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ABOUT THE PRESENTOR

ARMANDO R. DIAZ
Master of Science in Business Administration (MBA)
ASEAN CHARTER PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER
Professional Electrical Engineer ( PEE )
Registered Master Plumber
Certified Plant Mechanical( CPM )
Accredited Pollution Control Officer
Licensed Professional Engineer with more than 40 years experience in the field of
building and facility design, consultancy, construction, operations and maintenance
involving various mechanical electrical plumbing and fire protection system
2016 PSUMP NATIONAL PRESIDENT

2016 ENGINEER INC NATIONAL PRESIDENT


2011 IIEE NATIONAL PRESIDENT

2010 MITEEA Most Outstanding Alumni


1998 as Most Outstanding Practitioner in Industry of the Philippines
Member : Society of Philippine Accredited Consultant
Philippine Society of Mechanical Engineers
Recipient of Various Civic Awards : Rotary,REACT,YMCA,LOBSET and MARS
Work Experiences :

2001-2007 : Universal Robina Corp. ( BOPP Division ) –


Engineering Manager

1994-2001 : Uni-Lonseal-Mitsui (Phil-Japan Co.) -


AVP-Engineering

1992-1994 : Ramada Hotel - Chief Engineer

1979-1989 : International Rice Research Institute –


Chief Engineer

1974-1979 : Honeywell Instrumentation -


Start-up and Commissioning Engineer
Projects Handled 2007-present :

MEPF DESIGN and PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Consultation for MECHANICAL ELECTRICAL FIRE PROTECTION and


PLUMBING (MEPF) of various industrial, commercial and residential
establishment

MEPF Design and Project Management : PEPSI Cola , Sto. Tomas Plant
MEPF Design and Quality Control : ARUZE Mfg. Plant, LISP 3
Design and Consultancy : DASHEN Beer Brewery ( Ethiopia)
Design and Consultancy : SPT Clark
Design and Consultancy : Laguna Water District
MEPF Design and Project Management : PRICON Microelectronics
MEPF Design and Consultancy : AREZA Commercial Complex
Design and Consultancy : PTRI-DOST Bldg. Rehabilition
Design and Consultancy : ERDB-DENR Bldg. Rehabilitation
Design and Consultancy : HENKEL Expansion Plant
Design and Project Management : Rong Bo Yu Injection Plant

2/25/2017
Consultancy Works :
SOUTHEAST ASIA FOOD INC. ( Datu Puti )
C.T. Chun Inc.
Coral Bay Nickel Project ( Palawan )
Ligo Sardines ( Zamboanga )
Multiflex RNC Phil. (URATEX )
St. Luke Hospital ( Global City ) : Consulting Services
Electrical Project Evaluation on the integrity of Grounding System
Global Power ( Toledo City ) : Consulting Services
Evaluation of present capacity to determine the size of their
expansion project

Present Job :
MEPF ENGINEERS CO. : Principal Engineer and Partner
KANG HARO ENGINEERING : CEO and Partner

TRANS ASIA CONSTRUCTION AND DEVT. CORP. : Retainer /Consultant


On-going Project : SUNPOWER New Regional Building
SUNPOWER New Production Facilities
LUFTHANSA TECHNIC , New Maintenance Building
TREE of LIFE Heritage Building@ T.M. Kalaw
UNILAB Expansion Building
LITTELFUSE Expansion Building
Manila Bay Resort MEPF Project
DASHEN BEER @ETHIOPIA

2/25/2017
PLEASE VISIT GOOGLE : armando r diaz iiee
HVAC
Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning
-is the technology of indoor and vehicular
environmental comfort.

-Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and


acceptable indoor air quality.

- HVAC system design is a sub discipline of


mechanical engineering, based on the principles
of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat
transfer.
HVAC
Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning
-Refrigeration is sometimes added to the field's
abbreviation as HVAC&R or HVACR,

HRAV
Heating
Refrigeration
Air-Conditioning
Ventilating
HEATING
METHOD OF HEATING

*ELECTRIC

*GAS ( LPG)
WHAT IS AIR – CONDITIONING ?

it a process of treating air such as :

- cooling
-heating
-ventilating
- cleanliness
- humidity
- among others
SENSIBLE HEAT
If a substance is heated(heat added) and the
temperature raises as the heat is added,the
increase in heat is sensible heat.If the
temperature falls,the removed is
again,sensible heat.

