HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-2001 Attempt any five questions Total 100 marks All questions carry equal

marks Answers should be in sufficient detail with case examples. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Q1. What steps should be a Human Resource Managers take to make a change management programme successful? Ans 1. Management is said to be an agent of change. In order to make a change management programme successful the HR Manager has to implement the following steps:

1. Participation of Employees: Before introducing any change the employees should be consulted
and the purpose of change should be made known to them. Sufficient time should be given for discussing the pros and cons to the employees.

2. Planning for Change: The change should be planned by the Management. Employees should
get an opportunity for planning and installing the change. This will help the group affected to accept and understand the need for change.

3. Protecting Employees Interest: Management should ensure that employees are protected
from economic loss, loss in status or personal dignity.

4. Group Dynamics: Group dynamics refers to the ever changing interactions and adjustments in
the mutual perceptions and relationships among members of the groups. Such associations are powerful instruments which facilitates or inhibit adaptation to change. The management has to positively articulate such groups.

5. Cautious and Slow Introduction: The HR manager should cautiously and slowly introduce
change. He should not suddenly and abruptly introduce change. He must aim bring about awareness of change and construct an attitude of welcoming change. Change must be introduced in sequential parts, the results must be reviewed and required adjustments have to be if required.

6. Positive Motion: The HR Manager should use the policy of positive motivation to counteract
negative resistance. Proper training and technical knowledge should be imparted to the employees. The leadership style would be supportive and human oriented.

7. Sharing the Benefits of Change: Any change whether technical, social or economic will least
resisted by the employees if the management permits the employees to share the benefits which will arise out of change.

8. Training and Development: Based on the change the job should be redesigned. Management
should train the employees before hand and prepare the employees to invite change. Normally trained and developed employees will not resist change. They would feel empowered with their enriched skills and knowledge.

9. Career Planning and Development: The HR Manager should plan careers of employees, move
them to higher levels and develop them.

10. Organisation Development: HR Manager should also look into the psychological and
behavioural areas of the employee with a view to achieve organizational effectiveness. Employees with enriched behaviour welcome change.

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Q2. What are the special problems faced in an Indian company to make the Human Resource Management function more successful? Ans 2. Indian Companies basically face two factors viz Internal and External that pose a problem in the smooth functioning of HRM function. External Factors.

1. Government policies: Policies of the government like labour policy, industrial relations policy,
policy towards reserving certain jobs for certain communities.

2. Level of Economic Development: Level of economic development determines the level of HRD
in the country and thereby the supply of human resources in the future in the country.

3. Business Environment: External business environmental factors influence the volume and mix
of production thereby the future demand for human resources.

4. Information Technology: Technology has made an amazing shift in the way to conduct
business. These shifts include business process re-engineering, supply chain management etc. It also reduces obsolete machinery and traditional human resources. However in latter stages it eliminates many categories of labour and reduces existing human resources.

5. Level of Technology: Level of technology determines the kind of human resources required. 6. International factors: International factors like the demand for and supply of human resources
in various countries. Internal factors:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Company Strategies: Company policies and strategies relating to expansion, diversification, alliances etc. determine the human resources demand in terms of quality and quantity. Human Resource Policies: Human resource policies of the company regarding quality of human resources, compensation level, quality of worklife etc. Job Analysis: Fundamentally human resources plan is based on job analysis. Job description and job specification. Time Horizons: Companies in an unstable competitive environment can plan for only short tern range. They have to face new competitors. Rapid change in socio and economic conditions. Small organization size, poor management practices. Unstable product/service demand patterns. Company’s Production/Operations Policy: Company’s policy regarding how much to produce and how much to buy from outside to prepare a final product influences the number and kind of people required. Trade Unions: Influence of trade unions regarding the number of working hours per week, recruitment sources etc. affect human resource management function.

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Q.3. What are the different Internal and External sources of recruitment? Explain the merits and demerits of each. Ans. 3. The sources of recruitment are broadly divided into internal sources and external sources consisting of the following: Internal sources of Recruitment: 1. Present Permanent Employees : Organizations consider the candidates from this source for higher level of jobs due to availability of most suitable candidates for jobs relatively or equally to external sources, to meet the trade union demands and due to the policy of the organization to motivate the present employees. 2. Present temporary/casual Employees: Organizations find this source to fill the vacancies relatively at the lower level owing to the availability of suitable candidates or trade union pressures or in order to motivate them on present job. 3. Retrenched or Retired Employees: Employees retrenched due to lack of work are given employment by the organization due to obligation, trade union pressure etc. Sometimes they are reemployed by the organization as a token of their loyalty to the organization or to postpone some interpersonal conflicts for promotion. 4. Dependents of Deceased, Disabled, retired and present employees: Some organizations function with a view to developing the commitment and loyalty of not only the employee but also his family members. 5. Employee Referrals: Present employees are well aware of the qualifications, attitudes, experience and emotions of their friends and relatives. They are also aware of the job requirements and organizational culture of their company. As such they can make preliminary judgment regarding the match between the job and their friends and relatives. External Sources of Recruitment

1. Campus Recruitment: These candidates are directly recruited by the Co; from their
college/educational institution. They are inexperienced as far as work experience is concerned.

2. Private Employment Agencies/Consultants: Public employment agencies or consultants like
ABC Consultants in India perform recruitment functions on behalf of a client company by charging fees. Line managers are relieved from recruitment functions and can concentrate on operational activities.

3. Public Employment Exchanges: The Government set up Public Employment Exchanges in the
country to provide information about vacancies to the candidates and to help the organization in finding out suitable candidates. As per the Employment Exchange act 1959, makes it obligatory for public sector and private sector enterprises in India to fill certain types of vacancies through public employment exchanges.

4. Professional Organizations: Professional organizations or associations maintain complete biodata of their members and provide the same to various organizations on requisition. They act as an exchange between their members and recruiting firm.

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Educational Training Institutes. Merits of Internal Sources of Recruitment Motivates present employees when they are upgraded internally. Body shopping is also known as employee leasing activity. Management’s gets a chance to postpone promotion due to interpersonal conflicts. instead they supply HRs to various companies based on their needs on temporary or ad-hoc basis. Retrenched workers get an opportunity to work again. 6. These professional and training institutions are called body shoppers and these activities are known as body shopping. mergers and take over help in getting human resources. Consult In: the busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. Outsourcing: Some organizations recently started developing human resource pool by employing the candidates for them. level of unemployment. It will become another source and the co can get the particulars as and when required. The job seekers send their applications through e-mail using the internet. Similar Organizations: Generally experienced candidates are available in organizations producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. Organizations advertise the job vacancies through the world wide wed (www). Demerits of Internal Sources of Recruitment Trade union pressure may not always give the right candidate for the job. Therefore they advise the potential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified date. The body shopping is used mostly for computer professionals. 2. time and at a specified place. This would be a suitable source for temporary and lower level jobs. 7. candidates etc and feed them in the computer. Data Banks: The management can collect the bio-data of the candidates from different sources like Employment Exchange. 13. In addition the companies do also alliances in sharing their human resource on adhoc basis. 9. Head hunters are also called search consultants. These organizations do not utilize the human resources. The Management can get potential candidates from this source. 1. Casual Applicants: Depending on the image of the organization its prompt response participation of the organization in the local activities. Otherwise the organizations themselves approach the prospective employers to place their human resources. 10. The prospective employers contact these organizations to recruit the candidates. 8. The companies select the suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the positions. 11. Merits and Demerits of Internal Sources of Recruitment Sr.5. Walk In: The busy organization and rapid changing companies do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment. candidates apply casually for jobs through mail or handover the application in the Personnel dept. Body Shopping: Professional organizations and the hi-tech training develop the pool of human resource for the possible employment. Mergers and Acquisitions: Business alliances like acquisitions. The management may have to consider some concessions. 4 . 12. Trade Unions: Generally unemployed or underemployed persons or employees seeking change in employment put a word to the trade union leaders with a view to getting suitable employment due to latter rapport with the management. 14. E_recruitment: The technological revolution in telecommunications helped the organizations to use internet as a source of recruitment.

Human resource planning means deciding the number and type of the human resources required for each job. 5. Excessive dependence on this source results in in-breeding. Reduction in time for recruitment Increase in the selection ratio i. STRATEGY Expansion Diversification Acquisitions and Mergers Retrenchment Low Cost Leadership Differentiation Strategy Purpose of Human Resource Planning. excellence and experience in other organizations can be easily brought into the organization. 2. 4. HR professionals can concentrate on strategic issues.e. Additional human resources of different categories Reduction of human resources of managerial positions Reduction of human resources of almost all the categories through VRS and other means Reduction of human resources Additional human resources of different categories. recruiting more candidates. Existing sources will also broaden their personality. Merits of External Sources of Recruitment The candidates with skill. 8. To recruit and retain the human resource of required quantity and quality. excellence and expertise. Specified vacancies have to be filled by candidates referred by employment exchanges which do not allow other candidates to be eligible. Demerits of External Sources of Recruitment Campus recruited employees lack work experience. Expertise. 3. unit and the total company for a particular date in order to carry out organizational activities. It is a process by which an organization moves from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. training. 5 . discourages flow of new blood into the organization. 1. new ideas. security of present employees can be enhanced Cost of recruitment. The organization becomes dull without innovations. 4. 7. 6. Merits and Demerits of External of Recruitment Sr. 9. 7. 6. 4. Cost of employees can be minimized. knowledge talent etc is generally available. Human Resource mix can be balanced Qualitative human resource benefits the organization in the long run. Dependents of the deceased get a job easily Morale of employees is improved Loyalty. commitment. Cost of recruitment is high and there is no confidentiality. 5. orientation. induction. HUMAN RESOURCE PLAN NING Additional human resources of existing categories. It is influenced by the strategic management of the co. What is Human Resource Planning? What is the purpose and what are its important elements? Ans. 4.3. etc is reduced Trade unions can be satisfied. Q.

5. What are the merits and demerits of incentive based schemes of remuneration? Ans 5. 3. Q5a. Workers have the advantage of working in a A poor performer will earn very little. Merits of Incentive based Remuneration Demerits of Incentive based Remuneration 1. forecast the future supply of human resources from all sources with reference to plans of other companies. plan for re-deployment. relatively calm atmosphere because of minimum vigilance on them by the superior. To meet the needs of the programmers of expansion. 2. The more the worker produces the more he The tension created would eventually affect earns. development and internal mobility if future supply is more than or equal to net human resources requirements.a. 4. 6.- To foresee the employee turnover and make the arrangements for minimizing turnover and filling up of consequent vacancies. To foresee the impact of technology on work. Supply Forecasting: Obtaining the data and information about the present inventory of human resources and forecast the future changes in the human resources inventory. Q 5. right number in the right time and right place. diversification etc. It is accepted as a sound technique for the It is not considered a very good scheme in achievement of greater productivity countries in the West where it is mostly prevalent. Estimating the net human resources requirements In case of future surplus. To minimize imbalances caused due to non-availability of human resources of the right kind. Important Elements of Human Resource Planning. retrenchment and lay off. Explain what is Job Evaluation? 6 . give rise to internal relations problems which would be a serious matter of concern for the management. Plan for recruitment. In case of future deficit. For employers the need of vigorous It tends to create tension among different supervision is reduced. To access the surplus or shortage of human resources and take measures accordingly. To make the best use of its human resources To estimate the cost of human resources. The incentive is directly linked with the Tensions caused by incentive schemes would productivity of the worker. Plan to modify or adjust the organizational plan if future supply is more than or equal to net human resource requirements. ability discipline etc. Higher productivity is an important A great sense of understanding the problems perquisite of economic development. skill knowledge. Sr. Plan to modify or adjust the organizational plan if future supply will be inadequate with reference to future net requirements. To maintain congenial industrial relations by maintaining optimum level and structure of human resources. Analyzing Corporate and unit level strategies Demand Forecasting: Forecasting the overall human resources requirements in accordance with the organizational plans. To improve the standards. of human relations and that of engineering is required for the smooth administration of such incentive schemes.b. workers in an organization. the total output.

Teach about the standard for trainee like quality.The session should move logically . 3. waste or scrap. Preparing the Trainee: The trainee should be made at ease.Each item should be discussed in depth. Once jobs have been evaluated it is then possible to harness a wage or salary structure to the established hierarchy. Presenting the Operation: There are various alternative ways of presenting the operations viz.Planning the programme . Know the job or subject he is attempting to teach b. a) A serious and committed instructor must : a. 2. the trainee should be asked to start the job or operative procedure. abilities and responsibilities of the worker of a successful performance and which differentiates one job from all others. 5.Too much material much be avoided . supervisors. explanation. knowledge or procedure. knowledge. Getting ready to Teach : This stage of the programme is class hour teaching involving the following activities : . in the sense that he should equip himself with the latest concepts and knowledge. demonstration. Have the knowledge of teaching principles and methods f. demonstration or explanation. For each part one should have in mind the desired technique of instruction i.Ans.Preparing the instructors outline . Have a pleasing personality and capacity for leadership e. charts diagrams and other training aids. whether a particular point is best taught by illustration. It is the determination of the tasks which comprise the job and of the skills.The material should be taken from standardized text .Repetition should be in different words. The important steps for a training to be effective are as follows: 1. Some instructors prefer that the trainee 7 . The quality of empathy is a mark of a good instructor. Though the instructor may have executed the training programme many times he or she should never forget the newness to the trainee. 4. ability to work without supervision. . In addition one may illustrate various points through the uses of picture. skilled employees. It is concerned with arrangement of jobs in order of relative value within a given organization. Preparing the Instructor: The instructor must know both the job to be taught and how to teach it. Q. . 5b. Be a permanent student. 6a. Have the aptitude and ability to teach c. Try out the Trainees Performance: As a continuation of the training sequence. . The job must be divided into logical parts so that each can be taught at a proper time without the training losing plan.When the standardized text is not available then the programme should be developed based on group approach consisting of employer. quantity.e. An instructor mostly uses these methods of explanation. trade union leaders and others familiar with the job requirements. What steps should an organization take to make training more effective? Ans 6a. Most people are somewhat nervous when approaching an unfamiliar task. Have willingness towards the profession d. safety rules. human relations etc. Job Evaluation is the process of determining by observation and study and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job.

3. 6. Follow Up: The final step in most training procedures is the follow-up when people are involved in any problem or procedure it is unwise to assume that things are always constant. 4. The Role of a constructive and positive Trade Union Achieving higher wages and better working and living conditions for the members Acquiring the control of industry by worker Minimizing the helplessness of the individual workers by making them stand collectively and against victimization and injustice of the employers Raising the status of the workers as partners of the industry and citizens of society by demanding the increasing share for the workers in the \management of industrial enterprises Providing a worker self confidence and self esteem Imbibing sincerity and discipline in workers.explains each step before doing it. particularly if the operation involves any danger. 10 . Their presence yields feeling of satisfaction or no satisfaction but not dissatisfaction. Every training programme should have a follow up to improve on the future programmes. 5. advancement and growth in job. Q 6b. Herzberg Theory of motivation deals with basically two factors. 7. To protect the right to be consulted on all matters affecting the workers interest. challenging work. 1. Follow up can be adapted to a variable re-enforcement schedule as suggested in the discussion of learning principles. 6b. It includes factors of achievement. These factors he called “DISSATISFIERS” and not motivators. 8. What is the role of a constructive and positive Trade Union? Ans 7. The trainee through repetitive practice shall acquire more skills. interpersonal relations. Their presence or existence does not motivate in the sense of yielding satisfaction. 11 . recognition. 6. working conditions. Critically examine Herzberg’s two factor theory. 2. Herzberg’s Classification of Maintenance and Motivational Factors Sr . job security and personal life. Maintenance Factors Dissatisfiers or Hygiene Factors Job Content Extrinsic Factors Company Policy and Administration Quality of supervision Relations with superiors Peer Relations Relations with subordinates Pay Job security Work Conditions Status or Motivational Factors or Satisfiers Job Content Intrinsic Factors Achievement Recognition Advancement Work Itself Possibility of Growth Responsibility Q7. Ans. salary. DISSATISFIERS: The first group (factor) consists of needs such as company policy and administration. Another WAY to present the above question Ans 6b. status. but their absence would result in dissatisfaction. supervision. They are also known as hygiene factors. 9. SATISFIERS: The second group are the”satisfiers’ in the sense that they are motivators which are related to job content. 8 .

Identification of training needs: Training needs are identified on the basis of organizational anaylsis. recreational and housing facilities. Viz a. and establishment of cooperative societies. Social Functions: These functions include carrying out social service activities. during sickness and casualties. preparing notes for union officials. provision of social and religious benefits etc. 1. gheraos etc. They also arrange to analyze macro data about the economy. One is the Organizational Analysis and the other Individual Analysis. job analysis and manpower analysis. collecting donations. provision of education. construction of houses. job security etc. c. Training needs = Job and organizational requirement-Employees specifications Sr. Write short notes on any three: a. Welfare activates like acquiring of house sites. industry and different sectors etc.Besides the above functions of the trade unions the national Commission of Labour has entrusted the following responsibilities on to the trade unions which they execute: Promotion of national integration Instilling in their members a sense of responsibility towards the industry and the community Generally influencing the socio-economic policies of the community through active participation in their formulation at various levels. Militant or Intra Mural Functions : these functions include protecting the workers interest i. hike in wages. discharging social responsibilities through various sections of the society like educating the customers etc. recreation. Job Rotation c. Identification of training needs b. Q8. lock-outs. 4. Basically there are two type of analysis done to identify the training. Arranging to conduct research programmes. Workers participation in Management Ans. 5. Principle of Natural justice d. e. canvassing during the election period. Political Functions: These functions include affiliating a union to a political party. b. for court cases etc. 2. Educating its members and their family. Fraternal Or Extra Mural Functions : These functions include providing financial and nonfinancial assistance to workers during the period of strikes. The functions of the trade union can be divided into 5 categories.e. seeking help of political parties during the strikes and lockouts. Identification of Training Needs Group or Organizational Analysis To identify Organizational goals objectives Personnel/skill inventories Organizational Climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interviews Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey and 9 . helping the political party in enrolling members.8a. extension of medical facilities. Analyzing data for collective bargaining. d. through collective bargaining and direct action such as strikes. providing more benefits. knowledge and skills. Training needs are those aspects necessary to perform the job in an organization in which employee is lacking attitude/aptitude. Ancillary Functions: Ancillary functions of trade include Communications to its members. 3.

