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TA.

ETI-E OF COhTTENTTS
Page

Executive $qmmary l-:(I[

List of Tables sD- 15t


{ List of Figures 9-44

I Introduction
1.1 Problem 1
1.2 Objectives of the Study 2
1 .3 Axle Load Studies Done in the Past 2
.3,1 NTRC Axle Load Study 1982 2
.3.2 Multi Axle Vehicle Survey 1982 3
.3.3 ACE Study 1988 4
.3.4 Road Research and Material 4
Testing Institute Study 1989 4
. 3 . 5 N E S P A KS t u d y 1 9 9 3 4
7 . 4 Structure of the Report

2 Technigall Background
2,7 General 7
2.2 Load Distribution 7
2.3 Pressure Bulb Theory 8
2.4 Effect of Various Factors on Pavement Stresses 11
2.4.7 Tyre Size 11
t* 2.4.2 Tyre Pressur.e 11
2.4.3 W h e e lL o a d 13
2.4.4 Dual Wheels 13
2.4.5 Axle Configurations 15
2.4.6 Static vs Moving Load 15
2,4.7 Repetitionof l,oad 15
2.5 Standard Axle Load 16
2.6 Damaging Effect of Axle Load 16
2.7 AASHO Road Test 16
2.8 Equivalence Factors t7
2.9 Analysis Methodology Used For The Study 18
2.10 Axle Load Spectra in Different Countries 20

3 Axle Load Measuring Equipments


3.1 General 23
3.2 Static or High Speed Weigh-in-Motion 23
3.3 Equipment Used for This Study; 24
3.4 Specifications of the Weighing Unit 24
3.5 Survey Equipment & Installation 25
3.6 Survey SiteJ 28
26
3.7 SurveY Teams 26
3.8 ReliabilitY of the EquiPment 27
3.9 PreliminarY Testing 28
3.10 Caliberation of Weighbridge

Methodologlr
J 4.1 Selection of SurveY Points
29
SurveY Timing & Duration
29
4,2 30
4.3 Selection of Vehicles
31
4,4 Measurementof Axle Loads
31
4.5 Police Assistance 32
4.6 Questionnaire
Trraffic Volume & Profiortion of Trucks
33
5.1 Traffic Volume 34
5.2 Classification of Vehicles ' 35
5.3 Traffic Volume on SurveSr Station 35
5.4 Proportion of Commercial Vehicles 36
5.5 Disiribution of Trucks bY Make 37
5 .6 Distribution of All Trucks According
to Axle Configurations
37
5.7 Growth Rate of Trucks

Analysis and Results


40
6.1 Scope and Coverage of SurveY 47
6.2 Axle Configuration 4L
6.3 SurveY Timings and Duration 41
6.4 Distriiution of Trucks in Trucks Volume 44
6.5 Distribution of Load'edand Empty Trucks 45
F . 6 Distributiclrl of'Tiucks According to Gross Load
6-6. 48
? Distribution of Front And Rear Axle Loads 46
;:8 ei,u"ug. Axle Loads of A11Trucks For All Station
46
6.8. I Average Axle Loads of 2-Axle Trucks 49
6. E.2 Averiie Axle Loads of 3-Axle Single Trucks 50
6.8.3 Average Axle Load of 3-Axle Trucks
(Rear Tandem)
53
6.8.4 Average Axle Loads of 4-Axle Single Trucks 54
6.8.5 Avera[e Axle Loads of 4-Ax1e Mid Tandem
Trucks
54
6.8.6 4-Axle Rear Tandem Trucks
57
6.8.?AverageAxleLoadsofS-AxleTandemTrucks 57
6.8.8 Aeragd Axle Loads 0f 6-Axle Tandem Tridem
Trucks
6 .8.9 Average Axle Loads of Tractor Trollies

6.9 Loacl SPectrum


59
6.9. 1 Rear Axle Load SPectra

6.10 Tyre Pressure Measurements


Equivalent Standard Axles
62
7,1 G e n e r a l Description
-Uqni"uf"nt
Standard Axle(Equivaleney Factors) 62
7.2 Average
ESe P"r Truck In Terms of Make 67
7.3 Average
nq.ti""t.ttt Standard Axle Based On Commodities 69
7.4 Average
J T3
Conclusions
76
References

Annexures
92
Statistical APPendices

lf-

t
I- I SItr OF ltrABI-E S

Page
TabIe

Traffic Volume SummarY 92

Traffic Volume (Composition with Percentage) 93

95
Average Axle Loads, 2-Axle Truck

Commodities 98

101
Avg. Axle Loads 3-Axle Single Truck
103
Avg. Axle Loads 3-Ax1e R.Tandem Truck
105
Commodities
108
Avg.Axle Loads 4-Axle Single Truck

Commodities 109

111
Avg. Axle Loads 4-Axle M.Tandem
t12
Avg. Axle Loads 4-Ax1e R.Tandem
114
Commodities
116
Avg. Axle loads 5-Axle Tandem
177
Avg. Axle loads 6-Axle T.Triclem
t
118
Commodities
119
Tyre Pressure 2-Axle Truck
720
Tyre Pressure 3-Axle Single
l2t
Tyre Pressure 3-Axle R.Tandem
L23
Tyre Pressure 4-Axle Single
L24
Tyre Pressure 4-Axle R.Tandem
125
Tyre Pressure 5-Axle Tandem
126
Tyre Pressure 6-Axle T.Tridem
127
ESAs 2-Axle Truck (RN31, UK)
128
ESAs 3-Axle Single (RN31, UK)

t
ESAg3-Axle R.Tandem (RN31, UK) 129
7.2-C

ESAs 4-Axle Single (RN31, UK) 130


7.2-D
131
7.2-E ESAs 4-Axle M-Tandem(RN31, UK)
131
7.2-F ESAs -Axle R.Tandem (RN31, UK)

ESAs 5-Axle Tandem (RN31, UK) lgz


7.2-G
133
7.2-H ESAs 6-Axle T.Tridem (RN31, UK)
134
7.2-a ESAs 2-Axle Single (Directional Split, RN31, UK)
135
7.2-b ESAs 3-Axle Single (Directional Split, RN31, UK)
ItK) 136
7.2-c ESAs 3-Axle Real Tandem (Directional split, RN31,
tgl
7.2-d ESAs 4-Axle Single (Directional Split, RN31, UK)

7.2-f ESAs 4-Axle Rear Tandem (Directional Split, RN31'UK) 138


139
7.2-}J^ ESAs 6-Axle T. Tridem (Directional split, RN31, UK)
140
7.3-A ESAs 2-Axle Truck (AASHTOI
141
?.3-B ESAs 3-Axle Single (AASHTOI
Mz
7.3-C ESAs 3-Axle R.Tandem (AASHTOI
143
7.3-D ESAs -Axle Single (AASHTO)
t^ 7.3-F ESAs -Axle R.Tandem (AASHTO)
144

145
7.3-H ESAs 6-Axle T.Tridem (AASHTO)

ESAs 2-Axle Single (Directional Split' AASHTO) 146


7.3-a
747
7.3-b ESAs 3-Ax1e Single (Directional Split, AASHTO)

7.3-c ESAs3-AxleRealTandem(DirectionalSplit,AAsHTo)148
149
7.3-d ESAs 4-Axle Single (Directional Split, AASHTO)

7.3-f ESAs4.AxleRearTandem(DirectionalSplit,AAsHTo)150

?.3-h ESAs6-AxleT.Tridem(DirectionalSplit,AAsHTo)151
I-IST OF FIGI.rFLES

Figure Page

2.1 Load Disribution through granular material I

2.2 Variation in Pressure with depth under a load 10

2.3 Relationship between tyre Pressure, Pressure 72

on the road and stress on soil

2.4 Vertical stress under dual tyre assembly L4

2.5 Effects of vehicle overloading on 19

plyload and Paved damage.

5.4 Percentage of truck in traffic volume 35

at all stations.

5. ? Truck Growth rate during 1986-1994' 39

6.2 Axle configuration and codes' 42

f 6.4 Composition of truck bY axle 43

(Base on volume).

6.5 Compositionof truck bY Axle 44

(Base on surveY).
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]- IDU:PFLODI.'CTIODI

I .1 Problem

--{- Like most other developing eountries, trucks in Pakistan carry loads

much in excess of their rated capacity. The local truck body makers are

producing wider and elevated truck bodies which enables the truck owners to

over load to reduce haulage costs. The tyres are also over inflated far in

excess of their normal pressure resultig in reduction of their contact areas

with road surface. The excessive wheel loads with reduced tyre contact areas

exert pressures far in excess of safe bearing capacity of the road pavement

structttre. When over loaded trucks run on flexible road pavements having

unbound bases, signs of distress (rutting) soon appear after the faciiity is

opened to traffic.

Traffic volume on roads is increasing each year with marked increase

in Axle Loads and total load.s camied by commercial vehicles. Therefore the

frequency and magnitude of the axle loads being applied on the roads is

increasing and the highway authorities are facing the serious problems of

maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction of existing roads together with

designing fqture roads to meet the criteria for much higher traffic loadings.

Axle load survey is now a pre-requisite for highway planning,

d.esigning and maintenance. Inspite of the vital importanc9 of the data, its

colleetion and use has not been made in any systematic manner prior to 1982

study. Instead, rules of thumb have been followeil and in some cases ratios

and approximations developed in other countries such as Road Note 29 of UK

which are not relevant to our conditions have been used.


-<E
.a L

The result of the axle load surveys help to determine the conect

thickness of various pavement layers to withstand the anticipated axle loads.

The present practice in all most all the countries is to convert vehicles axle

loads into standard axle load of 8165 kg (18000 lbs) and to determine

pavement say 10
equivalent standard axles (ESA's) for the design life of the

or 20 years.

The tendency of overloading is progressively getting worse due to the

introduction of newer and more powerful trucks with heavier and wider bodies

and transfer of goods traffic from rail to road. This has been the major

reason for caruying out a country-wide axle load study'

1.2 Objectives of the StudY


to assess
The main objective of this study is updation of 1982study and
plying on the roads '
the degree of present over-loading by goods vehicles

The study covers country-wide axle load measurements on the main national
;- vehicle, commodity,
highways to find out variations with respect to type of
different axle
volume, tyre pressure and to calculate damaging effect of

configurations.

1.3 Axle Load Studies Done in the Past

studies were canied out by different government


Following

organisations and consultants in the past:

1.3.1 NTRC Axle Load StudY 1982


as a
NTRC carried out a country wide axle load survey at 35 stations
Bank' This
requi4ement for the third highway project financed by IDA/World
3

wasthefirststudycarriedoutinthecountryforthemeasurementofaxle
of thumb were followed and in some cases
loads. Prior to this sttrdy; rules
in other countries were used' Howevent
ratios and approximations developed
used by consultants and authorities
results of this study were widely
Highways for designing new pavements
concerned, with National and Provincial
pavements '
and improvement of existing road

Accordingtothetrafficcompositionatthattime2axleBedfordtrucks
96 ' 5% of the vehicles ' followed by
were dominant and accounted for about
damaging effect, a loaded vehicle was
Nissan and Hino. According to their
empty vehicle equal to 0'12 standard
found equal to 3.2 standard axle and an

axles.

of NLC multi-axle vehicles '


The survey also covered a limited number

EightySevennumbersofsuchcategoryweremeasured.Intermsofdamaging
kg (18000 lbs) for various types of
effect, equivalent standard axles of 8165

loaded vehicles were as follows:

Make 18 Kip EquiYelen!


ffiaard Axles

S-Axle Tankers 9.*


5-Axle Trucks 5.5r
4-Axle Mercedes Truck Trailer 71.+
4-Axle Mercedes Traction Unit 8.8
Fiat 8.2
Hino 9.7

L.3.2 Multi Axle Vehicle Surwey 1982


in 1982 to determine
NTRC also ca*ied out a multi-axle vehicle survey
traffic stream ' Although this
the proportion of multi axle vehicles in the
but it provided detailed
survey did not cover any axle load measurement,
axle vehicles '
composition of various types of multi

---{ 1.3.3 ACE StudY 1988


(ACE) prepared an Axle Load report
Associated consulting Engineers
mainly takes into account the traffic
of Indus Highway (N-55). The study
vehicles on 1? stations were surveyed'
conditions on N-55. A total of 2640

AccordingtothisSurvey'thedamagingfactorforloadedvehiclesranged
for the 4 axle rear tandem prime
between 0.814 for tractor trolly to 18.066
.(
mover with trailer.

l..3.4RoadResearchandMaterialTestinglnstituteStudyl9S9
Institute of Punjab Highway
The Road Researeh ad Material Testing

Departmentconductedanaxleloadsurveyinlg8gcoveringatotalof302
loaded vehicles were surveyed'
vehicles including 52 tractor trollies. only
and Faisalabad'
The survey was carried out around Lahore
*-

1.3.5 NESPAK StudY 1993


(NESPAK) ca:rried out
National Engineering services, Pakistan Limited
Motorway in 1993' A
an axle load survey of sheikhupura-Multan-D.G.Khan
2 axles and multi-axle
total of 658 vehicles were surveyed which comprised
NTRC 1982 study;
vehicles. Being the latest study as compared to ACE and
much higher' It was found
the equivalent standard axles/vehicles was found
1982 study' The equivalent
7 .4 foy 2 axletrucks as compared to 3.2by NTRC
for 5-axle truck trailer as
standard axle/vehicle was found equal to 28.3

cornparedtog.2forthesamecategoryofvehiclesinlg82.
Comparison of ESA's for different axle configurations worked out by

consultants with the present studY is as follows:

.<-

COMPARISON oF ESAs WITH OTHER STUDIES

DESCRI- CODE NTRC A . C . E R . R & M f I NESPAK PRESENT NTRC


1982 1988 1989 1989 RN31 AASHTO
PTION
7.2 3.37 4.96 6.33 7.4 6 .49 4.67
2-Axle
Qinole

7.63 24.82 26.72 18.48 8.84


3-Axle t.22
R. Tandem
9.77 9.68 19.00 12.99
1-Axle t.2
Sinsle +2.2.
1 1. 4 0 1 8 . 0 7 26.46 25.05 1 7. 3 0 1 0 .3 5
4-Axle 1.2
R. Tandem -22
7.22 5.5- 6.95 12.64 28.3 1 9. 5 9
5-Axle
Iandem -22 9.2

1.2+ 9.04 22.56 2 7. 9 6 10.90


6-Axle
T.Tridem 222

1.4 Structure of the RePort


such as load
Technical information on various aspects of axle load

effect of various factors on pavement stresses, axle


distribution,

configuration, average axle loads, the AASHO Road Test and' equivalent
different equipments
standard axles are discussed in Chapter 2, while the
3' Chapter 4 deals
used for axle load measurementsare described in chapter
5 provides information
with methodology adopted for the study and Chapter
and statistical data
on traffic volumes, proportion of trucks in traffic stream
average axle loads
related to traffic composition. Analysis of data containing
6

are
of different axle configurations at different sections of national highways
of trucks
presented in Chapter 6, while the d'amaging factors of different type
7 of the
in terms of equivalent standard axles are presented in Chapter

report.

Results are presented in the form of tables and diagrams and discussed
which
in the text where necessary. Tables containing additional information
appended at
are not presented in the text are referued in the paragraphs and

the end of the rePort.

