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FINAL WRITTEN REPORT in
Health teachings and Stategies
ACTIVITY- BASED TEACHING, SIMULATIONS AND COOPERATIVE LEARNING
Submitted by: Group 3 Gomez, Paul Arvin A. Laxa, Kate Mungcal, Lilibeth Oba, Aiko Salinas, Tracy Sibal, Sheena Submitted to: Mr. Richard Ryan Mergal
Health teachings and Strategies adviser
August 30, 2010 ACTIVITY-BASED TEACHING FOR EFFECTIVE LEARNING A variety of interactive activities designed based on social constructivist principles had stimulated interest and involvement in the learning process with the positive outcome of seeing students actively participating in the construction of their own knowledge rather then being passive learners. At the end of such an interactive session, both the teacher and the students gained a sense of achievement and contentment. Substantial improvement in terms of deeper understanding of the topic and improved interpersonal skills were observed. Activity-based teaching was well appreciated by both the students and the staff as the final outcome of teaching and learning was achieved. INTRODUCTION Activities incorporated in lesson proved to be effective tools in an educational environment. Activities to follow up lessons in several subject areas are being used. We observed the students participated with enthusiasm and even contributed to new activities, thus adding sparkle and liveliness to the learning atmosphere. This is focused on ways to improve the self-confidence of students who are in the beginning developmental stages of learning. As we tried various strategies, we were required to examine existing practices, reexamine older practices, and experiment with novel methods to help our students grow. Our group thought of a way to see how this strategy affects the learning atmosphere and how it creates a better motivation to listeners. Most of the teaching is done in a traditional monologue session, where the teacher does the talking and the students are passive audience. Little is known to the teacher on the amount of knowledge consumed by the students. Unless the student seriously focuses on the key points delivered during the teaching, there is a definite reason for the knowledge to escape into thin air. At this juncture, we feel it is appropriate to present a very practical statement by Confucius on how the human mind approaches the learning process: I hear, and I forget. I see, and I remember. I do, and I understand. -- Confucius One of the best ways to understand something is to get ones hands on it and actually experiment with it. Simply seeing or hearing lessons and discussions sometimes have their limitations and disadvantages. Some people find it hard to understand things by just simply looking, while others can’t cope up by just listening or hearing. This is what Confucius is trying to emphasize according to his principle that some things need to be put into action and practice so as to gain a better understanding on it. We also experienced that when activities were given to the students, their involvement and interest were substantially observed, more so level of boredom diminished. This is a true data collection on experimenting and observing the innovative teaching methods. Hence, we unanimously felt the need for a change in our mode of teaching and learning as activity-based teaching provides simple yet dynamic tools for an effective classroom teaching. We believe that activity-based teaching also taps into a
source of energy and goodwill that would enable students to innovate and manage change. We observed that the learners participated actively to create their own knowledge rather than being passive knowledge consumers. At the end of this interactive session, both the teacher and the student had a feeling of achievement and contentment. Incorporating activities in the lesson provided a hope in tackling practical problems by using our own resources. We observed significant increase in the results in terms of increased understanding of the topic and improved interpersonal skills. This approach was well appreciated by both the students and the staff as the final result of teaching and learning was achieved. Activity-based approach increases the experience and confidence of teachers with a collaborative approach to supervision. Developing a basis for deciding effective approaches to be used to improve the teaching–learning environment also benefits the school. The collaboration between the school, the teacher and the student is well established. PURPOSE o To improve the self-confidence of students who are in the beginning developmental stages of learning o To innovate students and improve their interpersonal skills. o Increased the understanding of the topic ADVANTAGES o The most important feature of activity based instruction is learning by doing. o Better understanding of a lesson among students as they learn the lesson by practicing the task themselves. o It inspires the students to apply their creative ideas, knowledge and minds in solving problems as well as promoting competitive spirit among them. o It also helps learner psychologically as they can express their emotions through active participation in something useful. o The method also helps in developing their personalities, social traits and interpersonal management skills. DISADVANTAGES o The teacher has to make sure that all students have sufficient knowledge and skills regarding the task they are going to perform. o Learners have varied levels of merit and understanding. o The activity based method is more suitable for branches of experimental sciences and less useful for subjects of social sciences. o Activity is just part of learning. Without reflecting on the activity, the active learning will have very little lasting value. TRADITIONAL VS. ACTIVITY- BASED METHOD TRADITIONAL Lecture method Teacher-centered ACTIVITY- BASED Task- oriented Learner- oriented
Students-passive listeners Emphasis on assessment SIMULATIONS INTRODUCTION
Students- active participants Emphasis on promoting learning
A simulation is a form of experiential learning. Simulations are instructional scenarios where the learner is placed in a "world" defined by the teacher. They represent a reality within which students interact. The teacher controls the parameters of this "world" and uses it to achieve the desired instructional results. Simulations are in way, a lab experiment where the students themselves are the test subjects. They experience the reality of the scenario and gather meaning from it. It is a strategy that fits well with the principles of constructivism. Simulations promote the use of critical and evaluative thinking. The ambiguous or open ended nature of a simulation encourages students to contemplate the implications of a scenario. The situation feels real and thus leads to more engaging interaction by learners. They are motivating activities enjoyed by students of all ages. Simulations take a number of forms. They may contains elements of a game, a role-play, or an activity that acts as a metaphor. The chief element is that they have context. Board games such as Monopoly or Careers are a type of simulation. The primary distinctions between a game and a "sim" are the nonlinear nature and the controlled ambiguity. Students must make decisions within its context. Success is usually determined by the industry and commitment of the participants. The goal is not to win but to acquire knowledge and understanding. PURPOSE • • Simulations promote concept attainment through experiential practice. Simulations are effective at helping students understand the nuances of a concept or circumstance. Students are often more deeply involved in simulations than other activities. Since they are living the activity the opportunity exists for increased engagement.