Simply, heat which causes a change in


temperature in a substance is called sensible
heat
LATENT HEAT

all pure substance are able to change their state. Solids


become liquids, liquids becomes gas. These changes of state
occur at the same temperature and pressure combinations
for any given substance, It takes addition or removal of heat
to produce these changes.

HEAT which brings about a change of state with no change


in temperature is called LATENT(hidden)HEAT
APPLICATION OF LATENT HEAT
In refrigeration work,the physics of latent heat is
very important.

Ex.:As ice melts,its temperature remains


constant but it absorbs a considerable amount of
heat in changing from ice to water.
In mechanical refrigerator,when a substance
passes from liquid to vapor,its ability to absorb
heat is very high
PRINCIPLE of LATENT HEAT

changes its state depends on pressure.The


higher the pressure,the higher the
temperature needed to bring about the
change.Conversely,if the pressure is
lowered,the temperature at which the
change of state will take place is lowered
TON of REFRIGERATION EFFECT

the older units is often indicated in”tons of refrigeration”

One ton of refrigeration= 1 ton of ice melts


during 24hr day.

The ice is assumed to be a solid at 0 C initially and becomes water


at 0 C
The energy absorb by the ice is the LATENT HEAT of ice
times the TOTAL WEIGHT

1 ton = approx. 907 kg.


Latent = 337 kj/kg
Energy absorb = latent heat x weight
337kj/kg x 907 kg
= 307,659 kj

Convert to kilowatts :
1 kw = 1kj/sec

1 ton refrigeration capacity


=305,659/(24x3600sec)
=3.54 kw
ENERGY UNITS
mechanical to heat :
1 hp =2546BTU/hr
778 ft.lb =1 BTU

mechanical to electrical :
1hp=746 watts

electrical to heat :
1 watt(1joule/sec)=3.412BTU/hr

heat to mechanical :
2546 BTU/hr=1hp

heat to electrical :
1BTU/hr=0.293 watts
1 TON = 12,000 BTU
COMMON CONVERSION UNITS IN REFRIGERATION

1 joule = 0.7376 ft.lb

1 ft.lb =1.3558 joule

1 watt = 0.7376 ft.lb./sec

1 kw = 1.34 hp

=3412 BTU/hr
Horsepower (HP) is a unit of measurement of power (the rate at which work is
done). There are many different standards and types of horsepower.
The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt
to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses.
It was later expanded to include the output power of other types of piston
engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery
APPROXIMATE HP vs TON
COMPUTATION

ICE MAKING COMPRESSOR


3.5 hp/ton to 50 tons
3.25 hp/ton to 50-200 tons
3.1 hp/ton 200 ton and above
COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION w/o ICE MAKING
1.5 hp/ton to 5 tons
1.4 hp/ton 5-50 tons
1.34 hp/ton 50 tons and above
AIR-CONDITIONING
1.25 hp/ton ½ to 5 tons
1.1 hp/ton 5-50 tons
1.0 hp/ton 50 tons and above
is a form of energy
metric unit is joule(j)
English unit is British Thermal Unit (BTU)
HEAT

It
result of removing heat

Refrigerator produces “COLD” by


drawing heat from the inside of the
refrigerator cabinet
The amount of heat required to
raise or lower the temperature of
1kg. of water is 1°C and is equal to
4.187 KJ
( Specific Heat )
SPECIFIC HEAT
capacity is the amount of heat that
must be added or released to change
the temperature of one kilogram of the
substance one degree kelvin (K)
ELEMENTARY
REFRIGERATOR
LAWS OF REFRIGERATION

All Refrigerating Systems Depend on Five Thermal Laws:

1. Fluids absorb heat while changing from a liquid state to a vapour


state and give up heat in changing from a vapour to a liquid.

2. The temperature at which a change of state occurs is constant


during the change provided the pressure remains constant.

3. Heat flows only from a body which is at a higher temperature to a


body which is at a lower temperature (hot to cold).

4. Metallic parts of the evaporating and condensing units use metals


which have a high heat conductivity (copper, brass, aluminium).

