston Research Center for the
21st Century, 1995.

Several of the papers deal with the issue of human rights in Asia.

Unno, Taitetsu. "Personal Rights and Contemporary Buddhism." In Human Rights


and the World's Religions, 129-147. Edited by Leroy S. Rouner. Notre
Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1988.

Welch, Claude E., Jr., and Leary, Virginia A., eds. Asian Perspectives on Human
Rights. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1990.

Whitefield, Susan, ed. After the Event: Human Rights and Their Future in China.

London: Wellsweep Press, 1993.

Wilfred, Felix. "Human Rights or the Rights of the Poor? Redeeming the Human
Rights from Contemporary Inversions." SEDOS Bulletin
http://ww'w.sedos.org/english/Wilfred.html

Argues that the discourse on human rights has become inverted and
appropriated by globalizing economic forces. What is needed is a concrete
focus on the experiences of suffering of the poor, especially in the non-
Western areas of the world, if the legitimate goals of human rights are to be
244

realized. This will require a change in the sort of discourse with which
human rights has been largely carried out up to the present. This article is a
revised version of a paper presented at the Seventh International Conference
of North-South Philosophical Dialogue, held at the Central American
University in San Salvador from 27-30 July 1998.

Wilfred is Professor in the School of Philosophy and Religious Studies of the


University of Madras, India.

. "The Language of Human Rights— An Ethical Esperanto?" Vidyajyoti 56


(1992): 194-214.

Wilred, an Indian theologian, argues that the supposedly "universal" Western


concept of "human rights" is a sterile ethical esperanto which is derived from

an abstraction of the lowest common denominator, and which offers "no


ethical panacea for the problems of conflict-ridden societies of the Third
World." (p. 214). Instead, many Third World perspectives on human rights
would find the "universal" only in terms of the particular context which can
then express the fullness of the universal.

Paper originally presented at a symposium organized by the Theologie


Interkulturelle of the University of Frankfiart-am-Main. Also found in
Frontiers in Asian Christian Theology: Emerging Trends, 206-220. Edited
by R.S. Sugirtharajah. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1994.

Wilson, Richard W. "Rights in the People's Republic of China." In Human Rights


in East Asia: A Cultural Perspective, 109-128. Edited by James C. Hsiung.
New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1985.

Woo, Peter K. Y. "A Metaphysical Approach to Human Rights from a Chinese Point
of View." In The Philosophy of Human Rights: International Perspectives,
1 13-124. Edited by Alan S. Rosenbaum. Westport CT: Greenwood Press,

1980.

One of thirteen essays representing inter-religious and inter-cultural


approaches to the foundation, meaning, and application of human rights. Woo
contends that the Western idea of human rights has never been widely
accepted in China because it is rooted in metaphysical concepts that had been
foreign to traditional Chinese culture, but goes on to show how an
examination of certain vital ideas can provide a basis in Chinese philosophy
for an acceptance of human rights.

Woo is professor philosophy at the National Taiwan University.


245

Wofford, HarrisL., Jr., and Berman, Maureen R. Human Rights Conditions in

Non-Communist Countries in East Asia. Human Rights: Working Papers.


New York: International League for Human Rights, 1980.

Zarrow. Peter. "Citizenship and Human Rights in Early Twentieth Century Chinese
Thought." In Confucianism and Human Rights, 209-233. Edited by William
Theodore de Bary and Tu, Weiming. New York: Columbia University Press,
1998.
247

ASIAN WOMEN'S PHILOSOPHY &THEOLOGY


A''.^. Many of the entries listed here would also appear in the topical

sections of the bibliography, e.g., in sections such as "Japan, " "Confucian


Ethics, " " Women 's Issues in Korea, " and so on. Such titles are also
included here for research convenience in the general area offeminism in
Asia.

Abraham, Dulcie, et. al, eds. Asian Women Doing Theology: Report from the
Singapore Conference, November 20-29, 1987. Hong Kong: Asian Women's
Resource Centre for Culture and Theology (AWRC), 1989.

. Faith Renewed: A Report on the First Asian Women 's Consultation on


Interfaith Dialogue. Hong Kong: AWRC, N.d.

Ahn. Sang-Nim. "Feminist Theology in the Korean Church." In God's Image (June,
1988): 35-41.

Also found in We Dare to Dream: Doing Theology as Asian Women, 127-


134. Edited by Virginia Fabella and Sun-Ai Park. Hong Kong: Asian
Women's Resource Center for Culture and Theology, 1989.

Aiko, Ogoshi."Women and Sexism in Japanese Buddhism." The Japan Christian


Review 59(1993): 19-26.

One of several articles dealing with feminist issues in Japan.

Akiko, Minato. "Women's Jiritsu and Christian Feminism in Japan." The Japan
Christian Review 59 (1993): 7-18.

One of several articles dealing with feminist issues in Japan.

AWRC. Faith Renewed: II A Report on the Second Asian Women 's Consultation on
Interfaith Dialogue, November 1-7, 1991, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Seoul:
AWRC, 1995.

Baek, Sung-won. "Alien creed gave solace to women: Catholicism's arrival helped
rectify Confucian inequalities." Korea Herald 7 November 1985.

Blackstone, Kathryn R. Women in the Footsteps of the Buddha: Struggle for


Liberation in the Therigatha. London: Curzon Press, 1998.
248

Brock, Rita Nakashima, and Thistlethwaite, Susan Brooks. Casting Stones:


Prostitution and Liberation in Asia and the United States. Minneapolis:
Fortress Press, 1996.

Examines how the dynamics of religion, culture, history, politics, and


economics all play a role in the prostitution industry in Asia and the United
States. Countries particularly emphasized include South Korea, Japan, and

the Philippines, though this is a far-reaching and analytical study.

Reviewed by Margaret Eletta Guider in Journal ofthe American Academy of


Religion 66 (3/1998): 654-658.

Cho, Wha-Soon. Let the Weak be Strong: A Woman's Struggle for Justice.
Bloomington IN: Meyer-Stone Books, 1988.

The autobiography of Soon, an ordained Methodist minister, and her urban-


industrial mission in South Korea and the fight for global feminist solidarity.
Also contains seven reflections by members of the KAWT (Korean
Association of Women Theologians).

Choi, Man Ja. "Feminine Images of God in Korean Traditional Religion." In


Frontiers in Asian Christian Theology: Emerging Trends, 80-89. Edited by
R. S. Sugirtharajah. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1994.

Chun, Ai Chi. "Women in the Church in Korea." East Asian Pastoral Review 26
(1989): 171-173.

Chung, Edward Yong-jong. "Confucianism and Women in Modem Korea:


Continuity, Change and Conflict." of Women in World
In The Annual Review
Religions. Vol. 3, 142-188. Edited by Arvind Sharma and Katherine K.
Young. Albany: SUNY Press, 1994.

Chung, Hyun-kyung. "'Han-pu-ri': Doing Theology from Korean Women's


Perspective." In We Dare to Dream: Doing Theology as Asian Women, 135-
146. Edited by Virginia Fabella and Sun-Ai Park. Hong Kong: Asian
Women's Resource Center for Culture and Theology, 1989.

Chung has a PhD from Union Theological Seminary in New York. She then
returned to Korea and taught systematic theology at Ewha Women's
University in Seoul. She now is on the faculty of Union Theological
Seminary in New York. She caused a minor sensation at the7th Assembly
of the World Council of Churches in Canberra, Australia in February, 1991
249

by giving a presentation in which she used a shamanistic-type dance to


invoke the Han spirits of oppressed peoples.

. "'Opium or the Seed for Revolution?' Shamanism: Women Centered Popular


Religiosity in Korea." Concilium 199 (1988): 96-104.

. Struggle to be the Sun Again: Introducing Asian Women's Theology.


Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1990.

Chung's doctoral dissertation, done under James Cone at Union Theological


Seminary in New York.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in Gregorianum 73 (1 992): 356-357; and


by Mary Grey in The Heythrop Journal 34 (1993): 193-194..

DeSila,Lily. "Place ofWomen in Buddhism." Dialogue 19-20 (1992-1993): 24-35.

One of several articles on the place of women in Buddhism.

Diggs, Nancy Brown. Steel Butterflies: Japanese Women and the American
Experience. Albany: SUNY Press, 1998.

Looks at the role of Japanese women in both Japan and the United States.

EATWOT Women's Commission. Proceedings, Asian Women's Consultation,


Manila, 21-30 November, 1985. Manila: EATWOT, N.d.

Fabella, Virginia and Park, Sun-Ai. We Dare to Dream: Doing Theology as Asian
Women. Hong Kong: Asian Women's Resource Center for Culture and
Theology, 1989.

Reviewed by Mary Grey in The Heythrop Journal 34 (1993): 193-194.

Fabella, Virginia and Oduyoye, Mercy Amba, eds. With Passion and Compassion:
Third World Women Doing Theology. from the Women's
Reflections
Commission of the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians.
Maryknoll: Orbis, 1988.

Fabella, Virginia. Beyond Bonding: A Third World Women 's Theological Journey.
Manila: EATWOT, 1993.

Farley, Margaret A., R.S.M. "A New Form of Communion: Feminism and the
Chinese Church." America 23 February 1991: 199-204.
250

A report on the author's ecumenical group trip of women theologians to


China in 1990.

Farley teaches Christian ethics at Yale University, and is past-president of


both the Society of Christian Ethics and the Catholic Theological Society of
America.

Gelb, Joyce, and Palley, Marian Lief, eds. Women ofJapan and Korea: Continuity
and Change. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.

Han, Kuk Yum. "Reunification of Korea and the Task of Korean Feminist
Theology." In God's Image (June, 1988): 41-42.

Harris, Elizabeth. "The Female in Buddhism." Dialogue 19-20 (1992-1993): 336-


60.

One of several articles on the place of women in Buddhism.

Haruko, Okano. "Women and Sexism in Shinto." The Japan Christian Review 59
(1993): 27-32.

One of several articles dealing with feminist issues in Japan.

Hertig, Young Lee. "The Asian-American Alternative to Feminism: A Yinist


Paradigm." Missiology: An International Review 26 (January 1998): 15-22.

Hertig attempts to "overcome the socially constructed, dichotomous margin-


center paradigm which the feminist movement sought to overcome, but
which it works within. In reaction to male patriarchy, the feminist movement
has not reconciled the intersecting relationships of gender, class, and race."
Hertig tries to resolve this problem through Asian "Yinist" feminism which
purports to be "holistic, dynamic, synthesizing, and complementary with
yang, the male energy. Yinist feminism diffuses false sets of dichotomy
deriving fi-om the dualistic paradigm: male against female, human being
against nature, God apart from human being, this world apart from the other
world." (P. 15)

Hertig is a sociologist and ordained Presbyterian minister in a Korean-


American community in Los Angeles.

Huang, Joe C. "Ideology and Confucian Ethics in the Characterization of Bad


Women in Socialist Literature." In Deviance and Social Control in Chinese
251

Society, 37-51. Edited by Amy A. Wilson, Sidney L. Greenblatt, and Richard


W. Wilson. New York: Praeger, 1977.

Hyun, Younghak. "The Cripple's Dance and Minjung Theology." Ching Feng 28
(1985): 30-35.

The "cripple's dance" in the biography of a Korean woman as a contribution


toMinjung Theology.

Johnson, Kay Ann. Women, the Family, and Peasant Revolution in China. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Jon, Byong-Je. "Familiaism and Individualism for Modem Korean Women." In The
World Community in Post-Industrial Society. Vol. 3 The Confusion in Ethics
and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to
Redefinitions, 91-98. Edited by Christian Academy. Seoul: Wooseok
PubUshing Co., 1988.

