You are on page 1of 418

Dr.Ioan C.

Cucu
Dr.Toma I.Cucu

PSYCHIATRY
Under dictatorship

A White Paper for Roumanian-communist


psychiatrypsychiatry
2

Piatra Neamt - 2005

In memory of our expensive grandparents and


parents
Casandra, ANA and Constantin CUCU
3

The medical profession has more saints than


sinners.

Erich Segal
4

FOREWORD

I am aware that I have invited here to speak as


a dilettante. Perhaps, experts held an amateur
to learn and think in terms of totalitarian
experience consequences in a country in
Eastern Europe on psychiatry mice.
Well, in this modest quality, permit me to
propose a paradox. Specialists know exactly - I
think - horrible crimes committed in psychiatric
asylums in the East. I suspect, however, that
their rulers less well known psychiatric crime,
not as brutal, but with disastrous
consequences, committed outside asylums.
Because, basically, for over 40 years we were
all here, patients. True, some patients unique,
that is let loose. In addition, like crime, this time
with an insidious corruption. As I will try to be
demonstrated, it has effects that are raging
today.
Moreover, I recently convinced, the last
political event in Romania, namely the election,
as the tragedy in which we threw the end of the
Second World War did not end. I was some
naive when we imagined the revolution, I came
out of nightmare. Now you can see quite clearly
that, after we swallowed a good part of life, a
single abnormal for us to become "normal" as
possible, on the destiny of communism
stalceste us a freedom that we do not yet
understand to a live, because we lost the
reflexes of normal behavior.
In fact, the very concept of freedom has meant
5

many years - and largely also means - just out


of the cage. I understand and perhaps even
today do not understand too well that freedom
has its own order. Particularly, I understand
that, as animals kept in captivity long lead in
their cage when they are let go, readaptandu is
hard to freedom, our past is primarily not the
archives, does not stop at what was ". He is still
active. Ghosts walk the street, talk, sometimes
we see on television. Ourselves, sometimes we
realize we are without our own ghost.
But I'm afraid, our guests forgive me, as a
Westerner has no recourse as the tragedy of
this situation, simply because trying to judge, to
consider - with a normal logic - an abnormality.
West rushed to greet the end of communism,
then to become relaxed and indifferent, without
noticing that the East European scene has
changed the show, but the old "actors" from
backstage bustle and have not forgotten the
roles. Preparing, perhaps even a new show,
which combines the two disasters of the
century, communism and fascism.
In fact, terror was not our only problem. Does a
Westerner could understand why a man like me
has asked the question, one day, unless some
form of "wisdom" as an epidemic that swept
through Eastern Europe, became the main ally
of terror? In 18 years I have seen studded
Bucharest Russian uniform. I felt on my skin
between two millstones that was caught this
century, grinding until blood between
6

ideologies. Revolution caught me in 63 years. I


am old in an abnormality which seems ended
up at a time, "normal", meaning that not
surprise anyone is banalizandu river. How to
explain that a man used to separate what is
normal is normal? Especially missing,
unfortunately, a serious analysis of the tragedy
and the right people in the East, and we have
moved about enough nonsense.
In Romania was the first demonstration of anti-
Eastern Europe and the first armed resistance
against Soviet occupation, the resistance that
lasted years, in the mountains. However, we
were surprised to hear given surface, such as
"Romans endure any" or "Polenta not explode."

Several years before the fall of Ceausescu,


working on a manuscript on which we intend to
send him to the West. I care about what I called
"the two policies, namely the paradox as a
means of tyranny tiranizeaza and tyrannize. I
remembered everything I read about the forms
of their collaboration in France during the
occupation, and that hypnosis exercise Hitler on
Germans. What we were worse than others?
Trying to survive, not to fall victim, just as
others have done in times of disgrace.
However, he could not see that our fear is
helping those who dread to make us even more
awesome. Was more than evident that, as we
avoided the risks, Ceausescu and his
henchmen afford more. His madness was
stimulated by "wisdom" our. Without their will,
7

became complicit with persecutatii persecutors.


