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Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 1

Prologue

Can you identify the differences in how these areas should be classified and the differences in wiring practices? If not,
then this digest is a must read for you.

The purpose of this document is to explain the concepts of hazardous areas, the differences between Zones and
Divisions, the different explosion protection techniques and how electrical equipment is installed in hazardous locations
around the world. For more detailed information on the equipment available and the installation methods used, ask
your Cooper Crouse-Hinds® representative for a copy of the Electrical Code Digest or contact the author at
Paul.Babiarz@crouse-hinds.com

Area 1 Area 2

1. Which location should be classified as Zone 1 and which should be classified Zone 2?
2. What clues lead you to these conclusions?
3. What forms of explosion protection can you identify in the Zone 1 photo?
4. Describe the wiring practices used in these photos?
5. Are seals required?

Answers
1. Area 1 is Zone 1; Area 2 is Zone 2
2. Area 1 is adjacent to a process area. Area 2 is outside of a laboratory.
3. In Area 1 the phone handset and meters at the top of the panel are intrinsically safe - Ex-ia; the GHG 273 light
switch (bottom left) is flameproof and increased safety - Ex-de.
4. The wiring practices use flexible cables through an open conduit system that protects vertical runs of cable.
5. Explosionproof seals are not required because the switches and other are factory sealed and conduit is not used.
2 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
The Electrical Code Evolves

CHAPTER 1 The first electrical equipment used in the mines were motors to
THE ELECTRICAL CODE EVOLVES drive the elevators, ventilators and mining equipment. After the
sparking motors resulted in some mine mishaps, they were
The first electrical equipment used in the mines totally enclosed, which contained the explosions. This marked
the beginning of the metallic explosionproof enclosures with
were motors to drive the elevators,
tight-fitting joints later called flame paths.
ventilators and mining equipment.

1.1 THE FIRST HAZARDOUS AREAS


The first hazardous areas are reputed to have been recognized
in coal mines. Methane gas, which is absorbed by coal, later
escapes from the coal once it is mined. The methane gas, Motors used in
which is lighter than air, would occasionally be ignited by the mines were the
miner’s candles. This resulted in a double jeopardy of the first electrical
ignition of methane gas and subsequent ignition of the coal dust equipment to use
itself. The first solution was to hire miners to ignite the gases explosionproof
each day with a very long pole with a burning ember at the end. construction.
This list of volunteers soon ran short so convicts from local
prisons were recruited. Criminals yes, but fools they were not.
Eventually, ponies were enlisted and outfitted with special Reference: M Toney et. al., A History of Electrical Area Classification in the
saddles that carried a lighted candle. The ponies were doused United States. In IEEE PCIC Conference Record 2000, pp. 273-279.
with water and sent running through the mine shafts in hopes of
creating only very small explosions. 1.2 ELECTRICAL CODE EVOLUTION
In the early 1900s, when contractors were busy electrifying
industrial buildings, electrical wires were run through existing
gas pipes, resulting in today’s conduit system of wiring. This
was the basis for future North American codes and wiring
practices. At the same time, the International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) was founded in Switzerland. The IEC is the
United Nations of the electrical industry. Its ultimate goal is to
unify worldwide electrical codes and standards. Few IEC
practices were incorporated into the National Electrical Code®
(NEC) or Canadian Electrical Code® (CEC), mainly because
North America operated on different voltages and frequencies
than most of the rest of the world.

1.3 DIVISION 1 IS BORN


The advent of automobiles and airplanes in the early 1920s
created a need to refine fuels. Because volatile vapors from
Igniting small pockets of methane gas was one of the original methods to gasoline and electrical sparks did not safely mix, the first
prevent ignition in coal mines Hazardous Area classification, called “Extra Hazardous
Location,” later referred to as Division 1, was inserted into the
Later in 1815 Sir Humphrey Davy invented the NEC. Division 1 described areas that were normally hazardous.
Davy lamp, which was a kerosene lantern with a Thus, a new industry with the goal of protecting electrical
fine brass mesh surrounding the burning wick. equipment in hazardous areas was born. Explosionproof
The mesh emitted some light but was fine enough enclosures, oil immersion, and wire gauzed (meshed)
to not let the flame propagate through the screen. enclosures for mining lanterns were the first types of protections
Later, mechanical ventilation was introduced into developed.
the mines, which dispersed the methane to the
point where there was not sufficient fuel left to
ignite. The method of providing adequate
ventilation is still in use today in reducing hazards.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds has


One of the first explosion-protected mining lanterns manufactured by manufactured electrical
Cooper Crouse-Hinds CEAG in Germany. and explosion-protected
equipment since 1897.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 3
The Electrical Code Evolves

In 1931 Class I for gases and vapors, Class II for dusts, and
Class III for fibers were defined. The Class I areas were further
subdivided in 1935 into the Groups A, B, C, & D (refer to section
2.4) based on the gases’ main characteristics of:
• explosive pressure
• flame transmission
• ignition temperature

1.4 DIVISION 2 BEGINS


In 1956 the concept of intrinsic safety appeared in the North
American Codes. About the same time, North American
industries determined that hazardous area classifications
needed to be expanded. A Division 2 was needed to describe
Cabling is becoming
locations that were not normally hazardous to allow use of less
more prevalent in
expensive equipment and less restrictive wiring methods.
Hazardous Locations.

1.4.1 EXPLOSION PROTECTION CONCEPTS


IN GERMANY / EUROPE
The first German standards, "Protection of Electrical
Installations in Hazardous Areas", were published in 1935 as
By adopting the Zone method of classifying hazardous
guidelines for the installation of electrical equipment in
areas, North American users now have the ability to use
hazardous areas. With this came a fundamental change in
the European (IEC) equipment in addition to the existing
1938 by dividing the installation requirements (VDE 0165) and
North American products.
product design requirements (VDE 0170/0171). The product
design standards included the basic types of explosion
protection such as flameproof enclosures, oil immersion and 1.5 WHY CODES CHANGED IN NORTH
increased safety. The components were designed to be AMERICA
explosion protected and housed in industrial type enclosures North American industry has grown accustomed to the Division
that were weatherproof. This lead to the development of classification system. Plants in the U.S. and Canada are safe
flameproof components mounted inside of increased safety and operating efficiently. So why change to a new classification
enclosures. Apparatus designed according to this standard system? The business world continues to shrink and most
were marked with the symbol (Ex). See Chapter 4, Methods of companies are thinking globally. Many industrial end users and
Protection and 5.3 for IP ratings. manufacturers wanted a harmonized international standard so
a new plant built offshore would have the same equipment and
In the 1960s, the European community was founded to installation standards as one built domestically. This would
establish a free trade zone in Europe. To reach this goal, allow them to take advantage of a single source of materials
technical standards needed to be harmonized. As a result the and less expensive alternatives not always available
European Organization for Electrotechnical Standardization elsewhere.
(CENELEC) was established. This new set of European
standards (EN 50014 - EN 50020), published in 1972, was The U.S. and Canada debated the merits of classifying
based on the Zone classification system as IEC 60079-10. hazardous areas as Zones instead of Divisions for over 20
European standards replacing the different national standards years. By adopting the Zone method of hazardous areas, users
and guidelines for Zone 0 and Zone 2 applications were now had the ability to use European (IEC) equipment in addition
published much later as EN 50284 (requirements for apparatus to the existing North American products. Many users concluded
used in Zone 0) and EN 50021 (requirements for apparatus that the best system of area classification to allow the use of
used in Zone 2). both IEC and North American equipment was in fact the three-
Zone method.
In 1975 the first EU directive for apparatus used in hazardous
areas, the so-called "Explosion Protection Directive", was This led to many options and alternatives for materials and
published. In 1978 the first edition of the European standards installation methods, all centered around different methods of
was published by CENELEC which covered installation protection.
techniques
• Conduit techniques For questions or comments, please contact the author at
(used mainly in the southern part of Europe) paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com
• Direct cable entry in flameproof enclosures
(used mainly in UK and France)
• Indirect cable entry technique
(used in Germany)
4 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Basics of Explosion Protection

CHAPTER 2
BASICS OF EXPLOSION PROTECTION
The determination of the amount of time that an
explosive mixture will be present in an
area is the basis of “area classification.”

2.1 NORTH AMERICAN CODE DEFINITIONS


Hazardous Locations are defined as:

premises, buildings, or parts thereof in which there exists the


hazard of fire or explosion due to the fact that
Ignition of flammable materials
a) highly flammable gases, flammable volatile liquid mixtures, or causes catastrophic results.
other highly flammable substances are manufactured or used,
or stored in other than original containers; A literal interpretation of the Hazardous Location definition
might lead to classifying areas that are accepted as being
b) combustible dust or flyings are likely to be present in unclassified and therefore the definitions must be applied with a
quantities sufficient to produce an explosive or combustible degree of knowledge and experience. For example, part (a) of
mixture, or it is impracticable to prevent such dusts or flyings the Hazardous Location definition could lead to the conclusion
from collecting in or upon motors or other electrical equipment that the fuel supply to gas furnaces in homes would require the
in such quantities as to produce overheating through normal area around the furnace to be classified. However, as the
radiation being prevented, or from being deposited on pressure of the gas is very low relative to the rating of the
incandescent lamps; piping, and the installation of the piping can be done only by
qualified persons, the possibility of a release of sufficient gas to
c) easily ignitable fibers or materials producing combustible create an “explosive gas atmosphere” is so low that the area is
flyings are manufactured, handled, or used in a free open state; not classified. Rules in other codes such as the Building Codes
or or the Natural Gas and Propane Installation Codes contain
additional information that may also affect whether an area
d) easily ignitable fibers or materials producing combustible should be considered a Hazardous Location. It is important that
flyings are stored in bales or containers but are not the decisions regarding the determination as to whether or not
manufactured or handled in a free open state.” an area is a Hazardous Location are made only by individuals
who are familiar with all the codes, standards and principles that
Hazardous Locations shall be classified according to the nature apply.
of the hazard, as follows:

a) Class I locations are those in which flammable gases or


2.2 THE HAZARD TRIANGLE
For an area to be classified as a Hazardous Location there
vapors are or may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to
must be the possibility that the conditions for an explosion or fire
produce explosive gas atmospheres;
may exist as the result of some abnormal occurrence. To better
understand what these conditions may be, an understanding of
b) Class II locations are those which are hazardous because of
the combustion triangle is a fundamental requirement.
the presence of combustible or electrically conductive
combustible dusts;

c) Class III locations are those which are hazardous because of


the presence of easily ignitable fibers or flyings, but in which
such fibers or flyings are not likely to be in suspension in air in
quantities sufficient to produce ignitable mixtures.”

Worldwide there have been many spectacular examples of


human failure when working in hazardous areas which have
resulted in explosions and fires causing the loss of life and
destruction of installations. Two such examples are the Piper
Alpha oil and gas production platform installed in the British
Sector of the North Sea and Flixborough near Scunthorpe
in Lincolnshire, England. In both examples, a massive release
of flammable material was ignited by either electrical or
All three elements must be present for an explosion to occur.
mechanical energy.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 5
Basics of Explosion Protection

For an explosion to take place, all three sides of the triangle, concentrations of flammable material. In other words, the
satisfying the following conditions, must be present: design must be suitable for the classification of the area in
which it is installed.
• There must be a supply of oxygen present. In most situations
this is applicable as a result of the oxygen content in the air Overall the design of equipment for the different “Zones” or
(21%). “Divisions” is based on ensuring the probability of the
• There must be sufficient fuel present in the air to form an simultaneous occurrence of a flammable gas (or vapor, mist or
ignitable mixture. The fuel may be in the form of a gas, dust) concentration and an ignition source from equipment is so
vapor, mist or dust. low that in practice it does not happen. It has been suggested
• There must be a source of ignition with sufficient energy to in a number of industry papers that the probability of an ignition
ignite the fuel-air mixture. For electrical equipment this may occurring once every hundred years is so low that in practice it
be from an arcing or sparking device or from a hot surface. will not happen. Probabilities at this level (approximately 1 in
There may be sources of ignition other than electrical 1,000,000) are similar to those done for the catastrophic failure
equipment, such as hot exhaust surfaces from internal of piping or vessels.
combustion engines. These devices do not fall within the scope
of the North American electrical codes and are normally 2.3 IGNITION SOURCES—GASES & VAPORS
covered by other codes and standards such as Occupational Ignition sources can occur by various mechanical means, but
Health and Safety. for the purpose of this publication we consider only electrical
sources of potential ignition.
The basic approach to design in a Hazardous Location is to
ensure that all three sides of the triangle do not exist The most important characteristics of flammable substances in
simultaneously. If any one side of the triangle is not present, an regard to ignition are:
explosion cannot occur. Protection against explosions will • Upper Flammable Limit
therefore require control or elimination of one or more sides of • Lower Flammable Limit
the triangle. • Flash Point of the flammable material
• Auto-Ignition Temperature
2.2.1 THE OXYGEN SIDE • Vapor Density
In most situations there is sufficient oxygen present in the air
(21%) to meet the conditions for an explosion. In some 2.3.1 UPPER & LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMITS
situations however, oxygen may be excluded by blanketing an There are a number of characteristics of gases and vapors that
enclosed area with another gas to ensure there will not be are important for the classification of a Hazardous Location and
sufficient oxygen present. The blanket gas is normally an inert the application of equipment within the Hazardous Location.
gas, such as nitrogen, or in some cases it may even be a
flammable gas such as methane. • LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL)—is the lowest percentage
by volume of gas (or vapor) in a gas-air mixture that will form
2.2.2 THE FUEL SIDE an ignitable concentration. Below that concentration there is
If avoiding the use of flammable substances is not possible, the insufficient gas or vapor in the mixture and the gas-air mixture
fuel side of the triangle is removed by enclosing the gas or dust is too lean to be ignited.
in piping, or vessels in the case of gas, vapors or flammable
liquids, or in enclosed ducts in the case of dust. Of course there Flammable Limits
is always the possibility that flammable materials could be Class I Percent by Volume
Group Substance Lower Upper
released in sufficient quantity to form an explosive mixture as a
result of a malfunction of equipment. In some situations an C IIB Acetaldehyde 4.0 60
explosive mixture may be present frequently or continuously as D IIA Acetic Acid 4.0 19.9 @ 200°F
a result of normal operations such as the interior of vented fuel
D IIA Acetic Anhydride 2.7 10.3
storage tanks or the interior of paint spray booths.
D IIA Acetone 2.5 13
The determination of the amount of time that an explosive D IIA Acetone Cyanohydrin 2.2 12.0
mixture will be present in an area is the basis of “area
D IIA Acetonitrile 3.0 16.0
classification,” which is discussed in more detail in Chapter 3.
A IIC Acetylene 2.5 100

2.2.3 THE IGNITION SIDE Complete table is contained in Appendix I.


The electrical equipment installed in Hazardous Locations
• UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (UEL)—is the highest percentage
forms the ignition side of the triangle. The various designs used
by volume of gas or vapor in a gas-air mixture
for electrical equipment ensure there will not be a simultaneous
that will form an ignitable concentration. Above that
occurrence of all three sides of the triangle. The specific design
concentration there is too much gas or vapor in the mixture and
of an electrical device for use in a Hazardous Location will
the gas-air mixture is too rich to ignite.
depend on the amount of time it will be exposed to flammable
6 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Basics of Explosion Protection

If the percentage of gas is below the lower limit, the mixture is Flammable limits are normally given at 25°C; an increase in
too lean (insufficient fuel) to ignite. The mixture is too rich temperature widens the flammable limits.
(insufficient oxygen) if the percentage is above the upper limit.
Some gases, such as methane, are ignitable over a relatively As a general rule, 12°C below flash point results in a flammable
narrow range of 5% to 15%. Methane is frequently used in the vapor concentration of 50% of the lower flammable limit. See
form of natural gas to provide a low-pressure gas blanket over Appendix I, “Gases & Vapors – Hazardous Substances Used in
liquid in a tank to ensure an ignitable mixture is not formed. The Business & Industry.”
presence of the natural gas blanket ensures the mixture in the
tank will always be above the UEL. Class I Flash Point
Group Substance °F °C
Other gases are ignitable over a relatively large range, such as C IIB Acetaldehyde -38 -39
acetylene (2.5 to 100%) and hydrogen, which is ignitable from D IIA Acetic Acid 103 39
4% to 75%. As hydrogen is a very light gas, it is often used in D IIA Acetic Anhydride 120 49
large turbine generators to reduce the friction loss of the rotor. D IIA Acetone -4 -20
Because of the extremely large explosive range of hydrogen,
D IIA Acetone Cyanohydrin 165 74
great care must be taken to ensure concentrations within the
D IIA Acetonitrile 42 6
generator do not enter the explosive range as the result of the
introduction of air. Refer to Appendix I NFPA 325 M-1991, Fire A IIC Acetylene gas gas
Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases & Volatile Complete table is contained in Appendix I.
Solids, for the complete listing of gases and vapors.
2.3.3 AUTO-IGNITION TEMPERATURE
The ignition temperature of a gas, sometimes referred to as
“auto-ignition” temperature, is the lowest surface temperature
which will ignite the flammable atmosphere (independent of any
externally heated element). This becomes important when
determining the temperature rating, or T-rating, of an enclosure
or component. Published values of ignition temperature are
determined by injecting a gas sample into a heated flask to
determine the minimum temperature at which ignition takes
place.

Class I Auto-Ignition Temp.


Group Substance °F °C
C IIB Acetaldehyde 347 75
D IIA Acetic Acid 867 464
D IIA Acetic Anhydride 600 316
The mixture of gas and air must be between the Upper and Lower D IIA Acetone 869 465
Flammable Limits for a fire or explosion to occur. D IIA Acetone Cyanohydrin 1270 688
D IIA Acetonitrile 975 524
A IIC Acetylene 531 305
Liquids that are stored or used below their flash points Complete table is contained in Appendix I.
will normally not require the area in which they are
stored to be classified as a Hazardous Location. Actual ignition temperatures are affected by many variables
such as the percentage of gas or vapor in the mixture, the size
and shape of the heated surfaces, wind and convection
2.3.2 FLASH POINT OF THE FLAMMABLE currents. The published ignition temperature values are usually
MATERIALS accepted as being the minimum ignition temperatures. Further
Flash point is the minimum temperature of a liquid at which information regarding ignition temperatures can be found in the
sufficient vapor is given off to form an ignitable mixture with air, following documents:
near the surface of a liquid. Liquids with a flash point below
37.8°C (100°F) are defined as flammable liquids, whereas • API Publication 2216—Ignition Risk of Hydrocarbon
liquids with a flash point above 37.8°C are defined as Vapors by Hot Surfaces in the Open Air
combustible liquids. Liquids which are stored or used below • NFPA 325-1994—Guide to Fire Hazard Properties of
their flash points will normally not require the area in which they Flammable Liquids, Gases, and Volatile Solids
are located to be classified as a Hazardous Location. However • NFPA 499-1997—Recommended Practice for the
liquids that are stored or processed under pressure, which may Classification of Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous
be released in the form of a mist, may be ignitable at (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in
temperatures below their flash points. Chemical Process Areas
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 7
Basics of Explosion Protection

2.3.4 VAPOR DENSITY Minimum Ignition Current (MIC) is determined in a laboratory


The vapor density of a gas sometimes referred to as “relative and provides comparative values for the purposes of grouping
vapor density,” is the weight of a volume of a vapor or gas with only. Gases in the higher gas groups will ignite with lower
no air present compared to the weight of an equal volume of dry currents, and as a result, intrinsically safe circuits for these
air at the same normal atmospheric temperature and pressure. groups will be restricted to lower currents than in the lower
Vapor densities greater than 1.0 indicate the vapor or gas is groups. For the IEC, gases and vapors are subdivided
heavier than air and will tend to settle towards the ground. according to the ratio of their minimum igniting currents (MIC) to
Vapor densities less than 1.0 indicate the vapor or gas is lighter that of laboratory methane.
than air and will tend to rise.
Most zone equipment is rated IIC for the most severe gas
Class I Vapor Density
Group Substance (Air Equals 1.0) groups. The exception to this would be light fittings or other
large electrical apparatus such as enclosures or motors where
C IIB Acetaldehyde 1.5
it is cost effective to design the apparatus with flat joints. These
D IIA Acetic Acid 2.1
carry a IIB designation. Most North American equipment is
D IIA Acetic Anhydride 3.5 rated for Groups C and D, which account for 85 to 90% of
D IIA Acetone 2.0 hazardous area applications. Enclosures which meet the higher
D IIA Acetone Cyanohydrin 2.9 explosive pressures of hydrogen are rated for Group B. It is
D IIA Acetonitrile 1.4 rare to find areas or equipment classified as Group A except for
A IIC Acetylene 0.9 intrinsically safe apparatus.
Complete table is contained in Appendix I.
Zone 2 equipment does not always carry a Group
When selecting hazardous area electrical apparatus, marking. If the Zone 2 equipment does not produce
ensure that the gas grouping is appropriate to the area sparks or arcs, such as terminal boxes, the equipment
classification and that the temperature classification of is suitable for all gas groups. The label on the product
the equipment is not higher than the auto ignition does not have to designate the gas group. However,
temperature of the surrounding gas or vapor. in all cases, the T-number must be identified.

2.4 GAS GROUPING 2.4.1 NORTH AMERICAN VS IEC PRACTICES


Individual gases and vapors have distinct characteristics. One The North American Division system groups gases into four
possible approach to equipment design would be to design groups while the IEC system groups the gases into only three
equipment for each specific gas. That approach is not practical groups. Table 2.4.1 shows a comparison of the two systems, a
since it would greatly increase the cost of equipment and make typical gas for each group and the MESG and MIC for each of
the manufacturing process a virtual nightmare. In order to the gases.
simplify the manufacturing and equipment selection processes,
Table 2.4.1
gases are divided into groups with similar characteristics based
Comparison of North American and IEC Gas Groupings
on two main factors:
• The requirements for constructing an “explosionproof” or MESG MIC Grouping
Typical NA
“flameproof” enclosure to contain an explosion of the gas Gas (mm) IEC (mm) IEC* NA IEC
or vapor, and
Acetylene 0.25 <0.5 60 >0.8 A IIC
• The minimum current (amperage) required to ignite the gas
Hydrogen 0.28 <0.5 75 >0.8 B IIC
or vapor. This is the basis for gas grouping relative to
Ethylene 0.65 0.5-0.9 108 0.45-0.8 C IIB
intrinsically safe circuits.
Propane 0.97 >0.9 146 <0.45 D IIA
The North American Division system groups gases into four
* For the IEC gases and vapors are subdivided according to the ratio of
Groups; A, B, C and D, where A is the most critical gorup. The
their minimum igniting currents (MIC) to that of laboratory methane.
IEC system groups the gases into only three Groups; A, B and
C, with C as the most critical group
The IEC gas groupings are divided into Group I for mining and
Explosionproof or flameproof enclosures are constructed to Group II for surface industrial applications. Equipment
withstand an internal gas explosion without damage to the approved for use in Group IIC is also safe to use with Groups
enclosure and to cool the hot gases produced by the explosion IIB and IIA gases. Equipment approved for use in Group IIB is
as they exit the enclosure along the flame paths. The gases in also safe to use with Group IIA gases. Under the North
the most critical gas groups (i.e. Groups A, B or IIC) require American system of gas grouping, there is not an official
longer flame paths to cool the gas and sometimes thicker walls hierarchy as in IEC. Equipment is marked only in accordance
to contain the increased pressure of the internal explosion. The with gas groups for which it has been tested. For example,
main factor in grouping gases for the design of explosionproof equipment tested with group B, C and D gases would be
enclosures is the Maximum Experimental Safe Gap (MESG). marked “B, C, D.”
MESG for a given gas is the maximum gap or opening
(expressed in mm), for a 25 mm-wide flame path, which does
not propagate an explosion of that gas.
8 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Basics of Explosion Protection

Equipment tested only with group B gas would be marked “B” Increased Safety Ex-e terminal boxes normally have T6
only. In practice however, the North American system is Temperature Classification, i.e. 85°C maximum surface
unofficially treated as if a hierarchy similar to IEC existed. temperature if routine tested, or 80ºC if only type tested, at an
ambient of 40°C. Apparatus with a T6 Classification has a very
high degree of safety and can be used for all temperature
2.5 TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION classes. (The only listed gas in the temperature class T6 (85°C)
The selection of electrical equipment for use in hazardous
is Carbon Disulfide.)
areas must ensure that the maximum surface temperature of
any part of the apparatus exposed to the potentially explosive
It is important to evaluate the maximum operating temperature
atmosphere, does not exceed the auto ignition temperature
of cables connected to electrical equipment, particularly if the
(i.e., the temperature at which the substance when heated will
cable is PVC insulated. They normally have a maximum
ignite spontaneously).
operating temperature of 70°C. This is also in conformance
with the IEC standard IEC 60079-0. To make full use of the
Temperature classifications according to the North American
maximum operating temperature of T6 classified equipment,
and IEC 79-0 standards are detailed in Table 2.5.
cables with a 95°C rated insulation should be used.
Table 2.5
T-numbers for North America and IEC The minimum concentrations of dust that will explode
Maximum
are normally two or three orders of magnitude above
Temperature Surface Temperature acceptable concentrations for workers.
Classification North America IEC
T1 450°C 450°C
T2 300°C 300°C 2.6 IGNITION SOURCES—DUSTS
T2A 280°C - Some air suspended dusts will explode if ignited from a source
T2B 260°C - with sufficient energy. Materials that can create dust explosions
T2C 230°C - include:
T3 200°C 200°C
• Natural organic materials (grain, linen, sugar)
T3A 180°C -
• Synthetic organic materials (plastics, organic pigments,
T3B 165°C -
pesticides)
T3C 160°C - • Coal and peat
T4 135°C 135°C • Metals (aluminum, magnesium, iron, zinc)
T4A 20°C -
T5 100°C 100°C
2.6.1 MINIMUM EXPLOSIVE CONCENTRATION
T6 85°C 85°C For air suspended dust to explode it must be present in
quantities at or above the Minimum Explosive Concentration
The reference ambient temperature of 40°C will be assumed (MEC). The MEC of dust is defined as:
unless otherwise stated on the apparatus labeling. Normal test
requirements also assume that the tested equipment is suitable • The minimum concentration of dust in air that will explode
for lower ambient temperatures of minus 20°C. when ignited, expressed in grams per cubic meter (g/m3) or
in ounces per cubic foot.
The T-Classification allocated to Certified Electrical Apparatus
is based on normal temperature at the most difficult operating Typically, the minimum concentrations of dust that will explode
conditions. For example, the most onerous condition for an are normally two or three orders of magnitude above
increased safety, Ex-e, terminal box would be an enclosure acceptable concentrations for workers and are normally present
fitted with the maximum permitted number of terminals with only inside process equipment such as coal pulverizers,
every terminal carrying its maximum rated current and enclosed conveyor transfer points, silos, grain elevators, etc.
maximum cable lengths connected to each terminal. For example a glowing 25-watt incandescent bulb cannot be
seen through a 2-meter dust cloud exceeding 40 g/m3, whereas
the MEC for coal dust is in the range of 60 g/m3. While dust
concentrations approaching these levels are not normally
present in working areas, accumulations of dust, when
disturbed, may result in temporary concentrations of dust above
An example of the the MEC. The accumulation of layers of dust on heat-producing
temperature test electrical equipment, such as motors, can prevent the release
conducted on an of heat from the equipment and may create temperatures hot
Ex-e terminal enough to ignite the dust layer. The burning dust if disturbed
enclosure. can simultaneously create an ignitable dust cloud and an
ignition source, resulting in a dust explosion. Thus, one of the
best methods to avoid dust explosions is to enforce good
housekeeping rules.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 9
Basics of Explosion Protection

Most sparks that occur from the operation


of electrical equipment have sufficient energy to
ignite most dust clouds.

