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Alcoholism is a disease in which an individual continues to crave for alcohol despite of repeated alcohol-related problems. The signs of alcoholism and alcohol abuse are as very similar and are often just a question of degree or intensity. Typically the last person to be aware that he/she has serious drinking problems is the alcoholic himself/herself they are in denial. Some sign and symptoms of alcoholism as well as alcoholic abuse include, drinking alone, not being able to limit how much alcohol consumed, dropping hobbies and activities of the person used to enjoy; losing interest in them, feeling an urge to drink, having relationship problems with the law, having money problems, and requiring a large quantity of alcohol to feel its effect (videbeck, 2007).

Alcohol is one of the most widely used drug substances in the world. Mostly people drink a small or moderate amount of alcohol to make them relax and enhance their social activities. Using alcohol in this way is not harmful for most adult. However, people, whose use of alcohol has negative effects on any aspects of their lives, including health, relationship, work, study are considered to have an alcohol problem. This problem can range from mild to severe. The severity of an alcohol problem defends on the factors including the type of alcohol you drink, how much you drink and how long you have been drinking (Draves, 2008).

Alcohol is a liquid of strong pungent taste, an inflammable intoxicating element in fermented or distilled liquor. Alcohol is one of the large groups of sedatives, drugs

which include barbiturates, bromides and chloroform. A seductive drug is one that causes sleep when used in large enough quantities. Alcohol was one of the earliest sedative drugs used.

Doctors are not sure why people become alcoholism. These do not seem to be particular type of personality likely to become an alcohol. Alcoholism may affect men and women, the old and young, the rich and the poor (Grolier, 2000).

Alcohol use and binge among our nation’s youth is a major public problem. Nowadays, college students are consuming alcohol at increasing rates where the college students who appear to be a particularly high risk is one of the public health concern in terms of their alcohol consumption and its associated risk behaviors. Studies from different parts of the world have shown that college students have a high prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-use disorders, than the college youth. This could be attributed to the well-established developmental phase college students go through, in which they are away from home, family and longstanding friendship, in addition to the college setting being a unique environment to with a large proportion of young people are exposed. Aside from health risk, college students who drink too much alcohol may also be damaging their academic performance. There are already many lifestyle and other variables which may related to academic performance. Alcohol use is only part of the picture. Interestingly, estimates of hours spent in private study were only marginally correlated with academic performance.

Alcoholism may lead to physical and psychological problems in persons of any age. Older alcoholics very frequently have problems as a consequence of interaction

between alcohol consumption and physiological changes developing with age. Chemical composition of alcohol affects almost all body cells, and in high concentrations can lead to coma or death. Among the most common effects, often stated are: impairments of the immune system, frequent infections, high blood pressure, heart rhythm disorders, impairments of the heart muscle, stroke, higher prevalence of malignant conditions, cirrhosis and other impairments of the liver, and malnutrition (5). Alcoholism is also shown to be related to increased mortality, and the most frequently stated causes are acci- dents, injuries, poisonings, and diseases of the cardiovascular system, lung tuberculosis, liver cirrhosis, malignant diseases and suicide (6). Alcohol consumption in pregnant women may cause severe impairments in children, the most severe being fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). It is characterized by irregularities in the structure and development of the head and face, along with disorders in brain development.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), alcohol dependence, the most cause of severe disorders, is characterized by behavioral and other responses that always include a compulsion to take alcohol a continuous or periodic bases in order to experience its psychic effect, and sometimes avoid discomfort of its absence. Alcohol dependence is defined by sexennial criteria, including a narrowing of the persons drinking preferences; increased seeking of alcoholic beverages often to alcohol repeated withdrawal symptoms. Subjective compulsion or a strong urge to drink in spite of

awareness that drinking creating problems in the person’s life and rapid return to

establish drinking patterns of the following periods of abstinence (Collier, 1997).

