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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF WIND TURBINES USING

HELICOIDAL VORTEX MODEL

Jean-Jacques CHATTOT

†

Abstract

The design and analysis of wind turbines is carried out using a helicoidal vortex model that

allows for accurate calculation of the induced velocities using the Biot-Savart law. The design

corresponds to the maximum power output for a given thrust and the distributions of circulation,

induced velocities, chord and twist of two- and three-bladed rotors are obtained. The analysis of

turbines at oﬀ-design conditions is based on the same helicoidal vortex model, however, the power

is not prescribed and an iteration is needed to insure that the vortex system is consistent with the

resulting power extracted from the air. 2-D data from experiments or viscous codes are used to

correct for viscous eﬀects. Comparisons with published cases indicate that the method produces

useful results very eﬃciently.

Key Words: Please specify.

1 Introduction

One of the key feature of the ﬂow past wind turbines

and propellers is the helicoidal vortex structure shed

by the blades, that induces velocities in the axial and

azimuthal directions which have a profound inﬂuence

on the blade ﬂow. For large Reynolds numbers the

phenomena depends primarily on the advance ratio

adv =

V

ΩR

, and the power coeﬃcient P

τ

=

2P

ρΩ

3

R

5

.

The vortex sheet is a free surface and its location

and strength depend on the conditions of the prob-

lem. The Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers cannot cap-

ture the vortex sheets beyond 2 or 3 turns, due to

the dissipation properties of the numerical schemes.

Therefore, most of the interaction is lost hence the

ﬂow cannot be accurately predicted. In the present

approach, the vortex structure is well represented and

the interaction is allowed to take place. The inﬂuence

coeﬃcients from the multiple vortex sheets (from two-

and three-bladed rotor blades) are computed using the

Biot-Savart law. This is done in a very eﬃcient and

accurate way by treating the sheets as vortex lattices

with variable discretization steps [1]. The paper is

divided into two parts: the ﬁrst part deals with the

design aspects and is related to a previous paper on

Received on December 9, 2001.

† University of California Davis, Davis, California

95616

c Copyright: Japan Society of CFD/ CFD Journal 2000

the optimization of propellers, where the details of the

helicoidal vortex structure, discretization and mini-

mization equations can be found, Ref. [1]. Results of

design cases are presented; the second part is devoted

to the oﬀ-design analysis of the turbine. The equilib-

rium equation and the solution procedure are given.

It is shown how a consistency condition, derived from

ﬁrst principles, is enforced in order for the vortex sheet

to be a free surface. Ye Zhiquan et Al., Ref. [2], use

the vortex theory to predict the aerodynamic perfor-

mance of a turbine, however, no mention is made of

the consistency condition. Their results and experi-

mental data are compared with the present method.

The test cases demonstrate the ability of the method

to predict the performance of a turbine under fairly

wide range of conditions, including situations where

substantial separation is present.

2 Optimization of Turbines

2.1 Formulation

The optimization of propellers presented in [1] is based

on the maximization of thrust (minimization of nega-

tive drag) for a given power transmitted to the ﬂuid.

The corresponding situation for a turbine is to mini-

mize power (absorbed power is negative) for a given

thrust, advance ratio adv, and root location y

0

. The

vortex structure is well deﬁned, since from ﬁrst prin-

ciples, i.e. actuator disk theory, the convection speed

V + u

b

for the vortex sheet at the rotor is related to

2 Jean-Jacques Chattot

thrust and power by

T = −2πρR

2

(V + u

b

)u

b

P = 2πρR

2

(V + u

b

)

2

u

b

,

where u

b

is the induced axial velocity. The follow-

ing dimensionless coeﬃcients are introduced: C

D

=

−

2T

ρV

2

R

2

, C

τ

=

2τ

ρV

2

R

3

=

P

τ

adv

2

, η = C

p

= −

P

τ

πadv

3

,

where τ is the torque (negative) and η is the eﬃ-

ciency, as deﬁned by Glauert [3], with a maximum

η

max

= 16/27. The coordinates, velocities, circulation

and chord are made dimensionless as x = R¯ x, y =

R¯ y, z = R¯ z, u = V ¯ u, v = V ¯ v, w = V ¯ w, Γ = V R

¯

Γ, c =

R¯c. Unless otherwise indicated, the dimensionless vari-

ables are used in the rest of the paper and the tilde

is dropped for simplicity. The cost functional for tur-

bines is deﬁned as Cost = C

τ

+ λC

D

, where λ is the

Lagrange parameter. The analysis of the blade ﬂow,

using strip theory, yields the force and moment coef-

ﬁcients for one blade:

C

τ

=2

1

y0

Γ(y) (1 + u(y)) ydy

+

1

y0

q(y)

y

adv

+ w(y)

C

d

(y)c(y)ydy

C

D

=−2

1

y0

Γ(y)

y

adv

+ w(y)

dy

+

1

y0

q(y) (1 + u(y)) C

d

(y)c(y)dy

,

where q(y) is the dimensionless incoming velocity in

the y = const. plane, i.e.

q(y) =

(1 + u(y))

2

+

y

adv

+ w(y)

2

.

The 2-D viscous data, C

d

(α), C

l

(α) =

2Γ

qc

are obtained

from experimental data or Xfoil (Ref. [4]).

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

Cd

−1.5

−1.25

−1

−0.75

−0.5

−0.25

0

C

l

Fig.1: S809 polar: Xfoil R

e

= 750, 000.

The discrete formulation, minimization equations

and Lagrange multiplier update are the same as for

propellers, except for the exchange of the roles of C

τ

and C

D

. The chord distribution is obtained in the

process, by requiring the lift coeﬃcient to be constant

along the blade at (C

l

)

opt

corresponding to maximum

C

l

C

d

.

2.2 Application to the Design of Two

Turbines

The result of the optimization is a distribution of cir-

culation and induced velocities. In inviscid ﬂow, there

is an inﬁnite number of blade geometries that will pro-

duce the optimal distributions. They diﬀer by chord,

camber and twist. The viscous data corresponds to a

selected proﬁle, at a representative Reynolds number,

based on the chord c(y) and incoming velocity q(y)

along the blade span. This approach requires some

a priori knowledge of turbine blade proﬁles that can

be used, if an eﬃcient design is contemplated. The

optimization produces the chord and twist distribu-

tions that completely deﬁne the geometry. The test

cases presented below use the S809 airfoil starting at

y

0

= 0.25, for which the geometry as well as a large

set of experimental and theoretical data is available

from the NREL study [5]. The 2-D viscous data at

Reynolds R

e

= 750, 000 are computed using Xfoil.

They are shown in Figure 1. Note that, for turbines,

we have chosen the convention of negative incidence

and negative lift coeﬃcients. The optimum lift co-

eﬃcient has been found to be (C

l

)

opt

= −0.8979 at

α = −6.35 deg. The design of a two-bladed turbine is

carried out for an advance ratio adv = 0.345 and a

thrust coeﬃcient C

D

= 0.643. The mesh system con-

sists of jx = 51 points. The distribution of circulation

and induced velocities is presented in Figure 2. Note

that the induced velocities are fairly uniform over the

blade. The corresponding chord distribution is shown

in Figure 3. The twist, measured from the y-axis (neg-

ative) is presented in Figure 4. The eﬃciency is found

to be η = 0.1677. This is approximately 50% higher

than the eﬃciency of the NREL rotor at that design

point as seen in Figure 10.

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

y

−0.2

−0.15

−0.1

−0.05

0

0.05

0.1

g

a

m

a

(

y

)

,

u

(

y

)

&

w

(

y

)

gama(y)

u(y)

w(y)

Fig.2: Optimum circulation and induced velocities,

adv = 0.345, C

D

= 0.643

Design And Analysis of Wind Turbines Using Helicoidal Vortex Model 3

For the same working conditions, adv =

0.345, C

D

= 0.643, a three-bladed rotor is designed.

The results for the distributions of circulation and in-

duced velocities, chord and twist are presented in Fig-

ures 5, 6 and 7, and compared with the results of the

two-bladed turbine. As can be seen, the blade loading

and the induced velocities for the three-bladed rotor

are smaller, as expected, and the blade projected area

is 65% of that of the two-bladed turbine, which is close

to the

2

3

ratio. The eﬃciency, however, is increased to

η = 0.1749.