2.6.3 DUST EXPLOSIONS


Dust explosions are categorized as primary and secondary
explosions. Primary explosions normally occur within
equipment where a dust cloud is ignited by some ignition
source. Secondary explosions are created by the dust
entrained in the blast wave from the primary explosion. The
heat from the primary explosion ignites the entrained dust,
resulting in further explosions. Often multiple secondary
explosions do more damage than the primary explosion.

The Ignition Sensitivity of dusts is a measure of the amount of


energy required to ignite the dust. Many dusts are capable of
being ignited by relatively low-energy sources, such as static
electricity. As static electricity can be created by the relative
motion of dust in enclosures, grounding and bonding of
transport equipment is of critical importance where dust is
Good housekeeping measures of eliminating dust deposits are important in transported.
Class II locations.
The Explosion Severity of dusts (also referred to as explosion
2.6.2 MINIMUM IGNITION TEMPERATURE violence) is a measure of the maximum explosion pressure and
The Minimum Ignition Temperature (MIT) for dust is defined the maximum rate of pressure rise and is equal to the maximum
as: rate of pressure rise in a standard test volume. Dusts with high
explosion severity include wheat grain, lignin, peat, milk
• The minimum temperature required, at normal atmospheric powder, soybean, maize starch, rice starch, wheat starch,
temperatures in the absence of spark or flame, to ignite a dust brown coal, charcoal, asphalt, cellulose, polyethylene,
layer or a dust cloud. polyurethane, acetylsalicylic acid, dimethylaminophenazone,
aluminum powder, magnesium, manganese, zinc, sulfur, fly
• For most dusts the “layer ignition temperature” is significantly ash, etc.
lower than the cloud ignition temperature. Tables providing
the ignition temperatures for dust will typically provide the The Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) of a dust cloud is a
lower of the layer or cloud ignition temperatures. In the IEC measure of the amount of spark energy to ignite it. In general
Series there are definitions for minimum ignition temperature most dust clouds require more energy to ignite than do gases
of dust clouds and dust layers. and vapors, however most sparks that occur from the operation
of electrical equipment have sufficient energy to ignite most
Minimum Cloud or dust clouds.
Layer Ignition Temp.
Class II, Group F °F °C Other factors that influence the ease of ignition of dusts are:
Asphalt, (Blown Petroleum Resin) 950 CI 510
Charcoal 356 180 • Particle size—Dust clouds composed of smaller particles
Coal, Kentucky Bituminous 356 180 will ignite more easily than dust clouds with larger particles.
Coal, Pittsburgh Experimental 338 170 • Moisture content—Increasing levels of moisture in dust will
increase the ignition temperature of the dust.
Coal, Wyoming – –
• Makeup of the dust cloud—Dusts which are not
Gilsonite 932 500
combustible, such as rock dust, can change the ignitable
Lignite, California 356 180 makeup of a dust cloud. This principle is often used in coal
Pitch, Coal Tar 1310 NL 710 mines where noncombustible dust is spread over the coal dust
Pitch, Petroleum 1166 NL 630 to prevent the occurrence of dust explosions.
Shale, Oil – –
See Appendix II “Dusts—Hazardous Substances Used in Business & For questions or comments, please contact the author at
Industry” paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com
10 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Area Classification

CHAPTER 3 There is a large opportunity for additional, lower


AREA CLASSIFICATION cost Zone 2 equipment as companies classify more
areas as Zone 2 outside of North America.
Many North American facilities using the Zone
concept in the future will classify Hazardous Locations 3.2 PRESENT DAY HAZARDOUS AREA
as Zone 2, which is equivalent to Division 2. CLASSIFICATIONS AND PRODUCT MIX
It is estimated that less than 5% of hazardous areas in North
America are classified as Division 1. The split of hazardous
3.1 COMPARISON BETWEEN DIVISIONS &
areas in Europe is just the opposite, with over 60%
ZONES of the areas classified as Zone 1. See Table 3.2. Because of
Outside of the USA many countries are migrating to the use of
this, the percentage of products offered for Hazardous
the Zone classification system, which gives them greater
Locations also varies from North America to Europe. The
flexibility for choices of equipment and wiring methods. Except
majority of hazardous area products in North America are for
for Switzerland and the United Kingdom, many of these facilities
Division 2 while in Europe they are for Zone 1 applications.
using the Zone concept outside of North America are classified
One reason is that the product standards for Zone 2 apparatus
as Zone 1. This is in direct conflict to areas in North America
have only recently been written.
where over 90% of hazardous areas are classified as Zone 2 or
Division 2. There were 3 primary catalysts for reclassifying Table 3.2
areas as Division 2 from Division 1: Comparison of Zones and Divisions
Time that Estimated Estimated
• Reduced cost—Division 2 installations are less expensive. hazardous gases % of Division % of Zone
Classified are present in areas in areas in
• Air pollution laws—These required the drastic reduction of Area ignitable concentrations North America Europe
fugitive emissions, which would normally escape in Division 1
Zone 0 Continuously <2%
areas.
• Safety—Most companies reduced emissions to create safer Div. 1 Normally Present <5%
working environments.
Zone 1 Occasionally in normal >60%
operations
It is logical to expect that most North American facilities using
the Zone concept in the future will classify Hazardous Locations Zone 2 Div. 2 Not normally present >95% <40%
as Zone 2, which is equivalent to Division 2.
Area classification is the determination of the
A comparison of the Division and Zone classification system is probable frequency and duration of the presence of
shown in Table 3.1. Division 2 is equivalent to Zone 2 while
gas, vapor or mist in excess of 100% of the LEL.
Division 1 is either Zone 0 or 1. Zone 0 is reserved for those
areas continuously hazardous (e.g., inside a vented fuel tank),
so other Division 1 areas would be classified as Zone 1.
3.3 AREA CLASSIFICATION—A PRACTICAL
Table 3.1 APPROACH
Classification System Comparison Area classification is the most important aspect of electrical
design in Hazardous Locations. Historically, the process of
1996 NEC classifying Hazardous Locations has not been well understood
(Article 505)
by many designers. As a consequence, the approach to “over-
Division & 1998 CEC
classify” to err on the side of safety has been the industry
Class I System Description Zone System Comments
standard.
Division 1 Hazardous Zone 0 Division 1 is split
under into Zone 0 and 1.
normal Zone 0 is a small
operations percentage of
Gases & Zone 1 locations usually
Vapors confined to inside
vented tanks.

Division 2 Not Zone 2 Zone 2 and


normally Division 2 are
hazardous essentially the
same.

Most hazardous areas located indoors were classified as Division 1.


(Old-style motor starters have been replaced by EBMs.)
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 11
Area Classification

While it was common practice prior to the early 1990s to classify While past practices achieved Zone 2 (Division 2) area
most indoor Class I Hazardous Locations as Zone 1 (Division classification by providing six air changes per hour by
1), many users now believe that most buildings function in mechanical means, recent experience has shown that in many
accordance with the definition for Class I, Zone 2. It is important Class I buildings, “adequate ventilation” often requires less than
to remember that the Hazardous Location definitions in the one air change per hour, and can be provided by the naturally
NEC and CEC are the basic requirements. There are many occurring ventilation. Often the reduced ventilation requirement
other industry documents such as the API Recommended eliminates the need for complicated and expensive ventilation
Practice for Area Classification which are only recommended systems and reduces the energy required to heat the building.
means of meeting the Code definitions and are not Code (Calculation formulas are also given in IEC 60079-10) However,
requirements. Any method that demonstrates compliance with there are many instances where buildings such as pumping
the area classification definitions meets the requirements of the stations are remotely located and not manned on a 24-hour
respective Code. basis. The buildings are designed as Zone 1 to accommodate
any unforeseen problems.
In most buildings the area classification choice is between Zone
1 and Zone 2. In making that choice there are a number of tools
that may be used. If it can be demonstrated that a building is
“adequately ventilated,” it meets one of the main requirements
of a Zone 2 classification. The other requirement for a Zone 2
classification is that in the event of an abnormal gas release
approaching or exceeding explosive levels, action must be
taken to correct the problem within a “short time.” Many
industrial users accept a 10-hour/per year “rule of thumb” limit
on exposure to “explosive gas atmospheres” for Zone 2
Hazardous Locations. If the building is on a site that is
continuously manned, or it is monitored by gas detection to shut
down the process, or alarmed to allow operating personnel to
correct the problem, the requirements for a Zone 2 classification
are often effectively met. Many skid platforms are not manned and are classified as Zone 1.

3.4 ADEQUATE VENTILATION 3.5 WHO CLASSIFIES HAZARDOUS


API RP505 — Recommended Practice for Classification of LOCATIONS?
Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities There is considerable debate around the world as to who is
Classified as Class I, Zone 0, Zone 1, and Zone 2 outlines a responsible for the classification of Hazardous Locations. The
number of methods for demonstrating or meeting the general consensus of opinion is that it is a task for chemical
requirement for “adequate ventilation.” One method that has and/or process engineers, but should include the advice of
been used for many years is to provide a minimum of six electrical and mechanical engineers in the analysis.
continuous air changes per hour. Another method is to carry out
a fugitive emissions study as outlined in Appendix B of the API If the North American Division method of area classification has
standard. For existing buildings a third method would be to been used on an existing plant then reference can be made to
measure the gas concentration in various areas of the building Appendix J of the Canadian Code, the National Electric Code
to determine if the requirement for “adequate ventilation” is Article 500-503 and the American Petroleum Institute
actually met. Permanently installed gas detection system Publications RP 500B and RP 500C. Articles 500-505 of the
records are often available to provide historical data. In recent NEC, Section 18 of the Canadian Code and the IEC Standard
years a combination of fugitive emission studies and 79-10 publication provide guidance on classifying Hazardous
measurement have been used to demonstrate a building is Locations for the Zone system. In any case a thorough analysis
adequately ventilated. should be undertaken by the responsible designers, chemical
or electrical engineers to determine the correct Hazardous
Locations classification. The following portions in this section
define the classifications and provide insight on how the rest of
the world classifies Hazardous Locations.

Gas detectors in process plants detect the presence of volatile vapors.


12 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Area Classification

Article 501.1 of the NEC permits properly marked operation of equipment. A storage room which houses 55-
Class I, Zone 0,1 or 2 equipment to be installed in gallon drums of volatile solvents would be a typical example of
Division 2. a Division 2 location. This classification approximates Zone 2 in
IEC Standards.

3.6 CLASS I HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS 3.8 DEFINITION OF ZONES


The classification of Hazardous Locations is a complex subject. Class I locations can be further divided into three Zones based
It would be ideal if all electrical equipment could be installed in upon frequency of occurrence and duration of an explosive gas
safe areas so that no danger from electrical ignition was atmosphere as follows:
possible in the process plant, but this situation is seldom likely.
Therefore the classification of areas is an essential design 3.8.1 ZONE 0
consideration. (a) Zone 0, comprising Class I locations in which explosive gas
atmospheres are present continuously or are present for long
Area classification in Class I locations is the determination of periods;
the probable frequency and duration of the presence of an
explosive gas atmosphere in a Hazardous Location. Zone 0 locations are typically locations such as the vapor
space above the liquid in a tank. In Zone 0 locations it is
An explosive gas atmosphere is defined as: probable that the gas concentration will exceed 100% of LEL
“A mixture with air, under atmospheric conditions, of flammable for very long periods. Table 3 in paragraph 6.5.8.3 of API-
substances in the form of gas, vapor, or mist in which, after RP505—Recommended Practice for Classification of
ignition, combustion spreads throughout the unconsumed Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities
mixture.” Classified as Class I, Zone 0, Zone 1, and Zone 2, suggests
Zone 0 locations are those where there is a flammable
In other words, area classification is the determination of the mixture typically more than 1,000 hours per year. Zone 0
probable frequency and duration of the presence of gas, vapor locations typically do not exist outside of enclosed spaces
or mist in excess of 100% of the LEL. Areas where an explosive except for the area immediately around vents which are
gas atmosphere is likely to be present more frequently or for venting from a Zone 0 location.
longer periods will have “higher” area classification than areas
where explosive gas atmospheres occur less frequently or for
shorter periods.

3.7 DEFINITION OF DIVISIONS


North American Hazardous Locations are divided into Class
and Divisions:

A Class I, Division 1 location is one where an explosive


atmosphere is presumed to be present in normal operation
either all or part of the time. These are typically manufacturing
areas such as a pharmaceutical plant where volatile gases
escape from vessels during fermentation. In theory, Division 1
locations encompass both Zones 0 and 1 as designated in IEC
Standards.

The inside of a vented storage tank is typically Zone 0.

3.8.2 ZONE 1
(b) Zone 1, comprising Class I locations in which:
(i) Explosive gas atmospheres are likely to occur in normal
operation; or
Division 1 areas
encompass
Table 3 in paragraph 6.5.8.3 of API-RP505—Recommended
Zones 0, 1 & 2.
Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations
at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I, Zone 0, Zone 1,
and Zone 2, suggests Zone 1 locations are those where there
A Class I, Division 2 location is one where volatile flammable is a flammable mixture more than 10 hours per year and less
liquids or flammable gases are handled, processed or used, but than 1,000 hours per year. Zone 1 locations normally occur
which are normally enclosed in containers from which they can around vents or in enclosed areas where there are
only escape in the case of accidental rupturing or abnormal intermittent or continuously open processes (for example, a
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 13
Area Classification

paint spray booth). When classifying indoor locations it is 3.8.3 ZONE 2


common to treat them as Zone 1 if it cannot be demonstrated (c) Zone 2, comprising Class I locations in which:
the conditions for a Zone 2 location exist. An example of this (i) Explosive gas atmospheres are not likely to occur in normal
situation would be a remote unattended gas compressor operation and, if they do occur, they will exist for a short time
building where there is no gas monitoring. An abnormal leak only; or
resulting in gas concentration exceeding 100% of LEL could
conceivably persist for well above the 10-hour threshold for Explosive gas atmospheres will not occur in the air except as
Zone 1 locations. the result of an abnormal situation such as a failed pump
packing, flange leak, etc. Also when an abnormal situation does
occur it will be corrected within a short time. API-RP505—
Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for
Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities Classified as
Class I, Zone 0, Zone 1, and Zone 2 suggests Zone 2 locations
are those where explosive gas atmospheres will exist for less
than 10 hours per year. Most Inspection Authorities require that
indoor locations be classified as Zone 1 unless it can be
demonstrated the conditions for Zone 2 exist. Indoor locations
Remote pumping stations should have gas monitors installed to detect gas in remote unattended and unmonitored facilities most often
leaks. cannot meet the 10-hour per year rule of thumb. The most
(ii) Explosive gas atmospheres may exist frequently because of common means of meeting the 10-hour rule of thumb in remote
repair or maintenance operations or because of leakage; facilities is to install gas detection to shut down and
depressurize the facility or to send an alarm to alert personnel
Examples of Zone 1 locations that exist as the result of repair to take corrective action.
or maintenance are the areas around a pig trap where gas or
vapor is released each time the trap is opened or the area It is important that means to ensure the limited exposure time
around a filter where gas is released each time the filter is is met in Zone 2 locations as the design requirements for
changed. These areas are typically limited to the immediate equipment acceptable in Zone 2 locations are based on
area of the equipment as the amount of gas released is limited exposure time.
relatively small and is diluted to safe concentrations a short
distance from the equipment. (ii) Flammable volatile liquids, flammable gases, or vapors are
handled, processed, or used, but in which liquids, gases, or
vapors are normally confined within closed containers or closed
systems from which they can escape only as a result of
accidental rupture or breakdown of the containers or systems or
the abnormal operation of the equipment by which the liquids or
gases are handled, processed, or used; or

This is the original wording for Class I, Division 2 locations prior


Wellhead and gas detector. to the addition of the IEC definition above in the 1998 Code. It
has similar meaning to (i) except it does not clearly outline the
limited exposure time.
(iii) The location is adjacent to a Class I, Zone 0 location, from
which explosive gas atmospheres could be communicated.

Typically these areas would exist around a vent from a Zone


0 location. The size of the Zone 1 area around the Zone 0
area will depend upon the rate of release of the gas or vapor,
the vapor density of the material released and the conditions
in the area where it is released.

Areas where volatile liquids


are stored are normally
Outside the classified as Zone 2
Zone 0 area is or Division 2.
a Zone 1 area.
14 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Area Classification

(iii) Explosive gas atmospheres are normally prevented by Similar to (b)(iii), there will normally be a Zone 2 area
adequate ventilation but which may occur as a result of failure classified around a Zone 1 area surrounding a vent. It is also
or abnormal operation of the ventilation system; or common for there to be a Zone 2 location around enclosed
areas classified as Zone 1 unless there is a “vapor-tight
Adequate ventilation is defined as “natural or artificial barrier” around the Zone 1 area. For example, a process
ventilation that is sufficient to prevent the accumulation of building with doors windows and other openings in the walls
significant quantities of vapor-air or gas-air mixtures in will typically have a Zone 2 area around all or portions of the
concentrations above 25% of their lower explosive limit.” building.
During “normal operation” there are small gas and vapor
releases from various components of the piping system such
as pump seals, valve packing and flange gaskets. These
releases are relatively small in comparison to abnormal
releases due to equipment failures. These releases are
referred to as “fugitive emissions.” Adequate ventilation for an
enclosed area is therefore the amount of ventilation required
to continuously dilute the fugitive emissions in that enclosed
area to concentrations below 25% of their LEL. (In practice it
is uncommon to encounter gas concentrations above 1 or 2%
of LEL.)

Appendix B of API-RP505—Recommended Practice for


Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at
Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I, Zone 0, Zone 1, and Outside the Zone 1 area is a Zone 2 area.
Zone 2 outlines a procedure for determining the fugitive
emissions in an enclosed area and calculating the amount of As outlined above, area classification is based on the probable
ventilation required to achieve “adequate ventilation.” For frequency and duration of the occurrence of “explosive gas
existing facilities it is also possible to determine whether an atmospheres at a location.” It is done primarily to determine the
enclosed area is adequately ventilated by measurement of the type of equipment that is suitable for use in the area. The design
emissions in the area during “normal operation.” of Hazardous Location equipment is based on the likely
exposure time to “explosive gas atmospheres” as defined
Adequate ventilation deals only with the ventilation required above.
to dilute the normal or fugitive emissions. It is not intended to
ensure that gas concentrations during an abnormal release 3.9 ZONE CLASSIFICATION SUMMARY
will not reach concentrations above 100% of the LEL. In an The primary activity for Area Classification is to list the process
“adequately ventilated area,” explosive gas atmospheres equipment in the area under consideration and identify all
may be experienced as the result of a loss of ventilation or an potential sources of flammable material. An estimate must be
abnormal gas or vapor release. In addition to “adequate made of the duration and frequency of each release in order to
ventilation,” it is also important to ensure that measures are classify the emission as Continuous, Primary or Secondary and
in place to ensure that explosive concentrations of gas exist the rate of potentially explosive atmosphere into the
for “a short time only.” As outlined above, API RP500 surrounding area.
suggests a short time to be less than 10 hours per year in
total. For unattended facilities, it is usually necessary to install • Continuous Grade (1000 hours/year) leads to a Zone 0.
gas detection systems to either shut down the facilities or to • Primary Grade (100 hours/year) leads to a Zone 1.
send an alarm to alert personnel to take corrective action • Secondary Grade (10 hour/year in total) leads to a Zone 2.
when an abnormal release of gas or vapor occurs. Typical
industry practice is to alarm and initiate additional ventilation
when the LEL in a building reaches 20% and to shut down
3.10 EXAMPLES OF HAZARDOUS AREA ZONE
the process in the building if the LEL reaches 40%. CLASSIFICATION

(iv) The location is adjacent to a Class I, Zone 1 location from ZONE 0


which explosive gas atmospheres could be communicated, • Areas within process equipment developing flammable gas
unless such communication is prevented by adequate positive- or vapors.
pressure ventilation from a source of clean air, and effective • Areas within enclosed pressure vessels or storage tanks.
safeguards against ventilation failure are provided. • Areas around vent pipes which discharge continually or for
long periods.
• Areas over or near the surface of flammable materials.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 15
Area Classification

ZONE 1
• Areas above roofs outside storage tanks.
• Areas above floating storage tanks.
• Areas within a specified radius around the outlet pipes and
safety valves.
• Rooms without ventilation openings from a Zone 1 area.
• Areas around flexible pipelines and hoses.
• Areas around sample taking points.
• Areas around seals of pumps, compressors and similar
primary sources.

ZONE 2
• Areas around flanges and connecting valves.
• Areas outside Zone 1 around outlet pipes and safety valves.
• Areas around vent openings from Zone 2.

– ZONE 0

– ZONE 1

ZONE 2 –

Typical Zone designation.

Zone 0 is inside the vented tank and near the vent.


Zone 1 is a perimeter around the vent.
Zone 2 is the area outside the tank.

For questions or comments, please contact the author at


paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com
16 Cooper Crouse-Hinds IEC Digest
Methods of Protection

CHAPTER 4 term EEx can sometimes cause confusion compared to the


METHODS OF PROTECTION symbol Ex. The term EEx means that the apparatus is
Explosion Protected (Ex) to a CENELEC European Standard
demonstrated by the additional “E”.
An explosion-protected device will not create an
internal, or transmit an external ignition source, either
by spark, or hot surfaces.

4.0 PRINCIPLES OF EXPLOSIONPROOF


PROTECTION
The definition of Explosion Protection is electrical apparatus
designed with specific safety measures to prevent ignition of a
surrounding gas or vapor during normal operation. An
explosion-protected device will not create an internal, or
transmit an external ignition source, either by spark, or hot Zone-rated equipment will have the AEx mark for the US market and
surfaces. It is therefore Ex Protected to a recognized Ex mark for the Canadian and IEC markets.
International or National Standard and certified by a recognized
test authority (UL, CSA, FM). A list of the Ex Protection concepts for electrical apparatus is
given in the CENELEC and IEC Standards for electrical
The U.S. recognizes the “AEx” and Canada recognizes the “Ex” apparatus construction and test requirements. Table 4.1 shows
marking for products installed in Hazardous Locations. The where these protection techniques can be used.

Table 4.1 - Types of Protection

Method of Symbol Protection Principle Zone Standards


Protection CENELEC IEC

Flameproof d Withstand and contain the explosion & prevent 1 EN 50 018 60079-1
transmission of explosion to surrounding
external atmosphere.

Increased e No arcs, sparks, or hot surfaces. 1 EN 50 019 60079-7


Safety

Intrinsic Safety ia Removes ignition from explosion triangle through 0 EN 50 020 60079-11
ib prevention of high fault current & voltage. 1 EN 50 020 60079-11

Pressurization p Removes fuel from explosion triangle by passing 1 EN 50 016 60079-2


protective gas through enclosure.

Non-Sparking nA No arcs, sparks, or hot surfaces. 2 EN 50 021 60079-15


nC 2 EN 50 021 60079-15
nR 2 EN 50 021 60079-15

Powder Filled q Electrical components are covered with a filling 1 EN 50 017 60079-5
medium, preventing presence of explosive
gas-air mixtures.

Oil Immersion o Electrical parts are immersed in oil, preventing 1 EN 50 015 60079-6
exposure of arc or spark to explosive atmosphere.

Encapsulation m Component parts which could ignite an explosive 1 EN 50 028 -----


atmosphere are enclosed in resin compound.

Special s Special protective techniques not covered by 1 -----


Protection standards 2 National
Cooper Crouse-Hinds IEC Digest 17
Methods of Protection

4.1 FLAMEPROOF TYPE ‘d’ PROTECTION These devices pass the explosionproof tests because the
DESIGN CONCEPTS internal volume containing the contacts and the gas-air mixture
is very small so the explosive force is limited. The hot gases,
The IEC standards permit routine tests which allow which are minimized, escape through more elaborate labyrinth
Ex-d enclosures to be individually tested at 1.5 times or cylindrical joints. These switches are now widely used in
the maximum pressures. Explosionproof enclosures control stations and panels where the current levels are typically
less than 16 amps.
are tested to 4 times the maximum pressures.

4.1.1 FLAMEPROOF TYPE “d” PROTECTION


Ex-d is a type of Ex Protection in which the parts that can ignite
an explosive gas air mixture are placed in an enclosure which
can withstand the pressure developed during an internal
explosion, and which prevents transmission of the explosion to
the surrounding external atmosphere.

The Ex-d non-metallic switch has a small internal volume.

Other innovative enclosure techniques use sintered bronze


plates as flame paths in non-metallic enclosures to make larger
switches up to 100 amps explosionproof.

Flameproof enclosures contain the explosion and allow gases to cool as they
escape across the joints.