But evil did not stop there. Not surprising lie.
Become established "normal". We
accommodate the river, get used to it. And, in
time, I never knew about what was normal
normalcy. Not only see abnormal "normalized."
It seems that in a world like ours, so it was
normal things to happen, that honesty has
become a risk, a "crazy". Reality remember you
every step you have to be careful what you say,
who say, if he would not get the attention
Security. Why not accept abnormality as a
factor not normally seem both an act of
courage, as a sign of wear preservation instinct.
That, not brainwashing famous crime is
perhaps the most perfect of the communist
regime, but the most durable. A brain washing
has not passed. Instead, a brain abnormality
learned to consider normal is threatened to
disappear - even freedom - the reflexes they
acquired a history of barracks, where truth is a
soft paste, which may take any form, in
according to orders. Raul joined the language,
mode of thinking. Let me remind you what
Euripides said, the slave becomes a slave only
when really behave as such.
All they have left traces that senses a stranger
to hard. We do not even notice them
sometimes. In fact, there is a risk, I think, as the
continent that gave Descartes the end of this
century to operate two different logics: one
more pragmatic and selfish, the West, the
8

other, resentment and confusing, the East, had


to see the West " Third Rome "that separates
the" new barbarians. " This state of affairs may
increase even more danger, not insignificant in
my opinion, as between East and West to
create a fracture even more profound, because
instead of the Iron Curtain as a wound that
would be practically impossible communication.

Maybe a normal or even call them Western


picturesque Marx's exhortation for us to break
the last laugh. Wed Honestly, I find a huge. And
it's hard to find, I think, one more absurd advice.

First, how to laugh a nightmare? It would be a


fool and laughed undoubtedly objectionable.
Were committed too many crimes to enable us
to burst into hysterical laughter as a one way to
exorcise the tragedy that took place.
Then, we had no other life than that which we
feared. It was the only chance to love or to
contemplate a sky full of stars. Our Hours
tenderness were mixed with despair. As for me,
I became a father in this nightmare, I wrote
books. Hate me because sometimes I was
really happy, while my compatriots were
abused by prison security or rot? Shame for my
selfishness to be enjoyed for days with clear
sky, while dark cells lying both Romanian, but it
was, was, nor gods can not change anything,
and then, it's really come to live ? Moral
cowardice tells me anything, even if reduced to
helplessness by a sunny day reject because of
9

ugliness history. But I do not want to be


hypocritical, I consider myself guilty.
I feel guilty that I silently for many years after
my father died in a hospital after a trivial
peritonitis, because he was denied antibiotics,
not collectivized, not because I love life even in
a criminal regime. In fact, I say life is not lived
as the Berlin Wall, demolish it with pickaxe.
That's why we are so hard to judge what was ".
Hence, perhaps, and irritation that many of us
refuse any discussion here about guilt,
believing that the fault is either equal, uniform,
with the natural corollary, if we are all guilty, all
are innocent, or that have other things more
urgent now . And you feel like telling you, as a
Roman poet of the nineteenth century, "it was
was, what is it and what will be appropriate."
What is appropriate? Is it what "properly"
depends on the strength of looking before you
"was"? I for one, I admit, I'm afraid that we need
to go through purgatory to find, finally, normal
normalcy.

Octavian Paler
Bucharest 1994
10

"And returns the wind " (excerpts)


by Vladimir Bukovsky

In fact, especially in Leningrad hospital was not


only an ordinary prison, the detention in rooms,
mail and food limitation, with bars, barbed wire,
fence walls and armed guards. Theoretically, to
escape an insane, had no guard to open fire.
But trying to distinguish it from a scandalized by
a common law crime of serving personnel. Of
course the guard opened fire and such cases
have occurred.
... Here was held in 1956 Nikolai Samsonov,
geophysicist, laureate Joseph Stalin. He was
sent to the madhouse for a letter to DC that
required a consistent exposure of the crimes
committed by Stalin. He refuses to prove the
"critical" and thus made eight years jail. Was
treated by administration wanted: injections,
maltreatment, placement in room of angry
inmates. Health had been permanently
shattered heart, liver, stomach - all cedasera
and, in fact, it was the side effect of
psychotropic drugs. Was treated very strongly
last year, that had come svonise us some
indication about him.
... As "treatment angry, rather, to sanction, were
used in three ways. First: aminazina. Usually,
after taking them, a man falls asleep, sink into a
state of stupidity and not even realized what
happens to him. The second was sulfazina or
sulfur. It pall awful pain, a violent fever, the
11