5. Heat energy and other forms of energy are interchangeable.


Example, electricity may be converted to heat; heat to electrical
energy and heat to mechanical energy.
Fluids used as a refrigerant should have certain
properties:

*It should be non-poisonous.


*It should be non-explosive.
*It should be non-corrosive.
*It must be non-flammable.
*Leaks should be easy to detect.
*Leaks should be easy to locate.
*It should operate under low
pressure (low boiling point).
*It should be a stable gas.
*Parts moving in the fluid should be easy to
lubricate.
*It should be non-toxic (not harmful if inhaled
or if spilled).
*It should have a high liquid volume per
pound to provide durable refrigerant controls.
*It should have a high latent heat per pound to
produce good cooling effect per pound of
vapor pumped.
*It should have low vapor volume per pound.
This will reduce compressor displacement
needed.
*The pressure difference between evaporating
pressure and condensing pressure should be as
little as possible to increase pumping efficiency
REFRIGERATION
SYSTEM
Refrigeration System may be
classified in several ways:

1. ABSORPTION SYSTEM
2. TYPE OF MOTOR CONTOL
3. COMPRESSION SYSTEM
4. TYPE OF REFRIGERANT CONTROL
5. and so on . . .
1. ABSORPTION SYSTEM
-generally uses heat for cycling

The heat source usually is either


gas, electricity or kerosene

4 Main Parts

1.Boiler(generator)
2.Condenser
3.Evaporator
4.Absorber
2. MOTOR CONTROL
3.COMPRESSION
ROTARY BLADES
ROTARY VANE
SCREW
CENTRIFUGAL
SWASH PLATE
COMPRESSOR
4.REFRIGERANT CONTROL
6 MAIN TYPE OF AUTOMATIC REFRIGERANT FLOW
CONTROLS

1.Automatic Expansion Valve AEV or AX

2.Thermostatic Expansion Valve TEV or TXV

3.Thermal-Electric Expansion Valve THEXV

4.Low-Pressure Side Float LSF

5.High-Pressure Side Float HSF

6.Capillary Tube Cap. Tube


AUTOMATIC EXPANSION VALVE
THERMOSTATIC
EXPANSION VALVE
2 BASIC TYPES
1.sensing bulb
a. liquid charge
b. gas charged
c. liquid cross charged
d.gas cross charged

2.thermal-electric
1.SENSING BULB
2.THERMAL-ELECTRIC
EXPANSION VALVE
EQUALIZERS
SPECIAL THERMOSTATIC
EXPANSION VALVE
CAPILLARY TUBE
SPECIAL REFRIGERATION
EXPANDABLE REFRIGERANT
SPRAY SYSTEM
EXPANDABLE REFRIGERANT SPRAY SYSTEM,
sometimes called chemical cooling or open cycle cooling . It is
used on trucks and other vehicles in the transport sector and
storage of chilled or frozen products.

In fact, disposable refrigeration system with the refrigerant is


strongly isolated space. Cooling being surrounded by pipe
carrying boiling point of liquid nitrogen.

Another way to cool consists of spraying liquid nitrogen


directly into space cooling. In any case, disposable refrigerant
system, in which the system ignores the refrigerant after she
was gone.
THERMO-ELECTRIC
REFRIGERATOR
THERMO-ELECTRIC coolers or refrigerator
operate according to the Peltier effect.

The effect creates a temperature difference by


transferring heat between two electrical junctions.

A voltage is applied across joined conductors to


create an electric current. When the current flows
through the junctions of the two conductors, heat
is removed at one junction and cooling occurs.
Heat is deposited at the other junction.
VORTEX TUBE
WINDOW TYPE
AIR CONDITIONING
SPLIT TYPE
AIR CONDITIONING
PACKAGED TYPE
AIR CONDITIONING
“VRF”
VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW
CENTRALIZED
AIR CONDITIONING
AIR HANDLING UNITS

Cooling Coil
Cooling Coil are made of mechanically expanded copper tubes with aluminum fins. The coil
framed by galvanized steel. Header is made of Steel, and has flange connector to connect to
CHW piping. Coil are tested under 30 bar pressure. The maximum design working pressure
bar is 15 bar.
AIR HANDLING UNITS