Forms of WPM include works committees.6. Joint Councils and Shop Councils.Decision making takes into account both the individual and employers needs .All decisions are transparent . It is a mental and Emotional involvement of a person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to goals and share responsibilities in them.Relevant and current policy and procedures are well documented and accessible by employees.Workers Participation in Management: The concept of WPM is considered as a mechanism where Workers have a say in the decision making process of an enterprise. workers and society at large. Though this method of training is common in training managers for general Management positions. The main objective of WPM in management include To promote increased productivity for the advantage of the organization. Principle of Natural Justice: It is a fair practice of decision making and running the organization. . with agencies utilizing existing or revised Grievance processes to enable employees to raise issues arising from the change process. . To satisfy the workers social and esteem needs To strengthen labour management co-operation and thus maintaining industrial peace and harmony.A review process exits for affected employees. An ideological point of view to develop self management in industry To build the most dynamic human resource To build the nation through entrepreneurship and economic development. d. ********************** 10 . This method Gives an opportunity to express his own ideas. Joint Management councils. To provide a better understanding to employees about their role and place in the process of attainment of organizational goals. The concept crystallizes the Concept of industrial democracy and indicates an attempt on the part of an employer to build his Employees into a team which works towards the realization of a common objective. trainees can also be rotated from job to job in workshop jobs. 9. MBO or work planning systems Quality circles Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and changes Training progress Rating scales Observation of behavior projected b. To develop social education for effective solidarity among the working community and for tapping latent human resources. c. 8.All decisions are adequately documented . Job Rotation: This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. The trainee received job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the Different job assignments. 7.

a. What are the challenges before the Human Resource function in today’s Indian business scenario? Ans 1. technical personnel. due to increased career orientation among women to the suitability of women for certain jobs and to women becoming more acclimatized to the working climate and higher level of commitment. The influence of manpower in the country can be studies through the changes in structure of employment. traditions culture etc). 3) The workforce consists of different regions but due to increased transportation facilities and mobile character of people. 1. Human Resource in the Country: The structure. it may face major failure and suffer disastrous retreats from its goal. Total 100 marks Q1. region. religion. There are many challenges that it has to face to survive. 2) more female employees. It has to deal with employees with different backgrounds. sex. There has been a significant change in the structure of employment with the entry of 1) candidates belonging to the schedule castes. All these challenges are discussed below. Hence procurement of skilled employees and their increase in numbers to match the changing job requirements has become a complicated task. A goal seeking organizations especially one that seeks improvement over the current situation is a challenge. 2. values and the level of education of human resource in a country influence much of the Human Resource function. When many such goals are pursued tremendous internal pressures some of them conflicting. tend to be generated. These changes in workforce are a challenge and a complicated task of HR function.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-2002 Attempt any five questions All questions carry equal marks Answers should be in sufficient detail with case examples. computer operators and machine operators are increasingly required while the demand for other categories of employers has declined. Change in the Structure of Employment: The structure of employment in an organization changes with the entrance of workforce with different backgrounds (Social economic. 11 . skilled workers. Human Resource function cannot be performed in a vacuum. Technological factors: Just as necessity is the mother of invention competition and a host of other reasons are responsible for the rapid technological changes and innovations. taking organization. community. As a consequence of these changes. schedules tribes and backward communities. Unless the organization develops mechanisms for coping with these self-generated pressures.

if it does not follow the social policies of the country. To recruit and retain the human resource of required quantity and quality. 2a.a Give a brief outline of the Human Resource Planning System. Organizations also undergo changes and consequently their demands on employees will also change. The Payment of Bonus Act 1965. Government and Legal factors: Until 1940 the government was not involved or interested regarding the problems of labor or industry. iv) Workers now prefer flexible working hours to fixed time schedule. Additional human resources of different categories Reduction of human resources of managerial positions Reduction of human resources of almost all the categories through VRS and other means Reduction of human resources Additional human resources of different categories. Changes in employee Roles and their Values: Earlier the management could totally control its employees and get the desired output. unit and the total company for a particular date in order to carry out organizational activities. All these acts if not complied with can get the organization into deep trouble. The Minimum Wages Act 1923. Trade Union act 1962. STRATEGY Expansion Diversification Acquisitions and Mergers Retrenchment Low Cost Leadership Differentiation Strategy Purpose of Human Resource Planning. Payment of wages Act 1936. To foresee the employee turnover and make the arrangements for minimizing turnover and filling up of consequent vacancies. The information technological revolution and neck to neck marketing competition of most of the organizations due to globalization demand that the existing employees adopt to the everchanging work situation and learn new skills. 4. knowledge etc to cope with the new changes. Among these are moves 1) emphasis on quality of life rather than quantity ii) equality and justice for employees over economic efficiency iii) participation over authority. Hence the customers pose a challenge special ally in service industry. Today the employees have to be considered as a partner in the organization. In other words organizations depend upon customers for their survival and growth. religion culture etc. Social factors: Social environment consists of class structure. 7. Standing Order Act 1946. But the need for Govt. and The Apprentice Act 1961. To cater to everyone’s requirement and keep them happy is a big challenge faced by HR today. 5. Human resource planning means deciding the number and type of the human resources required for each job. It is influenced by the strategic management of the co. interference arose out of the belief that Government is the custodian of industrial and economic activities.3. v) Level of education in recent years is comparatively very higher. 6. Changing structure of workforce has led to the introduction of new values in organization. The role of the government in business has after 1991 with the announcement of economic liberalization.. However awareness of legislations is very important like the Factory Act. Increased formal education has led to the change of attitude of the employees. Ans. mobility social roles social values nature and development of social institutions caste structure and occupational structure. Customers revolt against employees. Changing demands of employer: changes always are not on the side of employees. It is a process by which an organization moves from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. if the services rendered are less qualitative. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING Additional human resources of existing categories. The Employment Exchange Act. Customers may develop a negative attitude towards the organization. 2. 1948. The banks face such type of challenges. Q. traditions. 12 . Customers: Organizations produce products or render services for the ultimate consumption use by the customer. Maternity Benefit Act 1961.

Supply Forecasting: Obtaining the data and information about the present inventory of human resources and forecast the future changes in the human resources inventory. Although change is inevitable it is a common experience that employees resist change whether in the context of their pattern of life or in the context of their situation in the organization. It is concerned with arrangement of jobs in order of relative value within a given organization. Steps to overcome Resistance to Change. To improve the standards. Once jobs have been evaluated it is then possible to harness a wage or salary structure to the established hierarchy.- To foresee the impact of technology on work. b. Protecting Employees Interest: Management should ensure that employees are protected from economic loss. Sufficient time should be given for discussing the pros and cons to the employees. plan for re-deployment. Is resistance of employees to computerization. In case of future deficit. right number in the right time and right place. Job Evaluation is the process of determining by observation and study and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. To meet the needs of the programmers of expansion. To make the best use of its human resources To estimate the cost of human resources. Ans 3. Q2. 2b. The best eg. It is the determination of the tasks which comprise the job and of the skills. Man always fears the unknown and a change represents the unknown. To maintain congenial industrial relations by maintaining optimum level and structure of human resources. Plan to modify or adjust the organizational plan if future supply is more than or equal to net human resource requirements. Management is said to be an agent of change and has to introduce change successfully. abilities and responsibilities of the worker of a successful performance and which differentiates one job from all others. What is Job Evaluation? Ans. skill knowledge. Change of and type requires readjustment. 1. 2. To access the surplus or shortage of human resources and take measures accordingly. ability discipline etc. Management has to take the following steps to implement change successfully. This will help the group affected to accept and understand the need for change. Employees should get an opportunity for planning and installing the change. Plan for recruitment. Important Elements of Human Resource Planning. development and internal mobility if future supply is more than or equal to net human resources requirements. Plan to modify or adjust the organizational plan if future supply will be inadequate with reference to future net requirements. Planning for Change: The change should be planned by the Management. To minimize imbalances caused due to non-availability of human resources of the right kind. diversification etc. retrenchment and lay off. 3. Q3 a. Participation of Employees: Before introducing any change the employees should be consulted and the purpose of change should be made known to them. 13 . a. loss in status or personal dignity. knowledge. Estimating the net human resources requirements In case of future surplus. Analyzing Corporate and unit level strategies Demand Forecasting: Forecasting the overall human resources requirements in accordance with the organizational plans. forecast the future supply of human resources from all sources with reference to plans of other companies.

The trainee received job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the Different job assignments. social or economic will least resisted by the employees if the management permits the employees to share the benefits which will arise out of change. trainees can also be rotated from job to job in workshop jobs. Employees with enriched behaviour welcome change. 9. A limitation of this method is training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas. b. They would feel empowered with their enriched skills and knowledge. Ans 3. Job Instruction: This method is also known as training through step by step. Under this method the trainer explains to the trainee the way of doing jobs. Coaching: the trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. Such associations are powerful instruments which facilitates or inhibit adaptation to change. While trainee learns how to perform a job. Sharing the Benefits of Change: Any change whether technical. move them to higher levels and develop them.b. Group Dynamics: Group dynamics refers to the ever changing interactions and adjustments in the mutual perceptions and relationships among members of the groups. Often the trainee shares some of the duties and responsibilities of the coach and relieves him of his burden. the results must be reviewed and required adjustments have to be if required. Change must be introduced in sequential parts. On the job training includes job rotation. b. coaching. The leadership style would be supportive and human oriented. 7. a. On the job training has the advantage of giving first hand in knowledge and experience under the actual working conditions. Positive Motion: The HR Manager should use the policy of positive motivation to counteract negative resistance. Training and Development: Based on the change the job should be redesigned. The trainee leans under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor.4. The management has to positively articulate such groups. Career Planning and Development: The HR Manager should plan careers of employees. job knowledge and skills and allows him to do the 14 . 10. c. Under this method the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform the job. Organisation Development: HR Manager should also look into the psychological and behavioural areas of the employee with a view to achieve organizational effectiveness. 8. Job Rotation: This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. He must aim bring about awareness of change and construct an attitude of welcoming change. Write short notes on different methods of on the job training. also known as job instruction training is the most commonly used method. Proper training and technical knowledge should be imparted to the employees. 3. Cautious and Slow Introduction: The HR manager should cautiously and slowly introduce change. 5. job instruction or training through step by step and committee assignments. Normally trained and developed employees will not resist change. He should not suddenly and abruptly introduce change. On-the-job training. This method Gives an opportunity to express his own ideas. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions for improvement. he is also a regular worker rendering the services for which he is paid. Though this method of training is common in training managers for general Management positions. Management should train the employees before hand and prepare the employees to invite change. 6.

No Team building spirit hence contribution towards achieving organization goals is very low. Ans. High rate of absenteeism 2. High labour turnover 4. He should be explained the responsibilities and rewards clearly. Many grievances 9. 1. Wastage and spoilage 7. Lack of pride in work and 6. 4. provides feedback information and corrects the trainee. a group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problem. Succession may be from internal employees or external people. Use Performance Metric Tools that are aligned with corporate culture to organize top potentials Customize pieces of the succession planning process to fit individual business units Conduct a division by division succession planning process Match succession planning and development processes to 15 . The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee. Among the more significant of the warning signals of a demotivated worker are: 1. The trainees solve the problem jointly. Strikes and sabotage 5. 2. Increases Accidents To curb demotivation the cause should be detected. 10. Write short notes on the importance of succession planning.a. identify training gaps for future vacancies. Committee Assignments: Under the committee assignment. A demotivated worker often shows sign of low morale. 5. develop them for higher and Varied jobs. No job satisfaction 8. It may be that the policies or practices of the company are defective. By the time the management recognizes the fact that worker is demotivated. technologies Eli Lilly Clorox GE Glaxo Wellcome Novartis Lucent Succession Planning Practices Adopted Weigh key leadership characteristics accordingly to company culture and values Align succession plans with the corporate culture to create a foundation for success. b. or that the views of those workers who are demodulated do not match with those of the company or its executives. Tardinees 3. The scope of succession plan would be more when the organization grows steadily and employees have Potentialities to take up higher responsibilities. Organizations Appraise employee potentialities. May the managers are committing a mistake and accepting it. 3. Ans. Describe the profile of a demotivated worker. 4. Does not follow rules and regulations of the company.4. develop and make the people ready to occupy higher level jobs as and when they fell vacant. Q. 6.job. Perceptive managers are therefore constantly on the look out for clues to any deterioration in the morale of the employees. 4. 11.b. or that if executives are at fault. Company GE Capital. It develops team work. 4. The demotivated worker should be counseled. Generally not noticed till it is obviously low or when something has gone amiss. Successions planning practices followed by various Companies: Sr. Succession planning is to identify. d.a. it is faced with one crisis or another.

role playing.5. In fact it is a system or organisation. Organizational effectiveness through performance improvement Fixation and refixation of salary. Design a balanced scorecard performance measurement system Q. Write short notes on Assessment Centre. promotions transfers. Performance refers to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual’s job. work assignment. Every organization has to decide upon the content to be appraised before the programme is approved on the basis of job analysis. business and industrial houses started using this method. 1. 3. What are the organization factors needed to support an effective performance appraisal system.b. transactional analysis etc. To negotiate and monitor management decisions. stimulation exercises. structured in sight. This is not a technique of performance appraisal by itself. Later. 16 .Employees treat the system as a means to evaluate their arrears of improvement .a.Employees do not see the system as a mere assessment tool .a. Human Resource Planning based on weakness.6. This method of appraising was first applied in the German Army in 1930. Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behaviour of employees in the work place normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance. It includes techniques like in basket.Employees fully trust the system .Openness and transparency in the organization Sr. 4. Role of a constructive trade union in meeting workers expectation and employers requirement of higher productivity.To improve their bargaining power and balance it that of the management.5a. Company Xerox Toyota Federal Express Fed Ex Performance Appraisal Provide a core set of metrics for use across organization Focus performance reviews on goals rather than numbers to ensure employee alignment Daily Performance Measurement Reporting. Q. 2. The content to be appraised may vary with the purpose of appraisal and type and level of employees. It indicates how ell an individual is fulfilling the job demands. .a. where assessment of several individuals is done by various experts by using various techniques. regarding policy. The key factor in an organization to support an effective performance appraisal system is as follows: Organizational planning based on potentialities of human resources. Role of trade union towards workers expectation: .Culture of the system .b. allowances. Ans 5.To attain economic security. strengths and potentialities of human resources. Q.emerging trends in corporate culture. Ans. case studies. Ensuring permanent employment with higher salary and benefits to the workers. Ans 6. incentives and benefits Original placement or placement adjustment decisions Identifying training and development needs and to evaluate effectiveness of training and development Needs and to evaluate effectiveness of training and development programmes Career planning and development and movement of employees The indicators of a successful performance appraisal system at ICODE Software are: . grievance redressal and disciplinary issues. CEO team weekly analysis review. 5.

The employees have no choice but accept low wages and are governed by the employer.To secure redressal of grievances without stoppage of work. service. Organisations are economic and social entities in which a number of persons perform multifarious task in order to attain common goal. What are the different forms of organizational structure. industry and community.To establish just industrial relationships . injury etc. Candidates are. . Write short notes on unfair labour practices of management.To raise the workers standard of efficiency and discipline which in turn will help to achieve higher productivity. These objectives are best met collectively. To provide a worker self confidence To acquire control of industry by workers To take up welfare measures for improving the morale of the workers To raise the status of the workers as partners of the industry and citizens of society by demanding increasing share for the workers in the management of industrial enterprises. Normally they do not provide employee benefits. The employers exploit the employees. There is a lot of ignorance and illiteracy. conciliation and failing these arbitration and adjunction.To develop in the workers a sense of responsibility towards the management. Organizations normally do not design the jobs. Ans.To organize workers in such a manner as to ensure full employment and the best utilization of its manpower. 7a. brotherhood. hotels. restaurants. cottage industries.To make the workers understand the objectives of the management and accept the same for the betterment and interest of both. Weakest bargaining power of the employee. . Unfair Labour Practices: Normally prevail in an unorganized labour market and especially in the third world countries. . 1. Demand for and supply of labour is normally casual and contract in nature. Superior strength of employer.To place industry under national ownership and control in a suitable form. .To foster the spirit of solidarity. . This structure is known as an organizational structure and can be differentiated into 3 types. 2.To make necessary arrangements for the efficient conduct and satisfactory and speedy conclusion of authorized strikes and satyagraha. It includes small industries. accidents. ideas and dissatisfaction/frustrations to the management To secure protection from unexpected economic needs like illness. But it has to be structured so as to achieve specific ends. aims. mostly employed if they accept low wages. Sr. Bonded Labour. Organisational 1950’s structure in Organisational 1950’s Flat/delayered Feed forward structure in Broad Banding* (hierarchy containing smaller number of level or grades Few levels Empowerment/ownership Multi layers Manufacturing/labour Intensive and very less 17 . . To satisfy their social needs To satisfy their psychological needs To satisfy their needs for belongingness. tiny industrial units. cultural and recreational facilities Role of trade union towards employer’s requirement of higher productivity: . Ans 6. mobile business. other resources and to achieve management objectives. 6. Q7. .b. trading unit’s taxi operator’s agriculture etc.b. shops and establishments.- To ventilate the workers grievances to the management To inform workers views. welfare measures. They do not follow any systematic or scientific method of recruitment and selection. Casual nature of employment.a. To provide housing facilities To provide for educational. Protecting the workers against victimization. co-operation and mutual help among the workers. by means of negotiation. fringe benefits etc. Child Labour is a part of unfair labour practices.

Tour of the main building and auxiliary facilities. Autocratic Centralized Tightly held ownership Individual contributors Narrow Responsibilities control Team Focused Adaptive/Mobility Flexible Decentralized Externally focused Pay the person based on Merit Horizontal reinforces Few Rules Market Driven 7. Providing written and documented information through CD/floppies. New employee on his own to get familiarized with the job. Detailed discussion with the Chief Executive HRM /Dept Head about daily jobs routine and department policies and rules. surroundings. ..The job description should be clear regarding the work of the position. Job Description: Job description is an important document which is basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of job analysis. Review of the overall structure. 5. 4. 18 . Attaching a colleague to the new employee to reduce the new employee anxiety. Training needs are those aspects necessary to perform the job in an organization in which is lacking attitude/aptitude. should be stated very clearly. training methods and course content are to be planned on the basis of training needs. Sr. experience. knowledge and skill. age qualifications etc. . Q 8. 6. 6. job analysis and manpower analysis. The new employee has to report to the HR Department at stipulated date and time.The job description should indicate the scope and nature of the work including all important relationships. . Induction Introducing the new employee who is designated as a probationer to the job. 5. (f) Supervisory responsibility should be shown to the incumbents. Training programme.More specific words should be selected to show (a) the kind of work (b) the degree of complexity (c) the degree of skill required (d) the extend to which problems are standardized (e) the degree and type of accountability.3. job location. tax and other relevant forms. Distinguish between Induction and Orientation Systems.b. works wise. 7. 3.Write short notes on any three. products and philosophy. And 8b. It tells us what should be done. Introduction to the workplace and the dept head and co-workers. He will be given brochures describing the organization’s history. c) Employee Manual Ans 8a. If the first impression is good then it helps the new employee to adjust to the work quickly and the supervisor’s time is saved to a great extent. 4. 1. It serves to identify a job for continuation by other job analysts. Training Needs Analysis: Training needs are identified on the basis of organizational analysis. New employee is to fill out health. why it should be done and where it should be performed. organization and various employees. Personnel/HR department will discuss company benefits. a) Job Description b) Training Needs Analysis d) Organization Downsizing e) Team Effectiveness 2. From thereon he shall be guided by the HR Chief/Executive. (g) The basic requirement. duties etc. authority structure and policies and practices of the company. Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins a company about the environment of the job and the organization in order to make the new employee acquainted Gives a sense of belonging commitment to the new employee and Orientation Orientation is getting familiar with the policies and practices followed in the Company.

clothing. organizations based on supply chain management.hours of work. Teamwork gains more significance rather than individual jobs. • Traveling and subsistence expenses. Organisational Downsizing: When there is a surplus of labour the organization is faced with a problem of downsizing the organization. • Grievance procedure. • Uniforms. 3. holidays. • Various employees . 8. special. customers etc. • Telephone calls and correspondence. negotiating machinery.pay . • Canteen and restaurant facilities.position in the organisation. Because maintaining surplus of labour will eat into the profits of the Co. • Sickness rules. Team Effectiveness: Team effectiveness is the result of team work which consists of a group of jobs that are linked and interconnected with each other for the purpose of performing a total operation. deductions. training and development facilities. promotion channel. Sr. 8. 9. organisation and management. The total operation is assigned to a group of employees. 6. of the company. retirement benefits. • Pay. he is expected to take up the job of other employees when they fail to do it perfectly. 19 . 7. Employee Manual: The Employee Manual is a document that an employee can refer to for any kind of query about the rules and guidelines of an organization. Ans 8 d. • Education. Safety.their designations . • Unions. Ans 8 e. products. • Health. Thus jobs in a team overlap with each other. It is not easy to pay employees without extracted work from them.Training needs = Job and organizational requirement-Employees Specifications Methods used in Training Need Analysis. • Disciplinary rules and procedure. medical care arrangements. • Career path. 5. equipment. earned . • Social benefits and welfare measures. In such cases the organization is faced with a problem of using the existing surplus for some higher category of work by giving them training or employing them with their sister concern or simply giving the employees a golden handshake through Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS). Though each employee is allotted a job in the team. The Employee Manual contains the following : • History. Group or Organizational Analysis To identify Organizational goals and objectives Personnel/skill inventories Organizational Climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interviews MBO or work planning systems Quality circles Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales Observation of behavior Ans. 1. Team effectiveness is essential to serve the customer completely. growth. Another way of downsizing is delayering the organization and rectifies the situation of overstaffing.holidays. vacation. c.sick leave. use of materials. allowances. 2. information . and machine. • Leave rules . • Basic conditions of employment . 4. In fact individual jobs are losing their relevance in the re-engineered businesses.casual. market. • Work rules . shift.work-load.