temperature rises to 40-41 degrees and take


two - three days. The third was "enswathement.
For some fault, The prisoner was swaddled
tightly, the foot at the armpit, with twisted
sheets or strips of sheet tent, soaked in water.
Drying it, the canvas will shrink, inflicting untold
pain and one patient throughout the body burn.
Usually hapless soon unconscious and nurses
were bound to supervise. He who loses a bit of
knowledge was weak cup buttocks, left to
recover after it was swaddled again. Procedure
was used several times.
... On the upper floor of the first block in the fifth
section, were "Cheese" - rooms lined with
rubber, so angry was not crazy and smash his
head bouncing into the wall. In these rooms,
people were detained in total isolation, and
naked, they say, were severely beaten. Not so
long ago, there was murdered one mad,
breaking them into the column. Another was
crushed in the "infant", I managed to lose it in
tight. Of course, nobody was guilty, were
deleted from the record asasinatii - ticnitii is
always to blame.
... Rafuielii threat hanging over our heads. With
the smallest opportunity, I heard the nurses and
guards: "What leatule, you miss the infant was
made?". Once prescribed, injections were
administered amilazina automatically you often
forget to be suspended. You get so many shots,
that no needle could not be stuck in the
buttocks. I remember, I got a day of physical
12

therapy office to warm my tonsils - given the


moisture in Leningrad, my chronic tonsillitis and
febricitam worsened. Well, here I went into
surgery and I saw a fantastic view. Was lying
on dozens of seats that some people display
their bare bottoms to heating lamps. Batucisera
buttocks are so between that and not have to
soak your muscles to be "treated" again.
... Terrible jokes and derision with which
patients were treated had become a kind of
necessity. In another block, in a larger room
among about 10 people, was a young man of
19 years, one Sapronovici. He had his
butterflies, namely: he had to destroy the
Western world, mainly America. He always
press buttons imaginary, being sure to launch
missiles with nuclear warheads.
"Let's take America in the air! To kill Kennedy!
"He shouted, pressing buttons. Do not know
why not have eyes to see him on Kennedy.
"Sapronovici, I cried the whole mind, come
here! Here is a real button, click it! "Button and
pointed at the door, which were called nurses
and guards. Gradually, he got used to this
button so the whole day sitting near the door
and hit him again. Nurses were all tired from the
flight give false signals and often mistreated
him, he makes shots and "wrap" - all but had no
effect.
Fall, Kennedy was assassinated. Sapronovici
could not escape the tyranny of chance to play
with him giurgina. I brought the newspaper with
13

communication about the Kennedy


assassination.
"How about Sapronovici, so that you have
made a sheep? Now keep an eye open.
Assassin has not yet been found, is searched,
so you will not find much time to dodge, you
have to seize, because everybody knows who
pressed the buttons.
Sapronovici a beet, was shaken. Gavozdea
spent an entire week in bed, covered up with
blanket over his head. Not take up any meal,
and iteasca feared his head under the covers.
The result was surprising. Sapronovici close to
healthy and had no mood to press on any
button.
.... A large group is the people who tried to
thrive in various embassies in Moscow.
Ordinary Soviet people believed, like naive, that
was enough to get into an embassy and from
there will carry you secretly across the border.
With this deal was more complicated. No law
forbade to enter into an embassy. How to
judge?
Pintan fled Latvia Latvia since the Soviet
invasion of their country. During this period he
lived in Australia, he worked as a loader-
download and has grown children. But rumors
have come in touch with Australia "thaw"
Khrushchevite; heart pulled home, how are
going to see people from home. He came with
his family, left him to go without any props. But
when he realized what "Meltdown", wanted to
14

go back to Australia. He wanted, but found that


just can not be back. Not care to obtain
Australian citizenship, lived as a Latvian citizen,
with the old newsletter in Latvia, especially as
those in Australia do not care what you report.
However, there was another story: the Soviet
Union did not recognize any of Latvia. And
citizen Pintan was made aware that all this time
He was a citizen of the USSR without them this
suspect. Pintan could not understand the way
something so simple, rampage, looking to thrive
in the Australian Embassy's expensive and it is
given aminazina.
15