3 Analysis of Turbines

In this part, the turbine geometry is given, from a de-

sign calculation or from other manufacturing consid-

erations. The goal is to ﬁnd the turbine power output

at oﬀ-design conditions, for a range of advance ratios.

The vortex structure need no longer be a regular screw

surface that satisfy the minimum energy condition of

Betz [6]. However, for reason of simplicity, and appro-

priately in cases where the blade loading is light, the

vortex sheet will be constructed as a regular screw.

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

7

−0.1

−0.05

0

0.05

0.1

x

l

e

(

y

)

&

x

t

e

(

y

)

Fig.3: Chord distribution with quarter-chord along

the y-axis

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

y

−90

−80

−70

−60

−50

−40

t

(

y

)

Fig.4: Twist distribution

3.1 Formulation

The equilibrium equation is given by the condition

that the local lift coeﬃcient is a function of the eﬀec-

tive angle of attack, as is done in the Prandtl lifting

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

y

−0.2

−0.15

−0.1

−0.05

0

0.05

0.1

g

a

m

a

(

y

)

,

u

(

y

)

&

w

(

y

)

gama(y) 2 blades

u(y) 2 blades

w(y) 2 blades

gama(y) 3 blades

u(y) 3 blades

w(y) 3 blades

Fig.5: Optimum circulation and induced velocities,

adv = 0.345, C

D

= 0.643

line theory:

C

l

(α(y)) =C

lm−1

+

C

lm

−C

lm−1

α

m

−α

m−1

(α(y) −α

m−1

)

=(C

l0

)

m

+ (C

l1

)

m

α(y),

where the coeﬃcients C

lm

correspond to the piecewise

linear approximation of the lift curve between points

m − 1 and m. They depend also on y. The lift co-

eﬃcient is expressed in terms of the circulation, the

incoming velocity and the chord. The angle of attack

depends on the induced velocities. In discrete form,

at point y

j

, the equilibrium equation reads

Γ

j

=

1

2

q

j

c

j

¸

(C

l0

)

m

+ (C

l1

)

m

¸

arctan

¸

y

j

adv

+ w

j

1 + u

j

¸

+ t

j

¸

¸

,

(1)

where

q

j

=

(1 + u

j

)

2

+

y

j

adv

+ w

j

2

.

The induced velocities depend, in turn, on Γ

through the following summations

w

k

=

¸

jx−1

j=1

(Γ

j+1

−Γ

j

) a

j,k

u

k

=

¸

jx−1

j=1

(Γ

j+1

−Γ

j

) b

j,k

,

where the a

j,k

and b

j,k

are obtained from the Biot-

Savart formula [1]. Equation (1) is nonlinear, but the

nonlinearity is mild when the angle of attack is above

α

crit

corresponding to the ﬁrst local extremum. When

α(y) < α

crit

along the blade, the equation of equilib-

rium becomes highly nonlinear and admits multiple

solutions, as there are multiple values of α for a given

value of C

l

. It is necessary to add to equation (1) an

4 Jean-Jacques Chattot

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

y

−0.1

−0.05

0

0.05

0.1

x

l

e

(

y

)

&

x

t

e

(

y

)

xle(y) & xte(y) 2 blades

xle(y) & xte(y) 3 blades

Fig.6: Chord distribution with quarter-chord along

the y-axis

artiﬁcial viscosity or smoothing term. This is done by

adding µ∆y

∂

2

Γ

∂y

2

to the right-hand side. The points

along the blade span are relaxed according to the fol-

lowing iteration procedure:

1 +

2µ

y

j+1

−y

j−1

δΓ

j

ω

= F

u

n

j

, w

n

j

−Γ

n

j

+ µ

Γ

n

j+1

− 2Γ

n

j

+ Γ

n+1

j−1

y

j+1

−y

j−1

,

where the upper index n refers to the iteration level

and δΓ = Γ

n+1

− Γ

n

. F (u, w) represents the right-

hand side of equation (1), and ω is the relaxation

factor. Some under-relaxation is needed for stabil-

ity. With jx = 21 a value of µ = 0.2 is used. An

analysis calculation is carried out by prescribing the

geometry, the advance ratio and the power coeﬃcient,

P

τ

. The latter is needed to construct the vortex struc-

ture, taking into account the clustering of the vortex

sheets, as the induced axial velocity decreases from u

b

at the rotor plane to 2u

b

in the Treﬀtz plane. The

result of the calculation, however, yields a value of

P

τ

, obtained by integration along the blade, that is

in general diﬀerent from the input value. The consis-

tency condition requires, from ﬁrst principles, that the

power coeﬃcient corresponds to the helicoidal vortex

structure, a zeroth-order “equilibrium condition” for

the vortex sheets. This is done iteratively, using the

result for P

τ

as input for the next calculation. It was

found that this is a stable procedure and convergence

of the consistency condition requires between 3 to 10

cycles. Note that, the ﬁrst value is guessed, and must

be larger than P

τmin

= −

16

27

πadv

3

.

3.2 Applications

A curve ﬁtting of the discrete geometric data of a

three-bladed wind turbine from Ye Zhiquan et Al. [2]

is used with the present approach. The chord and

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

y

−90

−80

−70

−60

−50

−40

t

(

y

)

t(y) 2 blades

t(y) 3 blades

Fig.7: Twist distribution

twist distributions are well represented by

**c(y) =0.194486 −0.525251y + 0.919523y
**

2

−0.735398y

3

+ 0.219878y

4

t(y) =−0.794454 −4.01836y + 9.97529y

2

−12.7413y

3

+ 8.19633y

4

−2.10289y

5

The blade is equipped with the NACA 4418. The root

location is at y

0

= 0.2. The viscous data is shown

in Figure 8. A range of values of the tip speed ra-

tio (TSR =

1

adv

) from 2 to 12 has been simulated.

The results are compared with the theoretical and ex-

perimental results of Ye Zhiquan et Al., in Figure 9.

The agreement is good. For large advance ratios, i.e.

TSR < 5, the vortex methods evolve in a similar way

except for a shift. This may be due to the simpliﬁed

equilibrium equation used in Ref. [2], where the term

in the outer bracket in equation (1) is frozen when

α < α

crit

. At low advance ratios, although the the-

oretical results are close, the slopes are diﬀerent. In

this range, the vortex interaction is more pronounced

and the consistency condition enforcement is crucial.

It is not clear how this is handled in the vortex method

of Ref. [2].

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

Cd

−1.75

−1.5

−1.25

−1

−0.75

−0.5

−0.25

0

C

l

Fig.8: NACA4418 polar: Xfoil R

e

= 500, 000.

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory

(NREL) has been testing its wind turbine in the

Design And Analysis of Wind Turbines Using Helicoidal Vortex Model 5

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

1/adv

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

C

p

Ref.[2] theory

Ref.[2] experiments

present method

Fig.9: Comparison of theoretical and experimental

power coeﬃcients

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1/adv

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

C

p

NREL data

present analysis

present design

Fig.10: Comparison of power coeﬃcients with experi-

mental data

NASA Ames 80’ by 120’ wind tunnel. Some of the

data has been made available to assess the existing

computational models. The geometry and ﬂow conﬁg-

urations can be found on the web site [5]. the following

curve ﬁtting formulae have been used:

c(y) =0.171734 −0.101038y

t(y) =−0.0416689 −8.1586y + 18.3718y

2

−21.4031y

3

+ 12.6372y

4

−3.0073y

5

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

y

−0.6

−0.5

−0.4

−0.3

−0.2

−0.1

0

a

l

p

h

a

(

y

)

TSR=6.6667

TSR=5.4083

TSR=4.6

TSR=3.797

TSR=3.3

TSR=2.8986

TSR=2.7

TSR=2.5145

TSR=2.2

TSR=1.8868

Fig.11: Evolution of α(y) with tip speed ratio

Using the polar of Figure 1, a range of TSR,

from 1.8868 to 6.6667 has been investigated with

the present approach. The theoretical results are

compared with the wind tunnel data in Figure 10.

The agreement is quite good, considering that, when

TSR < 4.26 a large portion of the blade is stalled.

This is reﬂected in the distribution of eﬀective angle

of attack in Figure 11. There is a local extremum

for C

l

at α

crit

= −14.5 deg = −0.2531 rd, C

l

=

−1.1435, C

d

= 0.0589, corresponding to a large sepa-

rated region on the proﬁle.

4 Conclusion

The design and analysis of turbines can beneﬁt from

the simpler and more eﬃcient vortex approach. The

main feature is the integral representation of the vor-

tex structure shed by the blades, which allows accu-

rate evaluation of the induced velocities and correct

blade operation simulation. The results indicate that

this is the key issue. This approach can be consid-

ered a second-order method, where the actuator-disk

is the zeroth-order and the blade-element/momentum

theory is the ﬁrst-order method. Nevertheless, the

approximations of the rigid treatment of the vortex

structure and the strip approach impose a limit on ac-

curacy at low Reynolds numbers and at the tip where

y-derivatives become large. A composite approach,

using a Navier-Stokes code in the near ﬁeld and the

vortex method in the far ﬁeld, seems at this time, the

only viable answer to this challenging problem.

REFERENCES

[1] Chattot, J.-J., “Optimization of Propellers Using

Helicoidal Vortex Model,” CFD Journal, to appear

2002.

[2] Ye Zhiquan, Zhang Feng and Chen Yan,

“Prediction of HAWT Aerodynamic Performance

Using Vortex Theory,” Proceedings WINDPOWER

’98, American Wind Energy Association, 1998.

[3] Glauert, H., The Elements of Aerofoil and

Airscrew Theory, University Press, Cambridge,

1959.

[4] Drela, M., and Giles, M.B., “Viscous-Inviscid

Analysis of Transonic and Low Reynolds Number

Airfoils,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 25, No. 10, 1987, pp.

1347-1355.

[5] Fingersh, L.J., Simms, D., Hand, M., Jager, D.,

Cotrell, J., Robinson, M., Schreck, S., Larwood, S.,

“Wind Tunnel Testing of NREL’s Unsteady

Aerodynamics Experiment,” AIAA paper No.

2001-0035. NREL data base,

http://wind2.nrel.gov/amestest/

[6] Prandtl, L., and Betz, A., “Vier Abhandlungen

zur Hydrodynamik und Aerodynamik,” Gottingen

Nachr., Gottingen, Selbstverlag des Kaiser

Wilhelminstituts fur Stromungsforschung, 1927.

where λ is the Lagrange parameter. minimization equations and Lagrange multiplier update are the same as for propellers.345. The eﬃciency is found to be η = 0. The following dimensionless coeﬃcients are introduced: CD = 2τ Pτ Pτ 2T = .25 −0. adv = 0. 2Γ are obtained qc from experimental data or Xfoil (Ref. CD = 0.05 0. The 2-D viscous data. using strip theory. c = Rc. This is approximately 50% higher than the eﬃciency of the NREL rotor at that design point as seen in Figure 10. The discrete formulation.4 0. by requiring the lift coeﬃcient to be constant along the blade at (Cl )opt corresponding to maximum Cl . there is an inﬁnite number of blade geometries that will produce the optimal distributions. The analysis of the blade ﬂow. Unless otherwise indicated. Note that the induced velocities are fairly uniform over the blade. This approach requires some a priori knowledge of turbine blade proﬁles that can be used. v = V v.345 and a thrust coeﬃcient CD = 0.1 −1. if an eﬃcient design is contemplated. measured from the y-axis (negative) is presented in Figure 4.2 0. for turbines. Note that. for which the geometry as well as a large set of experimental and theoretical data is available from the NREL study [5].2: Optimum circulation and induced velocities. Cl (α) = 0 and CD . The optimization produces the chord and twist distributions that completely deﬁne the geometry. Γ = V RΓ. η = Cp = − . − 2 2 . q(y) = (1 + u(y))2 + y + w(y) adv 2 . The cost functional for turbines is deﬁned as Cost = Cτ + λCD . y 1 C = −2 D y0 Γ(y) adv + w(y) dy 1 + y0 q(y) (1 + u(y)) Cd (y)c(y)dy where q(y) is the dimensionless incoming velocity in the y = const. yields the force and moment coefﬁcients for one blade: Cτ = 2 1 Γ(y) (1 + u(y)) ydy y0 y 1 + w(y) Cd (y)c(y)ydy + y0 q(y) adv . the dimensionless variables are used in the rest of the paper and the tilde is dropped for simplicity.643.5 gama(y). The optimum lift coeﬃcient has been found to be (Cl )opt = −0. velocities.05 −0.05 −1 −0. The chord distribution is obtained in the process. u = V u. Cτ = 2 R3 2 ρV R ρV adv πadv3 where τ is the torque (negative) and η is the eﬃciency. The viscous data corresponds to a selected proﬁle.2 0. The mesh system consists of jx = 51 points. plane.2 0. The design of a two-bladed turbine is carried out for an advance ratio adv = 0.6 y 0. based on the chord c(y) and incoming velocity q(y) along the blade span. The corresponding chord distribution is shown in Figure 3. P = 2πρR2 (V + u )2 u b b where ub is the induced axial velocity.15 0. as deﬁned by Glauert [3].2 Application to the Design of Two Turbines The result of the optimization is a distribution of circulation and induced velocities. 000. 0. The twist. The test cases presented below use the S809 airfoil starting at y0 = 0. at a representative Reynolds number. we have chosen the convention of negative incidence and negative lift coeﬃcients.15 −1. Cd (α).1 0. z = Rz. except for the exchange of the roles of Cτ Fig. The distribution of circulation and induced velocities is presented in Figure 2. Cd 2.25 −0. They diﬀer by chord. 000 are computed using Xfoil.u(y) & w(y) 0 gama(y) u(y) w(y) Cl −0. They are shown in Figure 1.2 Jean-Jacques Chattot thrust and power by T = −2πρR2 (V + u )u b b .e.1677.75 −0.35 deg.1: S809 polar: Xfoil Re = 750. y = Ry.5 0 0. w = V w.25 −0.643 . [4]).1 Cd 0. circulation and chord are made dimensionless as x = Rx. i.8 1 Fig.25. The coordinates. camber and twist. The 2-D viscous data at Reynolds Re = 750. In inviscid ﬂow.8979 at α = −6. with a maximum ηmax = 16/27.

the equilibrium equation reads Γj = yj + wj 1 + tj . qj cj (Cl0 )m + (Cl1 )m arctan adv 2 1 + uj (1) where qj = (1 + uj ) + 2 0 −0.643. As can be seen. and appropriately in cases where the blade loading is light. The goal is to ﬁnd the turbine power output at oﬀ-design conditions. adv = 0.4 0.k and bj. as expected.1 xle(y) & xte(y) 0.15 −0. CD = 0.05 where the coeﬃcients Clm correspond to the piecewise linear approximation of the lift curve between points m − 1 and m.4: Twist distribution 3.k are obtained from the BiotSavart formula [1]. adv = 0. in turn. the equation of equilibrium becomes highly nonlinear and admits multiple solutions.05 −0. the blade loading and the induced velocities for the three-bladed rotor are smaller.Design And Analysis of Wind Turbines Using Helicoidal Vortex Model 0. When α(y) < αcrit along the blade. for a range of advance ratios.2 Fig. however. as is done in the Prandtl lifting where the aj. The lift coeﬃcient is expressed in terms of the circulation. is increased to 3 η = 0. They depend also on y. chord and twist are presented in Figures 5. It is necessary to add to equation (1) an . as there are multiple values of α for a given value of Cl . the vortex sheet will be constructed as a regular screw.6 y 0. The eﬃciency.6 7 0.05 −0. the incoming velocity and the chord. on Γ through the following summations w = jx−1 (Γ k j+1 − Γj ) aj. The vortex structure need no longer be a regular screw surface that satisfy the minimum energy condition of Betz [6]. In discrete form.1749. Equation (1) is nonlinear.643 line theory: Cl (α(y)) =Clm−1 + Clm − Clm−1 (α(y) − αm−1 ) αm − αm−1 = (Cl0 )m + (Cl1 )m α(y). u(y) & w(y) 0 −0. the turbine geometry is given. 3 Analysis of Turbines 0. which is close 2 to the ratio.2 0.2 0. CD = 0.6 y 0.3: Chord distribution with quarter-chord along the y-axis −40 −50 yj + wj adv 2 . for reason of simplicity.1 0.8 1 In this part. Fig.5: Optimum circulation and induced velocities.2 0. and compared with the results of the two-bladed turbine. However.k 0.4 0.1 −0.345.05 gama(y) 2 blades u(y) 2 blades w(y) 2 blades gama(y) 3 blades u(y) 3 blades w(y) 3 blades gama(y). but the nonlinearity is mild when the angle of attack is above αcrit corresponding to the ﬁrst local extremum. 0.8 1 Fig.4 0. and the blade projected area is 65% of that of the two-bladed turbine. at point yj . a three-bladed rotor is designed.8 1 t(y) −90 0.1 3 For the same working conditions. The results for the distributions of circulation and induced velocities.345. jx−1 u = (Γ − Γ )b k j=1 j+1 j j. −60 −70 −80 The induced velocities depend.k j=1 . from a design calculation or from other manufacturing considerations. The angle of attack depends on the induced velocities. 6 and 7.1 Formulation The equilibrium equation is given by the condition that the local lift coeﬃcient is a function of the eﬀective angle of attack.