Information Technology: Technology has made an amazing shift in the way to conduct business. industrial relations policy. Indian Companies basically face two factors viz Internal and External that pose a problem in the smooth functioning of HRM function. supply chain management etc. The impact of synergy results in high productivity of teamwork than that of the total of individual employees. 1 2 3 4 Government policies: Policies of the government like labour policy. policy towards reserving certain jobs for certain communities. These shifts include business process re-engineering. Business Process Re-engineering (BPRE) and Supply Chain Management require teamwork. Most recent organization has realized that teamwork produces better results than the performance of individual work.These days’ organizations started designing teams and analyzing team work. What are the special problems faced by Indian Corporates in Making Human Resource Management functions more successful? Ans 1. *****************ALL THE BEST****************** HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-2003 Attempt any five questions Total 100 marks All questions carry equal marks Answers should be in sufficient detail with Practical examples and illustrations. Business Environment: External business environmental factors influence the volume and mix of production thereby the future demand for human resources. Infact practices of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Level of Economic Development: Level of economic development determines the level of HRD in the country and thereby the supply of human resources in the future in the country. External Factors. It 20 . __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Q1. Team effectiveness pertains to minimum acceptable human qualities and relationships necessary to perform all kinds of activities in a team.

Company Strategies: Company policies and strategies relating to expansion. 12. 5 6 Level of Technology: Level of technology determines the kind of human resources required. 8. 9. What are the different sources of recruitment? Explain the merits and demerits of each. trade union pressure etc. 21 . 2. quality of work life etc. diversification. affect human resource management function. poor management practices. 2. 3.also reduces obsolete machinery and traditional human resources. Present temporary/casual Employees: Organizations find this source to fill the vacancies relatively at the lower level owing to the availability of suitable candidates or trade union pressures or in order to motivate them on present job. Ans. Job Analysis: Fundamentally human resources plan is based on job analysis. alliances etc. Company’s Production/Operations Policy: Company’s policy regarding how much to produce and how much to buy from outside to prepare a final product influences the number and kind of people required. Rapid change in socio and economic conditions. Human Resource Policies: Human resource policies of the company regarding quality of human resources. to meet the trade union demands and due to the policy of the organization to motivate the present employees. Q. Trade Unions: Influence of trade unions regarding the number of working hours per week. 11. 10. Internal factors: 7. International factors: International factors like the demand for and supply of human resources in various countries. The sources of recruitment are broadly divided into internal sources and external sources consisting of the following: Internal sources of Recruitment: 1. compensation level. determine the human resources demand in terms of quality and quantity. However in latter stages it eliminates many categories of labour and reduces existing human resources. Present Permanent Employees : Organizations consider the candidates from this source for higher level of jobs due to availability of most suitable candidates for jobs relatively or equally to external sources. Unstable product/service demand patterns. Small organization size. Sometimes they are reemployed by the organization as a token of their loyalty to the organization or to postpone some interpersonal conflicts for promotion. Time Horizons: Companies in an unstable competitive environment can plan for only short tern range.2. recruitment sources etc. They have to face new competitors. Retrenched or Retired Employees: Employees retrenched due to lack of work are given employment by the organization due to obligation. Job description and job specification.

attitudes. makes it obligatory for public sector and private sector enterprises in India to fill certain types of vacancies through public employment exchanges. time and at a specified place. Head hunters are also called search consultants. This would be a suitable source for temporary and lower level jobs. 7 Private Employment Agencies/Consultants: Public employment agencies or consultants like ABC Consultants in India perform recruitment functions on behalf of a client company by charging fees. 12 Similar Organizations: Generally experienced candidates are available in organizations producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. 15 Consult In: the busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. Line managers are relieved from recruitment functions and can concentrate on operational activities. External Sources of Recruitment 6 Campus Recruitment: These candidates are directly recruited by the Co. retired and present employees: Some organizations function with a view to developing the commitment and loyalty of not only the employee but also his family members. The companies select the suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the positions. 8 9 10 Data Banks: The management can collect the bio-data of the candidates from different sources like Employment Exchange. They act as an exchange between their members and recruiting firm. Educational Training Institutes.4. Therefore they advise the potential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified date. Professional Organizations: Professional organizations or associations maintain complete biodata of their members and provide the same to various organizations on requisition. They are also aware of the job requirements and organizational culture of their company. 14 Walk In: The busy organization and rapid changing companies do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment. As such they can make preliminary judgment regarding the match between the job and their friends and relatives. 22 . They are inexperienced as far as work experience is concerned. Disabled. 13 Trade Unions: Generally unemployed or underemployed persons or employees seeking change in employment put a word to the trade union leaders with a view to getting suitable employment due to latter rapport with the management. As per the Employment Exchange act 1959. candidates etc and feed them in the computer. experience and emotions of their friends and relatives. candidates apply casually for jobs through mail or handover the application in the Personnel dept. It will become another source and the co can get the particulars as and when required. 11 Casual Applicants: Depending on the image of the organization its prompt response participation of the organization in the local activities. The Management can get potential candidates from this source. from their college/educational institution. Dependents of Deceased. Public Employment Exchanges: The Government set up Public Employment Exchanges in the country to provide information about vacancies to the candidates and to help the organization in finding out suitable candidates. Employee Referrals: Present employees are well aware of the qualifications. 5. level of unemployment.

In addition the companies do also alliances in sharing their human resource on adhoc basis. Dependents of the deceased get a job easily Morale of employees is improved Loyalty. Otherwise the organizations themselves approach the prospective employers to place their human resources. These organizations do not utilize the human resources. Merits of External Sources of Recruitment The candidates with skill. discourages flow of new blood into the organization. Existing sources will also broaden their personality. Excessive dependence on this source results in in-breeding. Human Resource mix can be balanced Demerits of External Sources of Recruitment Campus recruited employees lack work experience. mergers and take over help in getting human resources. 1. orientation. 4. 17 Mergers and Acquisitions: Business alliances like acquisitions. 4. 3. training. Merits of Internal Sources of Recruitment Motivates present employees when they are upgraded internally. These professional and training institutions are called body shoppers and these activities are known as body shopping. Cost of employees can be minimized. The body shopping is used mostly for computer professionals. 5. 19 Outsourcing: Some organizations recently started developing human resource pool by employing the candidates for them. The organization becomes dull without innovations. 1. 5. The management may have to consider some concessions. induction. excellence and experience in other organizations can be easily brought into the organization. Merits and Demerits of Internal Sources of Recruitment Sr. 2. The prospective employers contact these organizations to recruit the candidates. Demerits of Internal Sources of Recruitment Trade union pressure may not always give the right candidate for the job. 3. 6. commitment. etc is reduced Trade unions can be satisfied. new ideas. excellence and expertise. Cost of recruitment is high and there is no confidentiality. Merits and Demerits of External of Recruitment Sr. Body shopping is also known as employee leasing activity. 18 E_recruitment: The technological revolution in telecommunications helped the organizations to use internet as a source of recruitment.16 Body Shopping: Professional organizations and the hi-tech training develop the pool of human resource for the possible employment. security of present employees can be enhanced Cost of recruitment. knowledge talents etc are generally available. Retrenched workers get an opportunity to work again. Specified vacancies have to be filled by candidates referred by employment exchanges which do not allow other candidates to be eligible. Organizations advertise the job vacancies through the world wide wed (www). 23 . instead they supply HRs to various companies based on their needs on temporary or ad-hoc basis. 7. Expertise. The job seekers send their applications through e-mail using the internet. Management’s gets a chance to postpone promotion due to interpersonal conflicts. 2.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Qualitative human resource benefits the organization in the long run. Reduction in time for recruitment Increase in the selection ratio i.e. recruiting more candidates. HR professionals can concentrate on strategic issues.

Q 3. Define Motivation. Discuss any two theories of Motivation. Ans 3. Motivation is derived from the word “Motive”. A motive is an inner state that energizes, activates or moves and directs or channels behavious towards goals. It represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying the need. Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological deficiency or need that activates behavious or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. Thus the process of motivation lies in the meaning of and relationship among needs, drives and incentives. The Basic Motivation Process = Needs----------- Drives-------------------------- Goals/Incentives (Deficiency) (Deficiency with Direction) Reduction of drives and fulfills deficiencies. It is a bare fact that most of us use only a small portion of our mental and physical abilities. To exploit the unused potential in people they are to be motivated. Needless to say that such exploitation results in greater efficiency, higher production and better standard of living of the people. There are basically two types of motivation vis 1) Positive Motivation and Negative Motivation. 1. Positive Motivation: People are said to be motivated positively when they are shown a rewards and the way to achieve it. Such a reward may be financial or non financial. Monetary motivation may include different incentives, wage plans, productive bonus schemes etc. Non monetary include praise for work, participation in management, social recognition. Monetary incentives provide the worker a better standard of life while non monetary incentives satisfy the ego of a man. 2. Negative Motivation: It is induced by installing fear in the minds of people; one can get the desired work done. In this method of motivation fear of consequences of doing something or not doing something keeps the worker in desired direction. This method has got several limitations. Fear Creates frustration, a hostile state of mind and an unfavorable attitude towards the job which hinder efficiency and productivity. So the use of it should be kept minimum. Theories of Motivation: There are several theories on motivation. The significant among them are Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzber’s Two Factor Theory, Vrooms Expectancy Theory, Porter and Lawler’s Expectancy Theory and Equity Theory of Work Motivation. We shall discuss 1. Maslows Theory of Hierarchy of Needs and 2. Herzberg Two Factor Theory. 1. Maslows Theory of Hierarchy of Needs : According to Maslow, human needs form a hierarchy, staring at the bottom with the physiological needs and ascending to the highest need of self actualization. He says when one set of needs is satisfied; they no longer work as motivators as a man seeks to satisfy the next higher level of needs.

__________________________________________________ Need for Self-Actualization __________________________________________________ Physiological Needs __________________________________________________ Esteem Needs __________________________________________________ Social Needs -Affiliation or

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Acceptance Needs __________________________________________________ Security of Safety Needs __________________________________________________ Physiological Needs __________________________________________________ MASLOW”S HIERACHY OF NEEDS ========================================== The Need Hierarchy: 1. Physiological Needs: These are the basic necessities of human life, food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep and sexual satisfaction. Maslow says that until these needs are satisfied to the required level, man does not aim for the satisfaction of next level of needs. As far as work environment is concerned, these needs include basic needs like pay, allowance, incentives and benefits. 2. Security/Safety Needs: These refer to the need to be free of physical danger or the feeling of loss of food, job or shelter. When the physiological needs are satisfied, man starts thinking of the way by which he can satisfy his safety needs. Security needs spring up the moment he makes an effort in the direction of providing himself the source of continuity of physiological needs. In a work environment these needs include conformity, security plans, membership in unions, severance pay etc. 3. Social Needs: (Affiliation or Acceptance Needs) When the physiological and security needs are satisfied, these social needs begin occupying the mind of a man. This is exactly why he looks for the association of other human beings and strives hard to be accepted by this group. Social needs at the work place include: Human relations, formal and informal work groups. 4. Esteem Needs: These needs are power, status and self confidence. Every man has a feeling of importance and he wants others to regard him highly. These needs makes people aim high and make them achieve something great. These needs for employees include status symbols, awards, promotions, titles etc. 5. Self Actualization Needs: This is the highest need in the hierarchy. This refers to the desire to become what one is capable of becoming. Man tries to maximize his potential and accomplish something, when this need is activated in him. 2. Herzberg Theory of Motivation: Deals with basically two factors Dissatisfiers and Satisfiers. DISSATISFIERS: The first group (factor) consists of needs such as company policy and administration, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, job security and personal life. These factors he called “DISSATISFIERS” and not motivators. Their presence or existence does not motivate in the sense of yielding satisfaction, but their absence would result in dissatisfaction. They are also known as hygiene factors. SATISFIERS: The second group are the” satisfiers’ in the sense that they are motivators which are related to job content. It includes factors of achievement, recognition, challenging work, advancement and growth in job. Their presence yields feeling of satisfaction or no satisfaction but not dissatisfaction. Another WAY to present the above question Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory: Classification of Maintenance and Motivational Factors Sr . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Maintenance Factors Dissatisfiers or Hygiene Factors Job Content Extrinsic Factors Company Policy and Administration Quality of supervision Relations with superiors Peer Relations or Motivational Factors or Satisfiers Job Content Intrinsic Factors Achievement Recognition Advancement Work Itself

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7. 8. 9. 10 . 11 .

Relations with subordinates Pay Job security Work Conditions Status

Possibility of Growth Responsibility

Q4. What are the merits of formal organization structure? Ans. 4. A formal organizational structure composes of job descriptions, organization charts, procedures and other written documents which describe and define how individuals should work with each other. A formal organizational structure is the organization as it exist son paper. It is the official sanctioned way of doing things. It tells you who reports to whom and how various problems should be handled. The merits of a formal organizational structure are as follows: 1. Overall Effectiveness: Overall effectiveness is high because the delegation of work and attainment of the organisational goals and objectives is well defined. 2. Goal Attainment: The organization accomplishes what it sets out to accomplish. 3. Profit Making: A favourable ‘bottom line” which is the main aim of an organization is achieved. 4. Staying within Budget: Due to limited resources and guidelines for budgets and spending the co is a lesser risk of running into losses. 5. Achieving New Goals: A successful organization emphasizes the attainment of new and important goals. 6. Adaptability to change: A well structured organization has good problem solving ability and capacity to change as per the need of the hour. 7. Stability: An organization that is able to maintain its basic charter and size over time is considered to be stable. 8. Quality: High quality of goods and services can be expected of well structured organizations. 9. Growth: There is an increase in factors like work force, plant capacity, assets, sales, profits, market share and no of innovations. 10. Managerial Skills: A well structured organization gives a lot of emphasis on the quality and qualifications of the employees. Professionals/specialist is employed to guide, perform and achieve the organizational goals and objectives. Without competent managers the Co., will not able to survive. 11. Control: The management has a good control over the employees and also inventory which is very essential for the smooth functioning of an organization. 12. Proper management of conflict: An organization may require some conflict to be effective, but too much conflict detracts from effectiveness. In an organized structure people conform to the same code of conduct and conflict is usually held in check. 13. Participation in decision making: The employees are sometimes given a chance to participate in decisions pertaining to them. This also boosts them and keeps them motivated. It gives them a sense of belonging and a sense of loyalty to the Co. 14. Absenteeism: Since the employees are highly motivated problems like absenteeism etc are minimum. 15. Job satisfaction: The job satisfaction is very high among employees. It induces high morale which in turn leads to high productivity. 16. Training and Development of employees: Helps in the up gradation and development of the employee and gives him an opportunity to grow within the organization. Q5. What are the objectives of “Performance Appraisal System” What are sources of error in the appraisal process.

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To contribute to the employee growth and development through training. c. There rater biases include: a) the halo effect b) the error of central tendency c) the leniency and strictness biases d) personal prejudice and e) the recency effect. The Error of Central Tendency: Some raters follow play safe policy in rating by rating all the employees around the middle point of the rating scale and they avoid rating the people at both the extremes scale. 6. e. Performance refers to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual’s job. Equally damaging is assigning consistently low rates. The Recency Effect: The raters generally remember the recent actions of the employee at the time of rating them on the basis of these recent actions unfavourable-rather than on the whole activities. Such ratings do not serve any purpose. To help the superiors to have a proper understanding about their subordinates 4. Every organization has to decide upon the content to be appraised before the programme is approved on the basis of job analysis. Sources of Error in Performance Appraisal: 1. 5. to guide the job changes with the help to continuous ranking 5. To create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance. Tata Power aims at employee development through performance appraisal. favourable or 27 . Objectives of Performance Appraisal System: 1. d. 7. To facilitate fair and equitable compensation based on performance. To facilitate for testing and validating selection tests.00O JOBS TO GO CUT In an attempt to counter continuing employee low performance and business troubles. The content to be appraised may vary with the purpose of appraisal and type and level of employees Performance Appraisal is a method of evaluating the behaviour of employees in the workplace. They follow play safe policy because of answerability to the management or lack of knowledge about the job and person he is rating or has least interest in the job. Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behaviour of employees in the work place normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance. retrenchment etc as in the case of Hyundai Engineering HYUNDAI 1. Rating Biases: It is a subjective measure of rating performance which is not verifiable by others and has the opportunity for bias. he may rate them at the lower end. which may distort the rating purpose and affect the career of these employees. interview techniques through comparing their scores with performance appraisal ranks. 2. It indicates how ell an individual is fulfilling the job demands. Halo Effect: it is the tendency of the raters to depend excessively on the rating of one trait or behaviourial consideration in rating all other traits or behavioural considerations. a. Hyundai engineering and Construction announced its decision to lay –off employees and cut 1000 jobs. One way of minimizing the halo effect is appraising all employees by one trait before going to rate them on the basis of another trait. Personal Prejudice: If the rater dislikes any employee or any group. self and management development programmes.Ans. The Leniency and Strictness: the leniency bias crops when some raters have a tendency to be liberal in their rating by assigning higher rates consistently. 3. to prove information for making decisions regarding lay off. b.

Cost-benefits analysis of the training programme. 6. morale. 1. The test of reliability in the selection process can be carried out through various methods as discussed below: 1. 3. Learning : Training programme. Organisation : The training design helps in measuring the use of training. 12. nature and behaviour. Job Behaviour : The training design helps in identifying the manner and extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job. sales turnover and the like. turnover. physical and mental ability. The specification of values forms a basis of evaluation. Measurement of improvement in trainees on the job behaviour. Knowing trainees expectations before the training programme and collecting their views regarding the attainment of the expectations after the training 4. 5. How would you evaluate a training programme ? Does its evaluation have any bearing on its design? Ans. Written Examination: The organization have to conduct written examination for the qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application blanks so as to measure the 28 . Q7. trainers ability and trainee ability are evaluated on the basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and the learners ability to use or apply the content he learned. All these factors depend on the Training Design. Measurement of trainee’s attitudes after training programme. wastage/scrap. method of presentation. Discuss the methods of reliability. Selection is a process of selecting the right candidate for the right job. Reaction: The design of the training depends on the trainee’s reaction to the usefulness of 2. learning and change in the job behaviour of the department/organization in the form of increased productivity. Immediate assessment of trainee’s reaction to the programme. performance appraisal and potential appraisal discussions. growth. The process of training evaluation has been defined as “any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance and to access the value of training in the light of that information. The various methods of training evaluation are: 1. 7. 4. teaching methods etc. Seeking opinion of the trainee’s superior regarding his/her job performance and behaviour before and after training. 10.Q6. Evaluation of trainee’s skill level before and after the training programme. 3. Measurement of levels in absenteeism. depth of the course content. aptitude etc for judging whether a given applicant is suitable or not for the job. knowledge. and to the individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximizing social benefits. Ultimate Value: It is the measurement of the ultimate result of the contributions of the training programme to the Company goals like survival. Trainee’s observation during the training programme. How is reliability of “interview” as a selection instrument found?” Ans 7. 9. The training calendar should be discussed with the manager. 11. accidents. 8. It should be well defined in meeting specific objectives. coverage of the matter. 5. Seeking opinions of trainees subordinates regarding his/her job performance and behaviour The Evaluation of a Training has bearing on its Design. It is about collecting information about the candidate’s qualifications. Examination of the testing system before and after sometime of the training programme. breakage of the machinery during pre and post period of the training programme. The trainers should be qualified and experienced. quality. 2. profitability etc. Training needs should be identified through job description. 6. Seeking opinion of trainee’s colleagues regarding his/her job performance and behaviour. The nomination of employees should be based on the need of training. experience.

soliciting unrevealing information based on the given information and using common sense. judges the candidates skills and ability and ranks them according to their merit. The selection panel. Preliminary Interview: The preliminary interview is to solicit necessary information from the prospective applicants and to assess the applicant’s suitability to the job. Business games help to evaluate the applicants in the areas of decision making. speaking effectively. The candidates in the group are required to analyze. Group Discussions: The technique of group discussion is used in order to secure further information regarding the suitability of the candidate for the job. tolerance for individual differences. middle and top management positions. knowledge in various disciplines. (3) In-basket method Situational judgment. Group discussion is a method where groups of the successful applicants are brought around a conference table and are asked to discuss either a case study or a subject matter. Types of Test 1. If a candidate satisfies the job requirement regarding most of the arrears he may be selected for further process. 5. (4) Sensitivity Degree of openness. human relations skills etc. discuss. concealing and mediating arguments among the participants and summarizing or concluding aptly. reasoning. experience. Participants are placed in a hypothetical work situation and are required to play the role situations in the game. 4. explaining the problem. concern for others. decision-making skills. BUSINESS GAMES AND THEIR UTILITY IN THE SELECTION PROCESS Business Games Utility (1) Case Study Analytical. Preliminary interviews are short and known as stand-up interviews or sizing up of the applicants or screening interview. Test: Psychological tests play a vital role in employee selection. identifying the potentialities. problem-solving skills. age physical appearance and other physical requirements etc. handling the situations. Business Games: Business games are widely used as a selection technique for selecting management trainees. Thus preliminary interview is useful as a process of eliminating the undesirable candidates. general knowledge and English language. 3. keenly observing the discussion of others. to measure the candidates aptitude. social relations. (5) Simulations Encountering skills. This interview is also useful to provide the basis information about the company to the candidate. judgmental and decision-making skills (2) Role Play Human relations skills. clarifying controversial issues. A selection panel then observes the candidates in the areas of initiating the discussion. Achievement Tests: (a) Job Knowledge Test (b) Work Sample Test 29 . 2. problem-solving skills.candidate’s ability in arithmetical calculations. Aptitude Tests: (a) Intelligence Test (IQ) (b) Emotional Quotient (c) Skill Tests (d) Mechanical Aptitude (e) Psychomotor Tests (f) Clerical Aptitude Tests 2. executive trainees and managerial personnel at junior. find alternative solutions and select the sound solution. salary expected aptitude towards the job. based on its observations. A psychological test is essentially an objective and standardized measure of sample of behaviour from which inferences about future behaviour and performance of the candidate can be drawn. to know the candidates attitude towards the job. influencing others. The information provided by the candidate may be related to the job or personal specifications regarding education.

As such. time. The interviewer tests the candidate by putting him under stress and strain by interrupting the applicant from answering. activities. interest etc. asking questions pertaining to unrelated areas etc. (d) Group discussion interview There are two methods of conducting group discussion interviews viz group interview method and discussion method. Stress during the middle portion of the interview gives effective results. critical/problematic areas. the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidate through various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observation during the interview.3. (a) Background information interview This interview is intended to collect the information which is not available in the application blank and to check that information provided in the application blank regarding education. L&G started selecting the candidates with multi-skills and who can perform a variety of functions. 4. comprehension. It is the interaction between the candidate and the personal manager when the former meets the latter to enquire about the vacancies or additional particulars in connection with the employment advertisement etc.: Multi-Skilling : Multi-Dimensional Testing : L&G has realised that most of the company operations whether they are production or marketing or finance or human resources can be done by almost all the employees. methods of doing the job. criticizing his opinions. likes. his background. dislikes and extra curricular activities of the applicant. presentation. expectations. Situational Tests: (a) Group Discussion (b) In Basket Interest Test Personality Tests: (a) Objective Tests (b) Projective Tests Multi-Dimensional Testing Eg. leading. skill. In this step. (b) Unstructured Interview In this interview the candidate is given freedom to tell all about himself by revealing his knowledge on various items/arrears. 6. (b) Job and probing interview This interview aims at testing the candidate’s job knowledge about duties. talent etc. Experts are needed only in rare cases. 30 . inter personal skills. (c) Stress interview This interview aims at testing the candidate’s job behaviour and level of withstanding during the period of stress and strain. and methods of handling those areas. Types of Interview: The types of Employment interviews are: 1. collaboration etc. L&G developed multi-dimensional testing. This type of interview helps the interviewer in appraising certain skills of the candidates like initiative. all the formalities. dynamism. The interviewer also may answer some information required by the candidate. panel of 2. (e) Formal and structured interview In this type of interview. Preliminary Interview (a) Informal Interview This is the interview which can be conducted at any place by any person to secure the basic and non-job related information. procedures like fixing the value. Infact. 5. family. Reliability of Interview: This is the most essential step in the process of selection. place of domicile. services of the experts can be outsourced. health. Core Interview: It is normally the interaction between the candidate and the line executive or experts on various areas of job knowledge.

Employees with positive attribute contribute much to the organization. internet based recruiting. sophisticated scanning and searching. The questions for discussion are structured and experts are allotted different areas and questions to be asked. weaknesses and potentials of the candidate. judges his performance individually and prepares consolidated judgement. These techniques include. (f) Panel interview A panel of experts interviews each candidate. work adjustment and allotment etc. They acquire the necessary skills. They never say ‘no’ to other employees. irrespective of their technical al skills and knowledge. (h) On Line Interview: Information technology brought significant developments in the selection process of employees. are strictly followed in arranging and conducting the interview. Eg. promotions. mostly through informal discussion. The course of the interview is pre-planned and structured. (g) Depth interview The candidate is examined extensively in core areas of job skills and knowledge. Most of the organizations have realized recently that the employees’ positive attitude contribute much rather than employees skills and knowledge. allowances. Experts test the candidate’s knowledge in depth.Write short notes on any three of the following :a) Job Rotation b) Multi Skilling d) Managing Change e) Resolving Conflict c) Job Evaluation 31 . organization. Hence the interviewers with right and or positive attitude. intimating the candidates officially etc. The vital development is on-line interview where the interview is conducted online. outsourcing employment function. on-line submission. superiors and customers. Q 8. Depth interviews are conducted for specialized jobs. This type of interview is known as panel interview. Hence the interviewers look for the candidates with the right attitude while making final decisions. Whether he is suitable for the job. whether he is the right candidate. opening and closing. benefits. The interviewer examines the interest of the candidate in the job. The Personnel Manager also interviews the candidates with a view to find out his reaction/acceptance regarding salary. Decision-Making Interview After the candidates are examined by the experts including the line managers of the organization in the core areas of the job.interviewers. Various types of interviews help the interviewer to arrive at different conclusion. During various types of interviews depending on the job requirement the interviewer can see and analyse the strengths. career planning. reaction/adaptability to the working conditions. 3. opportunities etc. A Stress Interview helps to analyse whether a candidate can perform under stress and pressure and whether he can take a right decision at such times. promotional opportunities. in advance depending on job requirements. the head of the department/section concerned interviews the candidate once again. Attitude Counts Much. but not the Skill InfoTech Limited discovered that the employees with right attitude take up the activities willingly on their own. if they do not possess them.

It determines the relative worth or money value of jobs. These measures also improve worker’s self-image and provide personal growth. It is upto the management to provide a variety of job experiences for those who have the potential for higher ranks before they are promoted. Human resource is an important factor in relation to the adjustments among individuals as well as between the organisation and environment. Managing Change : The term ‘Organisational Change’ implies the creation of imbalances in the existent pattern or situation. An employee who works on a routine/respective job moves to and works on another job for some hours/days/months and backs up to the first job. Similarly. in order to place them in an acceptable rank order which can then be used as a basis for a remuneration system. b. working conditions. an organisation establishes relationship in the external environment. He has to assume the full responsibility and perform all kinds of duties. Adjustment among people. British Institute of Management (1970) defined job evaluation as. “the process of analysing and assessing the content of jobs. A reactive change may be an automatic response or a planned response to change taking place in the environment. knowledge of a job with other jobs with a view to fix compensation payable to the concerned job holder. responsibilities like skill. French defined job evaluation as “a process of determining the relative worth of the various job within the organisation. systematic method and procedure of ranking. e. Change requires individuals and organisations to make new adjustments. as an organisation is mostly composed of people. Change could be both reactive and proactive. improves employee’s skills regarding various jobs. It makes the executives in general management and does not allow them to confine themselves to their specialised field only. prepares the competent employees and provides competitive advantages to the company. Jobs themselves are not actually changed. so that different wages may be paid to jobs of different worth”. A proactive change has necessarily to be planned to attempt to prepare for anticipated future challenges. is simply a technique designed to assist in the development of new pay structures by defining relatives between jobs on a consistent and systematic basis”. ranking and grading them by comparing the duties.Ans 8a. When a manger is posted to a new job as part of such a programme. Thus. Complexity and fear of adjustment gives rise to resistance and problem of change. The ideal behind this is to give him the required diversified skills and a broader outlook which are very important at the senior management levels. it is not merely an orientation assignment. d. colleagues. superiors etc. Job Rotation: Job rotation refers to the movement of an employee from one job to the other. People adjust with their jobs. Wendell L. Job Evaluation : Job evaluation deals with money and work. only the employees are rotated among various jobs. Resolving Conflict : The methods of resolving conflicts generally include: Methods of Resolving Conflicts | 32 . frequent job rotations are not advisable in view of their negative impact on the organisation and the employee. Multi Skilling : The transferring of executives from job to job and from department to department in a systematic manner is called Job Rotation. However. This measure relieves the employee from boredom and monotony. job evaluation may be defined as a process of determining the relative worth of jobs. Job evaluation. Job evaluation is defined as “the overall activity of involving an orderly. Individual members can resist either individually or in a group. The International Labour Organisation defined job evaluation as “an attempt to determine and compare demands which the normal performance of a particular job makes on normal workers without taking into account the individual abilities or performance of the workers concerned”. c. Job rotation increases the inter-departmental co-operation and reduces the monotony of work. therefore. technology and structural set up is established when an organisation operates for a long time. grading and weighing of jobs to determine the value of a specific job in relation to other jobs”.

He plays the role of an innovator. Compulsory Arbitration is utilized generally when the parties fail to arrive at a settlement through the voluntary methods. There may be three kinds of mediation: a. either by themselves or with the help of a mediator or conciliator. Voluntary Arbitration: if the two parties to the dispute fail to come to an agreement. Non-Government Board and c. It may be voluntary or compulsory. It is an extension of collective bargaining with third party assistance. distrust etc. Compulsory arbitration is one where the parties are required to arbitrate without any willingness on their part. the strikes and lockouts are required to be stopped and employers should not make any change in the conditions of employment. **************ALL THE BEST******************* HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-2004 Attempt any five questions All questions carry equal marks Answers should be in sufficient detail with Practical examples and illustrations.| | | Conciliation | | Investigation Mediation Voluntary Arbitration Compulsory Arbitration/Adjunction 1. The task of conciliation is to offer advice and make suggestions to the parties to the dispute on controversial issues. Conciliation: The main objective of a conciliation and arbitration is to reunite the two conflicting groups in the industry in order to avoid interruption of production. In this method. Investigations analyse the facts and aim at an amicable solution. 4. advisor. If mediation is conducted skillfully and sympathetically then it can bring about the adjustments of differences that might otherwise contribute to stoppage of work. discussion leader. c. they are ready to accept. It takes place with the consent of both the parties. The voluntary submission of dispute to an arbitrator. 3. 2. face saver. Total 100 marks 33 . The enforcement of an award may not be necessary 5. The subsequent attendance of witness and investigations and d. The conciliator induces the parties to a course of action. Semi Government Board. Conciliation is a process by which representatives of both workers and employers are brought together before a third party with a view to persuading them to arrive at some sort of settlement. an outsider assists the parties in their negotiations. He acts as a safety value and a communication link. If the investigation is conducted on an application by either or both the parties to the dispute it is voluntary. The Eminent Outsider b. It is at times necessary and desirable. Mediation: Another attempt to settle disputes is Mediation. Compulsory Arbitration/Adjudication: Where trade unions are weak the method of compulsory Arbitration is used. stimulator. The main aim of mediator is the settlement of disputes by bringing about a voluntary agreement. Conciliation machinery consists of conciliation officer and board of conciliations. The objective of state intervention in the field of industrial relations should be to do social justice and make the weaker party equally strong to enable it ultimately to stand and survive on its own and settle its differences through negotiations and collective bargaining. Investigation: This is conducted by a board or court appointed by the government. Any one of the parties may apply to the appropriate governments to refer the dispute to adjudication machinery. whose decision. When the investigation is compulsory. If the Government appoints a Court of Inquiry without the consent of the parties it is compulsory. The essential elements in voluntary arbitration are : b. protector. who agrees to submit the dispute to an impartial authority.

The basic principle is the organizations attitude towards filling vacancies. Recruitment policy takes into consideration the government’s reservation policy. whether from within or outside. supervisors and employees in the development and implementation of health and safety procedures 4. They furnish the general standards or bases on which decisions are reached. often a choice made between two or more alternatives. holidays. philosophy.__________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Q1. j The Health & Safety Policy: The policy statement should be a declaration of the intention of the employer the health and safety of his employees. 3. A policy is a stance. It takes care of providing the right man for the right job at the right time. that every effort will be made to involve all managers. Ans 1. and retirement benefits. improving the employee’s loyalty to the organization. What is Personnel Policy? Describe the important personnel policies that affect the job of a Personnel Manager. motivating the employees through internal promotions. Recruitment Policy: In order to have consistency throughout an organization. Personnel policy of Indian Railways relating to the above objectives is to fill 15% and 7. social responsibility in absorbing minority sections. It should emphasize four fundamental points 1. A policy is a guideline for making wise decisions. A personnel policy is a plan of action. The safety of employees and the public is of paramount importance. Their genesis lies in an organization’s values. internal sources. Personnel policies regarding merit. Example: HRM Policy in Indian Railways One of the personnel objectives of Indian Railways is to provide equal employment opportunities to the people of minority sections. policy regarding sons of the soil etc. it is necessary to lay down certain principles as guidelines for both management and staff. that safety will take precedence over expediency 3. women etc. If the organization is strongly unionized it is probable that a policy or promotion from within wherever possible is agreed with the unions. 7. a set of proposals and actions that act as a reference point for managers in their dealings with employees. 4. Personnel policies constitute guides to action. That health and safety legislation will be compiled within the spirit as well as the letter of the law. While formulating a recruitment policy the following factors should be taken care of by the Personnel manager: 1. It brings about stability in making decisions. 2. 34 . Personnel guide the course of action intended to accomplish personnel objectives. 6. such as the choice between promoting employees on than basis of merit versus promoting them on the basis of seniority. Government Policies Personnel policies of other competing organizations Organization’s personnel policies Recruitment sources Recruitment needs Recruitment cost Selection criteria and preference Working Conditions Policy: This policy deals with the hours of work. shift. 5. concepts and principles”. 2.Recruitment policy commits itself to the organizations personnel policy like enriching the organization’s human resources.5% of the vacancies from those candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes respectively.

Disciplinary Policy: This policy defines the code of conduct to be followed by every employee in his workplace. Social Benefit Policy: Most of the organizations have some social benefit scheme which is defined under this policy. existing employees and future human resource requirements. use of materials. Superannuation/Pension Policy: The employees need to be taken care after superannuation too. Work Rules Policy: It defines the work load. Promotion Policy: This is one of the most important policies. It includes eligibility etc and the maximum about that will be paid. What is Manpower Planning? What factors do you consider while forecasting. manpower needs of an organization? Ans 2. The Maternity Leave benefits etc. The eligibility and deduction of HRA etc. Housing loan Policy: Some Co’s take care of their employees housing needs too. Gratuity/PF Policy: The rules for gratuity are defined under this policy. LTA payment etc. equipment and machines. ability. special. Leave Policy: The Leave policy defines the sickness rules. knowledge. to assess the surplus or shortage of manpower and take measures accordingly. Transfer Policy: The guidelines for transfer etc are defined here. 7.’ provides the house etc.Pay Allowances & deductions Policy: It defines the rules and eligibility for payment of different allowances. to foresee the impact of technology on work. This policy becomes a very important document of reference in banks etc where transfers are done on a frequent basis. A well defined promotion policy will keep the employees motivated and achieve the Co’s goals for the betterment of the Co and self too. Manpower planning means planning means deciding the number and type of the human resources required for each job.. earned. 3. holiday leave. It defines the business ethics that are expected to be followed by every employee. the leave allowed every year which includes casual. 6. It also states the heads of deductions applicable. 4. In Pf it defines the process of availing loan/ withdrawing/transferring the PF as the case may be applicable. discipline etc. if the co. It clearly states the consequences to for violating such rules. unit and the total company for a particular future date in order to carry out organizational activities. Or they provide them with a house too. to recruit and retain the manpower of required quality and quantity. Grievance Policy: It defines the procedure to be followed to address any grievance that an employee may wish to address. diversification etc. is all defined. 2. to maintain congenial industrial relations by maintaining optimum level and structure of human resources 35 . to foresee the employee turnover and make the arrangements for minimizing turnover and filling up of consequent vacancies. Q2. Manpower planning may be viewed as foreseeing the human resources requirement of an organization and the future supply of human resources and (i) making necessary adjustments between these two and organizational plans and (ii) foreseeing the possibility of developing the supply of manpower resources in order to match it with the requirements by introducing necessary changes in the functions of human resources management. to improve the standards. The important objectives of manpower in an organization are 1. skill. to meet the needs of the programmes of expansion. 5. They give them subsidiary in interest on housing etc. The policy for the same and the procedure for availing pension are also defined.

managers decide the number of employees required for future operations based on their past experience. Analysing the corporate and unit level strategies. The above points are discussed in details: Demand Forecasting: The existing job design and analysis may thoroughly be reviewed keeping in view the future capabilities. Demand Forecasting: Forecasting the overall human resources requirements in accordance with the organisational plans. total production and activities in terms of clear units are estimated in a year.000 units = 0. future work quantum. right number in right time and right place. Factors to be considered while forecasting. Planned operations during 2005 = Standard man-hours needed to perform each unit in 2005 Planned man-hours needed per year in 2005 Work ability per employee in man-hours in 2005 = Number of employees required in 2005 = 1. 2. forecast the future supply of manpower from all sources with reference to plans of other companies. knowledge values.25 = 40. values. capabilities etc) in addition to quantity of human resources. Supply Forecasting: Obtaining the data and information about the present inventory of manpower and forecast the future changes in the human resources inventory. For eg. Under ratio trend analysis. future skills. Degree of uncertainty and length of planning period. Work Study Techniques: Under this method. Estimating the net manpower requirement. 3. to minimize the imbalances caused sue to non-availability of human resources of the right kind. Job analysis and forecast about the future components of human resources facilitate demand forecasting. Plan for recruitment. Managerial Judgement: Under this method.Estimated production as on (1-1-2005) 5000 units . Further the jobs should be redesigned and reanalyzed keeping in view the organizational and unit wise plans and programmes. . The jobs generally should be designed and analysed reflecting the future human resources and based on future organizational plans. knowledge and skills of present employees. ratios are calculated for the past data and these ratios are used for the estimation of the future manpower requirements For eg. 10. Statistical Techniques Include: ratio trend analysis and econometric models.Ratio is 2000/4 500 .Present number of foremen (1-1-2005) 5 . Plan to modify and adjust the organizational plan if future supply will be inadequate with reference to future net requirements.60. Later the required number of employees is calculated. knowledge and capabilities of present employees and prospective employees. One of the important aspects of demand forecasting of the quantity of human resources (skill. to make the best use of its human resources and to estimate the cost of human resources.Foreman required as on (1-1-2005) 5000/500 = 10 Econometric models for manpower planning are built up by analyzing the past statistical data and by bringing the relationship among variables. future activity or task analysis.8. 9.000 40000/20000=20 Supply Forecasting 36 .Present level of production (1-1-2005) 2000 units . manpower needs of an organization. Then man-hours required to produce each unit is calculated. In case of future deficit. In case of future surplus than plan for redeployment. Important forecasting methods are: 1.000 2. development and internal mobility if future supply is more than or equal to net manpower requirements.

environmental factors and behavioural factors. There are three important approaches to job design viz 1) engineering approach 2) human approach and 3) job characteristics approach. 2. What is Job Design? How is it different from Job Analysis? Explain with suitable examples. similar operations) like production engineer (mechanical) and maintenance engineer (mechanical) and broad families like general administration. subordinates and colleagues. number. Redeployment takes place in the form of transfers. all jobs related to the same category like clerks. department wise. and to satisfy the needs of individual employees like interests. employees can be redeployed in other jobs/departments where the deficit of employees is estimated. systems and procedures and on the relationships that should exist between the job holder and his superiors. Action Plan for Redeployment. It indicates age wise imbalances in present inventory which can be correlated in future selections and promotions. Recruitment and Selection Plan : Recruitment and selection plan covers the number and type of employees required. If the deficit is not estimated in any job/department and surplus is estimated for the entire organization. Job Analysis is the process of determining. preliminary training and placement. achievement or accomplishment etc. the organization has to plan for redeployment. Ans 3. Q. recruitment techniques to be used. designation-wise and department wise would be obtained. Two important goals to job design are to meet the organizational requirements such as higher productivity. The organization should also plan for training or re-orientation before redeployment of employees. sex-wise. production etc. If surplus is estimated in some jobs/departments. Principal dimensions of manpower planning are: 1. Age Inventory: It includes age-wise number and category of employees. designation-wise. in consultation with the trade unions has to plan for redundancy or retrenchment. time necessary for recruitment and selection process. the organization. sub job family i. Job design is defined as the process of deciding on the content of a job in terms of duties. 3. Existing inventory at a future date is calculated as follows: Existing inventory at A future date = Present Inventory as on today + Potential additions .e. on the methods to be used in carrying out the job. when they are required for the job. responsibilities of job holders. Factors affecting job design include: organizational factors. Existing Inventory: The data relating to present human resources inventory in terms of humans components. Job Family Inventory : It includes number and category of employees of each job family i. The difference between overall manpower and future supply of manpower is to be found out.The first step of forecasting the future supply of human resources is to obtain the data and information about the present human resources inventory. pay roll wise etc. challenges.e. Redundancy/Retrenchment: If future surplus is estimated. The difference is the net manpower requirement. quality of product/services etc. cashiers. Head counts regarding total. It also covers the time factor for induction. selection procedure to be adopted and selection techniques to be used to subsequently recruiting the required candidates. in terms of techniques. skill-wise. redundancy etc. all jobs having common job characteristics (skill. by observation and study and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job.Potential Losses Estimating the Net Man Power Requirements: Net manpower requirements in terns of number and components are to be determined in relation to the overall man power requirements for a future date and supply forecast for that date. operational efficiency.3. qualification. Finally the goal of the job design is to integrate the needs of the individuals with the organizational requirements. recruitment sources. It is the determination of the tasks which comprise 37 .

They are also aware of the job requirements and organizational culture of their company.the job and of skills. Job Context. Whether exposed to heat. Work schedule. The goal of job design is to integrate the needs of the individual with the organization requirements. They are inexperienced as far as work experience is concerned. Employee Referrals: Present employees are well aware of the qualifications. horizontal reenforces and high productivity). These principles seem to be quite rational and appealing as they point towards increased organizational performance. knowledge. 2. empowerment. 4 Public Employment Exchanges: The Government set up Public Employment Exchanges in the country to provide information about vacancies to the candidates and to help the organization in finding out suitable candidates. task significance. Job enrichment. Aptitude. Job enlargement. toxic substances. narrow authority and responsibility) and Broad job design (job satisfaction due to variety of task. Motivation. Line managers are relieved from recruitment functions and can concentrate on operational activities. specific education and training. Social context. The modern sources of Recruitment are: 1. Unlike job analyses which aims at studying the nature of the job etc. List of Machine Tools. Indoor versus outdoor environment Organisational context. attitudes. Incentives (financial and non financial) Personnel Requirements: Specific skills. autonomy and feedback are called core job dimensions. makes it obligatory for 38 . Within Job Bandwidth there is a narrow job design (multi layers. 3 Private Employment Agencies/Consultants: Public employment agencies or consultants like ABC Consultants in India perform recruitment functions on behalf of a client company by charging fees. Physical movements and demands required to perform the job. As per the Employment Exchange act 1959. As such they can make preliminary judgment regarding the match between the job and their friends and relatives. like how is a task performed? Why is a task performed? When is a task performed? Interface with other jobs and equipments Procedures used. task identity. Job bandwidth. Campus Recruitment: These candidates are directly recruited by the Co. experience and emotions of their friends and relatives. Work experience. It has a job characteristics approach which assumes that employees will work hard when they are rewarded for the work they do and when the work gives them satisfaction. Physical working conditions. Physical characteristics. What are the modern sources and techniques of Recruitment? Ans 4. Analysis of Behaviours required on the job. abilities and responsibilities required of the worker of a successful performance and which differentiate one job from all others. It has a human relations approach and recognizes the need to design the jobs which are interesting and rewarding. and is based on scientific management principles. satisfaction and performance should be integrated in the job design. Equipment and Work Aids used. dust. 4. Job Design has options like Job Rotation. Jobs with skill variety. Job Design It has an engineering approach which studies the work scientifically. Job Analysis Description of Work activties. Q. from their college/educational institution.

9. Professional Organizations: Professional organizations or associations maintain complete biodata of their members and provide the same to various organizations on requisition. 7 Casual Applicants: Depending on the image of the organization its prompt response participation of the organization in the local activities. Organizations advertise the job vacancies through the world wide wed (www). 5. 6 Data Banks: The management can collect the bio-data of the candidates from different sources like Employment Exchange.public sector and private sector enterprises in India to fill certain types of vacancies through public employment exchanges. This would be a suitable source for temporary and lower level jobs.Outsourcing: Some organizations recently started developing human resource pool by employing the candidates for them.Body Shopping: Professional organizations and the hi-tech training develop the pool of human resource for the possible employment. It will become another source and the co can get the particulars as and when required. Body shopping is also known as employee leasing activity. Otherwise the organizations themselves approach the prospective employers to place their human resources.E_recruitment: The technological revolution in telecommunications helped the organizations to use internet as a source of recruitment. These organizations do not utilize the human resources.Walk In: The busy organization and rapid changing companies do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment. In addition the companies do also alliances in sharing their human resource on adhoc basis. Techniques of Recruitment: 39 . level of unemployment. The body shopping is used mostly for computer professionals. 13. mergers and take over help in getting human resources. These professional and training institutions are called body shoppers and these activities are known as body shopping. Head hunters are also called search consultants.Mergers and Acquisitions: Business alliances like acquisitions. 15. 8 Similar Organizations: Generally experienced candidates are available in organizations producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. The Management can get potential candidates from this source. Educational Training Institutes. candidates etc and feed them in the computer. 14. The prospective employers contact these organizations to recruit the candidates. instead they supply HRs to various companies based on their needs on temporary or ad-hoc basis. The job seekers send their applications through e-mail using the internet. 10. 12. The companies select the suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the positions. 11. time and at a specified place. Trade Unions: Generally unemployed or underemployed persons or employees seeking change in employment put a word to the trade union leaders with a view to getting suitable employment due to latter rapport with the management. Therefore they advise the potential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified date.Consult In: the busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. candidates apply casually for jobs through mail or handover the application in the Personnel dept. They act as an exchange between their members and recruiting firm.

Analyse job requirements . magazines of all kind.Recruitment techniques are the means or media by which management contacts prospective employees or provide necessary information or exchanges ideas in order to stimulate them to apply for jobs. Transfers: employees will be stimulated to work in the new sections or places if the management wishes to transfer them to the places of their choice.Design the advertisement . Salary and Perks: Companies stimulate the prospective candidates by offering higher level salary. though it mostly provides one way communication. ESOP stimulated may candidates to seek jobs in ALCATEL. It provides the candidates in different sources. For each share subscribed.000/. television etc. 84% of the Indian employees have taken up the offer. ESOP’s: Companies recently started stimulating the employees by offering stock ownership to the employees through their Employees Stock Ownership Programmes (ESOPs) ESOP AT ALCATEL Alcatel.2lakh employees participated in the plan. The stock option plan covered 50 countries and almost 60. The representatives provide information about the company and exchange information and ideas and clarify the doubts of the candidates.Evaluate response. the first every global stock option programme has received the highest percentage of subscriptions from India. the employee had the right of four stock options and they were allowed to invest upto one fourth of the gross annual salary. 3. and express their willingness to be engaged in the higher level jobs if the management gives them the assurance that they will be promoted to the next higher level. Promotions: Most of the internal candidates would be stimulated to take up higher responsibilities 2. The technique of advertising should aim at attracting attention of the prospective candidates ii) creating and maintaining interest and stimulating action by the candidates.Write the copy . 3. quick promotions etc. Management uses different types of techniques to stimulate internal and external candidates. Modern Techniques of Recruitment: 1. more perks.put of the total 1.Plan and select the media and . the information about the job and company and stimulates them to apply for jobs.Decide who does what . 40 . Techniques of Recruitment are divided into two viz Traditional and Modern: Traditional Techniques Promotions Transfers Advertising Modern Techniques Scouting Salary & Perks ESOP’s Traditional Techniques of Recruitment: 1. 2. Alcatel offered 2.25 million shares and 9 million stock options under the programme. Advertising: Advertising is a widely accepted technique of recruitment. Scouting: Scouting means sending the representation of the organizations to various sources of recruitment with a view to persuading or stimulating the candidates to apply for jobs. It includes advertising through different media like newspapers. Management in order to achieve these objectives of advertising has to: .

including the degree of readiness. Every human being needs to be motivated to work in a desired way and give a desired output. Types of motivation: There are two ways by which people can be motivated. Motivation is derived from the word Motive. higher production and better standards of living of the people. Human beings also have an inherent desire to prosper. And 5. Fear creates frustration. To achieve this un tapped potential one must either use the rewards or punishment way to achieve the desired goals. He may be demotivated when punishment is used. Negative Motivation (Punishment): By installing fear in the minds of people. He may influence the others who are afraid of the punishment not to perform. adopts to get the job done from its employees in the most fruitful way. It he is fearless. In some cases this situation will work and in some cases it may not. To understand the relationship of rewards and punishments tactic used to motivate men one must understand the Objective of motivation. wage plans. social recognition etc. productive bonus schemes etc. This statement can be considered true as well as false depending on the situation and also the leadership style that the Co. In such a situation meeting deadline and goals of the Co. Motive is an inner state that energizes. and unrest at the work place. An employee responds very well only if rewards are seen. To achieve this psychological need an employee would work hard to achieve desired goals and in such a case the Reward mechanism will work to motivate him and prove an efficient worker. Positive Motivation (Reward): People are said to be motivated positively when they are shown a reward and the way to achieve it. In short a combination of rewards and punishment is not the only way to effectively motivate an employee. This method has got several limitations. It is a degree of readiness of an organization to pursue some designated goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus of the forces. Motivation represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying the need. Non-monetary motivation may include praise for work. and be financially strong. The Basic Process of Motivation = Needs------------------Drives---------------------- Goals/Incentives (Deficiency) Deficiency with Direction Reduction of drives & fulfils deficiencies. participation in management. industrial dispute. One is a positive approach or pull mechanism which can be considered as a reward approach and the second is a negative approach or push mechanism which can be considered as punishment tactic. Monetary incentives provide the worker a better standard of life while non-monetary incentives satisfy the ego of a man. fear of consequences of doing something or not doing something keeps the worker in the desired direction. It is a bare fact that most of us use only a small portion of our mental and physical abilities. It may work in a small organization but it is a very risky strategy to adopt in a unionized firm. a hostile state of mind and an unfavorable attitude towards the job which hinders efficiency and productivity.. Explain. To exploit the unused potential in people they are to be motivated. A situational combination of rewards and punishments can effectively motivate men. So the use of it should be kept minimum. activates or moves and directs or channels behaviour towards goals”. Positive motivation seeks to create an optimistic atmosphere in the enterprise. 41 .. Such exploitation leads to greater efficiency. Monetary motivation may include different incentives. Is the statement true or false. Such a reward way may be financial or non-financial. In this method of motivation.Q5. will go in the background. Hence as a general statement it cannot be wholly considered true or wholly considered false. and a trouble maker and have a backing by the union he may not fear any punishment. one can get the desired work done. In such a situational there will be difference of opinion.

Peers: Peer appraisal may be reliable if the work group is stable over a reasonably long period of time and performs tasks that require interaction. Performance appraisal by all these parties is called 360 degree performance appraisal. especially in developed countries. Secondly it involves the opinion of other too. it is true that 360 degrees of Performance Appraisal can do away with biased approach while assessing an employee. other employees.Q. General practice is that immediate superior appraises the performance which in turn is reviewed by the departmental head/manager. A report is done by the appraiser based on what he has observed.6. Self Appraisal: If individuals understand the objectives they are expected to achieve and the standards by which they are to be evaluated. These are facts that cannot be disputed by either the appraiser or employee. He should prepare reports and make judgements without bias. they are to a great extend in the best position to appraise their own performance. subordinates. speed in doing the job and accuracy can be better judged by the customer or users of services. There is no room for manipulation of performance on paper by the appraiser. Users of Services/Customers: Employee performance in service organizations relating to behaviours. consultants are trained and they observe the employee at work for a sufficiently long time for the purpose of appraisal. Hewett Packard. Fed Ex Design a Balanced Scorecard performance measurement system. peer appraisal or subordinate appraisal. employees who appraise their own performance may become highly motivated. General Electric. escorts. The appraiser should be capable of determining what is more important and what is relatively less important. Subordinates: The concept of having superiors rated by subordinates is being used in most organizations today. Hence the appraiser cannot be biased or favour the employee he wishes too. user of service and customers. The appraiser may be any person who has thorough knowledge about the job content. little research has been conducted to determine how peers establish standards for evaluating others or the overall effect of peer appraisal on the group’s attitude. Yes. Examples of Performance Appraisal Xerox Toyota Provide a core set of metrics for use across the organization. standards of contents and who observes the employee while performing a job. It is not the report of just one person who could be biased otherwise. Consultants: Sometimes consultants may be engaged for appraisal when employees or employers do not trust supervisor appraisal and the management does not trust self appraisal. Appraisal is an appraisal which is an appraisal which is an unbiased way of appraisal and is conducted. promptness. peers. contents to be appraised. Wipro etc implement self appraisal. Ands 6. Give your views. For eg. practice 360 degree performance appraisal. employees themselves. Such a novel method can be useful in other organizational settings too provided the relationships between superiors and subordinates are cordial. Colgate – Palmolive. Thermax. 42 . In this situation. the employee himself etc. 360 degrees Performance Appraisal mostly can do away with biased approach while assessing an employee. Here the performance appraisal is not just done across the table. This kind of appraisal is more performance and result based. In this technique the employee is observed while performing a job. Typical appraisers are supervisors. Do you agree with the above statement. like peers. Teacher’s performance is better judged by students and performance of a doctor is judged by patients. Focus performance reviews on goals rather than number to ensure employee alignment. other superiors having knowledge about the work of the employee and department head or manager. Hindustan Lever Limited. However. Federal Express Daily Performance Measurement Reporting. The whole process of a 360 degree appraisal is discussed as under: Supervisors: Supervisors include superiors of the employee. Grasim. Also since employee’s development means self development. Pond’s.

skills and attitudes and make themselves competent managers. 43 . This is very essential because a manager will learn the processes that take place for different jobs. The need for Management Development for internal mobility arises due to the following reasons: 1. Management development concept works on a technique that help develop the Manager and hence helps in internal mobility. it helps understand the problems of human relations and improve human relation skills and 12. necessitates the management to offer developmental programmes. 2. It increases the morale of the members of the management group. 7. 2. It increases versatility of the management group. It gives the specialists an overall view of the functions of an organization and equips them to coordinate each others efforts effectively. knowledge and abilities. It overhauls the management machinery. mechanical engineers. The need can be defined as under: 1. Enterprise Resource Planning. Management development is a systematic process of growth and development by which the managers develop their abilities to manage. 6. Entry of multinational and transnational corporations brought new trends and strategies for the domestic companies also. 11. social and technical rears. These factors necessitated the domestic companies to undertake developmental programmes. It makes a manager helps a manager to think differently and take wise decisions. 3. It improves the performance of the manager. It improves the thought process and analytical ability. Business Process Re-engineering. 4. He may specialize in one subject but to have an idea of how things are in another area of specialization is the intention of MDP. 5. Professionalisation of management at all levels particularly in service organizations need the development of managerial skills and knowledge particularly at lower and middle levels. It is concerned with improving the performance of the manager by giving them opportunities for growth and development. 9.Q7. The role of the company in management development is to establish the programme and develop opportunities for its present and potential managers. It creates the management succession which can take over in case of contingencies. The emergence of new concepts in management like Total Quality Management (TQM). It keeps the executives abreast with the changes and developments in their respective fields. which in turn depends on organization structure of the company. There are mainly two types of methods by which managers can acquire the knowledge. It helps to understand the conceptual issues relating to economic. The Management Development Programme is designed with a view to achieving specific objectives which are very essential for internal mobility in an organization. Comment. It stimulates creative thinking. 4. So it is the result of not only participation in formal courses of instruction but also of actual job experience. One is through formal training and the other is through on job experiences. For internal mobility Management Development Programme is a must. 5. It broadens the outlook of the executives regarding his role position and responsibilities. information/systems engineers need to be developed in the arrears of managerial skills. Ans 7. 8. The need for management development arises due to providing technical skills and conceptual skills to non technical managers and managerial skills and conceptual skills to technical managers. 3. 10. Techno managers like basic chemical engineers. Empowerment etc.