INTRODUCTION

No one like us and maybe without testimonials


way that we present in this book in Romanian
psychiatry should be quiet because, as an
apologist stress, "teachers were communists in
psychiatry and general and professionalism are
unquestionable" and in our psychiatry has not
changed anything, nor must change.
Although it seems a paradox, our work is a true
samizdat, because she is a psychiatric world
not only conservative but not freed itself from
communist-materialist dogmas and guarding
the "purity" ideological past a guard today ,
handle with great skill tactics that communist
form without substance (eg DSM-site uses, but
without reference to the ideological foundations
of American psychiatry).
Our work is like a samizdat and psychiatrists as
a group of nonconformist, in the past know that
the same position (and I mean not only the
hierarchy) and in an atmosphere of adversity
and the monopoly of power, trying to compose
a White Paper of the Romanian communist
psychiatry and are defying this post-communist
leadership to "teachers" and to "those who
claim to belong to New Democracy, but who"
bite "already in bone strength, then so are
jinduit .
In fact, Romanian psychiatry, backward
scientific and institutional framework is still
16

needed for many years to wear the old


nomenclature gangrene, making it to function
that "ministry of truth" and organizing a true
institution of intellectual corruption, which not
only allied "teachers", but all the profiteers,
former torturers from the old psychiatric
organization.
But to solve first specilitati colleagues in other
medical concern as something bizarre battle of
breast psychiatry are forgetting that even
decades psychiatry provide politruci party
secretaries and other care, as if this was an
area reserved only psychiatry. Time does not
come to ask ourselves why?
Very often doctors from other specialties are
wondering what in psychiatry has also triggered
a dispute, while in other medical specialties
problem arises to be or not be a good
professional (although things are everywhere
so).
In psychiatry, however, professional practice
involves not only the accumulation of biological
and biochemical knowledge, as is usually the
case of somatic medicine, but also a thorough
knowledge of psychology, sociology, religion
and even philosophy, which adds biological
knowledge (psychiatry remains Yet the medical
center).
For these reasons, in psychiatry, as we see
throughout the paper, synonymies masters of
medical specialty nomenclature formed a party
which has set the task of creating a "socialist
17

psychiatry", opposite Western psychiatry, which


they called in derision "psychiatry bourgeois. "
Imagine yourself in such an absurdity of
medical disciplines such as cardiology or
surgery. For these reasons, the communists
considered psychiatry as an ideological
battleground, where the "blast" Marxist
philosophy had to fight and win the dispute with
bourgeois concepts: non-Marxist sociology and
psychology, which Western psychiatry and
awarded them after a long road of development
many humanities, not only biological or
biochemical essence. As we see during work
on this basis, psychiatry in our country will be
basically politicized (in terms of communist
ideology), organized and run by people regime,
approved by Security, psychiatry is not only the
attention of party organs, but also those of
repression.
What followed was just a small step for the
communist regime to use repressive psychiatry
in its goals, as it does in fact in all fields, all
being enslaved to retain power.
But this politicization communist psychiatry
almost reflexive led to emergence of resistant
permanent and even a dissident movements,
because what you wanted, loved colleagues to
oppose the new "socialist psychiatry",
painstakingly created over almost 50 years?
He said today that psychiatry practiced in
communist Romania - despite ideological abuse
and scientific return - was a normal course, and
18

