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DOI: 10.1109/UPEC.2006.367646 · Source: IEEE Xplore

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MATLAB/SIMULINK MODEL OF SPACE VECTOR PWM FOR THREE-PHASE

VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER

)

Atif Iqbal(1) Adoum Lamine(2) Imtiaz Ashraf(1) Mohibullah(1

(1) Aligarh Muslim University, India (2) Liverpool John Moores University, UK

ABSTRACT

Variable voltage and frequency supply to ac drives is invariably obtained from a three-phase voltage source inverter

(VSI). A number of Pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme is used to obtain variable voltage and frequency supply.

The most widely used PWM schemes for three-phase VSI are carrier-based sinusoidal PWM and space vector PWM

(SVPWM). There is an increasing trend of using space vector PWM (SVPWM) because of their easier digital

realisation and better dc bus utilisation. This paper focuses on step by step development of MATLAB/SIMULINK

model of SVPWM. Firstly model of a three-phase VSI is discussed based on space vector representation. Next

simulation model of SVPWM is obtained using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Simulation results are also provided.

in Fig. 2 for 180° conduction mode.

Variable voltage and frequency supply for as drives is

invariably obtained from a three-phase VSI. A number

of PWM techniques have been presented to obtain

variable voltage and frequency supply [1]. The most 1 3 5

popular among those are carrier-based sinusoidal PWM A

and SVPWM. The major disadvantage of this scheme is Vab Vca

Vdc B n

lower dc bus utilisation. The maximum output voltage Vbc

from VSI utilising this scheme is limited to 0.5Vdc C

(peak) or 0.353 rms. Space vector modulation improves

2 4 6

dc bus utilisation by 15.15%, further digital

implementation of this scheme is easier [1,2]. The

SVPWM is identified as an alternative method of

determination of switching pulse width and their N

position. The major advantage of SVWPM stem from

the fact that there is a degree of freedom of space vector Figure 1. Power circuit of a three-phase VSI.

placement in a switching cycle. This improves the

harmonic performance of this method. VA

MATLAB/SIMULINK model. The reason for choice of π /3 2π / 3 π 4π / 3 5π / 3 2π

MATLAB/SIMULINK as a development tool is VB

because it is the most important and widely used

simulation software and is an integral part of taught

programme in most of the universities in

VC

Electrical/Electronics Engineering courses. Firstly

model of a three-phase inverter in presented on the basis

of space vector representation. This is followed by the Figure 2. Leg voltage waveform of a three-phase

basic principle of SVPWM. Finally a VSI.

MATLAB/SIMULINK model for the SVPWM is

presented. Various simulation results are also included. It is observed from Fig. 2. that one inverter leg’s state

changes after an interval of 60° and their state remains

2. THREE-PHASE VSI MODELLING REVIEW constant for 60° interval. Thus it follows that the leg

voltages will have six distinct and discrete values in one

A mathematical model of three-phase is presented here cycle (360°).

based on space vector representation. The power circuit Space vector representation of the three-phase inverter

topology of a three-phase VSI is shown in Fig. 1 output voltages is introduced next. Space vector is

Each switch in the inverter leg is composed of two defined as;

( )

back-to-back connected semiconductor devices. One of * 2

these two is a controllable device and other one is a v s = va + avb + a 2 vc (1)

3

where a = exp ( j 2π / 3) . The space vector is a (010)

Img.

(110)

simultaneous representation of all the three-phase 3

2

time in contrast to the phasors.

Phase-to-neutral voltages of a star-connected load are

most easily found by defining a voltage difference

between the star point n of the load and the negative rail 7,8

1 (100) Real

of the dc bus N. The following correlation then holds (011)

4

true:

v A = va + vnN

vB = vb + vnN (2)

vC = vc + vnN

6

Since the phase voltages in a start connected load sum 5

Substitution of (3) into (2) yields phase-to-neutral

voltages of the load in the following form: The binary numbers on the figure indicate the switch

state of inverter legs. Here 1 implies upper switch being

va = ( 2 / 3) v A − (1/ 3)( vB + vC ) on and 0 refers to the lower switch of the leg being on.

vb = ( 2 / 3) vB − (1/ 3)( v A + vC ) (4) The most significant bit is for leg A, the least significant

bit is related to leg C and the middle is for leg B.

vc = ( 2 / 3) vC − (1/ 3)( vB + v A )

Phase voltages are summarised in Table 1 and their 3. SPACE VECTOR PWM

corresponding space vectors are listed in Table 2.

This section briefly discusses the space vector PWM

Table 1 Phase voltage values for different switching principle. This PWM method is frequently used in

states. vector controlled and direct torque controlled drives. In

State Switch vA vB vC vector controlled drive this technique is used for

On reference voltage generation when current control is

1 1,4,6 ( 2 / 3)Vdc − (1/ 3)Vdc − (1/ 3)Vdc exercised in rotating reference frame.

It is seen in the previous section that a three-phase VSI

generates eight switching states which include six active

2 1,3,6 (1/ 3)Vdc (1/ 3)Vdc − ( 2 / 3) Vdc and two zero states. These vectors form a hexagon (Fig.

3) which can be seen as consisting of six sectors

3 2,3,6 − (1/ 3)Vdc ( 2 / 3)Vdc − (1/ 3)Vdc spanning 60° each. The reference vector which

represents three-phase sinusoidal voltage is generated

using SVPWM by switching between two nearest active

4 2,3,5 − ( 2 / 3) Vdc (1/ 3)Vdc (1/ 3)Vdc vectors and zero vector. To calculate the time of

5 2,4,5 − (1/ 3)Vdc − (1/ 3)Vdc ( 2 / 3)Vdc application of different vectors, consider Fig. 4,

depicting the position of different available space

vectors and the reference vector in the first sector.

6 1,4,5 (1/ 3)Vdc − ( 2 / 3) Vdc (1/ 3)Vdc

Img.

7& 1,3,5 0 0 0

8 2,4,6 vb

Table 2 Phase voltage space vectors

State Phase voltage space vectors

tb

1 ( 2 / 3)Vdc ts

vb

vs*

2 ( 2 / 3)Vdc exp ( jπ / 3)

3 ( 2 / 3)Vdc exp ( j 2π / 3) π /3

α Real

4 ( 2 / 3)Vdc exp ( jπ ) ta va

5 ( 2 / 3)Vdc exp ( j 4π / 3) ts

va

7 and 8 0 The time of application of active space voltage vectors

The discrete phase voltage space vector positions are is found from Fig. 4 as

shown in Fig. 3.

Three-phase sinusoidal voltage is generated using

vs* sin (π / 3 − α )

ta = ‘function’ block from ‘Functions & Tables’ sub-library

va sin ( 2π / 3) of Simulink. This is then converted into two-phase

(5) equivalent using Clark’s transformation equations [1].

vs* sin (α ) This is once again implemented using the ‘function’

tb = blocks. Further the two-phase equivalent is transformed

vb sin ( 2π / 3) to polar form using ‘Cartesian to polar’ block from

‘Simulink extras’ sub-library. The output of this block is

t0 = ts − ta − tb (6)

the magnitude of the reference as the first output and the

where va = vb = ( 2 / 3) Vdc . In order to obtain fixed corresponding angle of the reference as the second

output.

switching frequency and optimum harmonic

performance from SVPWM, each leg should change its

4.2 Switching Time Calculation

sate only once in one switching period. This is achieved

The switching time and corresponding switch state for

by applying zero state vector followed by two adjacent

each power switch is calculated in Matlab function

active state vector in half switching period. The next

block ‘sf’ using expressions (5) and (6). The Matlab

half of the switching period is the mirror image of the

code requires magnitude of the reference, the angle of

first half. The total switching period is divided intro 7

the reference and timer signal for comparison. The

parts, the zero vector is applied for 1/4th of the total zero

angle of the reference voltage is hold for each switching

vector time first followed by the application of active

period so that its value does not change during time

vectors for half of their application time and then again

calculation. The angle information is used for sector

zero vector is applied for 1/4th of the zero vector time.

identification in Matlab code ‘aaa’. Further, a ramping

This is then repeated in the next half of the switching

time signal is generated to be used in Matlab code. This

period. This is how symmetrical SVPWM is obtained.

ramp is generated using ‘repeating sequence’ from the

The leg voltage in one switching period is depicted in

source sub-library.

Fig. 5 for sector I.

The Matlab code firstly identifies the sector of the

ts

reference voltage. The time of application of active and

t0 / 4 ta / 2 tb / 2 t0 / 2 tb / 2 ta / 2 t0 / 4 zero vectors are then calculated. The times are then

Vdc

arranged according to Fig. 5. This time is then

compared with the ramp timer signal. Depending upon

0 0 the location of the time signal, the switch state is

Vdc

defined. This switch state is then passed on to the

0 0 inverter block. The code is given in Appendix 1.

Vdc

The inverter model is build using ‘function’ blocks

V8 V1 V2 V7 V2 V1 V8 according to the expression (4). Thus the output of the

Figure 5. Leg voltages and space vector disposition inverter block is the phase voltages.

for one switching period in sector I.

The sinusoidal reference space vector form a circular 4.4 Filter Blocks

trajectory inside the hexagon. The largest output voltage The PWM voltage signal is filtered using first order

magnitude that can be achieved using SVPWM is the filter. This is implemented using ‘Transfer function’

radius of the largest circle that can be inscribed within block from ‘Continuous’ sub-library. The time constant

the hexagon. This circle is tangential to the mid points of the first-order filter is chosen as 0.8ms.

of the lines joining the ends of the active space vector.

Thus the maximum obtainable fundamental output 4.5 Voltage Acquisition

voltage is The filtered phase voltages are stored in workspaces in

2 1 this block.

vs* = Vdc cos (π / 6 ) = Vdc (7)

3 3

Simulation is carried out using the developed model for

maximum obtainable reference voltage and the resulting

4. MATLAB/SIMULINK MODEL

filtered leg and phase voltages are shown in Figs. 8 and

9.

This section details the step by step

5. CONCLUSIONS

development of Matlab/Simulink model for SVPWM.

The Simulink model is shown in Fig. 6. Each block is

A simple Matlab/Simulink model is presented to

further elaborated in Fig. 7. The Matlab code used to

implement SVPWM for three-phase VSI. A brief review

generate the switching pattern is also provided. Each

of the VSI model is also reported based on space vector

sub-blocks of Fig. 6 is described in the following sub-

representation. A Matlab/Simulink based model for

section.

implementation of SVPWM is presented. The step-by-

4.1 Reference Voltage Generation Block

Figure 6. Matlab/Simulink Model of SVPWM

(a)

(b) (c)

Figure 7. Sub-blocks of Matlab/Simulink model: (a) Reference voltage generation (b) VSI (c) Filters

1 0.6

Va Vb Vc

0.9 Vb Vc

Va

0.4

0.8

Phase voltages, filtered (p.u.)

Leg voltages,filtered (p.u.)

0.7

0.2

0.6

0.5 0

0.4

-0.2

0.3

0.2

-0.4

0.1

0

0.02 0.022 0.024 0.026 0.028 0.03 0.032 0.034 0.036 0.038 0.04 0.02 0.022 0.024 0.026 0.028 0.03 0.032 0.034 0.036 0.038 0.04

Time (s) Time (s)

step model development is reported. The presented t0 =(ts-ta-tb);

model gives an insight into the SVPWM. By varying the t1=[t0/4 ta/2 tb/2 t0/2 tb/2 ta/2 t0/4];t1=cumsum(t1);

magnitude of the input reference different modulation v1=[0 0 0 1 0 0 0];v2=[0 1 1 1 1 1 0];v3=[0 0 1 1 1 0 0];

index can be achieved. for j=1:7

if(y<t1(j))

6. REFERENCES break

end

[1] Holmes, G.D. and Lipo, T.A., Pulse Width end

Modulation for Power Converters - Principles and sa=v1(j);sb=v2(j);sc=v3(j);

