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2 .  Appreciate various synthetic industrial materiala.  Evaluate the uses of composite materials.  Evaluate the uses of synthetic polymer.  Synthesise the manufacture of ammonia and its salts. Understand the manufacture of sulphuric acid.  Apply the uses of glass and ceramics.  Understand alloys.

98% conversion is possible. which are highly soluble in water and can be easily obsorbed by plant. Sulphuric acid is used to produce chemical fertilizer such as ammonium sulphate and potassium sulphate. Sulphur dioxide and oxygen that have not reacted are allowed to flow back again over the catalyst in the converter. Under controlled optimum conditions. STAGE3: Conversion of trioxide to sulphuric acid i. dyes and drug use sulphuric acid as one of their component materials. 4. Sulphur trioxide SO2 is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid H2SO4 to form oleum H2S2O7 which is then diluted with water to form sulphuric acid H2SO4. Combustion of sulphur or sulphide ores in the air produce sulphur dioxide SO2. Sulphuric acid also used in the making of artificial silk-like fibres and rayon. The process contain three stage STAGE1: Production Of Sulphur Dioxide From Sulphur i. Car batteries contain sulphuric acid which is used as the electrolyte. STAGE2: Production Of Sulphur Trioxide From Sulphur Dioxide i. 2. S(s)+O2(g)SO2(g) sulphur ii. Chemical like paints.(H4SO4)  USES OF SULPHURIC ACID 1.  MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID 1. sulphur dioxide is dried and purified. 2SO2(g)+O2(g) 2SO3(g) ii. The optimum used are a) Temperature:450-500°C b) Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres c) Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide iii. 3 . 3. The purified sulphur dioxide SO2 and excess air are passed over vanadium(V) oxide V2O5 at controlled optimum condition optimum condition to produce sulphur trioxide SO3. Sulphuric acid is manufactured in industry though contact process 2.

The addition of sulphur trioxide directly into is not carried out because the reaction is vary vigorous. The two reactions in stage3 are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide directly into water. which is corrosive and causes severe air pollution.SO3(g)+H2SO4(l)H2S2O7(l) Oleum H2S2O7(l)+ H2O(l)2H2SO4(aq) ii. The Contact Process Sulphu r Oxyge n In the converter S(s) + O2(g)SO2(g) Oxyge 2SO(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) Temperature: 450-500°C Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide  SULPHUR ENVIRONMENTAL SO2(g) + H2SO4(aq)H2S2O7(l) H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l)2H2SO4(aq) Outline Of Contact process Unreacted 2%so2 is flowed back to converter together with oxygen DIOXIDE POLLUTION AND 4 . a lot of heat is given off. alarge cloud of sulphuric acid fumes is produced. SO3(g)+H2O(l)H2SO4(aq) iii. As a result.

sulphur dioxide dissolve in water droplets to form sulphurous acidic. Sulphur dioxide is an acidic which dissolves in water to form sulphurous acidic. SO3(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO4(aq) Acid rain and environmental pollution 5 . H2SO3.1. H2SO4. which falls to the earth as acid rain. SO2(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO3(aq) 4. In the atmosphere. It is a colourless and poisonous gas with a vary pungent smell. 2. Sulphur trioxide dissolve in rainwater to produce sulphuric acid. Oxidation of sulphur acid by oxygen produce sulphuric acid. Sulphur dioxide is one of the by-product of contact process. 3. Sulphur dioxide which escape into the air causes air pollution. Sulphur trioxide is also easily oxidised in the air to form sulphur trioxide.