Fan Segment

Segments Specification & Illustration


AIR HANDLING UNITS

AIR HANDLING UNIT SAMPLE SHOP DRAWING


AIR HANDLING UNITS

AIR HANDLING UNIT SAMPLE SHOP DRAWING


AIR DISTRIBUTION DIAGRAM
FAN COIL UNITS

FAN COIL UNITS FREE-BLOW


CEILING CONCEALED DUCTED

CEILING MOUNTED TYPE


FAN COIL UNITS
Unit Start-up and Operation
FAN COIL UNITS
Unit Start-up and Operation
FAN COIL UNITS
Unit Start-up and Operation
FAN COIL UNITS
Unit Start-up and Operation
FAN COIL UNITS
Unit Start-up and Operation
FAN COIL UNITS
Preventive Maintenance
FAN COIL UNITS
Basic Troubleshooting
FAN COIL UNITS
Basic Troubleshooting
FAN COIL UNITS
Basic Troubleshooting
AIR HANDLING UNITS
Unit Start-up and Operation

Starting and Operation


• Check the ventilating valve of coil pipe for exhausting before the starting the unit
(much better if with automatic air vent).
• The unit can be started if all parts are checked to be normal. Switched on the push
button at the control panel, and check whether the rotation direction is correct. If its
rotates in opposite direction, the machine should be stopped to exchange the phase
sequence of power supply, and reconnect it.
• Monitor the running current of the motor and compare it with data on the
nameplate. If the motor is overloaded, stop the machine immediately and check for
reason, and restart the machine again after the fault has been traced.
• Observe whether the absorbing device is normal while the unit is operating.
• It is strictly prohibited to suddenly close blow valve and air return valve during
normal operation of the blower fan, or it is easy to cause overpressure to damage the
cabinet structure.
AIR HANDLING UNITS
Unit Start-up and Operation
AIR HANDLING UNITS
Preventive Maintenance

Repair and Maintenance


The air conditioning unit should be maintained by professionals or with those proper
knowledge, who will carry out daily monitoring and scheduled maintenance for the unit. In
addition, strict post responsibility system and operational procedures will be established to
strengthen regular repair and maintenance.
• Periodically clean the inner side of the unit. Generally, clean the dust on the filter screen once
for about three months, to ensure the smoothness of the air return.
• Carry on regular checking for all electric parts and safety devices periodically.
• Supplement lubricating oil to the lubricating parts after the operation for six months to one
year.
• Cut off the power supply before the overhauling of the unit, and set up warning labels to
avoid danger due to misoperation.

Air Valve
• Check the tightness of the air valve. If to install electric actuator, check if it can rotate
flexibly.
• Clear up the drifting dust.
• Lubricate all rotating parts.
AIR HANDLING UNITS
Preventive Maintenance

Filter Part
The following are the detailed operating methods for assembling and disassembling the filter in
each filtering section;
• Plate type filtering section
1. Loosen the tapping screw on the slide-way baffle of the fixed plate type filtering section,
and dismantle it.
2. Take out filter from the gap of slide way on each level.
3. If you were to reassemble the filter, do it right about according to the above procedures.
• Bag filter filtering section
1. Loosen the clamping device (clamping spring or bolt), and take out the filter.
2. Vertically install the new filter. Handle with care, for fear that it may be damaged.
3. Tighten the filter with the clamping device.

Cooling Coil Pipe


• At each time of starting, turn on the vent valve of the coil pipe to remove the inner air, and to
keep the normal circulation flow of the cold water in the pipe.
• Check the pollution condition on the coil pipe fins, and clean them necessarily (it is better to
use the compressed air to clean them at the air out side.
AIR HANDLING UNITS
Preventive Maintenance

Blower fan and motor part


• Periodically check the V type belt and its tension. If it is over loose, adjust the adjustable bolt
on the motor’s adjustable seat to tighten it again.
• Check the alignment of the motor, belt of blower fan and its pulley.
• Check the operating condition of the damping device.
• Check the completeness of the connecting device for the inner flexible air port.
• Check whether the blower fan rotate agilely and whether it sends off any abnormal sound.
• Check the blower fan blade periodically.
• Periodically check the lubricating condition of the blower fan bearing and timely add the
lubricating oil or grease.
• Check if the motor can operate normally.
AIR HANDLING UNITS
Basic Troubleshooting
AIR HANDLING UNITS
Basic Troubleshooting
AIR HANDLING UNITS
Preventive Maintenance