Field drilling of flameproof, Ex-d enclosures is not


allowed. To maintain the certification, flameproof Larger amperage switches
enclosures can only be modified by the manufacturer. such as the non-metallic 100 amp
RSWP use sintered bronze plates
as the explosionproof joint.
4.1.2 FLAMEPROOF VS. EXPLOSIONPROOF—
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE? 4.1.3 FLAMEPROOF APPLICATIONS
Flameproof enclosures may differ from explosionproof Flameproof protection is often used for motors and switchgear.
enclosures in their design. The major difference is that Since very little heat is generated in switchgear, the surface
explosionproof enclosures are constructed to withstand 4 times temperature of the enclosure is only slightly higher than the
the explosive pressure of the gases. With flameproof surrounding atmosphere. In most cases the switchgear satisfies
enclosures, manufacturers can construct the enclosure to meet the temperature classes T5 and T6.
only 1.5 times the explosive pressure if each enclosure is tested
to this pressure before leaving the factory, referred to as a Motors dissipate more heat. In order not to exceed the
routine test. Otherwise, construction to 4 times the explosive permissible limiting temperature, it may be necessary to lower
pressure is required. Most flameproof enclosures are the rated output of a flameproof motor as compared to a
individually tested at 1.5 times the explosive pressure while standard motor. Examples of components requiring flameproof
most explosionproof enclosures withstand 4 times the explosive protection:
pressures.
• Motors with slip rings and commutators
In North America standards for explosionproof equipment are • Three-phased squirrel cage motors
quite similar to flameproof. Explosionproof equipment has been • Switchgear with opening and closing contacts such as motor
evolving from large, cast explosionproof enclosures which protection switches, circuit breakers and air break contactors
require conduit seals to small, much lighter factory sealed • Fuses
equipment or components containing arcing contacts. • Transformers
• Lighting fixtures
This evolution of products has made many explosionproof and • Communication equipment measuring instruments
flameproof products very similar. For example, factory sealed,
explosionproof switches are made of non-metallic materials. Refer to Chapter 7 Installation of Explosionproof and
Flameproof Enclosures for more details.
18 Cooper Crouse-Hinds IEC Digest
Methods of Protection

4.2 INCREASED SAFETY TYPE “e” • Specified creepage distances as detailed in EN 50-019 and
PROTECTION DESIGN CONCEPTS IEC 60079-7 for the grade of insulation material (CTI) and
subsequent maximum voltage rating.
The increased safety concept is only suitable for • Temperature limitation,
nonsparking apparatus and is commonly used in • Current de-rating of the terminals (and conductors)
Zone 1 designated hazardous areas.

4.2.1 INCREASED SAFETY TYPE “e”


PROTECTION
The definition of Type “e” Protection is where increased
measures are taken to prevent the possibility of excessive heat,
arcs, or sparks occurring on internal or external parts of the
apparatus in normal operation. The increased safety concept
can be used for electrical equipment such as terminal boxes,
lighting, transformers, instruments, and motors. Rail mounted Ex-e terminal assembly terminal boxes in the Cooper Crouse-
Hinds GHG74 Terminal box.
Ex-e prevents the
possibility of 4.3 INTRINSIC SAFETY TYPE “ia”
excessive heat, PROTECTION DESIGN CONCEPTS
arcs or sparks from
occuring on
internal or external Intrinsic Safety is normally applied to sensing or
parts of the control circuits which are 24 VDC/AC or less.
apparatus in
normal operation.
Intrinsic safety offers savings and benefits to OEMs
that sell to the global markets since it is more widely
accepted and used in Europe.
4.2.2 ENCLOSURES
General requirements for enclosures are: ingress protection to 4.3.1 INTRINSIC SAFETY TYPE “ia, ib”
at least IP 54 (See section 5.3) and additional tests for non- PROTECTION
metallic parts including thermal endurance, resistance to Whereas the other protective techniques use mechanical
solvents, ultraviolet light, surface conductivity and mechanical means to prevent ignition from electrical faults, intrinsic safety,
impact resistance to either 4 or 7 joules depending on the use Ex-ia is an electrical protective measure. This protective
of the enclosure. The increased safety concept is only suitable technique removes ignition from the explosion triangle. Intrinsic
for nonsparking apparatus and is commonly used in Zone 1 Safety, used in both Zones 0 & 1 and Division 1, prevents high
hazardous areas. fault currents and voltage from occurring in control circuits.
Intrinsic Safety cannot be applied to power circuits.

4.3.2 EX-ia LIMITS THE ENERGY


Voltage and current limitations are determined by ignition
Cooper Crouse-Hinds
curves, as seen in Fig. 4.2. A circuit with a combination of 30 V
manufactures
and 150 mA would fall on the ignition level of some gases. This
non-metallic and
combination of voltage and current could create a spark with
stainless steel
enough energy to ignite the mixture of gases and oxygen.
Ex-e enclosures.
Intrinsically safe applications always stay below these curves ,
using a safety factor of 1.5, where the operating level of energy
is about 1 watt or less. There also are capacitance and
4.2.3 TERMINALS inductance curves which must be examined in intrinsically safe
General requirements for terminals are: circuits.

• They must be designed so the conductor can be


easily inserted and clamped. Contact pressure must be Ex-ia prevents
maintained without reducing the cross sectional area of the excess voltage and
conductor and a positive locking device must prevent current from
conductors from working loose by vibration. creating sparks
with enough
energy to ignite
gases.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds IEC Digest 19
Methods of Protection

thermocouples, RTDs, LEDs, noninductive potentiometers and


resistors. These simple devices no not need to be approved as
intrinsically safe. If they are connected to an approved “barrier,”
the circuit is considered intrinsically safe.

A complex device can create or store levels of energy that


exceed those listed above. Typical examples are transmitters,
Resistance curves transducers, solenoid valves and relays. These devices need to
where (in theory) the be approved as being intrinsically safe.
combination of voltage
and current will have For complete details visit www.isbarriers.com.
enough energy to
ignite volatile gases.
4.4 PRESSURIZED TYPE “p” PROTECTION
Ex-ia ensures that the
energy in the circuit is
DESIGN CONCEPTS
always below these
Ex-p protection is similar to purging. It guards against
curves.
the ingress of the external atmosphere into an
enclosure or room by maintaining a positive pressure
All intrinsically safe circuits have three components, the field above that of the external atmosphere.
device (sensor or instrument), the energy-limiting device, also
known as the barrier, and the field wiring. There are 3
components to a barrier that limit current and voltage: a resistor, 4.4.1 PRESSURIZED TYPE “p” PROTECTION
at least two zener diodes and a fuse. The resistor limits the Pressurization, which is a similar to purging, removes fuel from
current to a specific value known as the short circuit current, Isc. the explosion triangle by passing a quantity of protective gas
The zener diodes limit the voltage to a value referred to as the through the enclosure. This ensures that any potentially
open circuit voltage, VOC. The fuse will open when the diode explosive mixture that may be present inside the system is
conducts. This interrupts the circuit, which prevents the diode expelled, and the mixture reduced to a concentration well below
from burning and prevents excess voltage from reaching the the lower flammable limit. It guards against the ingress of the
Hazardous Location. There are always at least two zener external atmosphere into an enclosure or room by maintaining
diodes in parallel in each intrinsically safe barrier. If one diode a positive pressure above that of the external atmosphere, e.g..
should fail, the other will operate, providing complete protection. normally by an overpressure of 0.5 mbar (50 Pa or 0.007 psi).

Cooper Normally air is the protective gas used provided that the oxygen
Crouse-Hinds offers content is not more than 21%. Alternatively, an inert gas such
grounded as nitrogen may be used.
and isolated
intrinsically safe
barriers in addition to
intrinsically safe I/O.
See Chapter 9 for
complete details.

There are 2 categories of intrinsically safe protection. Ex-ia is


used in Zones 0, 1 and 2 while Ex-ib can only be used in Zones
1 & 2. Ex-ia barriers offer added redundancy (zener diodes) for
voltage protection. Virtually all intrinsically safe barriers are
classified as Ex-ia.
Ex-p pressurization by continuous dilution of air removes fuel from the
enclosure.
4.3.3 Ex-ia APPLICATIONS
Intrinsic Safety can only be used on instrumentation, control and Pressurization is used to overcome installation problems in
sensing circuits where the voltage is typically 24 VDC and less hazardous areas where other explosive protected techniques
than 100 mA. Instruments and sensors in the hazardous area are would be difficult or too expensive. This technique became
classified as either simple or complex devices. Simple apparatus popular with the installation of programmable logic computers
is defined in paragraph 3.12 of the ANSI/ISA-RP 12.6-1987 as a and computer monitors in Hazardous Locations. The only
device which will neither generate nor store more than 1.2 volts, feasible method of protection was Ex-p.
0.1 amps, 25 mW or 20 µJ. Examples are simple contacts,
20 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Methods of Protection

There are few limitations on the types of electrical components Type “n” is very similar to nonincendive that has been used by
that can be protected by the pressurized concept. Some typical North American manufacturers for many years, but only
applications for pressurization include analyzer rooms, offshore recently has the IEC begun to develop guidelines on how to
oil platform accommodations, large (high voltage) rotating apply this technique. IEC 60079-15 defines requirements for
machines and instrument panels. To prevent the ingress of this equipment. Present thinking within the IEC is that
flammable materials, the pressurized gas must be carefully certification will not be required for Zone 2 equipment as it is for
controlled, requiring accurate pressure control systems for both Zones 0 and 1. While this will be a cost savings for everyone, it
pressure and flow measurement. If the pressure fails or, the remains to be seen whether the users will accept self-
purge cycle has not been completed, the pressurized enclosure certifications.
must be “volt free,” meaning power is disconnected to the
enclosure. Although the basic principles of pressurization are Contained within the Type “n” guidelines are the following
simple, the practical aspects are usually considerably more definitions of hazardous area protection.
complex.
Enclosed-break devices—These devices are applied when
energy is limited. They have small internal volume, use resilient
4.5 NON-SPARKING TYPE “n” PROTECTION gasket seals, and are subject to ignition testing similar to a
DESIGN CONCEPTS Westerberg test, i.e. the device is put in a box and both the
device and the box are filled with a flammable mixture. The
Present thinking within the IEC is that certification will device is operated with maximum rated voltage and current and
not be required for Zone 2 equipment as it is for if no damage or external ignition occurs, the device passes the
Zones 0 and 1. test.
Nonincendive components—Energy is limited and external
ignition may not occur.
4.5.1 NONSPARKING TYPE “n” PROTECTION
For Zone 2 applications there is an option different from Zone 1 Hermetically sealed devices—Reliability requirements are
referred to as a type of protection “n,” sometimes called “Ex-n” applied to fusion seals.
or nonsparking. Type “n” apparatus is standard industrial Sealed devices—Requirements cover construction and
equipment which in normal operation will not produce arcs, resilient gasket seals.
sparks or surface temperatures high enough to cause ignition.
Energy limited apparatus and circuits—This is similar to
The apparatus has an IP rating called Ingress Protection which
North American nonincendive, except that the device and
is similar to NEMA enclosure ratings such as NEMA 4,
circuits need not be tested with ground faults or short circuits.
hosetight. A nonincendive component is limited in use to the
particular circuit for which it has been shown to be non-ignition
capable. Unlike intrinsic safety, there is no restriction on the 4.6 POWDER FILLED TYPE “q” PROTECTION
energy levels. DESIGN CONCEPTS
Powder filled, Ex-q, protection method is generally
only used for small transformers, capacitors and on
electrical components that have no moving parts.

Ex-n prevents or
limits electrical 4.6.1 POWDER FILLED TYPE “q”
apparatus sparking PROTECTION
in Zone 2. Powder filling originated in France as a concept in 1954, but it
was not generally recognized as an Ex Protection concept until
4.5.2 Ex-n APPLICATIONS the publication of IEC Standard 60079-5 in 1967.
Refer to Appendix 6 for more details on non-sparking.
For particular types of equipment such as motors and This protection method is typically only used for small
receptacles detailed requirements are applied: transformers, capacitors and on electrical components that
have no moving parts. The protection consists of a sealed
• Motors must have secure rotor bars and fans, ventilation enclosure (normally with a vent) containing quartz sand (the
screens, adequate clearances and tight terminal boxes. origin of the “q” description), powder or glass beads.
• Plugs and receptacles must be of the locking type, designed
so incorrect connection is not possible, and labeled, “Do Not
Disconnect When Energized.”
• Luminaries may be incandescent, fluorescent, or other high
intensity discharge lamp except for low-pressure sodium, but
must be marked with the lamp rating and information relevant
to the temperature class. Lamps must be enclosed,
nonsparking, and meet other safety requirements.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 21
Methods of Protection

The enclosed electrical components are covered and The Ex-q concept was
surrounded by the filling medium. This ensures that under originally used for the
normal use no arc can be created which is able to ignite the electronic ballast in the
exposive mixture inside the enclosure and the surrounding SpecOne eLLK
hazardous area. fluorescent luminaries.
(The ballast was
redesigned in 1992 to the
Ex-d design.) If these
devices fail, they are
replaced “like for like”
from the original
manufacturer as a
Ex-q surrounds certified spare part. The
electrical user cannot repair them..
apparatus in sand.
4.7 OIL IMMERSION TYPE “o” PROTECTION
DESIGN CONCEPTS
4.6.2 Ex-q APPLICATIONS
This protection concept is normally suitable up to and including There are very few examples of Ex-o certified
Group IIC gases and the T6 temperature classification, in Zone products installed in hazardous areas even though
1 or 2 hazardous area locations. the standards permit its use in Zones 1 and 2.
The enclosure construction requirements are a pressure test of
0.5 bar (1 bar = 14.5 psi) over-pressure for 1 minute and, if not 4.7.1 OIL IMMERSION TYPE “o” PROTECTION
protected by another enclosure, a minimum Ingress Protection The Oil Immersion Ex-o concept has historically been used for
of IP 54, the same requirement for Ex-e enclosures. If the q- heavy duty switchgear, motor starters and transformers. The
component is protected by another enclosure (e.g. a capacitor standard for design and testing of Ex-o type electrical apparatus
in the type of protection “q” built into a light enclosure) then no is IEC 60079-6.
specific requirements for the type of IP protection is required.

When the enclosure is filled with the “q” medium (quartz sand,
powder or glass beads) there must be no voids in the Ex-o immerses
enclosure. electrical
apparatus in oil to
The maximum distance from live parts of electrical components prevent arcs or
to earth fitted inside the metal enclosure or metal screen is sparks from
specified and, depending on the applied voltage, can vary from igniting volatile
10 mm at 250 volts to 50 mm at 6,600 volts. If the enclosure is gases.
permanently factory sealed and the voltage does not exceed
500 volts, the minimum distance between live parts or live parts The basic principle as shown above is to immerse the electrical
to earth can be reduced by 5 mm. parts in mineral oil, which will prevent any exposure of the
arcing or sparking to the an explosive atmosphere. It will also
If there are “flying leads” from the apparatus, they must be quench arcs and limit the temperature rise on electrical parts.
connected to Ex-e certified terminals.
Standards for oil immersion protection, Ex-o, require that all
parts capable of producing arcs or sparks must be immersed in
the oil at a depth not be than 25 mm. A method to check the oil
level must be provided, e.g., by a sight glass or by some other
reliable method.

Some mineral oils used in switchgear apparatus produce


acetylene and hydrogen gas when arcing occurs. Because of
the risk of fire or an explosion with oil immersion, this application
for apparatus in hazardous areas has been generally restricted.
In the Petro-Chemical industries there are very few examples of
Ex-o certified products installed in hazardous areas even
though the standards permit its use in Zones 1 and 2.
22 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Methods of Protection

4.8 ENCAPSULATION TYPE “m” PROTECTION


DESIGN CONCEPTS
Encapsulation is finding increased usage for printed
circuit boards that are assembled in small rail-
mounted housings similar to terminals.

4.8.1 ENCAPSULATION TYPE “m”


PROTECTION
Encapsulation is a type of protection whereby parts that are
capable of igniting an explosive atmosphere, by either sparking
or heating, are enclosed in a compound is such a way that the
explosive atmosphere cannot be ignited under operating or
installation conditions. The selected compound must be in line
with the requirements given in IEC 60079-18 and may be any
thermosetting, thermoplastic, epoxy, resin (cold curing) or
elastomeric material with or without fillers and/or additives, in
their solid state. The temperature range must satisfy the
requirements of an appropriate standard for this type of
protection. (Thermal stability at maximum operating
temperature.)

Ex-m encloses all


ignitable
component parts in
resin, preventing
contact with
explosive gases.

When considering the safety aspects of Ex-m encapsulation,


the design must account for:

• Resistors, capacitors, optoisolators, diodes etc., must not


operate at more than 2/3 of their rated voltage.
• The temperature rise of components and wiring must be
limited.
• Voids and air pockets other than those for relays or other
devices must be avoided.
• The effect of a component’s short-circuit during fault
conditions.

The Ex-m encapsulation protects electronic circuit relays,


timers, lamp test devices and components in Zones 1 or 2
hazardous areas. Encapsulation is finding increased usage for
printed circuit boards that are assembled in small rail-mounted
housings similar to terminals.

For questions or comments, please contact the author at


paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 23
Testing and Approvals

CHAPTER 5 Table 5.1


TESTING AND APPROVALS Methods of Ex Protection Standards
Electrical equipment for gases, vapors and mists
The CEC and Article 501-1 of the NEC allow the use Code CENELEC (EN) IEC
of Zone 0, 1, and 2 equipment in Division 2 locations.
General requirements 50014 60079-0
Oil immersion o 50015 60079-6
5.1 HAZARDOUS AREA ELECTRICAL
Pressurized p 50016 60079-2
EQUIPMENT STANDARDS
Changes in electrical codes are similar to changes in tax codes. Powder filled q 50017 60079-5
Most times the goal of simplification is lost as new rules are Increased safety e 50019 60079-7
crafted in the hope of leveling the playing field. To clarify
matters, insertions are made in the text to explain the others. Flameproof enclosure d 50018 60079-1
Trying the meld the old and new codes together becomes Intrinsic safety ia 50020 60079-11
inexplicable to the lay person. To resolve this the Canadian
Code adopted the IEC standards in Section 18 and moved Intrinsic Safety ib 50020 60079-11
previous classification methods such as Divisions to Appendix Encapsulated m 50028 60079-18
J. The U.S., on the other hand, is building upon Article 505 to
allow Hazardous Locations to be classified as either Zones or Type of Protection “n” n 50021 60079-15
Divisions. Given the choice most U.S. users to date have
elected to remain with their current method of classifications, The third-party approval process remains the major
namely Divisions. However, the CEC and Article 501-1 of the challenge and hurdle to installing and using new
NEC now allows the use of Zone 0, 1 & 2 equipment in Division equipment.
2 locations. While both of these codes have made great strides
in giving users a wider choice of products, the third-party
approval process remains the main challenge and hurdle to 5.2 CERTIFICATION OF Ex PROTECTED
installing and using new equipment. This section will sort out EQUIPMENT - APPROVALS VS.
some of the complexities of the approval and marking of CERTIFICATIONS
equipment. The term “Approval” is no longer a preferred term because it
suggests that the test authority approved the use of a particular
5.1.1 NATIONAL STANDARDS & CODES OF product. The preferred term is “Certified.” The definition of
certification is that a piece of electrical apparatus has been
PRACTICE
examined and tested by a recognized authority and found to
Many countries base their National Standards and Codes of
comply with the requirements of an appropriate standard.
Practice on IEC or nationally published standards. The U.S.
adopted IEC equipment and classification standards with
technical differences to U.S. standards included in the Annex of 5.2.1 TEST AUTHORITIES
each document. Canada adopted the IEC 79 series of Nationally Recognized Test Labs (NRTLs) are organizations
standards. CENELEC is the European Committee for that can certify electrical equipment for compliance with a
Electrotechnical Standardization. It has been officially standard for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (Table
recognized as the standard organization for the European 5.2). Most of these NRTLs have reciprocal agreements which
Union to produce a single set of requirements for all 19 allow other labs outside of their country to test and certify
countries. CENELEC publishes standards for the European equipment to the countries standards. The most notable of
market which are referred to as EN (European Standards). (See these agreements is the cUL mark which signifies that UL has
Table 5.1.) The CENELEC EN and IEC 79 standards are tested and certified the equipment to the Canadian standards.
closely aligned. European countries have started to adopt the
IEC standards without modifications directly as EU Standards. There are three types of certificates for equipment; certificate
Example: IEC 60079-0 = EN 60079-0. of conformity, component certificates, and certification of Ex
electrical apparatus. OEMs should pay close attention to teh
certificate requirements when they ship products to European
users.
24 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Testing and Approvals

Table 5.2 Many times component certificates apply to flameproof


NRTLs of Various Countries enclosures (see 5.7). OEMs who install additional equipment
Country Test Authority and wiring inside must then have the enclosure tested to obtain
USA UL, FM, ETL an Ex electrical apparatus approval.

Brazil CEPEL
Canada CSA
UK Baseefa2000, SIRA, EECS
Norway NEMKO
Sweden SEMKO
Denmark DEMKO
Holland KEMA
Germany PTB, DMT, TUV
France LCIE, CERCHAR
Spain LOM
Italy CESI
Australia SAA
Japan JIS
South Africa SABS Flameproof enclosures normally have a component certificate.

5.2.4 CERTIFICATION OF Ex EQUIPMENT


OEMs who install additional equipment and wiring in (APPARATUS)
flameproof enclosures must have the enclosures See Appedix 5 for more details
retested to obtain an Ex electrical apparatus A recognized test authority can verify that equipment designed
certification. and tested to an appropriate standard complies with all the
construction and component test procedures. The
manufacturer is then allowed to mark the products with the
certificate dates. To maintain a high level of compliance and
5.2.2 CERTIFICATES OF CONFORMITY
quality control, the manufacturer will be open to surveillance
A Certificate of Conformity confirms that assembled Ex certified
and audits by the test authority to ensure that the original
components of electrical equipment meet all the design and test
product design specification is maintained during mass
requirements of an appropriate standard and has been
production.
manufactured with good engineering practice. Explosion
Protected electrical equipment with a Certificate of Conformity
can be installed in a designated hazardous area without further
verification by the test authority. Certificates of conformity will
include the suffix X after the unique certificate number to
indicate that there are installation conditions of use to maintain
the safety features.

5.2.3 COMPONENT CERTIFICATES


Recognized test authorities can also certify individual
components for compliance with a particular standard. These
certified components will normally have “Conditions of Use”
specified in the certification document and denoted by the suffix
U following the certificate number. These conditions must be
observed to maintain the Ex safety design features. Typically
the conditions will include creepage and clearance distances,
voltage and current ratings and circuit protection. Certified
components are normally 100% inspected after manufacture,
and where practical, marked to indicate the voltage and current
ratings.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 25
Testing and Approvals

5.3 NEMA VS IP RATINGS


Enclosures are designed to protect components mounted
inside from the outside environment. When these enclosures
contain electrical equipment, the degree of protection is critical
to shield the components from moisture and dusts that could
contaminate and damage the equipment. The North American
Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) have designated
numbers to describe the protection that the enclosure will
render. Likewise the IEC Standard IEC 60529 provides a Non-metallic products
means of classifying the degree of protection from touch, dust, from the SpecOne
water and impact. product lines, such as
the D2Z Distribution
The IEC designation of the ratings is known as Ingress Panels, are designed
Protection or IP. The IP classification should not be construed for use on offshore oil
as indicating corrosion resistance. The IP is followed by 2 rigs and are rated as
numbers with the first number providing the degree of IP 66 and NEMA 4X,
protection against solid objects and dust, and the second thus providing a high
number the degree of protection against water. See Table 5.3 degree of protection.
below.

Table 5.3 - Ingress Protection (IP) Classification


FIRST NUMERAL - Protecting against solid bodies SECOND NUMERAL - Protecting against liquid
0 - No Protection 0 - No Protection
1 - Objects equal to or greater than 50 mm 1 - Vertically Dripping Water
2 - Objects equal to or greater than 12.5 mm 2 - 75º to 105º-Angled Dripping Water
3 - Objects equal to or greater than 2.5 mm 3 - Spraying Water
4 - Objects equal to or greater than 1.0 mm 4 - Splashing Water
5 - Dust Protected 5 - Water Jets
6 - Dust-tight 6 - Heavy Seas, Powerful Water Jets
7 - Effects of Immersion
8 - Indefinite Immersion

5.3.1 CONVERSION OF NEMA ENCLOSURE 5.3.2 ENVIRONMENTAL RATINGS USED FOR


TYPE NUMBERS TO IP CLASSIFICATION LIGHT FIXTURES - MARINE GRADE
A commonly asked question is what IP number is equivalent to This is commonly referred to as UL595 Marine certification. This
NEMA 4X. While there may be differences in the intricacies of covers electrical fixtures of installation aboard ships and is
the testing program such as nozzle size and water velocity, considered more stringent that the NEMA 4, 4X, 6 and 6P
Table 5.4 provides conversion of the NEMA type numbers to IP ratings. The differences in the tests are not immediately
ratings. discerned since the requirements for the two tests use different
Table 5.4 units of measure. For UL595, the critical measurement for the
NEMA vs. IP Ratings water sprayed is measured in PSI (pounds per square inch).
Type Number IP Designation The UL 50 (NEMA) unit of measure is in GPM (gallons per
1 IP10 minute). When these two measurements are converted and
plotted in Figure 5.3.4a, the significant difference becomes
2 IP11
apparent. The hose test under UL 50 is 5 PSI and the marine
3 IP54 grade test is 15 PSI.
3R IP14
3S IP54
4 and 4X IP56
5 IP52
6 and 6P IP67
12 and 12K IP52
13 IP54
*Note: Table cannot be used to convert “IP” Codes to “NEMA” Types. See
NEMA 250 for additional details.
26 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Testing and Approvals

Figure 5.5
Hose Test Data Flow (UL 50 vs. UL 595).

§ UL595 - Moisture Resistance (Marine) - 15 PSI, 1" diameter not vented


• UL50 - Hosedown Test (NEMA 4, 4X, 6, 6P) - 65 GPM, 1" diameter vented

18

16
§
14

12
Pressure (PSI)

10

4

2

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Gallons Per Minute
The SpecOne eLLK fluorescent luminaries meet the Shell Deluge test.

