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Ge Solids and Semi-conductor 1

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Ge P Ge

Ge

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Energy Bands.
In isolated atom the valence electrons can exist only in one of the allowed orbitals each of a sharply

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defined energy called energy levels. But when two atoms are brought nearer to each other, there are
alterations in energy levels and they spread in the form of bands.
Energy bands are of following types
(1) Valence band
The energy band formed by a series of energy levels containing valence electrons is known as valence

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band. At 0 K, the electrons fills the energy levels in valence band starting from lowest one.
(i) This band is always fulfill by electron.
(ii) This is the band of maximum energy.
(iii) Electrons are not capable of gaining energy from external electric field.
AC
(iv) No flow of current due to such electrons.
(v) The highest energy level which can be occupied by an electron in valence band at 0 K is called
fermi level.
(2) Conduction band
The higher energy level band is called the conduction band.
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(i) It is also called empty band of minimum energy.


(ii) This band is partially filled by the electrons.
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(iii) In this band the electrons can gain energy from external electric field.
(iv) The electrons in the conduction band are called the free electrons. They are able to move any
where within the volume of the solid.
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(v) Current flows due to such electrons.


(3) Forbidden energy gap (Eg)
Energy gap between conduction band and valence band E g  (C.B.) min  (V .B.) max max.
C.B.
(i) No free electron present in forbidden energy gap. min.
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Eg
(ii) Width of forbidden energy gap upon the nature of substance. max.
V.B.
(iii) As temperature increases (), forbidden energy gap decreases () very slightly. min.

Types of Solids.

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On the basis of band structure of crystals, solids are divided in three categories.

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2 Solids and Semi-conductor

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S.No. Properties Conductors Insulators Semiconductors
(1) Electrical conductivity 102 to 108 Ʊ/m 10– 8 Ʊ/m 10– 5 to 100 Ʊ/m
(2) Resistivity 10–2 to 10–8 -m 108 -m 105 to 100 -m

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(negligible)
(3) Band structure C.B.
C.B.

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C.B.
Eg (maximum)
Eg (less)
V.B.
V.B.
V.B.

(4) Energy gap Zero or very small Very large; for For Ge Eg = 0.7 eV
diamond it is 6 eV for Si Eg = 1.1 eV

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(5) Current carries Free electrons –– Free electrons and
holes
(6) Condition of V.B. and V.B. and C.B. are V.B. – completely filled V.B. – somewhat
C.B. at ordinary completely filled or C.B. is
AC C.B. – completely empty
temperature some what empty unfilled C.B. – somewhat
filled
(7) Temperature co-efficient Positive Zero Negative
of resistance ()
(8) Effect of temperature on Decreases — Increases
conductivity
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(9) Effect of temperature on Increases — Decreases


resistance
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(11) Examples Cu, Ag, Au, Na, Pt, Hg etc. Wood, plastic, mica, Ge, Si, Ga, As etc.
diamond, glass etc.
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(12) Electron density 1029/m3 — Ge ~ 1019 /m3


Si ~ 1016 /m3

Holes in semiconductors
At absolute zero temperature (0 K) conduction band of semiconductor is completely empty and the
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semiconductor behaves as an insulator.


When temperature increases the valence electrons acquires thermal energy to jump to the conduction
band (Due to the braking of covalent bond). If they jumps to C.B. they leaves behind the deficiency of
electrons in the valence band. This deficiency of electron is known as hole or cotter. A hole is considered
as a seat of positive charge, having magnitude of charge equal to that of an electron.
(1) Holes acts as virtual charge, although there is no physical charge on it.
(2) Effective mass of hole is more than electron.
(3) Mobility of hole is less than electron.

Types of Semiconductors.