this just to keep a false "domestic peace" or in


the name of comradeship forged a monstrosity
which equates to just sleep of reason can
tolerate.
"Psychiatry socialism" must go along with scrap
and nomenclature that have founded it and that
both for reasons of morality, and necessity. So
we ask our colleagues and even opaque
tolerance Ministry of Health to carry out the this
paper, slowly and with perseverance.
But look a little around us. Revolutionary
romantics young and died in December 1989
with the firm conviction that Romania will be
discarded communism in the dustbin of history.
Rejection of communism has become, for those
moments, reason to sacrifice our nation and
especially our youth.
However, if the communists in 1945 Stalin knew
that will not change a political regime and will
not comuniza Romania preserving old
structures of the bourgeois democratic state,
passing immediately to treatment
administration, army, police, judiciary and
academic institutions, the revolutionaries of
1989 was naivety to believe only in power for a
moral revolution, which have a fully sprinkled
with blood, naively believing in the "convert" the
old nomenclature. Not only were wrong, but
were terribly wrong, which is why so many
years, Romania is still struggling in the arms of
a criptocomunism just as malignant as
communism itself.
19

If our country in 1945 there were only about 800


communists in 1989 the number of true did not
seem to be much higher, because how else
could explain the spraying of a repressive
system and a "party of four million people" in
only a few days.
But, as in 1945, cohorts of profiteers and
followers of a vulgar materialism and corruption
have no moral or ideological creed "were
adapted" rapidly, taking over for their benefit
young and fragile post-totalitarian Romanian
society. Gradually, it became clear that there
will be a trial of communism, Section 8 of
Timisoara, Timisoara and spirit that were
rejected and even insulted the new Parliament
of Romania and former political prisoners, as
former dissidents go beyond their ordeal of
suffering, while the revolutionaries often appear
as figures in December 1989 issue, putting
them all back into the country's current
difficulties.
Old nomenclature has climbed back on
previous positions, going from dicteul
Communist fanaticism, which secures its
parasitic existence in the past to promote a
"wild capitalism" and the stall, to compromise all
Roman ideals of the revolution of 1989.
But what do the people that make the many,
who should I remove this profit?
People wearing behind that "psychology of the
cage" from which came just as any mass fear of
change, and under the communists or political
20

sense which makes man to be a unique


creature in the universe has atrophied, who
knows for how weather.
As in the past, people being hit by strength in its
existence (unemployment, malnutrition, hunger
wages, permanent inflation) and that, as in the
past gives any paternalism cheap, nationalist
tirades, the simplest maneuvers and
propaganda of the former current nomenclature
that today, without any embarrassment,
successfully launched the slogan "saving
people from landlords and capitalists" to
ridiculous diversions, such as the culprits of
former political prisoners, like Ticu Dumitrescu
and Corneliu Coposu.
Is psychiatry situation changed? Way. We must
recognize, and communists have confirmed a
power that medicine has never been
independent of political power among medical
disciplines psychiatry the most addictive. Due to
its particular nature, psychiatry has always
faced ethical and human essence, if he had
only to think that it is the only medical discipline
authorized by the company to place a person
even against his will.
On the other hand, psychiatry has very vague
borders and psychiatrist, voluntarily or
involuntarily, they may use "power" at the
expense of freedom and autonomy of a person.
Psychiatry and thus play a role "politically"
active, if we take the term life policy on
acceptance of "polis". Thus, if democratic
21

countries the right or left wing extremists will


never have to do with psychiatry in Romania
communist, as in former USSR, psychiatric
practice involving ideological and even political
factors, some of the opposition of being labeled
as taking psychiatry. We know how inaccurate
diagnostic criteria in psychiatry and
psychopathological symptoms or behaviors
between single dissenter clinical diagnosis and
a real big difference there. Thus, many
dissidents, subjected to persecution and
injustice, living in a permanent stress, could
present some real psychopathological traits, but
they could not thereby become mentally ill and
only real reasons of nature policy made it
possible.
As in other communist countries, Romania,
three private structures limetele dictatorship
forced psychiatry:
1. Totalitarian character of the state;
2. Place occupied by ideology in all areas;
3. Visceral fear of the regime not to lose
power and privileges.
Thus, on the one hand, individuals have no
rights and was the only party that decides to
consider including a crazy person and on the
other hand, science was subjected to - not to
mention the maid - of ideology. For these
reasons and psychiatry was "compelled" to
participate through all system specific to
maintain power. Violence is exercised against
any individual who could not "fit" in the
22