The most common application of marine grade light fixtures are the FMV
and F2MV floodlights which are also suitable for Division 2.
To simplify markings, CENELEC should drop the E in
5.3.3 SHELL DELUGE TEST: EEx while the U.S. drops the requirement for A in AEx.
This test originated with the Shell UK Exploration and The NRTL logo should indicate to users that the product
Production LTD and was designed to simulate emergency meets the national standards.
deluge testing for electrical equipment in offshore locations. The
objective of the test is to ensure that exposure of equipment to
severe conditions will not lead to water ingress in quantities that 5.4 APPROVAL MARKINGS
could cause equipment to become a potential source of ignition Many industrial end users and manufacturers wanted a
when exposed to a flammable atmosphere. It covers harmonized international standard so a new plant built offshore
fluorescent luminaries, floodlights, terminal boxes and motors. would have the same equipment and installation standards as
After the fixtures reach normal operating temperatures, they are one built domestically. This would allow them to take advantage
subjected to cold salt-water spray. The fixtures must have less of a single sourcing of materials and less expensive alternatives
than 5 ml of water present inside and continue to meet not always available elsewhere. Manufacturers will develop
prescribed insulation tests. (See Appendix 5 for the test products that can be sold into any market with little if any
requirements.) modifications. End users will use one design team with one set
of suppliers working to meet one global standard. Despite the
common goal to standardize electrical codes, the present
course of actions for the NEC and CEC, have made this
impractical. For example, the U.S., Canada, ATEX and
CENELEC each have different nomenclature and
requirements. A typical label designating that the hazardous
area equipment meets North American, IEC, and CENELEC
approvals would contain the information shown in Table 5.5.

Marine ratings undergo extreme hose and deluge tests.


Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 27
Testing and Approvals
Table 5.5 5.4.1 NORTH AMERICAN MARKINGS — CEC
Marking Requirements The CEC has adopted the IEC method of markings:
Country Requirement Marks
Ex de IIC T6
U.S. Division system CL I, Gr B-D, Div. 2, T4A
U.S. Zone system CL I Zone 1 AEx de IIC T4 Explosion Protected
IEC Zone System Type(s) of protection designation
Canadian Zone System Ex de IIC T4 Gas classification group
CENELEC zone system EEx de IIC T4 Temperature classification
ATEX Markings Ex II 2G
North American NEMA 4X 5.4.2 NORTH AMERICAN MARKINGS — NEC
Enclosure Type Protection The standard North American markings under the Division
IEC degree of Protection IP 65 classification system identifies the location where the products
of Enclosures can be located and installed.
Various Third Party UL, CSA, FM,
Approval Agencies PTB, CEPEL
IEC or CENELEC Certificate numbers
requirement
European marks CE

How will this fit onto a label of an explosion protected


Typical nameplate for Class I, Division 2, Groups C-D.
component such as a contact block used in control stations to
disconnect power? Two such blocks are shown below along
with a U.S. quarter to show their size. Under 505-10(b) (1-2) of the NEC equipment must be marked
with the appropriate Class, Zone, symbol “AEx,” protection
techniques, applicable gas classification and temperature
classification. For example:

Class 1 Zone 1 AEx de IIC T6


Area Classification
Symbol for equipment
built to American standard
Type(s) of protection designation
Gas classification group
Temperature classification

All current equipment


Many new explosion protected products are compact, leaving less room for
approved for Class I
markings.
Division 1 and Zones 0, 1 &
2 can be used in Class I
For these contact blocks to be commercially successful, they
Division 2. The AEx
must be approved for all hazardous areas and small enough to
marking is applied to
be mounted in control station enclosures. On small devices
equipment which is certified
(e.g., switches, terminal blocks, and control stations), there may
to IEC standards. For
not be enough room for all the information required by all the
example, all of the
systems. On larger pieces of equipment, the labels will be very
SpecOne equipment such
crowded with all the additional information. One compromise on
as D2Z panels, eLLK,
markings would be for CENELEC to drop the E in EEx while the
control stations, restricted
U.S. drops the requirement for A in AEx. The NRTLS logo
breathing light fixtures and
should indicate to users that the product meets the national
terminal boxes have the
standards. The IEC Ex-Scheme (see 5.8) was developed to
AEx marking.
solve these inconsistencies.
28 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Testing and Approvals

The directive 94/9/IEC, also known as the ATEX ATEX was intended to encourage new products with explosion
directive, allows performance testing which protection techniques outside the boundaries of the EN
should encourage new protection techniques. It standards, and to avoid the lengthy approval process ending in
leaves the construction details up to the manufacturer. a so-called inspection certificate. It leaves the construction
details up to the manufacturer. This places responsibility of
documenting and certifying the equipment on the manufacturer,
5.5 ATEX—THE NEW EUROPEAN APPROVAL thereby eliminating the usual Certificate of Conformity or
PROCESS Inspection Certificate.
See Appendix 6 for a detailed summary.
Before 1978 each European country had its own standard for
Hazardous Location equipment, or it accepted one or more of
the standards from another country. In 1978, the first set of
European standards for electrical products for use in hazardous
areas (based on the first EC directive) were issued based on a
collective work of all prior standards for use in all listed
European Community (EC) countries. Only equipment
designed and certified by the authorized bodies to these
standards could be used within the community, regardless of
where the equipment was made.
The Cooper Crouse Hinds GUB and EJB products are certified by PTB to
The last directive, 94/9/EC “Explosive Atmospheres Directive the ATEX directive. The products have an external ground, a cover locking
(ATEX)” covers all equipment that is intended for use in mechanism on threaded covers and additional nameplate markings.
potentially explosive atmospheres. All Hazardous Location
equipment installed and used in the EC must fulfill the essential
health and safety requirements relating to the design and
The CE mark is a manufacturer’s self declaration that
construction of equipment and protective systems intended for the products meet a standard. It is not an approval
use in potentially explosive atmospheres. The manufacturer fof and is only required in the European market.
the equipment may assume that this is the case if it is designed
and certified to harmonize with European Standards or Norms
(EN). This directive became applicable in 1996 and has a 5.5.1 THE CE MARK—NEW MARKINGS,
transition period ending June 30, 2003. After this date all CERTIFICATIONS AND DOCUMENTATION
products used in the EC must conform to the requirements of In 1985, the European Council settled on a new mark, CE,
the ATEX directive. which declares that the apparatus in question meets all relevant
EC directives including essential safety requirements. Under
There are other European directives that must be met. The ATEX the certificate of conformity is replaced by an EC type
EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) directive applies to examination certificate. Electrical products intended for Zone 0
Hazardous Location equipment as well as similar industrial and Zone 1 installations still require testing by a third party and
equipment (There are also safety directives for toys). Any a documented quality system by the manufacturer. This implies
product or consumer good sold or used within the EC must that Zone 2 material does not have to undergo third party
meet the directives relevant for that product. Confirmation is testing and approvals, but can be self-certified by the
shown by the “CE” symbol on the product label which is the manufacturer. However, it remains to be seen whether the
manufacturers or importers self-certification. Note: The CE is marketplace will require third party testing and approval. The
not an approval mark and has no relevance outside of the EC. deadline is June 30, 2003 when all apparatus must follow the
ATEX directive and have a quality system in place. The CE
In order to obtain CENELEC certification to the ATEX directive, mark is a manufacturers self declaration that the products meet
the manufacturing facility must first have an ISO certified, a standard. It is not an approval and is only required in the
quality system. The facility must undergo a quality system audit European market.
to verify the facility is continually adhering to the ISO quality
procedures, including the special quality requirements which
belong to explosion protection. ATEX defines the basic
technical requirements of equipment and the protection
methods with which the apparatus is brought to market. The
safety levels or requirements are not limited to the existing
European Standards. Electrical apparatus which does not
comply with the European Standards but which provides an
equal level of safety can now be “certified” by a test lab.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 29
Testing and Approvals

There will probably not be significant construction 5.5.3 ARE IEC PRODUCTS CERTIFIED FOR
differences between Zone 1 & 2 equipment. ZONE 2 ACCEPTABLE IN NORTH AMERICA?
With the U.S. and Canada now testing to IEC standards, what
is the likelihood that products certified to these standards will be
5.5.2 ZONE 2 STANDARDS commercially viable in the CENELEC countries? The answer is
Over 90% of the hazardous areas in North America are probably not much of a chance for the short term since:
classified as Division 2. As Canada and the U.S. move toward
the Zone concept of classifying areas, these Division 2 areas 1. Zone 2 equipment in Europe can be self certified by the
would logically be classified as Zone 2 areas. The trend to Zone manufacturer while in North America Zone 2 or Division 2
2 will also accelerate in the CENELEC countries where most equipment will have to be certified by a third party in order for
hazardous areas are now classified as Zone 1. However, there it to be commercially viable.
is a scarcity of Zone 2 apparatus available in the European 2. The company that imports the material is responsible for
markets. ensuring that the material has the CE mark. This self-
declaration from the manufacturer confirms that the products
Recognizing that Zone 2 is an area in further need of meet the relevant directives such as EMC Electromagnetic
development, in 1990 CENELEC started to write a harmonized compatibility and for the explosion protection.
standard for Zone 2 construction requirements basing the 3. There are still many differences in markings which remain a
requirements on IEC 79-15, BS 5000 and VDE 0165. The first moving target, and
standard was completed in 1997 and then presented to IEC as 4. Ordinary testing requirements differ greatly between
the new edition of IEC 79-15. The main points of the standard countries. This remains a large hurdle.
and the differences between Zone 1 and 2 construction
requirements are shown in Table 5.6.

Most of the differences will be in reduced testing requirements


for Zone 2 products. The major difference is that manufacturers
following IEC guidelines will not be mandated to have the Zone
2 products certified by third parties. This is not likely to be the
case for North America where endusers generally require proof
of product certification for Hazardous Locations.

Table 5.6
Construction Differences between Zones 1 & 2
Description Zone 1 Zone 2
Equipment grouping & surface temperatures EN 50014 & IEC 79-0 No difference
Mechanical Strength 7 joules/4 joules 50% of values in Zone 1*
Aging Procedure E.g. 80°C, 90% relative humidity; Same figures but only 2 weeks
4 weeks followed by -25° C, 24 hr. instead of 4 weeks
Mechanical properties of plastics T1—20 K T1—10 K
Third party certificate Required Not required

* Identical level for Zone 1 and Zone 2 is under consideration.


30 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Testing and Approvals

5.6 NEW ATEX MARKING REQUIREMENTS IN The new ATEX


CLASS II—DUSTS & ZONES 20, 21, 22 directives will
Each piece of equipment must be marked with the cover class II,
following minimum data: (see Tabe 5.8 page 32) dust areas.
These will be
• Manufacturers name and address designated as
• CE marking Zone 20, 21, or
• Series and model number 22 on the
• Year of construction nameplate.
• The letter “G” for group II for explosive areas
containing gases From the area beyond the seal outward from the
• The letter “D” for areas where an explosive atmosphere can enclosure, all of the wiring methods and fittings are
occur from dusts. considered installation materials and not subject
• The symbol showing the equipment is explosion to any ATEX standard, certificate or approval.
protected.
• Other details which are required for safety of
operation. 5.7 ATEX APPROVALS ON OEM EQUIPMENT
Installation and wiring practices using conduit are not common
Under past requirements the equipment was marked with the in Europe. This can create challenges for North American
form of protection leaving the user with the responsibility to OEMs who are using conduit and need certifications to the
interpret where the apparatus could be installed. This differs ATEX directive for products shipped into Europe.
from the North American practice of identifying on the label the
actual areas that the equipment can be installed in, i.e., Class I, Although, conduit is not widely used in Europe, this technique is
Division 2. Under the new ATEX directive all equipment must included in the CENELEC standard and the IEC standards as
have current markings by July 1, 2003 which are a condition for one of the entry methods into flameproof enclosures. The
marketing the products in the European Union. design and testing requirements are contained in the
CENELEC standard 50018 and IEC Standard IEC 60079-1.
5.6.1 ATEX CONCEPT CATEGORIES Either tapered (NPT) or parallel (straight or metric) threads are
See 5.6.1 of Appendix 5 acceptable. The conditions are:
In the ATEX Directive (94/9/EC) categories distinguish between
safety of equipment and locations of use. The relationship • The Ex-d enclosure must be certified.
between categories and zones as contained in Table 5.7 are as • Only the manufacturer can make the drilled and tapped
follows: entries into the Ex-d enclosure.
• All conduits or cable glands entering the enclosure must be
• Category 1 – Zone 0 sealed by an approved method.
• Category 2 – Zone 1
• Category 3 – Zone 2 From the area beyond the enclosure seal, all of the wiring
methods and fittings are considered installation materials and
In addition, the new directive will also cover explosion-protected not subject to any certificate or approval. Thus, getting fittings
equipment for dusts (similar to Class II) as well as gases, certified to the ATEX directive would not be a common practice.
vapors & mists (similar to Class I). The correct use of conduit installation is spelled out in the
installation standard EN 60079-14 and IEC 60079-14.

Table 5.7
Marking Examples
Mark Group II Zone Apparatus Explosive Material
II 1G Group II Category 1 Zone 0 apparatus G = gases, vapors, mists

II 2G Group II Category 2 Zone 1 apparatus G = gases, vapors, mists

II 3G Group II Category 3 Zone 2 apparatus G = gases, vapors, mists

II 1D Group II Category 1 Zone 20 apparatus D = dust

II 2D Group II Category 1 Zone 21 apparatus D = dust

II 3D Group IICategory 1 Zone 22 apparatus D = dust


Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 31
Testing and Approvals

Installation
material not
subject to product
standard

Sealing Fitting

Conduit, cabling, and


fittings beyond the
This explosionproof enclosure has 6 different conduit openings which can be
sealing fittings are
field drilled. Drilling of the Ex-d enclosure must be performed by the
considered installation
manufacturer. The OEM for the electrical installation is responsible for
materials and not
obtaining the certification to a product standard on the Hazardous Location
subject to ATEX
equipment. The manufacturer of the Ex-d enclosure can obtain the certificate
standards.
if they perform the wiring and installation of apparatus in the Ex-d
enclosure.

After OEM’s install components inside of an Ex-d


enclosure, it is the OEM’s responsibility to obtain The IEC Ex-scheme was established to simplify
approval on the enclosure as an electrical apparatus. markings and standards testing for hazardous area
equipment.
5.7.1 ATEX APPROVALS FOR OEMS
The challenge of obtaining an ATEX certificate becomes the 5.8 THE IEC Ex SCHEME
responsibility of the OEM. The manufacturer of the flameproof The IEC Ex Scheme is a recent movement started by the IEC
enclosure can only obtain a component certificate for the empty in 1991 to facilitate international trade by eliminating the need
Ex-d enclosure, which is designated by a “U” on the certificate. for duplication of testing and certifications. Presently, for a
A component certificate means the enclosure meets the basic manufacturer to gain approval of equipment in various
flameproof requirements but does not have a T-number countries, the alternative to submitting equipment to each
assigned to it. After the OEM installs products inside of the Ex- country’s test laboratory is to apply to one laboratory. These
d enclosure, it is the OEM’s responsibility to obtain an approval labs have agreements with many others around the world
on the enclosure as an electrical apparatus. This requires resulting in a spider web arrangement. Each agreement
additional testing to obtain a T-number for the product and requires periodic review of each other’s capabilities which is
sometimes a retesting of the flameproof enclosure. The OEM expensive and time consuming. As seen in the examples of
then applies their own product label on the completely different marking requirements, one must be an expert to
assembled apparatus. decipher the meanings of the multitude of marks and scriptures
for Hazardous Location equipment. Currently there are 22
The only way for OEMs to avoid the additional testing for ATEX member countries with the USA joining in May 2001. The
certificates is to allow the enclosure manufacturer to wire, install member countries are: Australia, Canada, Switzerland, China,
and drill the Ex-d enclosures. This is different from the North Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Hungary, Italy,
American method where manufacturers obtain a UL Korea, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Russia, Sweden,
Classification on explosion proof enclosures by testing them Slovena, Yugoslavia, South Africa, USA & Finland. Each
under worst case conditions for flame propagation and country has specific conflicts with universal standards and
explosion pressures. OEMs are then able to install equipment markings that are known as national differences. Examples of
inside of and field drill conduit entries in explosion proof these differences are the flame-retardant tests or shock tests
enclosures without undergoing additional tests and approvals. required by local fire codes in the U.S.. The U.S. has joined the
IEC Ex scheme but allows for a 15-year adoption period while
differences are resolved among the multitude of differences in
local requirements.
32 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Testing and Approvals

Table 5.8
Example of New ATEX markings

II 2 G D IP65 T85°C EX e IIC T6

Explosion Protected
Apparatus Group
Category
Suitable for Gas
Suitable for Dust
IP rating
Surface Temperature rating
Explosion Protected
Method of protection
Gas Group
Temperature rating

For questions or comments, please contact the author at


paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 33
Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment

CHAPTER 6 Explosionproof Contact Block in Division 1 Area


SELECTION, INSTALLATION AND Potential Ignition Source?
WIRING OF Ex CERTIFIED
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

Under the Division 1 classification, wire terminations


are considered ignition sources.

6.1 UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENCE IN


ZONE VS DIVISION INSTALLATION METHODS
Terminations are the key to understanding the differences in Wire terminations are considered sources of ignition for Division 1 products.
installation methods of Zone and Division rated equipment. An explosionproof enclosure for the contact block is required.
Under the Zone system wire terminations rated as Ex-e,
increased safety, are not considered sources of ignition. Under the Zone system, wire terminations are not considered
Terminations are tested to ensure that they do not heat up or an ignition source if they are rated as Ex-e or increased safety.
vibrate loose and have sizable creepage and clearance If the contact block is rated flameproof with increased safety
distances to prevent arcing. Under the Division 1 classification, terminals, the switch can be housed in an increased safety
wire terminations are considered sources of ignition as it is housing, e.g. a non metallic enclosure that has a suitable
assumed they could vibrate loose, short out and create an arc. construction and an IP rating to protect against moisture and
dusts.
This results in major differences in the way products are
Ex-de Contact Block with Increased Safety
designed. To illustrate this refer to the push-button control
stations shown below. Both stations contain an explosion- Terminals in Zone 1 Area
protected contact block. The one on the left is rated Not a Source of Ignition
explosionproof for Division 1 and has an explosionproof metallic
housing. The one on the right is rated flameproof and increased
safety for Zone 1 and has a non-metallic housing. Each contact
block prevents arcs from switch operations inside from igniting
gases within the control station. Why then must the contact
block located in a Division 1 area be housed in an
explosionproof enclosure while the Zone 1 rated control
stations is in a non metallic enclosure?
Division 1 Vs. Zone 1
Ex-e Wire terminations are not considered sources of ignition for Zone 1
products, and Ex-de contacts can be housed in non metallic enclosures
suitable for Zone 1.

Determining which system is safer, less expensive or easier to


install is very difficult—somewhat like comparing the metric and
US systems of measurement. Each application has its own
merits and depends on user preference, as well as how the
areas are classified, and the wiring systems used in the facility.
The Division 1 control station has a metallic enclosure.
At the present time North American users have the advantage
The Zone 1 version has a non-metallic enclosure.
of being able to use either type of product in Division 2.

Under the Division 1 system, wire terminations are


considered ignition sources. If volatile gases and air accumulate
inside an explosionproof enclosure and are ignited by the spark
from a wiring fault on the terminals, the enclosure must contain
the explosion. As the hot gases escape the enclosure by passing
across a flat or threaded or serrated joint, they cool so they can
no longer ignite gaseous mixtures in the hazardous area. In a
Division 1 area, the contact block must be housed inside an
explosionproof enclosure rated for the area.
34 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment

“Equipment listed and marked for use in Class I,


Zone 0, 1, or 2 locations shall be permitted in Class I,
Division 2 locations for the same gas and with a
suitable temperature rating.”

6.2 STANDARDS AND INSTALLATION


PRACTICES Cooper Crouse-Hinds has received UL and cUL approvals on all explosion
Ex Electrical equipment certified to U.S., Canadian, CENELEC, protected equipment manufactured by Cooper Crouse-Hinds CEAG in
IEC or any other national standards must be installed and Europe. This product line, called SpecOne, is made out of either metal or
maintained correctly. To ensure that correct installation is plastic which will accommodate either cable or conduit installation methods.
achieved, every industrial country will use a recognized The SpecOne products include fluorescent lighting, control stations and
installation rules or a code of practice. panels, power distribution panels, terminal boxes, plugs and receptacles and
disconnect switches.
In North America the installation requirements for Hazardous
Locations is specified in Section 18 of the Canadian Electric While there are still many differences between the standards
Code and in Article 500 of the National Electric Code. Prior to and installation practices in North America and Europe, not to
1997 most Countries produced their own National Standards for mention others in Latin America, Japan, Australia and South
installation in hazardous areas, which allows the use of Ex Africa, the gaps are narrowing. The main differences are:
Electrical Equipment certified to CENELEC and other national
standards. In 1997 the IEC Standard, IEC 60079-14 was • Local safety and fire codes for ordinary locations.
adopted as a European standard EN 60079-14. This was a • No direct correlation between Class/Divisions and Zone
large step forward toward on worldwide standard for the classification.
installation of electrical equipment in hazardous areas. • Different wiring methods for conduits and cables.
• Cable entry hole threads, NPT versus metric openings.
6.3 SELECTION OF EX PROTECTED • Gas Groupings are different.
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT • Conductor cross sectional areas and current ratings.
There are considerable international differences in the • Nonacceptance of the Increased Safety concept in Class 1
approach to hazardous area electrical installations. Therefore, it Division 1 Hazardous Locations. (Connections & terminations
is important to clearly establish the documented safety rules are still considered sources of ignition.)
that will be applicable to the installation before the selection
process is undertaken. To illustrate this problem, hazardous These differences define the way equipment is selected,
area electrical equipment may be manufactured and certified to installed and maintained and must be taken account of when
comply with the requirements of a Zone classification but may projects are designed.
not be considered suitable for Division 1 Hazardous Location
classified by the North American (USA and CANADA) Class 6.4 BACKGROUND OF WIRING
and Division concept. In the early 1900s when industry was converting from the use
of natural gas to electrical wiring, it was natural for contractors
This has become more relaxed with the addition of Article 501- to use the gas pipe as a raceway or conduit to run the electrical
1 in the NEC which states: conductors. Although this sounded easy, a need developed to
also have junction boxes and elbows to pull and terminate
“Equipment listed and marked in accordance with Section 505- cables and fixture hangers to assemble the new light fixtures.
10 for use in Class I, Zone 0, 1, or 2 locations shall be permitted
in Class I, Division 2 locations for the same gas and with a
suitable temperature rating.”

This has given North American users a wider range of products Two entrepreneurs
to select from. Products which are rated for the IEC Zone from Syracuse, N.Y.,
classification system, and are adapted to North American wiring Jesse L. Hinds and
and installation practices can be installed in Division 2. Huntington B.
Crouse, made outlet
boxes for the new
conduit wiring
systems. They coined
the term condulet,
which was a
combination of
conduit and outlet box
as seen in an early
advertisement.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 35
Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment
In the 1920s when oil refineries were being constructed, there
was a new need for outlet boxes, fittings and fixtures which
would prevent electrical sparks and heat generating products
from causing explosions. The industry came up with the
concept of Division 1 to define these locations where volatile
gases would be present.

Conduit systems
provide
mechanical
protection of
wires and
conductors.

6.5.2 TECK CABLE


Instead of conduit, cable systems are used more often under
the Zone concept. There are 5 types: TECK, steel wire
armored, steel wire braided, lead sheathed and unarmored.
TECK cable is a variation of the armored cable which is used
Mr. Crouse and Mr. Hinds engineered and manufactured explosionproof primarily in Canada. The TECK cable is a metal clad (mc) cable
products for the oil and gas industry. with an extra PVC sheath for additional insulation. Special
TECK connectors are used to secure and terminate the cable
In the 1980s Canadian industry readily adopted the use of into enclosures.
TECK cable which is similar to metal clad cable except with an
extra PVC jacket. Now the industries with Hazardous Locations
use a variety of wiring methods ranging from rigid conduit to
various types of cable.

6.5 TYPICAL INSTALLATION CONDUIT


VS. CABLE
There are primarily 3 different types of wiring systems used:
rigid metal conduits, armored cables, and non-armored cables. Teck cable has an extra PVC sheath for additional insulation.
The use of each method is embedded in the electrical
installation culture of the area. 6.5.3 ARMORED CABLES
Armored cables are widely used in the United Kingdom and
6.5.1 RIGID CONDUIT former commonwealth countries and ensures the mechanical
This system is widely used by specifiers and installers in the protection and earth continuity. Special cable glands must be
USA and parts of Canada as well as parts of South America, used to guarantee the earth continuity (ground).
Middle East and Asia where the NEC is used. This method
ensures the maximum protection of conductors against 6.5.3.1 STEEL WIRE ARMORED (SWA)
mechanical and chemical attack. SWA cable consists of individual PVC-coated conductors within
an aluminum screen surrounded by a PVC coating, then by a
There are an equal number of proponents as there are series of steel wires within an exterior PVC coating. The steel
opponents to the use of rigid conduit. While some maintain that wires are conical in shape and protect the conductors in the
conduit leads to higher installation costs, others argue the same way as metal-clad cable. SWA is a very high-strength,
merits of greater mechanical protection. A recent survey durable cable and used in many power applications.
showed that Canadian users favor TECK cable over rigid
conduit. The USA industry is equally divided between favoring
cable over conduit. For example, offshore installations favor
cable over conduit, which is more susceptible to corrosion.
36 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment

6.5.3.2 STEEL WIRE BRAIDED (GSWB) 6.5.3.4 NON-ARMORED CABLE


GSWB cable consists of individual conductors within an This cable is similar to tray or SO-type cable and normally
aluminum screen surrounded by an inner sheath, then by a contains a ground conductor or earth core. Since the cable is
steel braid, similar to a basket weave, underneath an outer not considered a source of ignition, under the Zone concept the
sheath. The braid makes this cable more flexible than SWA. cable does not require its own mechanical protection. The
This durable cable is used in many instrumentation applications protection is usually provided by open conduit or other cable-
or where shielding is required for signal applications. tray type protection called a cage or mounting grid. This
method, which is used in France, Germany, Italy and parts of
Africa and Asia, can be very flexible, fast and economical. If the
installation is subject to mechanical risks, it is advisable to use
armored cable or an open conduit system. Most exposed
vertical cables are housed in open conduits or pipes to avoid
mechanical abuse.

Steel wire
braided cable
is more flexible
than SWA

6.5.3.3 LEAD SHEATH (LWA)


LWA cable consists of individual conductors surrounded by a
lead sheath for protection from hydrocarbons. A PVC coating
then surrounds the exterior. This cable is popular in the oil
industry and is usually buried in the ground. The lead sheath
protects the conductors from ground spills of oil byproducts.