Every permanent employee is a liability to the organization. a) Probationary period b) Sons of soil theory in recruitment c) Appraisal by Peers d) Career Development e) Maslows theory of needs a) Probationary Period: Probation period is a time when an employee is employed in the organization with the intention of becoming permanent but subject to his performance during the probation period. under study and multiple management. This would thus help him in getting a permanent placement in the organization. which are important to manage people better. Problem solving through decision-making can be developed quite well with the help of simulation. This technique is mainly useful in bringing the managers out of their narrow shells and helps them gain a broader outlook and knowledge in different functional areas. statutory dues etc. The subordinate will be able to take over his position and manage as effectively as his boss could.. practical judgment and social awareness. During this period he is not entitled to the benefits that a permanent employee enjoys. job rotation. An understudy is normally chosen with forethought of making available to the organization a subordinate who is equal to his superior in the event of retirement.Some of the Job techniques that facilitate internal mobility are: The important on the job techniques are coaching.8. when needed in the interest of the organization. The technique improves one’s intellectual ability. There are many facilities. Write short notes on any three of the following. The most difficult thing for any one is to change his own attitude. Technique Job Rotation Understudy Suitability This is particularly useful in development of diversified skills and to give executives a broader outlook. illness or death of the superior. To develop leadership qualities in executives over a long period of time. Q. that 44 . this technique is used. it is very clear that Management Development Programme is just inevitable and has to be conducted to facilitate internal mobility. which are very important to the upper management levels. This technique is used in order to develop organizational ability. quickness of thinking and leadership. If he needs to improve in any area than he is informed to do so before the probationary period is over. During this period the employee’s performance is reviewed and his superior updates him if he is not in line with the company’s expectation. The period is usually 6 months to 1 year. The probation period is a period where the employee and employee get a chance to review the suitability to the organization. This helps one know more about himself and the impact of his behaviour on others. Multiple Management Case Study Incident Method Role Playing In Basket Business Games Sensitivity Training Simulation Managerial Grid Conferences Lectures With the above. This technique develops the ability of the executives to modify their attitudes. Situational judgment and social sensitivity are the two important qualities that can be developed with the help of this method. Role playing helps executives in understanding people better by giving them vicarious experiences. This is the best technique to give more knowledge in a short period of time to a large number of participants. In the development of executive and analytical and decision making skills.

Results: Career development programme should be integrated with the organization’s ongoing employee training and management development programmes. If the performance of the employee is not satisfactory the employer may not employ him in his organization. that is set up in their area of residence or the state that they belong too. In such cases the locals seek for employment. But in certain places it is not easy to set up a Co. Peer appraisal may be reliable if the work group is stable over a reasonably long period of time and performs tasks that require interaction. they no longer work as motivators as a man seeks to satisfy the next higher level of needs. He says when one set of needs is satisfied. b) Sons of the soil theory in Recruitment: The sons of the soil theory basically mean the locals should be given a chance to work for a Co.. The programme should be evaluated from time to time in order to revise the programme. Vision: The needs of the career system must be linked with the interventions. Needs-defining the present system 2.. They are 1. without the local support and hence the Co. The support of the top management should be obtained in this process. human needs form a hierarchy. The appraisal is done by the Peer group of the employee to be appraised. An ideal development system known as the vision links the needs with the interventions. So every employer prefers to review an employee during the probation period before he brings him on permanent roll. is forced to cater to the sons of the soil theory in recruitment. The Co’s today are going to remote places for cheaper land and setting up their businesses in remote arrears. Vision-determining new directions and possibilities 3. The locals may not be as educated and skillful as the job requirement. The advantage is that cheap labour is available to the Co. compared to getting its own people and paying them higher salaries and giving them additional facilities to work at a place away from their regular set-up (residence). Career development has four steps. if he is not satisfied with his performance. Action plan-deciding on practical first steps and results – maintaining the change. Needs: This step involves in the conducting of needs assessment as a training programme. e) Maslows Theory of Needs. c) Appraisal by Peers: It is performance appraisal used in a 360 degree performance appraisal. needs to comply towards a permanent employee. may not get the desired output even if they give them training etc. In case of a permanent employee it is not easy for the employer to throw him out of the Co. According to Maslow.the Co. Action Plan: An action plan should be formulated in order to achieve the vision... d) Career Development: Career development is those personal improvements one undertakes to achieve a personal career plan. staring at the bottom with the physiological needs and ascending to the highest need of self actualization... __________________________________________________ Need for Self-Actualization __________________________________________________ Physiological Needs __________________________________________________ Esteem Needs __________________________________________________ Social Needs -Affiliation or Acceptance Needs __________________________________________________ Security of Safety Needs __________________________________________________ Physiological Needs 45 . However in son of the soil there is a great disadvantage. However. little research has been conducted to determine how peers establish standards for evaluating others or the overall effect of peer appraisal on the group’s attitude. In such case the Co.

sleep and sexual satisfaction. Security/Safety Needs: These refer to the need to be free of physical danger or the feeling of loss of food. Social needs at the work place include: Human relations. membership in unions. Security needs spring up the moment he makes an effort in the direction of providing himself the source of continuity of physiological needs. food. When the physiological needs are satisfied. Maslow says that until these needs are satisfied to the required level. water. status and self confidence. job or shelter. **************ALL THE BEST****************** 46 . severance pay etc. allowance. man starts thinking of the way by which he can satisfy his safety needs. In a work environment these needs include conformity. This is exactly why he looks for the association of other human beings and strives hard to be accepted by this group. These needs for employees include status symbols. formal and informal work groups. security plans. This refers to the desire to become what one is capable of becoming. promotions. titles etc. Esteem Needs: These needs are power. Social Needs: (Affiliation or Acceptance Needs) When the physiological and security needs are satisfied. shelter. awards. man does not aim for the satisfaction of next level of needs. these needs include basic needs like pay. As far as work environment is concerned.__________________________________________________ MASLOW”S HIERACHY OF NEEDS ========================================== The Need Hierarchy: Physiological Needs: These are the basic necessities of human life. Every man has a feeling of importance and he wants others to regard him highly. warmth. These needs makes people aim high and make them achieve something great. incentives and benefits. Man tries to maximize his potential and accomplish something. these social needs begin occupying the mind of a man. Self Actualization Needs: This is the highest need in the hierarchy. when this need is activated in him.

selection. Ans 1. recruitment. leading and activating people. Tapping the maximum potentialities of the people is possible through motivation and command. 47 . Organising : An organization is a means to an end. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Q1. Thus an organization establishes relationships among the employees so that they can collectively contribute to the attainment of company goals. organizing and directing various activities of personnel management. Planning pertains to formulating strategies of personnel programmes and changes in advance that will contribute to the organizational goals. Co-ordination deals with the task of blending efforts in order to ensure successful attainment of an objective. identification of deviations if any and standards through controls. training etc. requirements. Discuss the functions of Human Resource Management in an organization. Controlling also involves checking. The willing and effective co-operation of employees for the attainment of organizational goals is possible through proper direction. identifies relationships and integrates its activities towards a common objective. It is essential to carry out the determined course of action. Directing : The next logical function after completing planning and organizing is the execution of the plan. organizing. The basic function of personnel management at any level is motivating. commanding. the performance is to be verified in order to know that the personnel functions are performed in conformity with the plans and directions of an organization.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-2005 Attempt any five questions Total 100 marks All questions carry equal marks Answers should be in sufficient detail with Practical examples and illustrations. It involves planning of human resources. Planning: It is pre-determined course of action. verifying and comparing of the actuals with the plans. Managerial Functions: Managerial functions of personnel management involve planning. attitudes and behaviour of employees and their impact on the organization. Enumerate the challenges of HRM in the present organizational context. The functions of HRM can be broadly classified into two categories viz 1) Managerial Functions 2) Operative Functions : Managerial Functions Planning Organising Directing Controlling FUNCTIONS OF HRM Operative Functions Employment Human Resources Development Compensation Human Relations Industrial Relations Recent Trends in HRM 1. It also involves forecasting of personnel needs. directing and controlling. Auditing training programmes. An organization is a structure and a process by which a co-operative group of human beings allocates its task among its members. conducting separate interviews are some of the means of controlling the personnel management function and making it effective. changing values. analyzing labour turnover records. Complex relationships exist between the specialized departments and the general departments as many top managers are seeking the advice of the personnel manager. Controlling: After planning. directing morale surveys.

knowledge. intra and inter group relations. Employment: It is the first operative function of Human Resource Management. bonus. Demotion. recent trends in HRM include: Quality of work life Total quality in human resources HR accounting. equitable and fair remuneration to the employees. incentives. All these functions are interacted with managerial functions. It covers functions such as job analysis. Industrial Relations: Industrial relations refer to the study of relations among employees. aptitude. values. Promotion. Training. selection. It includes Performance Appraisal. Career Planning and Development. Human relations is an rear of management in integrating people into work situations in a away that motivates them to work together productively cooperatively and with economic. placement. Improving quality of work life of employees through participation and other means. Employment is concerned with securing and employing the people possessing the required kind and level of human resources necessary to achieve the organizational objectives. audit and research and Recent techniques of HRM The challenges of HRM in the present organizational context. The 48 . Handling disciplinary cases by means of an established disciplinary procedure. Change and Organisational Development. wage administration and salary administration..2. human resource planning. intra and inter personnel relations. employer. fringe benefits. molding and changing the skills. government and trade unions. creative ability. learning. It is a process of interaction among human beings. psychological and social satisfaction. family and work problems and releasing their stress. It includes job evaluation. among workers and trade unions and the management. social security measures etc. induction and internal mobility. Strain and tensions. Transfer. Human Resource Development: It is a process of improving. Management Development. compensation and relations. Human Relations: Practicing various human resources policies and programmes like employment. Motivating the employees Boosting employee morale Developing the communication skills Developing the communications skills Redressing employee grievances properly and in time by means of a well-formulated grievance procedure. development and compensation and interaction among employees create a sense of relationship between the individual worker and management. Counseling the employees in solving their personal. commitment etc. based on present and future job and organizational requirements. Industrial relations include: Indian labour market Trade unionism Collective bargaining Industrial conflicts Worker’s participation in management and Quality circles Recent Trends in HRM : Human Resources Management has been advancing at a fast rate. Internal Mobility. employment. It includes: Understanding and applying the models of perception. personality. recruitment. Operative Functions: The operative functions of human resources management are related to specific activities of personnel management viz. Compensation: It is a process of providing adequate. development.

Changing demands of employer: changes always are not on the side of employees. 3. All these challenges are discussed below. 2) More female employees. 6. Unless the organization develops mechanisms for coping with these self-generated pressures. taking organization. tend to be generated. Customers: Organizations produce products or render services for the ultimate consumption use by the customer. if the services rendered are less qualitative. Increased formal education has led to the change of attitude of the employees. v) Level of education in recent years is comparatively very higher. schedules tribes and backward communities. The Payment of Bonus Act 1965. Human Resource in the Country: The structure. Trade Union act 1962. Payment of wages Act 1936. The 2. region. The Minimum Wages Act 1923. 49 . technical personnel. a. But the need for Govt. skilled workers. 1. The role of the government in business has after 1991 with the announcement of economic liberalization. Changes in employee Roles and their Values: Earlier the management could totally control its employees and get the desired output. 4. Organizations also undergo changes and consequently their demands on employees will also change. When many such goals are pursued tremendous internal pressures some of them conflicting. 5. community. Among these are moves 1) emphasis on quality of life rather than quantity ii) equality and justice for employees over economic efficiency iii) participation over authority. The influence of manpower in the country can be studies through the changes in structure of employment.A goal seeking organizations especially one that seeks improvement over the current situation is a challenge. 3) The workforce consists of different regions but due to increased transportation facilities and mobile character of people. Maternity Benefit Act 1961. As a consequence of these changes. knowledge etc to cope with the new changes. due to increased career orientation among women to the suitability of women for certain jobs and to women becoming more acclimatized to the working climate and higher level of commitment. interference arose out of the belief that Government is the custodian of industrial and economic activities. However awareness of legislations is very important like the Factory Act. iv) Workers now prefer flexible working hours to fixed time schedule. computer operators and machine operators are increasingly required while the demand for other categories of employers has declined. There has been a significant change in the structure of employment with the entry of 1) candidates belonging to the schedule castes. Changing structure of workforce has led to the introduction of new values in organization. There are many challenges that it has to face to survive. Today the employees have to be considered as a partner in the organization. These changes in workforce are a challenge and a complicated task of HR function. Technological factors: Just as necessity is the mother of invention competition and a host of other reasons are responsible for the rapid technological changes and innovations. In other words organizations depend upon customers for their survival and growth. it may face major failure and suffer disastrous retreats from its goal. traditions culture etc). sex. Standing Order Act 1946. Government and Legal factors: Until 1940 the government was not involved or interested regarding the problems of labor or industry. values and the level of education of human resource in a country influence much of the Human Resource function. Change in the Structure of Employment: The structure of employment in an organization changes with the entrance of workforce with different backgrounds (Social economic.. All these acts if not complied with can get the organization into deep trouble. 1948. The information technological revolution and neck to neck marketing competition of most of the organizations due to globalization demand that the existing employees adopt to the everchanging work situation and learn new skills. The Employment Exchange Act. Human Resource function cannot be performed in a vacuum. Customers revolt against employees. It has to deal with employees with different backgrounds. and The Apprentice Act 1961. Hence procurement of skilled employees and their increase in numbers to match the changing job requirements has become a complicated task. religion.

Social factors: Social environment consists of class structure. Manpower planning means planning means deciding the number and type of the human resources required for each job. What is Manpower Planning? Discuss the process and importance of Man Power Planning in an organization . Important forecasting methods are: 1. Ans2.banks face such type of challenges. traditions. In case of future deficit. future work quantum. Plan to modify and adjust the organizational plan if future supply will be inadequate with reference to future net requirements. managers decide the number of employees required for future operations based on their past experience. Under ratio trend analysis. Further the jobs should be redesigned and reanalyzed keeping in view the organizational and unit wise plans and programmes.Present number of foremen (1-1-2005) 5 . The process of manpower planning in an organization. knowledge values. Degree of uncertainty and length of planning period. Demand Forecasting: Forecasting the overall human resources requirements in accordance with the organisational plans. future skills. values. mobility social roles social values nature and development of social institutions caste structure and occupational structure. future activity or task analysis. In case of future surplus than plan for redeployment.Present level of production (1-1-2005) 2000 units . knowledge and skills of present employees. development and internal mobility if future supply is more than or equal to net manpower requirements. if it does not follow the social policies of the country. Statistical Techniques Include: ratio trend analysis and econometric models. knowledge and capabilities of present employees and prospective employees. Ans 2. Analysing the corporate and unit level strategies. unit and the total company for a particular future date in order to carry out organizational activities. Manpower planning may be viewed as foreseeing the human resources requirement of an organization and the future supply of human resources and (i) making necessary adjustments between these two and organizational plans and (ii) foreseeing the possibility of developing the supply of manpower resources in order to match it with the requirements by introducing necessary changes in the functions of human resources management. One of the important aspects of demand forecasting of the quantity of human resources (skill.Ratio is 2000/4 500 50 . 2. Job analysis and forecast about the future components of human resources facilitate demand forecasting. ratios are calculated for the past data and these ratios are used for the estimation of the future manpower requirements For eg. Customers may develop a negative attitude towards the organization. Hence the customers pose a challenge special ally in service industry. capabilities etc) in addition to quantity of human resources. Supply Forecasting: Obtaining the data and information about the present inventory of manpower and forecast the future changes in the human resources inventory. religion culture etc. forecast the future supply of manpower from all sources with reference to plans of other companies. The above points are discussed in details: Demand Forecasting: The existing job design and analysis may thoroughly be reviewed keeping in view the future capabilities. Managerial Judgment: Under this method. Plan for recruitment. To cater to everyone’s requirement and keep them happy is a big challenge faced by HR today. Estimating the net manpower requirement. The jobs generally should be designed and analysed reflecting the future human resources and based on future organizational plans. . Q2. 7.

total production and activities in terms of clear units are estimated in a year. designation-wise. The organization should also plan for training or re-orientation before redeployment of employees. the organization. qualification. which can be correlated in future selections and promotions. Age Inventory: It includes age-wise number and category of employees.e. Redeployment takes place in the form of transfers. time necessary for recruitment and selection process. production etc. Principal dimensions of manpower planning are: 4. number. Then man-hours required to produce each unit is calculated. Later the required number of employees is calculated.e. recruitment sources. Action Plan for Redeployment.000 40000/20000=20 Supply Forecasting The first step of forecasting the future supply of human resources is to obtain the data and information about the present human resources inventory. The importance of manpower planning in an organization is : 51 . 6. department wise. 5. employees can be redeployed in other jobs/departments where the deficit of employees is estimated. selection procedure to be adopted and selection techniques to be used to subsequently recruiting the required candidates. when they are required for the job. designation-wise and department wise would be obtained. skill-wise. It also covers the time factor for induction. If surplus is estimated in some jobs/departments. sex-wise.000 2. Work Study Techniques: Under this method. redundancy etc. If the deficit is not estimated in any job/department and surplus is estimated for the entire organization. It indicates age wise imbalances in present inventory. The difference between overall manpower and future supply of manpower is to be found out. Planned operations during 2005 = Standard man-hours needed to perform each unit in 2005 Planned man-hours needed per year in 2005 Work ability per employee in man-hours in 2005 = Number of employees required in 2005 = 1.000 units = 0. recruitment techniques to be used. Recruitment and Selection Plan: Recruitment and selection plan covers the number and type of employees required. all jobs having common job characteristics (skill.- Estimated production as on (1-1-2005) Foreman required as on (1-1-2005) 5000 units 5000/500 = 10 Econometric models for manpower planning are built up by analyzing the past statistical data and by bringing the relationship among variables. Existing inventory at a future date is calculated as follows: Existing inventory at A future date = Present Inventory as on today + Potential additions . Existing Inventory: The data relating to present human resources inventory in terms of humans components. cashiers. similar operations) like production engineer (mechanical) and maintenance engineer (mechanical) and broad families like general administration. Redundancy/Retrenchment: If future surplus is estimated.Potential Losses Estimating the Net Man Power Requirements: Net manpower requirements in terns of number and components are to be determined in relation to the overall manpower requirements for a future date and supply forecast for that date. Job Family Inventory: It includes number and category of employees of each job family i. preliminary training and placement. Head counts regarding total. in consultation with the trade unions has to plan for redundancy or retrenchment.25 = 40. the organization has to plan for redeployment. For eg. all jobs related to the same category like clerks. The difference is the net manpower requirement. sub job family i.60. pay roll wise etc.