1
2 TECHI\TI CAI- BACKGR.OI.'I\TD

2.1 General

Axle loads are one of the two principal factors for determination of the
'
pavement thicknesses, the other factor being the load bearing capacity soil
of axle loads at
It is therefore very important to know the exact distribution
designed' Prior
a particular section for which the flexible pavement is to be
of the axle loads,
to NTRC 1982 study for determination of the damaging effect
have been followed and in some cases, ratios and
rules of thumb
not relevant to our
approximations developed in other countries which were
a high degree of
conditions were used. However, NTRC 1982 study reveated
using factors for
overloading prevaling in the country which necessitated
country'
pavement clesign which are at par with the vehicle loads in the

2.2 Load Distribution


the tyre
The load of a vehicle is transmitted to the road surface through
I the structure to the
contact area and distributed througtr successive layers of
deflects, the over-
sub-scil on which the road structure rests. If the sub-soil
the structure will
laying flexible pavement will deform to a similan shape and
sub-soil by
fail. The primary function of pavement design is to protect the

distributing the applied vehicle load in such a way that maximum pressure
capacity' A system
applied to the sub-soil is within limits of its load bearing
and surface course
of layers of different specifications such as sub-base, base

etc. , make such a load distribution in a complex way' The design of fleXible

pavement is affected by several factors, important ones being lqa{qf:-!be


and
load bearing capacity of the soil, quality of available meterials
traffic,
\:'_'
the wheel
environmental factors etc. on an initial simplifying assumption,
load distribution of a pneumatic tyre on uniform g:nanular material is in the

form of a cone supported by sumounding materials having a slope of

approximately 45 degrees. The area over which load is spread increases with

the depth and intensity of pressure decreases proportionately as shown in

Fig. 2.1.

Intensity of pressure is reduced with depth. Thus, if an allowable unit

pressure q for a particular sub-grade soil is given, the required thickness of

cover can be readily determined for the maximum truck wheel load that is

likely to be experienced using the following equation'

p = qn (o + d)2
d=l'p o
where J qn

q= Average pressure on the sub-grade caused by a wheel load p

acting through base and sub-base material'

T= Circumference of the Circle 2217= 3.1416


;
a= Radius of Circular Contact area

d= depth of pavement structure

2.3 Pressure Bulb TheorY

A bulb of pressure is a surface obtained by connecting points of equal

stress on the various horizontal planes at various depths. The pressure Bulb

Theory explains the distribution of load when applied to the soil through a

circular object. The pressure at any one point on the surface of a bulb is the

same as at any other point. Because the contact area between a tyre and the

ground approximates a circle, the theory can be applied to pressure in the soil

under tyres with slight modification. Fig. 2.2 illustrates the pressure bulb.
*

Fig. 2.L LOAD DISTRIBUTION T H R O U G HG R A N U L A R M A T E R I A L .


[-__o'-T---"1. D l o m e t e ro f c l r c l e .

lrl
l+l
Unit pressure under
oreq.
.:

,D

,'/, o

Fig. 2.2. V A R I A T I O N I N P R E S S U R EW I T H D E P T H U N D E R A L O A D .
tl

2.4 Effect of Various Factors on Pavement Stresses

Pavement st:lesses are affected by many factors such as:

road
2.4.1 T5rre Size Tyre size determines the area of contact with the
and unit 10ad'
surface which in turn determines the area of 10ad distribution
surface and the
The smaller size tyres will make a sharp curve with the road
stress or pressure
area of contact would be small and unit load more. The

would thus vary directly with size of the tyre '

2.4.2 T5rre Pressure For a given size of tyre, the at:ea of contact with noad

surface will inversely vary with tyre pressure. The higher pressure would

result in smaller contact area and vice versa. The unit load will therefore

directlY vary with tYre Pressure


not increase
However, given the tyre pressure, increase in load would
contact would also
the stress as much as the increase in 10ad. As the area of
not increase as mueh
increase with increase in load, the unit pressure would
.l
as the increase in load. The relationship between tyre pressure, area of
are given in Figure
contact, pressure on the road surface and stress on soil
the inflation
2.3 Fig. 2.3 (a) indicates how the contact area decreases as

pressure increases. Fig.2.3 (b) indicates the manner in which the actual
the inflation
pressure is transmitted to the surface in a non-linear fashion as

pressure inereases. At any given time, the applied surface pressure is


pavement surface'
always considerably greater than vertical pessure on the

Fig.2.3(c) also indirectly reflects the role of the tyre pressune inducing

stresses in the pavement. The effects of high inflation pressures are most

in the upper layers of pavement and have relatively little


pronounced

differential effects at greater depths


t2

( a I IJBE -9o-NIA9-IJBLA-
300
tr
u
o
il,

o
4
t
4
o
c
' Lor .
o,
E

.F
0.6

- -9I
1b) pBEtg!IlE--QN=-Bo4il=4I--c-ql!lEE'
r.0 ffiIbs"lc-tr@ a o
o o
( : d

oE o
G'Z o
o
5
ul
>
!n ol
6ru
a€
o(/|
tJ
F!
!u
;e 0.6
,\-
0.2

0.06 t c ) -sTRE.19--.9N-s--q[-
s, ,|'
t
.-1
c ,6uci1
o
t'

9^- 'ono"'
y|tr
torS
66u"
Vl.-
o,
YZ 60,rU.:o
=< 9.
e'
o
u=
o
vt
uul
to
:P
N.:
--._..-t

0.4 0,6
0.2
T y r e i , r l l e c t i o nP r e s s u r e M N/ m 2

Fig. 2.3 R E L A T I O N S H I P B E T W E E NT V R E P R E S S U R E , P R E S S U R E
ON THE ROAD AND STRESS ON SO]I,.
l3

2.4.g Wheel Load It would be seen from the above that as the wheel load is

the tyre deflects and the contact area is increased' As a result,


increased,

pressure applied to the caruiageway shows only a very small


the peak unit

The additional wheel load has however, the affect of causing the
increase.

vertical stress at the pavement subgrade interface to be increased in direct

proportion to the extra load. Thus it is clear that as the wheel load is

so that the allowable


increased the depth of pavement must also be increased

subgrade stress is not exceeded'

have dual rear


2.4.4 Dual llllreels Almost all buses and trucks in Pakistan

wheels which can influence the stress distribution and deflections within and

The most definitive investigations into the


below the highway pavement.
caruied out on airport
effect of various wheel aruangements have been
of the greater
pavements where they are of significant importance because
wheel laod requird
wheel loads . Theor"etically, it can be shown that the single
material as are
to reproduce the same maximum stresses in a homogeneous

given by a dual tYred assemblY is


pz
p = p+
e (2+ 2)512
ZS

Where

P = equivalent single wheel load


e
'z = load on each dual-tYre
p
= deph to the plane being stressed tLd. .
s = diJtance between the centres of individual tyres.

of the
The relatioship clearly illustrates the two most important features
pavement surface
dual-tyred assembly. Firstly the celculated stresses at the
there
(when z = o) are only due to the individual wheels of the assembly and
l4

Fig. 2.42 VERTICAL STRESS UNDER DUAL TYRE ASSEMBLY.


t5

are no interacting effects. Secondly, the distance between the tyre centres
beneath the surface. At
plays an imPortant Part in the stress distribution

greater depths, however, where the s-value is small in comparison with

depth, the stress due to the dual-tyres becomes near additive. Fig'2'4

illustrates the same.

2.4.S Axle Configurations Axle configurations have a pronouneed effect on

and deflections. In the AASHO Road Test, Liddle


stress distribution
and deduced
seperated axle configurations into single and tandem axle sets
that of the two
that the damaging power of the tandem axle sets was less than

single axles together caruying the same load'

tend to
2.4.6 Static Versus Moving Load Tests have indicated that stresses

.deereaseas the vehicle speed increases from creep speed to about 24kmln.'

Above 24kmlhthe values tend to be constant'

The vehicle speed effect is most noticeable on particular sections of


L and
roadwav. For instance, for a given volume of traffic, greater thicknesses
areas
or n,r.riry of paving materials may be required for pavements in urban
in urban
than for those in rural areas because of the lower average speeds

areas. Similarly pavement requirement for uphill gradients may be more

d'emanding than for downhill gradients '


on highway
2.4.? Repetition of Loads Although the effect of material fatigue
that it
pavement behaviour is little understood at this time, there is no doubt

plays a critical role in pavement failure. The cracking of the surface may be
it may
the result of fatigue characteristics of the bituminous material itself or
and/or
reflect the effect of repeated loading on the road base, sub-base

subgrade materials.
T
t6

2.5 Standard Axle Load

There are large variations in axle loads of different categories of

vehicles and different vehicles of the same category due to differences in the

type and amount of cargo canied. Accordingly, to bring all axle loads to a

uniform scale, different axle loads can be converted to standard equivalent

axles on the basis of damaging effect to the road structure.

2.6 Damaging Effect of Axle Load

The damage caused to the noad str:uctune is nelated to its axle loads,

hence it is essential to know the relationship between the pavement damage

and the axle load in order to cany out proper and adequate structural design

for the roads. However, the relationship between the axle load and the

damage it causes to the road structure can only be obtained from full-scale

experiment.

2.7 AASHO Road Test

The most widely used relationship between vehicle loading and pavement

performance was derived from the AASHO Road Test (Highway Research

Board (1962) ) and W J Liddle (1962) . This test involved running vehicles of

different loading characteristics, for a period of up tq two yeard, over test

tracks containing lengths of flexible and concrete pavement of different

formulations and observing and measuring the condition of the pavements as

they deteriorated under the traffic loading.' The test was caruied out over the

period 1958-60 at Ottawa, Illinois, where the subgrade soil is a wind-blown

loess and where weather conditions are typical of the Northern USA i. e. a

continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. The data were

subjected to a complex statistical analysis and amongst the results which


T'
I l7
i

emerged was a generalised conclusion that the relative damage to both flexible

and rigid pavements varied approximately as the fourth power of the applied

wheel load. It is this relationship that provides the basis for assessing the

effects of vehicle loading in most current methods of pavement design. The

relationship was codified by converting the estimated spectra of axle loadings

into an equivalent number of repetitions of a standard axle load of 18'000 lb

( 8 1 6 5k g ) .

2.8 Equivalence Factors

The equivalence factor of an axle load is defined as the number of

passagesof an axle load canying a standard axle load of 8,165 kg (18r000lbs)

which would do the same damage to a road as one passage of standard axle.

Other researchers have also analysed the Road Test Data to derive

relationship between equivalence factor and axle loads. The results of the

AASHTO road test have indicated that the stresses induced and the damaging

effect caused to the road pavement by an axle load higher than the standard
L'
axle load increases not in direct proportion to the load but by a power of

standard load. The most commonly value used for the power is 4.5. Two

approaches are commonlyused by various highway agencies in the world these

days for determination of equivalency factors. The first one is the AASHTO

Guide 1988 and the second is the RN31, UK approach. The AASHTO, 86

provides equivalency factors for various axle loads of single, tandem and

tridem axles. The equivalency factors are further based on the type of

pavement, structural number (sN) of the pavement and Terminal

Serviceability Indes (Pt) of the pavement. Since most of the recent major
fSf it was considered
highway designs have indicated structural number of ,
'r index
appropriate to assume a value of 5 " as SN. A terminal serviceability
T
l
td

l
value o,f n 2.5 fr was adopted. Load equivalency factors adopted in this study

as per AASHTO are placed at Annexure 2-A. In the second approach i.e.

RN31 , UK, all axles are assumed as single axles. The tandem axles are treated

as two single axles and tridem axles are treated as the three single axles. The

equivalency factor of each single axle in this approach are worked out as

follows:
^a.
Equivalency Factor = ( Axle Load in Tonnes ) S
U. Ib

Thus, according to RN31 approach, the damaging effect of a vehicle

having a payload of 10 tons is 2.?5 ESA, while it increase to a value of 46.4

ESA when its paytoad increases to 22 tonnes (Fig. 2.5), Similarly if

Equivalance factor given in AASHTO 86 are used, the effect of a vehicle

having a payload of 10 tonnes is 2.54ESA, which increases to a value of 27 .tt

ESA when its payload increases to 22 tonnes

4- 2.9 Analysis Methodologlr Used for the Study

During survey, each commercial vehicle was weighed by weigtring each

axle of the vehicle seperately. Various options were considered for analysing

the collected data for getting the equivalent standard axle value for the

vehicle. Ther.e has been no assessment of the validity of the AASHO results

to roads in developing countries where the climate, environment, soil tSrpes,

pavement stiffness and other factors are very different to those where the

road test was carried out. Literature in this regard was also studied. Liddle,

in his analysis of the AASHO road test data had seperated axle cofigurations

in singie and tandem axle sets. He deduced that the damaglng power of

tandem axle sets was less than that of two singtre axles together camying the

-T- same load.


I9

O\7BR LADEN
PIiOPIRLY LADEN
V E Hl C L ] i
VEITICI,E

ALL UP WEIGHT ALL UP WEIGHT


I 6 Tonnes 28 Tonnels

AXLE LOADS AXLE LOADS

toc 9L l9t
6L

EQUIVALENT S ' T A N D A R DA X L E S n Q u r V A L E N l l S T A N D A R DA X L E S

f- *o.25 *
2'.,50 l .55 44.9

?t . l.5l 25 .6
0. 36 2.18
ESAs = pavemenf Total ESAs = pavemeltt
Total
' damagtng effect
damag in g effect
+'2.75 *
46.4
J.

2 .54 27.11

PAY LOAD PAY LOAD


l0 tonnes 22 tonnes

_F 1 0_ b EFFECTS OT VEHICLE oglnnloalrnc oN PAY LoAD


AND PAVEMEN'i' DAMAGE

ACCORDING TO RN 3 I
ACCORDING TO AASHTO
l 20

I
Although Liddlets analysis is widely accepted, other authors such as

Shook and Finn analysing the same data concluded that when tandem axle

assemblies carry axle loads greater than 8 , 165 kg ( 18 ' 000 1b ) they cause more

-t pavement damage than two single axles canying the same total load.

There is some uncertainty about the validity of the equivalence factors

derived from the AASHO test for assessing the damaging efect of traffic on

highways in tropical environments. In view of the different interpretations

made of the same data it is felt appropriate for this study to analyse the

survey data using both the approaches i- e. taking all axles as single axle and

using equivalance factor derived from the 4.5 power law and also the factors

were derived by using the AASHTO Design Guide 1986 as the alternate

approach.

2.10 Axle Load Spectra in Different Countries

Most of the commercial vehicles in Paksitan are driven by the owner


A*
themselves and due to economic reasons, there has always been tendency of

overloading. gimilanly in most of the other developing countries, it is not

uncommon to find. two axle trucks with much heavier axle loads. Axle loads as

high as 20 tonnes are also observed. The tyre pressures are also in excess

of normal values. The effect of the heav5l axle loads and the high tyre

pressures is to increase many fold the damage caused by the tyres to the

pavement. Thus, it is not surprising that newly constructed flexible

pavements, particularly those with unbound bases, frequently show signs of

distress shortly after they are opened to traffic. Rolt (1981) has examined

the implications of vehicle overloading on overall transport costs and it is

evident that vehicle overloading is seriously handicapping the improvement


-r-
2l

of the road networks in many developing countries. An indication of the

below:
extent of this overtroading can be seen from the data in Table

EXAMPLES OF

of axle loads above

* Legal limit of axle load (tonnes) '


# Percentage at 13 (tonnes) '

countries have vehicle construction and use


All industrialised

regulations prescribing limits on the size and weight of commercial vehicles

and enforcement is quite strict. In Western Europe these regulations are


There is now
being unified under the auspices of the European community'
vehicles available and, with the advent of
a wide range of multi-axle

container-traffic, more of these are coming into greater use on the roads in

developing countries. The proposed E.C. loading limits for them are given

in Table at next Page:

VEHICLES

Vehicle Length Width Gross Weight Axle Load


(m) (m) (tonnes) (tonnes)

2-Axle rigid 72.O 2.5 18 1 1. 5


3-Axle rigid 12.0 2.5 25 1 1. 5
3-Axle 16.5 2.5 (1) (1)
articulated

(1) No specified limit. At the discreation of member' states '

f
22

In the USA the regulations concerning the size and axle loading of

commercial vehicles vary considerably from State to State. Although limits on

gross vehicle weights are generally higher than in Burope, maximum axle

-t- loadings are generally lower. This perhaps reflects the vigour with which
pavements '
State Highway Departments have striven to protect their road

In both Europe and North America the regulation on vehicle dimensions

and loading are quite strictly enforced. Some developing eountries have

with very few exceptions, it has proved quite


similar regulations but,
countries are
impossible to enforce them. The spectra of axle loading in most
that
far heavier than on roads in Europe and North America. It seemsunlikely
pavements must
the level of enforeement will improve very quickly and' road
than
be designed so that they can carry vehicle loads that are much heavier

those operating in industrialised countries '

-rb--

1-
3 A><I-E I-OAD N4EASTJFT I ITG

E QI.J I PIVIE ATTT S

3.1 General

In many developing countries road traffic is growing rapidly both in

volume and in the size and weight of the vehicles using the roads. As a

consequence highway engineers concer:ned with designing new roads or

strengthing of existing roads in developing countries reguire reliable

inf,ormatin about the distribution of the axle loads of existing traffic, and

where possible information on national or regional axle load trends.