Crouse-Hinds offers brass, Cooper Crouse-Hinds non-metallic mounting plate on mounting grid offers a
stainless steel, steel and and non-
quick installation method of control stations and switches.
metallic cable glands for
any type of cable or thread.
Table 6.1
Typical Cable Systems by World Region
AREA CABLE TYPE THREAD
TYPE
Canada TECK NPT
North America Metal Clad Aluminum NPT
Central Europe – Unarmored Cable Metric*
Germany
Europe – offshore Steel Wire Braid Metric
Ireland, Norway, Steel Wire Armor Metric
Holland, Belgium, Unarmored Cable
Spain
Italy, Belgium Steel Wire Armor Metric
Unarmored Cable & NPT
Middle East Steel Wire Armor Metric
Crouse-Hinds NCG non metallic cable glands are offered with (Saudi Arabia & Kuwait) Unarmored Cable NPT
NPT or metric males threads for tray and other flexible cables.
Far East Steel Wire Armor Metric
Unarmored Cable & NPT
CIS States Steel Wire Armor Metric
(Azerbaijan, Unarmored Cable
Kazakhstan)
* Metric threads have replaced Panzer gage (PG) threads
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 37
Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment

The connection of wires to terminals is most commonly made


The use of twist-on connectors, known as wire nuts via DIN rail mounted terminals. The underlying design principle
or “marets,” is not allowed in Europe as increased for terminals is a pressure plate contact with the conductor and
safety terminals. an antivibration locking feature to prevent self loosening for the
connected conductors. Other types of reliable certified terminals
The Ex-e push in connectors are a major advantage include saddle clamps, slotted type clamps (often used for
for OEMs, and for installation of lighting circuits. lighting circuit terminations) and screwless cage clamp
terminals.

6.6 TERMINATION METHODS


Traditionally Ex-e connections are made at increased safety
terminal blocks mounted inside of metal or non-metallic, Ex-e Ex-e U-Slot terminals,
enclosures. The terminals are rated for creepage and clearance which accommodate
distances. different sized wires,
are found in Ex-e
6.6.1 TWIST ON CONNECTORS terminal boxes (eAZK)
The most popular method of termination in North America is and in some Ex-d light
with the use of twist-on connectors, also known as wire nuts or fixtures
marets. For products approved for use in Europe, twist-on
connectors or wire nuts are not allowed. Some form of terminal
blocks or screw terminals must be used. Twist-on connectors
versus terminal blocks are the main differences between the
North America and European wiring methods. North American
wiring methods will not be quick to abandon using twist-on
connectors in favor of terminal blocks for branch circuits Under IEC installation
especially when both systems are safe when they are installed methods it is permitted to
properly. Until recently, twist-on type connectors were not rated combine two or more
as increased safety. wires in a compression-
type terminal provided
that the terminal is
designed for that purpose,
such as the Cooper
Crouse-Hinds eAZK
enclosures with Ex-e
U-slot terminals.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds pioneered the first
Ex-e wire nuts which offer major
advantage for OEMs, and for
installation of lighting circuits.
6.7 TERMINATING ARMORED CABLE AND
CONDUIT IN NON-METALLIC ENCLOSURES
The armor of steel wire or braided cables must be effectively
connected to the earth/ground system. If a phase to armor
6.6.2 TERMINAL BOXES circuit fault occurs there can be thousands of amps flowing.
The specifications for terminals according to IEC and Therefore the armor must have a low impedance to
CENELEC standards are very stringent. Certified electrical earth/ground via the cable gland. The enclosure to which the
terminals for connecting wires in hazardous areas will be tested armored gland is connected may not be tested to carry fault
with the following requirements: currents so internal and or external connections are required.
The biggest dilemma of mixing zone and division installation
• Insulation resistance to tracking (CTI) methods is the practice of using terminating conduits or
• Temperature limitation (thermal stability) armored cable into non-metallic enclosures. The major
• Measured Creepage &b clearance distances considerations are: pull out strength of the conduit from the
• Voltage and current ratings enclosure and ensuring a continuous and secure path to
• Wire pull out test ground. There are 2 different methods commonly used, the
• Antivibration locking zone rated hub or the integral grounding plate.
• Thermal end to end resistance
• Conductor clamping method (pinch screws are
not permitted)
38 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment

6.7.1 ZONE RATED HUBS


This hub is specifically designed for Zone applications to be
non-loosening and to have the required IP rating. For “through
holes” the male threads must have a locking ring which has an
increased safety grounding point and an extra security screw to
ensure against loosening of the locking ring. Either the hub or
the locking ring will have serrated teeth for extra clamping
protection into the non-metallic enclosure. Both of these
features protect the connection from loosening against vibration
and long term use. The hub has an integral silicone rubber o-
ring or gasket to guarantee the require IP rating of the
enclosure. The hubs are machined to accept either NPT or
metric thread form.
The SpecOne Myers For ease of wiring the SpecOne control stations, D2Z distribution panels,
hubs Safety Switches, interlocked 309 receptacles and terminal boxes all have an
are rated for brass grounding plates. These have metric female threads for European
Zone 1 usage. armored cable glands. For NPT entries use the Zone 1 Myers metric
They are also adapters which are available in zinc or stainless steel.
available as
metric adapters for
6.8 CABLE SEALS
entering
Cable glands have multiple options for material types for Ex-d
metric threaded
and Ex-e types of protection. Ex-d cable glands have a brass,
female hubs or
aluminum, steel or stainless steel construction with at least two
plates.
seal systems to ensure the flameproof properties and ingress
protection. Ex-e cable glands normally have only one sealing
system for ingress protection and are available in a plastic
6.7.2 BRASS BONDING PLATES construction in addition to brass or stainless steel.
Many non-metallic enclosures also have integral brass bonding
plates. Because of their nominal thickness these normally have Three types of seal materials are most generally used in cable
metric or parallel threaded openings. Each plate must have an glands.
internal and/or external ground point. These plates can be field
drilled or drilled at the factory. If the holes are not used they • Neoprene, a durable oil-resistant rubber compound with good
must be plugged with a blanking plug certified to Ex-e standards weather and ozone resistance. To meet the strict “deluge” test
for the required IP protection. requirements of the offshore oil industry, glands employ up to
three neoprene seals. These are used on offshore oil
platforms where they may be submerged for long durations.
• Conductive, a neoprene seal with iron filings used to seal lead
sheathed cable.
• Silicone, a compound with high fire resistance which holds its
properties well in temperature extremes. This seal may be
used in temperatures as low as -60°C to as high as +180° C.
It also does not give off smoke when burning (zero halogen
applications) and is used in tunnels or other similar
applications.

Typical Seals and Application Temperatures


Seal Type Temperature Range
Neoprene (deluge tested) -20° to + 80°C
Conductive -20° to + 80°C
Ex-e blanking plugs are required to fill in threaded openings for IP
Silicone -60° to + 180°C
protection as seen on the Cooper Crouse-Hinds GHG 74 Series Ex-e
Enclosures.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 39
Selection, Installation and Wiring of Ex Certified Electrical Equipment

Typical installation of Zone 1 Myers hubs glands into a Cooper


Crouse-Hinds Ex-e stainless steel enclosure.

Cables should be secured close


6.9 WHEN IS NICKEL PLATING REQUIRED? to the apparatus.
The inherent corrosion-resistance nature of brass eliminates
the need for plating in most cases. However, brass and
aluminum create a natural galvanic reaction, so nickel plate or 6.10.1 SELECTION OF NON-METALLIC
other finishes are required where the brass gland is used with GLANDS
aluminum enclosures or aluminum cable. Cable glands are sold either as separate items mounted on the
apparatus or packaged with the cable. Selecting the proper
gland depends on the following criteria:

Do not use brass • Cable type


glands in aluminum • Hazardous area rating
housings, which will • Seal type
result in corrosion. • Entry thread
Use nickel plated • Finish
glands. • Cable diameter
• Material
• Use

6.10 TERMINATING NON-METALLIC EX-e The one variable, which usually creates havoc for end users, is
GLANDS holding the tolerance on the cable diameter especially if
Increased safety non-metallic glands must be certified for flameproof cable glands are used. If the diameters exceed the
ingress protection, impact resistance and aging resistance. tolerances of the glands, they may not fit or seal properly which
There are 2 versions, which depend on the use of the glands. could affect the flameproof integrity of the glands.
For installations where the cables are secured, the glands have
lower requirements for strain relief. If the cables are not secured
trumpet glands are used. Their main purpose is to provide strain
relief where bending, twisting or pulling is common.

Seal for IP Lever prevents pull-out or


Protection torsional twisting.
Trumpet glands (on handset)
are used on portable Cut-away of trumpet gland
equipment when support for
the cable is not practical or if
there are extensive tensile or For questions or comments, please contact the author at
torsional forces. paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com
40 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Flameproof Enclosures

CHAPTER 7 • Flat machine joints are not allowed for Group A and B gases
FLAMEPROOF ENCLOSURES with explosionproof or for IIC gases with flameproof.
Manufacturers use threaded or spigot joints for Groups A, B or
IIC certifications.
Field drilling of flameproof, Ex-d, enclosures is not
allowed. To maintain the IEC or CENELEC certificate,
these enclosures can only be modified by the Flamepath
Gap
manufacturer.
Flamepath

7.1 EXPLOSIONPROOF VS FLAMEPROOF


The key points in comparing and explaining the installation of
Flamepath
flameproof and explosionproof enclosures include the design,
temperature rise, drilling of cable entry holes, approvals and
Flat joints (left) are used for IIA and IIB gases. Spigot joints (right) or
certifications, joints or flamepaths and standards. The
threaded joints (not shown) allow manufacturers to obtain Groups A, B or
protection concepts behind both concepts are the same.
IIC certifications.
• Explosionproof enclosures are used more often as a method
of protection in North America. Flameproof protection is used • Wiring room in flameproof enclosures is not a design
on projects with IEC standards. consideration. The major constraint in the explosionproof
• In most cases, both explosionproof and flameproof enclosures is the internal wiring room and bending radius of
enclosures are constructed of metal to ensure adequate the cables. As a result, flameproof enclosures may contain
strength to withstand the internal forces of an explosion. The many more components inside than explosionproof
enclosures’ machined or threaded joints cool the escaping enclosures.
gases so they will not ignite the volatile gases in the • Flameproof enclosures cannot be field drilled. The
hazardous area. manufacturer must drill entries into the enclosures.
• Flameproof enclosures are individually tested at the factory at Explosionproof enclosures can be field drilled making their
1.5 times the maximum pressures exerted in an explosion. use more accommodating by OEMs
Explosionproof enclosures are tested at 4 times the maximum
pressures exerted in an explosion. Because of this,
explosionproof enclosures tend to have a heavier construction.
• Both explosionproof and flameproof covers are either bolted
on or secured with threaded covers or joints. Flameproof
enclosures are secured with special devices to prevent their
removal without special tools.

Entries into Ex-d enclosures Explosionproof enclosures can


must be drilled and tapped by be field drilled.
the manufacturer.

Table 7.1
Summary of Differences Between Explosionproof and Flameproof
CONSIDERATION EXPLOSIONPROOF FLAMEPROOF
Field Drilling Acceptable Must be drilled by manufacturer
Pressure testing 4 times maximum 1.5 times maximum
Construction Heavier Lighter
Joints Threaded, flat, labyrinth (serrated) Threaded, flat, spigot
Heat rise Not a consideration Factor which limits components inside
Wiring room Major design consideration Not a major design consideration
Entries Field or factory drilled directly into enclosure Factory drilled directly into
enclosure or field drilled into an
Ex-e enclosure (indirect entry)
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 41
Flameproof Enclosures

7.2 FLAMEPROOF ENCLOSURES Installation procedures recommend that flameproof enclosures


A flameproof Ex-d type enclosure is designed and tested to have a minimum distance from an obstructions to allow gases
contain an explosion. Potentially explosive gas/air mixtures can to further cool. This minimum distance differs according to gas
be present inside a flameproof enclosure due to the heating and group.
cooling cycle of electrical equipment use. An airborne gas/air
mixture can be sucked in and expelled as the temperature Table 7.2
changes. If the gas/air mixture inside the enclosure is between Minimum Distance From Obstructions
the Upper and Lower Flammable Limits (see 2.3.1) and a spark
ignites the mixture, an explosion will occur. Gas Group Distance
IIA 10 mm
IIB 30 mm
IIC 40 mm

Additionally, the covers or lids of Ex-d enclosures must have


devices to prevent entry unless special tools are used. Allen
head screws are normally used to secure a fixed cover.

Hex head set screw


for locking cover

External ground lug

Covers on Ex-d enclosures must be secured so they can only be removed with
special tools. The Ex-d flameproof junction box from the Cooper Crouse-
Hinds, Nortem facility in Spain has a hex-head cover locking screw, external
ground and thread openings for conduit or cable.
1. Temperature changes can suck gas/air mixtures into the enclosure
Components not suitable for installation in Ex-d enclosures are
2. When the gas/air mixture is between the the Upper and Lower Flammable
rewireable fuses, devices causing turbulence, oil filled
Limits and a spark occurs, ignition and an internal explosion can occur.
contactors, components containing flammable liquids, liquids or
3. The hot compressed gases are forced out through the flamepath, but must material capable of releasing hydrogen, primary/secondary
not ignite any surrounding external potentially explosive atmosphere. The cells (possible hydrogen release).
flamepath cools the hot, compressed gases as they are expelled, preventing
any explosions of external atmospheres.

All internal components in the Ex-d enclosure must have a


clearance of at least 12 mm from the internal enclosure wall. In
addition, obstructions adjacent to the external flamepath can
cause “pressure piling” which results in an abnormally high
explosion pressure.

Maintain minimum distances from obstructions


42 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Flameproof Enclosures

7.2.1 FLAMEPATHS & JOINTS IIB VS IIC The pressure inside a flameproof enclosure during an internal
All flameproof joints on enclosure covers or between explosion can rise to 150 PSI (10 bar). There is also the
compartments must be made by one of the following methods: possibility of pressure piling and detonation due to secondary
ignition of compressed gases inside an enclosure, that can
• Flat Joint result in pressures of 450 PSI (30 bar).
• Spigot joint
• Threaded joint Pressure piling is the increase in explosion pressure above
• A combination of all three normal expected pressures caused by the ignition of a pre-
compressed gas. This can result from modifications such as
It is assumed that flammable gases and vapors in the internal sub division of the flameproof enclosure or external
surrounding atmosphere can enter the flameproof enclosure by obstruction adjacent to the flamepath. The static pressure tests
thermal cycling or breathing. A flameproof enclosure is built to requirement for flameproof enclosures are 10 bar for IIA and IIB
withstand the pressure developed during an internal explosion Gas, 15 bar for IIC Gases.
following ignition without damaging the enclosure. In addition to
withstanding an internal explosion, the flamepath width and gap Flat joints can only be used with IIA and IIB gases. Threaded or
in a flameproof enclosure must cool the hot flaming gases as spigot joints are normally used for gas group IIC applications
they pass through the flamepath to prevent ignition of any because of the close tolerance and length of flamepath formed
surrounding explosive atmosphere. by the thread. The minimum number of thread engagements is
not less than 5. The depth of engagement for up 100 cubic cm
The major difference between the explosionproof enclosures is 5 mm and above 100 cubic cm not less than 8 mm. The
used in North America and the flameproof enclosures used in minimum width of joint and maximum gap relative to gas groups
IEC type installations is the construction method. and the enclosure volume are detailed in Table 7.2.1.
Explosionproof enclosures are hydrostatically tested at 4 times
the maximum pressure obtained during explosion tests. If each
flameproof enclosure is tested before it leaves the factory,
called a routine test, it can be constructed to only 1.5 times the
maximum pressure. Because of the difference in testing, Ex-d
enclosures may have lighter construction and the joints may not
be as wide as those on explosionproof enclosures.

Table 7.2.1
Minimum width of joint and maximum gap for enclosures relative to Gas Groups

Gas Group Min. Joint Maximum Gap for Enclosures with Volume
Width (mm) ≤ 100 cm3 > 100 cm3 > 500 cm3 > 2000 cm 3
≤ 500 cm 3
≤ 2000 cm 3

I 6 0.3 – – –
9.5 0.35 0.35 – –
12.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
25 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
II A 6 0.3 – – –
9.5 0.3 0.3 – –
12.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2
25 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
IIB 6 0.2 – – –
9.5 0.2 0.2 – –
12.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.15
25 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
IIC 0 0.1 – – –
9.5 0.1 0.1 – –
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 43
Flameproof Enclosures

7.3 ENTRIES TO FLAMEPROOF ENCLOSURES terminations are made to terminal blocks. Field drilling into the
Field drilling of explosionproof enclosures is a task which Ex-e enclosure is allowed. Outside of Europe the concept of
requires a great deal of care, but is an acceptable practice in indirect entry is not widely practiced. Entries to the enclosures
North America. This is especially welcomed by OEMs, which are made with Ex-d barrier glands, which are sealed cable
may need to modify enclosures in their certified shop to meet glands. Many cable gland manufacturers now have dual Ex-d
local wiring practices. Field drilling of flameproof, Ex-d, boxes is and Ex-e combined certification for their cable gland products.
not allowed. To maintain the IEC certificate, these enclosures
can only modified by the manufacturer. For installers or OEMs
who may need to have additional entries in flameproof
enclosures, it is recommended to order the flameproof
enclosure with extra plugged holes or use the indirect entry
method.

7.3.1 INDIRECT CABLE ENTRY Crouse-Hinds supplies Universal


In many European countries, entries to Ex-d boxes are made (Ex-d and Ex-e) glands which are
via “Indirect Entry.” This is a factory-sealed bushing located marine rated and can be used for
between the Ex-d and Ex-e increased safety enclosure where any metal clad cable.

Figure 7.31 Cabe Entry Techniques

Ex-d flameproof enclosure

Factory Sealing Fitting


sealed bushing Ex-d gland

Ex-e increased
safety enclosure

Indirect wiring is required for entry into flameproof enclosures in Germany.


Often referred to as “factory sealing,” it has been used for many years in Cooper Crouse-Hinds panel boards.
(left to right)

• Factory sealed, indirect entry into Ex-e enclosures


• Ex-d cable gland directly into Ex-d enclosure
• Sealed conduit directly into Ex-d enclosures
44 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Flameproof Enclosures

7.3.2 DIRECT CABLE ENTRY 7.3.3 CABLE GLANDS


When the selected cable has spaces through which ignited gas The correct selection of a cable gland is essential if the Ex
can travel, it is necessary to install the cable with a barrier type Protection integrity of the apparatus being installed is to be
cable gland. (See Fig. 7.3.2) The barrier glands are supplied maintained. Before considering whether the selected cable
with a 2 part epoxy compound to prevent the migration of gases gland should be an appropriate standard version or an Ex-d
and pressure piling of ignited hot gases. The only exception to barrier type it is important to consider the following specification
this rule is if the enclosure contains only terminals or other non- requirements.
sparking devices, or if the volume of the enclosure is less than 1. Type of Ex Protection required.
2 liters. In these instances a standard Ex-d type cable gland 2. Direct or Indirect Entry
may be used. 3. The cable type
Figure 7.32 4. Environmental conditions for the installation
Installing a TMCX Terminator (gland material and finish)
5. Armor or Nonarmored cable.
6. Wire or Braided Armor.
(W = Single wire, X = Braided, Y = Tape armor)
7. Cable inner and outer dimensions
(Compare to gland manufacturers chart)
8. Apparatus entry thread type (ISO. PG, Taper, Pg)
9. Earth / Ground requirements
(Consider prospective fault current)
10. Gas Group
11. Zone Classification
1. Prepare cable. 12. Ingress Protection
13. Water Deluge protection?
14. Sealing of threaded entry
To select a suitable cable gland i.e. Standard “d” version or a
Barrier type “d” gland, reference to the selection details below
2. Install body into enclosure. Slide
gland nut and intermediate body can assist with this process.
onto cable.
Direct Entry Ex-d IIC apparatus in Zones 1 or 2
Ex-d barrier gland mandatory

Direct Entry Ex-d IIC apparatus in Zones 1 or 2 and greater


than 2 liters in volume.
Ex-d barrier gland required

Direct Entry Ex-d IIA and IIB apparatus in Zone 1 and less
than 2 liters in volume.
3. Mix sealing compound and pack Standard Ex-d gland required
conductors over armor.
Direct Entry Ex-d IIA and IIB apparatus in Zone 2.
Standard Ex’d’ required

4. Slide armor stop insert over 7.3.4 MINERAL INSULATED METAL SHEATH
conductor and sealing compound,
then back against armor. Pack
CABLES (MIMS)
remaining sealing compound. When MIMS cable is selected (with or without an outer
protective sheath), the cable gland assembly and “sealing pot”
must be Ex-d certified and installed strictly in accordance with
the manufacturers instruction and certificate “conditions of use.”
This type of cable is often used for fire and gas protection
systems due to its high resistance to temperature and integrity
during a fire.

5. Insert cable assembly into body.

6. Thread intermediate body with


gland nut onto body. Tighten
intermediate body, then gland nut.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 45
Flameproof Enclosures

Most Ex-protected equipment are certified to Conduits terminated in flameproof enclosures must have
temperatures of -20°C. For those regions with more suitable and compatible threads. If the threads are the parallel
extreme temperatures (-45°C), self regulating heaters (metric) type at least 8 axial threads must be engaged. For
can be installed in the enclosures to raise the tapered (NPT) threads at least 5 full threads must be engaged
temperature to the required -20°C. for groups C and D and 7 full threads for Group B.

7.4 WEATHER-PROOFING OF FLAMEPROOF 7.6 CONDUIT SEALS


JOINTS Conduit seals, sometimes referred to as “Seal-offs” or “Stopping
When flameproof enclosures are installed in areas where there Devices,” are often required between the conduit and the
is the possibility of water or other liquid ingress, it is necessary enclosure to prevent migration of gas, vapor or liquids from or
to specify gasketed enclosures using O-rings which are not a to the installed enclosure. These may also be necessary when
part of the flameproof function. Under no circumstances should a conduit passes from a safe area to a hazardous area.
users substitute unauthorized O-ring gaskets or seals. If a
replacement gasket is required, it must be in accordance with
the original manufacturers specification.

Use only manufacturer’s specified O-rings as on the Cooper Crouse-Hinds Conduit seals are available from Cooper Crouse-Hinds for the North
Ex-d threaded junction box American market or from Nortem in Spain for ATEX approved seals.

The main purposes of sealing fittings are:


7.4.1 COLD TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS • Restrict the passage of gases, vapors or flames from one
Most Ex-protected equipment are certified to temperatures of
portion of the electrical installation to another at
-20°C. For those regions with more extreme temperatures
atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperatures
(-45°C), self regulating heaters can be installed in the
• Limit explosions to the sealed-off enclosure
enclosures to raise the temperature to the required -20°C. See
• Prevent pre-compression or “pressure piling” in conduit
Chapter 14 for a complete discussion of cold temperatures.
systems.

7.5 CONDUIT ENTRY Sealed fittings are recommended for installation:


Conduit entry into flameproof enclosures is not a common • At each entrance to an enclosure housing an arcing or
installation specification in Europe. It is a common installation sparking device when used in Class I, Division 1 and 2 and
practice in North America and other countries influenced by the Zone 1 and 2 classified hazardous areas. To be located as
U.S. National Electric Code. close as practical and, in no case, more than 18" from such
enclosures.
The selected conduit must be either solid drawn or seam • At each entrance of 2" size or larger entering the enclosure
welded. When it is necessary to use flexible conduit, e.g. to or fitting housing terminals, splices or taps. To be located as
motor terminal boxes or other apparatus which may vibrate close as practical and, in no case, more than 18" from such
during normal operation, the flexible conduit must have an outer enclosures.
protective sheath, mechanical strength and resistance to • In conduit systems when leaving the Class I Division 1 or
corrosion. Division 2 classified Hazardous Locations.
• In cable systems when the cables are capable of transmitting
gases or vapors through the cable core and when these
cables leave the Class I, Division 1 or Division 2 classified
Hazardous Locations.
46 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Flameproof Enclosures

7.6.1 NEW ADVANCEMENTS IN 7.6.2 TRADITIONAL METHOD OF SEALING


EXPLOSIONPROOF SEALING FITTINGS Cooper Crouse-Hinds offered sealing fittings for use in
Cooper Crouse-Hinds new Chico® SpeedSeal™ Compound hazardous areas for over 80 years. Chico A sealing compound
offers a brand new method of explosionproof sealing which used in conjunction with Chico X packing fiber has been the
takes 80% of the labor out of pouring a seal, allowing one to traditional method used to seal the sealing fittings for this entire
reliably install a complete seal in less than five minutes. time period. The traditional method involves carefully packing
This revolutionary compound comes in a self-contained a fiber dam using the Chico X fiber in the bottom of the conduit
applicator kit that eliminates the need for measuring before hub in vertical installations and in both conduit hubs in
mixing. Simply pump the cartridge to mix the material, inject the horizontal installations.
pre-measured amount in to the sealing fitting, and you’re done.
Pump, Inject, Sealed. The packing of the fiber dam is critical to the pouring of a
reliable seal. The fiber dam keeps the sealing compound in the
After injection, the Chico SpeedSeal compound expands to four chamber of the sealing fitting while it cures and hardens. The
times its original size, physically separating the conductors as it fiber dam is also used to separate the individual conductors so
expands, and completely filling the fitting. The difficult and time- that the sealing compound seals around each conductor. If the
consuming task of separating the individual conductors with electrical conductors are not properly separated, gases can
Chico X fiber has been eliminated. The compound begins to migrate through the seal, making the seal ineffective.
set in 4 to 10 minutes and hardens in 20 minutes, resulting in a
dense, strong mass which is unaffected by water, petroleum Separation of the conductors is very tedious and time
products or temperature changes. consuming. It is a skill that is learned over time and should be
done by a skilled and trained craftsman. Modern day
Chico SpeedSeal compound may be used to seal in both applications involving multi-conductor cabling and control wiring
horizontal and vertical installations. It may be used with type can create a situation where you have 10 to 20 wires in a single
EYS and EYD sealing fittings in ½" to 2" trade sizes, in Class I, sealing fitting. After a fiber dam is formed, the sealing
Division 1 and 2, Groups C & D and Class II, Division 1 and 2, compound is ready to be mixed. The Chico A sealing
Groups E, F, & G hazardous areas. compound is typically supplied in a plastic container. The user
must measure and mix the proper ratio (2:1) of Chico A
compound with clean water and be ready with cleaning vessels,
PUMP mixing utensils and a funnel to pour the compound into the
sealing fitting.