Blower fan and motor part


• Periodically check the V type belt and its tension. If it is over loose, adjust the adjustable bolt
on the motor’s adjustable seat to tighten it again.
• Check the alignment of the motor, belt of blower fan and its pulley.
• Check the operating condition of the damping device.
• Check the completeness of the connecting device for the inner flexible air port.
• Check whether the blower fan rotate agilely and whether it sends off any abnormal sound.
• Check the blower fan blade periodically.
• Periodically check the lubricating condition of the blower fan bearing and timely add the
lubricating oil or grease.
• Check if the motor can operate normally.
VENTILATION DESIGN
Ventilating or Ventilation

- is the process of "changing" or replacing air in any space to provide


high indoor air quality which involves temperature control, oxygen
replenishment, and removal of moisture, odors, smoke, heat, dust,
airborne bacteria, and carbon dioxide.

-Ventilation removes unpleasant smells and excessive moisture,


introduces outside air, keeps interior building air circulating, and
prevents stagnation of the interior air.

-Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as


circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important
factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings.
Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into
mechanical/force
AIR CHANGE
The fresh air supply to a room can be calculated as :

Q=nV

where :
Q= fresh air supply (ft3/h, m3/h)
n = air change rate (h-1)
V = volume of room (ft3, m3)
The table below indicates recommended air change rates (air changes per
hour) in some common types of rooms and buildings:
Air Change Rates
Building / Room -n-
(1/h, h-1)
All spaces in general min 4
Attic spaces for cooling 12 - 15
Auditoriums 8 - 15
Bakeries 20
Banks 4 - 10
Barber Shops 6 - 10
Bars 20 - 30
Beauty Shops 6 - 10
Boiler rooms 15 - 20
Bowling Alleys 10 - 15
Cafeterias 12 - 15
Churches 8 - 15
Club rooms 12
Clubhouses 20 - 30
Cocktail Lounges 20 - 30
Computer Rooms 15 - 20
Court Houses 4 - 10
Dental Centers 8 - 12
Department Stores 6 - 10
Dining Halls 12 -15
Dining rooms (restaurants) 12
Dress Shops 6 - 10
Shoe Shops 6 - 10

Shopping Centers 6 - 10

Shops, machine 5

Shops, paint 15 - 20

Shops, woodworking 5

Substation, electric 5 - 10

Supermarkets 4 - 10

Town Halls 4 - 10

Taverns 20 - 30

Theaters 8 - 15

Turbine rooms, electric 5 - 10

Warehouses 2

Waiting rooms, public 4


Drug Shops 6 - 10

Engine rooms 4-6

Factory buildings, ordinary 2-4

Factory buildings, fumes and moisture 10 - 15

Fire Stations 4 - 10

Foundries 15 - 20

Galvanizing plants 20 - 30

Garages repair 20 - 30

Garages storage 4-6

Homes, night cooling 10 - 18

Jewelry shops 6 - 10

Kitchens 15 - 60

Laundries 10 - 15

Libraries, public 4

Lunch Rooms 12 -15

Luncheonettes 12 -15
Nightclubs 20 - 30
Malls 6 - 10
Medical Centers 8 - 12
Medical Clinics 8 - 12
Medical Offices 8 - 12
Mills, paper 15 - 20
Mills, textile general buildings 4
Mills, textile dye houses 15 - 20
Municipal Buildings 4 - 10
Museums 12 -15
Offices, public 3
Offices, private 4
Police Stations 4 - 10
Post Offices 4 - 10
Precision Manufacturing 10 - 50
Pump rooms 5
Restaurants 8 - 12
Retail 6 - 10
School Classrooms 4 - 12
CLEAN ROOM DESIGN
Cleanroom Air Flow Principles

Cleanrooms maintain particulate-free air through the use of either HEPA or ULPA
filters employing laminar or turbulent air flow principles. Laminar, or
unidirectional, air flow systems direct filtered air downward in a constant stream.
Laminar air flow systems are typically employed across 100% of the ceiling to
maintain constant, unidirectional flow. Laminar flow criteria is generally stated in
portable work stations (LF hoods), and is mandated in ISO-1 through ISO-4
classified cleanrooms.