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(1) Intrinsic semiconductor
A pure semiconductor is called intrinsic semiconductor. It has thermally generated current carriers
(i) They have four electrons in the outermost orbit of atom and atoms are held together by covalent
bond

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(ii) Free electrons and holes both are charge carriers and n e (in C.B.)  n h (in V.B.)
(iii) The drift velocity of electrons (v e ) is greater than that of holes (v h )

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(iv) For them fermi energy level lies at the centre of the C.B. and V.B.
(v) In pure semiconductor, impurity must be less than 1 in 10 8 parts of semiconductor.
Eg / 2 KT
(vi) In intrinsic semiconductor ne(o )  nh(o )  ni  AT 3 / 2 e ; where n e(o )  Electron density in
conduction band, n h(o )  Hole density in V.B., n i  Density of intrinsic carriers.
(vii) Because of less number of charge carriers at room temperature, intrinsic semiconductors have

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low conductivity so they have no practical use.
Net current and conductivity
When some potential difference is applied across a piece of intrinsic semiconductor current flows in
it due to both electron and holes i.e. i = ie + ih  i  n e eAv e i  eA [ne ve  nhvh ]
AC
Hence conductivity of semiconductor   e[n e  e  n h  h ] e– hole
Electric field
where ve = drift velocity of electron, vh = drift velocity of holes, i

v v
E = Applied electric field  e  e  mobility of e– and  n  h  mobility of holes
E E V

Note :  (ni)Ge ~ 2 .4  10 19 / m 3 and (ni)Si ~ 1 . 5  10 16 / m 3


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 At room temperature  Ge   Si
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 e  h
 Conductivity of semiconductor increases with temperature because number density of
charge carriers increases.
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 In a doped semiconductor, the number density of electrons and holes is not equal. But it
can be established that n e n h  n i2 ; where ne, nh are the number density of electrons and
holes respectively and ni is the number density of intrinsic curries (i.e. electrons or holes) in
a pure semiconductor. This product is independent of donor and acceptor impurity doping.
(2) Extrinsic semiconductor Intrinsic
Impurity
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semiconductor +
(i) It is also called impure semiconductor.
(ii) The process of adding impurity is called Doping.
Extrinsic
(iii) Impurities are of two types : semiconductor

Pentavalent impurity Trivalent impurity


The elements whose atom has five valance The elements whose each atom has three valance
impurities e.g. As, P, Sb etc. These are also called electrons are called trivalent impurities e.g. In, Ga,
donor impurities. These impurities are also called Al, B, etc. These impurities are also called acceptor
donor impurities because they donates extra free impurities as they accept electron.
electron.

(iv) The number of atoms of impurity element is about 1 in 10 8 atoms of the semiconductor.
(v) n e  n h

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(vi) In these fermi level shifts towards valence or conduction energy bands.
(vii) Their conductivity is high and they are practically used.
(3) Types of extrinsic semiconductor

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N-type semiconductor P-type semiconductor
(i)
Intrinsic Pentavalen Intrinsic Trivalent
+ +

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S.C. t S.C. impurity
impurity
Vacancy
Ge Free electron Ge

Ge P Ge Ge B Ge

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N-types P-types
Ge S.C. Ge S.C.

(ii) Majority charge carriers – electrons Majority charge carriers – holes


Minority charge carriers – holes
AC Minority charge carriers – electrons
(iii) ne >> nh; ie >> ih nh >> ne; ih >> ie
(iv) Conductivity   ne e e Conductivity   nh h e
(iv) N-type semiconductor is electrically neutral (not P-type semiconductor is also electrically neutral (not
negatively charged) positively charged)
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(v) Impurity is called Donar impurity because one Impurity is called Acceptor impurity.
impurity atom generate one e– .
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(vi) Donor energy level lies just below the conduction Acceptor energy level lies just above the valence band.
band. C.B.
C.B.
Donor energy level
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Acceptor energy level

V.B. V.B.

P-N Junction Diode.


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When a P-type semiconductor is suitably joined to an N-type semiconductor, then resulting


arrangement is called P-N junction or P-N junction diode

P-N Junction
P N
P N
Anode Cathode

(1) Depletion region


On account of difference in concentration of charge carrier in the two sections of P-N junction, the
electrons from N-region diffuse through the junction into P-region and the hole from P region diffuse into
N-region.

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Due to diffusion, neutrality of both N and P-type semiconductor is disturbed, a layer of negative
charged ions appear near the junction in the P-crystal and a layer of positive ions appears near the
junction in N-crystal. This layer is called depletion layer

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(i) The thickness of depletion layer is 1 micron = 10–6 m. – +

1 VB
(ii) Width of depletion layer 

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Dopping
(iii) Depletion is directly proportional to temperature.
(iv) The P-N junction diode is equivalent to capacitor in which the P N
Depletion layer
depletion layer acts as a dielectric.
(2) Potential barrier

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The potential difference created across the P-N junction due to the diffusion of electron and holes is
called potential barrier.
For Ge VB  0 .3 V and for silicon VB  0 .7 V
On the average the potential barrier in P-N junction is ~ 0.5 V and the width of depletion region ~ 10–
6.
AC
V 0 .5
So the barrier electric field E   6  5  10 5 V / m
d 10
Some important graphs
Potential Charge density
E

Electric
P N P N field
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P N
+ve
–ve
Distance distance Distance
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(3) Diffusion and drift current


Because of concentration difference holes/electron try to diffuse from their side to other side. Only
these holes/electrons crosses the junction, having high kinetic energy. This diffusion results is an electric
current from the P-side to the N-side known as diffusion current (idf)
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As electron hole pair (because of thermal collisions) are continuously created in the depletion region.
These is a regular flow of electrons towards the N-side and of holes towards the P-side. This makes a
current from the N-side to the P-side. This current is called the drift current (idr).

Note :  In steady state idf  idr so inet  0

 When no external source is connected, diode is called unbiased.

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(4) Biasing
Means the way of connecting emf source to P-N junction diode

Forward biasing Reverse biasing

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(i) Positive terminal of the battery is connected to the (i) Positive terminal of the battery is connected to
P-crystal and negative terminal of the battery is the N-crystal and negative terminal of the battery is

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connected to N-crystal E connected to P-crystal E
– + – +
Eb Eb

P N P N

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+ – – +
(ii) Width of depletion layer decreases (ii) Width of depletion layer increases
(iii) RForward  10 - 25 (iii) RReverse  105
(iv) Forward bias opposes the potential barrier and (iv) Reverse bias supports the potential barrier and
for V > VB a forward current is set up across the no current flows across the junction due to the
junction.
AC diffusion of the majority carriers.
(A very small reverse currents may exist in the circuit
due to the drifting of minority carriers across the
junction)
(v) Cut-in (Knee) voltage : The voltage at which the (v) Break down voltage : Reverse voltage at which
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current starts to increase. For Ge it is 0.3 V and for Si break down of semiconductor occurs. For Ge it is 25
it is 0.7 V. V and for Si it is 35 V.
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(vi) df – diffusion (vi)


Forward current in mA

Reverse voltage
dr – drift
Break down Reverse current
P N voltage
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Idf
Idr
Idf
Inet Idr
Knee
voltage Forward voltage Inet

Reverse Breakdown and Special Purpose Diodes.


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(1) Zener breakdown


When reverse bias is increased the electric field at the junction also increases. At some stage the
electric field becomes so high that it breaks the covalent bonds creating electron, hole pairs. Thus a large
number of carriers are generated. This causes a large current to flow. This mechanism is known as Zener
breakdown.
(2) Avalanche breakdown
At high reverse voltage, due to high electric field, the miniority charge carriers, while crossing the
junction acquires very high velocities. These by collision breaks down the covalent bonds, generating more
carriers. A chain reaction is established, giving rise to high current. This mechanism is called avalanche
breakdown.