INJECT

Cooper Crouse-Hinds offers the labor savings Chico A Intrapak. A two-


compartment premeasured amount of Chico A sealing compound and water,
the Chico Intrapak eliminates the step of measuring before mixing. Simply
SEALED squeeze to break the water compartment, mix together, and attach the nozzle
to pour directly into the sealing fitting.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 47
Flameproof Enclosures

7.6.3 NEW METHOD OF SEALING


The traditional method of sealing is very effective. However,
there are some difficulties associated with this traditional
method that the new Chico SpeedSeal Compound addresses. Cooper Crouse-Hinds new
Chico® SpeedSeal™
• Labor intensive and expensive - In a national survey of North Compound offers a brand new
American installers, the average time to properly prepare method of explosionproof
and pour a seal with the traditional method ranged from 48 sealing which takes 80% of the
minutes for a ½” seal to over an hour and a half for a 2” labor out of pouring a seal,
sealing fitting. allowing one to reliably install
• Solution - Chico SpeedSeal Compound removes over 80% a complete seal in less than
of the labor required to properly prepare and pour a seal. A five minutes.
reliable seal in guaranteed in five minutes, every time.

Traditional Chico SpeedSeal


100
90 =$91
80
Time (In Minutes)

70
60
50 =$56
40 =$44
30
20
=$5 =$5 =$5
10
0
1/2" 1" 2"
Sealing Fitting Size

Why spend 50 minutes preparing and pouring a seal whem you can do it easier in five?

• Separation of conductors - The traditional method of 7.7 FACTORY SEALED DEVICES


sealing requires that fiber be used to form a dam between Factory sealed devices eliminate the time-consuming
the integral bushing of the sealing fitting and the end of handwork of field poured seals. The seal is designed into the
the conduit. When packing a fiber dam each electrical device and is ready for installation as it comes from the box.
conductor must be individually separated to ensure that Factory sealed devices include control stations, pilot lights,
the sealing compound surrounds each conductor. With panelboards, lighting fixtures, plugs and receptacles, bell and
the increased use of multi-conductor cabling, this is a horn signals and clocks.
difficult and time consuming process, and must be done at
each end of the sealing fitting in a horizontal sealing fitting. The most common method of factory sealing utilizes a
• Solution - Chico SpeedSeal Compound expands to four flameproof (explosionproof) contact block. Terminal connections
times its original size in the sealing fitting, eliminating the and contacts are permanently molded and sealed into the
need to separate the individual conductors with Chico X device.
fiber. The conductors are separated automatically as the
sealing compound expands. Horizontal installations do not
require fiber dams.

• Long cure times - Traditional sealing compounds take from 8


hours to 72 hours to cure. During this cure time, the seal Small
and the conductors must be left undisturbed. Any movement explosionproof
may jeopardize the integrity of the seal. This creates components
problems for OEM customers who are using the sealing eliminate the need
fitting in a manufactured product. The OEM must move their for seals on control
product from production until the seal is cured. stations, breakers
• Solution - The Chico SpeedSeal Compound sets up in 4 to and switches
10 minutes and is completely hardened in 20 minutes.
OEM’s can now pour a seal and be back in production in
less than 20 minutes.
48 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Flameproof Enclosures

7.8 GROUND CONTINUITY 7.9 CHECKLIST FOR THE INSTALLATION OF


When the threads of conduits are exposed to the environment, FLAMEPROOF ENCLOSURES
some protective measures must be taken to prevent possible The final selection and installation check of flameproof
mechanical damage or corrosion. Electrical continuity must also enclosures should include the following technical criteria:
be maintained across threaded joints. If there is any doubt then
an external ground bond wire should be installed. • Is the apparatus suitable for the Area Classification?
• Is the Gas Group for the installation correct?
• Is the T Classification appropriate and below the auto ignition
temperature of the gas likely to be present in the surrounding
atmosphere?
• Are all the apparatus bolts, cable entry devices and blanking
plugs correctly installed and tightened?
• Are the cable entry devices and blanking plugs certified Ex-d?
• Are the flange, spigot, or threaded flamepaths cleaned and
greased? Grease should be that as specified by the
manufacturer such as Crouse-Hinds STL, or HTL for high
temperatures.
• Is the enclosure cover correctly installed with all the
manufacturers bolts? Are they tightened down?
• Is the earth/ground connection tight and connected to the
main earth/ground system with the correct size of bonding
conductor?
Cable tray must be bonded for earth continuity. • Are there are no solid obstructions adjacent to the flamepath?
• Has a check been carried out to ensure that there are no
unauthorized modifications to the apparatus?

For complete information on sealing requirements refer to the


Cooper Crouse-Hinds Code Digest and Canadian Code Digest.

For questions or comments, please contact the author at


paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com

The XJG provides an internal grounding continuity and expansion capability.


It can be supplied with the optional bonding jumper shown for visible
ground induction.

The XD coupling provides


flexible movement in all
directions and internal
ground continuity.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 49
Increased Safety Type ‘e’ Protection Design Concepts

CHAPTER 8 Tracking occurs when the insulation surface deteriorates or


INCREASED SAFETY TYPE ‘e’ becomes contaminated causing a leakage current flow
between live terminals to earth. Leakage currents causes
PROTECTION DESIGN CONCEPTS minute arcs on the insulator surface which degrades the
material until failure. In the example below, the voltage applied
“Because of the requirements for separation of
to the terminals is several thousand volts higher than the
conductors, it is unlikely that wire nuts will be terminal maximum voltage rating to illustrate the possible effect
acceptable under the increased safety standard. of tracking between live parts.
This will prevent their use in the Zone concept using
increased safety wiring techniques which is a major
departure from current wiring methods in
North America.”
— PCIC 1996 General Session Paper

8.1 Ex-e ENCLOSURES


General requirements for increased safety, Ex-e, enclosures
are: ingress protection to at least IP 54 and additional tests for
nonmetallic parts including thermal endurance, resistance to
solvents, ultraviolet light, surface conductivity and mechanical
resistance to impact of either 4 or 7 joules depending on the
size of the enclosure. The increased safety concept is only
suitable for non-sparking apparatus and is commonly used in IP ratings are important so to prevent water ingress and other contaminants
Zone 1 and 2 designated hazardous areas. from causing terminal blocks to arc.

8.2 Ex-e TERMINALS Clearance


General requirements for terminals are: Creepage
• They must be designed to allow the conductor to be easily
inserted and clamped, so that contact pressure is maintained
without reducing the cross sectional area of the conductor and
shall incorporate a positive locking device to prevent
conductors working loose by vibration.
• Specified creepage distances as detailed in EN 50-019 and
IEC 60079-7 for the grade of insulation material (CTI) and
Creepage Distance: The shortest distance between live parts, or live parts to
subsequent maximum voltage rating.
earth over the surface of the insulation material. Creepage distance follows
• Temperature limitation
the contour of the groove. Clearance distance: the shortest distance in air
• Current de-rating of the terminals (and conductors)
between live parts or live parts to earth. Clearance distance is the “line of
sight” distance.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds SpecOne GHG 74 series of Ex-e terminal boxes house


between 1 and 300 terminal blocks.
50 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Increased Safety Type ‘e’ Protection Design Concepts

8.3 LIGHTING CIRCUITS IN EX-e


ENCLOSURES
There are other commonly used terminals such as “U” slotted
type which permit more than one conductor per clamp. These
are commonly used for lighting circuits. It is not advisable to
insert conductors of different cross sectional areas in the same
terminal clamp. It is permitted to combine different cross
sectional areas of two conductors with the use of a ferrule
designed for this purpose.

Conductors must be terminated at Ex-e connections

For instrumentation circuits and other low current


applications (not exceeding 8 amps), it is highly
unlikely that there will be any significant temperature
The Crouse-Hinds eZAK box
rise under normal operating conditions.
with U-slotted terminals is
ideal for lighting circuits.
8.5 COMBINATION OF TERMINALS & WIRING
– WATCH FOR HEAT DISSIPATION
The combination of wire and terminals in an enclosure will
Wire nuts and twist-on connectors are not allowed in produce a temperature rise under load conditions. Care must
Ex-e installations. be taken during installation to ensure that the heat dissipated by
this combination does not exceed the maximum temperature
classification of the enclosure. The maximum wattage of the
8.4 NEW INCREASED SAFETY WIRING enclosure should be clearly marked on the enclosure.
PRACTICES
Presently, Ex-e connections are made at Ex-e terminal blocks
fastened in junction boxes. While this method is a common
practice in Europe, it is only used in North America for
instrumentation, control and telecom installations. The most
common termination method is made via twist on connectors or
“wire nuts.” There exists an opportunity for the construction
market and with OEMs for an Ex-e type wire nut. For example,
to obtain a Zone 1 light fixtures, a manufacturer would have to
redesign the internal wiring by eliminating wire nuts and
installing Ex-e terminal blocks. The fixture would have to be re-
designed to gain extra room and additional material costs.

Wire nuts are not allowed in Ex-e applications, Each Crouse-Hinds SpecOne terminal box has maximum heat dissipation
tables embossed on the inside cover.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 51
Increased Safety Type ‘e’ Protection Design Concepts
For instrumentation circuits and other low current applications 8.7 TERMINAL CONNECTION SYSTEM
(not exceeding 8 amps), it is highly unlikely that there will be any The primary function of a connection system is an efficient
significant temperature rise under normal operating conditions. electrical and mechanical connection of the conductor. Ex-e
For power circuits care must be taken not to exceed the terminals employ a clamping yoke or clamp that holds the
manufacturers installation instructions by following the conductor firmly in the clamping unit. The yoke systems are
manufacturer’s tables of permitted terminal population relative screwed in while the clamp system is referred as cage clamps.
to the load current. Both perform equally well to ensure a secure vibration resistant
connection of conductors.

Excessive heat from high current


Terminal clamp Terminal screw system
will damage enclosures
system

8.6 GROUNDING (EARTHING) OF EX-e


TERMINAL BOXES 8.7.1 TERMINATING SPARE CONDUCTORS
Certified Ex-e terminal boxes must be provided with an internal The termination of spare conductors is handled differently under
or external ground connection of an adequate size for the wiring the IEC and North American wiring methods.
configuration. (Ex-e terminal boxes are not designed to carry
earth fault currents.) The main internal/external ground IEC 60079-14 (Installations), subclause 9.1.2 states “In
connection must be connected to the main system earth with hazardous areas each unused core in multi-core cables shall
the correct coded wire of adequate size but not less than 4 mm2. either be connected to earth or be adequately insulated by
All exposed metal parts must be grounded together and to the means of suitable terminations. Insulation by tape alone is not
main ground terminal. Guidance on the ground conductor size recommended.” Terminating the spare conductor onto an Ex-e
is detailed below: terminal is recommended since the conductor could be used
later as an active terminal.
Cross-sectional area of Minimum cross-sectiona
area phase conductor of ground conductor In the NEC, 110.14(B) states, “...All splices and joints and the
S (mm2) S (mm2) free ends of conductors shall be covered with the insulation
S ≤ 16 S equivalent to that of the conductors or with an insulating device
identified for that purpose.” The insulation could be a heat-
16 ≤ S ≥ 35 16 shrink rated for 600V. Electrical tape would not qualify. The
S ≥ 35 0.5 S device could be a terminal or suitable twist-on connector. This
section applies to ordinary locations.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds provides internal and external ground lugs on brass


plate inserts.
52 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Increased Safety Type ‘e’ Protection Design Concepts

8.8 IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS OF EX-e


TERMINALS
• Use conductors of the appropriate size as designated by the
terminal. E.g. for a 2.5 mm2 terminal, the maximum conductor
size is 2.5 mm2. Normally, the manufacturers also advise the
AWG size of the conductor that is 28-12 AWG for 2.5 mm2. If
a larger conductor is used, the creepage & clearance
distances could be reduced.
• The conductor insulation must be carried right up to the
terminal throat within 1 mm of the clamp.
• Normal industrial ratings of the terminal and conductor are
derated.
• Unless otherwise specified, only one conductor per terminal
clamp is permitted.
• If flexible, fine stranded conductors are sued, care must be
taken to avoid whiskering of the strands that can reduce the
creepage and clearance distances. The use of ferrules is
recommended to avoid this problem.

8.9 INCREASED SAFETY EX-e MOTORS


The installation of Ex-e motors for Zones 1 & 2 have the same
requirements as that for any other type of Ex-e protected
apparatus with respect to connecting cables to terminals and An Ex-de motor in Zone 1, installed with flexible wiring , connected to a
connection of the motor frame to ground. The use of flexible Cooper Crouse-Hinds non-metallic Ex-de motor disconnect switch.
conduits is recommended over rigid conduit due to vibration
that could crack the threads.
Type ‘e’ motors are not flameproof or designed to contain or
withstand an internal explosion. They are designed to ensure
that there is not arcing or sparking in normal operation and that
the temperature rise on all arts exposed to the atmosphere are
controlled to within specified limits. Only 3-phase induction
motors are considered in this section. The T class is normally
T2 or T3, and the motors are intended for continuous running
operation. They are not suitable for frequent starting or long run-
up times. It is important to consider the danger of transient high
Cooper Crouse-Hinds ECGJH flexible
temperatures if the motor is in a locked rotor condition. During
connectors are used for motor
this time the temperature could rise above the designated
applictions rated for hazardous
T number.
industrial areas.
For questions or comments, please contact the author at
paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 53
Intrinsic Safety

CHAPTER 9 • Contacts, transmitters and temperature sensors are the most


INTRINSIC SAFETY commonly used field devices in intrinsically safe applications.
• The intrinsically safe barrier limits the current with a resistor
Intrinsic safety, Ex-ia, protects low voltage control and the voltage with a zener diode.
• Intrinsically safe circuits are designed so that they
circuits from igniting volatile gases or dusts in
operate properly under normal conditions, but keep the
hazardous areas by limiting voltage and current thus
energy levels below the ignition curves when a fault condition
preventing ignition. Full details can be found at occurs.
www. isbarriers.com or
www.crouse-hinds.com/CrouseHinds/resources/
intrinsically_safe/insafe.cfm

Control wiring diagrams as required by the NEC are avaialble at


www.isbarriers.com

There are three components to a barrier that limit current and


voltage: a resistor, at least two zener diodes, and a fuse. The
resistor limits the current to a specific value known as the short
circuit current, Isc. The zener diode limits the voltage to a value
referred to as open circuit voltage, Voc. The fuse will blow when
the diode conducts. This interrupts the circuit, which prevents
the diode from burning and allowing excess voltage to reach the
hazardous area. There always are at least two zener diodes in
parallel in each intrinsically safe barrier. If one diode should fail,
the other will operate providing complete protection.
www.isbarriers.com offers easy selection of the correct Ex-ia interface,
engineering drawings, downloadable control drawings and on-line ordering
A simple analogy is a restriction in a water pipe with an
of intrinsically safe barriers.
overpressure shutoff valve. The restriction prevents too much
water from flowing through the point, just like the resistor in the
barrier limits current. If too much pressure builds up behind the
9.1 INTRODUCTION restriction, the overpressure shutoff valve turns off all the flow in
Intrinsic Safety is the method of protection for control and
the pipe. This is similar to what the zener diode and fuse do with
instrumentation circuits where the nominal voltage is 24 VDC or
excess voltage. If the input voltage exceeds the allowable limit,
less and the current is normally less than 100 mA. The concept
the diode shorts the input voltage to ground and the fuse blows,
of intrinsic safety is to limit the voltage and current so that there
shutting off electrical power to the hazardous area.
is never a spark with enough energy to create an explosion.
Intrinsic safety when properly used removes the ignition from
the explosion triangle.
9.2 DETERMINING SAFE ENERGY LEVELS
There are three components to an intrinsically safe circuit: the Voltage and current limitations are ascertained by ignition
field device, intrinsically safe barrier and field wiring. curves, as seen in Fig. 4. A circuit with a combination of 30 V
and 150 mA would fall on the ignition level of gases in Group A.
• Field devices known as intrinsically safe apparatus are This combination of voltage and current could create a spark
classified as simple or complex. large enough to ignite the mixture of gases and oxygen (with a
• Simple apparatus, which do not need to be approved, are non- safety factor of 1.5). Intrinsically safe applications always stay
energy storing devices such as contacts, thermocouples, below these curves where the operating level of energy is about
RTDs, LEDs and resistors. 1 watt or less. There also are capacitance and inductance
• Complex apparatus such as transmitters, solenoids, relays curves which must be examined in intrinsically safe circuits.
and transducers may store excess energy and need to be
approved by a third party.
54 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Intrinsic Safety

Figure 2 Figure 4
Ignition Curves - Resistance Thermocouple with Fault

Ignition is possible from a fault occurring on the non-hazardous side.

Figure 5
Thermocouple with Barrier

An intrinsically safe barrier will limit the excess voltage and current from
reaching the hazardous side.
The energy from the spark created by the combination of voltage and current
must be below the ignition curves to be intrinsically safe. 9.3 INTRINSICALLY SAFE BARRIERS
There are 3 types of barriers most commonly used:
Consider the ignition curves to demonstrate a point about 1. Zener barriers – passive devices which required grounding
thermocouples. A thermocouple is classified as a simple device. for safety
It will not create or store enough energy to ignite any mixture of 2. Isolation barriers – do not require grounding and contain
volatile gases. If the energy level of a typical thermocouple additional electronics for isolation and signal conditioning, or
circuit were plotted on the ignition curve in (Fig 2.), it would 3. Ex-ia I/O – combines I/O with intrinsic safety into one
not be close to the ignition levels of the most volatile gases in package.
Group A. Is the thermocouple which is installed in a hazardous
area (Fig 3) intrinsically safe? The answer is no, because a fault 9.3.1 GROUNDED ZENER BARRIERS
could occur on the recorder which could cause excess energy Grounded barriers, also referred to as zener barriers, are
to reach the hazardous area, as seen in (Fig 4). To make sure passive devices which contain zener diodes to limit excess
that the circuit remains intrinsically safe, a barrier to limit the voltage, resistors to limit current and fuses. These are the basic
energy must be inserted (Fig 5). building blocks which are contained in all other intrinsically safe
barriers. There is always a voltage drop across grounded
Figure 3 barriers because of the resistors so some selection is required
Thermocouple Installed in a Hazardous Area as well as a ground connection. This selection has been greatly
simplified in recent years as manufacturers make them more
application specific. Grounded barriers are also very versatile
and can be applied in many other applications. If your
application has less than 20 outputs or inputs and grounding is
not a consideration, this may be the best solution.

The unprotected thermocouple is not considered safe in the hazardous area.


Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 55
Intrinsic Safety

Din Rail Isolated Barriers


Advantages Other
Considerations
Does not require IS ground Higher cost than
grounded barriers
Loop layout & barrier Larger width –
selection is easier 1" wide
Integrated signal Larger power
conditioning requirements

9.3.3 REMOTE I/O PRODUCTS


Until recently there were limited improvements made in this
Cooper Crouse-Hinds has a complete selection of grounded barriers. industry. The latest generation of products now reduce the total
Refer to www.isbarriers.com installed cost by combining the intrinsically safe barriers with the
I/O, eliminating extra hardware. These new systems called
DIN Rail Grounded Barriers intrinsically safe remote I/O can be mounted almost anywhere
Advantages Other in hazardous or ordinary locations reducing the wiring and
Considerations terminations.
Lowest initial cost per unit Requires ground
Very small < 1/2" wide Barrier resistance These systems were initially designed for the German chemical
can influence industry, which wanted to reduce installation costs and no
circuit function longer had enough space in control rooms to house termination
panels. Their reasoning was to extend the 2 wire
Very precise signal response
communication lines out as far away as possible in the process
Small power requirements area to minimize field wiring to the sensors and extra
termination cabinets.
Versatile for “other” circuits

9.3.2 ISOLATION BARRIERS


DIN rail isolated barriers, also referred to as transformer
isolated or galvanically isolated barriers, are zener barriers with
additional electronics to isolate and condition the signals.
Adding the isolation has the advantage that an intrinsically safe
ground connection is not required. The signal conditioning of
isolated barriers simplifies the selection process as each
isolated barrier is manufactured for specific functions such as
switching, temperature measurements or 4-20 mA readings.
These isolated units are ideal for digital inputs or for OEMs
where grounding may cause problems at the local installation.

Signals to and from the hazardous area are made intrinsically safe, processed
by the remote I/O electronics, and transmitted to a memory module through a
communication link. These signals are updated every 5 milliseconds and
stored for the main control system. The intrinsically safe remote I/O system is
connected to the controller by a simple 2 wire or fiber optic link to relay
information back and forth.

These systems are ideal for users, who want to eliminate wiring
from the control system to the I/O and can communicate via a
bus system such as Modbus, Profibus, or Fieldbus.
Crouse-Hinds DIN rail isolation barriers do not require a ground for
protection. Refer to www.isbarriers.com
56 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Intrinsic Safety

Intrinsically Safe Remote I/O Systems 9.5 INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE &


Advantages Other Considerations TROUBLESHOOTING OF INTRINSICALLY
Lowest installed cost Some expertise SAFE CIRCUITS
(40% savings) required in “systems”
Uses digital communications Explosionproof seals are not required if a suitable
for more accurate and mastic is used that prevents the transmission of
faster readings gases. No special maintenance for intrinsically safe
Easy product selection circuits is required.
Least amount of wiring
No ground required • Intrinsically safe circuits use normal wiring practices, but care
must be taken to separate and identify these circuits.
Easiest add-on for future • A proper grounding system will have only one grounding
point.
Remember the keys to intrinsic safety: • There are 5 rules of grounding to ensure the system is safe.
• It is used only on instrumentation and control circuits that • Explosionproof seals are not required.
operate on 24 volts or less. • Intrinsically safe seals must prevent the transmission of
• It is not used on power circuits of 30 volts and definitely not gases.
120 volts and above. • No special maintenance is required.
• It is used in Division 1 and Zone 0 & 1 areas. • Troubleshooting the system includes: checking that the wiring
• Intrinsic safety barriers prevent ignition of volatile gases and is installed correctly, the circuit is powered, the barrier
dusts by limiting the voltage and current into hazardous areas. resistance is not too high and the fuse is not blown.

There are 3 solutions that depend on the number of devices The intrinsically safe system must be properly installed and
that need to be protected in the hazardous area ranging from provisions must be made to maintain and troubleshoot it. These
simple passive devices which require grounding, isolated procedures are discussed in detail in Article 504 of the National
devices which do not need a ground, and the intrinsically safe Electrical Code (NEC) and the ANSI/ISA RP 12.6-1987
remote I/O which eliminates hardware and field wiring. Recommended Practice Installation of Intrinsically Safe Systems For
Hazardous (Classified) Locations.
9.4 SELECT THE PROPER PRODUCT FOR
YOUR INTRINSICALLY SAFE APPLICATION 9.5.1 WIRING
Intrinsically safe circuits may be wired in the same manner as
Before selecting the best protection method, examine the mix of
comparable circuits installed for unclassified locations with two
analog and digital signals, whether a ground is available,
exceptions summarized as separation and identification. These
amount of cabling required and space in the control room.
wiring practices are simple and clear; however, they often are
There are enough options available now to simplify the
overlooked and are the source of potential problems.
installation and reduce the system costs.
The intrinsically safe conductors must be separated from all
There are many different products that will make a sensor or
other wiring by placing them in separate conduits or by a
instrument intrinsically safe. Many times selecting the correct
separation of 2 inches of air space. Within an enclosure the
product is troublesome for the first time user. For a complete
conductors can be separated by a grounded metal or insulated
explanation on how to select the proper barrier refer to
partition.
www.isbarriers.com or www.crouse-hinds.com and click on “code
corner.”

Ex-ia wiring must be separated from all other wiring.


Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digestt 57
Intrinsic Safety

• A separate isolated ground conductor normally is required


since the normal protective ground conductor (green or
yellow/green wire) may not be at the same ground potential
because of the voltage drop from fault currents in other
equipment.
• For installations designed to Canadian standards, the
Canadian Electrical Code (Appendix F) recommends
redundant grounding conductors.

A poor grounding system can influence the function of the


system by creating noise on the circuit or modifying the signals.
Figure 6 shows an improperly grounded system. The numerous
grounding points create ground loops which can modify the
signals and induce stray voltages into the intrinsically safe
circuits. The correct method of grounding is shown in Figure 7
Wiring to the Ex-e box (left) is separated from wiring to the Ex-ia box (right). where all the grounds are tied together at one single point in the
system.
9.5.2 BARRIER INSTALLATION Figure 6 - Poor grounding system
The barriers normally are installed in a dust- and moisture-free
IP 54 or NEMA 4 or 12 enclosure located in the non-hazardous
area. Only the barrier outputs are intrinsically safe. Conductive
dust or moisture could lessen the required distance of 2 in.
between intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically safe conductors.
The enclosure should be as close as possible to the hazardous
area to minimize cable runs and increased capacitance of the
circuit. If they are installed in a hazardous area, they must be in
the proper enclosure suited for that area.

A poor grounding system will have multiple ground points, causing potential
grounding loops

Figure 7 - Correct method of Grounding

Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex-ia products are suitable for installation in Division


2 / Zone 2 locations and should be installed in a properly marked
weatherproof box .