Proper cleanroom design encompasses the entire air distribution system, including
provisions for adequate, downstream air returns. In vertical flow rooms, this means
the use of low wall air returns around the perimeter of the zone. In horizontal flow
applications, it requires the use of air returns at the downstream boundary of the
process.

The use of ceiling mounted air returns is contradictory to proper cleanroom system
design
ISO 14644-1 Cleanroom Standards
maximum particles/m3
FED STD
209E
Class
>=0.1 µm >=0.2 µm >=0.3 µm >=0.5 µm >=1 µm >=5 µm equivale
nt

ISO 1 10 2
ISO 2 100 24 10 4
ISO 3 1,000 237 102 35 8 Class 1
ISO 4 10,000 2,370 1,020 352 83 Class 10
ISO 5 100,000 23,700 10,200 3,520 832 29 Class 100
1,000,00 Class
ISO 6 237,000 102,000 35,200 8,320 293
0 1,000
Class
ISO 7 352,000 83,200 2,930
10,000
3,520,00 Class
ISO 8 832,000 29,300
0 100,000
35,200,0 8,320,00
ISO 9 293,000 Room Air
00 0
Filter Segment
Type
• Pre-Filter – it includes PLATE TYPE. The filtering material is made of non-woven fabric,
filtration efficiency is G4 (Plate Type).
• Bag Filter – also comes in PLATE TYPE. The filtration efficiency is F7.
• Hepa Filter – comes in BOX TYPE. Filtration efficiency is H13.
PRIMARY AIR HANDLING UNITS (PAHU )

PRIMARY AIR HANDLING UNIT SAMPLE SHOP DRAWING


HEAT RECOVERY WHEEL (HEAT EXCHANGER)
SAY, 15 square meter per TON
A. RULE OF THUMB
How many square feet does a one ton central air unit
cool?
( USA – RESIDENTIAL HOUSES )
- For and older drafty, inefficient house 400SF per ton or 37 SQM per ton. Any
sizing larger
- For a newer reasonably built house 600SF per ton. or 56 SQM per ton
- For an Energy Star Qualified house 600-800SF per ton. or 56 SQM per ton - 75
SQM per ton
- Well designed, thoughtfully crafted houses can achieve 800-1000 SF per ton. or
75 SQM per ton – 93 SQM per ton

Bigger is not better - getting the right size is important. About 70% of the work of
the air conditioner is to remove the humidity from the air - this is called the latent
load. An oversized unit will bring the temperature down quickly but not remove
the humidity. A right-sized unit will run longer and do a better job with
dehumidification allowing you to keep the set-point several degrees warmer and
still achieve the comfort level expected.
B. Calculation for Offices
For offices with average insulation and
lighting, 2/3 occupants and 3/4 personal
computers and a photocopier, the following
calculations will suffice:
Heat load (BTU) = Length (ft.) x Width (ft.) x
Height (ft.) x 4

Heat load (BTU) = Length (m) x Width (m) x


Height (m) x 141
For every additional occupant add 500 BTU.
C. A more Accurate Heat Load Calculation For Any
Type of Room or Building
The heat gain of a room or building depends on:
*The size of the area being cooled
*The size and position of windows, and whether they
have shading
*The number of occupants
*Heat generated by equipment and machinery
*Heat generated by lighting

*By calculating the heat gain from each individual item


and adding them together, an accurate heat load
figure can be determined.
STEP ONE(1)

Calculate the area in square feet of the space to


be cooled, and multiply by 31.25

Area BTU = length (ft.) x width (ft.) x 31.25


STEP TWO (2)

Calculate the heat gain through the windows. If the


windows don’t have shading multiply the result by 1.4

North window BTU = Area of North facing windows (m. sq.)


x 164

If no shading, North window BTU = North window BTU x 1.4

South window BTU = Area of South facing windows (m. sq.)


x 868

If no shading, South window BTU = South window BTU


x 1.4

Add the results together.


Total window BTU = North window + South window
STEP THREE (3)

Calculate the heat generated by occupants,


allow 600 BTU per person.

Occupant BTU = number of people x 600


STEP FOUR(4)

Calculate the heat generated by each item of


machinery - copiers, computers, ovens etc.

Find the power in watts for each item, add them


together and multiply by 3.4
Equipment BTU = total equipment watts x 3.4
STEP FIVE (5)

Calculate the heat generated by lighting.