In this range.4 0.25 Fig.6 y 0. F (u. where the term in the outer bracket in equation (1) is frozen when α < αcrit .15 0. a zeroth-order “equilibrium condition” for the vortex sheets. from ﬁrst principles. taking into account the clustering of the vortex sheets. although the theoretical results are close.e. the slopes are diﬀerent. It was found that this is a stable procedure and convergence of the consistency condition requires between 3 to 10 cycles.5 −1.2 0.2.194486 − 0. The result of the calculation. The chord and −0. 000. This may be due to the simpliﬁed equilibrium equation used in Ref. however.25 −1. The agreement is good. j yj+1 − yj−1 where the upper index n refers to the iteration level and δΓ = Γn+1 − Γn . The consistency condition requires. T SR < 5. [2]. [2].6 y 0.2 0. as the induced axial velocity decreases from ub at the rotor plane to 2ub in the Treﬀtz plane.05 0. With jx = 21 a value of µ = 0.4 0. 27 3.1 xle(y) & xte(y) 0. [2] is used with the present approach.6: Chord distribution with quarter-chord along the y-axis artiﬁcial viscosity or smoothing term. It is not clear how this is handled in the vortex method of Ref. Some under-relaxation is needed for stability. that the power coeﬃcient corresponds to the helicoidal vortex structure. in Figure 9.525251y + 0.7413y 3 + 8.7: Twist distribution twist distributions are well represented by c(y) = 0. the vortex interaction is more pronounced and the consistency condition enforcement is crucial. The viscous data is shown in Figure 8.8 1 −90 0.05 −80 −0.05 −60 0 t(y) −70 −0.8: NACA4418 polar: Xfoil Re = 500. At low advance ratios.4 Jean-Jacques Chattot −40 t(y) 2 blades t(y) 3 blades −50 xle(y) & xte(y) 2 blades xle(y) & xte(y) 3 blades 0. The points ∂y along the blade span are relaxed according to the following iteration procedure: 1+ 2µ yj+1 − yj−1 δΓj ω Fig. using the result for Pτ as input for the next calculation.219878y 4 t(y) = −0. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been testing its wind turbine in the .794454 − 4.75 0 0. the vortex methods evolve in a similar way except for a shift. The root location is at y0 = 0. The latter is needed to construct the vortex structure. w) represents the righthand side of equation (1). i. An analysis calculation is carried out by prescribing the geometry. For large advance ratios. the ﬁrst value is guessed.919523y 2 −0.735398y 3 + 0.75 Cl −1 −1.2 Applications A curve ﬁtting of the discrete geometric data of a three-bladed wind turbine from Ye Zhiquan et Al.97529y 2 −12.8 1 Fig. This is done by ∂2Γ adding µ∆y 2 to the right-hand side..5 −0. tio (T SR = adv The results are compared with the theoretical and experimental results of Ye Zhiquan et Al. Note that. that is in general diﬀerent from the input value. yields a value of Pτ .10289y 5 The blade is equipped with the NACA 4418.1 0.1 Cd 0. This is done iteratively. the advance ratio and the power coeﬃcient.25 n = F un . wj j Γn − 2Γn + Γn+1 j+1 j j−1 − Γn + µ . and must 16 be larger than Pτ min = − πadv3 . obtained by integration along the blade. and ω is the relaxation factor.19633y 4 − 2.2 is used.2 0. A range of values of the tip speed ra1 ) from 2 to 12 has been simulated. Pτ .01836y + 9. 0 −0.