9.5.3 GROUNDING
First determine if the intrinsically safe barriers used in the
system are grounded or isolated. The isolated barriers normally
are larger, more expensive, and do not require a ground for
safety. The grounded safety barriers are smaller and less
expensive, but require a ground to divert the excess energy.
The main rules of grounding intrinsically safe systems are:
• The ground path must have less then 1 ohm of resistance
from the furthest barrier to the main grounding electrode.
• The grounding conductor must be a minimum 12 AWG.
• All ground path connections must be secure, permanent,
visible, and accessible for routine inspection. The correct method of grounding should have a single ground connection.
58 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Intrinsic Safety

9.5.4 SEALING 9.5.6 TROUBLESHOOTING


The requirements for sealing intrinsically safe circuits have If the intrinsic safety circuit does not operate properly once it is
been discussed by a panel of experts and published in “Seals completed and energized, follow these troubleshooting
for Intrinsically Safe Circuits,” EC&M, September 1992, pp. 48- guidelines:
49. The panel’s conclusion is that seals are required to prevent
the transmission of gases and vapors from the hazardous area • Make sure the connections are tight.
to the non-hazardous area, not to prevent passage of flames • Check the wiring to the appropriate terminals against the
from explosions. Explosion-proof seals are not required as long control wiring diagram. A control wiring diagram is defined by
as there is some other mechanical means of preventing the the NEC as “a drawing or other document provided by the
passage of gases such as positive pressure in the control room manufacturer of the intrinsically safe or associated apparatus
and/or application of an approved mastic at cable terminations that details the allowed interconnections between the
and between the cable and raceway. Many experts generally intrinsically safe and associated apparatus.” These diagrams
agree that a commercially available silicone caulk is a suitable are easier to obtain than in the past. Make sure that one of the
mastic which would minimize the passage of gases. This must, manufacturers provides not only diagrams which show the
however, be acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. interconnections between the field device and barriers, but
also wiring diagrams which demonstrate that the circuit
functions properly and is safe by comparing the safety
9.5.5 MAINTENANCE parameters of the field device and the barriers.
No special maintenance of intrinsically safe systems is required. • Make sure the circuit is powered.
Once a year the barriers should be checked to ensure that the • Check to see if the resistance in the barrier is too high for the
connections are tight, the ground wiring has less then one ohm circuit. As stated in the previous articles in this series, circuits
of resistance, and the barriers are free from moisture and dirt. are analyzed for the proper loop resistance (barrier and cable)
Check the panel and conduits for separation and identification and supply voltages. If the circuit does not operate properly,
of the intrinsically safe wiring. Never test the barrier with an check the circuit against the design in the control wiring
ohmmeter or other test instrument while it is connected in the diagram.
circuit (Figure 8). This bypasses the barrier and could induce • Check for a blown barrier fuse. This is accomplished by
voltages into the intrinsically safe wiring. disconnecting the barrier from the circuit and measuring the
end-to-end resistance of the barrier. If the ohmmeter registers
Figure 8
an infinite resistance, the fuse in the barrier is blown. The fuse
has opened because of a fault in the circuit, so reevaluate the
entire circuit before reinstalling a new barrier.

9.5.7 BARRIER REPLACEMENT


If the barrier’s fuse has opened, it usually is the result of
excessive voltage being applied to the barrier. This causes the
diode to conduct, which results in high current in the fuse. After
determining the cause of the excess voltage, the barrier must
be replaced. The procedure is to disconnect the wiring from the
safety barriers in the proper order of non-hazardous terminal
first, hazardous terminals next, and the ground last. Cover the
bare wire ends with tape, replace the barrier, and then reverse
the procedure to mount the new barrier. Always install the
ground first and disconnect the ground last.

For questions or comments, please contact the author at


paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 59
Distribution of Power – Distribution Panels

CHAPTER 10 block for each incoming “main” conductor and a series of


DISTRIBUTION OF “branch” circuit breakers wired to that terminal block in a
specified manner referred to as a “wiring system.” Often the
POWER – DISTRIBUTION PANELS panelboard itself is protected by a main circuit breaker. A
panelboard without a main breaker is referred to as “main lug
There two types of explosion protect panel boards.
only.”
One contains ordinary breakers in a metallic
explosionproof housing. The other uses explosion
protected Ex-d breakers mounted in an increased
safety Ex-e or Zone 2, weatherproof enclosure. Each
method has its own distinct advantages.

10.1 INTRODUCTION
Power is distributed throughout a plant via distribution panels,
which are centrally controlled switch systems for large numbers
of feeder circuits. These panels are used to control lighting,
heating, appliance, heat tracing, motor and similar circuits. The
panels usually house thermal-magnetic circuit breakers that
provide a disconnect means, short circuit protection and
thermal time delay overload protection. Typical electrical circuit breaker panelboard.

10.1.1 PANELBOARD BASICS Lighting panelboards are rated up to 240 volts and
In all industrial facilities, some means is necessary to safely used for lighting, heat tracing and small motors
distribute incoming power to devices that require electricity.
Simply providing a distribution means is not enough. There
Power panels refer to loads up to 480 volts for 3
must also be protection for the individual distribution paths or phase motors
“branches” which is the circuit breaker or fuse.
10.1.2 120 VS 240 VS 480 VOLT RATED
By definition, a circuit breaker is an automatic switch that stops
current in a suddenly overloaded circuit. By mechanical action,
PANELBOARDS
The local power utility uses a series of transformers to lower the
the breaker will turn on or off as needed. It is also designed to
voltages in stages. Single phase systems result from one
open the circuit automatically by “tripping” at a pre-set level or
winding on the primary and one on the secondary side of the
“trip rating.”
transformer. A “neutral” wire is connected to the midpoint of the
secondary winding dividing the output voltage in half. This
Circuit breakers protect the conductors, not the devices ,from
neutral is connected to the earth (ground) at the transformer.
damage due to overloads and/or short circuits. (The devices
This arrangement provides two voltages within a three wire
can be protected by an internal circuit breaker with a reset
system. It is still considered a single phase system even though
feature as found on hair dryers.) In a residence these devices
two voltages are supplied.
or loads would be permanent lights, electric ranges, air
conditioners and other, devices plugged into convenience
outlets such as: radios, televisions, etc. Industrial examples
requiring circuit breakers include: motor operated valves,
pumping stations, heat tracing circuits, lighting systems,
conveyor lines, etc. Combining distribution and circuit protection
in one device results in the “electrical circuit breaker
panelboard.”

Within each residence, manufacturing plant, oil refinery,


chemical plant and any other place where electricity is used, a
means must be provided to distribute the incoming voltage to
various points where it can be used. In a typical residence the
incoming voltage from the power company is usually 240/120
Examples of single phase industrial load are portable tools, lights and
VAC single phase. This voltage enters the residence through a
pumps. Because these devices require less voltage, they are powered by both
service entrance head, proceeds through service entrance
a live wire and the neutral on the secondary side of the transformer, normally
cable to a meter, and finally connects to the electrical
110-120 volts. Larger loads such as some motors or heat tracing, require
panelboard where it is distributed throughout the house via
more power by wiring up to both live wires on the transformer and not using
branch circuits. A typical panelboard consists of: a terminal
the neutral, normally 220-240 volts.
60 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Distribution of Power – Distribution Panels
Because many commercial and industrial applications have Conventional testing of these types of breakers, as prescribed
large power needs, a polyphase or “three phase” system is by the circuit breaker manufacturer, involve pushing the test
used. Three phase equipment, in general, is more efficient, button on each breaker. Some users specify remote trip
lower in cost, physically smaller and consumes less current indication through connection to a programmable controller
than comparable single phase equipment. At a power station, (PLC), control panel, or annunciator to immediately signal
alternators (AC generators) produce three phase voltages and shutdown of the circuit. This connection can be made from the
are usually stepped up (transformed) to higher voltages in order terminal strip in the panel terminal housing to a relay, interface
to be distributed over long distances. These voltages are then module, or other device which can detect the presence (or loss)
transformed by the industrial user to one of several useful of voltage.
levels. An advantage to this system is that there is a lower
voltage supply available between the neutral conductor and any 10.2 DESIGN
one of the three live conductors. This lower power can be used Because the breakers are switching devices, they will create an
for receptacle and lighting loads. arc or spark when opening or closing. When panel boards are
located in any hazardous area, the breakers must be explosion
protected. The 2 methods used to accomplish this are to
contain ordinary breakers in an explosionproof housing or
conversely to explosion protect individual breakers and house
them in an increased safety enclosure. Each method has its
own distinct advantages.

10.2.1 EXPLOSION PROTECTED


ENCLOSURES
Typical 3 phase system
Advantages of Explosionproof Panels
Another advantage of a three phase system is that motors can Advantages Other Considerations
easily reverse their direction of rotation. When two of the three Uses ordinary breakers Limited to
live wires are interchanged in a three phase motor the rotation 42 circuits
is reversed. For a single phase motor to be reversed, the
Breakers easily changed Applications may
internal winding connections would have to be changed, which
and added in the field be limited in IEC
requires dismantling.
type applications
A lighting panel and a power distribution panel performs the Very durable, cast Explosionproof/
same basic function. The fundamental difference between the metallic housing flameproof housings
two panels is the voltage ratings of the circuits they are are heavier
protecting and distributing electricity to. “Lighting panelboard” is Very competitive in the Limited to
a general term for panels up to 240 volts used to provide circuit mid-size range metallic housings
protection and distribute power to lighting, receptacles, heat Explosionproof enclosures
tracing, and small motors and valves. Power panels refer to can be drilled & tapped
loads up to 480 volts for 3 phase motors. in the field
Electrical protection devices (EPD) provide 30 mA
ground fault protection for equipment.
Ground fault indicators (GFI) trip at 5 mA for personal
protection.

10.1.3 HEAT TRACING AND GROUND FAULT


INDICATION
Heat tracing is used extensively in process and pipeline
installations to prevent heat loss in tubing, piping, and process
The new low cost
vessels. The heat tracing supplies heat in the process industry
Cooper Crouse-Hinds
to prevent the flowing material from changing form (e.g.
LP Exactra panel
viscosity). Heat tracing requires special circuit protection.
boards house ordinary
Electrical protection devices (EPD) are typically used to provide
breakers in a metallic
30 milliamps ground fault protection as well as over-current
explosionproof housing
protection. These are similar to the ground fault indicators found
in residential bathrooms except that GFIs will trip at 5 mA.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 61
Distribution of Power – Distribution Panels

10.2.2 EXPLOSION PROTECTED BREAKERS 10.4 SELECTING PANELS


There are many hidden costs at the installation process of a
Advantages of Explosion Protected Breakers panel board. Items to look for include:

Advantages Other Considerations • Panels should be factory sealed to avoid the added cost of
Modular design for Must use explosion pouring explosion proof seals.
small panels or protected breakers • A fully wired terminal housing including ground bar and solid
very large panels neutral makes installation easier since the circuit breaker
Available in nonmetallic, Adding breakers housing is closed for field wiring.
• Make sure panels can accommodate a large supply of
NEMA 4X, IP 66 housing in the field is more
conductors to eliminate the need to pull additional wires for the
difficult
future electrical requirements.
Breakers can be directly Different breakers • Breakers and operators should be easy to add or change out.
viewed & operated required for • The panel board design will accommodate top and bottom
IEC vs. NEC/CEC entries for the incoming power.
applications • The panel should have quick-release, spring-loaded, and
Suitable for CEC, NEC captive cover bolts.
or IEC applications • The self-aligning circuit breaker operators should self align the
Available with main door mounted operator mechanisms.
disconnect switches up to • To guard against corrosion the panel should be non-metallic or
180 amps copper-free aluminum with stainless steel hardware and O-
rings and breathers and drains.
• Order extra drilled, tapped and plugged openings for future
wiring.
• The panel should include a lifting bracket, removable
mounting feet and hinges.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds D2Z panels have • Make sure the panel has the necessary third party approvals
explosion-protected, Ex-ed, breakers in and hazardous area ratings.
non-metallic, NEMA 4X, IP66
enclosures.

10.3 APPLICATION OF PANEL BOARDS

Before working on an explosionproof panel, the


main power must be switched OFF.

When working in hazardous areas, non-sparking tools must


be used or means must be taken to ensure that no explosion
hazard is present. These means include ventilating the area
and making sure volatile vapors, gases or dusts are not
present.

Panel boards that control lighting circuits normally operate with


1 or 2 phase 240 volt breakers with a “B” characteristics. When
480 volts for motor control applications are required, specify
breakers with a “K” characteristics.
Hose tests are performed on the Cooper Crouse-Hinds IP66 D2Z
non-metallic distribution panel.
For 480 volt K
breakers on the Crouse-Hinds
For questions or comments, please contact the author at
D2Z nonmetallic panels, use the
paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com
suffix S-848 at the end of the
order code. Large windows
permit quick access to breakers
without opening the
enclosure.
62 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Motor Disconnects and Safety Switches

CHAPTER 11
MOTOR DISCONNECTS AND SAFETY
SWITCHES
The UL 98 standard for motor disconnects requires a
larger distance between phase terminals, which
prevents most of the smaller, less expensive rotary
switches from meeting this requirement. As a result
most rotary switches are approved to UL 508
and listed as controllers.

11.1 INTRODUCTION Cooper Crouse-Hinds offers both industrial and explosion protected motor
Motor disconnects and safety switches are used to isolate disconnect switches.
and disconnect the electrical power of electrical installations
during maintenance, cleanings and repair work. 11.3 HORSEPOWER RATINGS OF SWITCHES
The horsepower rating of the switch determines the size of
the motor that the switch can be used with. The North
American standard is UL 98 while the IEC is the motor switch
capacity of AC3 according to EN 60 947-4-1. This standard
requires that switches be capable of switching 10X rated
current in the ON position and 8X current in the OFF position
up to 50 switching cycles. The AC3 switching capacities are
often times rated in kilowatts which can be converted to
horsepower using the conversion 1 kW = 1.36 HP.

Comparing the AC3 to the UL 98 testing requirements shows


that the two tests are very similar.

The Cooper Crouse-Hinds GHG 26 Series, nonmetallic 10 to 180 amp motor Horsepower Testing Requirements
disconnect switches are rated IP 66 and are UV protected for extreme IEC vs NEC
outdoor environments Endurance Test
AC 3 EN 60 947-4-1 UL 98
Test Voltage 1.05% 1.05%
Test Current 2x 1x
Power Factor* 0.45 0.75
Cycles w/locked rotor - 1000 w/locked rotor - 6000
w/out - 5000 w/out - 400
Flameproof
Current load time 0.05 sec. Not fixed
motor with
nonmetallic Time Btwn. loads 10 sec. 6 cycles/min.
disconnect switch (10 sec. @ 60 Hz)
for Zone 1
Locked Rotor Test
applications.
Test Voltage 1.05% 1.05%
Test Current 8x 5x
11.2 EXPLOSION PROTECTED DESIGN
Because the function is to switch off the electrical supply, the Power factor 0.45 0.45
opening and closing of contacts will create an arc or spark. The Cycles 50 50
most common method is to make the switch itself explosion
Current Load Time 0.05 Not fixed
protected using a flameproof housing and increased safety
terminals Ex-de. The Ex-de switch can then be mounted in a Time Between Loads 10 sec. 6 cycles/min.
non-metallic or general-purpose enclosure suitable for the area (10 sec. @ 60 Hz)
as opposed to an explosionproof enclosure. The switch and *The lower power factor will result in a higher inductance, making this
enclosure are usually designed together to minimize the size of particular test under the EN standard more difficult
the installation.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 63
Motor Disconnects and Safety Switches

The SpecOne
series of safety
switches are
rated according
to the AC3
switch capacity.

Converting the AC3 switch capacity (kW) values to horsepower ratings provides the following ratings for the Zone 1
nonmetallic disconnect switches.

Switch Current 400V 480V 600V


GHG 261 10 A 6.2 kW = 8.4 HP
GHG 262 20 A 10.,5 kW = 14.3 HP 10.5 kW = 14.3 HP 9.0 kW = 12.2HP
GHG 263 40 A 22.5 kW = 30.6 HP 27.2 kW = 37 HP 31.3 kW = 42.6 HP
GHG 264 80 A 47 kW = 64 HP 56 kW = 76.1 HP 54 kW = 73.5 HP
GHG 265 125 A 84 kW = 114.2 HP 93 kW = 126.5 HP 98 kW = 133.3 HP
GHG 266 180 A 108 kW = 147 HP 108 kW = 147 HP 110 kW = 150 HP

11.4 UL 98 VS UL 508
According to NEC 430-101 there must be a disconnecting
means capable of disconnecting motors and controllers from
the circuit. Controllers are defined and grouped together
under UL 508. These include push button stations as well as
most of the smaller disconnect switches on the market today.
The disconnecting means must be located within sight of the
controller.

UL 98 defines those disconnects which can be used as motor


disconnects. The most obvious discrepancy between the 2
standards is that UL 98 requires a larger distance between
phase terminals, which prevents most of the smaller, less
expensive rotary switches from meeting this requirement. As
a result most rotary switches are approved to UL 508 and listed All Crouse-Hinds SpecOne disconnect switches are provided with lockouts.
as controllers.

11.5 SWITCH LOCKOUTS


In order for the disconnects to be used to safely isolate the
electrical supply, there must be means to lock the switch in the
off position. Under the IEC philosophy the handle and cover are
locked out in the “off” position. The cover can only be removed
when the switch is in the “on” position. This prevents turning the
switch on with the cover removed and allows for
troubleshooting when the switch is energized with the cover
removed. This may be the opposite of some North American
switches where the cover can only be removed when the switch
is in the off position. For motors less than 7.5HP, the EN
standard requires a visible indication that the switch is ON or
OFF.
Each Cooper Crouse-Hinds SpecOne™ disconnect switch has a position
ring with OFF-ON or (O-I) defined switch positions. The contact blocks can
have optional auxiliary contacts for wiring to separate lamps or other
devices for local or remote indication.
64 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Motor Disconnects and Safety Switches

11.6 VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE 11.8 INSTALLATION


SWITCHES The disconnect switches can be installed in any Zone 1 or 2 or
For variable frequency drive (VFD) switches it may be Division 2 location around the world. They are also approved
necessary to have the conduit control circuit switched for Class II, Division 1 Group E,F,G locations in Canada . There
off 100% before breaking the main feed. Because a are three critical factors for installation of disconnect switches:
minimum of time feed is required, the auxiliary contacts entry methods, access wiring room and dimensions.
are switched by a separate actuator which must be
operated before the main switch actuator can be turned
off. When switching the main actuator on, the control
actuator closes automatically.

Photo of brass plate with metric


adapters.

The control circuit top 11.8.1 ENTRY METHODS


switch must be turned off Since the products are universally approved, one must be able
before breaking the main to bring in conduit and metallic or flexible cables.
supply on the SpecOne™
Zone 1 VFD switch.

11.7 EXPLOSION PROTECTION AND


ENVIRONMENTAL RATINGS
The disconnect switches are rated as flameproof with
increased safety terminations and are mounted in an
IP66 enclosure. They are marked as follows for
worldwide approval:
Eex de IIC T6
Aex de IIC T6
Class I, Zone 1, Groups A-D
Class II, Division 1 Groups E, F, G cUL
Access is provided by NPT metric Myers adapters or with metallic cable
glands through a removable gland plate. These plates can be field drilled.

For the smaller sized enclosures full wiring access is provided by the
cut-away cover.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 65
Motor Disconnects and Safety Switches

11.9 SELECTING MOTORS FOR HAZARDOUS


LOCATIONS
A motor for Class I will confine the effects of an internal motor
explosion. This assumes that normal heating and cooling will
cause the motor to breathe the surrounding atmosphere much
like light fixtures or a conduit wiring system. The atmosphere in
the operating environment will enter the motor enclosure. Class
I explosionproof motors are only rated for use in Group C or D
areas. There are no Group A or B explosionproof motors in
production.However, some motors explosion-protected for
Zone 1 areas are rated for Groups IIC

The design of a Class II motor for dust groups E, F and G


ensures that the motors surface temperature does not exceed
the ignition temperature of the combustible dusts. If the
operating environment contains both Class I and Class II
materials, the motor must be dual-rated as a Class I/Class II
motor

There are also increased safety, Ex-e, and flameproof , Ex-d,


motors rated to IEC standards. Increased safety motors must
meet the IEC 70-7 standard with construction methods which
ensure that the motor is non-sparking. These motors can be
used in Zone 1 areas in all gas groups and are economical for
motors above 20 Hp. Flameproof motors are constructed much
like explosionproof motors and
Like the GHG43 control stations, the Cooper Crouse-Hinds disconnect
All motors manufactured after February 1975 carry a T code
switches can be mounted on walls, conduits, or wireway cages with patented
designation. This identifies the maximum motor surface
mounting plates.
temperature that will develop under all conditions of
operation , including motor overload and burnout.

For questions or comments, please contact the author at


paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com
66 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Portable Power

CHAPTER 12 12.1.2 POLARIZATION


PORTABLE POWER Plugs, cord connectors and receptacles are available with
different ratings and polarization to provide means of
IEC receptacles for hazardous areas are designed preventing interconnections of different ratings, voltages or
frequencies. Equipment connected to circuits having different
only to accept plugs from the same manufacturer.
voltage, frequency or type of current on the same premises
must have plugs and/or receptacles that are not
interchangeable.
12.1 APPLICATIONS
Heavy-duty receptacles and cord connectors are used in Non-interchangeability is provided through 2 methods. The first
various applications: is with different sizes and configurations of the contacts. The
• To supply power to portable electrically operated motor second is with various keying arrangements of the plug sleeve
generator sets, compressors, heating and cooling units, and receptacle housing. By varying these parameters,
welders,conveyors, lighting systems or other similar sufficient configurations are available to avoid improper
equipment. interchangeability on the same premises.
• Where temporary power is needed, such as at trailers,
building units, heavy machinery or similar equipment.
• Whatever electrical loads must be quickly disconnected from
power source.
• In installations where large machines utilize electrical motor
drives. For ease of adjustments, maintenance and
replacement, each motor is connected to power by plugs and
receptacles and portable cord/cable rather than fixed wiring.

Typically, the most common applications are for welding outlets


and portable power in industrial process facilities, shipyards,
manufacturing plants, oil rigs and chemical plants where dust,
dirt and moisture are present.

Arktite Plugs and receptacle interiors can be rotated 22-1/2 degrees at


12.1.1 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
factory. This is designated as the S4 option.
Many plugs, receptacles and cord connectors are designed for
quick-disconnect of equipment under full rated load or locked
rotor currents, in emergency situations. However, in all cases, a
circuit breaker or disconnect switch as shown in Chapter 11 12.2 CONFIGURATIONS
should be the primary means of circuit disconnect. If more When exporting electrical and electronic equipment to foreign
severe conditions exist, other load interrupting means such as countries, there are three basic power plug and receptacle
receptacles interlocked with circuit breakers, fuses or configuration systems in use in most countries of the world.
disconnect switches must be used. Note that if the receptacle is They are the national configurations, IEC 309 configurations
located in a hazardous area, the interlock must be explosion and IEC 320 configurations.
protected.
12.2.1 NATIONAL CONFIGURATIONS
National configurations are plug / receptacles of a blade or pin
design that are commonly used in a general geographical area
or a specific country for the connection of electrical / electronic
equipment to a power source. Generally, plugs and receptacles
rated as 16 ampere-250 volts or less are used on computers,
appliances, medical equipment, small machines, portable tools
and other light duty/medium duty electrical equipment. Many
countries have configuration standards for 2 pole-2 wire, 2 pole-
3 wire and 3 pole-4 wire type plugs/receptacles. However, the
widespread usage is the 2 pole-3 wire grounding configuration.
Usage of the 2 pole-3 wire grounding configurations in foreign
countries is similar to the use and application of NEMA 5-15
Cooper Crouse-Hinds offers Arktite and IEC 309 configured plugs and
plugs and receptacles in the United States. All National
receptacles with switches, circuit breakers and fuses.
configuration plugs, receptacles, connectors, power strips,
cords and cord sets are approved by the appropriate testing
agency where applicable.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 67
Portable Power

In the US and Canada, the NEMA blade configuration Many proprietary pin and sleeve configurations that do not
is standard for lower voltages in residential, commercial and conform to the IEC standards are designed to accommodate
light industrial use up to 250 volt /20 amps. There multiple voltage systems. A plug wired to a piece of equipment
is no national configuration for larger amperages. designed to operate at one voltage system could unintentionally
be plugged into a receptacle wired with an unlike voltage.
Mismatching voltages could cause damage to the equipment or
even personal injury and is not considered safe electrical
practice.

The NEMA 4X Cooper Crouse-Hinds


ENR is rated up to 20 Amp, 250 VAC,
for Class I, Division 1 areas.

12.2.2 IEC 309 - CEE 17 CONFIGURATIONS


IEC 309 - CEE 17 configurations are HEAVY-DUTY plugs and
receptacles of a pin & sleeve design and have a specific rating
for each configuration.

Unlike National type plug and receptacle configurations that are


used in a general geographic area or specific country, the IEC
Cooper Crouse-Hinds offers nonmetallic IEC 309 products for industrial and
309 - CEE 17 are recognized in many countries of the world for
hazardous locations.
use on heavy duty equipment. IEC 309 - CEE 17 devices are
rated 16/20 ampere, 30/32 ampere, 60/63 ampere, 125 ampere
in various voltages and are available in 2 pole-3 wire, 3 pole-4 12.2.3 IEC 320 CONFIGURATIONS
wire and 4 pole-5 wire grounding configurations. These units IEC 320 configurations are a series of plugs, connectors, inlets
are approved by the various testing / standards agencies and and outlets designed for use on portable equipment such as
are ideal for application on large computers, machine tools, computers, printers, medical equipment and other electrical
welders and other industrial equipment where portable power is /electronic equipment. Typical examples are the three pin
used. power inlets on the back of a personal computer or printer. Cord
sets with IEC 320 connectors and national plug configurations
IEC 309-1 are international configurations for plugs (or inlets) allow exported equipment to interface with outlets used around
and receptacles (or connectors) and are single-rated which the world.
assures proper mating of devices with the same voltage and
amperage. It is virtually impossible to couple a plug and 12.3 EQUIPMENT FOR HAZARDOUS AREAS
receptacle of different voltage and/or amperage ratings. IEC In the majority of explosion-protected devices, all of the current-
309-2 devices are similar to IEC 309-1 configurations, except carrying parts are inside the enclosure. However, in plugs and
they are specifically for North American voltages & amperages. receptacles, the contact must be made outside of the
enclosure. The problem is to make such devices safe for use in
The size of the device is determined by the amperage rating. In explosive atmospheres. Two different methods are used,
addition, the location of the female ground contact in relation to interlocked and delayed action:
the housing keyway is determined by the voltage rating. Plugs
and receptacles of different amperage and voltage ratings are
not compatible because of these variances.
12.3.1 INTERLOCKED
Receptacles are interlocked with a switch or circuit breaker
4 Pole, 5 Wire located in an explosion-protected enclosure. Receptacle
3 Pole, 4 Wire contacts will not be live when the plug is inserted or withdrawn.
2 Pole, 3 Wire The switch cannot be turned on until the plug is fully inserted.
Once the switch in engaged, the plug is locked into the
receptacle and cannot be withdrawn under load. In some
designs the switch is explosion protected Ex-de, and is placed
IEC 309 devices of in a non-metallic housing for corrosive areas.
different amperage
and voltage
ratings are not
compatible
because of size
differences and
location of ground
contacts.
68 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Portable Power

12.4 IEC PLUGS FOR HAZARDOUS AREAS


While the IEC 309 configuration is interchangeable for normal
industrial locations, this is not the case for hazardous locations.
Receptacles are designed to accept only plugs from the same
manufacturer. For example, a Zone 1 plug can be used in a
receptacle for Zone 2 or ordinary locations. However, the
converse is not true. An ordinary location plug will not operate a
Zone 1 or 2 receptacle. This is to prevent usage of non-rated
portable equipment in hazardous locations.
The FSQ is available in for
Class I, Division 1 areas in
30, 60 & 100 amps. Rotating
the plug after insertion
activates this switch and
locks the plug in place.