It is essential that research into a better treatments methods and more significance, into method of prevention be continued. Only in this way can progress be made in

dealing with vices. It is significant to learn more about why people drinking, what effect of drinking to the health of a person, the most effective ways to prevent youth from starting and how to health adult to stop and to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages that drinking are caused.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the extent to which alcoholism can affect the academic performance of college students of Samar State University.

Specifically, this seeks to answer the following questions:

  • 1. What is the profile of the Civil Engineering students in terms of:

    • 1.1 Age and sex;

    • 1.2 Year level;

    • 1.3 Family monthly income?

2. What are the drinking habits of the respondents in terms of:

  • 2.1 Kinds of liquors;

  • 2.2 Number of bottles consumed (per week);

  • 2.3 How much do you typically pay for one alcoholic drink?

  • 2.4 Where do you usually drink?

  • 2.5 What time do you usually drink?

  • 2.6 What is the reason why are you drinking?

  • 2.7 How would you best describe yourself in terms of your current use of



What is the level of academic performance as determined by the General Weight

Average (GWA) of their first semester subjects?

  • 3. Is there a significant relationship between the academic performance of the students

and their drinking habits?

  • 4. Is there a significant relationship between the drinking habits and their profile


  • 5. Is there a significant difference in profile varieties with the extent of drinking alcohol?


  • 1. There is no significant relationship between the academic performance of the students

and their drinking habits.

  • 2. There is no significant relationship between the drinking habits and their profile.

  • 3. What implication may be derived from the findings of the study?

Theoretical Framework

The researchers will use the Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura (1993:66 70) stating that people learned through observing other’s behavior and most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling from observing others, from forms of an ideas how new behavior are performed and from this coded information serves as guides for action. This social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavior and environmental influences (1993:69).

Bandura further believes in reciprocal determinism, that, it isthe world and the

person’s behavior cause each other, while behaviorism essentially states that one’s environment causes one’s behavior. He considered personality as an interaction between

three (3) components: the environment, the behavior and one’s psychological process


In this theory, it is assumed that the students’ cognitive development results from a behavioral process (Eynsenk; 120-122) whereby a student learns how to drink alcohol through the influences with someone else usually the parents, friends, neighborhood and peers. Finally, this study shows that actions of the community level to change these constructs results in less drinking among teens. The community level appears to have success in changing the environment and expectances to alcohol use by reducing teen’s access to alcohol. Using alcohol can produce a “rush” – feelings of relaxation, euphoria, election and enhanced sense of well-being. Anxiety, depression, shyness and social awkwardness are relieved, at least temporarily. In some groups, social acceptance is gained and maintained by the use of alcohol. The “alcohol” meaning the people, place, and things associated with using alcohol-promote continued used; because they are associated with the feelings that produced by the alcohol use (Skinner et al., 2003). Classic theory states that if substance use disorders could be definitely explained by one compact theory; effective prevention and treatment efforts would be much easier to develop and implement. Until recently, most research have centered aboutalcoholism. Although, no known cause is apparent; addiction to substances are

viewed as a chronic, progressive and diseases that follows a predictable natural history. When individuals have disease, they are not blamed for having it; they are however, held responsible for participating in the management of their disease for optimum health outcomes. There is a little disadvantage that for the substance-dependent individual, abstinence is an essential element of the recovery process. The advances gained in neurobiology and genetics over the past decade in no way diminish the interactive nature of social environmental factors in the genesis and maintenance of addiction. Successful prevention efforts and treatments will follow expand knowledge of the relationship between human organisms, social systems, and environmental influences. Although factors such as prior arrest, school expulsion and drunkenness predicted drug use. The risk for relapse and thus dependence was most associated with being older with alcohol parents who had been involved in criminal activity. (Hingson, et al., 2002) Young people came to campus with demographic, family and drinking histories that influence their drinking in college. For example, one out of every ten college students reports growing up with a problem drinking parental once in college this young people either abstain from alcohol or greater than expected rates or disproportionately engage I binge drinking and abuse alcohol (Weitzman and Wechsler,


Teen’s brains and bodies are still developing; alcohol use can cause learning problem and can lead to adult alcoholism. People who begin drinking alcohol by age 15 are five times likely to abuse and become dependent on alcohol than those who begin drinking after age 20.

Findings and Recommendation
Findings and Recommendation
IMPROVED ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE Findings and Recommendation Drinking habits of the respondents 1. Kinds of liquors; Student’s
Drinking habits of the respondents 1. Kinds of liquors; Student’s 2. profile Number of bottles consumed
Drinking habits of the respondents
Kinds of liquors;
Number of bottles consumed (per
Age and sex;
How much do you typically pay for
Year level;
one alcoholic drink?
Where do you usually drink?
Family monthly
What time do you usually drink?
What is the reason why are you
How would you best describe
yourself in terms of your current
use of alcohol?
Academic performance of the respondents
toward their study
College of Engineering students
nd -5 th year S.Y 2014-2015
IMPROVED ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE Findings and Recommendation Drinking habits of the respondents 1. Kinds of liquors; Student’s

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the study.

Conceptual Framework

Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study. As what can be seen, at the base

of the diagram or Para diagram, it is in the first box, the location of the study, which is

Samar State University, Catbalogan City, respondents of the study. The box of the right

part of the paradigm contains the drinking habits of the respondents. The other box at the

left side also contains of the students profile in terms of their sex and age, year level, and

family monthly income. The next box contains the academic performance of the

respondents towards their study in terms of their general weight average for the first

semester. The next upper box contains the analysis, interpretation and the

recommendation of the study and lastly, the box on top is the improved academic


Significance of the study

This study would be a great help to students, parents, school administrative,

community and future researchers.

Students. The result of the study would aide them to increase their awareness

about alcohol drinking and alcohol-related issues so that at the early stage of life they

would develop desirable habit and value toward a better and quality of life.

Parents. This study would serve as an “eye-opener” to them, enabling there to see

the real scenario of the health nutrition factor of their students. They should know

important factors that will help their students towards the effect of the alcoholism in the

academic performance of the students. In order for them to realize the important facts that

may help their children abstain from such activities. Moreover, this will encourage them

to work hand in hand with their children to enhance harmonious relationship between

their environment and in school.

Teachers. They would be guided to know their student better with this study.

They would come to understand the nature of adolescence in alcoholic drinking in

relation to their effort to establish their capacity to become good contributors of society’s


School Administration. This study would allow school administrators to have

better reality based on information about students’ academic performance toward

alcoholic drinking. Such information would help them to make action that will best

increase awareness of the students to such activities and address this action to

adolescents, and work toward a common good for the improvement of the living

conditions each member of the society.

Community. This study would enjoin everybody to minimize, if not, stop the

occurrence of alcohol drinking. The result would help the community to establish (non-

discriminatory) the effects of drinking alcoholic beverages, so that the latter can be

assisted and properly evaluated themselves and look at other productive physically

harmless and healthy activities.

Future researchers. The findings of this study would prove other researchers

insight that would serve as a guide in their own research work.

Scope and Delimitation

The focus of this study is the relationship between the alcoholism and effect of the

academic performance of college students.

This study involved the college students included the age, sex, year level and

family monthly income.

The researchers choose the College of Engineering students as respondent of the

Samar State University, Catbalogan City year 2014-2015, because the researchers wanted

to find out what is the effect of alcoholism towards the academic performance of the

respondents and how to prevent from it, and the researchers also wanted to find out the

drinking habits of the respondents.

Definition of Terms

In order to give a common definition, the following terms were defined. To provide

a common frame to facilitate understanding on the part of the readers.

Academic Performance. It is define as the outcome of education that is the extent

in which student, teacher or institution has achieved their education goal and it is

commonly measured by examination or continuous assessment (Ward, 1996).

Alcohol. Alcohol is a liquid of strong pungent taste, an inflammable intoxicating

element in fermented or distilled liquor. This study, the term alcohol refers to the

beverages which can alter the mood and attitudes of the respondents (Grolier, 2000).