To provide adequate information on axle load distribution, road side

axle loads surveys are required. Such surveys can conveniently be camied

out by using th following wheel-weighing devices namely, Static Weighing

Bridges, Weigh in Motion Equipments and TRL portable wheel weighing unit

with digital indicator.

3.2 Static or High Speed Weigh-In-Motion

Weighing trucks using static weigh bridges is time consuming and

expensive. In developed countries the high speed weigh-in-motion weigh

bridges are commonly used because they have made regulations about the

weight, height and length of the vehicles. The high speed weigh-in-motion

system automatically selects vehicles which dontt conform to weight, height

and. length requirements at high speed. A brief discription about high speed

weigh in motion system developed and used in Australia is given below.

The High Speed Electronic Mass Unit (HSEMU) automatically checks


r
24

weight, height and length and classifies each vehicle as it drives oven axle

setlsors and weigh plates. It instantly decides whether the vehicle conforms

to regulation, If vehicle confirms, the system guides it back on to the

highway with no delay incurued. If the vehicle is non-conforming, the

computer gives a set of traffic lights to direct the vehicle to specific

enforcement weight bridge. Operations in a control room are alerted if a

vehicle is over weight, over length and/or over height in two ways. Firstly,

if a non-regulation vehicle pass over the weigh plates, an alarm sounds in the

control room secondly, traffic lights controlled by the HSEMU System are

within view of the control room. Because the system automatically screens.out

vehieles that conform, the station can operate with minimal staff and its

efficiency is a key benefit of the HSEMU system. Cost-recovery can be

expected in the short term. A typical HSEMU layout may be seen at Annex 3-A

3.3 Equipment Used for This Study

The portable weigh bridge developed by the Overseas Unit of the


l*
Transport and Road Research Laboratory (TRL) was used for this study.

TRL has used this portable weighing unit in many parts of the world for axle

load surveys.

3.4 Specifications of the Weighing Unit

The portable weighing unit have the following specifications. The

weight of the unit should not exceed 50 kg as it is considered that 50 kg can

be handled by one person if necessary and can be carried in an average

private motor car. The size of the weighing platform should be as large as

possible to facilitate the positioning and weighing of large dual-wheel

assemblies. The thickness of the weighing platform should be as small as


a'
25

possible to minimise the difference in level between the wheel being weighd

and the other wheels of the vehicle when the unit is being used on level

ground and the accuracy should be within 3 2 percent. (Although f 5 percent

+- would be adequate for pavement design purposes, the higher accuracy would

enable the unit to be used for the enforcement of legal axle-load limits and for

checking the weight of test trucks used for making deflection measurements

on existing roads).

3.5 Survey Equipment sncl ln5{alletion

The equipment consists of an aluminium alloy weighing platform (weigh

bridge) shown in Plate-1 (Annexure 3-B), a readout unit, shown in Plate 2

(Annexure 3-C), and a l2-volt car battery. The dimensions of the

weighbridge are ?00 x 500 x 90 mm and it is 44 kg in weight. Ordinarly the

system has a measuring range of 0-101000 kg, however, it is capable of

measuring accurately up to 201000kg with minor adjustments. Under field

conditions of use, has an overall accuracy of t 2%of full scale. The equipment
,t* is not adversely affected by high temperatures or humidities.

The weigh bridge platform should be installed on smooth, dry and

horizontal surface. The weigh bridge should be installed in a pit with its top

face level with the suruound.ing road surface. The design of a typical pit is

shown in Annexure 3-D. If the platform is not evenly supported over its base

area, then, when loaded, distortion of the frame may be sufficient to cause

eryors in reading or may permanently damage the platform. Therefore before

using the weighing unit, the surface should be cleared of any debris, area

with undulations or small pot holes should be avoided.

f
26

If the surface is unavoidably uneven or has high spots, their effect can

be minimized by using sheet of load spreading material such as plywood on

rubber about 6mm thick underneath the platforms.

3.6 SurveY Sites

The survey site was so seleeted to make it possible to camy out survey

of the traffic easily and safely. Each survey point was selected on a clear

stretch of road with good visibility, to give ample tirne to driver to slow down

and stop. The sites were so positioned to avoid junction or other turning.

A typical layout for survey site is shown in Annexure 3-E. Advanced working

signs were also used to give indication to driver about the survey.

3.7 SurveY Teams

The teams comprising of 4 member:sundertook survey work in shifts of

eight hours. One person was deputed to control the traffic on the road and to

direct vehicle into the weighing areas. The second person was deputed to
7L direct the vehicle within the weighing area to drive slowly on the weigh bridge

and position its wheels centrally on the platform. The third person was used

to record the wheel loads & the fourth person was deputed to carry out a

classified traffic count

3.8 Reliability of the EquiPment

According to manufacturers, this weighing unit and data recording

equipment have been used for survey of traffic entering and leaving in

Abu Dhabi Island in the Trucial States. The weighing unit and dial indicator

have been used for the measurement of wheel loads at Quamy Bayadat in the

Emirate of Abu Dhabi and in Qatar. The axle loads in excess of 191000 kg
T
27

were recorded.. The weighing time and the associated equipment performed

satisfactorly in both these survys. The accuracy of results was good and

eryor due to temperature drift were considered negligible over the duration

(less than half minute) of weighing unit of a weighing operation. During the

present survey the axle loads upto 24.65 tons were encountered '

3.9 Pr.erliminary Testing

The caliberation of the equipment was done in the following manner.

Switch-on the 12 volt D.C. supply


First of all complete all the connections.

pannel of the portable weighing indicator unit. Press the


switch on the front

CHECK VOLTS button; The display will indicate the voltage level of the

supply. This level should not be less than 11 volts' If it is less'


battery

the internal battery, or power the unit from an external 12 volts


recharge

D. C. sources. Allow the unit to warm up for 5 to 10 minutes. Adjust the SET

ZERO to obtain a reading of 0.00 on the desplay. Press the CHECK CAL

button. The display should now read 5.55. If necessary, adjust the SET CAL

control to obtain a reading of 5.55 whilist holding the CHECK CAL button.

The reading should now return to 0'00' Repeat if


Release the button.
t
neCeSSarY

The system may be checked in a simple way be applying a load to the

platform. The display will then indicate the value of the load. For example

stands on the selected platform, the display might indicate 7


if a person

Each small division is 10 kg or 22 pounds and the display would


divisions.

therefore be indicating a weight of 70 kg or 1'54 pounds '

T"
28

3.lO Calibration of the Weighbridge

The weighbridge equipment, as supplied by the manufacturer, is

calibrated against a proving ring and any further re-calibrations by the user

are useful but not essential. A periodic check of the sensitivity may be made

using a known load. When a reliable and accurate loading device is available,

the calibration can be caruied out in the following manner.

First of all complete all the connections. Place the platform of the
plate
weighbridge on the plywood sheet. Apply load through a 25 cm x 38 cm

or block of wood (i.e. the area equivalent to a tyre contact area at 10 tonnes

wheel load) in increments of 1000 kg, to the full value and note the

copesponding readings on the weighbridge indicator. The calibration line is

then obtained by plotting the load measured' by the indicator against the

coruesponding value of the load applied by the machine.

T:
29

4 lvrETHO[)O[.OG'54

4.1 Selection of Survey Points

A country wid.e Axle load Survey was caruied out by NTRC in 1982.The

survey points were selected jointly by NTRC and NHA and were mostly located

near the district boundries, the present study was aimed to update the

previous study. Therefore, the survey points were selected on National

Highways near the previous stations of 1982 study. A map showing survey

points is given at Annexure 4-A.

The number of survey points covered on different National Highways

are as below:

sl. Road No. of Survey


No. Section Points

1. N-5 16
2. N-25 2
3. N-35 3
4. N-40 1
D. N-55 5
6. N-65 1
.L 2
7. N-70

Total 30

The stations were selected in such a way as to obtain the representative

values of axle loads for that particular road section.

4.2 Survey fiming and Duration

The survey was conducted for 24 hours starting from 10.00 a.m. Out

of the 30 stations, 11 stations were on relatively low volume roads where the

axle load measurements were made for 24 hours. While at 19 stations where

traffic volume was high, a 24 hours in bound and 24 hours out bound i.e. 48
30

hours traffic volume measurements were camied out. The finst round of

survey was started from southern region of the country-on 30-03-1994 from

Karachi-Gaddani section (1st station) and was ended on 1g-05-1994at Lahore-

Gujranwala section (15th station). The second round; of the survey was

started on 26-0?-1994 from Wazirabad-Gujrat section (16th station) and was

ended on Quetta-Nowshki section (30th station), the last station in the

southwestern region of the country. A complete schedule of survey was

approved by the NHA and was sent to I. G . Police of four provinces to get the

police assistance and may be seen at Annexure 6-8.

The second round schedule was revised due to some unavoidable

circumstances and the field work, which had to be completed on 31-07-1994,

was actually completed on 04-09-1994.

4.3 Selection of Vehicles

NTRC had installed 20 Permanent Traffic Stations on National

Highways. The results show that on most roads the axle load distribution of
L
the traffic moving in one direction is about the same as that traffic moving in

opposite direction. Significant differences between the two streams occur'

only, on road.s serving quarries, cement factories, textile industries etc.

Similarly, on some routes, special vehicles are in regular use, for example in

timber extraction areas and mining areas. The loading is quite different in

both directions as compared to other sections.

Damage caused to road pavements structure by passenger cars and light

vehicies is negligible as compared with that caused by loaded commercial

vehicles. Therefore, in this survey only commercial goods vehicles with 2-

Axle, 3-Axle, 4-Axle and more than 4-Axles were measured. A total number

of 4,?68 trucks were surveyed over 30 stations as shown in Table 4.3.


T'
3l

4.4 Measurement of Axle Loads

After the installation of weighing machine, the few vehicles coming

from one side were stopped for weighing and one or two vehicles moving in the

same direction were kept waiting. Others were allowed to pass. Once a queue

in one direction was cleared, vehicles coming from the other side were stopped

for weighing. This procedure was adopted where traffic volume was low and

where 24 hours axle load measurements were made for both directions. But
a

where the traffic volume in each direction was high, 24 hou]" axle weighing was

done in each direction. Plate showing weighing of tr:uck at site may be seen

at Annexure 4-B.

4.5 Police Assistance

I. Gs of four provinces were requested to provide police assistance for

this study because police assistance was necessary for stopping and managing

the traffic at survey points. Almost at every station, two policemen were

provided by the local police station of the rank of Constable/Head Constable.


+ - -4 LL^ --^.^t- ^C /1^-
,

In the presence of policemen, the drivers obeyed the instructions of survey

staff . It also ensured safety of survey staff during night time measurements

and in remote areas. It was also noticed. that in the absence of policemen some

drivers did not stop. It is therefore, recommedned that survey may be

conducted in the presence of police to deal with any traffic problem.

Police was requested. that during the axle load survey, they would not

check the driverts licence or documents of vehicle and would not challan the

vehicle. particularly, overloaded vehicles were not allowed to be questioned

by the police in anY case.


'-r'
32

4.6 Questionnaire

In the previous axle load study of NTRC, a questionnaire was prepared

by NTRC to collect information about vehicle, goods transported, and for

origin and destination of the vehicle. The same with modifications was

adopted for this stud.y. The sample of the questionnaire is placed at

Annexure 4-C.

(
33

5 TR.AFF I C \ZOI-t'}/IE AI\TD

PFTOPOR1P r OI\r oF trtttJcKs

5.1 Trraffic Volume

Traffic volume studies are conducted to furnish the engineer with the

factual information he needs, both to identify the magnitude of traffic problem

and to provide him with the data required for a quantitative approach to the

solution of the problem. The studies must be so designed and carried out that

data provided are ad.equately accurate and unbiased and the cost of data

collection & processing is within the limits of available manpower, funds & time .

A volume or flow study is the measure of the time rate of vehicles

passing a specific point on a roadway. It is one of the fundamental

measurements of the importance of a road. Traffic volume estimation can be

into two basic categories; annual average daily traffic (AADT)


subdivided

and annual vehicle miles of travel (AVMT). The average annual daily traffic
a
is the number of vehicles that pass a par:ticular point on a road way during
L While AVMT is basically a system measure of traffic'
period of 36b days.

AADT is a point-specific measure. The count may be stratified by time of

day, direction of travel, and type of vehicle'

Traffic studies for a highway provides quantitative information about

the various types of vehicles using the highway. Traffic volume data will

be
indicate the appropriate levels of service for which new highways should

designed and directly affect geometric features, such as camiageway widths,

number of lanes, horizontal and vertical alignments and maximum permissible

grades.

Y
34

For pavement design purposes, it is essential for the designer to

estimate the total number of commercial vehicles that will traverse the

pavement in the course of its design life. For this purpose it is necessary to

+ know the number of commercial vehicles that will use the road when it is first

opened to traffic and to forecast the annual growth rate of the traffic.

In order to estimate the benefits that can be derived from the

of
improvement of a highway, it is essential to know the nature and volume
Studies
traffic which is expected to use the highway during its design life.
the
are needed to determine the pattern and trends and increase in flow, and

vehicle caryying capacities of both the existing highway and the improved

highway.

5.2 Ctrassification of Vehicles .


The traffic stream is composed of various vehicle types. Vehicles are

typically classified accordig to whether or not they cauy pasengers; further


(e. g three
classification is based upon gross weight and or axle configuration

axle single unit trucks, six axle multi-trailer ete) ' The following

classification was adopted for traffic volume count purposes for the study.

1. Pedestrian CYcles
2. Animal Drawn Vehicles
3. Motor CYcles
4. Rickshaws
. 5. Passenger Cars
6. Wagons
7. Buses
8. 2-Axle, six tyre single unit trucks
9. 3-Axle with rear tandem axle
10. 3-Axle single trucks
11. 4-Axle trucks
72. More than 4-Axle Trucks

1'
35

5.3 TrafficVolumeon SurveyStations


Thetrafficvolumeon all thirtystationswas observedfor 24 hours.The volume
of trafficobservedat the thirty stationsis shown in Table 5.1 which indicates
vehiclesby typein absolutenumber.Table5.2 providespercentage composition of
motorised,non-motorised vehiclesand percentages of trucksaccordingto discrete
axle configuration.Considerable variationin the volumeof trafficwas observedat
differentstations.The trafficvolumerangedfrom a minimumvalueof 688 vpd on
Quetta-Nowshki sectionof NationalHighwayN-40to a maximumvalueof 20,750
vpd on Rawalpindi-Chablat sectionof NationalHighwayN-5.