community, as it was defined by the party, and


abnormal, "patient" was therefore defined by
nature or "association" atypical, which is why
condemn socialism all those "original" anyone
who thought otherwise, all minorities (even
religious groups or rock).
Unlike many of these individuals will exert
violence "aseptizata" violence in a "white
coats", which is why "normalii" will increasingly
resemble a zoo, individuals gaining more and
more that "psychology of the cage" which was
normally 99% would vote for the party and
leader.
But a psychiatrist that domestic political
opponent on the pretext of paranoid
schizophrenia or consciously engage in politics
in the totalitarian state that certain attitudes
which actually expect to bring him advantages.
Apologists' socialist psychiatry "explained the"
features "of their acts in that the existence of
differences" essential "against psychiatry"
bourgeois ", meaning that which is practiced in
the West. This led to the rejection without
discernment or scientific arguments
psychological and sociological concepts of
Romanian psychiatry.
In Honolulu (1977), the General Assembly
World Psychiatric Association has noted,
however, to be frank, use "socialist psychiatry"
as a political weapon, adopting the following
resolution: "World Psychiatric Association takes
note of misuse of psychiatry for political
23

purposes and condemn these practices in all


countries where the practice, inviting
professional psychiatric organizations to
abandon these practices and to suppress them.
Association has many testimonials on the
systematic use of psychiatry for political
purposes in the USSR. "Our delegate at the
Congress of Psychiatry was Romanian
communist ideologue V. Predescu, a politruci
formed in Leningrad (students and PhD) studies
with his colleague in the USSR - Stefan Milea,
which he also received "haiduceasca" child
psychiatry department. For this reason, the
reaction of the Romanian authorities were
identical to those of the USSR The external
pressures were invariably answered that they
represent a "blend" the problems domestic and
internal opposition and to answer the attitude of
condemnation of "socialist psychiatry" is only
"anti-fuss." abuse itself was denied both the
USSR and Romania, and unfortunately, the
only Romanian officials denied today May
Psychiatric abuses during the communist
regime.
But what happens now, after so many years
after the fall of communism, with more than
1,000 Romanian psychiatrists? Nothing, or to
be honest, psychiatrists are in unison with the
country until 1996, 99% voting for Communist
nomenclature.
Living in fear and terror in the past, psychiatrists
Romans (a community largely Feminized) today
24

live in freedom, the same syndrome of "cage"


under the leadership of former "teachers"
communists were seen by those who favored
even as "generous and unquestionable
professionalism, asteaptand as usual does not
happen anything in psychiatry.
Western psychiatry has things that a school
psychiatrist communist novel format is not
settled (mostly due to lack of psychological or
sociological knowledge, and as a result of new
biochemical conquer). There are Western
institutions, a new type of treatment that would
completely upset azilar system in which
complicated psychiatric nurse in the communist
period, who now presents bufoniada "reform"
which in reality they reject. How to win all these
novel psychiatrist? Is it not better that the old
saying teachers (old nomenclature), to keep the
old organization and the old Roman concept
that the psychiatrist was already settled over 45
years? Just see what havoc do in any area
where reform is put in question. So what will
Romanian psychiatry is still condemned for
decades. As youth, he was rather interested in
emigration to Western involvement is virtually
non-existent.
Write this book because I felt that our approach
was this time "in the sense of history and not
just in the last five decades, when we fought
only with windmills. We do today even if the
psychiatric establishment is still the same
(communist and hostile). Paraphrasing a Bible
25