Reacts with solution of metallic cations to produce precipitates. Ammonia that is produce commercially has many uses. ii. iv. 2.(NH3)  USES OF AMMONIA 1. 2. Reacts with acid to form only salt and waterin neutralization reaction. It uses: i. To manufacture nitric acid and explosive. In the making of synthetic fibre and nylon.5°C) when cool. ii. ii. Fe²+(aq) + 2OH(aq)  Fe (OH)2(s) (Form ammonia solution) Dirty green precipitate 6 . In the manufacture of chemical fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate. Thus aqueous ammonia solution: i. The chemical properties of ammonia gas: a) Ammonia gas dissolves in water to form a weak alkali. It easily liquified (at about 35. The physical properties of ammonia gas include the following: i. NH3(aq) + HCI(aq)  NH4CI(aq) 2NH3 + H2SO4(aq)  (NH4)2SO4(aq) iii. As a degreasing agent in aqueous form to remove greasy stains in the kitchen. Turns red litmus paper blue. It colourless and has a pungent odour. NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) b) The presence of hydroxide icon causes the aqueous solution to become alkaline. iii. It less dense then water. ammonia nitric. ammonia phosphate and urea. It is vary soluble in water and form a weak alkaline solution. iii.  PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA GAS 1. iv.

The nitrogen and hydrogen that have not reacted are then flow back over the catalyst again in the reactor chamber. The hydrogen gas is obtained form the cracking of petroleum or from the catalysed reaction of natural gas. Temperature: 450-500°C ii. only 15% of the gas mixture turn into ammonia gas. Ammonia is manufacture on a large scale in industry through the haber process. ammonia is formed form direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen gas in the volume ratio 1:3. with steam. Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres iii. i. Under these control optimum condition. The Haber Process 7 . Catalyst used: Iron fillings N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) 4. 5. MANUFACTURE OF AMMONIA IN INDUSTRY 1. The ammonia product is then cooled at a low temperature so that it condenses into a liquid in the cooling chamber. The gas nitrogen obtain form the fractional distillation of liquefied air. CH4(g) + H2O(g)  CO(g) + 3H2(g) 3. CH4. The mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gases is passed over an iron catalyst under controlled optimum condition as below to form ammonia gas. 2. In this process.

NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq)  NH4NO3(aq) Ammonium nitrate 3NH3(aq) + H3PO4(aq)  (NH4)3PO4(aq) Ammonium phosphate 2NH3(aq) +H2SO4(aq)  (NH4)2SO4(aq) Ammonium sulphate 8 . Plants can only absorb soluble nitrogen compounds from soil through their roots.Nitrogen Hydrogen N2 and H2 are mixed in the proportion of 1:3 In the reactor chamber N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NHIn cooling chamber (g) Temperature: 450-500°C Liquid Pressure: 200-500 atmospheres Catalyst used:ammonia process Iron fillings Outline Of Habert 3 Unreacted N2 and H2 gases  AMMONIUM FERTILIZERS 1. 4. 3. The nitrogen compounds are usually soluble nitric salt. ammonia and ammonia salt which are manufacture as chemical fertilizer. Most plant are not able to get a nitrogen supply directly from the air although it is abundant in the air (78%). Nitrogen is required in large amount by plant to make proteins which are necessary for growth and cell repair. Reactions of ammonia with acids produce ammonium fertilizers. 2.

4. This causes the metal to have a hight density The forces of attraction between atoms (metallic bonds) are strong. More heat energy is needed to overcome the metallic bond so that the atoms are further apart during the melting. When a force is applied to metal. The atom of pure metals are packed together closely. therefore. they are arranged orderly in a regular layered pattern. layer of atom slide easily over one another. Since atoms of pure metal are of the same size. 5. This make metal good conduct of heat. Metal are. This make pure metals soft. good electrical conductors. Layer of atom slide Force Metals are ductile Force The shape of the metal change Matel are malleable 9 . The freely moving outermost electrons within the metal’s structure are able to conduct electricity. ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS IN MATELS 1. 2. malleable and ductile. Heat energy can be transferred easily from one atom to the next by vibration. This is why metals usually have hight melting point. 3.