5.4 Proportionof Commercial Vehicles


The proportionof the commercialvehicleswas observedto vary from a
minimumvalueof 6.430/o of D.G.Khan-Taunsa to a maximumvalue of 76.20/oat
Hyderabad-Larkana section. The proportionof trucks as percentageof total
numberof vehiclesas observedduring24 hourstrafficcounton the thirtystations
maybe seenin Table5.2.Theaverageof 2-axletruckson thirtystationswasfound
to be 68.97ogivingproportionof morethan2 axlecommercial vehicleswas 31olo.

o/oOF TRUCKS lN TRAFFIC


VOLUME AT ALL STATIONS

g% ofTrucks

T'

STATIONS
FrG5.4
ItisquiteinterestingtonotethatinlgS2,theproportionof2axle
gg%while the proportion of 3 and more axle
commercial vehicles was about
during the last decade, there
trucks was only 1%of the truck fleet. Hence,
vehicle trucks ' The
has been tremend,ousincrease in the growth of multi-axle
are gradually replacing
three and more axle trucks are being prefemed and

2 axles trucks. On average, the proportion of various axle truck


was found as below:
configurations as observed on thirty stations

No. of Axle Trucks Proportion

2 axle 68.9%
3 axle 22.7%
4 axle 6.5eo
5 axle and more 1.9eo
trucks having a rear
The major increase is in case of 3 axle trucks; the
three axles together form 92%of
tandem axle. It is also evident that two and

the truck PoPulation.

5.5 Distribution of Trucks bY Make


recorded alongwith other
Make of the commercial vehicles was also
Out of
t details.Fourteendifferenttypesofvehiclemakeswereidentified.
followed
these,Bedford.constitutedthemajorproportioni.e.S3%.Thiswas
and Issuzu 5%' The make wise
by Hino which constituted,2g%, Nissan 16%

fleet may be seen in the following table '


distribution of truck

MAKE WISE DISTRIBUTION OF TRUCKS

r
JI

proportion of the
Although, the Bedford Trucks still costitute the major
proportion of Bedford
truck fleet; however, while comparing it with the
Trucks are gradually
trucks in 1982 (96.5%), one finds that the Bedford

depletingfromthetruckfleetonourroads.TheJapenesemakesare
of Hino and Nissan
gradually replacing the Bedford trucks. The proportion
more than 40%of truck
Trucks which was negligible in 1982, now constitute
be most likely, the Bedford
fleet. If this trend continues, which seem to
makes very soon '
trucks may be mostly replaced by the Japenese

5.6DistributionofAllTrucksAccordingtoAxleConfiguration
survey according to axle
The distribution of all trucks weighed during

configuration was as under:

DBSCRIPTION CODE TRUCKS


WEIGHED
2-Axle Single 7.2 3269
3-Axle Single 7.2-2 138
3-Axle Tandem 1.22 1013
4-AxIe Single 7.2+2.2 43
4-Axle M' Tandem 1.22-2 4
L 4-Axle Rear Tandem 1.2-2 242
5-Axle Tandem 1.22-22 10
6-Axle Tandem 7.22+222 40
'Iridem
Others I
Total 4768

5.7 Growth Rate of Trucks


within the truck fleet'
The most interesting and important aspect is that
growth rates ' The grcwth rate
the different axle configuration show different
decade is around 9%' To obtain
for truck fleet in the country during the last
the period 1982 to 1994' it was
the growth rates of multi axle vehicles during
the 1994 data as in 1982' the
not possible to compare 1982 report data with
leoof our trucks fleet' which
multi axle vehicles () 2 axles) constituted only
count data was used with 1994
has now increased to 31so.As such 1986traffic
38

of growth of different axles


truck volume data to obtain the general trend

configurations of trucks. A comparison on 10 stations have been shown in

Table below. The graphical presentation of the data is shown in Fig 5 ' 7, which

general trend. of growth rates of 2 axles, 3 axles and more than 3


indicates
rates of 2-Axle trucks on these
axle trucks. As can be seen, the growth

stations ranges from almost negligible to 8eoexcept on one' station where it was

17.48%

TRUCKGRowTHRATESDURING1936To1gg4PERIOD

Number of Axles

S T . N O . STATION 2-Axles l-Axles ) 3-Axles

2 Karachi-HYderabad 2.63 25.37 70.42

Iaccobbabad-Sibbi 0.46 16.79 0*


7

Vluttan-Sahiwal 7.92 22.64 13.43


13

t4 )kara-Lahore 7.98 19.28 12.88


I
15 Lahore-Gujranwala 2.73 25.07 10.62

l6 Wazirabad-Gujrat t7.48 27.02 47.88

Gujrat-Jhelum 0.05 75.42 6.97


17

hablat-Nowshera 7.27 4.08 2.86


Z3

24 Nowshera-Peshawar 0.79 0.85 2.08

4. 18 -3.82
25 Peshawar-Tourkham 2 . 9 8

* Not encountered

I
39

TRUCKGROWTHRATESDURING
1986TO 1994

50

30

10

o -t-

24
-10

However,the growthratesof multi-axleshavea rangeof about 1o/o to 27o/o.


The growthratesof multi-axlevehicleare about24 timesthe growthratesof the
2-Axletrucksat respectivestations.Moreover,it is also evidentthat growthrates
of multi-axlevehicleon most of the stationsare much higherthan the general
growthrate (9%) of truckfleet in the country.Also on somestations,the groMh
rates are much higheras comparedto othersor previousdata. As on Karachi-
L Hyderabadsection,the growth rate of 3-Axletrucks is 10 times that of 2-Axle
trucks.The growthof 2-Axletruckson moststationsis moreor less stagnantand
on the averagemuchless than the averagegrowthrate of the truckfleet in the
country.

Y
6 A><I-E I-OA.DS

coffect interpretation of data is as important as


In research work

conclusions are drawn the acquisition of


collection of data and unless right
It is worthwhile to note
numerical results has little value' or no value at all'
to determine the axle loads
that although the prime objective of the survey was
axle configurations and to determine their
of goods vehicles of different

in terms of equivalent standard axles, however,


damaging effect
from make, type of vehicle '
comprehensive information was collected, ranging
pressures
commodities caffied, origin and destination of trucks alongwith tyre

of socio-economic activity of the region as


etc. which are cardinal indicators

well as the countrY.

methodolog'y was designed to extract the


A comprehensive statistical
Retrospectively
right information from the data and later to draw inferences '

contemporary studies as well as


data was matched and compared with other

w i t h N T R C - 1 9 8 2s t u d y .
over tables, bar
Statistical analYsis and interPreted results spread
necessarY have been
charts, and graPhs and explanations wherever felt

provided.

6.1 ScoPe and Coverage of SurveY


were weighed at 30
In total , 4768trucks of various axle configurations

Surveystations,comprisingbothloadedandemptyvehicles.Tableat
weighed at each station'
Annexure 6-4 provides the number of trucks
Also the schedule of survey
alongwith survey station and highway section '

f-alongwithdurationcanbeseenatAnnexure6-8.
4l

6.2 Axle Configuration


by a digit usually a 1 or 2 depending on how
Each axle is represented

manywlreelsareontheendoftheAxle.Tandemaxlesareindicatedby

recordingthedigitsdirectlyaftereachother.Adecimalpointisplaced
and back wheels ' The code for trailers
between the code for a vehiclef s front
but is separated from the truck code
is recorded in the same way as for trucks
rr-tr
trailers are separated by a
by a rr+rr sign. Semi Trailers or articulated

sign.

Forexamplecodel.2meansthatthevehiclehasafrontaxlewitha
a pair of wheels on either side ' This is
single wheel and a rear axle having
during this study. code 1'22 means
the most common configuration observed
is a tandem axle in the rear having dual
single wheel on front axle and there
consists of a truck mounted trailer having
wheels. code 1.2-22type of vehicle
axle of the truck and the common axle in
a tandem axle in the rear, the front
A complete axle configuration and codes
the micldle are single axles and so on.

of trucks is presented in Figure 6 ' 2 '


I

6.3 SurveY Timings and Duration


volume was low, 24 hours survey was
All stations where truck traffic

was high, 48 hours split survey was


caried out while where truck traffic

'
caruied out , with 24 hour in each direction

of Trucks by Axle in Truck Volume


6.4 Composition
were classified according to discrete axle
All the vehicles surveyed

Also equally important is that the market share of multi axles


configuration.
qoin 1994 ' The table
1982 to more than 30
has increased from a non-existant in
by axle configuration' It is evident that
shows the respective percentages
1-
42

E E
TT'--r. Gn

tt t-
GE.-
I'E
2 - Axte Singte

1.2_2 3 -Axte Singte


)
(
)

ri*r
ilt
1.22 3- Axte Singte)
Tondem
-
\

fi*-r -l
I
IJ=J
J 1.2+2.24-Axle Singte

I
122-2 /,-Axte
MidTondem
I
rF
i
F ESSr 3FE
i-i--
||
t EaE
r__---)'r -l
dlr ' 6r 1.2-22
' 4- Axte ,
l- j
tt l- -Il- r*-.r* ReorTondem
rr;G##

1.22
_22 5- Axte
Tondem

6 - Axte
1.22+222 Tondem
Tridem

1-
Fig. 6 .2 A X L E C O N F T G U R A T I O NA N D C O D E S .
of the truck population.
two andthreeaxlestogetherform 92o/o

COMPOSITION
OF TRUCKSBY AXLE CONFIGURATION
TTI'(EE
THREE AXLE FOUR FtvEEStX
{- TWO AXLE AXLE TRILER AXLE TOTAL
AXLE
Nos 53,E84 16,805 9U 5,076 1.503 78.192
06age 680/o 22o/o 1.20o/o 7olo 2o/o lOOo/o

4-Axle 5&6Axle
7% 2%

+
TRUCKSVOLUME

Fig 6.4 COMPOSITION


OF TRUCKSBY AXLE
Basedon Volume

f
44

6.5 Distribution of Loadedand EmpWTrucks

Table6-5 providesdistributionof loadedand emptyvehiclesamongdiscreteaxle configu-


ralionsfor the trucksurveyed.
..(-
DISTRIBUTION
OF LOADED
& EMPTYTRUCKS
sr.N O DESCRIPTION CODE LOADED EMPTY TOTAL
1 z.AXLE 1.2 3.153 116 3,269
2 3-AXLE(Sinqle) 1.2-2 130 I 138
3 3-AXLE(R.Tandem) 1.22 985 28 1,013
4 4-AXLE(Single) 1.2+2.2 38 5 43
5 4-AXLE(M.Tandem) 1.22-2 4 0 4
6 4-AXLE(R.Tandem) 1.2-22 234 8 242
7 s-ruGEffandem) 1.22-22 9 1 10
8 6-AXLEff. Tridem) 1.22+222 37 3 40
I OTHERS 0 I 0 I
TOTAL: 4.599 169 4,768

2-Axle

Trucks Surveyed

Fig6.5COMPOSITION
OF TRUCKSBY AXLE
Surveyed

Y
of Trucks According To Gross Loads
6.6 Distribution

2-AxleTrucks.Thistypeoftruckwasobservedonallthe30stations'out
gross load of 15 to 16 tonnes while at 10
of which 13 stations have the average
At
was observed between 16 to 17 tonnes'
stations, the average gross load

otherl?stations'averagegrossloadwasgreaterthanlTtonnes'

3-AxleSingleTrucks.Thistypeoftruckwasobservedat15stationsonly.

At?stations,theaveragegrossloadofthistypeliesbetween25to30tonnes,
gross load was observed between 30
while at the other 8 stations the average

to 40 tonnes.

3.AxleTandemTnrcks.Thistypeoftruckwasobservedat28stations.At
was between 25 ta 30 tonnes' while on 17
10 stations, the average gross load
and only at one station' the average
stations, it was between 30 to 40 tonnes

gross load was greater than 40 tonnes'

4-AxleSingleTrucks.ThistypeoftruckwasobservedonSstations.AtS
between 35 to 40 tonnes ' while at the
stations, the average gross load lies

remaining3stations,theaveragegrossloadliesbetween40to50tonnes.
gross load of this type of truck was
4-Axle Mid Tandem Trucks. The average

found to be 35 tonnes

4-AxleRearTandemTrucks.Thistypeoftruckswereobservedon19,
gross load was observed between 30 to 40
stations. At I stations, the average
40 tonnes'
tonnes while at the 10 stations, it was above

s-AxleTand'emTrucks.Theaveragegrossloadofthistypeoftruekwas

found about 45 tonnes'

6-Axle Tandem Tridem Trucks. This category was observed on 10 stations

but caruies very large gross load '


only. It constitutes 1eoof truck population

Loadsupto80tonneshavebeenrecorded.Butusuallytheycarryloads
-T-
I betwen 60 to 70 tonnes '
46

6.7 Distribution Of Front And Rear Axle Loads

The distribution of frotrt anrl rear axle load.sfor different types of axle

configtrrations in terms of ratios is shown in Table 6.7.

{
DIS'I'RIRUTION OF FNONT & REAR AXLE LOADS

DESCRI. CODB FRONT RBAR REAR REAR REAR REAR


CRIPTION 1 2 3 4 5
2-Axle "1..2 31. 69
3-Axle 1.2-2 21 40 39
Sinsle
3-Axle 1.22 27 39 40
Tandem
4-Axle 7.2- t4 30 28 28
Rear 22
Tandem
5-Axle 7.22- 1.2 20 20 24 24
Tandem 22
6-Axle 1.22+ 11 77 18 18 18 18
T.Tridem 222

6.8 Average Axle Loads Of All Trucks i'or All Stations

L Average axle loads at 30 stations were calculated in accordance with the

described axle configurations. Tables 6.8.1 to 6.8.9 placed at statistical

appendix provide the average axle loads for each axle configuration including

maximum and minimum, standard deviation and variance values among the 30

stations.

6.8.1 Average Axle Loade Of 2-Axle Trucks Z-Axle tr.ucks domlnate the
trttck composition making 21Srd,of the total truek population. A total of 3269

trucks including 116 empty were weighed in this category. Table 6. g. 1 .


at the
statistical appendix lists average axle load for all the 30 stations combined

'Y
i
47

and variance' In this


with standard deviation, minimum and maximum values
section with
class of truck, average loads are highest at Karachi-Gaddani
than the average
gross average axle load of 19,31 tonnes, which is Z2%higher
fact that mostly, steel
-+* gross load for all stations combined, mainly due to the
of Gaddani is transported through this
scrap from ship breaking industry

section of highway, while Lahore-okara section has minimum average gross

the average gross load for all


load of 14.27 tonnes and is 13%lower than

stations combined for 2-axle trucks '

6. g.1 . 1 Distribution of Load over Front & Rear Axles for 2-Axle Trucks
was 16'06 tonnes for all
Loaded. The average gross load for load'ed'trucks
was 4 ' 93 tonnes and on rear axle
stations combined while that on front axle
distribution between front and
was 11 . 13 tonnes , resulting in an average load
with NTRC 1982 study, the
rear axles in ratio term as 31:6g when compared
ratio of 31 :69 between front and
results are nearly similar which also shows a

rear axle
b Empty.TheaveragegrossloadoftheemptyZ.ax1retruck'was6.57tonnes,
and on the rear axle' it was
while that on the front axle, it was 2.9? tonnes
between front and rear axle
3.60 tonnes. For empty 2-axle truck, the ratio

was found to be 45:55

6.8.l.2AverageAxleLoadAccordingtoMakefor2-AxleTrucks
listed at Annexure 6-C'
In all, 4 major makes were identified out of 18
shows that Bedford dominate the
The number of observations for each make
and' Nissan eonstitute 17%' 4%
scene with lion,s share of ?6%while Hino, Isuzu
Mazda etc are 1%. Statistical
& 2%respectively. While other makes like Ford,
given in the following table'
details of 2-axle trucks by different makes is
r1
BEDFORD 2-AXLE TRUCK
FRONT REAR TOTAL
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)

rrrNo 2-AXLET&qgK
REAR
(tonnes

5.74 | 12.78

ISUZU z-AXLE TRUCK


REAR
tonnes

NrssAN 2-AXIE_TRUCK
; i.;iONT REAR TOTAL
I (tonnes (tonnes) (tonnes)

AVG 6.07 13.38 19.45

STD 1. 1 9 2.87 3.74

VAR 1.42 7.87 13.9?