The Elements of Aerofoil and Airscrew Theory..8986 TSR=2...” CFD Journal. considering that. 1959..0073y 5 0 TSR=6..6 0 0. The geometry and ﬂow conﬁgurations can be found on the web site [5].26 a large portion of the blade is stalled. Cd = 0.5145 TSR=2. This is reﬂected in the distribution of eﬀective angle of attack in Figure 11.5 deg = −0. ..2 0.-J.2 0.6372y 4 − 3. the approximations of the rigid treatment of the vortex structure and the strip approach impose a limit on accuracy at low Reynolds numbers and at the tip where y-derivatives become large.1 from 1.1586y + 18. using a Navier-Stokes code in the near ﬁeld and the vortex method in the far ﬁeld. The theoretical results are compared with the wind tunnel data in Figure 10. Selbstverlag des Kaiser Wilhelminstituts fur Stromungsforschung. Robinson. [3] Glauert. which allows accurate evaluation of the induced velocities and correct blade operation simulation..4 NREL data present analysis present design 0..5 −0.6667 has been investigated with the present approach.2 TSR=1. “Viscous-Inviscid Analysis of Transonic and Low Reynolds Number Airfoils. University Press.. and Giles. “Wind Tunnel Testing of NREL’s Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment. The main feature is the integral representation of the vortex structure shed by the blades. corresponding to a large separated region on the proﬁle. Larwood. [5] Fingersh.gov/amestest/ [6] Prandtl.4083 TSR=4.101038y t(y) = −0. 10.[2] theory Ref. A composite approach. http://wind2.9: Comparison of theoretical and experimental power coeﬃcients 0.7 TSR=2. Cp alpha(y) −0. “Optimization of Propellers Using Helicoidal Vortex Model. Cotrell. Some of the data has been made available to assess the existing computational models.1 0 0 1 2 3 1/adv 4 5 6 7 Fig.0416689 − 8.0589. The results indicate that this is the key issue.” Proceedings WINDPOWER ’98. M. the following curve ﬁtting formulae have been used: c(y) = 0.8 1 Fig. M.6667 TSR=5.. where the actuator-disk is the zeroth-order and the blade-element/momentum theory is the ﬁrst-order method.6 0. 1347-1355.” Gottingen Nachr.4031y 3 + 12. Zhang Feng and Chen Yan. S.4 0.” AIAA Journal.3 TSR=2... This approach can be considered a second-order method. L. Cambridge. [4] Drela.3 0.797 TSR=3. “Prediction of HAWT Aerodynamic Performance Using Vortex Theory. pp. Schreck.2 0. NREL data base. L. the only viable answer to this challenging problem.8868 to 6.6 TSR=3.J. D.8868 The design and analysis of turbines can beneﬁt from the simpler and more eﬃcient vortex approach.3718y 2 −21. and Betz.1435.nrel.11: Evolution of α(y) with tip speed ratio Using the polar of Figure 1.B. Gottingen. seems at this time. The agreement is quite good. There is a local extremum for Cl at αcrit = −14. a range of T SR.4 −0.171734 − 0. Hand. 4 6 1/adv 8 10 12 Cp 0 0 2 4 Conclusion Fig. D. Jager.. “Vier Abhandlungen zur Hydrodynamik und Aerodynamik. to appear 2002. Vol. [2] Ye Zhiquan. Simms. 1927. when T SR < 4.5 5 Ref. H..” AIAA paper No.[2] experiments present method 0. Cl = −1. S.4 y 0.1 −0.2 −0. M. 25.3 0.3 −0. A. 2001-0035. M.10: Comparison of power coeﬃcients with experimental data NASA Ames 80’ by 120’ wind tunnel.2531 rd.. Nevertheless. American Wind Energy Association. REFERENCES [1] Chattot. J. No. 1998. J.Design And Analysis of Wind Turbines Using Helicoidal Vortex Model 0. 1987.

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