12.3.2 DELAYED ACTION


The plug and receptacle are constructed so that any electrical
arcs that may occur at the contacts will be confined inside
explosionproof chambers. This type design also prevents the
rapid withdrawal of the plug from the receptacle, thereby giving The Cooper Crouse-Hinds Zone 1 plug will operate the Zone 1, Zone 2 and
any heated metal parts or particles time to cool before they ordinary location receptacle. The Zone 2 and ordinary plugs will not operate
come into contact with the surrounding atmosphere. the Zone 1 receptacle. This is to prevent non-rated portable equipment from
being used in a classified location.

12.5 PERIODIC MAINTENANCE


All electrical equipment used in industrial and other heavy-use
situations must be inspected regularly and repaired if
necessary, to ensure proper function and safety.

12.5.1 INSPECTION SCHEDULE


Inspection of all fixed receptacles must be conducted at least
once a year but more frequently if conditions warrant as in
severely corrosive atmospheres or high use areas. Plugs and
cord connectors must be inspected more frequently than once
a year if subjected to mechanical abuse such as being drooped
on hard surfaces or dragged on the ground. It is especially
important to check the integrity of cord connector polarization.
1 2 3
12.5.2 STRAIN RELIEF
The CPS plugs and receptacles have delayed action Cord and cable strain relief mechanism on plugs and cord
circuit breaking. 4 connectors must be inspected to ensure no external force can
be transmitted through the cord or cable to the conductor/wire
terminations. Tighten clamps screw or other means of applying
clamping force to values specified in the individual product
In the picture above, Step 1 shows a Cooper Crouse-Hinds inspection sheet. Make sure the outer cord/cable jacket is
CES receptacle assembly with CPH plug fully engaged. Step 2 completely within the clamping area and there are no breaks,
shows the plug withdrawn until it is stopped by the delayed cracks or cuts in the cable jacket.
action sleeve. In this position the circuit has been broken and
the arc has been snuffed in the contact chambers. Step 3
shows the delayed action receptacle sleeve rotated
approximately 45º to allow withdrawal of plug from receptacle.
Step 4 shows the plug completely withdrawn.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 69
Portable Power

Connectors and receptacles must be checked to ensure that


adequate contact pressure is present. The complete interior
(insulator and contacts) should be replaced if there is severe
discoloration of the insulator or erosion of contacts such that
their original shape has been altered.

12.5.4 ADDITIONAL CHECKS


Other checks that must be made during inspection and must be
corrected before furtheruse of the equipment are:
• Cracked or broken housings
• Cracked, broken or dirty insulators
• Grounding conductor secured
• Deteriorated or misplaced gaskets
The new, improved Arktite plug has an expanded cord grip range, making it
• Loose of missing screws
ideally suited for the oil patch OEMs.
• Insulation resistance of power contacts between themselves
and to ground. Resistance value should never be less than 1
Expanded Cord Grip Ranges
megaohm.
30 Amp .390” - 1.20”
60 Amp .500” - 1.45”
For questions or comments, please contact the author at
100 Amp .875” - 1.94”
paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com

12.5.3 CONTACTS
Discoloration of contact terminations in plugs, receptacles and
cord connectors is usually due to excessive heat and is a clear
indication of a problem that must be corrected before further
use of the equipment. Loose conductor connections, equipment
operated at greater than rated current, too high ambient
temperature, repeated disconnection under load, poor pin to
sleeve contact and too small of a wire size are all possible
contributors to circuit resistance and overheating. All “individual”
wire strands must be contained in the termination area, and the
termination must be tight. Use of a ferrule is recommended for
finely stranded wire.

Plugs should fit firmly when inserted into the mating connector
and receptacle. Insufficient mating force of contacts can result
in contact erosion/pitting caused by arcing of the contacts and
accidental engagement.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds pins and sleeves


in the Arktite series are built to exact
tolerances and have specific
construction to ensure a proper fit.
Under no circumstances should any
other plug be interchanged with
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Arktite plugs.
70 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
HID and Fluorescent Lighting Concepts

CHAPTER 13 An incandescent lamp contains filament wires, which are


HID AND FLUORESCENT LIGHTING electrically heated to a temperature that causes them to glow
brilliantly. In HID lamps, light is produced in a manner much like
CONCEPTS a lightning bolt, except that instead of occurring in a brief flash,
the radiation is sustained.
Restricted breathing fixtures for Division 2 and Within the sealed arc tube of a HID lamp are 2 electrodes and
Zone 2 hazardous areas can be used in areas that a metal which is vaporized and ionized to conduct current in an
have gases with lower ignition temperatures. electrical arc from one electrode to another. In the process, the
ionized particles give off energy in the form of light. The starting
current during the first half-minute or so of warm-up is critical to
13.1 MARKETS the proper operation of the discharge lamp.
In the North American market, the preferred lamp source in
many industrial facilities is the high intensity discharge If the current is too low, the lamp may never warm up. If the
source or HID. Fluorescent lighting is usually considered task current is too high, life of the lamp will be shortened. The
lighting and used only in areas with very low ceiling height or voltage supply to the lamp must be regulated or the arc
to illuminate small areas. This is quite the contrary in parts of discharge will draw an unlimited amount of current, quickly
Europe, specifically Germany, where fluorescent lighting is destroying the lamp. A ballast is connected between the HID
the preferred lighting source. lamp and the power supply to regulate the voltage, and limit the
arc current.

An HID lamp consists of an outer bulb that can withstand high


temperatures and protect the arc tube. There are 3 major types
of HID lamps; mercury, metal halide and high pressure sodium.
The arc tube contains a precise amount of different metals and
Contact your other additives, giving each lamp type its characteristic color
local Cooper and performance.
Crouse-Hinds
Sales
representative for 13.2.1 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NORTH
literature or an AMERICAN & EUROPEAN HID LUMINAIRES
explanatory There are differences between North American and European
video on the lamps. In North America, the lamps have either a medium or
fundamentals of mogul screw base. European lamps have metric screw bases
HID lighting. designated as E-27, similar to medium and E-40, similar to
mogul. European lampholders are designed with a collar at the
top where the base of the lamp is inserted. This adds a form of
protection called “finger safe” which provides additional shock
13.2 HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE LIGHTING protection from accidental contact with the metal lamp base.
High intensity discharge, or HID lighting, produces a larger
amount of light or lumens for the amount of energy used. HID
light sources have many advantages over incandescent lights: 13.2.2 TEMPERATURE RATINGS
The key to manufacturing light fixtures for hazardous areas is to
• HID lamps are more efficient. They produce more light, control the operating temperature. Each fixture is assigned a
called lumens, for the same amount of energy. temperature identification number or “T-number.” These
• HID lamps last longer: up to 30 times longer than numbers define the hottest point on the light fixture during
incandescent lamps, operation in ambient temperatures of 40 to 75°C.
• And they operate cooler for the same amount of light that is
produced. This is an important consideration for hazardous
areas.

Characteristics Incandescent Mercury Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium


Initial Cost Low Higher Higher Higher
Initial Lumens/Watt 15-24 30-60 70-115 80-130
Annual Operating Cost Medium Low Low Low
Color Acceptability Good Fair to Good Good Fair to Good
(Bluish) (yellowish)
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 71
HID and Fluorescent Lighting Concepts

T numbers range from T1, the hottest, to T6, the coolest 13.4 RESTRICTED BREATHING
operating temperature. Gases and vapors will ignite at certain
definable temperatures called ignition temperatures. The Use a restricted breathing / nonsparking luminaire to
operating temperature of the fixture, it’s “T-Number,” must be avoid the use of conduit and cable seals.
lower than the ignition temperatures of the hazardous
atmosphere. These ignition temperatures can be found in
Appendix I of the Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest.

HID luminaries also have T-numbers for Class II areas


containing combustible dust. T numbers for Class II areas are
derived by blanketing the fixture with dust and then measuring
the hot spot on the exterior of the fixture. There is also a third T-
number called “simultaneous presence” for use in areas such
as coal mines where both gases and dusts are present at the
same time.
For a complete description of
restricted breathing, see Appendix
13.3 FORMS OF EXPLOSION PROTECTION VII.
Meeting hazardous area requirements involves different forms
of protection, including explosionproof, flameproof, increased
safety and restricted breathing. The two methods, Zone 2 light fixtures now use a form of protection called
explosionproof and flameproof, Ex-d, will prevent an internal restricted breathing, designated as Ex-nR. There are
explosion from propagating to the outside environment. differences between the Division 2 and Zone 2 HID light
fixtures. For Division 2 luminaires, the maximum temperature is
measured anywhere on, or inside, the luminaire. This
measurement is almost always taken on the hot spot on the
lamp. Because Zone 2 equipment can now be used in Division
2, restricted breathing light fixtures can offer significant savings
and efficiencies.

Restricted breathing limits gases and vapors from entering the


light fixture. This is similar to watertight, enclosed and gasketed
enclosures with limited breathing through gaskets which means
flammable mixtures present for short times are not likely to
enter the enclosure in ignitable quantities. Because of this, the
hot spot is no longer measured on the lamp, but at a point
external to the fixture, normally the globe. Restricted breathing
luminaires have an operating temperature or T-rating that is
significantly cooler than Division 2 fixtures. Although Division 2
and Zone 2 fixtures are very similar, restricted-breathing light
fixtures have a distinct advantage - T ratings are significantly
cooler for them than for Division 2 fixtures - and find use in
areas with gases having lower ignition temperatures.

The difference in T numbers between the Division 2 fixture,


The FZD Floodlight has approvals for Division 1 and Zone 1 hazardous where temperatures are measured on the hotspot of the lamp,
areas. and the restricted-breathing fixture, where temperatures are
measured externally on the globe, can exceed 100°C. This
Under the explosionproof and flameproof standards the difference may allow a user to operate a 400-watt (W) fixture
threaded construction enables the fixture to withstand four with the restricted-breathing protection method in a Zone 2
times the maximum pressure of an internal explosion. The location, while being limited to only a 250 W high-pressure
temperature ratings must be measured on the hottest exterior sodium light in a Division 2 location.
spot of the fixture, which is normally on the globe.
For users accustomed to Division 2 protection methods,
Increased safety prevents wire terminations from heating or installing the extra sealing and gaskets required for restricted
sparking. Restricted breathing limits gases and vapors from breathing probably requires a leap of faith to become
entering the light fixture. comfortable with the new method. However, once one
understands its advantages, the restricted-breathing protection
method becomes a less expensive alternative to Division 2 HID
light fixtures.
72 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
HID and Fluorescent Lighting Concepts

Fluorescent lights have the distinct advantage of cooler


operating temperatures, non-metallic construction, waterproof
housings, globally available universal lamps, and low profile
mounting. Normally 10-20% of an installation requires auxiliary
power or battery backup. Fluorescent lights are supplied with
nickel cadmium batteries to operate one lamp should the power
go out.

13.5.1 ZONE 2 FLUORESCENT LUMINARES


The market for Zone 2 luminaries is developing quickly as
international projects are increasingly classifying more areas as
Zone 2. The enclosures of these fixtures must meet Ex-e
requirements of at least IP54 and impact tests but can use
ordinary location ballasts. Because the wiring method for these
projects is unknown, Zone 2 fluorescent lights should
accommodate cable or conduit entries.
Crouse-Hinds VMV Champ® series is certified to all Division 2, and Zone 2
requirements worldwide. In addition to a full range of T-ratings, the Champ For questions or comments, please contact the author at
series is available up to 400 watts. The DVMV is rated for Class II dust areas paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com
and is available in a low profile design for areas with low mounting heights or
where fixture weight is a factor.

13.4.1 MAINTENANCE FOR FIXTURES WITH A


TEST PORT
Test ports were required on the enclosed housing to check that
the restricted breathing properties of the enclosure were
retained as defined in Clause 23.2 of IEC 60079-15. The test
port is now deemed to be optional and most restricted breathing
luminaires no longer are supplied with test ports.

13.5 FLUORESCENT LIGHTING


Fluorescent Lighting is often installed at low ceiling heights to
light specific areas, known as task lighting. This type of lighting
is most commonly used in Zone 1 and 2 areas in Europe and
on oil rigs.

The Cooper Crouse- Hinds eLLK fluorescent light is rated for Zone 1 areas
and is available with battery backup. The eLLK is constructed to IP 66 to
meet the Shell deluge rating (See Appendix VIII). To meet this rating the fixture
is heated for 24 hours and then cooled to create a vacuum. The eLLK is then
subjected to strong jets of water, 1.5 times the normal velocity needed for the
IP66 rating. The Ni-Cad battery backup also powers the light up to 180
minutes should power fail.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 73
Installation Recommendations for Cold Environments

CHAPTER 14 14.2 WEATHER RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION


INSTALLATION RECOMMENDATIONS Equipment installed in extreme cold environments may need
protection against ice formation, snow, sleet and rain. NEMA
FOR COLD ENVIRONMENTS
Type 4 and 4X equipment enclosures offer the best degree of
protection against the elements and corrosion resistance (Type
Extreme cold ambient environments will affect
4X).
the performance of installed equipment for both
ordinary and hazardous locations. In freezing temperatures when water expands to form ice,
smaller gasket surfaces are a better choice. With shorter
gasket surfaces, the ice is less likely to deform the gasket seal.
14.1 HAZARDOUS AREAS
There is considerable debate about the effects of explosions at
low temperatures. At low temperatures gases will condense
into liquids if the temperature is below its flashpoint (see Section
2.3.2). However, the pressure of an explosion can increase as
the concentration of gas also increases at low temperatures,
resulting in increased pressure piling. Properly installed
explosionproof conduit seals will prevent an explosion from
traveling through the conduit system and minimize the passage
of gases or vapors through the conduit. The need for external
seals may be eliminated in some applications by the use of
factory-sealed equipment.

The Type 4X nonmetallic IEC 309 and Krydon NPJ Series plugs and
receptacles are ideal for power connections in extreme cold environments.

A complete range of rugged


conduit seals are available
from Cooper Crouse-Hinds
for enhanced safety in
hazardous areas.

The Champ-Pak™ CPMV series wall pack and Champ® luminaires are
good cold weather options due to the rigid cast aluminum enclosure and
silicone gasket.

Neoprene gaskets can become extremely stiff at low ambient


temperatures while silicone gaskets remain resilient and
functional down to -70ºF (-56ºC). While neoprene has been
shown to provide suitable environmental sealing down to -50ºC,
silicone is a better choice for use with moving parts (e.g., a
gasket for a push button switch) due to its flexibility at these low
temperatures.
Chico SpeedSeal Compound for use
with Cooper Crouse-Hinds EYS
explosionproof conduit seals sets up
in cold environments in 4-10 minutes and hardens in less than 20 minutes.
This eliminates the need to build temporary heating shelters around sealing
fittings.
74 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Installation Recommendations for Cold Environments

14.4 WIRING
In cold environments insulation materials for standard portable
cables and cords can become brittle and are subject to cracking
and breakdown. Use cables and cords that have passed cold
temperature testing.

The Cooper Crouse-Hinds SpecOne™ GHG 43 and EDS / EFS / DSD


control stations are constructed with silicone rubber gaskets.

14.3 LUBRICATION Cooper Crouse-Hinds CGB Series cable fittings and TECK connectors are
In extreme cold temperatures, lubricants used on shafts and
suitable for use with cold weather cables and cords.
bushings can freeze up, making it difficult to actuate switches
and other rotating equipment. In these conditions, avoid the
use of lubricants where possible or use a lubricant with a
suitable cold temperature rating. 14.5 LIGHTING

High pressure sodium luminaires are recommended


in cold temperatures.

The low ambient temperature starting capability of a luminaire


is dependent on the lamp starting temperature and the ballast
striking temperature as provided by the lamp and ballast
HTL high temperature lubricant is suitable for both high and low manufacturers. Typical starting capabilities for luminaires in low
temperatures. For maintenance purposes, Cooper Crouse-Hinds offers ambient temperature environments are:
HTL4, a high-temperature thread lubricant that is suitable down to
-70ºF (-57ºC). Lamp Type Low Starting Temperatures
High-Pressure Sodium -40ºC

Metal Halide -30ºC

Metal Halide Pulse Start -40ºC

Mercury Vapor -30ºC


Fluorescent Varies from –29ºC
(Straight tubes perform to +10ºC depending
better in cold temperatures on type of lamp and
than U-shaped tubes. wattage.
Incandescent any
Induction -40ºC
The W2SR interlocked
receptacle with lever-actuated
switch is recommended in
cold environments
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 75
Installation Recommendations for Cold Environments
HID luminaires are recommended in extreme cold
environments over fluorescent since the minimum starting and
operating temperatures of fluorescent luminaires are not as low.
Incandescent luminaires are acceptable in extreme cold
environments. The use of high-pressure sodium luminaires is
recommended in cold temperature installations due to lower
strike and restrike temperatures. If metal halide is necessary,
pulse-start lamps start better in cold environments than probe-
start lamps.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds Class I, Division 1 XC and XCH heaters can improve


working conditions for maintenance personnel who must temporarily work in
very remote sites with extreme temperatures.

Panelboard enclosures should have breathers and drains


installed along with optional space heaters within the enclosure to
limit daily temperature swings. The space heaters minimize the
accumulation of moisture within the enclosure and can prevent
the operators and breakers from freezing. Heaters must be
suitably rated for the area Ex-d, when they are installed within
Ex-de panel boards such as the D2Z nonmetallic enclosure. In
an explosionproof enclosure, small ordinary location heaters
can be used.
There are several -50ºC locations in Canada in which HPS Champ
luminaires are installed. The luminaires are started at higher temperatures 14.8 HIGH ABUSE AREAS
(-40ºC for HPS) but once started, the internal fixture heat is sufficient to As the temperature decreases, the impact strength of cast gray
keep them operating down to -50ºC although there may be some loss of iron decreases reducing the external impact resistance.
lumen output. In these installations the luminaires are left on 24 hours a day Enclosures installed in extreme cold temperatures should be
due to the long hours of darkness and to avoid restarting the lamps. Note protected from impact hazards.
the EVM, AEVBH, NVMV, AEV, and NFMV Series luminaires have been
tested to IEC standards and are suitable for use to -45ºC. 14.9 STATIC ELECTRICITY
Static electricity is more likely because of low temperatures and
14.6 TEMPERATURE CYCLING low humidity. In classified cold-weather areas, additional
When an enclosure or conduit system is exposed to grounding methods should be used to minimize static
temperature extremes or to changes in barometric pressure, discharges.
breathing will occur resulting in condensation and water
accumulation. Breathers and drains are recommended to 14.10 AMBIENT OPERATING TEMPERATURES
prevent condensation, water or ice buildup. FOR COOPER CROUSE-HINDS PRODUCTS
A list of certified ambient operating temperatures ranges for
14.7 AREA AND PROCESS HEATING Cooper Crouse-Hinds products is found in Appendix VI.
Electric heaters provide standby heat preventing process heat
loss or for personnel comfort during maintenance or repair
operations. These types of heaters provide primary or
supplemental heat for equipment protection. In addition to Processing plants may require
keeping stored hazardous materials at a minimum temperature, the use of heat tracing to
heaters maintain a process temperature to prevent expensive maintain required temperatures
down time and repairs to a processing plant. through out the process.
Lighting distribution panelboards
such as the Cooper Crouse-
Hinds Powerplus™ EPL/D2L,
Unibody™ EPLU/D2LU,
Exactra LP1/LP2 and
For questions or comments, please contact the author at SpecOne™ D2Z Series are ideal
paul.babiarz@crouse-hinds.com for heat trace installations.
76 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Examples of IEC Hazardous Area Classifications

CHAPTER 15
EXAMPLES OF IEC HAZARDOUS AREA CLASSIFICATIONS

15.1 INDUSTRIAL PUMP


Outdoors, pumping flammable liquid

Principal factors which influence the type and extent of zones

PLANT AND PROCESS


Ventilation
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural Artificial
Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium High*
Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poor Fair

Source of release Grade of release


Pump seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary and secondary

PRODUCT
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Below process and ambient temperature
Vapor density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greater than air
*Airflow from pump motor

Taking into account relevant parameters, the following are typical values which will
be obtained for a pump having a capacity of 50 m3/h and operating at a low pressure:
a = 3 m horizontally from source of release;
b = 1 m from ground level and up to 1 m above the source of release;

NOTE – Due to the high air flow, the extent of zone 1 is negligible
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 77
Examples of IEC Hazardous Area Classifications

15.2 INDUSTRIAL PUMP


Indoors, pumping flammable liquid

Principal factors which influence the type and extent of zones

PLANT AND PROCESS


Ventilation
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Artificial
Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium
Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fair

Source of release Grade of release


Pump seal (packaged gland)
and pool at floor level . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary and secondary

PRODUCT
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Below process and ambient temperature
Vapor density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greater than air

Taking into account relevant parameters, the following are typical values which will
be obtained for a pump having a capacity of 50 m3/h and operating at a low pressure:
a = 1.5 m horizontally from source of release;
b = 1 m from ground level and up to 1 m above the source of release;
c = 3 m horizontally from source of release.
78 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Examples of IEC Hazardous Area Classifications

15.3 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE


Open air from process vessel

Principal factors which influence the type and extent of zones

PLANT AND PROCESS


Ventilation
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural
Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium
Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fair

Source of release Grade of release


Outlet from valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary

PRODUCT
Gasoline gas density . . . . . . . . . . . . Greater than air

Taking into account relevant parameters, the following are typical values which will
be obtained for a valve where the opening pressure of the valve is approximately 0.15 MPa
(1.5 bar):
a = 3 m in all directions from source of release;
b = 5 m in all directions from source of release.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 79
Examples of IEC Hazardous Area Classifications

15.4 PROCESS MIXING VESSEL


Indoor vessel, opened regularly for operations

Principal factors which influence the type and extent of zones

PLANT AND PROCESS


Ventilation
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Artificial
Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low inside the vessel
Medium outside the vessel
Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fair

Source of release Grade of release


Liquid surface within the vessel . . . . Continuous
The opening in the vessel . . . . . . . . Primary
Spillage or leakage of
liquid close to the vessel . . . . . . . . . Secondary

PRODUCT
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Below process and ambient temperature
Vapor density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greater than air

Taking into account relevant parameters, the following are typical values which will
be obtained for this example:
a = 1 m horizontally from source of release;
b = 1 m above source of release;
c = 1 m horizontally;
d = 2 m horizontally;
e = 1 m above ground.
80 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Examples of IEC Hazardous Area Classifications

15.5 OIL/WATER GRAVITY SEPARATOR


Outdoors, opens to atmosphere in a petroleum factory

Principal factors which influence the type and extent of zones

PLANT AND PROCESS


Ventilation
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Artificial
Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium
Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poor

Source of release Grade of release


Liquid surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuous
Process disturbance . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secondary

PRODUCT
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Below process and ambient temperature
Vapor density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greater than air

Taking into account relevant parameters, the following are typical values which will
be obtained for this example:
a = 3 m horizontally from the separator;
b = 1 m above ground level;
c = 7.5 m horizontally;
d = 3 m above ground level.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 81
Examples of IEC Hazardous Area Classifications

15.6 CONTROL VALVE


Closed process pipe work system conveying flammable gas

Principal factors which influence the type and extent of zones

PLANT AND PROCESS


Ventilation
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural
Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium
Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fair

Source of release Grade of release


Valve shaft seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secondary

PRODUCT
Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propane
Gas density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greater than air

Taking into account relevant parameters, the following are typical values which will
be obtained for this example:
a = 1 m in all directions from source of release.
82 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Examples of IEC Hazardous Area Classifications

15.7 HYDROGEN COMPRESSOR


In a building open at ground level

Principal factors which influence the type and extent of zones

PLANT AND PROCESS


Ventilation
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural
Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium
Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Good

Source of release Grade of release


Compressor seals, valves and flanges close to the compressor . . . . Secondary

PRODUCT
Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrogen
Gas density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lighter than air

Taking into account relevant parameters, the following are typical values which will
be obtained for this example:
a = 3 m horizontally from source of release;
b = 1 m horizontally from ventilation openings;
c = 1 m above ventilation openings.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest 83
Examples of IEC Hazardous Area Classifications

15.8 FLAMMABLE LIQUID STORAGE TANK


Outdoors with fixed roof (not floating roof)

Principal factors which influence the type and extent of zones

PLANT AND PROCESS


Ventilation
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural
Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium*
Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Good

Source of release Grade of release


Liquid surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuous
Vent opening and other openings in the roof . . . . . . . . . . . Primary
Flanges and overfilling of the tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secondary

PRODUCT
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Below process and
ambient temperature
Vapor density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greater than air
*Within the tank and the sump, low.

Taking into account relevant parameters, the following are typical values which will be
obtained for this example:
a = 3 m from vent openings;
b = 3 m above the roof;
c = 3 m horizontally from the tank.
84 Cooper Crouse-Hinds Ex Digest
Examples of IEC Hazardous Area Classifications
15.9 TANK CAR FILLING INSTALLATION
Outdoors for gasoline

Principal factors which influence the type and extent of zones

PLANT AND PROCESS


Ventilation
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural
Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium
Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poor

Source of release Grade of release


Openings in tank roof . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary
Spillage at ground level . . . . . . . . . . Secondary

PRODUCT
Flash point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Below process and ambient temperature
Vapor density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greater than air

Taking into account relevant parameters, the following are typical values which will
be obtained for this example:
a = 1.5 m horizontally from source of release;
b = horizontally to island boundary;
c = 1.5 m above source of release;
d = 1 m above ground level;
e = 4.5 m horizontally from drainage channel;
f = 1.5 m horizontally from zone 1;
g = 1.0 m above zone 1.

NOTE – If the system is a closed system with vapor recovery, the distances can be
reduced, such that zone 1 may be of negligible extent and zone 2 significantly reduced.