verse, truth be shouted from the rooftops, and if


not we will do it then I will cry out the stones in
our place.
Author declares that the whole theory of
competence and the nomenclature of "high" of
Romanian psychiatry during the communist
period is a lie, and ethical abuses of the past
became the present tragedy of psychiatry must
purify themselves.
Making of psychiatric maid repressive system,
psychiatry officials today made a mistake and
make history, not only against a medical
disciplines, but of a nation to nation.
Participating as officials in psychiatric
repression, they were docile instruments of a
"criminal organization" created by the
communist state, a phenomenon that history is
not more known than fascist-Nazi state. And
instead of them be ashamed and repent, former
torturers, attack, accuse, as if history were able
to return to communism.
Their competence? Let's face it. In what area
has promoted communism competence?
Personnel files, dozens of officers on party line
studies in the USSR or "Stefan Gheorghiu",
they were sources of competence "and a
generous teacher unquestionable
professionalism.
We started building this works more at home
even a whole organization - APLR (Free
Psychiatric Association in Romania), but under
the leadership of former politruci, organization
26

bonnet miserably. Along the way, many have


seen this type of activity that can not draw
benefits, others fear has started to terrify the
gesture that was about to do it.
We can say however that the paper reflects the
views of truth and at least the spirit that was
formed in Romania Free Psychiatric
Association.
Submit to psychiatric abuse phenomenon in
Romania and theoretical analysis in terms of its
practical ways. Adversities of all kinds have
been solved or not, but the hardest was passed
over fear, constant fear of persecution, heavy
burden of betrayal Free Psychiatric Association
leaders. Hundreds of cases of psychiatric
abuse did not reach us, they were carefully
hidden, as the Securitate files. Gradually, the
momentum to disclose cases of abuse has
subsided and a "monstrous coalition" formed
between former torturers and even Free
Psychiatric Association leadership, an elite now
"done" with the functions of teachers, overseas
visits paid by others (old only comparable novel
obsession with obsession for sausage), access
to power, "the esteem and consideration" etc.
communist elite. Because of adversity consider
the work incomplete, but as a first breach in the
fortress of deceit and incompetence.
Tartorii communist psychiatry are still in force,
and today holds all power assets. They and a
few corrupt leaders we talked about today are
the only interlocutors Ministry of foreigners who
27

come in here and especially of their gifts, only


guests of international meetings, where they
leave without any money in their pocket and
where allegedly represent Romanian
psychiatry.
As in the past, the West swallows all liability,
from laziness or carelessness, thus becoming
easy victims who took power offensive or still
hold in psychiatry. But, in fact, as paler say,
why should we wonder? Do not Ceausescu
received from Western highest titles and no
royal carriage ride to London? Where he knows
that they are sincere ("colleges" of scientists or
big heads of state of West). Yet, we and others
that we will always be rock poticneala these old
and new''profiteers "of psychiatry, of those who
oppose any development of our discipline.

Pastraveni - District. Neamt


July 20, 1993

P.S. Due to the time lag from drafting to


publishing a series of events are now outdated
(eg employment of certain finctii), and a number
of examples communist tart went to "Fields
Elizee. Facts and circumstances of their stay
history, which is why this paper-document can
not eclipse.

Piatra Neamt 2005


28

Chapter I

POLITICAL ideological Abuse


In psychiatry

Communist ideology, dominated in both


the state ideology, has always claimed the
primacy of politics in all fields of social or
scientific. This was more obvious psychological
sciences, psychiatry is one of them, claiming
that dialectical materialism is only an
epiphenomenon of mind matter, the brain,
making it the party ideology as if it was just a
simple mind "secrets" of its . In contrast, even
with general-philosophical concept of matter,
developed by Marx, ideologies "real socialism"
practiced in fact a vulgar materialism and
"understandable" in the sense that the psyche
was regarded as a byproduct of biological
structures, as, for example, bile is secreted by
the liver.
Importance that attaches to the ideology of
communism made psychology and psychiatry
to be politically controlled scientific objects. For
these reasons mixture politicians in these areas
has reached hard to imagine, psychiatry is the
focus of party activists and even the organs of
repression of the Communist Party.
But a real suffering amnesia, communist
29

