Justine s Group Integrated Method ‡ ‡ Basically refers to the method of teaching wherein various styles are incorporated to each

other in a way that should boost the learning experience that is to be imparted. Allows students to make natural connections between content areas without being limited by artificial boundaries. In doing so, students construct their own meaning and develop skills they will need in the workplace.

Integrated Method involves one or all of the following: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Examining a topic from different points of view (disciplines) Placing greater emphasis on projects Encouraging students to recognize the relationships among and between concepts Using thematic units as organizing principles Flexible schedules Flexible student groupings

1.1 Lecture/Discussion € Lecture-Discussion (teaching lecture), the instructor plans and delivers an oral presentation in a manner that allows some participation by the students and helps direct them toward the desired learning outcomes. € Three-pronged strategy € Includes careful organization of : € the source material € student interaction in lecture € discussion on section activities. € Steps: € Divide the class into small groups of about 4-6 members € Maximizes interaction and participation € Provide for a try-out to check whether the students can apply the so-called group dynamics € Present a problem € Exchange of ideas € Tolerance and respect for other s opinions € Democratic procedures in consensus € Give pointers on how to conduct group discussion properly € Insertion of small lectures

€ Present a problem that will really be a good material for active group discussion € Would encourage critical thinking € Have a sharing period when the different groups give their own answer to the question € Teacher as mediator € Conduct a lecture session to make the answers to the question clear to the students € Further clarification Advantages Disadvantages -motor skills can seldom be learned by listening to a lecture and even a group discussion -conflict of ideas

-presents information (no need for research) with opinionated discussions (not found in books) -can supplement other teaching methods -economical -encourages critical thinking

-time consuming

1.2 Lecture/Demonstration € This method of teaching is based on the simple, yet sound principle that we learn by doing with the background of what is to be done. € The typical setting found on clinical grounds. € Phases € Lecture € Explanation € Demonstration € Performance and Supervision € Evaluation Advantages Disadvantages -time consuming

-discussion through application

-theoretical and actual learning is achieved -1st hand information - Repetition of the demonstration until the students understand 1.3 Demonstration/Return demonstration € Mainly based on learning through evaluation of both knowledge and skills garnered. € Focused on psychomotor learning. € Fosters the growth of a person through application of what was learned Advantages Disadvantages -time consuming -less theoretical

-application of what was learned -evaluation is definite

Prepared by: Group 7 Cao, Robin Christian Geronimo, Jerome Natividad, Justine Lorenz Torres, Kristensen BSMT 4-A I. COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY AND LEARNING
Computers can support the variety of ways learners construct their own understanding. Students who gather information from the Internet can be self-directed and independent. They can choose what sources to examine and what connections to pursue. Depending on the parameters set by teachers, the students may be in complete control of their topics and their explorations. Computer software can mix text, pictures, sound, and motion to provide a variety of options for learners. Multimedia software will not be the only classroom resource, but it can contribute richness and variety to student work.

Students can build on their own understanding by using computers as resource tools, as work stations for individual learning, or as communication channels to share their ideas with other learners. Individual understanding and experiences must be shared and compared to curriculum content. By uncovering students' individual understandings, teachers can determine the influence of students' prior knowledge and further their education through new experience. Computers can be used to assist active experiences--gathering data and resources, conversing with colleagues, struggling through a challenging puzzle or application--or they can assist in reflection. For example, while an on-line conversation through e-mail is an active event, such discussions usually prompt reflection. They help us think about ideas and check our understanding. In another reflective application, teachers can enlist computers as authoring tools for students' journals which are excellent vehicles for thoughtful examination of experience. The use of real world tools, relevant experiences, and meaningful data inject a sense of purpose to classroom activity. Part of the mission of educational institutions is to produce workforce-ready graduates who can, among other things, manipulate and analyze raw data, critically evaluate information, and operate hardware and software. This technological literacy imparts a very important set of vocational skills that will serve students well in the working world. Technology has allowed schools to provide greater assistance to traditionally underserved populations. Assistive technology such as voice recognition systems, dynamic Braille displays, speech synthesizers, and talking books provide learning and communication alternatives for those who have developmental or physical disabilities.