Kang, Nam-Soon. "Creating 'Dangerous Memory': Challenges for Asian and Korean
Feminist Theology." The Ecumenical Review 47 (1995): 21-31.

Digest found as "Asian and Korean Feminist Theology" in Theology Digest


42 (1995): 229-232.

Katoppo, Marianne. Compassionate and Free: An Asian Women's Theology.


Geneva: WCC, 1979.

Kendall, Laurel, and Peterson, Mark, eds. Korean Women: View from the Inner
Room. New Haven: East Rock Press, Inc., 1983.

Kendall, Laurel. "Let the Gods Eat Rice Cake: Women's Rites in a Korean Village."
In Religion and Ritual in Korean Society, 1 1 8-138. Edited by Laurel Kendall
and Griffm Dix. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of
California-Berkeley, 1987.

. Shamans, Housewives, and Other Restless Spirits: Women in Korean Ritual


Life. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985.

Kim, Ai Ra. Women Strugglingfor a New Life: The Role ofReligion in the Passage
from Korea to America. Albany: SUNY Press, 1997.

Based on 22 interviews conducted with mainly evangelical and/or


independent church women.
252

Kim, Jung-Ha. Bridge Makers and Cross-Bearers: Korean-American Women and


the Church. American Academy of Religion, 1997?

Addresses foiir main issues: the role of religious institutions within ethnic
communities; the role of Christian churches as patriarchal institutions; status
inconsistency and role conflict in marginalized communities; and the relative
importance of gender and race-ethnicity in shaping the identities of minority
women of color.

Kim is Asst. Professor of Sociology at George State University.

Kim, Jung-Hi Victoria. "Das konfuzianische Bild der Frau in der koreanischen
Choson-Dynastie (1392-1910)." Zeitschrift fUr Missionswissenschaft und
Religionswissenschaft 78 (1994): 203-215.

Kim, Jung-Ja. "A Study on Gender Role in the Secondary School Curricula." In
Women's Studies Forum, 97-140. Seoul: Korean Women's Development
Institute, 1988.

Kim, Man-poong. "Faithfulness, Guilt, and Shame in Women of the Yi Dynasty in


Korea: with Contemporary Illustrations and Implications For Pastoral Care
and Counseling in the Korean Church in the Republic of Korea." ThD
Dissertation. Boston University School of Theology, 1989.

Abstract (provided by the author): The purpose of this dissertation is to


assess marital fidelity or faithfiilness, guilt, and shame in women of the Yi
dynasty in Korea with special attention to how traditional values influence the
Korean style of marital relationship. The general method this dissertation
employs is a combination of a library research and case studies. The writer
uses historical, socio-cultural, and anthropological perspectives to approach
the social structure, major religions, and women's life during the Yi dynasty.
He employs the methods of word study and Biblical study for the
interpretation and comparison of key concepts from neo-Confiician and
Christian perspectives. He uses psychological methods to interpret the
emotions and motivations of women described in the literature and in
contemporary case studies of faithfulness. For the most part, the
interpretations are his interpretations using the American psychological
concepts he has developed in his theoretical chapter of this dissertation. He
attempts to bridge cultural and historical differences in order to make these
interpretations. The writer draws from pastoral experiences to include two
contemporary case studies of women's faithfulness. Using a
pastoral-theological perspective, then, he interprets the material of the
dissertation and suggests implications for pastoral care and counseling in the
1

253

Korean Church. The writer finds that there are significant differences
between neo-Confucian and Christian perspectives of marital fidelity which
contribute to confusion and conflict. Marital conflicts of Korean Christian
couples related to faithfulness are intertwined with the emotional feelings of
guilt and shame which draw attention to pastoral care and counseling. The
issue of faithfulness was a life-threatening one among Korean women in the
Yi dynasty, and can still be a serious problem among Korean Christian
families in contemporary Korea. The writer suggests that Korean pastoral
care and counseling should focus on Christian maturity in marital
relationships, and that the Korean church should develop both academic and
clinical training programs for a more effective pastoral ministry in the Korean

church.

Dissertation done under Homer L. Jemigan.

Kim, Sung-hae. "A Christian Social Ethos of Woman in the Confucian and Taoist
Culture of East Asia." Studies in World Christianity 3 (1997): 38-55.

Gives a good overview of Confucian and Taoist spiritualities of moral ethos,


both personal and social. Kim argues that these traditions are part of the
contemporary cultural ethos in East Asia and can offer many positive
resources if reinterpreted according to their true moral meaning, and therefore
are not inimical to feminist concerns.

Sr. Kim Sung-hae has a doctorate in comparative religions from Harvard and
teaches in the Religious Studies Department of Sogang University in Seoul.

Kim, Young Ae. "The Religious Identity of Korean Christian Women." Pacific
Theological Review 25-26 (1992-1993): 53-57.

Paper presented at the Second International Confucian-Christian Conference


held at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California from 7-1
July 1 99 1 . This paper was presented at the session which dealt with the issue
of so-called "dual identity" (i.e. Christian and Confucian).

Kim, Young-sook Harvey. From the Womb of Han: Stories of Korean Women
Workers. Hong Kong: Christian Conference of Asia—Urban Rural Mission,
1982.

. Six Korean Women. Minnesota: West Publishing Co., 1979.

Kim, Yung-Chung. Women in Korea: A Historyfrom Ancient Times to 1 945. Seoul:


Ewha Womans University Press, 1976.
254

Kinukawa, Hisako. "The Story of the Hemorrhaging Woman (Mark 5:25-34) Read
From a Japanese Feminist Context." Theology & Sexuality 1 (1994): 283-
292.

. Women and Jesus in Mark: A Japanese Feminist Perspective. MaryknoU, NY:


Orbis Press, 1994.

Korean Association of Women Theologians (KAWT). "Declaration of Korean


Women Theologians on the Peace and Reunification of the Korean People."
In God's Image (June, 1988): 51-53.

Kwok, Pui-lan. Chinese Women and Christianity, 1 860-1 927. American Academy
of Religion Academy Series, 75. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992.

Reviewed by Nancy M. Victorin-Vangerud in Religious Studies Review 23


(July 1997): 319.

Kwok teaches at the Episcopal Divinity School in Cambridge, MA.

Lee, Hwain Chang. Confucius, Christ, andCo-Partnership: Competing Liturgiesfor


the Soul of Korean American Women. Lanham MD: University Press of
America, 1994.

Essentially a story of Han, using much of the minjung theological


methodology, such as social autobiography to identify "male" theologies
allied with Confucianism which are then denounced in distinction to a
feminist theology allied with the struggle for the liberation of the minjung.

Reviewed by James T. Bretzke, S.J. in the Journal ofEcumenical Studies 32


(1995): 292-293.

Lee, Hyo-Jai. "The Divided Society and Women." In God's Image (June, 1988): 7-
10.

Lee, On Jook. Marriage and Women Labor Force Participation in Korea.


's "Report
to the Rockefeller-Ford Foundation's Population and Development Policy
Research Program." Seoul: Korean Culture Research Institute, Ewha
Womans University, 1982.

Lee, Oo Chung. "Bible Study on Peace and Unification." In God's Image (June,
1988): 24-28.
.

255

Also found in We Dare to Dream: Doing Theology as Asian Women, 65-71


Edited by Virginia Fabeila and Sun-Ai Park. Hong Kong: Asian Women's
Resource Center for Culture and Theology, 1989.

. In Search for Our Grandmother 's Spirituality. Seoul: AWRC, 1994.

. "One Woman's Confession of Faith." International Review ofMission April,


1985.

., ed. Women of Courage: Asian Women Reading the Bible. Seoul: AWRC,
1992.

Lee, Peter K.H., and Hyun Kyung Chung. "A Cross-Cultural Dialogue on the Yin-
Yang Symbol." Ching Feng 33 (September 1990): 136-57.

Lee is the Director of the Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion &
Culture in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Chung has a PhD from Union Theological
Seminary in New York. She then returned to Korea and taught systematic
theology at Ewha Women's University in Seoul. She now is on the faculty of
Union Theological Seminary in New York.

Lee, Sung-Hee. "Women's Liberation Theology as the Foundation for Asian


Theology." East Asian Journal of Theology 4 (February, 1 986).

Lim, In-Sook. "Korean Immigrant Women's Challenge to Gender Inequality at


Home: The Interplay of Economic Resources, Gender, and Family." Gender
and Society \\ (February 1997): 31-51.

Based on interviews with 1 8 Korean immigrant working couples, and details


the impact that thewomen's financial contributions and resources have on
challenging traditional male dominance and gender inequality within the
home.

Lozada, Rebecca, and O'Grady, Alison, eds. Creation and Spirituality: Asian
Women Expressing Christian Faith through Art. Hong Kong: Christian
Conference of Asia, 1995.

Mananzan, Mary John, ed. Women in Asia, Status and Image. Singapore: Christian
Conference of Asia, 1979.

. Women Resisting Violence: Spirituality of Life. Maryknoll: Orbis Books,


1996.
256

"Mapping a Pan-Pacific Feminist Theology." Journal of Women and Religion 13


(1995).

Whole issue devoted to this theme.

Matielli, Sandra. Virtues in Conflict: Tradition and the Korean Woman Today.
Seoul: Samhwa, 1977.

Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen.^cceprmgPopw/ar/ow Control: Urban Chinese Women


and the One-Child Family Policy. NIAS Monographs in Asian Studies, no.
74. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996.

Using data from an extensive survey, the author argues that most city district
Chinese women would prefer to have more than one child but comply with
the one-child policy.

Nanbu, Kimiko. "The Shinto-Buddhist Soil of Japan." Japan Missionary Bulletin


38 (1984): 501-508.

Experience of a Christian woman with Shinto— Buddhist roots.

Ng, Greer Anne Wenh-In. "Inclusive Language in Asian North American


Churches: Non-Issue or Null Curriculum?" Journal of Asian and Asian
American Theology 2 (Summer 1997): 31-36.

Nobuko, Morimura. "The Story of Tamar: A Feminist Interpretation of Genesis 38."


The Japan Christian Review 59 (1993): 55-68.

One of several articles dealing with feminist issues in Japan.

Oh, Duck-Choo, Theresa. "Woman and Evangelisation." Japan Missionary Bulletin


39 (1985): 40-43.

Contribution of women to the apostolate in Korea and Asia.

Ooms, Emily Groszos. Women and Millenarian Protest in Meiji Japan: Deguchi
Nao and Omotokyo. Cornell East Asia Series, 61. Ithaca NY: Cornell
University East Asia Program, 1993.

Reviewed by Brian D. Ruppert in Religious Studies Review 24 (July 1998):


330.
257

Pak, Young Mi Angela "Faith as an Autobiographical Strategy: Understanding the


Lives of Two Korean Christian Immigrant Women." Journal ofAsian and
Asian American Theology! (1997): 37-50.

Pak did her doctorate under Clare Fischer at the Graduate Theological Union
in Berkeley, California, and is currently a Post-doctoral Scholar, Beatrice M.
Bain Research Group, University of California, Berkeley, 2000-2001.

. "Pan-Pacific Identity? A Skeptical Asian American Response." Journal of


Women and Religion 13(1995): 15-24.

Deals with a racial/ethnic concept of Asian American identity, in particular


its relationship to Asian identity. Part of a special issue: "Mapping a Pan-
Pacific Feminist Theology."