an alloy that has an attractive silvery. Pure copper tarnish easily. When copper is mixed with nickel to form cupronickel. ii. a small amount of another element (usually metal) is added to form another an alloy. bright appearance is formed which is suitable for making coins. an alloy of tin (97%). The more carbon is added. b) Improving the resistance to corrosion i. the yellow alloy which is known as brass develops a high resistance to corrosion. When a small amount of carbon is added to iron. a strong. Bronze (90% of copper and 10% of tin) b. Pewter. Pure iron is soft and vary malleable. 2. ii. 0. 18% of chromium and 1% of nickel does not rush.6% of iron. c) Enhancing the appearance i. steal is formed. They also have a low resistance to corrosion. An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals (something non-metal) in a specific proportion. Pure metal are usually too soft for most uses. light and durable alloy call duralumin is produced. 3. These properties make stainless steel suitable for making surgical instrument and cutlery. To improve the physical properties of metal. The purposes of making alloys include the following: a) Increase the strength i.4% of carbon. ii. With a small amount of copper and magnesium are added to aluminium. the stronger the steel becomes. Iron rust easily but stainless steel which contains 80. antimony and copper is not only hard but also has a more beautiful white silvery appearance. WHAT ARE ALLOYS 1. They rush and tarnish easily. When zinc (30%) is added. an alloy. For example: a. Pure aluminium is light but not strong. 10 . Steel (99% of iron and 1% of carbon) 4.

electrical wiring and plug. 10% tin easily and durable medals.5% copper malleable.hard and high • Making of cutting wear resistance tools. 90% copper Hard. hard and coins tough Composition.4% carbon 18%chromium 1% nickel 70% copper 30% zinc Properties Uses Strong. strong and instrument.5% antimony silvery appearance souvenirs and mugs 95% aluminium Light. do not corrode • For casting bells. knives durable forks and spoons Hard. strong and • Making part of 4% copper durable aircrafts and racing 1%magnesium cars 75%copper Attractive.6% iron 0. do not rust. 0. swords and statues 90% tin Ductile and • Making of 2. white ornaments. bright appearance Brass Bronze Pewter Duralumin Cupronickel • Making of ornaments. silvery • Making of silver 25%nickel appearance. hammers and chisels Do not rust and • Making of surgical tarnish.Alloy High carbon steel Stainless steel Composition 99% iron 1% carbon 80. properties and uses of alloys The formation of alloy 11 .

 WHAT ARE POLYMER 1. flooring dense. clear solid soluble in organic solvents high-melting solid toys. Two type of polymerisation in producing synthetic polymer are additional polymerisation. waxy solid rigid. translucent solid Uses film wrap. 6. cabinets packaging (foamed) rugs. 4. isotactic: hard. Molecule that consist of a large number of small identical or similar units joined together repeatedly are called polymer. Double bonds between two carbon atoms usually undergo addition polymerisation. blankets 12 . protein and rubber. upholstery strong solid strong rigid solid pipes. rigid. Some Common Addition Polymers Name(s) Polyethylene low density (LDPE) Polyethylene high density (HDPE) Polypropylene (PP) different grades Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) Poly(vinylidene chloride) (Saran A) Polystyrene (PS) Polyacrylonitrile Formula –(CH2-CH2)n– Monomer ethylene CH2=CH2 Properties soft. Polymer can be naturally occurring or man-made (synthetic). films solid hard. The process of joining together a large number of monomers to form a long chain polymer is called polymerisation. 5. elastic similar to LDPE solid carpet. The smaller molecules that make up the repeating unit in polymer are caller monomer. Natural polymer are found in plant and in animals for example of natural polymers are starch cellulose. toys ethylene –(CH2-CH2)n– CH2=CH2 –[CH2CH(CH3)]n– –(CH2CHCl)n– –(CH2CCl2)n– –[CH2CH(C6H5)]n– –(CH2propylene CH2=CHCH3 vinyl chloride CH2=CHCl vinylidene chloride CH2=CCl2 styrene CH2=CHC6H5 acrylonitrile atactic: soft. siding. 3. plastic bags electrical insulation bottles. high-melting seat covers. 2.