Alcoholism. Is a broad terms for public with alcohol, and is generally used in mean

compulsive and uncontrolled consumption of alcohol beverage, usually to the detriment

to the drinker’s health, personal relationship, and social standing. It is medically

considered a disease, especially and addictive illness (the new international Webster

comprehensive dictionary, 2004). In this study it is term by which he respondents

consume alcohol repeatedly that interferes with their behavior and academic


Performance. This term refers to the acts of taking action in a accordance with the

requirements of the job. In this study it refers to the performance of the respondents in

their academic field (Great Illustrated Dictionary).

Engineering Students. This term refers to the person engage in the study and who

attends a school. In this study, the term is used to address the respondents.

Chapter 2


Related Literature

A persons’ alcohol user is primarily influence by attitudes development during

childhood and teen years. It is impacted by the parent’s attitude and behavior towards

drinking, persons influence, society, and family relationships.

Experimentation with alcohol during the teen years is common. Some reason that

teen used alcohol are curiosity, to feel good, reduce stress, and relax and to fit in from a

very young age, Kids see advertising messages showing beautiful people enjoying life

and alcohol. And because many parent and other adults use alcohol socially-having beer

or wine with dinner, for example, alcohol seems harmless to many teens (Mosky and

Hobey, 2008).

The world health organization (2011) estimates that approximately four and a half

percent of the global burden of disease and injury is attributes to alcohol.” Alcohol

consumption is estimated to cause from 20% to 50% of cirrhosis of the liver, epilepsy,

poisonings, road traffic accidents, violence and several types of canser.”

Moreover, college is often seen as time for individual to find out their identity as a

person. For many people, its chance to truly explore their surrounding without the

constricting binds they may feel from their caregivers during this period, people try to

new things and exhibits behavior that would most likely not occur under other

circumstances. For instance many people will never again get the chance to live in a

residence hall setting, where they are such proximity to other people. But with the

atmosphere of college being so unlike any other, it is easy to get carried away (Pledger

and Hooper, 2003).

There are several factors that contribute to alcoholism. The primary psychosocial

factors liked to college drinking in the literature, beginning with internal factors, leading

up to those perceived as external factor. These factors includes the demographic


Students’ substance use and abuse is influenced by a number of factors, among

which are parental lifestyles, peer influence, parental attachment, and commitment to

conventional activities among others. Indeed, each of these factors exerts tremendous

influence on students’ frequency of substance use and abuse. Families in which children

have a cordial relationship with their parents, parental control efforts are effective means

in preventing children from involving in problem behaviors. Thus, the attachment

relationship goes hand in hand with parenting Parents who adequately control and

supervise their adolescents may prevent them from starting to drink early in life. When

children are also highly attached to their parents, the attachment relationship might

strengthen the impact of control on adolescents’ alcohol use. Because of this, it is

assumed that the expected association between parental control and an early development

of drinking will be moderated by parental attachment (Vorst et al., 2006).

Male students spent more hours during the last (most recent) drinking occasion than

females, and consumed more alcoholic drinks at that occasion [Table 1]. Most students

(74%) consumed alcohol at least once week, and only 3% reported no alcohol

consumption. Males consumed alcohol more often than females (P < 0.04). Half the

sample (54%) testified heavy episodic drinking (≥5 drinks in a row) at least three times

during the last month, and only 20% of respondents reported no heavy episodic drinking.

The frequency of heavy episodic drinking was significantly higher among males than

females (P < 0.001). About 31% of the sample reported two or three affirmative answers

in CAGE suggesting problem drinking, while 2.4% indicated four positive responses

(serious suspicion of alcohol dependence). Again, males had more positive answers in

CAGE than females (P < 0.035) (Ansari et al., 2013)

The positive relationship between income and alcohol use has been explained by

the availability of different levels of disposable income to purchase alcohol used across

income groups. An alternate explanation for this finding is that among higher income

individual, job and socially related networking may be more likely to involve social

drinking. The negative relationship between income and alcohol used, in contrast, may be

explained by the notion of self-medication, whereby respondent exposed higher levels of

stressors (as would expected at lower levels of income) use alcohol as a ways to relieve

stressful life experience or to alleviate strain (Draves et al., 2009).

Related Study

The following shows of the similarities to the present study.

According to studies in the USA, men drink twice as much (21%) as women

(10%) (16)Dawson and Archer (17) found a ten-fold difference between men (13.63%)

and women (1.33%) and in a study by Emslie et al. (18) a significantly higher prevalence

of alcohol drinking was observed in men than in women. In Croatia, 81.3% of men and

51.2% of women are the drinking population (19). Alcoholism is somewhat more

frequent in those of middle age, lower income and lower education. As to educational

level, a great difference has been observed between rural and urban areas: in urban areas,

alcoholism is more prevalent in persons with higher educational level, whereas in rural

areas it is associated with those with lower education (20). The drinking image has been

changing worldwide with growing numbers of women and younger people as drinkers


According to the NIH Senior Health Alcohol affects men and women differently.

In general, older men are more likely to drink alcohol compared with older women. But

women of all ages are often more sensitive than men to the effects of alcohol. Women's

bodies tend to break alcohol down more slowly. Also, women have less water in their

bodies than men, so alcohol becomes more concentrated. As a result, women may

become more impaired than men after drinking the same amount. That is why the

recommended drinking limit for women is lower than for men.

Drinking for a long time is more likely to damage a woman's health than a man's

health. Research suggests that as little as one drink per day can slightly raise the risk of

breast cancers in some women, especially those who have been through menopause or

have a family history of cancer. But it is not possible to predict how alcohol will affect

the risk for cancer in any one woman

Many people enjoy a drink without any problems, but binge drinking or drinking

heavily over longer periods of time can have very serious consequences. Alcohol misuse

not only harms the individual, but damages relationships and society in general in terms

of violence and crime, accidents and drink driving.

In Northern Ireland, the number of alcohol-related deaths has more than doubled

since 1994. The most recent figures show: there were 270 deaths recorded as alcohol-

related in 2012. There were more than 11,500 alcohol-related admissions to hospitals in


Research Design

Chapter 3


This study employs the descriptive-correlation research design utilizing group

correlation analysis among variants. In particular, the research examined the correlation

of the alcoholism and the academic performance of Bachelor of Science in Electrical

Engineering. The main instrument used in gathering pertinent data is the questionnaire

and supplemented observation to verify and clarify information that had been given by

the respondent of the data.

The data will be gathered through questionnaire that will be formulated by the

researchers for the students’ - respondents. It will be supplemented by the unstructured

interview being ask to the students’ – respondents. It will also be supplemented with

documentary analysis, and direct observations to crosscheck and verify the information.

A correlation analysis will be used to determine the relationship between the

alcoholism and academic performance of the Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

students in Samar State University, Catbalogan City, and School Year 2014-2015.

The statistical measures that were used in this study were the frequency counts,

weighted mean, ANOVA.


The principal instrument that will use in this study is the questionnaire.

Questionnaire. This Interview guide questionnaire consisted of three parts. Part I

elicited information on the profile of college student-respondents such as age and sex,

year level, and family monthly income. Part II is pertaining to the drinking habits of the

respondents such as Kinds of liquors; Number of bottles consumed (per week); How

much do you typically pay for one alcoholic drink?; Where do you usually drink?; What

time do you usually drink?; What is the reason why are you drinking?; How would you

best describe yourself in terms of your current use of alcohol? Part III is pertaining to the

academic performance of the respondents. The questionnaire used a checklist method.