MAX 8.45 22.54 29.85

MIN 3.30 4.70 8.00


49

the average gross load


From above tables, it is observed that the Nissan has
average gross load
of 19.45 tonnes, the highest one, while the Bedford has an
given below provides the
load of 1S.4s tonnes which is the lowest. The table

T comparison for 2-axle loaded truck by different makes for average gross load '

COMPARISON OF z-AXLE TRUCKS BY MAKE

AV.GROSS LOAD RATIO

Isuzu

to commodity carried for 2-Axle


6. g. 1 .3 Average Axle toads According

Major commodities transported by 2-ax1e trucks are minning and


Trucks.
follows by fuel
quaruying items having an average gross load of 18.04 tonnes
l*- 16 ' 85 tonnes ' Details of
and lubricant items having an average gross load of
by this type of truck is
statistical analyses for different commodities canied

given in Table 6.8.1.3 at statistical appendix'

Average Axle Loads of 3-Axle single Trucks. This type of truck


6.8.2
population' It is note worthy
constitute a meagre proportion of the total truck
only on five
that trucks in this category were found in sizeable amount
are between wazirabad-
sections among the 30 stations surveyed. Four sections
' Primarily, this type
chablat on N-5 and one between Peshawar-Kohat on N-5
is very small' In all
of truck are owned by NLC while the private ownership
while 8 were empty'
138 trucks of this type were surveyed with 130 loaded
T"
50

vehicles
Average axle loads with standard deviation for both loaded and empty

are listed in Table 6 . 8. 2 at statistical appendix '

6.g.2.1 Distribution of Load Over Front & Rear for 3-Axle S'ngle Trucks.
type was found to
Loaded. The average gross load of load.ed.trucks for this
and t2'77
be 31.5 tonnes with 6.?4 tonnes on the front axle and 12.59 tonnes
loads among the
tonnes on rearl and rear2 axles respectively. The ratio of the

axles is in the order of 21:40:39'


type is found to be
Empty. The average gross load of the empty trucks of this
4 ' 38 tonnes and 3 ' 94
72.17 tonnes with 3.85 tonnes on the front axles and
is found to be as
tonnes on the respective rear axles. The distribution

32:36:32.

Average Axle Load of 3-Axle Trucks (Rear Tandem) - This type of


6. g.3
population, and their
truck occupy the second largest chunk of the total truck
the last decade '
percentage among trucks composition has risen sharply over
including 985 loaded and
In all 1013 trucks of this eonfiguration were weighed
average axle loads for
28 empty. Table 6.8. 3 at statistical appendix provides
E front, rearl and rear2 axles and gross load, with maximum
and minimum value

axle load for this


alongwith standard daviation. As explained earlier average
while the Quetta-
type of truck at Karachi-Gaddani section is the highest'
section'
chaman section is the lowest, closely followed by okara-Lahore

6.8.3.1 Distribution of Load Over Flont and Bear Tandem


vehicle was found to
Load.ed. The average gross load for this type of loaded
at rearl and 12'51
be 31.61 tonnes with 6.?4 tonnes at front, 72.97 tonnes
is found to be 21239240
tonnes at rear2 axle. The distribution in terms of ratio

or simply the ratio on front and rear tandem is 20:80'


in this category was
Empty. The average gross load of the empty vehicle
3'85 tonnes and
found to be 10.84 tonnes with a distribution of 3.55 tonnes,
..-T-.
5r

terms
3.45 tonnes on the front axle & rear axles. The distribution of load in

of ratio is found to be as 32:36:32 for the front, rearl & tear2 axles

respectivelY.
In
-1-- 6.8.3.2 Average Axle Load According to llfiake for 3-Axle Rear Tandem'
of different
all six major makes of this type of truck were observed. Details
following tables '
makes for this type of truck accord,ing to makes are given in

BEDFORD 3-AXLE REAB TANDHd TRUCK


FRONT REARl REAR2 TOTAL
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)

5.91 72,13 71.74 29.78


AVERAGE
0.79 2.26 t.82 4.27
STD. DEVIATION
0.62 5.11 3.32 17.73
VARIANCE
'/.cc 17.00 14.66 36.27
MAXIMUM VALUE
4.28 8.72 6.?0 19.70
MINIMUM VALUE

rrrNo3-AXLER@
FRONT REARl REAR2 TOTAL
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)

6.59 12.01 12.09 30.69


AVERAGE
l* STD. DEVIAONAT 1. 3 7 2.63 2.76 6.11

1. 8 7 6.91 ?.61 37.35


VARIANCE
10.35 20.18 1 9 .? 9 48.07
MAXIMUM VALUE
2.99 4.38 0.00 1 1. 6 9
MINIMUM VALUE

ISUZU 3-AXLE REAR TANIIIYIJRUCK


FRONT REARl REAR2 TOTAL
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)

6.27 10.48 1 1. 1 ? 27.92


AVERAGE
1. 0 5 2.54 2.97 5.92
STD. DEVIATION
1. 1 0 w6.44 8.49 35.07
VARIANCE
8.61 17.95 2 1. 0 0 47.45
MAXIMUM VALUE
4.10 5.40 5.00 17.00
MINIMUM VALUE
52

MERCEDBS 3.AXLE REAR TANDEII{ TRUCK


FRONT REARl REAR2 TOTAL
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)

8.44 L2.92 13.64 35.01


AVERAGE
1. 5 8 2.30 2.03 4 .55
-l' STD. DEVIATION
.2.50 5.30 4.74 20.66
VARICEAN
12.09 19.10 19.35 50.54
MAXIMUM VALUB
5 -40 8.33 10.90 2 8. 0 8
MINIMUM VALUE

NrssAN TRUCK 3-AXLE REAR TANDHU TBUCK


FRONT REARl REAR2 TOTAL
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)

6.48 12.32 12.35 3 1. 1 5


AVERAGE
1. 5 3 2.68 2,67 6.74
STD.DEVIATION
2.33 7.20 7.72 3 7. 7 6
VARIANCE
10.79 18.85 20.60 47.s7
MAXIMUM VALUE
3.44 4.05 3.60 12.03
MINIMUM VALUE

Mercedes make in this category


From the above tables, it is cleared that the
of 35 ' 01 tonnes follows by Nissan
of trucks has the highest average gross load
tonnes
which caruies the average gross load of 31' 15

COMPARISON OF 3-AXLE REAB TANDMI TRUCK

GROSS LOADS

BEDFORD

MERCEDES

t-
6. g. g. 3 Aver:age 53
AxIe Loa According
to comnodities
Tandem rru"tJ. es1p'" _"oe
,;;;;"or odi ties tran sponte Rear:
are minningand rv' s=qd ;;,:..::
uy'-axle
:l_" ^ ]_l .comm
quar,r:yingiterns rear::,tandem
h-,.,.*_
having tr.uck
rouowing;;T anaverase
srossroacjof 34 ' 28 tonnes
ffi:iternsure items with
a
De,ai,s .f
f- ::::,::
----'-*
given in table uv Lrltstype
;;,::nes
6.g.g.3 at statistical of truck is
appendix.

6 . g .4 Average
Axle Loads of
4_Axle Single
Trucks.
- - {vaii.

,.,
This axle configuration

J"Hj"".i.r
H::Tajiil{ff
":: ;::,
r;rril
con.st ittt+o-^

tnt" type of trucks


, .

were observed,
the standand alongwith
daviation, miniot
rum and maxirnum
6.9.4. I Distribution values
of Load Over Front
& Bear Axle.
Loaded. Average
gross load of
the trucks in
this eategony
was found to be
",..:,: 11.66
tonnes,,.2s,";";;,;.;;;;:""
: i::::, i.'i;"
distr.ibution in ""., rear3 axles respectively.
Similarly, load
ratio among the
axles is as 14:30:2g:2g.
Empty. Avenage ao ozo c
g.r_ossload of
trre empty t'ucks
be 12. 1g tonner ir categorv was
s, with 4.43 tonn round to
.".';.;_::::': :nt"
onrront,
rear.l,
rear2
u,oo"uor':::i:"#j;irrr",ffii_:#:
among the axles -./' ^us trrsr*rbut
in r.atio form is
as 2g: 2g:2j,:2r.
6.8.4.2 Average
Axle Load According
to lldakefo
all 3 major makes single Trucks.
were identified In
'nt road out 1e-a*e
of
6-c. A numben "";"-^:: that 1g listed in
of observations Annexure
,j" r each make shows
scene followed that Nissan dominate
by Mercedes and the
Isuzu. The average
was observed gross 10adof a,o,sztonnes
on Nissan while
BT,g5tonnes, gS.lgI
rsuzu respectivelv. tonnes on Mercedes
and
54

Comparison. A comparison of average gross load caruied by three different

makes in this category of trucks is shown in table below.

COMPARISON OF MAKES OF 4.AXLE SINGLE TRUCKS

T RATIO

ISUZU
MERCEDES

6 . g .4 . 3 Average Axle Load Aceording to Commodity for 4-Axle Single Trucks.

Major commodites caruied by this type of truck are the fuel and lubricants
bulk
items with an average gross load value of 34.67 tonnes follows by

manufactured items with an average gross load value of 42.22 tonnes. Details
type
of statistical analyses for different commodities carried by 4-axle single

trucks is given in Table 6.8.4.3 at the statistical appendix.

6 . g .5 Average Axle Loads of 4-Axle Mid Tandem Trucks.


A* it is,
On all the 30 stations, only 4 trucks of this type were observed,

therefore, supposed that they do not contribute to truck composition'

However, the average gross load of this type is 35 . 14 tonnes with 5 ' 69 tonnes,

10. ztonnes, 9.64 tonnes, 9.40 tonnes onfront, rearl , tear2and rear3 axles

respectively.

6.8.6 4-Axle Rear Ta4dem Trueks.

This category of truck ranks third on percentage basis for total truck

population, constituting 5%of the total truck composition ' Their numbers have

been rising significantly over the last few years. In all 242 trucks of this type
while
of trucks were weighed on 19 stations. Loaded trucks numbered 234
55

empty were 8. Table 6.8.6 at statistical appendix provided an averge axle

loads with minimum and maximum alongwith standard daviation for the loaded

and empty trucks.

''r
6.8.6. 1 Distribution of Load over Front & Rear Axles for 4-Axle Rear Tandem

Trucks.

I^oaded. The gross average load.of thi,q type of truck is 37.89 tonnes with 4.91

tonnes on front axle, 72.28tonnes on rear1, 10.35 tonnes on rear2 and 10.41

tonnes on rear3 axle. Similarly load distribution in terms of ratio for loaded

t r u c k s o f t h i s t Y p e i s 1 6 : 3 02 2 7 2 2 7 .

Empty. The average gross load of this type of truck in empty state is 19.56

tonnes with 4. 0? on front, 5. 11 tonnes on rear1, 5,32tonnes on rear2 and 5. 06

tonnes on rear3

6.g.6.2 Average Axle Loads Assopding to Make for 4-Axle Bear Tandem

Trucks. In all 4 major makes were identified for this type of trucks out of that
A* 1g listed in Annexure 6-C. A number of observations for each make shows that

Hino has beared the highest gross load with the value of 40'19 tonnes'

HINO 4-AXLE REAR TANDHII TRUCK


FRONT REARl REAR2 REAR3 TOTAL
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)

AVG. 4.89 13.01 10.56 1 1. 7 3 4 0 .1 9

STD. 0.91 3.73 3.08 3.46 10.55

VAR. 0.83 13.93 9.49 1 2. 0 0 7t1.27


MAX. 7.15 2t.74 16.35 1 7. 7 0 60.35

MIN. 3.56 5.63 6.20 6.03 22.74

7'
56

MERCEDES 4-AXLE REAR TANDEM TRUCK


FRONT REARl REAR2 REAR3 TOTAL
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)

AVG. 5.46 t2 .4 7 10.57 10.31 38.81


T- 7.45 4.73
STD. 1. 0 4 2.22 t.92
VAR. 1.07 4.93 3.67 2.10 22.47

MAX. 7.29 L4.37 13.55 12.82 44.77

MIN. 4.40 7,45 7.50 7.84 30.96

ISUZU 4-AXLE REAR TRUCK


NDEXVI

FRONT REARl REAR2 REAR3 TOTAL


( tonnes ) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)

AVG. 5.01 1 1. 5 8 10.77 9.84 3 7 .1 9

STD. o.62 2.78 2.89 2.24 7.20

VAR. 0.38 7. 7 4 8.37 5.02 5 1. 7 8

MAX. 6.11 1 5. 7 3 15.36 14.56 48.61

MIN. 3.72 7.10 6.70 6.50 24.84

FIAT 4-AXLE REAR TANDM TRUCK

FRONT REARl REAR2 REAR3 TOTAL


(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)
.}.-
AVG. 6.58 11.81 9.42 7.69 3 5. 5 1

STD. t.26 1. 1 9 1. 3 3 1.81 1.45

VAR. I .58 1. 4 1 1. 7 6 3.27 2.10

MAX. 7. 7 5 1 3. 4 8 1 0 .9 4 10.43 3 ?. 8 1

MIN. 4.66 9.79 ?.61 5.31 33.34

6. g.6.3 Average Axle Loads of 4-Axle Rear Tandem according to Commodities

Carried. Major commodities transported by 4-Axle Rear Tandem type trucks

are food items with a value of average gross load of 42,25 tonnes follows by

bulk manufacture items having a value of average gross load of 47.82 tonnes.

Statistieal analyses of different commodities caruied by this type of tnueks is

mentioned in Table 6.8.6.3 in the statistical appendix '


+"'
57

6.8.? Average Axle Loads of 5-Axle Tandem Trucks.

Out of the 30 stations surveyed, only 10 trucks of this type were observed.

Therefore, it is supposed that this type of trucks does not contnibuted any

'-f significant part in the spectrum of trucks. The average gross load of this type

of trucks was observed as 47.77 tonnes for loaded ones' while for the empty

this value is 23.44 tonnes.

6.8.8. Average Axle Loads of 6-Axle Tandem Tridem Trucks

6-Axle Tandem Triandem trucks contributed only 2eoof the total population of

trucks. But they carry very high gross load upto 80 tonnes. Table 6.8.8 at

statistical appendix provides the statistical analysis where this type of truck

were observed

6. S.8. 1 Distribution of Load Over Front & Rear Axles

Loaded.. Average gross load of the trucks in this category was found to be

58.68 tonnes with 6.11 tonnes, 10.34 tonnes' 10.56 tonnes, 10.56 tonnes,

70,77 tonnes and 10.38 tones on front, rearl , teat?, rear3, rear4 and rearS
jF-
axles respectively. It is clearly seen that the average load on the rear axles

of this type of trucks is nearly equally distributed.

Empty. The average gross load of the empty 6-axles tandem triandem trucks

was 23.35tonnes, with 5.29 tonnes, 3.17 tonnesr 3.49 tonnes, 3.11 tonnes,

4.03 tonnes, on front, rear1, rear2, rear3, rear4 and rearS respeCtively.

6.8.8. 2 Average Axle Load According to Make for 6-Axle Tnndem Triandem

Trucks. In all, 4 major makes were identified in this type of trucks . Mercedes

bears the highest gross load with a value of 65.96 tonnes in this class of

trucks, Average gross loads of other makes in this class of trucks is

mentioned in the foliowing tables.


r'
58

TNfDET'I TRIDEU II'RUCKS BY UAKE


AVBRAGE A'U;E IPNDS OF 6-A:(I,E

T'IAKE FRONT REARl REAR2 REAR3 REAR4 REAR5 TOTAL

MERCEDIES 6.37 11. 88 11. 61 11.81 12.96 11.33 55.96

7.03 L O .5 0 11.O3 10.59 10. 50 9.70 59. 33


r MITSUBISHI

RENAULT 6.42 9 .47 9. 93 8.10 9. 13 9 .42 52.47

voLvo s .88 8.45 9.06 9.93 LO.33 L0.59 54.24

6.8.8.3 Average Axle Loads of 6-Axle Tandem Tridem{rucks by Commodities

Carried. Major commodities transported by 6-axle tandem t:riandem trucks are

agriculture items, bulk manufacture items and food. The average gross load

of this type of truck was found highest in the case of agriculture commodities

with a value of 66.5? tonnes. Details of statistical analysis for different

commodities caruied by this type of truck is given in Table 6.8.8.3 at

statistical appendix.

6.8.9 Average Axle Loads of Tractor Trollies

During the survey, nine tractor trollies were weighed ' The average g"oss
+-
load of tractor trolly was found to be 9.36 tonnes. On the front axle, average

axle load was 0.55 tonnes, while on the reanl and rear2 axle, the average axle

load was 2.1.9tonnes and 6.63 tonnes respectively'

6.9 Load Spectrum

The high rate of deterioration of pavement due to high axle load is a matter

of grave concern for highway agencies as well as for designers, planners and

maintenalce agencies. As huge amount of finances are required to construct

highways and to maintain them, therefore for a developing country like

pakistan, it is an eneormus burden on the scarces national resources.


T'
59

Keeping in mind the utmost importance of the over loading problem, it is

tried in this survey to depict the true picture of distribution of axle loads

among the all axles weighed

6. g. 1 Bear Axle Load Spectra The damaging effect of front axle loads on the

road pavement structure is not significant. Therefore' rear axles of all the

trucks according to diserete axle eonfiguration were analysed and results are

provided in table 6. 9. 1 at statistical appendix. Following table shows the

spectrum of rear axle loads by taking all axles together'

REAR AXLE LOADS SPBCTRA FOR ALL AXLE CONFIGURATION

RANGE FRBQ. PERCENT CUM % 9OABOVE


(tonnes) RANGE VALUE

0 - 8.16 623 1 1. 8 2 1 1. 8 2 88.18

8.16 - 9.99 936 L4.57 26.39 7 3. 6 1

1 0 . 0 0- 1 0 . 9 9 830 72.92 39.32 60.69

1 1. 0 0 - 1 1. 9 9 1 11 5 17.36 56.68 43.33

1 2 . 0 0- 1 2 . 9 9 1007 15.68. 72.36 2 7. 6 5

1 3 . 0 0- 1 3 . 9 9 781 12.16 84.52 1 5. 4 9

1 4 . 0 0- 1 4 . 9 9 418 6.51 9 1. 0 3 8.98

1 5 . 0 0- 1 9 . 9 9 550 8.56 99.60 o.42


20.00 & above 28 0.40 100 0.00

It is evident from the above table that ?3.31%of rear axle loads exceed 10

tonnes and 43.33eoeXceed 12 tonnes while only 27.33escxcceil the 13 tonnes

value.

Table 6. g. 1 depicts cumulative percentages for 2-Axle configuration for

each station, alongwith average values standard deviation and maximum and

minimum values. Karachi-Thatta section has the maximumpercentages of 83.33

and 54.77 rear axles exceeding 72 tonnes and L3 tonnes axle load
'f-
60

respectively. Haripur-Abbottabad section has percentages of only 14.29 and

2.?b exceeding 12 tonnes and 13 tonnes axle load respectively. While on

exceed.12 tonnes value while 5,6%exceed 13 tonnes


Okara-Lahore section, 15eo

-f- axle load. It can be deduced from the table 6.9. 1 that on the average 40%of

rear axles exceed,12 tonnes while 23%exceed 13 tonnes axle load value.
In the 3-Axle (Single) configuration 64%of rear axles exceed 12 tonnes

and 41% exceed. 13 tonnes axle load.While for 3-Ax1e rear tandem which

constitute 20%of truck populationrit can be seen from table 6.8.6 that these

trucks are heavily ladenrconsequently 58%of rear axles exceed 12 tonnnes

axle load while 41%exceed 13 tonnes axle load. It can be observed from table

6. g. 3 that at Karachi-Gaddani section only 1?%rear axles are below 13 tonnes

axle load, but their numbers are relatively very small as compared to 2-Axle

trucks on that section. In case of 4-Axle (rear tandem) trucks anound 52%

rearl axles exceed 12 tonnes while 32%of rear2 and rear3 exceed 13 tonnes

axle load value. Similarly for 6-Axle trucks which form a very small

pereentage of trucks, 30%of rear1, tear? and rear3 axles exceed 12 tonnes

+* axle load, while the percentage for rear4 and rearS axles exceeding 12 tonnes

value was found as 38 and 32 respectively. For 13 tonnes axle load the

concuruent rear axles percentages were determined as 14t L4t 22r 3? and 32
I It was found that rear axles of
respectively for the 6-Axle trucks.

trucks capying basic manufacture, bulk manufacture and food items exceed

12 tonnes and L3 tonnes values by a wide margin'

6.10 Tyre Pressure Measurements

For economic reasons, the trucks are mostly overloaded ' To offset the

effect of overloading, tyres are over-inflated far in excess of their normal

pressure capacitY.

f
6l

The measurements of tyre pressure was not included in the scope of the

study. Keeping in view the importance, of this factor' tyre pressures were

measured during second round of the survey from station No.16 (Wazirabad-

Gujrat) and onward. Following table shows average values of the tyre
a-
pressure on front and rear axles of the differeni axle configurations, while

Tables 6. 10. 1 to 6. 10.7 placed at statidtical appendix provide the average tyre

ptrssures station wise, alongwith maximum an{ minimum values.

Average Tyre Pressure

]ODE FRONT REARl REAR2 REAR3 IEAR4 REAR5


DESCRIPTION

2-AxIe L.2 109.08 t27 .67

l-AxIe L.2-2 1r.5.40 t38.90 138.97


( Sinqle)

3-AxIe L.22 L24.66 L37.77 137.9L


(R. Tandem)

l-AxIe t.2+2.2 117.50 L46.2s L46.75 t45.94


(sinqle)
1.2-22 118.06 137.36 1 3 7. 3 6 137.36
l-Axle
{ R. Tandem)
1 3 3 .3 3 L32.92
+- 6-Axle.._
( t. rriandem)
L.22+
222
L29.!7 L 3 2 . 3 3 1 3 3 .0 6 t32.9L

100%of the
However, it was noticed from the measurements that almost
as high
tyres are inflated in excess of their rated capacities. Tyre pressures

as 160 psi was recorded during this survey'


62

SII:AI\TDAR.D A><I-F S
7 E(>TJIVAI,ENT

+-- ?. 1 General DescriPtion


standard axle load
Traffic is considered in terms of equivalent

repetitions in the design of pavement. when an axle passes over a point on

point are stressed and' strained '


the pavernent, the layers underneath that
period, but some strain remains
Most of the strain is recovered over a short
over time resulting in
unrecovered. This residual strain accumulates

deterioration of the pavement structure. Many design techniques limit the

d'eformation occurs when


critical strains below allowable levels but excessive
due to heavy load passes '
the pavement layers are continuously overstressed

T.2AverageEqrrivalentStandardAxles(EquivalenceFactors)
pavement by the passage
The standard Axle is the damage caused to a
pavement by different
of an axle loaded to 8165 kg. The damage caused to the
{" are"summed up for tn-e
axles is eonverted into equivalent standard loads and

design life of the pavement. For this study, two approaches have been

adopted. to convert axle loads into equivalent standard axles ' These are

which we may call


described in para 2.8 of the Chapt er'2, The first approach
law. The second is based
RN31 (U . K . ) approach is based on the 4 .sth power
Design Guide, 86' A
on the equivalance factors given in the AASHTO
index (Pt) 2'5 was
structural value (sN) of 5.0 and a terminal serviceability
Guide '
assumed for determining equivelance factors from AASHTO
at all the
7,2.t As Per. RN31, UK. Average equivalent standard axle factors

were calculated in accordance with the discrete axle


30 stations

configurations. The table given below provides average ESA values for each
OJ

per RN31, UK approach'


axle configuration among the 30 stations as

AVERAGE ESATSFON TI{B DISCRBTE AXLE CONFIGURATIONS


FORALL sTATroNs (48-EEB BN! 1 . U K -"--
CODE ]ODIC ]ODE loDE COD.E ]ODE
' T STATION
Ial L.2 L.2-2 L.22 L . 2 + 2 . 2 1 , . 2 - 2 2L . 2 2 + 2 2 2
<ENECHT-CADDANI 2 3 . 5 ' 9 z 3, 3 - 1 1 6 . 5 4 9. 13 b. r5
(ARACHI-HYDERABAD 6.94 25.13 22.O5 16.49 25. 53
5. 15 22.29 9.61 L4.74 8.27
KARACHI-THATTA
s. B0 r.0.49 11.18 L2.83 1 5 . 5 5 4.5s
TTVNSRAEEO-LARKANA
5 JAKRAND_KANDIARO 5.49 36. 08 24.79 28'.79 20.97 28.42
8.66 25.10 28.90 11. 68
CHAIRPUR_ROHRI
reccogeesAD-srBBr 7. 58 9. Os 7 .43
s.81 1 3 .L 3 18. 13 1L.48 19.84
3 R. Y. KHAN.SADIQABAD
7 .3L L4.45 15.08 25.38 ].4.39
) ttan'II eOr - BHAWALPtlB
1 0.86 8.03 20.24 9 .49
t o $ULTAN_D. G. KITAN
. G. KHAN s . 1 1 1 5.42 14.44
L 1 resrneoRn-.D
4 . 3 3 t o . i.3 25.81
L2 T A U N S A - D . G . K H A N
5.'73 20. l-3 11.87 29.54 36.46
L 3 SAHTWAL-MULTAN
L Jr(ASIA-LAHOII.E 3.32 L O .5 5 1o.24
Itr 5. 0 4 2L.54 25.59 39. 63
LAHORE-GUJRA$IWALA
5 . O OL 7 . 9 1 27.10 69.84
1 5 ,{AZIRABAD-GUJRAT
L 7 3UJRAT-JEHLUM 5 . t 2 L 2 , 7 8 L 7.41
6 . 2 7 2 6 . 1 4 3 4.37 44,22 76.68
t 8 ]EHLUM-RAWALPINDI
t 9 rawar,prnpr-CHABLAT 4 . . 8 9 9 . 5 9 1 1 .91' 3L.s2' b i. -LU

z0 TESSANESOAL-HARIP'UN 4 . 4 7 5 . L 9 1 5 .5 5
2 t ]ARIPUR:ABBOTTABAD 3 . 9 8 L 6 . 2 3 t 9 . 3 1
22 [aBotresAD-MANSEHRA 4.92
5. O5 11.86 2t;49 9.13
2 3 iHear.et-HowsHERA
z 4 sowsgnne-PESHAWAR 5 . 8 2 L4.66
6 . 5 J . 1 3 . 0 5 23.76 L5. 14
a) PESHAWAR'TOURKHAM L
4 . 7 3 1 0 . 8 8 13.90 9.t4
26 PESHAWAR.KOHAT
7.33 15.22 L6.26 8.24
2 7 BANNU-D. I . KHAN
2 8 FORTMINRO-Q. S. ULLAH 5 . 7 9
2 9 )UETTA-CHAI.4MAN 4.20 6.94
- 6. 94 1 9. 65 11.50
i o )UETTA-NOWSHKL'"
\VERAGE. ESAI S 16.49 L6"62 t 8 . 4 8 19.00 17.30 27.95
3.50 7.80 8.32 tL.4A 7 .67 22.4L
S T .D E V I A T I O N
UARIANCE L2.26 30.88 59.16 130.41 s8.85 i20. 51
1 3 .s 9 3 6 . 0 8 4 6 . 5 4 44.22 29.54 76.64
4AX. VALUE
,TIIq.VALUE 3 . 3 2 tr 1cl 6 . 9 4 7 .43 6. TU 4. 55

It is clear from the above table that the value of average ESA/truck

for different axle configurations of truck ranges from 6'49 for 2-Axle truck
for
to 27 ,96 for 6-Axle tandem tridem truek. The highest value of average ESA
value of
2-Axle truckwas 23.59 at Karachi-Gaddani section, while the lowest

average ESA for 2-Axle truek was 3 .32 at Okara-Lahore section'

For 3-Axle(Single) truck, the highest value of average ESA was found
-T:
64

as 36.08 at Sakrand-Kandiaro section, while the lowest value of average ESA


-
for 3-axle(single) truck was 5.19 at Hassanabdal-Haripur sectjlon' The

highest value of average ESA for 3-Axle rear tan{em truck is equal to 46.54

-+' and was calculated for Karachi-Gaddani section. While the lowest value of

average ESA for the same tYPe of' truck was 6.94 at Quetta-Chamman section '

The highest value of average ESA for 4-Axle Single truck equals to 44.22 and'

was found at Jhelum-Rawalpindi section, while the lowest value of average ESA

for 4-Axle single truck was ?.43 at Jaccobabad-Sibbi section. Similarly the

highest value of ESA for 4-Axle rear tandem truck was determined as 29.58 for

Sahiwal-Multan section, while the lowest value of average ESA was 6.10 at

Rawalpindi-Chablat section. For the 6-Axle tandem tridem truck the highest

average ESA value is egual to ?.6.68 and was found at'Gujrat-Wazirabad

section, while the lowest value of average ESA was 4.55 at Hyderabad-Larkana

section. Tables 7.2-A to 7.2-H, placed at statistical appendix provide the

average equivalent standard axle values for discrete axle configurations.

T,Z,Z pilsgtisnel Distribtrtion of ESArs as per RN31, UK. Equivalent Standard

Axle values for descrete axle configuration were also calculated by direction

wise for all 30 stations. Tables 7.2-a to 7.Z'li- placed at Statistical Appendix

provide the direction-wise values of these factors. It is observed from these

tables that the value of ESAts far 2-Axle truck at Karachi-Gaddani section is

11,49 while its value is 32.77 at Gaddani-Karachi section. SimillrlV, a big

difference between the values is observed for this particular type of trucks,

at Multein-D,G.Khan ESAts value is 2.95 as comparedto 16.04 for D.G.Khan-

Multan section. For 3-Axle Rear Tandem Truck, the value of ESA's for

Karachi-Hyderabad Section was 35 58 as compared to 9.16 for Hyderabad-

Karachi Section. Similarly, a'difference of ESAts values in eaeh direction was

observed at Karachi-Gaddani, Karachi-Thatta, Khai:rpur'Rohri and'N€ttki-


-rao--:
TABLE- A

Monda Tuesda
Thursda
1. o.s,€94 Saiurd
1.A204 1.0037 1,joza 0.9503 1.0047
) 1 . 04
i 1 1.026
t
1.0353. 1.0526 'n o,.r
1.02 .0.s752
3 1.0074 o:9911
1. 0 0 3 6 1.0011 1.002Q 0.954
4 1,a142 1.A2.02
1,0125 1. 0 1 8 9 1,0142 0.9883 0.9679
q
1, 0 2 9 3
0.9s11 1.009
0.9s67 0.9883 0,,9e74. O.9BB
A 0.976€ 1.0252
1.cr1B1 0.e6Bq 0.9703 0 , s 74 4 1.002s 0,96S5
7 1.0142 1.1109
0,s724 0.9604 0.9832 1,00e7
B 0.939 1,t 465
1, 0 1 3 6 0.9869 0.9966 0.9861 0,9678 1.0228
I 1.0041, 1.0289
0,9794 0.9693
'10 0.9842 0.9787 1.0579 1.0327
L0068 1. 0 1 3 9 1. 0 0 1 4 0.9503
11 1.07e 0 .g B 3
1. 0 1 3 5 U.YJo1
0.9903 0.969 0.9756 0.9903
11. 1, 0 0 8 7 1. a 71 1
0,9865 0.s958 n o0A4
4 5' '1 0,984 1.0423 0 . 9S8 9
IJ .0097 0 , 9 7 6 5: 1.032.1 0.9881 0.9989 0.9962 1. 0 0 0 1
14 0,9956 0.s676 0.9822 0.9999 1.0042 1.0268 t .uzuo
tc i . 0 0 9 8' 0.998.6 ' 1. 0 1 0 1
0.9806 0.989 1.0005
to 1. 0 1 3 1.012
0.9859 1.0054 0,9951 0.9B4B 0,9739.
ll 0.9912 n oArl
1.0447'
0,9901 0.9929 n oq,it
1B 1.0801 1 . 0 fi 7
1,0389. 1.0012 1. 0 0 8 9 0.9626 0,s655
1q
0.9s84 1,0288
1. 0 1 0 3 0.9722
'1.0+47
U:5QOO 0,9615 0,9s95 t.oa:o
2A 1,0347
1,Qoos 0.9162 1. 0 1 9 0,sB
71 o qaoA
1,0375
Average L0126' 0 Q Q 9 , .s

1.0318
ReferTable:B-7.9.2
page4T,Traffic
FactorforPakistan
-ll,published
by NTRCin 19S0
TAtsLH- B
C O . E F F I C E N TO
SF
JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV r DEC
JAN FEB MARCH APRTI- MAY JUNE
'1,007 1.068' N. ORA 0'.961 0.944 a.%2
I fr4"E
1.098 1,.028 1..044
1 0._949. 0:968. l.v t J

1. 0 1 9 n oon 0.975 0.906


1-025 1.152 0"899 1,-038 1.077 1_03€
z 0.929
- 0_988 0.998 0.972 0.975 o.982
n qa7 1.011 1,045 1"00v 1_009 1.024
o"gg2
'1.021. 0.995 a,952 a.3zz 1_035 1.01
A o.997 l..uJ l. 1.A73 1.034 0.976
n 02? '1.00s 1.O28 1.007
1.007 1.452 1.061 n a7? 0.s72 0.975
5 0.988
0.901 n o??. 1.A27 1,076 1.048
1.010 1.037 1_048 0.975 0_954 0.954
a 1.A37
o.920' 0"926 1.014 1.056 1.041
,.7
1.0+6- ''0.974 1.0s0 0:986' 1.425', f .0'1'6
J 1..026,!
1.009 4 .127
,r .n4A 0.980 0.941 0.988 0.s76 0.958
1.O41 1.O42 1 . 0 i0 0.965
n a1.7 0.946 "i n4? 1"016 1.089 1.048 1.00s 0.947
0.981 0.956 0.981 1.034
'0.-745 n -7ttr, a.745 0.745 0.745 0.745
o.745 0.745 u-/ 45 a"745
ln a.74s 0.745
0.945 1.098 1.012 |,vzJ 0.865
0.871 0.s46 1.096 n o?1 1"102 1"204
11 0.908
'1.009 1_0'18 1.01'1 0.984
0.982 1.A44 1.024 1.000 1.022
12 o.s77 0.978
'1.006 1. 0 1 0 n ooc 0.973
" ++,. 0.942 1.040 1.038 1.005
IJ 0'.w7 0:s8'0 1.008 1.047
4 AEQ i n?? 0-944 0.976 1.031 1. 0 1 9 0.988
4A n oqQ o.eb3 0.926 1.003 I.UJZ,

n af,q n ooq 0.s97 U.YYZ


'15 1.030 n aRl 1_AA7 1.00s 0.997
n oQq 1.000 1.006
-1.033 '1.000 1.A45
0.982 0.900 n o^q n oo? 1,000
lo 1.078 1.053 1.010 1.036
4 n7o,
0.847 0.900 1.044.. c.991
1.080 1.O44 1.061 0:990 0.972 A.BB7
tl 1.004
1.090 a.92e a.877 0_897
1.207 i.144 n oqq 0.916 1_146 l-Iz3
49 1_117
0.946 U.J,LJ
n aA7 1_047 1-076
;;'^ n oq1 0.972 n oq? 1 n40 0.909 1" 1 0 1 0.986
n ooo 0.968 0.g77 0.988 0.s92 0.976
0.981 n oo1 n oAn 1.054 0.988 1.007
20
0.900,,, 0.980 0.990 0.990 0.s80
0-993 n qqq. 1.03? 0"945 0"990 1.000
Average 0.984

- l l , P u b l i s h e db y ' N T R C i n 1 9 9 0
R e f e r T a b l e : 8 . 2F a g e 5 1 , T r a f f i cF a c t o r sf o r P a k i s t a n
euetta Section. For 4-Axle Rcar Tandem truck, the major differerrce of ESArs

value lvas observed at Khairpur-Roliri, Karachi-I{yderabad, Lahore-

Gujranwala and Multan-Sahiwal sections.

-lt
7.2.5 As per AASIITO Design Guide 86. Average equivalent standard axle at

all the 30 stations were calculated in accordance with the discrete axle

configurations based on AASHTO Design Guide 86. The table given below

provides average ESA values for each axle configuration among 30 stations.

rI-HE DISCREI'E AXLE CONFIGURATIONS


AVERAGE ESA'S FOR
FOR ALL STATIONS (AS PER AASHI'O)
)l STATION CODE CODE SODE ]ODE :OD E coD
)lo L. Z !. z-z r. zz L.2+2.2 L.2-22 I. ZZ-f ZZZ

1 KARACHI-GADDANI 3.09 16.40 au.2t 7 .87 4. 50


4 .94 LL.ZZ ooa I2 5Z 13.70
KARACHI-HYDERABAD
5 KARACHI_THATTA t0. 55 t. to B. 84 6 .57
, HYDE}tABAD-LARKANA 4. 60 8.49 5. 66 9. 09 9.28 3.25
) SAKRAND_KANDTARO 4 .I7 23.9L 11.37 10 c? r_0.96 11. 84
) KHAIRPUR_ROHRl s.90 :[1.44 1s.69 5. B1
JACCOBBABAD_SIBBI 4.25 4. 8s B. 57
R. Y. KHAN-SADIQABAD 4 . 3 7 6.31_ 10.4s 7.24 1_0.37
CHANTGOT-BHAWALPUR 5.22 rl-. _tu 7 .34 14.5J 6.7s
t o 'IULTAN_D.G. KHAN 7 ,37 4.55 1 2. 0 1 5.10
l 1 KASHMORE-D . G. KHAN 3 .84 7.s8 9 .49
L 2 TAUNSA_D. G. KHAN 3.33 a. zo 14.93
1? SAHIWAL-MULTAN 4.26 9. 55 9.30 L6.2t 17.99
L.t )T.ARA-LAHORE 2 .65 5 .42 6.75
! 1 5 LAHORE-GUJRANWALA 3 . B 6 L O.24 13.86 L6 13
16 tJAZ IRABAD-GUJRAT 3 . B 7 J . 2 . 2 4 2 2. 4 r 16.61
UJRAT_JEHLUM A 1n
10. 13 a ?o
1 8 ]EHLUM-RAWALPINDI 4. 5B 16. 53 1_4.98 23.09 22.45
2L.94 / 5.20
l e RAWAIPINDI-CIIABLAT 3 ; 7 2 7 . 2 4 6 . 2 4
2 0 iIASSANABDAL_HARIPUR J.5T 4 .64 7 .90
ZL HARIPUR-ABBOTTABAD J . Z I 1 3 . 0 1 9 . 6 0
a z ABBOTTAB;U)-MANSEHRA 3.82
2 3 ]HABLAT-NOWSHERA 4 . 4 5 8 . 8 8 1 . 0 .3 3 8.7 4
r4 TIOVISHERA-PESTIAWAR 4 , 4 2
2 5 PESHAWAR-TOURKHAM q . > . t , : r . t ' J 1 1 . 3 0 6,21
2 6 PESHAWAR_KOHAT 3.66 7 .40 6.96 1 L .s o
27 3 A N N U _ D . I . K H A N 4 .57 1]-.24 B.28 5. 60
2 8 rORT}TINRO_Q. S . ULLAH 4 , 3 2
2 9 JUETTA-CHAI'TMAN 3.27 3. 99
l o )UETTA-NOWSHKI 4 ,97 9. 16 7 .66
\YERAGE ESA'S 4.67 11.49 B. 84 L2.99 10.35 10.84
ST. DEVIATION l _ . 8 1 .t . D.] 3.42 3 .62 5.60

TARIANCE 0. o2 20.54 IJ-.OO 33.36 13.10 34.31


ilAX. VA],UE LJ.uv 23.9t 22.4r 2J.VY t6.2r 22.45
'1IN. VALUE 2 .55 4.64 3.99 7.76 4. 50 3.25

T-
'
I, is clear from the above table that the value of average ESAi truck

for different axle configurations of truck ranges from 4.67 for" two axle truck

to 10.84 for six axle tandem tridem truck. The highest value of average ESA

for 2-Axle truck was 13.09 at Karachi-Gaddani section, while the lowest value
1,
of average ESA for 2-Axte truck was 2.65 at Okara-Lahore section.

For 3-Axle Single truck, the highest value of avenage ESA was found

as 23.91 at Sakrand-Kandiaro section, while the lowest value of average ESA

for 3-axle(single) truek was 4.64 at Hassanabdal-Haripur section. The

highest value of average ESA for 3-Axle rear tandem truck is equal to 2A.27

and was cal6ulated for Karachi-Gaddani section. While the lowest value of

average ESA for the same type of truck was 3.99 at Quetta-Chamman section.

The highest value of average ESA for 4-Ax1e(Sing le) truck equals to 23.09

and was found at Jhelum-Rawalpindi seetion, while the lowest value of average

ESA for'4-Axle (single) truck was ?.76 at Jaccobabad-Sibbi section. Sinrilarly

the highest value of ESA for 4-Axle rear tandem truck was detemined as 16.27

for Sahiwal-Multan section, while the lowest value of average ESA was 4 .50 at

Karachi-Gaddani section. For the 6-Axle tandem tridem truck the highest

average ESA value is equaL to 22.45 and was found at Gujrat-lt/azirabad

section, while the lowest value of average ESA was 3 ,25 at Hyderabad-Larkana

section. Tables ?.3-A to 7.3-H, placed at statistical appendix provide'the

average equivalent standard axle .values for discrete axle configurations,

mentioning the minimum and maximum, standard deviation and variance values

for the 30 stations, alopg .with the distribution of average equivalent axle

values for front and rear axles

I .2.4 Directional Distribution of ESArs as per AASHTO.Equivalent Standard

Axle valires for all descrite axle configurations were calculated based on

directional split as per .AASHTO Design Guide, 1986and are placed at Tables
-T
?.3-a to ?.3-h of Statistical Appendix. It is observed from the table that 2'

Axle Single truck has a ESAts value of 7.58 for Karachi-Gaddani as compared

-+ to 12.36 for Gaddani-Karachi section. Similarly, the ESA's value is 2.47 for

Multan-D . G. Khan section as comparedto 10. 60 for D. G . Khan-Multan section.

In B-Axle Rear Tandem type truck, the major differce of ESA's value was

observed at Karaehi-Gaddani section, Karachi-Hyderabad section, Sakrand'

Kandiaro section and Noshki-Quetta section

?.3 Average ESA per Truck in terms of Make

Average values of ESArs per truck in terms of make were calculated by

adopting both approaches i. e. RN31, UK & AASHTO, 86 for all the 30 stations.

?.3.1 As per RN31, UK. Average Equivalent Standard Axle values for

diserete axle configuration of trucks according to make based on RN31' UK

is described in the following table.

AVERAGE ESAS FOR EACH AXLE CONFIGURATIONS BY MAKE


AS PER RN31. UK.
5.L DESCRI- ]ONF. CODI 3EDFORD ] I N O \IISSAN TSU:ZUIERCEDESE OTHERS
t )IO PTION

1 2-Axle L.2 4.96 11. 10 12.96 L 4. 5 7 o. 39

2 3-AxIe .2-2 18. 02 14.74 10.34 L6.29


single

5 l-Axle .zz 1 4 . O O 1 6 . 5 5 1 8 .1 3 1 1, 7 4 23.83


landem

4-AxIe I.2+2.2 2 4 . 0 0 1 3 .s 5 12.28


SinqIe

) 4-Axle Mid t.22-2


Tandem

5 t-Axle L.2-22 28.72 t6. 10 15.69 9.50


lear
fandem
7 5-Axle 1.22-22
Iandern
3 5-Axle T. t.22+ 43.96 2 2. 4 2
tridem 222
)tbers
-t
It can be seen from the above table that Bedford make was mainly

observed in 2-Axle & 3-Axle configurations, with average equivalent standard

axles values of 4 . g6 and 14. 00 . The Hino make was chiefly observed in 2-Axle,

+- 3-Axle single, 3-Axle tandem and 4-Axle rear tandem axle configurations with

average equivalent stahdard values of 11. 10, 18.02, 16.55 and'' 28.72

respectively. The make Nissan was mainly observed.in 2-Axles , 3-Axle single,

3-Axle tand.em, 4-Axle single configurations with thb average eqtrivalent

standard axle values of 12.96, 14.?8, 18.13 and 24.00respectively' Similarly

the make Isuzu was observed in 2-Axle,3-Axle single, 3-Axle tandem, 4-.dxle
-Axfe tandem axle configurations, with the average
single and . rear
equivalent standard axles values of 14.5?, 10.34, Lt.74, 3.55 and 16'10

respectively.

7 .g.2 As per AASHTO Design Guide 86: Average Equivalent Standard AxIe

values for discrete axle configuration of trucks according to make and based

on AASHTO guide is described in the following table '


F
AVERAGB ESAS FOR EACH AXLE CONFIGURATIONS BY MAKE
AS PER AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE 86

SL DESCRIPTION CONF. BEDFORDTINO N I S S A $ I S U Z U TIERCEDES )TTIER


)IO CODE

2-Axle L.2 3.r2 s. 49 7 .36 5. 58 0.39

3-Axle Single L. Z-Z o. rz 9.84 8. 54 1l-. 15

3 3-Axle Tandem 7,22 s. 99 6.83 6. 83 4.53 9.40

l-AxLe Sinqle t.2+2 .2 9.12 L2.36 8.77 19. 07

4-Axle Mid Tandem t.22-2


) 4-Axle Rear Tandem L . 2 - 2 2 L O .3 4 7. 83 9. L3 b. r5

S-Axle Tandern L.ZZ-ZZ

5 5-Ax1e T.Tridem .22+22i L3.44 10.90

t )thers

-*-.-
69

It can be seen from the above table that Bedford make was mainly

observed in 2-Axle & 3-Axle configurations, with average equivalent standard

+ axle values of 3.12 and 5.99. The Hino make was chiefly observed in 2-Axle,

3-Axle (single), 3-Axle (tandem) and 4-Axle (rear tandem) axle

configUrations with average equiValent standard values of 5.49 , 6'12, 6'83,


g . 12and 10. 34 respectively. The makeNissan was mainly observed in 2-Axles,

3-Axle (single), 3-Ax1e (tandem), 4-Axle (single) configurations with the

average equivalent standard axle values of ?.36,9.84,6.83 and 12'36

respectively. Similarly the make Isuzu was observed in 2-Axle, 3-Axle

(single), 3-Ax1e (tandem), 4-Axle (single) and 4-Ax1e (rear tandem) axle

configurations, with the average equivalent standard axles values of 5.58'

8,54, 4.53 , 8. ?? and 7.83 resrrectively. The other commonlyobserved make is

the Mercedeswhich was observed in the 3-Axle (single), 3-Axle (tandem), 4=

Axle (single), 4-Ax1e (rear tandem) and 6-Axle (tandem triandem) axle

,configurations, with the average equivalent standard axle values of 11.15,

9 . 4 0 , 1 9 . 0 ? , 9 . 1 3 a n d 1 3 . 4 4r e s p e c t i v e l y

7 .4 AVERAGE EQUMLENT STANDARD AXLE BASED ON COMMODITIES

Average Equivalent Standard Axle values for all discrete axle

configurations, by applying both the approacr'es, based on commodities were

calculated

7 .4,t As per RN3i, UK. Average equivalent standard axle values for discrete

axle configurations of trucks is described on the basis of commodities camied

by the vehicle and is shown in the following table. The commodities are

mentioned by their code numbers. The code list is provided at annexure 6-D.
1.--
70

AVERAGE ESA FOR EACH AXLE CONFIGURATION BASED ON COMMODITIES


(AS PBR RN31, UK)

'L )ESCRI- ]ODE CODE ]ODE COJJ$ :ODE ]ODE toDl: ]ODE ]ODE laD!;
{o PTION 100 200 300 100 too 500 700 300 ) oo
-Axle L.2 5. 02 z.otl 1. 4C 2.04 5. b{ 9.97 1. B7 z.zL 2.O7
!l"-
l-Axle . 2 - 1 5 . l . E1 4 . 5 1 t 9 . 3 8 1 5 . 1 5 1 _ O . 9 52 0 . 4 5 t 3 . 3 2
Sinqle
]-Axle .22 3.95 3.52 2.39 3. 6L 4.L2 4.09 3.20 4.20 3.55
Pandem
L l-AxIe L. ZZ 12.9 J 22.30 [5. 93 15.70 2s.42
iinqle -2
l-Axle t.22 t5.39 25.02 2 5 . 7 3 2 3 .3 3 t 5 . 4 2 zo.9s L7.64
lear -22
fandem
3-AxIe L.22 L2.t t1. o3 24.45 8.77
r. Tridem t
222

The above table clearly shows that the agriculture items are (code 100)

transported by all discrete axle configurations of trucks. The average

equivalent axle values for trucks transporting agricluture items range from

3.95 for 3-Axle (single) to 42.12 for 6-Axle (tandem tridem) trucks.

The food items (code 200) are nearly transported by all axle

configrlrations of trucks with average equivalent standard values of 2.04 for

2-Axle truck and 25.02 for 4-Axle rear tandem.


F
The dther commonly observed commodity transported by all types of

trueks is the bulk manufacture item which covers the item like cement,

fertilizer, ehemieals etc. The average equivalent standard axle values for the

truck canying commodities of bulk manufacture is 4.12 for 3-Axle tandem

truck and 24.45 for 6-Axle tandem tridem trucks

Fuel and lubricants (code 900) item covers the commodities like petrol,

kerosine oil, furnance oil, bitumen etc. Trucks caruying these commodities

were observed in nearly all discrete axle configurations. The average

equivalent standard values for the trucks canying fuel and lubricant item is

.0? for 2-Ax1e trucks and 25.42for -Axle single

t
7,1

7.4.2 As per AASHTO Design Guide 86: Average equivalent standard axle

values for discr.ete axle configurations of trucks is described on the basis of

commod.ities capied by the vehicle and is shown in the following table. The
F'

commodities are mentioned by their code numbers. The code list is provided

at annexure 6-D.

AVERAGE ESA FOR EACH AXLE CONFIGURATION BASED ON COMMODITIES


(AS PEN AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE 86)

it )ESCRI- ]ODE loDs ]ODE CODE ]ODE ]ODE ]ODE CODE ]ODE ]ODE
Io rTION too 200 300 loo r oo ioo 700 too ) oo
-AxIe t.2 5. O: 4.24 (J. bt 4.ra 3.L2 J. LZ 5. 58 4.24
l-Axle L.2-
3inqle 2
3-Axle L.22 8.02 5.99 0.9: 5.99 ).02 9.02 LO.22 5.22
tandem
t 4-Ax1e L.2+ 7.75 13.9s 9. 18 7.48 t8.28
SinqIe 2.2
) l-Axre L.2 8. 35 t1.02 [3.80 t2.00 6. bu 7.20 9.70
lear z2
Pandem
t 5-AxIe t;22 14. rv s.82 L O .1 0
t.Tridem +
222

The above table clearly shows that the agriculture items are (code 100)

transported by all discrete axle configurations of trucks. The average

icluture items range fnom

2.10 for -Axle single to 14.19 for 6-Axle tandem tridem trueks.

The food items (code 200) are nearly transported by all axle

configurations of trucks with average equivalent standard values of 4.28 for

2-Axle truck and 11.02 for 4-Axle rear tandem.

The other commonly obsenved commodity transported by all tytrles of

trucks is the bulk manufacture item which covers the item like cement,

fertilizer, chemicals etc. The average equivalent standard axle values for the

truck caruying commodities of bulk manufacture is 3.12 for 2-Axle truck and

-f'. 12.00 for 4-Axle tandem trucks.


lz

Fuel and lubricants (code 900) item covers the commodities like petrol,

kerosine oil, furnace oil, bitumen etc. Trucks carrying these commoditiee

-f were observed in nearly all discrete axle configUrations ' The average
item is
equivalent standard values for the trucks carrying fuel and lubricant

4.28 fo,r 2-Axle trucks and 9.70 for 4-Axle rear tendam trucks .

}-

*
73

8. CONCLUSIONS

pakistan like most other developing countries is facing with the dilemma

+- of vehicle'overloading. The vehicle loads plying on the roads are mueh heavier

than the strength of road infrastructure of the country. Most of the existing

road infrastructure was built 30-40 years ago, when there was no anticipation

of the heavier loads of today as the econmic activity was low & transportation
has
by trucks was small as compared to railways. But today, the situation
shifted
entirely changed and goods transportation by railways has been mostly

to road, in rail : road modal split for freight traffic to 14 : 86 '


"*"rrlring

fleet
The reason for the heavier axle loads on our roads is not only that
radically
of new and more capaeious trucks have been introduced which has

altered the axle load distribution in the country, but also mainly attributed

to the overloading tendency of the trucks. In order to compete and keep


the truck
themselves in the market by keeping the haulage cost at minimum,
\
beyond their
l- owrers have the tendency of vehicle loading to the extent much

rated capacity. To caruy the extra payloads, the truck owrlers strengthen
strong and
the body of the trucks by adding extra springs, making the body

increasing the height of the truck body.


1--
J. L. Hine of TRL in his study on

rfpakistan Road Freight Industry" has eoneluded thdt truck industry in

pakistan is more efficient as compared to many other developing countries '

Though the haulage cost is reduced by overloading, which results in

of the
the economicbenifit to the country, but it causes the premature failure

road pavements. This results in loss of billion of rupees invested in road

infrastructure.
T
74

with to
The question now arises is that what options we have been left
problem has
resolve this dilemma. In most of the developed countries, the
having strict
been solved by imposing axle load limit in the country and
either
+- enforcement. But unfortunately in most of the developing countries,
it is vague or not
there doestt exist any legislation or in case even if it exists,

followed. In Pakistan, the situation is not different from other developing


the
countries. In the absence of legal axle load limit in the country,
the extent that
commercial vehicles are mostly loaded by the truck owners to

a truck normally carries over twice its rated payload '

To resolve the situation we are left with two options:

in the country and instead


i) Not to impose any legal load limit

rr road infrastructure to withstand heavier loads '

some quarters in the gountry are of the view that it is economically


in the country'
better to build stronger roads than to impose axle load limit
rrEconomicImplications of vehicle overloading
A. Majeed in his report
than
(NTRC-?l , 1983)tfhas concluded that it is better to strengthen our roads
of higher loads
to restrict loads, as within the observed load ranges, benefits
of
continue to increase upto the limits penmitted by technical characteristics

vehicles.

ii) Impose axle load limit in the country and excercise strict enforcement.
infrastructure
This seems to be the only viable solution for saving our road
due to unabated overloading
!--
and bringing
-i-^ -
it at par
from the deterioration

with international standards. Most of the highway engineers believe that


pavements are
unless a limit of axle load is imposed, no matter how strong
-F
75

(1981) of TRL
built, would fail under the prevailing heavy loads. J. ROLT

has examined the implications of vehicle overloading on overall transport


the
costs and concluded that vehicle over,loading is seriously handicapping

+ improvement of road network in many developing countries.

NTRCisoftheveiwthatthereshouldbealegalload.limitinthe

country in order to save road infrastructure worth billion of rupees and

improve safety situation on our highways. The question now arises that what
The results of
should be that legal limit? would it be possible to enforce it?
plying on our
NTRC axle load survey has revealed that 43%of rear axle load.s

roads exceed even an axle load value of 12 tonnes' While 27%of them exceed

13 tonnes value. It is proposed that an axle load limit of 12 tonnes be

enforced in the country after detailed study on economie implieations of

nossible ? is a big question. It is unlikely


imposing such a limit. would it beI possible

that the level of enforcement will improve very quickly. But, one thing is

limit in
quite obvious that unless there is a real enforcement of an axle load
)-
the country, road infrastructure in the country is bound to remain in poor

until legislation in this regard is finalised and its


state of affairs.
pavements must be
enforcement is improved to the d.esired'levels, the road
roads
designed so that they can caffy the prevailing loads on our

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89

Annexure 6-D

COMMODITY CODES

CODE DESCRIPTION CODE DESCRIPTIOT.I

1OO AGRICULTURB

110 Wheat 12O PaddY and Rice


130 Maize 140 other Grains and Pulses
150 Sugar Cane 160 Cotton
170 Jute 180 Tobacco
185 Oil Seeds 190 Grass, Fodder, Bhoosa,
Moonj, DrY SPores, Straw
195 Other Agricultural Products

200 FooD

210 Flour and its 22O Vegetables excluding


23O Potatoes and onion 24O Fruit
25O Industrial raw food 260 Vegetable Ghee and refined
(oils) edible oils (Processed)
27O Sugar refined 280 Jaggery (Gur, ShakarrDesikhand)
29O Others

3OO ANIMAL AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

310 Animals 320 Meats' eggl and dairy


products, fish
330 Hides and Skins 340 Whool Raw
L
/ 390 other animal Products

4OO RAW MATERIAL

410 Timber, logs, Bamboos 420 Puop, waste PaPer and


molasses waste cotton
430 Other ores excePt 490 Other raw material
metallic

5OO BULK IIANUFACTURES

b10 Cement 520 Fertilizer


530 Medicine, and Drugs 540 Chemicals
550 Tea, Coffee, etc. 560 Beverage(filled or unfilled)
5?0 Animal Food Oilcake 580 Dried Milk
590 Other Bulk goods

Contd......./
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99

ANIMALS AND ANIMALS PRODUCTS

FRONT REAR TOTAL


( tonnes ) ( tonnes ) ( tonnes )
AVERAGE 4.03 7.52 11.55
ST.DEVIANCE 0.76 2.33 2.90
VARIANCB 0.57 5.44 8.47
MAXIMUM VALUE 6.59 1 5. 4 1 22.0O
MINIMUM VALUE 2.60 3.16 6.37

FUEL AND LUBRICANTS

FRONT REAR TOTAL


( tonnes ) ( tonnes ) (tonnes)
AVERAGE 5.08 11.77 16.85
ST. DEVIATION 1.11 2.35 3.20
VARIANCE 7.22 5.51 LO.24
MAX 8.08 77.70 24.60
MIN 2.29 3.03 5.56

MISCELI"ANBOUS MANUFACTURES
T
FRONT RBAR TOTAL
( tonnes ) ( tonnes ) ( tonnes )
AVERAGE 4.80 10.45 75.26
ST. DEVIATION 1.15 3.04 3.95
VARIANCE 7.32 9.23 1 5. 5 7
MAXIMUM VALUE 8.26 18.05 24.83
MINIMUMVALUE 2.09 2.95 5.27

RAW MATERIALS

FRONT REAR TOTAL


(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)
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\ ST. DEVIATION 1.07 2.28 3.01
VARIANCE 7.74 5.22 9.06
MAXIMUM VALUE 7.91 16.07 22.52
MINIMUM VALUE 2.62 4.1.5 7.13
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Table 7.3-h

BQ. ST. AXLES, 6-AXLE TANDEI.{ TRIANDEI.I (Loaded in each direction)

S . N O STATION rRONT TANDEU fRIANDEI.I TUTAL


l KARACHI-THATTA ).33 2.85 4. 66 7.85
IIIATTA-KARACHI ).43 2.52 2.O3 5. 03
I TYDERABAD-I,ARKANA J. Jb 2.sL 1.91 4-78,
I,ARKANA-IIYDERABAD J. JO o.50 o.a7 L.'tz

5 KATfDIARG-SAKRAND c.36 4.L7 4.20 L2-72


SAKRAND_KANDIARO N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
6 KIIAIRPT'R_ROHRT ). J6 1. JU 8-20 9.94
ROHRI-KTIAIRPI,IR ).25 2.47 3. Os 3 -75
B R. Y. KHAN-SADIQABAI) N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
SADIQABAD-R.Y.KHAN ). 36 3.69 b. JJ to. 37
9 CHT'NIGCI1I-BAI{A'I{ALPI'R ). 19 2-sL 4. Os 6.75
TAHAI{ALPUR-CHUNTGgf N.A. ,N.4. N.A. N.A.
10 IIT'LTAN_D. G. ruIAN J-44 2.93 L-72 5. 10
). G. KTIAN_}ITILTAN N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
l3 [T'LTAN-SNIIWAL c.81 7. A3 9.3s t7.99
SAHII{AL-MT'LTAN N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
15 LAHORE-GIUJRANI{AI.A 0.19 7.40 10.40 LA.29
3U JR,ANT{AI,A-I.AHORE 0.36 7.40 4. 05 t1.81
15 ,IAZIRABAD-GUJRAT 0.81 6.Os 9.75 t5. 61
EUJRAT-WAZIRABAI) N.A. N.A. H.A. N.A.
18 JIIBLT'I{-RAWALPINDI ). 45 10.40 11. 50 22.4s
RAVIALP I ND I - JIIELT'T,I N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
25 PESHA9TAR_$ORKHAM ).36 2-LA 5.39 7.93
FORKIIAI.I-PESHAVIAR N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.