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Enjoyable, motivating activity Element of reality is compatible with principles of constructivism Enhances appreciation of the more subtle aspects of a concept/principle Promotes critical thinking
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Preparation time Cost can be an issue Assessment is more complex than some traditional teaching methods
APPLICATION Guided by a set of parameters, students undertake to solve problems, adapt to issues arising from their scenario, and gain an awareness of the unique circumstances that exist within the confines of the simulation. Some simulations require one day,
others may take weeks to complete. Scope and content varies greatly. This being true, specific guidelines change with the activity. Several principles however apply to all.
Ensure that students understand the procedures before beginning. It improves efficacy if the students can enjoy uninterrupted participation. Frustration can arise with too many uncertainties. This will be counter productive. Try to anticipate questions before they are asked. The pace of some simulations is quick and the sense of reality is best maintained with ready responses. Monitor student progress. Know what you wish to accomplish. Many simulations can have more than one instructional goal. Developing a rubric for evaluation is a worthwhile step. If appropriate, students should be made aware of the specific outcomes expected of them.
ADAPTATION Simulations can typically be adapted internally to address the specific circumstances of the students and class environment. They can also be offered as a replacement for other teaching strategies thus themselves being an adaptation. Opportunity for enrichment or modification exists. There are at least 3 ways simulations can be used and internally adapted to classrooms.
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Time - the arc of the activity can be adjusted. Content - some simulations offer content more appropriate to specific ages. Expectations - Not all students appreciate the subtleties of a concept as well as others. Rubrics can be developed to help the teacher determine the level of success.
Assessment and Evaluation The nature of simulations mean that experiences are more real than some other techniques. Their drawback can be the assessment. Teachers must monitor the process to ensure that students both understand the process and are benefiting from it. For this reason, it is very helpful to develop a rubric as a guide. Simulations are often best used as part of the process of learning rather than a summative measure of it. Follow-up activities may be helpful to establish a measure of comprehension. Some prepackaged simulations include assessment suggestions. Listed below are a number of rubrics to use as samples and an interesting rubric generator. Teachers may ask themselves a number of questions to assess the simulation and its apparent success.
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Does this simulation offer an appropriate measure of realism for my group of students? Are the desired instructional outcomes well defined? Is the level of ambiguity manageable for this group? Does the student demonstrate an understanding of his/her role? Are problem solving techniques in evidence? Does the research being generated match the nature of the problem? Is cooperation between participants in evidence? Has the student been able to resolve the issue satisfactorily? Does the student provide meaningful answers to probing questions? Will follow-up activities be necessary?
Rubrics – a teacher may make use of these so as to be guided onto a better outcome or result of teaching.
COOPERATIVE LEARNING Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it. PURPOSE
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promote student learning and academic achievement increase student retention enhance student satisfaction with their learning experience help students develop skills in oral communication develop students' social skills promote student self-esteem
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gain from each other's efforts. (Your success benefits me and my success benefits you.) recognize that all group members share a common fate. (We all sink or swim together here.) know that one's performance is mutually caused by oneself and one's team members. (We can not do it without you.) feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group member is recognized for achievement. (We all congratulate you on your accomplishment!).
FIVE BASIC ELEMENTS 1. Positive Interdependence- Students feel responsible for their own and the group's effort.
Each group member's efforts are required and indispensable for group success Each group member has a unique contribution to make to the joint effort because of his or her resources and/or role and task responsibilities
2. Face to face interaction- Students encourage and support one another; the environment encourages discussion and eye contact.
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Orally explaining how to solve problems Teaching one's knowledge to other Checking for understanding Discussing concepts being learned Connecting present with past learning
3. Individual and Group Accountability- Each student is responsible for doing their part; the group is accountable for meeting its goal.
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Keeping the size of the group small. The smaller the size of the group, the greater the individual accountability may be. Giving an individual test to each student. Randomly examining students orally by calling on one student to present his or her group's work to the teacher (in the presence of the group) or to the entire class. Observing each group and recording the frequency with which each member-contributes to the group's work. Assigning one student in each group the role of checker. The checker asks other group members to explain the reasoning and rationale underlying group answers. Having students teach what they learned to someone else.
4. Interpersonal and small group skills- Group members gain direct instruction in the interpersonal, social, and collaborative skills needed to work with others occurs.
Social skills must be taught: o Leadership o Decision-making o Trust-building o Communication o Conflict-management skills
5. Group Processing- Group members analyze their own and the group's ability to work together.
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Group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationships Describe what member actions are helpful and not helpful Make decisions about what behaviors to continue or change
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