(3) Special purpose diodes


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Zener diode Light emitting diode Photo diode Solar cells
(LED)
It is based on the

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N photovoltaic effect. One
of the semiconductor
It is a highly doped p-n Specially designed diodes, In these diodes electron region is made so thin

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junction which is not which give out light and hole pairs are created that the light incident on
damaged by high reverse radiations when forward by junction photoelectric it reaches the p-n
current. The breakdown biases. LED’S are made of effect. That is the junction and gets
voltage is made very GaAsp, Gap etc. covalent bonds are absorbed. It converts
sharp. In the forward broken by the EM solar energy into
bias, the zener diode acts radiations absorbed by electrical energy.

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as ordinary diode. It can the electron in the V.B.
be used as voltage These are used for
regulator detecting light signals.

P-N Junction Diode as a Rectifier.


AC
Half wave rectifier Full wave rectifier
D1

output RL
Input RL
dc
ac
E

O/P (dc)

D2
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Input Input
ac signal + + ac signal + +
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– – – –

Output Output
+ + D1 D2 D1 D2
dc signal dc signal

Fluctuating dc
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During positive half cycle During positive half cycle


Diode forward biased Diode : D1 forward biased
Output signal obtained D2 reverse biased
During negative half cycle Output signal obtained due to D1 only
Diode reverse biased During negative half cycle
Output signal not obtained Diode : D1 reverse biased
D2 forward biased
Output signal obtained due to D2 only

Note :  Fluctuating dc Filter constant dc.

Transistor.

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A junction transistor is formed by sandwiching a thin layer of P-type semiconductor between two N-
type semiconductors or by sandwiching a thin layer of n-type semiconductor between two P-type
semiconductor.
E N P N C E P N P C

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B B E – Emitter (emits majority charge
E C E C carriers)
C – Collects majority charge carriers

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B – Base (provide proper interaction
B B between E and C)

Note : In normal operation base-emitter is forward biased and collector base junction is reverse

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biased.
(1) Working of Transistor : In both transistor emitter - base junction is forward biased and
collector – base junction is reverse biased.

NPN – transistor PNP – transistor

N P N
AC N P N
Ie Ib
Ib
Ie Ib
Ib – –
mA A mA
+
mA A mA + +

E

VEB VCB
VEB VCB
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Ie Ic
Ie Ic

Ib
UD

Ib

VEB VCB
VEB VCB

5% emitter electron combine with the holes in the base 5% emitter holes combine with the electrons in the base
region resulting in small base current. Remaining 95% region resulting in small base current. Remaining 95%
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electrons enter the collector region. holes enter the collector region.
Ie > Ic , and Ic = Ib + Ic Ie > Ic , and Ic = Ib + Ic

Note :  In a transistor circuit the reverse bias is high as compared to the forward bias. So
that it may exert a large attractive force on the charge carriers to enter the collector region.
(2) Characteristics of transistors : A transistor can be connected in a circuit in the following
three different configurations.
(i) Common base (CB) (ii) Common emitter (CE) (iii) Common collector (CC)
(i) CB characteristics : The graphs between voltages and currents when base of a transistor is
common to input and output circuits are known as CB characteristic of a transistor.
PNP VCB = – 10 V
Ie Ic
E C
+ Ie (mA) VCB = – 20 V VCB = 0 Ic (mA) Ie = 15 mA

Ib
VEB = input
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B
RL

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VCB = output

VEB (in volt)


Ie = 10 mA
Ie = 5 mA
Ie = 0 mA

VCB (in volt) Page-8


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(ii) CE characteristics : The graphs between voltages an d currents when emitter of a transistor is
common to input and output circuits are known as CE characteristics of a transistor.

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PNP
C Ic
Ie B
VCE = – 0.1 V VCE = – 0.2 V

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– Ib (A) Ic (mA) Ib = 30 mA
E Ib = 20 mA
+
Ie RL VCE = output Ib = 10 mA
– Ib = 0 mA
VEB = input
+
VEB (in volt) VCE (in volt)
Knee voltage

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(3) Transistor as an amplifier : A device which increases the amplitude of the input signal is
called amplifier.

AC Amplifier

Input signal
Output amplified signal

The transistor can be used as an amplifier in the following three configuration


(i) CB amplifier (ii) CE amplifier (iii) CC amplifier
PNP PNP
E

Ie Ic C Ic
Ie B
E C
E
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B
Output

RL Output
signal

Input VC Input Ie RL
~ Ib ~ signal
signa – signa –
l VCB l VEB VCE
VEB + +
+ – – +
CB amplifier CE amplifier
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(4) Parameters of CE/CB amplifiers

Transistor as C.E. amplifier Transistor as C.B. amplifier


(i) Current gain () (i) Current gain ()
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Small change in collector current (ic )  i 


(a)  ac  ; (a)  ac   c  VCE = constant
Small change in collector current (ie )  ib 
VB (constant)
Collector current(ic ) ic
(b)  dc (or )  (b)  dc 
Emitter current (ie ) ib
valve of dc lies between 0.95 to 0.99 valve of ac lies between 15 and 20
(ii) Voltage gain (ii) Voltage gain
Change in output voltage( Vo ) Vo
Av  Av    ac  Resistance gain
Change in input voltage (Vi ) Vi
 Av = ac  Resistance gain
Change in output power( Po ) Po
(iii) Power gain  (iii) Power gain    ac
2
 Resistance gain
Change in input power( Pc ) Pi
 Power gain   ac

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 Resistance gain

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10 Solids and Semi-conductor

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Note :  Trans conductance (gm) : The
ratio of the change in collector current to the
change in emitter base voltage is called trans

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ic A
conductance. i.e. g m  . Also g m  V ; RL =
VEB RL
Load resistance

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 
(5) Relation between  and  :  or  
1  1
(6) Comparison between CB, CE and CC amplifier
S.No. Characteristic Amplifier
CB CE CC

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(i) Input resistance (Ri)  50 to 200  low  1 to 2 k medium  150 – 800 k high
(ii) Output resistance (Ro)  1 – 2 k high  50 k medium  k low
(iii) Current gain 0.8 – 0.9 low 20 – 200 high 20 – 200 high
(iv) Voltage gain Medium High Low
(v) Power gain Medium High Low
(vi) Phase
between
difference
input and
AC Zero 180o Zero

output voltages
(vii) Used as amplifier for current Power Voltage

Example
s
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Example: 2 A Ge specimen is doped with Al. The concentration of acceptor atoms is ~1021 atoms/m3. Given that
the intrinsic concentration of electron hole pairs is ~ 10 19 / m 3 , the concentration of electrons in the
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specimen is [AIIMS 2004]


(a) 10 17 / m 3 (b) 10 15 / m 3 (c) 10 4 / m 3 (d) 10 2 / m 3
Solution : (a) n i2  n h n e  (10 19 ) 2  10 21  n e  n e  10 17 / m 3 .
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Example: 3 A silicon specimen is made into a P-type semi-conductor by doping, on an average, one Indium atom
per 5  10 7 silicon atoms. If the number density of atoms in the silicon specimen is 5  10 28
atoms/m3, then the number of acceptor atoms in silicon will be
(a) 2.5  10 30 atoms/cm3 (b) 1.0  10 13 atoms/cm3 (c) 1.0  10 15 atoms/cm3 (d) 2.5  10 36 atoms/cm3
Solution : (c) Number density of atoms in silicon specimen = 5  1028 atom/m3 = 5  1022 atom/cm3
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Since one atom of indium is doped in 5  107 Si atom. So number of indium atoms doped per cm-3 of
silicon.
5  10 22
n  1  10 15 atom / cm 3 .
5  10 7
Example: 4 A P-type semiconductor has acceptor levels 57 meV above the valence band. The maximum
wavelength of light required to create a hole is (Planck’s constant h = 6.6  10 34 J-s)
(a) 57 Å (b) 57  10 3 Å (c) 217100 Å (d) 11 .61  10 33 Å
hc hc 6 .6  10 34  3  10 8
Solution : (c) E    = 217100 Å.
 E 57  10 3  1 .6  10 19

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V 0.50
Solution : (a) E  = 1  106 V/m.
d 5  10 7
Example: 6 A 2V battery is connected across the points A and B as shown in the figure given below. Assuming
that the resistance of each diode is zero in forward bias and infinity in reverse bias, the current

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supplied by the battery when its positive terminal is connected to A is
10 
(a) 0.2 A

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(b) 0.4 A 10 
(c) Zero
(d) 0.1 A A B
Solution : (a) Since diode in upper branch is forward biased and in lower branch is reversed biased. So current
V
through circuit i  ; here rd = diode resistance in forward biasing = 0
R  rd

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V 2
So i   0 .2 A .
R 10
Example: 7 Current in the circuit will be
5
(a) A 20
40

(b)
5
50
A
AC 30

5 i
(c) A
10 20 5V
5
(d) A
20
E

Solution : (b) The diode in lower branch is forward biased and diode in upper branch is reverse biased
5 5
 i  A
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20  30 50
Example: 8 Find the magnitude of current in the following circuit [RPMT 2001]

(a) 0 –4 3 –1
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(b) 1 amp V V

(c) 0.1 amp


(d) 0.2 amp
Solution : (a) Diode is reverse biased. Therefore no current will flow through the circuit.
Example: 9 The diode used in the circuit shown in the figure has a constant voltage drop of 0.5 V at all currents
and a maximum power rating of 100 milliwatts. What should be the value of the resistor R,
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connected in series with the diode for obtaining maximum current


R 0.5 V
(a) 1.5 
(b) 5
(c) 6.67 
(d) 200 
1.5 V
P 100  10 3
Solution : (b) The current through circuit i    0 .2 A
V 0 .5
1
 voltage drop across resistance = 1.5 – 0.5 = 1 V  R   5
0 .2
Example: 10 For a transistor amplifier in common emitter configuration for load impedance of 1 k (hfe = 50 and
hoe = 25) the current gain is
(a) – 5.2 (b) – 15.7 (c) – 24.8 (d) – 48.78

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h fe  50
Solution : (d) In common emitter configuration current gain A i   = – 48.78.
1  hoe R L 1  25  10 6  10 3

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Example: 11 In the following common emitter configuration an NPN transistor with current gain  = 100 is used.
The output voltage of the amplifier will be [AIIMS 2003]

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(a) 10 mV
10K
(b) 0.1 V 1K Vout
(c) 1.0 V 1mV
(d) 10 V
Output voltage
Solution : (c) Voltage gain   Vout = Vin  Voltage gain
Input voltage

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RL 10
 Vout = Vin  Current gain  Resistance gain = Vin    = 10  3  100   1V .
R BE 1
Example: 12 While a collector to emitter voltage is constant in a transistor, the collector current changes by 8.2
mA when the emitter current changes by 8.3 mA. The value of forward current ratio hfe is
(a) 82 (b) 83 (c) 8.2 (d) 8.3

Solution : (a)
 i
h fe   c

 
8 .2
AC
 82
 ib  Vce 8 . 3  8 .2
Example: 13 The transfer ratio of a transistor is 50. The input resistance of the transistor when used in the
common-emitter configuration is 1 K. The peak value for an ac input voltage of 0.01 V peak is
(a) 100 A (b) 0.01 mA (c) 0.25 mA (d) 500  A
Vi 0.01
E

Solution : (d) ic  ib     50   500  10 6 A  500  A


Ri 1000
Example: 14 In a common base amplifier circuit, calculate the change in base current if that in the emitter current
IT

is 2 mA and  = 0.98 [BHU 1995]


(a) 0.04 mA (b) 1.96 mA (c) 0.98 mA (d) 2 mA
Solution : (a) ic   ie  0.98  2  196 mA
UD

 ib  ie  ic  2  1.96  0.04 mA .


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