. ""Self and Asian American Women: An Exploration in Feminist Ethics."


Ph.D. Dissertation, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California, 2000.

Dissertation done under Clare Fischer.

Pao Tao, Chia-lin. "Yin- Yang Thought and the Status of Women." In Confucian-
Christian Encounters in Historical andContemporary Perspective, 3 14-338.
Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

Paper, Jordan. The Spirits are Drunk: Comparative Approaches to Chinese Religion.
Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Looks at Chinese religion as a complex, but singular construct which has


its beginnings up to the present. The
been the basis of Chinese culture from
book focuses on the development and role of ecstatic religious experience as
well as the importance of the feminine in religious perceptions.

Park, Soon-Kyung. "The Unification of Korea and the Task of Feminist Theology."
In God's Image (June, 1988): 17-23.

Park, Sun-Ai. "Asian Women in Mission." International Review of Mission 81


(1992): 265-280.

. "A Theological Reflection [on Peace, Unification and Women]." In We Dare


to Dream: Doing Theology as Asian Women, 72-82. Edited by Virginia

Fabella and Sun-Ai Park. Hong Kong: Asian Women's Resource Center for
Culture and Theology, 1989.
258

Perera, L.P.N. "Sexuality and Women in Buddhism." Dialogue 19-20(1992-1993):


1-23.

One of several articles on the place of women in Buddhism.

Peterson, Mark. "Women without Sons: A Measure of Social Change in Yi Dynasty


Korea." In Korean Women: View from the Inner Room. Edited by Laurel
Kendall and Mark Peterson. New Haven: East Rock Press, 1983.

Pieris, Aloysius, S.J. "Women and Religion in Asia: Towards a Buddhist and
Christian Appropriation of the Feminist Critique." Dialogue 19-20 (1992-
1993): 119-203.

One of several articles on the place of women in Buddhism.

Pieris is a well-known theologian from Sri Lanka, with a doctorate in


Buddhist studies.

Powers, John, and Curtin, Deane. "Mothering: Moral Cultivation in Buddhist and
Feminist Ethics." Philosophy East and West 44 (1994): 1-18.

Raphals, Lisa. Sharing the Light: Representations of Women and Virtue in Early
China. Albany: SUNY Press, 1998.

Riyo, Rise, ed. Asian, Woman, and the Body. Cambridge MA: Asian and Asian
American Women in Ministry and Theology, 1994.

Robinson, Gnana. "Theologische Traditionen und gesellschaftliche Hintergrunde des


Chung Hyung [sic] Kyun [sic] auf der 7. ORK-
Beitrages von Frau Prof Dr.
Vollversammlung." Berliner Theologische Zeitschrift 9 (1993): 94-104.

Discusses the theological tradition and folk background of Chung Hyun


Kyung's controversial prayer service which Korean Han spirits were
in
invoked at the World Council of Churches Seventh General Assembly at
Canberra in 1991.

Russell, Letty M. "Minjung Theology in Women's Perspective." In An Emerging


Theology in World Perspective: Commentary on Korean Minjung Theology,
75-98. Edited by Jung Young Lee. Mystic CT: Twenty-third Publications,
1988.

One of several reflections on minjung theology by various theologians from


around the world.
259

Sered, Susan. "De-Gendering Religious Leadership: Sociological Discourse in an


Okinawan Village." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 66
(3/1998): 589-611.

Looks on the subject of


sociologically, using conversations with villagers
religious leadership and activism, at Okinawa
documented society in
as a
which women exercise dominance in leadership in a mainstream, official, and
publicly funded religion which is practiced by both men and women.

Sered is Associate Professor of Anthropology at Bar Ilan University, Ramat


Gan, Israel.

Shaw, Miranda. Passionate Enlightenment: Women in Tantric Buddhism. Princeton


NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Soh, Chung Hee. "Korean Women in Politics (1 945-1 985): A Study of the Dynamics
of Gender Role Change." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1987.

Sohn, Eun Ha. "New Mission Strategies forUrban Industrial Mission Focused on
Korean Women Minjung." D.Min. Dissertation. San Francisco Theological
Seminary, 1993.

Abstract: This dissertation presents new mission strategies for the urban
industrial mission focused on Korean women minjung (grass-root people)
who struggle to survive in a harsh economic and political reality. The
characteristics of the mission strategies are examined in the writer's work
with the Christian women minjung movement and in her parish work with
them. The new mission strategies the writer presents are those that can help
women minjung become the subjects of their own lives. They will also
contribute to the transformation of theology , church, and society. As a whole,
the dissertation offers various resources for the ministry for and with
minjung.

Dissertation done under Kim Yong-Bock.

Son, Dug-Soo and Lee, Mi-Kyung. My Mother's Name is Worry: A Preliminary


Report of the Study on Poor Women in Korea. Seoul: Christian Institute for

the Study of Justice and Development, 1983.

Song, Young I., and Moon, Ailee, eds. Korean American Women: From Tradition
to Modern Feminism. Westport CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.
260

Song is Professor in the Department of Sociology and Social Services at


California State University, Hay ward, and Moon is Associate Professor in the
Department of Social Welfare in the School of Public Policy at UCLA.

Sun, Soon-Hwa. Women, Religion, and Power: A Comparative Study of Korean


Shamans and Women Ministers. Madison NJ: Drew University, 1991.

Talbot, Rosemary. "What Do Korean Women Feminist Theologians Have to Offer


Towards An Ecumenical Pakeha Women's Feminist Theology in Aotearoa?
Asia Journal of Theology 7 (1993): 103-1 13.

Tsomo, Karma Lekshe, ed. Buddhist Women Across Cultures: Realizations.


Albany: SUNY Press, 1999.

Variety of essays on dimensions of the cross-cultural Buddhist women's


movement.

Wang, Zheng. Women in the Chinese Enlightenment. Oral and Textual Histories.
Berkeley: University of California Press 1999.

Winter, Sandra Lee. "An Unsung Lament: The Suffering of Korean Women Taken
for Military Sexual Slavery During World War II." Doctoral dissertation.,
San Francisco Theological Seminary, 1996.

Woman's Concerns Unit, Christian Conference of Asia, ed. Reading the Bible as
Asian Women. Singapore: Christian Conference of Asia, 1986.

Wong, Aline K. "Women in China: Past and Present." In Many Sisters: Women in
Cross-Cultural Perspective. Edited by Carolyn J. Matthaisson. New York:
The Free Press, 1974.

Yoo, Cheun Ja. "The Reunification of Korea and Feminist Theology." In God's
Image (June, 1988): 49-51.

Yu, Eui- Young, andPhillips, Earl H., eds. Korean Women in Transition, At Home
and Abroad. Los Angeles: California State University Center for Korean-
American and Korean Studies, 1987.
261

SELECTED COUNTRIES OF EAST ASIA


CHINA

China and Christianity

Jesuit Approach to Evangelization in China

Adams, Daniel J. "Matteo Ricci and the New China." Ching Feng 23 (1980): 93-
101.

Barry, Peter, M.M. "The Chinese Rites Controversy." Tripod \2 (l9S2y. 140-151.

Beonio— Berocchieri, Paolo. "Propero Intorcetta." In Scienziati siciliani gesuiti in


China nel secolo XVII: Atti del convegno celebratvio, 171-182. Edited by
Alcide Luini. Roma: Istituto Italo Cinese per gli Scambi Economic! e
Culturali, 1985.

Discusses the various publications of Confucian works translated by


Intorcetta.

Bernard, Henri, S.J. AuxPortes de la Chine: Les Missionaries du Seizieme Siecle—


1514-1588. Tientsin: Hautes Etudes, 1933.

. Matteo Ricci's Scientific Contribution to China. Peiping: Henri Vetch, 1935.

. Le Pere Matthieu Ricci et la Societe Chinoise de Son Temps. 1 vols.


Tientsin: Hautes Etudes, 1937.

Bernard, Miguel A., S.J. Five Great Missionary Experiments and Cultural Issues in
Asia. Cardinal Bea Studies, 1 1 . Manila: Cardinal Bea Institute for
Ecumenical Studies, 1991.

Discusses Matteo Ricci, Bento de Goes (a contemporary of Ricci who


worked in India and China), Roberto de Nobili, and the 1 9th century mission
of Tamontaca, near Cotabato (Philippines), which was based in part on the
model of the Paraguay Reductions. Little new for the expert, but does
include a 34 page bibliographical essay.

Bertuccioli, Giuliano. "Ludovico Buglio." In Scienziati siciliani gesuiti in China nel


secolo XVII: Atti del convegno celebratvio, 121-146. Edited by Alcide Luini.
Roma: Istituto Italo Cinese per gli Scambi Economic! e Culturali, 1985.
.

262

Bottazzi, Emilio. "Francesco Brancati e la questione dei riti cinesi." In Scienziati


siciliani gesuiti in China nel secolo XVII: Atti del convegno celebratvio, 59-
70. Edited by Alcide Luini. Roma: Istituto Italo Cinese per gli Scambi
Economic! e Culturali, 1985.

Am I]: A Jesuit Reflection on the Catholic


Bretzke, James T., S.J. ''Moi Aussi [So
Church China Today." In With Faith We Can Move Mountains, 65-74.
in

Edited by Judith A. Berling. Berkeley: Asia Pacific Bridges/Graduate


Theological Union, 1996.

Reflection on participation on the GTU(Graduate Theological Union) Asia


Bridges Consultation held in China in October, 1995 which visited several
Protestant and Catholic seminaries throughout the Peoples' Republic of
China.

Bretzke served as a missionary in Korea, teaching at Sogang University in


Seoul, before doing his doctorate in moral theology at the Pontifical
Gregorian University in Rome, at which institution he taught for three years
before joining the faculty of the Jesuit School of Theology/Graduate
Theological Union in Berkeley, California.

Capizzi, Carmelo. "Per una biografica scientifica di Prospero Intorcetta." In


China nel secolo XVII: Atti del convegno
Scienziati siciliani gesuiti in
celebratvio, 197-217. Edited by Alcide Luini. Roma: Istituto Italo Cinese
per gli Scambi Economici e Culturali, 1985.

Caraman, Philip, S.J. Tibet: The Jesuit Century. St. Louis: The Institute for Jesuit
Sources, 1997.

Describes five missionary journeys made by Jesuit explorers, including


Ippolito Desidere to Tibet between 1624 and 1721

Cary-Elwes, Colomba, O.S.B. China and the Cross: A Survey of Missionary


History. New York: P.J. Kennedy and Sons, 1956.

Chan, Albert, S.J. Review of China and the Christian Impact by Jacques Gemet.
The Month 19 (September, 1986): 243-244.

Chen, Minsun. "The Confrontation of Mythhistories in Seventeenth-Century Sino-


Westem Contacts." Tripod 1 8 (March-April 1 998): 39-46.

Deals largely with Matteo Ricci.


263

Originally appeared in the Proceedings of the 33"' International Congress of


Asian and North African Studies (IC AN AS, Toronto, 1 990), and also is found
in Vol. 4 Eastern Asia: History and Social Sciences, 293-297. Lewiston:
Edwin Mellen Press.

Ching, Review of China and the Christian Impact by Jacques Gemet. History
Julia.

ofReligions 27 (1987): 99-101.

Ching was bom in Shanghai, was a Roman Catholic nun for several years,
and is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Toronto.

Chu, Michele [Michael], S.J. "Ricordando Zi-Ka-Wei." In Scienziati siciliani


gesuiti in China nel secolo XVII: convegno celebratvio, 119-120.
Atti del
Edited by Alcide Luini. Roma: Istituto Italo Cinese per gli Scambi
Economici e Culturali, 1985.

Colombel, Auguste M., S.J. Histoire de la mission du Kiangnan. 6 vols. Shanghai:


Mission Catholique, 1895-1905.

von Collani, Claudia. "Kilian Stumpf S.J. zur Lage der Chinamission im Jahre
1708." Neue Zeitschrift fur Missionswissenschaft 51 (1995): 117-44; 175-
209.

Corradini, Pietro. "La figura e I'opera di Nicolo Longobardo." In Scienziati siciliani


gesuiti in China nel secolo XVII: Atti del convegno celebratvio, 73-81.
Edited by Alcide Luini. Roma: Istituto Italo Cinese per gli Scambi
Economici e Culturali, 1985.

Criveller, Gianni, P.I.M.E. "Christ in Late Ming China." Tripod 18 (March- April
1998): 13-37.

. Preaching Christ in Late Ming China: The Jesuits ' Presentation of Christ
from Matteo Ricci to Giulio Aleni. Varietes Sinologiques, New Series 86.
Taipei: Ricci Institute for Chinese Studies, 1997.

Reviewed by Michael J. Sloboda, M.M. in Tripod \% (May-June 1998): 65-


68. Also discussed by Wang, Zhicheng, and Wang, Guicai in their
"Inculturation and Its Constraints." Tripod 19 (May-June 1999): 30-39.

Cronin, Vincent. The Wise Man from the West. London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1955.
264

D'Elia, Pascal M., S.J. Fonti Ricciane: Storia dell'Introduzione del Cristanesimo in
CinaScrittadaMatteoRicci, S.I. 3 vols. Rome: Libreriadello Stato, 1942-1949.

. Les Missions Catholiques en Chine. Shanghai: Imprimerie de T'ou-Se-We


Press, 1934.

Ducomet, Etienne. Matteo Ricci: Le Lettre D'Occident. Paris: Editions du Cerf,


1992.

Popular biography of Matteo Ricci.

Dunne, George H., S.J. Generation of Giants: The Story of the Jesuits in China in
the last Decades of the Ming Dynasty. Notre Dame: University of Notre
Dame Press, 1962.

Dunne lived from 1905 to 1998.

Fleming, Peter J., S.J. Chosen For China: The California Province Jesuits in China,
1928-1957: a Case Study in Mission and Culture. Ann Arbor MI: University
Microfilms Intemational, 1987.

Fleming's dissertation done at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley,


California. Fleming also served as a missionary in Korea, and taught at

Sogang University in Seoul.

Gemet, Jacques. China and the Christian Impact: A Conflict ofCultures. Translated
by Janet Lloyd. Cambridge, London, New York, New Rochelle, Melbourne
and Sydney: Cambridge University Press, and Paris: Editions de la Maison
des Sciences de THomme, 1982 and 1985.

Rather critical of the Jesuit approach to mission in China.

Harris, George, S.J. "The Mission of Matteo Ricci: A Case Study of an Effort at

Guided Cultural Change in the Sixteenth Century." Monumenta Serica 25


(1966): 1-168.

Hermand, Louis, S.J. Les etapes de la mission du Kiang-nan, 1842--1922 et de la


mission de Nanking, 1922—1932. Zicawei: Jesuites-Province de France,
1933.

Hilbert, Eloise Talcott. Jesuit Adventure in China: During the Reign ofK'angHsi.
New York: E.P. Dutton and Company, 1941.
265

Hoffmann-Herreros, Johann. Matteo Ricci: Den Chinesen Chinese sein—ein


Missionar sucht neue Wege. ToposTaschenbucher,202. Mainz: Griinewald,
1990.

Biography of Matteo Ricci.

International Symposium on Chinese-Western Cultural Interchange in


Commemoration ofthe 400th Anniversary ofthe Arrival ofMatteo Ricci, S.J.

in China. Taipei, 1983.

Jeanne, Pierre. "Ricci: Precursor of Inter-Cultural Exchange." Tripod 12 (1982):


122-136.

Krahl, Joseph, S.J. China Missions in Crisis: Bishop Laimbeckhoven and His Times,
I738--I787. Rome: Gregorian University Press, 1964.

La Serviere, J. de, S.J. Histoire de la mission de Kiangan: Jesuits de la province de


France (Paris) (1840— 1899). 2 vols. Shanghai: Catholic Mission Press,
preface dated 1914.

Latourette, Kenneth Scott. A History of Christian Missions in China. New York:


Macmillan; and London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1 929.

Lee, Ding-Hok. "The Influence of Matteo Ricci's Missionary Efforts on Successive


Generations: A Summary." Tripod 12 (1982): 137-139.

Livesey, Frank. "The Jesuit Mission in East Asia: Vision or Mirage?" Inter-Religio
27 (Summer 1995): 2-14.

Longobardo, Nicolo, S.J. "Carmen Hexametrum in Honorem B.M.V." InScienziati


siciliani gesuiti in China nel secoloXVII: Atti del convegno celebratvio, 253-
257. Edited by Alcide Luini. Roma: Istituto Italo Cinese per gli Scambi
Economici e Culturali, 1985.

. Longobardo al P. Giuseppe Grillo." In Scienziati siciliani


"Letter di P. Nicolo
China nel secolo XVII: Atti del convegno celebratvio, 259-262.
gesuiti in
Edited by Alcide Luini. Roma: Istituto Italo Cinese per gli Scambi
Economici e Culturali, 1985.

Luini, Alcide, ed. Scienziati siciliani gesuiti in China nel secolo XVII: Atti del
convegno celebratvio. Sicily: 26-29 October 1983. Roma: Istituto Italo

Cinese per gli Scambi Economici e Culturali, 1985.


266

Malatesta, Edward J., S.J. "The Society of Jesus and China: A


Historical-Theological Essay." Discovery: Jesuit International Ministries 7
(June 1997).

Divides and treats the history of Jesuit missions in China into three periods:
1552-1722; 1723-1775; and 1842-1949.

Malatesta was Director of the Ricci Institute at the University of San


Francisco until his death in Hong Kong in 1997.

Martinson, Barry, S.J. Celestial Dragon: A Life and Selected Writings ofFr. Francis
Rouleau. Taipei: Taipei Ricci Institute for Chinese Studies, 1998.

Treats the experiences of Fr. Francis Rouleau who served in China between
1929 and 1956.

Masson, Michel, S.J. "Les jesuites en Chine aujourd'hui." Etudes 373 (Decembre
1990): 667-677.

A glance backward at the presence of the Jesuits in China from 1949 to the
present, current placement and apostolates, plus a socio-demographic
description of the Jesuits connected with China today, as well as a look ahead
towards the future.

Melis, Giorgio. "L'eredita di Matteo Ricci. Problematica politica e culturale." In


Scienziati siciliani gesuiti in China nel secolo XVII: Atti del convegno
celebratvio, 5-23. Edited by Alcide Luini. Roma: Istituto Italo Cinese per gli
Scambi Economici e Culturali, 1985.

Minamiki, George, S.J. The Chinese Rites Controversy From Its Beginning to
Modern Times. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1985.

Mungello, David E. Curious Land: Jesuit Accommodation and the Origins of


Sinology. StudiaLeibnitianaSupplementa, vol. 25. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner
Verlag- Wiesbaden GMBH, 1985.

. "The Reconciliation of Neo-Confucianism with Christianity in the writings of


Joseph de Premare, S.J." Philosophy East and West 26 (1976): 389-410.

Mungello, D. E., ed. The Chinese Rites Controversy: Its History and Meaning.
Monumenta Serica Monograph Series, vol 33. Sankt Augustin: Institut
Monumenta Serica, 1 994; San Francisco: Ricci Institute for Chinese-Western
Cultural History, 1994.
267

Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Chinese Rites


Controversy sponsored by the Ricci Institute for Chinese- Western Cultural
History of the University of San Francisco on October 16-18, 1992.

Raguin, Yves, S.J. "Un exemple d'inculturation: Matteo Ricci." Lumen Vitae 39
(1984): 261-277.

Raguin was a French Jesuit missionary in Taiwan who lived froml912 to


1998.

Ricci, Matteo, S.J. and Trigault, Nicolas, S.J. Entrata nella China de'Padri della
Compagnia del Gesii (1582-1610). Translated into Italian by Antonio
Sozzini (1622). Introduction by Joseph Shih, S.J. and Carlo Laurenti.
Milano:Paoline, 1983.

Ricci, Matteo, S.J. China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals ofMatthew Ricci:
1583-161 0. Translated from the Latin by Louis J. Gallagher, S.J. New York:
Random House, 1942, 1953.

. Histoire de VExpedition Chretienne au Royaume de la Chine, 1582-1610.


Paris: Desclee de Brouwer, 1978.

. The True Meaning of the Lord ofHeaven (T'ien-chu Shih-i). Translated, with
Introduction and Notes, by Douglas Lancashire and Peter Hu Kuo-chen, S.J.
Chinese-English Edition edited by Edward J. Malatesta, S.J. Jesuit Primary
Sources, in English Translation. St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit Soiu"ces, 1985.

Ronan, Charles E., S.J. and Oh, Bonnie B.C., eds. East Meets West: The Jesuits in
China, 1582-1773. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1988.

Essays from the East Meets West Symposium held at Loyola University in
1982 to mark the 400th anniversary of Ricci's arrival in China.

Ross, Andrew C. A Vision Betrayed: The Jesuits in Japan and China 1542-1742.
MaryknoU: Orbis Press, 1994.

Historical look at the issues of inculturation in China and Japan.

Rowbotham, Arnold H. Missionary and Mandarin: The Jesuits at the Court of


China. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1942.

Rule, Paul A. "Jesuit and Confucian? Chinese Religion in the Journals of Matteo
Ricci, S.J'' Journal of Religious History! {l96Sy. 105-124.
268

. K'ung-Tzu of Confucius?: The Jesuit Interpretation of Confucianism.


Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1986.

Schurhammer, Georg, S.J. Francis Xavier, His Life, His Times: Vol. 4: Japan and
China (1549-1552). Translated by M. Joseph Costelloe, S.J. Rome: Jesuit
Historical Institute, 1982.

Sebes, Jozsef S., S.J. "A Comparative Study of Religious Missions in Three
Civilisations: India, China and Japan." Actes du IIP Colloque International
de Sinologie. Centre de Rescherches interdisciplinaire de Chantilly (CERIC)
11-14 septembre 1980. 271 -290.

. The Jesuits and the Sino—Russian Treaty ofNerchinsk (1689): The Diary of
Thomas Pereira, S.J. Rome: Institutum Historicum S.I., 1961.

. "Father Matteo Ricci: An Intellectual Biography." East Asian Studies 3


(December, 1983): 83-102.

. "La strategia missionaria della Compagnia di Gesu in Estremo Oriente nel sec.
XVII." In Scienziati siciliani gesuiti in China nel secolo XVII: Atti del
convegno celebratvio, 83-102. Edited by Alcide Luini. Roma: Istituto Italo
Cinese per gli Scambi Economici e Culturali, 1985.

Shih, Joseph, S.J. "Matteo Ricci, mediateur entre I'Occident et la Chine." Lumen
F/Yae 39 (1984): 279-290.

Shih was professor of Chinese religions for many years in the faculty of
missiology of the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome.

Sinatra, Francesco. "Formazione culturale di P. Nicolo Longobardo scienziato e


sinologo." China nel secolo XVII: Atti del
In Scienziati siciliani gesuiti in
convegno celebratvio, 103-116. Edited by Alcide Luini. Roma: Istituto Italo
Cinese per gli Scambi Economici e Culturali, 1985.

. "P. Girolamo Gravina, S.J., missionario in Cina." In Scienziati siciliani


China nel secolo XVII: Atti del convegno celebratvio, 117-118.
gesuiti in
Edited by Alcide Luini. Roma: Istituto Italo Cinese per gli Scambi
Economici e Culturali, 1985.

Song, Young-bae. "Conflict and Dialogue between Confucianism and


Christianity-An Analysis of the Tianzhu shiyi [True Meaning of the Lord of
Heaven] by Matteo Ricci." Korea Journal 39 (Spring 1999): 5-20.
9

269

One of several articles in this issue on the theme "Defining Korean


Philosophy in the 20"" Century."

Spalatin, Christopher A., S.J. Matteo Ricci's Use of Epictetus. Excerpta ex


dissertatione ad Doctoratum in Facultate Theologiae Pontificiae Universitatis
Gregorianae. Waegwan: 1975.

Spalatin is professor of philosophy at Sogang University in Seoul, Korea.

. "Matteo Ricci's Use of Epictetus' Encheiridion." Gregorianum 56 (1975):


551-557.

. "Matteo Ricci's Understanding of the Natural Law in Confucianism." East


Asian Studies 3 (December, 1983): 50-74.

Spence, Jonathan D. The Memory Palace ofMatteo Ricci. New York: Penguin, 1 984.

. The Question ofHu. New York: Vintage Books, 1989.

A novel which treats the story of John Hu, a poor but devout Chinese
Catholic who in 1722 accompanies a Jesuit missionary on a journey to
France. The journey ends with Hu's confinement in a lunatic asylum. The
novel treats issues of cross-cultural conflict, especially in divergent
understandings of faith and moral obligation.

Standaert, Nicholas, S.J. "La Reception des idees de Ricci en Chine." Lumen Vitae
39 (1984): 291-304.

Trigault, Nicolas, S.J. see Matteo Ricci.

Wang, Zhicheng, and Wang, Guicai. "Inculturation and Its Constraints." Tripod 1

(May-June 1999): 30-39.

Reflections based on Gianni Criveller's Preaching Christ in Late Ming


China: The Jesuits Present of Christ from Matteo Ricci to Giulio Aleni.
'

Witek, John, S.J. "La missionar jesuite fran9ise en Chine au XVIP siecle." Christus
161 (Janvier 1994): 112-120.

Witek teaches history of the Far East at Georgetown University.

Wong, Timothy Man Kong. "Matteo Ricci's Mission to Chinese Buddhism." Ching
Fe«^33 (1990): 205-231.
270

Young, John D. "Comparing the Approaches of the Jesuit and Protestant


Missionaries in China. " Ching Feng 22(1979): 107-115.

East-West Synthesis: Matteo Ricci and Confucianism. Hong Kong: Hong


Kong University Press, 1 980.

Zurcher, Erik, Standaert, Nicholas, and Dudnik, Adrianus, eds. Bibliography of the
Jesuit Mission in China, ca. 1580-ca. 1680. CNWS Publications, 5. Leiden:
Centre of Non- Western Studies, Leiden University, 1991.

Bibliography of about one thousand scholarly books and articles in the major
Western languages on the early (seventeenth century) Jesuit mission in China.

Other Works on China and Roman Catholicism

Anonymous ("A Chinese Pilgrim"). "The Gospel with Chinese Characteristics."


Tripod 16 (September-October 1996): 22-33.

The Asian Synod, China Highlights. Tripod 18 (May- June 1998): 25-50.

Series of talks, addresses, and letters relating to the Asian Synod of Bishops
held at the Vatican in 1997.

Bauer, Thomas E., M.M. The Systematic Destruction of the Catholic Church in
China. New York: Macmillan, 1955.

Breslin, Thomas A. China, American Catholicism, and the Missionary. University


Park and London: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1980.

Originally prepared as a dissertation.

Bromley-Martin, Ceciha. "A Chill Wind for China's Believers." The Tablet (31
July 1999): 1040-1041.

In the wake of the Chinese government crackdown on the Falun Gong this

article gives a brief overview of similar problems faced by Catholics in


China, including Hong Kong
271

Camps, Amulf. The Friars Minor in China (1294-1955), especially the years 1925-
55, based on the research of Friars Bernward Wlileke and Domenico
Gandolfi, OFM. St. Bonaventure NY: Franciscan Institute, 1995.

Chan, Kim-Kwong. Towards a Contextual Ecclesiology: The Catholic Church in

the People's Republic of China (1979-1983): Its Life and Theological


Implications. Hong Kong: Phototech System, 1987.

Originally presented as the author's thesis (Th. D.) - St. Paul University,
Ottawa.

Chang, Anthony. "Key for Nomalization [sic] of Sino- Vatican Relations." Tripod
17 (January-February 1997):46-47.

Commentary on Pope John Paul IPs "Message of the Holy Father to the
Church in China," Tripod \1 (January— February 1997): 31-36. See several
commentaries on this message contained in the same number of Tripod.

Chang, Ch'un-Shen Aloysius Berchmans, S.3. "Can Mainland China's 'Official'


Church Still Be Called Catholic'?" Tripod 15 (March- April 1995): 34-46.
'

Criticizes the ecclesiology premises of the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Church.

Chang is former Provincial of the Society of Jesus in Taiwan and China.

. "The Chinese Catholic Church and Christ's Saving Grace." Tripod 18


(March- April 1998): 5-12.

. Dann sindHimmel und Mensch in Einheit: Bausteine chinesischer Theologie.


Theo logic der Dritten Welt, 5. Freiburg: Herder, 1984.

Reprint in translation of essays that originally appeared 1977-1982.

. "The Inculturation of Theology in the Chinese Church." Gregorianum 63


(1982): 5-59.

Abstract: The article, surveying the last twenty years of material limited to
literature published in Chinese by Catholics, is divided into three parts: 1)
The attempts at theological inculturation made by
the Chinese Church up to
the year 1976, in which the Chinese Bishops' Conference announced "The
building of the local church". 2) The present state of research since 1976 up
to the writing of this article. 3) The future tasks of theologians. A few
perspectives are indicated as orientations.
272

. "Notre responsabilite a Tegard de la Chine." Nouvelle Revue Theologique 1 14


(1992): 87-98.

. "On Being a Bridge Church." East Asian Pastoral Review 28 (1991): 34-47.

Discusses the situation vis-a-vis the Patriotic and underground Catholic


Churches on the Chinese mainland.

. "Pope John Paul II and the Unity of the Catholic Church in China." Tripod
17 (May-June 1997): 28-39.

Charbonnier, Jean, M.E.P. Guide to the Catholic Church in China. Singapore: China
Catholic Communication, 1986.

. "The Underground Church." In The Catholic Church in Modern China:


Perspectives,52-70. Edited by Edmund Tang and Jean-Paul Wiest.
Maryknoll: Orbis Press, 1993.

Carbonneau, Robert E., C.P. "The Chinese Catholic Church and the Quest for a
Reconciliation Narrative." Canon Law Society ofAmerica, Proceedings of
the Fifty-Ninth Annual Convention 59 (1997): 105-122.

Discusses the Chinese Catholic Church within the context of Chinese history
and argues that theknowledge or interpretation of the Church's experience
there has been shaped by two historical "narratives," namely the missionary
narrative, and a new China church narrative which dates from the 1 970s. The
article concludes with a discussion of the primary pastoral issue facing the
Church in China, namely "honest creative collaboration in order to foster a
reconciliation narrative for the Chinese Catholic Church." (P. 1 05)

"China Update: The Catholic Church In a New Era." National Jesuit News. May
1987, Special Supplement.

"A Chinese Pilgrim." See Anonymous.

Chu, Michael, S.J., ed. The New China: A Catholic Response. New York: Paulist
Press, 1977.

Chu, Michael, S.J. "China and the Christian Church Tomorrow." Studies in the

International Apostolate ofJesuits 4 (December, 1975): 111-127.

Cummins, Most Rev. John S. "The Church in China: Three Pastoral Concerns."
America 177 (19-26 July 1997): 18-19.
273

Reports on a meeting held in December 1996 in San Francisco and attended


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Shih was professor of Chinese religions for many years in the faculty of
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Entire issue dedicated to Shijiang's monograph. Shijiang is the director of


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7

278

government's religious policy. What the government is concerned about is

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279

China and Protestantism

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China 1860-1900. London, Seeker and Warburg, 1972.

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Choa, G.H. "Heal the Sick" Was Their Motto: The Protestant Medical Missionaries
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Hong Kong. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Hakka 903 in order to found Shung Him Tong,


Protestants left China after 1

in Hong Kong's New Territories. The


an ideal Chinese Christian village,
Hakka were both religious and ethnic minorities and they provide an
intriguing study of village life. The new Hakka identity formed was greatly
influenced by the Orthodox, pious nineteenth-century Reformed missionaries
from the Swiss Basel Evangelical Missionary Society which started work
among the Hakka in 1 847.

Coulson, Gail V., with Christopher Lerlinger and Camille S. Anders. The Enduring
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Fairbank, John K., ed. The Missionary Enterprise in China and America.
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.

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A revised biography of the American Presbyterian medical missionary active


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Ting is a Protestant Chinese bishop whose writings gathered here reflect his
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Originally a doctoral thesis done at Princeton Theological Seminary in 1984.

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Overview of the development of theology within Chinese Protestantism


between 1949-1984.

Woodfin, Glerm Robert. "The Protestant Church in China and the Three-Self
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Xi, Lian. The Conversion of Missionaries: Liberalism in American Protestant


Missions in China, 1907-1932. University Park: Peimsylvania State
University Press, 1997.

Discusses how China's culture and national awakening changed American


missionaries and helped to shape the formation of early twentieth century
liberal Protestantism. In the first of two parts, Xi uses the personal writings
and publications of Dr. Edward Hume, President of Yale-in-China, Frank J.

Rawlinson, editor of the China Recorder and novelist Pearl Buck to illustrate

the conversion experience of three former missionaries, and in the second


part Xi deals with the background from which the three developed. (The
following is abstracted from an extensive review by Christine Zaccarini
ZACC4@AOL.Com which was posted to the H-NET BOOK REVIEW,
published by H-USA@h-net.msu.edu in July, 1997).

Xi is Assistant Professor of history at Hanover College, Indiana, and former


Fujian Normal University instructor.
Young, John D. "Comparing the Approaches of the Jesuit and Protestant
Missionaries in China." Ching Feng 22 (1979): 107-1 15.

Other Works on China and Christianity

Barry, Peter, M.M. "The Hakka Mission: Yesterday and Today." Tripod 18
(September-October 1998): 41-48.

Bays, Daniel H., ed. Christianity in China, From the Eighteenth Century to the
Present. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.

Bays, Daniel H. "Ethical dissent and social alienation: Chinese Christians in the
nineteenth century." Prepared for the ACLS-NEH Sponsored Conference on
"Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy in Late Imperial China : Cultural Beliefs and
Social Divisions, Montecito, California, August 20-26, 1981.

Beaubien, Irenee, S.J. "Les religions en Chine aujourd'hui." Lumen Vitae 39 (1984):
324-332.

Berling., Judith A., ed. With Faith We Can Move Mountains. Berkeley: Asia Pacific
Bridges/Graduate Theological Union, 1 996.

Reflection on participation on the GTU(Graduate Theological Union) Asia


Bridges Consultation held in China in October, 1995 which visited several
Protestant and Catholic seminaries throughout the Peoples' Republic of
China.

Bergeron, Marie-Ina. Le Christianisme en Chine: approches et strategies. Lyon:


Chalet, 1977.

Brown, G. Thompson. Christianity in the Peoples' Republic of China. Rev. ed.


Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1986.

Bundy, David D. "Missiological Reflections on Nestorian Christianity in China


during the Tang Dynasty." In Religion in the Pacific Era, 14-30. Edited by
Frank K. Flinn and Tyler Hendricks. New York: Paragon Publishers, 1985.

Cary-Elwes, Colomba, O.S.B. China and the Cross. New York: P.J. Kenedy &
Sons, 1957.
284

Chan, Shun-Hing. "The Social Construction of Charismatic Sect: The Case of


Shepherd Community Church in Hong Kong." ChmgFeng39 (March 1 996):
28-69.

Chao, Samuel H. "The Chinese Church and Theology: A Discussion." East Asia
Journal of Theology 2 i\9S4): 82-93.

The lack of an authentic Chinese theology ( 1 9 1 0- 1 950) as pointed out by T.C.


Chao.

Charbonnier, Jean, M.E.P. "Chinese Christianity outside China." Concilium 126


(1979): 104-110.

. "The Reinterpretation of Western Christianity in terms of China Past and


Present." Concilium 126 (1979): 52-64.

Chen, Daniel C.S. "The Notion of Soul in Chinese Folk Religions and Christian
Witness." Asia Journal of Theology 11 (1997): 72-86.

Chen, Zemin. "Christ and Culture in China: A Sino-American Dialogue." Chinese


Theological Review 8 (1993): 63-91.

Discusses the attempts at contextualization and inculturation made in China


since the first efforts at evangelization.

. "Inculturation of the Gospel and Hymn Singing in China." Chinese


Theological Review W (2/1997): 85-100.

. "Modernization's Challenge to Chinese Christianity." In Christianity &


Modernization: A Chinese Debate, 23-31. Edited by Philip L. Wickeri and
Lois Cole. Hong Kong: DAGA Press, 1995.

Ching, Julia. "The Challenge of Chinese Religion (Taoism)." Concilium 183


(1986):84-89.

Ching was bom in Shanghai, was a Roman Catholic nun for several years,
and is Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Toronto.

. "The Chinese Religious Sense." Conciliutn 126 (1979): 19-25.

. "Ethical Encounter: Chinese and Christian." Concilium 150 (1981): 30-35.


285

. "What Future does Religion have in China?" Studies in Interreligious


Dialogue 3 (1993): 12-27,

. "Why Did God Make Me?: An Asian Answer." Concilium 108 (1978): 91-
94.

Clasper, Paul. "Christian Faith, Asian Wisdom Traditions and the Newly Emerging
Paradigm Shift." Ching Feng 26 (\9S3y. 195-207.

. "Christian Spirituality and the Chinese Context." Ching Feng 20 (1 , 1 977): 2-


17.

Cohen, Paul A. China and Christianity: The Missionary Movement and the Growth
of Chinese Antiforeignism, 1860—1870. Cambridge: Harvard University
Press, 1963.

Constable, Nicole. "The Negotiation of Chinese Culture in the Life of a Hakka


Christian Man." Ching Feng 39 (March 1996): 25-47.

Darcourt, Pierre. Requiem pour I'Eglise de Chine. L'Ordre du jour. Paris: La Table
ronde, 1969.

DeGroot, J.J.M. Sectarianism and Religious Persecution in Chxn'a.. Taipei: Ch'eng


Wen Publishing Company, 1970.

Digan, Parig. "Centres of Research on the Encounter between Christianity and


China." Concilium 126 (1979): 115-117.

Ding, Guangxim. "Evangelism as a Chinese Christian Sees It." Missiology: An


International Review 11 (July, 1983): 310-11.

. "Religious Policy and Theological Reorientation in China." China Notes 18


(Summer, 1980): 121-124.

. "Retrospect and Prospect." International Review ofMission 70 (April, 1981):


30.

Documents of the Three-SelfMovement (DTSM): Source Materials for the Study of


the Protestant Church in Communist China. New York: 1963.

The Three-Self Movement refers to the principles adopted by most of the


Protestant denominations in China which call for 1 ) Self-government, 2) Self-
financing; and 3) Self-evangelization. These principles were designed to
286

assure autonomy and independence from control and undue influence of


foreign missionaries and non-Chinese churches. Acceptance of the Three -

Self Movement has been key to the ability of the Protestant churches to
function with relative freedom in the Peoples' Republic of China, especially
in the period following the Culmral Revolution.

Duteil, Jean-Pierre. "L'evangelisation et les femmes en Chine au XVIF siecle:

L'adaptation et ses limites." Melanges de Science Religieuse 51 (Juillet-


Septembre 1984): 239-53.

Elwood, Douglas J. "Christian Theology in an Asian Setting: The Gospel and


Chinese Intellectual Culture." In Christianity and the Religions of the East:
Models for a Dynamic Relationship, 123-138. Edited by Richard W.
Rousseau. S.J. Scranton: Ridge Row, Press, 1982.

England. John C. "Recent Theological Reflections in the Churches of China, 1975-


1982: An Annotated Listing of Materials." Ching Feng 26 (1983): 35-47.

Annotated theological bibliography for this period.

Pang, Mark, S.3. "How the Chinese Read the Bible." Tripod 35 (1985)-. 37-47.
(trans, by Lucy Yau).

. "Sensus Flenior in Holy Scripture and in the Chinese Classics." In Bible and
Incultiiration. Inculturation: Working Papers on Living Faith and Cultures,
no. 3, 93-125. Edited by Ary A. Roest Crollius, S.J. Rome: Centre "Cultures
and ReUgions" - Pontifical Gregorian University, 1983.

Farley, Margaret A.. R.S.M. "A New Form of Communion: Feminism and the
Chinese Church." America 23 February 1991: 199-204.

A report on the author's ecumenical group trip of women theologians to


China in 1990.

Farley teaches Christian ethics at Yale University, and is past-president of


both the Societ}' of Christian Ethics and the Catholic Theological Societ}' of
America.

Feng, Shang-li. "The Contours of a Chinese Theology." Ching Feng 13 (1, 1970):
13-16.

. "The Chinese Church and Chinese Culture." Ching Feng 1 1 (1968): 5-19.
287

Geffre, Claude, O.P. "Theology in the Age of China: Evangelization and Culture."
Concilium 126 (1979): 75-87.

Gliier, Winfried. "Salvation Today—Chinese Interpretations." ChingFeng 16(1 973):


33-46.

Gray, G.F.S. Anglicans in China: A History of the Zhenghua Shenggong Hui


(Chung Hwa Sheng Kiing Huei). Cincinnati, 1 996.

Chung Hwa Sheng Kung Huei is "Chinese Holy Catholic Church."

Gregson, Vernon, S.J. "Chinese Wisdom and Ignatian Discernment." Review for
Religious 33:4 (1974): 828-835.

Ho, Huang Po. "Globalization-A Challenge to the Church: A Case Study on


Migrant Worker and Church's Responsibility in Taiwan." Voices From The
Third Worldly (June 2000): 126-139.

Ho is Professor of Theology at the Tianan Theological Seminary in Taiwan.

Hunter, Alan, and Rimmington, Don, eds. All under Heaven: Chinese Tradition and
Christian Life in the People 's Republic of China. Kerk en theologie in
context, 17. Kampen: J.H. Kok, 1992.

A collection of papers originally presented at a conference on "Chinese


Tradition and Christian Life in the People's Republic of China" held at the
University of Leeds, March 29-31, 1990.

Kan, Baoping. "Theology in the Contemporary Chinese Context." Chinese


Theological Review \ I (2/1997): 112-124.

Kwan, Shui Man. "The Historical Writings on the Twentieth-Century Chinese


Christianity: Methodological Reconsideration." Ching FetJg 3S (September
1995): 187-212.

Kvvok, Pui-lan. Chinese Women and Christianity, 1860-1927. American Academy


of Religion Academy Series, 75. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992.

Review^ed by Nancy M. Victorin-Vangerud in Religious Studies Review 23


(July 1997): 319.

Kwok teaches at the Episcopal Divinity School in Cambridge, MA.


288

. "Chinese Non-Christian Perceptions of Christ." Concilium (2/1993): 24-32.

Article in an entire issue devoted to the theme of Christianity in Asia.

Kung, Lap Yan. "The Cuhural Dimension of Liberation Theology: The Case of Hong
Kong." ChingFeng 38 (September 1995): 213-26.

Lai, Whalen W. "Chinese Buddhist and Christian Charities: A Comparative


History." Buddhist-Christian Studies 12 (1992): 5-33.

Lai teaches at the University of California-Davis.

. "The First Chinese Christian Gospel: Liang A-Fa's 'Good Words to


Admonish the World'." Ching Feng 38 (June 1995): 83-105.

Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age: A History of


Christianity in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. 5 vols. New York:
Harper and Brothers, 1958-1962.

Lee, Agnes C.J. "Francis of Assisi and Chuang Tzu: A Comparative Study in
Religious Consciousness." Ching Feng 27 (1 984): 94-1 14.

Lee, Archie C.C. "The Chinese Creation Myth of Nu Kua and the Biblical Narrative
of Genesis 1-11." Theology & Sexuality 1 (1994): 312-324.

Lee is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Religion at the Chinese


University of Hong Kong.

. "The Recitation of the Past: A Cross-textual Reading of Ps. 78 and the Odes."
C/2mg Feng 39 (September 1996): 173-200.

. "Syncretism from the Perspectives of Chinese Religion and Biblical


Tradition." Ching Feng 1>9 (March 1996): 1-24.

Lee, Peter K.H. "A Christian Attitude Toward Traditional Chinese Culture: Response
to N.Z. Zia and Hu Chan-Yun." ChingFeng 17 (1974): 170-180.

Lee is the Director of the Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion &
Culture in Kowloon, Hong Kong.

. "Christianized Hsin-Hsing Spirituality." Ching Feng 27 (1984): 73-93.


289

. "An Interpretive Summary; 'Christianity and Chinese Humanism.'" Ching


Fe«g 17 (1974): 48-53.

. "Theology and Myth: a Reflection on the Lady Flying to the Moon and the
Archer Shooting down Nine Suns." Ching Feng 28 (1985): 8-29.

Lee, S. "Christ and Chinese Cultural Heritage." Ching Feng 10 (1967): 6-19.

Li, Pingye. "The Attitude of Contemporary Chinese Intellectuals Towards


Christianity." Translated by Philip L. Wickeri in Christianity &
Modernization: A Chinese Debate, 59-17. Edited by Philip L. Wickeri and
Lois Cole. Hong Kong: DAGA Press, 1995.

Li, Sun. "Christianity from the Viewpoint of Young Christians: The Example of
Shanghai." Translated by Janice Wickeri in Christianity & Modernization:
A Chinese Debate, 79-89. Edited by Philip L. Wickeri and Lois Cole. Hong
Kong: DAGA Press, 1995.

Liu, Shu-Hsien. "Christianity in the Reflection of Chinese Religion." Concilium 1 83


(1986): 75-83.

Liu, Xiaofeng. "Christianity in the Light of Contemporary Culture in Mainland


China. " In Confucian-Christian Encounters in Historical and Contemporary
Perspective, \5Q-\5%. Edited by Peter K. H. Lee. New York: The Edwin
Mellen Press, 1991.

Lo, Chenfang. "Chinese Biblication in the Eyes of a Chinese Christian." Biblical


Interpretation 4 (1996): 124-129.

Lokuang, Msgr. Stanislaus. "How Can One Be at the Same Time Authentically
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Lu, Shih-ching. "A Survey of the Chinese


Intellectuals' Anti-Christian Opinion as
related to the CulturalExchange between China and the West, 1583—1723."
In International Symposium on Chinese-Western Cultural Interchange in
Commemoration ofthe 400th Anniversary ofthe Arrival ofMatteo Ricci, S.J.

in China, 407-430. Taipei, 1983.

Lutz, Jessie Gregory, ed. Christian Missions in China: Evangelists of What?


Boston: D.C. Heath and Co., 1965.

Lutz, Jessie Gregor}'. China and the Christian Colleges. Ithaca: Cornell University
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290

Maclnnis, Donald E., ed. Religious Policy and Practice in Communist China. New
York: Macmillan, 1972.

Maclnnis, Donald E. "The Churches in New China." Concilium 126 (1979): 96-103.

. Religion in China Today: Policy and Practice. Maryknoll: Orbis Books,


1989^

Investigates what happened to religious believers and their churches and


institutions in China since the end of the Cultural Revolution. Includes 130
primary source documents covering the five officially recognized religions:
Buddhism, Catholicism. Islam, Protestantism, and Taoism.

Matsuoka, Fumitaka. "Churches and Seminaries in China: A Personal Reflection."


In With Faith We Can Move Mountains. Edited by Judith A. Berling.
Berkeley: Asia Pacific Bridges/Graduate Theological Union, 1996.

Reflection on participation on the GTU(Graduate Theological Union) Asia


Bridges Consultation held in China in October, 1995 which visited several
Protestant and Catholic seminaries throughout the Peoples' Republic of
China.

Matsuoka is Academic Dean of the Pacific School of Religion, Graduate


Theological Union, Berkeley, CA.

McLean, George P., O.M.I. "Chinese— Western Cultural Interchange in the Future."
Symposium on Chinese-Western Cultural Interchange in
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Commenioration ofthe 400th Anniversary ofthe Arrival ofMatteo Ricci, S.J.
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Meili, Josef "Die Bibel in China." Neue Zeitschrift fur Missionswissenschaft 56


(1/2000): 44-48.

Mungello, D. E. The Forgotten Christians of Hangzhou. Honolulu: University of


Hawaii Press, 1994.

The author gives insight into how Christianity as a religious faith was
blended with Chinese society and its intellectual underpinning,
Confucianism, long before the onset of the modem missions movement.

Ogden, Graham S. "Divine Revelation in the Old Testament and in Chinese


Wisdom." 130(1987): 18-24.
291

Comparison of O.T. Wisdom Literature and Chinese wisdom.

Pang, Paul P. "L'incontro del Cristianesimo con la cultura cinese. Una riflessione
storicaemetodologica." Euntes Docete 157 (1994): 297-310.

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Pong, James. Christian Doctrine and Chinese Religious Thought. Taiwan: Taiwan
Diocesan Press, 1979.

Quanyu, Huang, Chen Tong, and Richard Quantz. "Marxism and Christianity within
the Great Wall." Asian Philosophy 4, no. 1 (1994): 33-52.

Qi, Duan. "Contextualization in the Contemporary Chinese Church." Translated by


Frances Weightman in Christianity & Modernization: A Chinese Debate, 33-
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1995.

Robinson, Lewis Stewart. "Chu Hsi-ning: The Christian World of a Veteran Writer."
Ching Feng 27 {\9S4): 137-150.

Presentation of Christianity in the work of this Taiwanese author.

. "Lao She's Satire of Christianity." Ching Feng 35 (December 1992): 159-77.

Richey, Jeffrey L. "Catholicity and Culture in China: Anglican Ideology and the
Sheng Kung Hui." Anglican and Episcopal History 67 (1998): 191-211.

Sheng Kung Hui is the Chinese for "Holy Catholic Church."

One of a series of article in this issue devoted to the presence of the Anglican
Church in China.

Richey did his doctorate under Judith Berling in cultural and historical study
of religions at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California, and
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Shen, Yifan. "Confucian Thought and Theological Reflection in China Today."


Ching Feng3\ (1988): 166-176.

. "The Task of the Church in the Process of Chinese Modernization."


International Review of Mission 82 (1993): 223-228.
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In French: De Confucius au Christ. Translated by Franz Weyergans. Paris:


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lvci^\\cdA\ons fox \h.Ql2Lsk oilhtoXogy .''


Soiith East Asia Journal of Theology
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Song is Professor of Theology and Asian Cultures at the Pacific School of


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Sovik, Ame. "Religion, Religious Institutions and Religious Possibilities in China."


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. "Theological China-research since Ba°stad-Leuven." Concilium 126 (1979):


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Standaert, Nicholas, S.J. "The Christian Fragment in the Chinese Fractal: Towards
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. Yang Ting-yim, Confucian and Christian in Late Ming China: His Life and
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Swidler, Leonard. "A Christian Historical Perspective on Wisdom as a Basis for


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.

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Tai, Ji. "Gospel and Culture: Interpretation and Reinterpretation." Chinese


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Tang, Edmund. "Can One Be Truly Christian and Chinese at the Same Time?~point

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Tang, Siu-Kwong. "The Theological Basis for the Praxis of Hong Kong Churches."
Ching Feng 39 (March 1 996): 70ff.

Thompson Brown, G. "Why Has Christianity Grown Faster in Korea than in


China?" Missiology 22 (January 1994): 77-88.

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Tong, John. "'Evangelization' as Seen from the Chinese Viewpoint." East Asian
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Treadgold, Donald W. "The Problem of Christianity in Non- Western Cultures: The


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Varg, Paul A. Missionaries, Chinese, and Diplomats. Princeton: Princeton


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Wang, Weifan. "The Bible in Chinese." Chinese Theological Review 8 (1 993): 1 00-
123.

Reviews the history of Chinese Bible translation, from the first attempts of
the Nestorians during the Tang Dynasty (635) to the present.
294

. "Chinese Theology and Its Cultural Sources." Chinese Theological Review


11 (2/1997): 76-84.

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Historical and Future Encounters, 253-264. Edited by James D. Whitehead.;
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Whitehead, James D., Shaw, Yu-ming, and Giradot, N.J., eds. China and
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Notre Dame Press, 1979.

Whyte, Bob. Unfinished Encounter: China and Christianity. London: Collins Fount
Paperbacks, 1988.

Studies the evolution of Christianity in post- 1 949 mainland China, against the
background of the whole history of Christian evangelization in China.

Reviewed by Jean-Paul Wiest in International Bulletin of Missionary


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Wickeri, Philip L. "Making Connections: Christianity and Culture in the Sino-


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Wickeri taught at the Tao Fong Shan Ecumenical Centre in Hong Kong, and
is currently professor of world religion at San Francisco Theological
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. "Zhao Fusan Visits the Interchurch Center." China Notes 1 7 (Spring, 1979):
69-70.

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Wire was bom in China of missionary parents, and is Professor of New


Testament at San Francisco Theological Seminary and the Graduate
Theological Union.
295

. "Li, Eusebeia, Torah: A Response to Towner and Yeo." Jian Dao: A Journal
of Bible and Theology (1996): 143-147.

. "Songs of China's Rural Churches." In With Faith We Can Move Mountains,


5 1 -62. Edited by Judith A. Berling. Berkeley: Asia Pacific Bridges/Graduate
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Reflection on participation on the GTU(Graduate Theological Union) Asia


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Protestant and Catholic seminaries throughout the Peoples' Republic of


China.

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Personal faith witness account of this YMCA leader on the impact of


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Originally done as a thesis at Columbia University in 1970.

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Zhuo, Xinping. "The Concept of Original Sin in the Cultural Encounter Between
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296

Other Works on Chinese Culture and Philosophy

N.B. See also the section on Chinese/Confucian Understanding of Religion

Adshead, S.A.M. Material Culture in Europe and China. New York: St. Martin's
Press; London: MacMillan Press, 1997.

Reviewed by Kenneth Pomeranz in The Journal of Asian Studies 58


(February 1999): 151-153.

Ahem, Emily M. The Cult of the Dead in a Chinese Village. Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1973.

Allan, Sarah. The Way of Water and Sprouts of Virtue. Chinese Philosophy and
Culture Series. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997.

The author maintains that early Chinese philosophy, whatever its

philosophical school, assumed common principles that informed the natural


and human worlds and that one could understand the nature of man by
studying the principles which govern nature. Accordingly, the natural world
rather than a religious tradition provided the root metaphors of early Chinese
thought. Water, with its rich capacity for generating imagery, provided the
primary model for conceptualizing general cosmic principles while plants
provided a model for the continuous sequence of generation, growth,
reproduction, and death and was the basis for the Chinese understanding of
the nature of man in both religion and philosophy.

Reviewed by Aihe Wang in The Journal ofAsian Studies 58 (February 1 999):


153-154.

Allinson, Robert E., ed. Understanding the Chinese Mind: The Philosophical Roots.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Allinson, Robert E. "An Overview of the Chinese Mind." In Understanding the


Chinese Mind: The Philosophical Roots, 1-25. Edited by Robert E. Allinson.
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Ames, Roger T. The Art ofRulership: A Study ofAncient Chinese Political Thought.
With a Foreword by Harold D. Roth. Albany NY: State University of New
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Ames first traces the evolution of five key concepts in early Chinese political
philosophy and then analyzes these concepts as they are developed in The Art
"

297

of Rulership. The Art of Ruler ship is Book Nine of the Hiiai Nan Tzii, an
anthology of diverse and far-ranging contents compiled under the patronage
of Liu An (prince of Huai Nan) and presented to the court of Wu Ti during
the first century of the Former Han (perhaps as early as 140 B.C.)- Ames
holds that the political theory contained in The Art of Rulership shares an
underlying sympathy with precepts of Taoist and Confucian origin, and
contains a systematic political philosophy that is not only unique but
compelling.

Ames is Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Center for Chinese


Studies at the University of Hawaii.

Aria, Barbara, with Gon, Russell Eng. The Nature of the Chinese Character. New-
York: Simon and Schuster, 1991.

. The Spirit of the Chinese Character: Gifts from the Heart. San Francisco:
Chronicle Books, 1992.

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Barks, Robert. Tigers, Rice, Silk, and Silt. Cambridge, 1988.

Deals with the environment in China.

Becker, Carl B . "Reasons for the Lack of Argumentation and Debate in the Far East.
Inter nationalJournal of Intercultural Relations. 10 (1986): 75-92.

Berton, Peter, and Wu, Eugene. Contemporary China: A Research Guide. Hoover
Institution Bibliographical Series 3 1 . Stanford University Hoover Institution
:

on War, Revolution and Peace, 1967.

Bickers, Robert. Britain in China: Community, Culture and Colonialism, 1900- 49.
Studies in Imperialism. Manchester: Manchester Universit}' Press, 1999.

Study of Britain's presence in China at its peak, and during its interwar
dissolution in the face of assertive Chinese nationalism and declining British
diplomatic support. Bickers argues that the British presence in China was
dominated by urban settlers whose primary allegiance lay not with any grand
imperial design but with their own communities and personal livelihoods,
which brought them growing conflict not only with the Chinese
into
population, but with the British imperial government. The preliminaries and
first chapter can be found at http://mail.bristol.ac.uk/~hirab/publish.html
298

Biematzki, William E., S.J. "Some Aspects of the Study of Symbolism in East
Asia." Kerygma 35 (1980): 117-146.

Bloodworth, Dennis. Chinese Looking Glass. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin


Books, 1967.

Bo Yang. See Guo Yidong.

Bockover, Mary I., ed. Rules, Rituals, and Responsibility: Essays Dedicated to
Herbert Fingarette. LaSalle IL: Open Court Publishers, 1991.

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Brandauer, Frederick P., and Chim-chieh Huang, eds. Imperial Rulership and
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Press, 1995.

Eleven interdisciplinary papers originated in a 1 992 conference in Taiwan.

Campany, Rob. "Cosmogony and Self-Cultivation: The Demonic and the Ethical in
Two Chinese Novels." Journal ofReligious Ethics 14 (Spring 1986): 81-111.

Carmody, Denise Lardner, and Carmody, John Tully. "Chinese Ethics." Chapter 6
in Id. How to Live Well: Ethics in the World Religions, 137-159. Belmont
CA: Wadsworth, 1988.

As a whole the book is organized into two major sections. Western Religious
Ethics and Eastern Religious Ethics. The former considers Jewish, Christian,
and Islamic ethics, while the latter takes up Hindu, Buddhist, Chinese, and
Japanese ethics.

Carr, Brian, ed. Morals and Society in Asian Philosophy, Curzon Studies in Asian
Philosophy Series. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1 996.

This collection arises from the First Conference of the recently formed
European Society for Asian Philosophy. It explores issues in Indian, Chinese,
Japanese, and Islamic philosophical traditions, both ancient and modem.

Cartier, Michel, ed. La Chine entre amour et haine. Taipei: Taipei Ricci Institute
for Chinese Studies. 1998.
299

Publication from the Colloques Intemationaux de Sinologie de Chantilly.


This volume focuses on the image of China through European eyes in the
second half of the 19"^ century.

Cartier, Michel, Elisseeff, Danielle, and Nivard, Jacqueline, eds. Revue


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Annual volume which in 1998 contained abstracts of 287 books, as well as


266 articles from 1 16 journals, arranged thematically, with the majority in
French or English, though other Western languages are also represented,
including an unannotated list of Chinese articles ("Dans les revues
chinoises").

Chan, Anita. Chen Village Under Mao and Deng. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1992.

With contributions from Richard Madsen and Jonathan Unger.

Chang, Chung-yuan. Creativity and Taoism: A Study of Chinese Philosophy, Art,


and Poetry. New York: Harper and Row, 1963, 1970.

Chang, Hao. "Intellectual Crisis of Contemporary China in Historical Perspective."


In The Triadic Chord: Confucian Ethics, Industrial East Asia, and Max
Weber. Proceedings ofthe 1987 Singapore Conference on Confucian Ethics
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ming. Singapore: Institute of East Asian Philosophies, 1991.

Chang, Hui-Ching, and Holt, G. Richard. "The Concept of Yuan and Chinese
Interpersonal Relationships." In Cross-Cultural Interpersonal
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Korzenny. London and Delhi: Sage Publications, 1991.

Argues that not just Confucian philosophy, but also the Buddhist concept of
reciprocity (Yuan) has also played a significant role in Chinese understanding
of inter-personal relationships.

Chang, Leo S. "The Metamorphosis of Han Fei's Thought in the Han." Journal ofthe

American Academy ofReligion Thematic Issue 47 no. 3S (September 1979):


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503-48.
300

Chang, Pao-Min. "Corruption and Crime in China: Old Problems and New Trends."
The Journal of East Asian Ajfairs 13 (Spring/Summer 1999): 221-268.

Cheng, Chung-ying. "Chinese Philosophy: A Characterization." In Invitation to


Chinese Philosophy. Edited by Ame Naess and Alastair Harmay. Oslo:
Universitetsforlaget, 1972.

Cheng Chung-ying is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Hawaii at


Manoa and founder of the International Society of Chinese Philosophy and
the Journal of Chinese Philosophy.

. "On Neville's Understanding of Chinese Philosophy: Ontology of Wu,


Cosmology of Yi, and Normalogy of Z/." In Interpreting Neville. Edited by
J. Harley Chapman and Nancy K. Frankenberry. Albany: SUNY Press, 1999.

Contains a final chapter by Neville in which he responds to all the essays in


the volume.

. "Toward Constructing a Dialectics of Harmonization: Harmony and Conflict


in Chinese Philosophy." Journal of Chinese Philosophy 4 (1977): 209-245.

Cheung, Chan-fai. "T'ang Chiin-i's Philosophy of Love." Philosophy East and West
48 (April 1998): 257-271.

Discusses the importance of T'ang's early work, the Ai-chingfu-yin (Gospel


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Chi, Pe-ssu. "Essential Points of Chinese Culture." ChingFeng 10 (1967): 6-19.

Chih, Hung. "Chinese Daily Life as a Locus for Ethics." Concilium 126 (1979): 33-
41.

Chu, Godwin C. "The Changing Concept of Self in Contemporary China." In


Culture and Self: Asian and Western Perspectives, 252-277. Edited by
Anthony J. Marsella, George DeVos, and Francis L.K. Hsu. New York and
London: Tavistock Publications, 1985.

Civic, Melanne Andromecca. "A Comparative Analysis of International and Chinese


Human Rights Law—Universality versus Cultural Relativism." The Buffalo
Journal of International Law 2 (Winter 1995-96): 285-322.
301

Cohen. Alvin. Tales of Vengeful Souls. A Sixth Century Collection of Chinese


Avenging Ghost Stories. Taipei: Taipei Ricci Institute for Chinese Studies,
1982.

Annotated translation of 63 stories compiled by Yan Zhitui.

Cohen, Paul, and Goldman, Mede, eds. Ideas Across Cultures: Essays on Chinese
Thought in Honor ofBenjamin I. Schwartz. Cambridge: Harvard University
Press, 1990.

Ten essa}'s in this Festschrift, ranging from Confucius to the present time.

Cong, Dachang. When Heroes Pass Away: The Invention of a Chinese Communist
Pantheon. Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1997.

Reviewed by Frank J. Korom in Religious Studies Review 25 (July 1999):


322.

Cook, Daniel J., and Rosemont, Henry, eds. Writings on China. Chicago: Open
Court, 1994.

Copper, John F.; Michael, Franz; and Wu, Yuan-li. Human Rights in Post-Mao
China. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1985.

Creel, Herrlee Glessner. Chinese Thought from Confucius to Mao Tse-tung. New
York: New American Library, 1953.

Criveller, Gianni, P.I.M.E. "The Cultural Revolution: Women Tell Their Story."
Tripod 18 (November-December 1998): 5-23.

Overview and synopsis of some of the key works written by women dealing
with their experiences during the Cultural Revolution.

Cua, A.S. "Ideal Themes, Justification, and Moral Understanding." Journal of


Chinese Philosophy 7 (1980): 55-65.

Cua, is professor emeritus of philosophy at The Catholic University of


America.

. "Some Reflections on Methodology in Chinese Philosophy." International


Philosophical Quarterly II (1971): 236-248.
302

Danto, Arthur. "Language and the Tao: Some Reflections on Ineffability." Journal
of Chinese Philosophy 1 (1973): 45-56.

. "Postscript: Philosophical Individualism in Chinese and Western Thought."


In Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist Values, 385-
390. Edited by Donald J. Munro. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies,
The University of Michigan, 1985.

Davis, Michael C. "Human Rights in Asia: China and the Bangkok Declaration."
The Buffalo Journal of International Law 2 (Winter 1995-96): 215-30.

Davis, Walter W. "China, the Confucian ideal, and the European age of
Enlightenment." Journal of the History of Ideas 44 (1983): 523-548.

de Bary, William Theodore. East Asian Civilization: A Dialogue in Five Stages.


Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.

. The Liberal Tradition in China. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong


Kong Press, 1983.

Deals primarily with Sung Neo-Confucianism.

Dean, Kenneth. Lord of the Three in One: The Spread ofa Cult in Southeast China.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Analyzes thecult of the Lord of the Three in One (Sanyijiao) which sought
tocombine Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, primarily associated with
Lin Zhao'en (Lin Chao-en, 1517-1598).

Reviewed by Chi-Tim Lai in The Journal of Religion 80 (April 2000): 365-


366.

Dellapenna, Joseph W. "The Role of Legal Rhetoric in the Failure of Democratic


Change in China. " The Buffalo Journal ofInternational Law 2 (Winter 1 995-
96): 231-62.

De Mente, Boye. Chinese Etiquette & Ethics in Business. Lincolnwood IL: NTC
Business Books, 1989.

Dillon, Michael. China's Muslims. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Looks at the ten Muslim groups in China.


. China's Muslim Hid Community. Surrey: Curzon, 1999.

Briefly reviewed by Stevan Harrell in Religious Studies Review 26 (October


2000): 406

Dutton, Michael. Streetlife China: Transforming Culture, Rights and Markets.


Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1999.

Dy, Manuel B., Jr. "The Ideal Man: The Chinese Way and the American Perspective:
A Impression." In Proceedings of the Conference on the
Filipino
Comparative Study of the Chinese Ideal and the American Dream in Taipei,
Republic of China, October 6-8, 1978, by Institute of American Culture,
Academia Sinica. Taipei, Republic of China: Institute of American Culture,
Academia Sinica, 1 980, 3 1 9-49.

Eberhard, Wolfram. Guilt and Sin in Traditional China. Berkeley and Los Angeles:
University of California Press, 1 967.

Edwards, R. Randle; Henkin, Louis; and Nathan, Andrew J. Human Rights in


Contemporary China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

Edwards, R. Randle. "Civil and Social Rights: Theory and Practice in Chinese Law
Today." In R. Randle Edwards, Louis Henkin, and Andrew J. Nathan.
Human Rights in Contemporary China, 41-75. New York: Columbia
University Press, 1986.

Eggleston, Karen. "You are Dead, the Square is Dead": The 1989 Chinese Pro-
Democracy Movement." Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, Korea
Branch 64 (1989): 39-63.

Eggleston studied at Beijing Normal University in 1986-1887 and the


Hopkins-Nanjing Center for Chinese and American Studies in 1988-1989.
Article discusses the 1989 students' democracy movement in terms of both
its long-term historical background as well as the preliminar>' events of that
Spring.

Eichhom, Werner. La Cina: Culto degli antenati, Confucianesimo, Taoismo,


Buddismo, Cristianesimo dal 1700 A.C ainostrigiorni. Translated from the
German Die Religionen Chinas into Italian by Lorenza Terenziani. Milan:
Jaca, 1983.
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Contents: Part I : IMAGINING THE NATION. What Should Chinese Women


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Patriarchy: the Women Writers' Industry and 'Feminist' Literary Criticism, by


Louise Edwards/ Representing Chinese Women: Researching Women in the
Chinese Cinema, by Chris Berry/ Engendering Women: Taiwan's Recent
Fiction by Women, by Rosemary Haddon/ Women's Studies in Literature and
Feminist Literary Criticism in Contemporary China, by Rosemary Roberts.
Part IV: WESTERN WOMEN LOOK AT CHINESE WOMEN. Researching
Women's Lives in Contemporary China, by Beverley Hooper/ Researching
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