History of Solar Power French physicist Edmond Becquerel first described the photovoltaic effect in 1839, but it remained

an unexplored avenue for the next three quarters of a century. At only 19, Becquerel found that certain materials would produce small amounts of electric current when exposed to light. Heinrich Hertz studied the effect in solids in the 1870s, producing PV cells that converted light to electricity at 1% to 2% efficiency. Selenium cells were used as light-measuring devices in photography. The big step at commercializing PV was the development in the 1940s of the Czochralski process, generating highly pure crystalline silicon. In 1954 the Bell Laboratories used the Czochralski process to produce a 4% efficient crystalline silicon cell.

Photovoltaic cells, modules, panels and arrays

How Solar Power works Solar Photovoltaic (photo - light and voltaic - voltage producing) or PV technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. The basic building block of Solar Module is the PV cells. A solar or PV cell consists of semiconducting material that absorbs the sunlight. The solar energy knocks electrons loose from their atoms, allowing the electrons to flow through the material to produce dc electricity. Photovoltaic cells are connected electrically in series and/or parallel circuits to produce higher voltages, currents and power levels. Photovoltaic modules consist of PV cell circuits sealed in an environmentally protective laminate, and are the fundamental building block of PV systems. Photovoltaic panels include one or more PV modules assembled as a pre-wired, field-installable unit. A photovoltaic array is the complete power-generating unit, consisting of any number of PV modules and panels. They are environment-friendly, noiseless, pollutant-free and produce no harmful residues.

for example as supplied by utility companies through the national grid system. condition and deliver the electricity. store. Direct current (DC) is electric current that flows in a single direction . Modules gather solar energy in the form of sunlight and convent it into direct current (DC) electricity. Typical PV System Components . Other elements connect the different components of the system. produce direct rather than alternating current (AC). batteries and inverters regulate. an inverter can be added to the system to convert the dc current to ac current. the more electricity they produce. In applications where AC current is necessary. In the simplest PV systems.Photovoltaic cell Elements of a Solar Power System Solar Systems begin with the solar module. Components such as charge regulators. DC current is used directly. Alternating current is electric current that reverses its direction at regular intervals. The more sunlight they receive. They are the power generators. Solar modules are the heart of the system. PV modules.the type of current you get from a torch battery. because of their electrical properties.

Stand-Alone System Without Battery Backup: Since there is no battery to store electrical energy.Types of Solar Power Systems The size and type of the PV system that will meet your expectations depends on your individual needs. A properly designed and installed grid connected Solar Power System works seamlessly with exsisting building systems. With Battery Backup: A Stand-Alone System with Battery Backup can supply power 100% of the time including at night. With an inverter it can also power AC loads. boats. resulting in zero impact to building operation. Excellent for remote applications where utility grid is inaccessible. on cloudy days and when the utility power is down. pricing and sustainability benefits. . Generally in all countries. providing the best possible combination of reliability. no additional controls are required. water pumping and telecommunications. Grid-Connected System This is the simplest and most cost effective way to connect PV modules to regular utility power. RVs and for emergency backup systems. maintenance and performance. the consumer needs to get the permission from the local Utility Company or Electricity Authority. cabins. to install a grid connected system. site location and climate. This system only works when it's sunny. The grid inverter automatically synehronises with the grid network. GridConnected systems can supply solar power to your home and use utility power as a backup. Common applications are direct power to DC loads. energy is used immediately. GridConnected Solar Power Systems work in parallel to the grid.

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