Documentary Analysis. Documentary Analysis will be used in the study to

investigate the total enumeration of the Bachelor of Science of Civil Engineering students

in Samar State University. The documents that the researchers will go to analyze are the

official list of the Bachelor of Science of Civil Engineering students of Samar State


Data Gathering Procedure

After the approval of the final draft of the interview guide questionnaire, and after

seeking the permission of the Dean of the College of Engineering, the researchers then

will administer the questionnaire to the respondents for the collection of the data.

Statistical tools used

The data that will gathered from the respondents will be tallied, analyzed,

interpreted, tabulated, and subjected to descriptive statistics. The statistical tools that will

use in this study are the frequency counts, mean, weighted mean, Fishers’t test, t- test

and ANOVA.

To describe the data on the profile of the Students’ – respondents and their

drinking habits that can be found in question number one (1) and question number three

(3), the frequency counts and conversion of percentages is used.

To answer the question number two, four and five (2,4,5) the researchers will be

using the weighted mean. For the computation of weighted mean, the formula that was

found in the book of fegerson and Takane (1989:54) will be use. The formula is:



= Σf 1 x 1


F = Weighted mean or arithmetic mean

F 1 = the corresponding frequency of their nth scale

  • x 1 = the corresponding scale used

N = the sum of the value in the f1 column

For the interpretation of the weighted mean, the information below was adopted:

To answer the question number Six (6) the researchers will utilize the F test or

the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). The researchers use the Two way ANOVA

because this is use when comparing the mean of two or more independent groups or

many variables that are involve.

Finally, the 0.05 level of significance will be used as alpha (a) error in all cases of




An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to The faculty of the College of Education


Catbalogan City


In partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree




March 2014


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The Effect of Alcoholism towards Academic Performance of Civil

Engineering students of Samar State University.

Part 1: Demographic profile

Direction: The following questionnaire asks you about your personal information. Please

answer the following questions by putting a check (/) mark in the parenthesis or

providing the information being ask.

  • A. Respondents Name (optional) ________________________________________ I.D Number ____________________




Sex: (

) Male


) Female

  • 2. Year level: ______________________________________________________

  • 3. Family Monthly Income(FMI): _____________________________________

  • B. Drinking habits of the Respondents:

    • 1. Kinds of liquors:


) Non-drinker


) Beer


) Gin


) Red horse


) Wine


) GSM, Mojeto, Coffee


) Tuba or Wine


) Emperador


) Tanduay Ice


) The BAR


) Other, Please specify __________________________________

  • 2. Numbers of Bottles that consumed per week.


) Non-drinker


) 1-2 Bottles


) 3-4 Bottles


) 4-5 Bottles


) 5-6 Bottles


) Others, Please specify __________________________________

  • 3. How much do you typically pay for one alcoholic drink? (

) Non-drinker


) Nothing, it is typically free


) Under ₱50.00 to ₱ 100.00


) Under ₱150 to ₱ 200.00


) Under ₱250 to ₱ 300.00


) Under 350.00 to 400.00


) others, please specify ___________________________________ (Please fill in amount.)

  • 5. Where do you usually drink?


) Non-drinker


) Home


) Near School


) BAR/station


) Others, please specify ___________________________________

  • 6. What time do you usually drink?


) Non-drinker


) Morning


) Noon time


) Night time


) Others, please specify ____________________________________

  • 7. What is the reason why are you drinking?


) Non-drinker


) To have a good performance in classroom


) Because I’m broken hearted


) To join friends in socializing


) To relax after a hard day


) To taste the alcohol drinking


) For physical effects


) Because it’s an important part of our culture


) To have a good sleep


) Other, please specify ________________________________________

  • 8. How would you best describe yourself in terms of your current use of alcohol?


) Non-drinker


) Abstainer


) Abstainer former problem drinker in recovery


) infrequent drinker


) Light drinker


) Moderate drinker


) Heavy drinker


) Problem drinker


) 0thers, please specify _________________________________

C. Academic Performance of the Respondents towards their study

1. What is the level of academic performance as determined by the GWA

(General Weight Average) for the First Semester year 2013- 2014? ______________________________________