Find the total wattage for all lighting and
multiply by 4.25

Lighting BTU = total lighting watts x 4.25


STEP SIX (6)
Add the above together to find the total heat load.

Total heat load BTU = Area BTU + Total Window


BTU + Occupant BTU + Equipment BTU
+ Lighting BTU
STEP SEVEN (7)
Divide the heat load by the cooling capacity of
the air conditioning unit in BTU, to
determine how many air conditioners are
needed.
Number of a/c units required = Total heat
load BTU / Cooling capacity BTU
SAMPLE DESIGN
DASHEN BEER BREWERY
CLEAN ROOM

DESIGN PARAMETERS

Total Floor Area : 979 sqm


Type of Occupancy : Clean Room
Design Temperature : 18 – 26 deg. C
Design Humidity : 40 – 60 % RH
Air Change : 5 cu. m per hour
Room Volume : 5.375 cu.m.
Clean Room Class : ISO 8 or Class 100K
Outside Air Temperature : please see history
Exhaust Air : 80% %
I. Area in square feet of the space to be cooled multiply by 31.25
Area BTU = 977 ( 3.28 x 3.28 )(31.25)
= 10,511 x 31.25
= 328,468

II. Heat gain through the windows. If the windows don’t have shading multiply the result
by 1.4

North window BTU = Area of North facing windows (m. sq.) x 164
=17.25 x 164
= 2,829
No shading, North window BTU = North window BTU x 1.4
= 2,829 x 1.4
= 3,961
West window BTU = Area of West facing windows (m. sq.) x 868
= 48 x 868
= 41,664
No shading, West window BTU = West window BTU x 1.4
= 41,664 x 1.4
= 58,330
South window BTU = Area of South facing window BTU x 164
= 18 x 164
= 2,952
No shading, West window BTU = West window BTU x 1.4
= 2,952 x 1.4
= 4,133

Total window BTU = 3,961 + 58,330 + 4,133


= 66,424
III. Heat generated by occupants, 600 BTU per person.
Occupant BTU = number of people x 2
= 2 x 600
= 1,200 BTU

IV. Heat generated by each item of instruments and equipment . Total power in watts for
each item multiply by 3.4
Equipment BTU = total equipment watts x 3.4
= ( 7,500 + 10,000 + 12,000 + 2,000 ) x 3.4
= 65,000 BTU

V. Heat generated by lighting. Total wattage for all lighting multiply by 4.25
Lighting BTU = total lighting watts x 4.25
= ( 24watt/sqm ) x 4.25
= 975 x 24 x 4.25
= 99,450 BTU
VI. Total heat load BTU = Area BTU + Total Window BTU +
Occupant BTU +
Equipment BTU + Lighting BTU
= 328,468 + 66,424 + 1,200 + 65,000 + 99,450
= 560,542

12,000 BTU = 1TR


Thus , 574,342/12000 = 46.71TR
Say, 50 TR

Or Use 2-25 TR AHU , Class 100K , 16,000CFM


Dashen Total Volume = 5,375 cu meter
Air Change = 5
Q = 26,875 cubic meter per hour or
15,805 CFM
DESIGN ANALYSIS : ( Rule 0f Thumb )

Say , 15TR per square meter @ 34 Deg. C Ave . Temp.

Area : 979

Capacity = 65.26 TR

Say Ave outside temp. = 22 deg. C

23 TR per square meter @ 22 Deg. C

Capacity = 44.5 TR
WHEN TO USE
DIFFERRENT TYPE OF
A/C UNIT
The window and split air
conditioners are usually used
for the small air conditioning
capacities up to 5 tons
The central air conditioning
systems are used for where the
cooling loads extend beyond
20 tons.
The packaged air conditioners
are available in the fixed rated
capacities of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15
tons. These units are used
commonly in places like
restaurants, telephone
exchanges, homes, small halls,
etc.
THANK YOU
MEPF ENGINEERS CO.
Rizal St., Los Baños, Laguna

LL Bldg. Panay ave.corner EDSA


Beside MRT Quezon Ave. Station
E-mail Address :
ard4len@yahoo.com
Tel.No.(049) 5 760 760
Smart: 0918 909 4164
Sun : 0932 821 1050
Globe: 0917 575 7630