They are also aware of the job requirements and organizational culture of their company. ability. Employee Referrals: Present employees are well aware of the qualifications. diversification etc. 2. Q3. to meet the trade union demands and due to the policy of the organization to motivate the present employees. Describe the steps in the selection procedure in an organization. to foresee the impact of technology on work. 3. Line managers are relieved from recruitment functions and can concentrate on operational activities. from their college/educational institution. 16. experience and emotions of their friends and relatives. 3. 4. 4. 9. discipline etc. existing employees and future human resource requirements. retired and present employees: Some organizations function with a view to developing the commitment and loyalty of not only the employee but also his family members. Present temporary/casual Employees: Organizations find this source to fill the vacancies relatively at the lower level owing to the availability of suitable candidates or trade union pressures or in order to motivate them on present job. Private Employment Agencies/Consultants: Public employment agencies or consultants like ABC Consultants in India perform recruitment functions on behalf of a client company by charging fees. to make the best use of its human resources and to estimate the cost of human resources. Retrenched or Retired Employees: Employees retrenched due to lack of work are given employment by the organization due to obligation.1. 7. Dependents of Deceased. to foresee the employee turnover and make the arrangements for minimizing turnover and filling up of consequent vacancies. right number in right time and right place. They are inexperienced as far as work experience is concerned. Ans. to maintain congenial industrial relations by maintaining optimum level and structure of human resources. 6. Discuss the sources of recruitment for an organization. As such they can make preliminary judgment regarding the match between the job and their friends and relatives. Disabled. Present Permanent Employees: Organizations consider the candidates from this source for higher level of jobs due to availability of most suitable candidates for jobs relatively or equally to external sources. 5. External Sources of Recruitment 15. 2. skill. attitudes. to recruit and retain the manpower of required quality and quantity. trade union pressure etc. to assess the surplus or shortage of manpower and take measures accordingly. knowledge. to meet the needs of the programmes of expansion. 3. 8. Sometimes they are reemployed by the organization as a token of their loyalty to the organization or to postpone some interpersonal conflicts for promotion. to improve the standards. 10. to minimize the imbalances caused sue to non-availability of human resources of the right kind. 5. 52 . Campus Recruitment: These candidates are directly recruited by the Co. The sources of recruitment are broadly divided into internal sources and external sources consisting of the following: Internal sources of Recruitment: 1.

23. level of unemployment. It will become another source and the co can get the particulars as and when required. They act as an exchange between their members and recruiting firm. 18. time and at a specified place. candidates etc and feed them in the computer. The Management can get potential candidates from this source. Educational Training Institutes. The job seekers send their applications through e-mail using the Internet. This would be a suitable source for temporary and lower level jobs. Therefore they advise the potential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified date. 21. 28. mergers and take over help in getting human resources. Consult In: the busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. Similar Organizations: Generally experienced candidates are available in organizations producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. In addition the companies do also alliances in sharing their human resource on adhoc basis. The prospective employers contact these organizations to recruit the candidates. Headhunters are also called search consultants. Mergers and Acquisitions: Business alliances like acquisitions. Otherwise the organizations themselves approach the prospective employers to place their human resources. Walk In: The busy organization and rapid changing companies do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment. Public Employment Exchanges: The Government set up Public Employment Exchanges in the country to provide information about vacancies to the candidates and to help the organization in finding out suitable candidates. 22. 53 . 26. 27. Casual Applicants: Depending on the image of the organization its prompt response participation of the organization in the local activities. Body shopping is also known as employee leasing activity. Body Shopping: Professional organizations and the hi-tech training develop the pool of human resource for the possible employment. Outsourcing: Some organizations recently started developing human resource pool by employing the candidates for them. Data Banks: The management can collect the bio-data of the candidates from different sources like Employment Exchange. Trade Unions: Generally unemployed or underemployed persons or employees seeking change in employment put a word to the trade union leaders with a view to getting suitable employment due to latter rapport with the management. As per the Employment Exchange act 1959. makes it obligatory for public sector and private sector enterprises in India to fill certain types of vacancies through public employment exchanges. 19. Professional Organizations: Professional organizations or associations maintain complete biodata of their members and provide the same to various organizations on requisition. instead they supply HRs to various companies based on their needs on temporary or ad-hoc basis. Organizations advertise the job vacancies through the worldwide wed (www). 20. candidates apply casually for jobs through mail or handover the application in the Personnel dept. E_recruitment: The technological revolution in telecommunications helped the organizations to use internet as a source of recruitment. 24. The body shopping is used mostly for computer professionals. These professional and training institutions are called body shoppers and these activities are known as body shopping. 25.17. The companies select the suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the positions. These organizations do not utilize the human resources.

Selection is a process of selecting the right candidate for the right job. Job description. discuss. type and level of the job etc. Group Discussions: The technique of group discussion is used in order to secure further information regarding the suitability of the candidate for the job. It develops the applicants’ pool. The candidates in the group are required to analyze. Preliminary Interview: The preliminary interview is to solicit necessary information from the prospective applicants and to assess the applicant’s suitability to the job. Written Examination: The organization have to conduct written examination for the qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application blanks so as to measure the candidate’s ability in arithmetical calculations.Steps in the selection procedure in an organization. Job Analysis: Job analysis is the basis for selecting the right candidate. The selection process is discussed below: 1. keenly 54 . Business Games: Business games are widely used as a selection technique for selecting management trainees. 6. knowledge in various disciplines. 3. age physical appearance and other physical requirements etc. job specification and employee specifications before proceeding to the next step of selection. Every organisation should finalise the job analysis. This is the basis for recruitment function. Thus preliminary interview is useful as a process of eliminating the undesirable candidates. nature of business activities. The information provided by the candidate may be related to the job or personal specifications regarding education. 4. It can also be used as a device to screen the candidates at the preliminary level. problem-solving skills. Business games help to evaluate the applicants in the areas of decision making. Application Form: Application form is also known as application blank. Participants are placed in a hypothetical work situation and are required to play the role situations in the game. Group discussion is a method where groups of the successful applicants are brought around a conference table and are asked to discuss either a case study or a subject matter. soliciting unrevealing information based on the given information and using common sense. Many companies formulate their own style of application forms depending upon the requirements of information based on the size of the company. 7. general knowledge and English language. Recruitment: Recruitment refers to the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organisation. The technique of application blank is traditional and widely accepted for securing information from the prospective candidates. (ii) Educational attainments. handling the situations. Information is generally required on the following items in the application forms : (i) Personal background information. knowledge. experience. 5. (iii) Work experiences. 8. find alternative solutions and select the sound solution. It is about collecting information about the candidate’s qualifications. (v) Personal details and (vi) References. Human Resource Plan: Every company plans for the required number of and kind of employees for a future date. It is the basis for the remaining techniques of the selection and the latter varies depending upon the former. If a candidate satisfies the job requirement regarding most of the arrears he may be selected for further process. nature and behaviour. Preliminary interviews are short and known as stand-up interviews or sizing up of the applicants or screening interview. explaining the problem. aptitude etc for judging whether a given applicant is suitable or not for the job. physical and mental ability. executive trainees and managerial personnel at junior. human relations skills etc. middle and top management positions. This interview is also useful to provide the basis information about the company to the candidate. 2. (iv) Salary. identifying the potentialities. A selection panel then observes the candidates in the areas of initiating the discussion. experience. reasoning. to measure the candidates aptitude. to know the candidates attitude towards the job. salary expected aptitude towards the job.

his background. Test: Psychological tests play a vital role in employee selection. concealing and mediating arguments among the participants and summarizing or concluding aptly. clarifying controversial issues. decision-making skills. BUSINESS GAMES AND THEIR UTILITY IN THE SELECTION PROCESS Business Games Utility (1) Case Study Analytical. L&G developed multi-dimensional testing. Types of Test 1. 55 . influencing others. speaking effectively. Achievement Tests: (a) Job Knowledge Test (b) Work Sample Test 3. expectations. services of the experts can be outsourced. Situational Tests: (a) Group Discussion (b) In Basket 4. (4) Sensitivity Degree of openness. which can be conducted at any place by any person to secure the basic and non-job related information.observing the discussion of others. Multi-Dimensional Testing Eg. Personality Tests: (a) Objective Tests (b) Projective Tests 6. tolerance for individual differences. The interviewer also may answer some information required by the candidate. Infact. concern for others. Types of Interview: The types of Employment interviews are: 1.: Multi-Skilling: Multi-Dimensional Testing: L&G has realised that most of the company operations whether they are production or marketing or finance or human resources can be done by almost all the employees. interest etc. It is the interaction between the candidate and the personal manager when the former meets the latter to enquire about the vacancies or additional particulars in connection with the employment advertisement etc. problem-solving skills. L&G started selecting the candidates with multi-skills and who can perform a variety of functions. Preliminary Interview (a) Informal Interview This is the interview. As such. social relations. (5) Simulations Encountering skills. judges the candidate’s skills and ability and ranks them according to their merit. Core Interview: It is normally the interaction between the candidate and the line executive or 2. The selection panel. Experts are needed only in rare cases. A psychological test is essentially an objective and standardized measure of sample of behaviour from which inferences about future behaviour and performance of the candidate can be drawn. 5. judgmental and decision-making skills (2) Role Play Human relations skills. based on its observations. (b) Unstructured Interview In this interview the candidate is given freedom to tell all about himself by revealing his knowledge on various items/arrears. Interest Test 5. (3) In-basket method Situational judgment. Aptitude Tests: (a) Intelligence Test (IQ) (b) Emotional Quotient (c) Skill Tests (d) Mechanical Aptitude (e) Psychomotor Tests (f) Clerical Aptitude Tests 2.

all the formalities. leading. intimating the candidates officially etc. (b) Job and probing interview This interview aims at testing the candidate’s job knowledge about duties. promotional opportunities. This type of interview helps the interviewer in appraising certain skills of the candidates like initiative. presentation. mostly through informal discussion. career planning. health. 3. Decision-Making Interview After the candidates are examined by the experts including the line managers of the organization in the core areas of the job. The interviewer examines the interest of the candidate in the job. promotions. opportunities etc. This type of interview is known as panel interview. The vital development is on-line interview where the interview is conducted online. Whether he is suitable for the job. critical/problematic areas. dislikes and extra curricular activities of the applicant. judges his performance individually and prepares consolidated judgement. benefits. During various types of interviews depending on the job requirement the interviewer can see and analyse the strengths. Stress during the middle portion of the interview gives effective results. are strictly followed in arranging and conducting the interview. Experts test the candidate’s knowledge in depth. Depth interviews are conducted for specialized jobs. in advance depending on job requirements. allowances. procedures like fixing the value. criticizing his opinions. talent etc. Eg. collaboration etc. family. outsourcing employment function. organization. inter personal skills. likes. (a) Background information interview This interview is intended to collect the information which is not available in the application blank and to check that information provided in the application blank regarding education. time. Most of the organizations have realized recently that 56 . weaknesses and potentials of the candidate. activities. sophisticated scanning and searching. comprehension. opening and closing. work adjustment and allotment etc. (h) On Line Interview: Information technology brought significant developments in the selection process of employees. reaction/adaptability to the working conditions. dynamism. (e) Formal and structured interview In this type of interview. internet based recruiting. whether he is the right candidate. The course of the interview is pre-planned and structured. the head of the department/section concerned interviews the candidate once again. methods of doing the job. skill. The Personnel Manager also interviews the candidates with a view to find out his reaction/acceptance regarding salary. (d) Group discussion interview There are two methods of conducting group discussion interviews viz group interview method and discussion method. These techniques include. (g) Depth interview The candidate is examined extensively in core areas of job skills and knowledge. The interviewer tests the candidate by putting him under stress and strain by interrupting the applicant from answering.experts on various areas of job knowledge. (c) Stress interview This interview aims at testing the candidate’s job behaviour and level of withstanding during the period of stress and strain. Various types of interviews help the interviewer to arrive at different conclusion. The questions for discussion are structured and experts are allotted different areas and questions to be asked. asking questions pertaining to unrelated areas etc. on-line submission. (f) Panel interview A panel of experts interviews each candidate. panel of interviewers. A Stress Interview helps to analyse whether a candidate can perform under stress and pressure and whether he can take a right decision at such times. and methods of handling those areas. place of domicile.

The candidate after receiving the job offer communicates his acceptance to the offer or requests the company to modify the terms and conditions of employment or rejects the offer. Identification of training needs: Training needs are identified on the basis of organizational anaylsis. Hence the interviewers with right and or positive attitude. progress and development to a large extend depends on training. if they do not possess them. Medical Examination : Certain jobs require certain physical qualities like clear vision. They acquire the necessary skills.Organisational objectives. and sometimes from co-workers. Employment: The company may modify the terms and conditions of employment as requested by the candidate. who is well versed with the applicant’s job performance. Q4. commitment. irrespective of their technical al skills and knowledge. job analysis and manpower analysis. Discuss the importance of training and development in organizations. productivity. Hence the interviewers look for the candidates with the right attitude while making final decisions. The Company employs those candidates who accept the job offer with or without modifications of terms and conditions of employment and place them on the job.the employees’ positive attitude contribute much rather than employees skills and knowledge. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidates academic achievement or from the applicants previous employer. creativity and contribution for the organization. Training needs are those aspects necessary to perform the job in an organization in which employee is lacking attitude/aptitude. Employees with positive attribute contribute much to the organization. clear tone etc. Training enhances 4Cs viz competence. but not the Skill InfoTech Limited discovered that the employees with right attitude take up the activities willingly on their own. Importance of training and development in organizations : The importance of HRM to a large extend depends on human resources development and training is its most important technique. Candidates are required to give the names of references in their application forms. They never say ‘no’ to other employees. Reference Checks: After completion of the final interview and medical examination. Medical examination reveals whether or not a candidate possesses these qualities. Job Offer : After taking the final decision the organization has to intimate this decision to the successful as well as unsuccessful candidates. tolerance of hardworking conditions. The line manager has to take much care in taking the final decision not only because of economic implications and of the decisions but also because of behavioural and social implications. knowledge and skills. Hence training is important to develop the employee and make him suitable to the job. If training is not provided it leads to performance failure of the employees. unusual stamina. perfect hearing. The organization offers the job to the successful candidate either immediately. viability and growth can also be achieved through training. Attitude Counts Much. No organization can get a candidate who exactly matches with the job and the organizational requirements. Training is important as it constitutes a significant part of management control. superiors and customers. Training works towards value addition to the company through HRD. 4. Basically there are two 57 . Final Decision by Line Manager : The Line Manager concerned has to make the final decision whether to select or reject a candidate after soliciting the required information through different techniques discussed earlier. like stability. the personnel department will engage in checking references. Organisational efficiency. How do you identify the training needs in an oraganisation? Describe the different methods of training. Ans.

the trainer explains to the trainee the way of doing the jobs. On the Job Training Methods : This type of training is also known as job instruction training. 1. job knowledge and skills and allows him to do the job. 6. 2. 1) On-the-Job Methods and 2) Off-the job-Methods. trainees can also be rotated from job to job in workshop jobs. 2. 3. 8. Training needs = Job and organizational requirement-Employees specifications Sr. 3. On the job training has the advantage of giving first hand knowledge and experience under the actual working conditions. 2. Under this method. 7. 4. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of the employees on other jobs and respect them. Coaching : The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. he is also a regular worker rendering the services for which he is paid. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee. On the Job Methods Job Rotation Coaching Job Instruction Training through Step by Step Committee Assignments TRAINING METHODS Off The Job Methods Vestibule Training Role Playing Lecture Methods Conference or discussion Programmed Instruction 1. The emphasis is placed on rendering services in the most effective manner rather than learning how to perform the job. Job Instruction : This method is also known as training through step by step. One is the Organizational Analysis and the other Individual Analysis. 58 . 5. provides feedback information and corrects the trainee. 5. 1. Job Rotation : This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers some suggestions for improvement. 4. Though this method of training is common in training managers for general management positions.type of analysis done to identify the training. Often the trainee shares some of the duties and responsibilities of the coach and relieves him of his burden. 3. Identification of Training Needs Group or Organizational Analysis To identify Organizational goals and objectives Personnel/skill inventories Organizational Climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interviews MBO or work planning systems Quality circles Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales Observation of behavior The different methods of training: There are basically two methods of training. A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas. Under this method the individual is place on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. While the trainee learns how to perform a job. 9.

These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instructions. mechanical engineer. workers and the like. he can place his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi skilled jobs. the lecture method must motivate and create interest among the trainees. The instructor organises the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. 2. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. professional and supervisory personnel. test assumptions and draw conclusions. Conference or Discussion : It is a method in training the clerical. the trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. all of which contribute to the improvement of job performance. Maslows Theory of Hierarchy of Needs and 2. actual work conditions are stimulated in a class room. To be effective. The trainee goes through these units by answering or filling the blanks. Theory can be related to practice in this method. foremen. Theories of Motivation: There are several theories on motivation. doing and practice. Lecture Method : The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. An advantage of the lecture method is that it is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. Vrooms Expectancy Theory. The significant among them are Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Q5. The participants feel free to speak in small groups. This method is expensive and time consuming. Since te trainee is not distracted by job requirements. He says when one set of needs is satisfied. Programmed Instruction : In recent years this method has become popular. The trainees solve the problem jointly. Explain the stratergies used by organizations to motivate employees. We shall discuss 1. 5. The participants play the role of certain characters such as the production manager. Herzberg Two Factor Theory. 1. Discuss any two theories of motivation. Material files and equipments which are used in actual job performance are also used in training. The subject matter tobe learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. Discussion has the distinct advantage over lecture method as it involves two way communication. Ans 5. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory. staring at the bottom with the physiological needs and ascending to the highest need of self actualization. 3. Maslows Theory of Hierarchy of Needs : According to Maslow. The success of this method depends on the leadership qualities of the person who leads the group. Porter and Lawler’s Expectancy Theory and Equity Theory of Work Motivation. ideas and data. The duration of tis type of training ranges from days to a few weeks. Vestibule Training : In this method. quality control inspectors. 1. This method is mostly used for developing inter-personal interactions and relations. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas. Role Playing : It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. maintenance engineers. superitentents. The major limitation of the lecture method is that it does not provide for training effectively. they no longer work as motivators as a man seeks to satisfy the next higher level of needs. human needs form a hierarchy. It develops team work. Off the Job Methods : Under this method of training. This method of training involves action. examine and share facts. 4. Committee Assignments : Under the committee assignments a group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problem.4. __________________________________________________ Need for Self-Actualization __________________________________________________ Physiological Needs __________________________________________________ 59 . Thus costs and time involved are reduced.