Practice, IEEE Press Series on Power Eng., John Wiley end

and Sons, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2003. %sector IV

if (x>=-pi) & (x<-2*pi/3)

[2] Kazmierkowski, M.P., Krishnan, R. and adv = x + pi;

Blaabjerg, F., Control in power electronics- selected tb= mag * sin(pi/3 - adv);ta = mag * sin(adv);

problems, Academic Press, California, USA, 2002. t0 =(ts-ta-tb);

[3] Implementing SVPWM with AMD, t1=[t0/4 ta/2 tb/2 t0/2 tb/2 ta/2 t0/4];t1=cumsum(t1);

Application notes, Analogue Electronics v1=[0 0 0 1 0 0 0];v2=[0 0 1 1 1 0 0];v3=[0 1 1 1 1 1 0];

for j=1:7

[4] Matalb/Simulink reference guide if(y<t1(j))

www.mathworks.co.uk. break

end

APPENDIX 1 end

%Matlab Code to generate Switching functions sa=v1(j);sb=v2(j);sc=v3(j);

% Inputs are magnitude u1(:),angle u2(:) end

% and ramp time signal for comparison u3(:) % sector V

function [sf]=aaa(u) if (x>=-2*pi/3) & (x<-pi/3)

ts=0.0002;vdc=1;peak_phase_max= vdc/sqrt(3); adv = x+2*pi/3;

x=u(2); y=u(3); mag=(u(1)/peak_phase_max) * ts; ta = mag * sin(pi/3-adv);tb = mag * sin(adv);

%sector I t0 =(ts-ta-tb);

if (x>=0) & (x<pi/3) t1=[t0/4 ta/2 tb/2 t0/2 tb/2 ta/2 t0/4];t1=cumsum(t1);

ta = mag * sin(pi/3-x);tb = mag * sin(x); v1=[0 0 1 1 1 0 0];v2=[0 0 0 1 0 0 0];v3=[0 1 1 1 1 1 0];

t0 =(ts-ta-tb); for j=1:7

t1=[t0/4 ta/2 tb/2 t0/2 tb/2 ta/2 t0/4];t1=cumsum(t1); if(y<t1(j))

v1=[0 1 1 1 1 1 0];v2=[0 0 1 1 1 0 0];v3=[0 0 0 1 0 0 0]; break

for j=1:7 end

if(y<t1(j)) end

break sa=v1(j);sb=v2(j);sc=v3(j);

end end

end %Sector VI

sa=v1(j);sb=v2(j);sc=v3(j); if (x>=-pi/3) & (x<0)

end adv = x+pi/3;

% sector II tb = mag * sin(pi/3-adv);ta = mag * sin(adv);

if (x>=pi/3) & (x<2*pi/3) t0 =(ts-ta-tb);

adv= x-pi/3; t1=[t0/4 ta/2 tb/2 t0/2 tb/2 ta/2 t0/4];t1=cumsum(t1);

tb = mag * sin(pi/3-adv);ta = mag * sin(adv); v1=[0 1 1 1 1 1 0];v2=[0 0 0 1 0 0 0];v3=[0 0 1 1 1 0 0];

t0 =(ts-ta-tb); for j=1:7

t1=[t0/4 ta/2 tb/2 t0/2 tb/2 ta/2 t0/4];t1=cumsum(t1); if(y<t1(j))

v1=[0 0 1 1 1 0 0];v2=[0 1 1 1 1 1 0];v3=[0 0 0 1 0 0 0]; break

for j=1:7 end

if(y<t1(j)) end

break sa=v1(j);sb=v2(j);sc=v3(j);

end end

end sf=[sa, sb, sc];

sa=v1(j);sb=v2(j);sc=v3(j); Corresponding Author: Dr. Atif Iqbal, Reader,

end Department of Electrical Engineering, Aligarh Muslim

%sector III University, Aligarh 202002, India. Phone: +91 571

if (x>=2*pi/3) & (x<pi) 2901029, Mob. +91 9411210372, Email:

adv=x-2*pi/3; atif_iqbal1@rediffmail.com

ta = mag * sin(pi/3-adv);tb = mag * sin(adv);

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