light-weight and translucent. c. Synthetic polymers have many advantages over other type of materials: a. They are cheap. rubbery solid Uses of synthetic polymers  SYNTHETIC POLYMERS IN DAILY LIFE 1. smooth ylene –(CF2-CF2)n– ene solid (PTFE. d. Synthetic polymers are non-biodegradable. they cause litter problem and pollute the environment. Lucite. When there are discharge.(PAN. Plexiglas) methyl –[CH2methacrylate C(CH3)CO2C CH2=C(CH3)C H3]n– O2CH3 hard. rusting and chemical attacks. poisonous fumes are produce causing air pollution.CH2=CHCH2]n– C(CH3)=CH2 –[CH2CH=CClCH2]n– chloroprene CH2=CHCCl=CH2 soft. d. Plastic container that are left aside in an open area collect rainwater which becomes the breeding ground for mosquitoes. When a synthetic polymer material catches fire. Most of the synthetic polymer are flammable. sticky solid (PVAc) H3 n– cis-Polyisoprene natural rubber Polychloroprene (cis + trans) (Neoprene) –[CH2isoprene CH=C(CH3). There are limitation in recycle have to be separated out as the addition of nonrecyclable polymers in the mixture affect the properties of the recycled polymers. There are disadvantage using synthetic polymer: a. 13 . Teflon) CF2=CF2 Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA. c. b. They are easily coloured. They are durable and long lasting because they are resistant to decay. easily moulded and shaped. transparent solid –(CH2vinyl acetate Poly(vinyl acetate) CHOCOCH3) CH2=CHOCOC soft. They are non-corrosive. 2. sticky solid tough. Orlon. adhesives requires vulcanization for practical use synthetic rubber oil resistant Polytetrafluoroeth tetrafluoroethyl resistant. Acrilan) CHCN)n– CH2=CHCN soluble in organic solvents clothing non-stick surfaces electrical insulation lighting covers. b. waterproof and good insulator. signs skylights latex paints.

Glass is one of the most useful but inexpensive materials in the world. bottles • Electric bulbs • Window glass Soda-lime glass SiO2: 75% Na2O:15% CaO: 9% Other:1% Borosilicate glass Lead crystal glass (flint glass) SiO2: 78% B2O3: 12% Na2O: 5% CaO: 3% Al2O3:2% SiO2: 70% Pbo/PbO2:20% Na2O: 10% • Cooking utensils • Laboratory glassware such as conical flaks and boiling tube • Lenses and prisms • Decorative glassware and art object • Imation jewellery 14 . c. A heat and electric insulator. Resistant to corrosion. b. Transparent. 2. Easy to maintain. Many products are made from glass because of its specials properties. Glass is: a. e. easily molded into desired shape and size • Low resistant to chemical attacks • Brittle • Resistant chemical attack and durable • High melting point • Good insulator to heat • High refractive index • High density • Attractive glittering appearance Uses • Lens • Telescope mirrors • Laboratory apparatus • Drinking glass. Chemical not reaction and therefore resistant to chemical attack. Type of glass Fused glass Composition SiO2: 100% Properties • Transparent • High melting point • Good heat insulator • Low melting point. d. hard but brittle. WHAT ARE GLASS 1.

B4C3 Silicon nitride.86 Elastic modulus/ GPa 380 370 210 280 400 310 70 205 Hardness/ mohs 9 8 8 9 9 9 3 5 15 . Electrical insulator i.01 5. and porcelain vases since they do not tarnish easily and are durable. china plates. b. They are uses as a. Ceramic are strong and hard.97 3. CERAMICS 1. ii.17 2. Are heat and electric instrument d. Do not readily deform under stress 3.68 2. and toilet bowls. Traditional silicate ceramics are made by heating aluminosilicate clay such as kaolin to a vary high temperature. To make pottery. BeO Zirconia. uses to make roof tiles. Ceramics have many special properties that make them one of the most useful materials in our everyday life. bricks cement. n4 Metals Aluminium Steel Melting point/ ° C 2054 2574 2710 2350 2830 1900 660 1515 Density/G cm-3 3. That: a.50 3. Are hard. Materials Oxide ceramic Alumina.70 7. They are used to make bathroom fixture such as floor and wall tiles. Si3.AL2O3 Beryllia. Ceramic play important role in our daily life. They are also used to make refractory bricks because high resistant to heat. sinks. Are chemically not reactive f.16 3. 2. Construction materials i. fridges and electrical plug. c. Have high melting point and remain stable at high temperature c. ii. Decorative items i. ZiO Non-oxide ceramics Boron carbide. Are resistant to corrosion and wear e. strong but brittle b. Ceramic are used to make electrical insulator in electrical items such as toasters.