Role of the Student


Students¶ autonomy and confidence increase as they rely less on their teacher and more on their own initiative for knowledge-creation. As students gather more real-world data, share their findings with learners beyond their school, and publish their findings to the world, their role broadens from investigators of other products to designers, authors, purveyors, and publishers of their own work.

Role of the Teacher y Technology amplifies the resources teachers can offer their students. Rather than relying on the textbook for content, computers can provide on-line access to content experts and up-to-date information from original sources.



CAI refers to the use of the computer as a tool to facilitate and improve instruction. CAI programs use tutorials, drill and practice, simulation, and problem solving approaches to present topics, and they test the student's understanding. CAI uses a combination of text, graphics, sound and video in enhancing the learning process. The computer has many purposes in the classroom, and it can be utilized to help a student in all areas of the curriculum.


Typical CAI provides 1. text or multimedia content 2. multiple-choice questions 3. problems 4. immediate feedback 5. notes on incorrect responses 6. summarizes students' performance 7. exercises for practice 8. Worksheets and tests.

Types of Computer Assisted Instruction 1. Drill-and-practice Drill and practice provide opportunities or students to repeatedly practice the skills that have previously been presented and that further practice is necessary for mastery. 2. TutorialTutorial activity includes both the presentation of information and its extension into different forms of work, including drill and practice, games and simulation. 3. Games Game software often creates a contest to achieve the highest score and either beat others or beat the computer. 4. SimulationSimulation software can provide an approximation of reality that does not require the expense of real life or its risks. 5. DiscoveryDiscovery approach provides a large database of information specific to a course or content area and challenges the learner to analyze, compare, infer and evaluate based on their explorations of the data. 6. Problem Solving This approach helps children develop specific problem solving skills and strategies.

Advantages of CAI one-to-one interaction great motivator

freedom to experiment with different options instantaneous response/immediate feedback to the answers elicited Self pacing - allow students to proceed at their own pace Helps teacher can devote more time to individual students Privacy helps the shy and slow learner to learns Individual attention learn more and more rapidly multimedia helps to understand difficult concepts through multi sensory approach self directed learning students can decide when, where, and what to learn

Limitations of CAI

may feel overwhelmed by the information and resources available Over use of multimedia may divert the attention from the content Learning becomes too mechanical Non availability of good CAI packages Lack of infrastructure

Computer-managed instruction is an instructional strategy whereby the computer is used to provide learning objectives, learning resources, and assessment of learner s performance (programs that evaluate and diagnose students' needs, guide them through the next step in their learning, and record their progress). Its main difference from the CAI is that CMI aids the instructor in instructional management without actually doing the teaching. Disadvantages

y y y

Individuality was restricted to the amount of time spent in the learning process. No teacher intervention Uncertainties (hesitations to computer-based learning on the part of some medical educators)

y y

Sometimes, information is not being updated. Negligence of students (students have the tendency to ignore the lesson and their attention is not focused)

Advantages Entertaining and informative More developer- and learner-friendly as well as increasingly inexpensive The teaching path was fixed and linear. (The communication style was mono-directional (from the computer to the student) and imperative)

y y y


E-mail, chat rooms, texts, online journal

y y

Provide drill and practice exercises Offers a variety of potential interactive strategies.

o Interactive cases and brief quizzes as part of the lecture could reveal student's understanding of the subject. o Quiz score and explanations of the answers can provide students immediate feedback and resources to improve gaps in knowledge on the topic. o Online discussion could further describe the student's progress in mastering the objectives for the lecture.


Serve as a diagnostic aide to discern the impact of the lecture and to augment accountability in the learning process. It may manage the learning process, including testing and record keeping


Virtual tools, representations




Manipulation of skills used for keyboarding and games, info on athletics and dance Online group discussions, personal expression of thoughts and reflections



Computer-based approach would free up time for the teacher to spend time with students in more interactive activities (small group sessions or providing feedback), and a larger number of students (even students at other institutions) would be able to benefit from well-done modules on the computer.

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies.


y y y

May divert the attention of the student to other websites not related to the intended topic Some knowledge or texts are not verified as that of the books. Cost and availability


Tendency for the student to merely copy what is written in the text without proper understanding.


y y y y y

Provides a wide range of choices of information. Allows repetition and rehearsal of information because students are able to visit and revisit different sites. Ease of searching for information needed. Spend less time for researching. Allows access to different people and experts all over the world Joseph¶s group