ideology are indignant today any idea of


Romanian psychiatry reform that they
themselves have destroyed it. This boldness is
more daring with this framework as they claim
no more, no less than the danger of "political
interference" in psychiatry, claiming simply that
it was a communist psychiatry psychiatry that
politics was not involved.
Communist psychiatry apolitismul saying they
actually commit a new mystification, causing
deliberate confusion in this context. Opposing
only now "intrusion" of politics in psychiatry,
they provocatively refers to "great policy" - in
party politics - that only a mixed communism in
all sectors of social and scientific life.
But the fight is not so in psychiatry today the
issue of party politics, but politics psychiatry,
professional participation in discussing his
profession, and why not to change an institution
that was far exceeded by his time. Proposing
"apolitismul" psychiatrists and saying "impurity"
of politics, they in fact they want to reserve, as
in the past, discipline management,
preservation and conservation of "elite"
communist teachers.
In fact, the Communists here only creates
confusion orwelian type (lying is truth and truth
is a lie), a terminological confusion between
psychiatry and the great political party politics.
Despite communist ideology starts with
philosophical appeared in over 150 years ago,
Marxist ideology have always said that on this
30

basis they can make all social and scientific


laws and this would be for all time. Field of
mental life was a true Marxist ideology
privileged domain, which is why psychologists
and psychiatrists have become 'subjects with
deep ideological and political implications.
Represent an affirmation of materiality in mind
the fundamental tenets of materialism. This was
why psychiatry has been overwhelmed by
ideological dogmas, was overloaded with party
activists and was closely monitored by Security.
But as I mentioned, the Marxist concept of
defying even matter apparatchiks of psychiatry
and psychology have come to realize the
"materiality" mind its most vulgar form, and
mental illness as an epiphenomenon, linked
only by changes in physics, chemistry and
anatomy brain, with no connection to society or
human psychology. Such a vision of "science"
has come to achieve normality or mental
pathology only in terms of positive sciences
(chemistry, physics, biology) and of course they
only interpretations based on Marxist ideology.
Normality and pathology are now illiterate
subjects activist "in their meaning"
interpretations based on simple mechanistic
materialist, mechanical comprehension level.
This view was actually a Soviet mystification
transfer machine staged by Stalin as an artificial
construct, ideological, and that took shape in
medicine "concept pavloviste" on neurological
sciences, an ideological construct called
31

materialist dialectics, becoming mandatory and


formal conception actually imposed by the
"teachers" Marxists. The studies come from the
USSR, and that leadership automatically
received psychiatric departments adults and
children, had the burden of substantiation
"materialistic" Clinical nosologic concept called
a simplistic construction applied in somatic
medicine over 100 years, made the biological
knowledge or, if you will, in the classical
German psychiatry in the years 1905 - 1920,
but with a deep processing materialist
dialectics, according to Communist Party
ideology.
System was introduced in our psychiatry rather
than scientific arguments or the result of
discussions between professionals, but by
administrative methods of control through the
threat of punitive means, by exploiting the
hierarchical functions obtained from the party
by those coming from the USSR In this way
teachers formed U.R.S.S. have become a real
"fifth column" in Romanian psychiatry and
psychology. Some, to show affection, and even
changed its name (Smith-Neveanu the Neva).
These frames had the mission that,
unconditionally, to adopt the psychiatric
"revolutionary mission" which he demanded a
party organs, directed in turn by the KGB,
because the meaning of "class struggle" to
destroy the old psychiatric Romanian so-called
bourgeois psychiatry, as was done in the
32

communist era literature, law, economic or


philosophical concepts of prewar Romania.
These actions should Finalitea is "Romanian
socialist psychiatry".
Moving to fulfill such a mission "historic",
Department of Psychiatry, Bucharest, for
example, was decimated within 24 hours, and
an officer of the Red Army, Romanian citizens
(actually a spy), activist, former activist,
Hippolytus dereva took the Directorate received
the largest psychiatric hospital in the country,
walking in uniform defiant months the Russian
officer was grotesque.
No wonder that in the early years of "popular
democracy" and underdeveloped Soviet
psychiatry already comunizata style "scientific"
crude Stalinist Romanian psychiatry are for
mandatory rules. Here for example, over just a
few pages, which were indications of
bibliographic V. