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COURSE: CE 402 (Fluid Mechanics)

Instructor: Engr. Lazo

LECTURE #2: Pressure and its Measurement


I. Fluid Pressure at a Point Gage pressure (Pgage) is the pressure measured
by means of gages above or below the atmospheric level.
Consider a small area in large mass of fluid. If
the fluid is stationary, then the force exerted by the Absolute pressure (Pabs) is the pressure
surrounding fluid on the area will always be perpendicular measured by means of gages above or below the
to the surface. atmospheric level.
If the pressure (kPa) is uniformly distributed over
the area, then he pressure at any point is given by
A vacuum is a space that has all matter removed
from it. It can also be described as a region of space
where the pressure is less than the normal atmospheric
pressure.
II. Pascal’s Law
Pascal’s Law states that the pressure or
intensity of the pressure at any point in the body of liquid
is always equal considering that they have equal heights
from the surface. It also says that the pressure at that
point is transmitted in all directions.

III. Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest


The pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is
obtained by the Hydrostatic Law which states that the
rate of increase of pressure in a vertically downward
direction must be equal to the specific weight of the fluid
at that point.

In this equation, h refers to the pressure head,


forming the equation,

These equations define the other law of Pascal


on “transmission of pressure which states that “the
pressure” acting at any point in a fluid at rest is
transmitted equally and undiminished to any other point in
the fluid.

IV. Absolute, Gage, Atmospheric, and Vacuum Pressures


Atmospheric or barometric pressure (Patm) is
the pressure exerted by the atmosphere on every surface
with which it comes in contact.
COURSE: CE 402 (Fluid Mechanics)
Instructor: Engr. Lazo

LECTURE #2: Pressure and its Measurement


Sample Problems
I. Pascal’s Law
1. A hydraulic press has a ram of 30 cm diameter and a plunger of 4.5 cm diameter. Find the weight lifted by the hydraulic
press when the force applied at the plunger is 500 N. (Ans. 22.222 kN)
II. Pressure Variation of a Fluid
2. If the pressure at a point in the ocean is 60 kPa, what is the pressure 27 m below this point? (332.82 kPa)
3. A pressure gage 6 m above the bottom of the tank containing liquid reads 90 kPa. Another gage height 4m reads 103
kPA. Determine the specific weight of the liquid. (Ans. 6.5 kN/m3)
3. If the pressure 23 m below a liquid is 338.445 kPa, determine its
a. unit weight (Ans. 14.715 kN/m3)
b. density (Ans. 1500 kg/m3)
c. specific gravity (Ans. 1.5)
4. An open tank contains water up to a depth of 2m and above it an oil of s.g. 0.9 for a depth of 1 m. Find the pressure
intensity
a. at the interface of the two liquids (Ans. 0.8829 N/cm2)
b. at the bottom of the tank (Ans. 2.8449 N/cm2)
III. Combination of Pascal’s Law and Pressure Variation of a Fluid
5. The diameters of a small piston and a large piston of a hydraulic jack are 3 cm and 10 cm respectively. A force of 80 N is
applied on the small piston. If the fluid inside the piston is water, find the load lifted by the large piston when:
a. the pistons are at the same level (Ans. 889.96 N)
b. small piston is 40 cm above the large piston (Ans. 919.7 N)
IV. Absolute, Gage, Atmospheric, and Vacuum Pressure
6. What are the gage pressure and absolute pressure at a point 3m below the free surface of a liquid having a density of
1.53 x 103 kg/m3 if the atmospheric pressure is equivalent to 750 mm of mercury? (Ans. 45028 N/m2, 145090 N/m2)
7. A gage on the suction side of a pump shows a vacuum of 25 cm of mercury. Compute the
a. pressure head water (Ans. -3.4 m)
b. absolute pressure (67.3 kPa)