Man tries to maximize his potential and accomplish something. advancement and growth in job. formal and informal work groups. challenging work.Esteem Needs __________________________________________________ Social Needs -Affiliation or Acceptance Needs __________________________________________________ Security of Safety Needs __________________________________________________ Physiological Needs __________________________________________________ MASLOW”S HIERACHY OF NEEDS ========================================== The Need Hierarchy: 6. these needs include basic needs like pay. Maslow says that until these needs are satisfied to the required level. They are also known as hygiene factors. promotions. awards. It includes factors of achievement. Their presence or existence does not motivate in the sense of yielding satisfaction. These needs for employees include status symbols. salary. incentives and benefits. This refers to the desire to become what one is capable of becoming. Social Needs: (Affiliation or Acceptance Needs) When the physiological and security needs are satisfied. interpersonal relations. These needs makes people aim high and make them achieve something great. SATISFIERS: The second group are the” satisfiers’ in the sense that they are motivators which are related to job content. but their absence would result in dissatisfaction. DISSATISFIERS: The first group (factor) consists of needs such as company policy and administration. food. water. job or shelter. supervision. titles etc. security plans. Another WAY to present the above question Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory: Classification of Maintenance and Motivational Factors Sr . man does not aim for the satisfaction of next level of needs. Maintenance Factors Dissatisfiers or Hygiene Factors Job Content or Motivational Factors or Satisfiers Job Content 60 . man starts thinking of the way by which he can satisfy his safety needs. sleep and sexual satisfaction. Self Actualization Needs: This is the highest need in the hierarchy. 1. status and self confidence. 7. Physiological Needs: These are the basic necessities of human life. severance pay etc. membership in unions. In a work environment these needs include conformity. 9. These factors he called “DISSATISFIERS” and not motivators. When the physiological needs are satisfied. Every man has a feeling of importance and he wants others to regard him highly. As far as work environment is concerned. 8. warmth. shelter. Security/Safety Needs: These refer to the need to be free of physical danger or the feeling of loss of food. these social needs begin occupying the mind of a man. This is exactly why he looks for the association of other human beings and strives hard to be accepted by this group. Esteem Needs: These needs are power. Herzberg Theory of Motivation: Deals with basically two factors Dissatisfiers and Satisfiers. 2. working conditions. allowance. Security needs spring up the moment he makes an effort in the direction of providing himself the source of continuity of physiological needs. recognition. when this need is activated in him. job security and personal life. 10. Social needs at the work place include: Human relations. Their presence yields feeling of satisfaction or no satisfaction but not dissatisfaction. status.

A reactive change may be an automatic response or a planned response to change taking place in the environment. Monetary incentives provide the worker a better standard of life while non monetary incentives satisfy the ego of a man. 9. retrenchment. lay-off. Adjustment among people. technology and structural set up is established when an organisation operates for a long time. Positive Motivation: People are said to be motivated positively when they are shown a rewards and the way to achieve it. a hostile state of mind and an unfavorable attitude towards the job which hinder efficiency and productivity. restructuring or organisation. People adjust with their jobs. Similarly. Q6.2. 6. Change requires individuals and organisations to make new adjustments. 10 . productive bonus schemes etc. Monetary motivation may include different incentives. Changes relating to organisation include change in employees due to transfers. The term “Organisational Change” implies the creation of imbalances in the existent pattern or situation. as an organisation is mostly composed of people. participation in management. Human resource is an important factor in relation to the adjustments among individuals as well as between the organisation and environment. higher production and better standard of living of the people. 8. Fear Creates frustration. Individual members can resist either individually or in a group. It is a bare fact that most of us use only a small portion of our mental and physical abilities. How can effective change be implemented in an organisation? Ans 6. changes in organisational goals or objectives etc. promotion. There are basically two types of motivation vis 1) Positive Motivation and Negative Motivation. Non monetary include praise for work. 3. Such a reward may be financial or non financial. 61 . imposition of regulation. Change could be both reactive and proactive. This method has got several limitations. Extrinsic Factors Company Policy and Administration Quality of supervision Relations with superiors Peer Relations Relations with subordinates Pay Job security Work Conditions Status Intrinsic Factors Achievement Recognition Advancement Work Itself Possibility of Growth Responsibility Strategies used by organizations to motivate employees. wage plans. So the use of it should be kept minimum. 7. 1. 4. an organisation establishes relationship in the external environment. one can get the desired work done. 11 . working conditions. In this method of motivation fear of consequences of doing something or not doing something keeps the worker in desired direction. Needless to say that such exploitation results in greater efficiency. Negative Motivation: It is induced by installing fear in the minds of people. superiors etc. 5. A proactive change has necessarily to be planned to attempt to prepare for anticipated future challenges. To exploit the unused potential in people they are to be motivated. colleagues. social recognition. What is organisational change? Discuss the sources of resistance to change in organisations. Complexity and fear of adjustment gives rise to resistance and problem of change. 2. introduction of new products or services.

The meaning and purpose of the change must be fully communicated to those who will be affected by it. • No participation in change .If change in technology and work organisation necessitates training and relearning on the part of employees. this fear leads to resistance to change on the part of the people.Employees may fear that they may be demoted if they do not possess the new skills required for their jobs. whether they will be able to handle new circumstances successfully or not.Some employees resist any change as they are critical of the situation and thy are not being given any part in the decision making process for change When they do not understand fully the implications of change they resist it. So. • Other considerations . • Fear of workload . motivates them to resist.Management is said to be an agent of change. Change of and type requires re-adjustment. It means that the management has to introduce change successfully in its organisation. • Taking change as imposed from outside . as all do not like to go for refresher and retraining courses off and on.Change in work technology and methods may lead to the fear that workload will be increased while there will not be any corresponding increase in their salaries and benefits. They are: • Need for new social adjustment . The best example is resistance of employees to computerisation.If the proposed change is expected to lead to greater specialisation resulting in boredom and monotony. their fellow workers or even the general public. Effective change can be implemented in an Organisation by different approaches: Approaches to Organisational Change :. after the introduction of change. (see box below). Resistance from the Side of Managers . though on the surface. the employees should be fully consulted and they must be a party to any such decision.some employees take any change as imposed from outside upon them. 62 . Opposition to automation is an example to it.The basic problem in the management to change is the study of causes of resistance to change. Any change sets in new responsibilities and imposes new tension.Some of the important reasons for resistance to change are as follows : (a) Economic Reasons : Economic reasons for resistance are classified into three groups. Hence they resist the change. it must be tackled in a human and social manner. (c) Social Reasons : Social reasons for resistance are also classified into three groups. as they will have to break their present social ties. methods of work.an organisaitonal change requires new social adjustment with the group.Due to the change in technology. Some people refuse transfers and promotions for this reason only. Despite the fact that change is a persistent phenomenon. • Boredom and monotony . (b) Personal Reasons : Personal reasons for resistance are also divided into three classes. and a change represents the unknown’. stress and strains over them is normally resisted by managers. it is a common experience that employees resist change whether in the context of their pattern of life or in the context of their situation in the organisation. Management has to take the following steps to implement the change successfully: (1) Participation of Employees : Before introducing any change.It is not a common fact that change is always resisted by the employees only. Hence. Reasons for Resistance :. All individuals are not ready to accept this challenge. It has to overcome the resistance and make it a successful venture. They are : • Fear of reduction in employment . The management must realise that resistance to change is basically a human problem. This feeling creates resistance to change. it may appear to be related to the technical aspect of change. Sources of resistance to change in an organization. it may also be resisted by employees. Managers also resist change sometimes. quantity or quality of work etc. Enough time should be allowed for discussion and the pros and cons of the change should be explained in detail to the employees. • Fear to demotion . they prefer ‘status quo’. The feeling of uncertainty. They are: • Need for training .some employees may consider that every change brought about is for the benefit of the organisation only and not for them. it may lead to resistance. work situation and new boss etc. ‘Man always fears the unknown.

loss in status or personal dignity. (9) Career Planning and Development : Organisation on the basis of change plans and redesigned jobs should plan for careers of employees. It must be an objective for the management to build in the organisation an awareness of change and an ability to forecast it. Normally. (8) Training and Development : Management should plan for change. moves. What is the difference between the Performance Appraisal and Performance Management Systems in an organisation? Ans. (5) Cautious and Slow Introduction : The management should not introduce any change suddenly and abruptly. the management must see that employees are not only assured of it. (6) Positive Motion : The management should use the policy of positive motivation to counteract negative resistance. possibilities to move the employees to the higher levels and develop them. the results are likely to be more successful and durable. Based on the change plan.7 Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behaviour of employees in the work place normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance. The developed employees for future careers demand the management to implement change. they are given due advantage of it as well. Management should train the employees before hand and prepare the employees to invite change. The content to be appraised may vary with the purpose of appraisal and type and level of employees. social or economic will be least resisted by the employees if the management permits the employees to share benefits which arise out of the change. This will help the group of the affected employees to recognise the need for change and thus prepare them for receiving it without any fear. trained and developed employees will not resist change as they cannot keep quite with enriched skill and knowledge. Every organization has to decide upon the content to be appraised before the programme is approved on the basis of job analysis. If these could be positively articulated by the management. What is Performance Appraisal System and what are its objectives? Describe the various sources of errors in the appraisal process. the management should plan for it. Employees should get an opportunity to participate both in planning the change and installing it. the job should be redesigned. The key factor in an organization to support an effective performance appraisal system is as follows: • • • • • • • • Qualities of a Counsellor Knowledge Honesty Credibility Excellent communication 63 . So.• High Self Awareness • Capacity accept without bias • Facilitator • Excellent listener • All round preparation (2) Planning for Change : Before implementing any change. (4) Group Dynamics : Group dynamics refers to the ever changing interactions and adjustments in the mutual perceptions and relationships among members of the groups. and if possible. the results must be reviewed and required adjustments must be made in it. (10) Organisation Development : Organisation development aims at moulding and development of employees in the psychological and behavioural areas with a view to achieve organisational effectiveness. It indicates how ell an individual is fulfilling the job demands. (7) Sharing the Benefits of Change : Any change whether technical. Employees with enriched behaviours welcome the change. If those things are protected. Such group interactions are the most powerful instruments which facilitate or inhibit adaptation to change. It should be the attempt of the management to make the job easier and less exerting. The policy will also bring down the resistance to change. The leadership styles should also be supportive and human oriented. Performance refers to the degree of accomplishment of the tasks that make up an individual’s job. Te management should impart proper training to its employees in new techniques and work knowledge etc. traditions and work patterns. Change must be introduced in sequential parts. (3) Protecting Employees’ Interest : Management should ensure that employees are protected from economic loss. Empathy Respect Warmth Personal characteristics Q7. the degree of resistance to change will be at the lowest ebb. and also to construct an attitude of welcoming change. Adaptation is a team activity which requires conformity to the new group norms.

strengths and potentialities of human resources. Tata Power aims at employee development through performance appraisal. Halo Effect: it is the tendency of the raters to depend excessively on the rating of one trait or behaviourial consideration in rating all other traits or behavioural considerations. • To guide the job changes with the help to continuous ranking. retrenchment etc. Human Resource Planning based on weakness.Performance appraisal aims at attaining the different purposes. d. • To contribute to the employee growth and development through training. incentives and benefits Original placement or placement adjustment decisions Identifying training and development needs and to evaluate effectiveness of training and development Needs and to evaluate effectiveness of training and development programmes Career planning and development and movement of employees. Objectives of Performance Appraisal System :. The Error of Central Tendency: Some raters follow play safe policy in rating by rating all the employees around the middle point of the rating scale and they avoid rating the people at both the extremes scale. Rating Biases: It is a subjective measure of rating performance which is not verifiable by others and has the opportunity for bias. Such ratings do not serve any purpose. • To help the superiors to have a proper understanding about their subordinates. Organizational effectiveness through performance improvement Fixation and refixation of salary. Personal Prejudice: If the rater dislikes any employee or any group. Sources of Error in Performance Appraisal: 2. self and management development programmes. he may rate them at the lower end. • To provide information for making decisions regarding lay-off. as in the case of Hyundai Engineering. which may distort the rating purpose and affect the career of these employees. They follow play safe policy because of answerability to the management or lack of knowledge about the job and person he is rating or has least interest in the job. The Recency Effect: The raters generally remember the recent actions of the employee at the time of rating them on the basis of these recent actions unfavourable-rather than on the whole activities. b. • To facilitate for testing and validating selection tests. e. allowances. favourable or Difference between Perfomance Appraisal and Performance Management System. There rater biases include: a) the halo effect b) the error of central tendency c) the leniency and strictness biases d) personal prejudice and e) the recency effect. The Leniency and Strictness: the leniency bias crops when some raters have a tendency to be liberal in their rating by assigning higher rates consistently. 64 . They are : • To create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance. a. • To facilitate fair and equitable compensation based on performance. One way of minimizing the halo effect is appraising all employees by one trait before going to rate them on the basis of another trait.Organizational planning based on potentialities of human resources. c. Equally damaging is assigning consistently low rates. interview techniques through comparing their scores with performance appraisal ranks.

It is not a static thing but it changes depending on working conditions. Collaborative Performance Management : Both the Manager and the subordinates understand each other and both understand the organisational goals and requirements with a common and collaborative mind. Q 8.Write short notes on any three of the following :a) Job Satisfaction b) Employee Morale c) Job Evaluation d) Job Analysis e) Employee Turnover f) H. physiological and environment circumstances that cause any person truthfully to say that I am satisfied with my job. what range of pay should be assigned to the job. It is human resource planning based on weakness. Job Satisfaction : Job satisfaction refers to a person’s feeling of satisfaction on the job. Job evaluation determines how much a job is worth to the organization and therefore. happiness or self-contentment but satisfaction on the job. job dissatisfaction is defined as “the unpleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as frustrating or blocking the attainment of one’s job values or as entailing disvalues. It refers to how someone is doing the assigned job.” Job satisfaction is defined as the “pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one’s job values. pay and so on. The term relates to the total relationship between an individual and the employer for which he is paid. The basic purpose is to find out how well the employee is performing the job and to establish a plan of improvement. Emphasis on Documentation : Emphasis is required for goal setting of employees and other important processes of a performance management system.” However. Perfomance Management System Performance Management System performance of the employee is continuously monitored and developed in tune with the organisational requirements. superiors. Job dissatisfaction does mean absence of motivation at work.Perfomance Appraisal Performance Appraisal is Organisational planning based on potentialities of its human sources. It is not job evaluation. both satisfaction and dissatisfaction were seen as “a function of the perceived relationship between what one perceives it as offering one entailing. Policies Ans 8a. When a particular employee has a favourable attitude towards his work. Satisfaction does mean the simple feeling state accompanying the attainment of any goal. Hoppock describes job satisfaction as “any combination of psychological. his superior and his organisation. It is an attitude of an employee towards his job. In the 65 . he is said to have high morale. Computer-based Performance Management : Now-a-days software is available for implementing the entire performance management process. the end-state is feeling accompanying the attainment by an impulse of its objective. This may range from very high to very low. strengths and potentialities of human resources. Research workers differently described the factors contributing to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. fellow-workers. Customised Performance Management System : Organisations started adopting seperate performance appraisal techniques and design the system for each employee separately based on employee skills. behaviour and his job needs. It is not self-satisfaction. Ans 8b.R.” In contrast. which acts as a motivation to work. Employee Morale : Morale is purely emotional. It identifies training and development needs and evaluates effectiveness of training and development programmes.

A HR policy is a plan of action. Their genesis lies in an organization’s values. A HR policy is a guideline for making wise decisions. British Institute of Management (1970) defined job evaluation as. knowledge abilities and responsibilities required of the worker of a successful performance and which differentiate one job from all others. H. It covers the norms and guidelines for policies like safety. such as the choice between promoting employees on than basis of merit versus promoting them on the basis of seniority. It determines the relative worth or money value of jobs. grading and weighing of jobs to determine the value of a specific job in relation to other jobs”. improves employee’s skills regarding various jobs.” Ans 8e. Ans 8d. so that different wages may be paid to jobs of different worth”. Personnel guide the course of action intended to accomplish personnel objectives. Jobs themselves are not actually changed. recruitment. However. Ans 8c. An employee who works on a routine / respective job moves to and works on another job for some hours/days/months and abcks up to the first job. Policies : Human resource policies are general statements that guide thinking and action in decision making in an organisation.R. It is the determination of the tasks which comprise the job and of the skills. It brings about stability in making decisions. The International Labour Organisation defined job evaluation as “an attempt to determine and compare demands which the normal performance of a particular job makes on normal workers without taking into account the individual abilities or performance of the workers concerned”. systematic method and procedure of ranking. concepts and principles”. Job Analysis : Te U. This measure relieves the employee from boredom and monotony. a frequent job rotations are not advisable in view of their negative impact on the organisation and the employee. in order to place them in an acceptable rank order which can then be used as a basis for a remuneration system. knowledge of a job with other jobs with a view to fix compensation payable to the concerned job holder. Employee Turnover : The movement of an employee from one job to the another. Job evaluation. often a choice made between two or more alternatives. philosophy. Thus. Department of Labour defined job analysis as “the process of determining by observation and study and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. Job evaluation is defined as “the overall activity of involving an orderly. ******** *******ALL THE BEST************** 66 .Organisational context. prepares the competent employees and provides competitive advantage to the company. wages etc. job evaluation may be defined as a process of determining the relative worth of jobs. These measures also improves worker’s self-image and provides personal growth. A HR policy is a stance. Ans 8f. HR policies constitute guides to action. responsibilities like skill. Job Evaluation : Job evaluation deals with money and work. only the employees are rotated among various jobs. we usually talk of group morale as each person has an influence over the other’s morale. “the process of analysing and assessing the content of jobs. French defined job evaluation as “a process of determining the relative worth of the various job within the organisation.S. a set of proposals and actions that act as a reference point for managers in their dealings with employees. ranking and grading them by comparing the duties. They furnish the general standards or bases on which decisions are reached. Wendell L. therefore. is simply a technique designed to assist in the development of new pay structures by defining relatives between jobs on a consistent and systematic basis”.

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