Domestic cable television network c. fireproof. 4. Metal such as copper and aluminium are good conductor of electricity. WHAT ARE COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1. Superconductor are used to make chips for smaller and faster supercomputer. Fibre optic d. 2. 2. Hence. The reinforces is a combination of concrete and steel. One of the most dramatic properties of a superconductor is its ability to levitate a magnet. Superconductor c. ceramic and polymer.  FIBRE OPTIC 1.  SUPERCONDUCTOR 1. b. 2. Photochromic glass  REINFORCES CONCRETE 1. but 20% of the electric energy is lost in the form of heat during transmission. Reinforces concrete b. 3. Closed circuit television security system. comparatively cheap and easy to maintain. Fibre optic is a composite material that in used to transmit signals for light wave. It is used in a number of instrument which enable the investigation for internal body part without having to perform surgery. 3. It is more important construction materials. Superconductor also play an important role in high speed data processing in internet communication. A composite materials (or composite) is a structure of materials that is formed by two or more different substances such as metal. 16 . Fibre optic is used in a. Superconductor are used to build magnetically levitate high-speed train (at about 552 km/h). Super conductor are materials that have no resistance to the flow of electricity at a particular temperature. Telecommunicate where the telephone substation are liked by fibre optic cables. 2. Fibre optic also used in medical fields. waterproof. 100% electricity transmission is possible. glass. Fibre glass e. Some common composite materials are: a. Concrete is hard.

Molten gas is dropped onto a refractory rating disc when the glass flies off the disc glass to form fibre. do not burnt. 3. When 0. stretch or rot. Fibre glass reinforces plastic has more superior properties than glass and plastic. Can be molded.01 to 0. It is a. Light weigh c. The photochromic glass has a special properties. a new composite material fibre glass reinforces plastic is formed. shaped and twisted  PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS 1.1% of silver chloride (a type of photochromic substances) and a small amount of copper (II) chloride are added to molten silicon dioxide. FIBRE GLASS 1. Photochromic glass is suitable for making sunglasses. resistant to fire and water but is brittle. 17 . Resistant to fire and water d. It darken when exposed to strong sunlight or ultraviolet. 2. Fibre glass is glass in the form of fine threads. photochromic glass is formed. 3. Extremely strong b. 2. Fibre glass is strong than steel. When fibre glass added to a plastic. 4.

CONCLUSION We should appreciate these various synthetic materials.This will save fuel and improve Speed.Synthetic material are developed constantly due to the limitation and shortage of natural materials.One of the way is by doing continous research and development (R&D) to produce better materials used to improve our standard of living. 18 . New materials for clothing.As we live in a changing world.The recycling And development of environmental friendly synthetic material should be enforced.New needs and new Problem will stimulate the development of new synthetic materials.New materials are required to overcome new challenges and problems we face in our daily lives.shelter.New technologicala developments are used by scientists to make new discoveries.Plastic composite may one day used to make organ transplant in human bodies. This will become necessity with the shortage of human organ donors.For example.tools and communication to improve our daily Life are developed continuously for well-being of mankind. the new Use of plastic composite material will replace metal in the making of a stronger and Lighter car body.our society is getting more complex.This will save fuel and improve speed.

SUCCESS Chemistry SPM.2008..com 19 .REFERENCE 1.Tan On Tin. Oxford Fajar Sdn.answers. Bhd.Loh Wai Leng. 2. Website http://www. Tan Yin Toon.

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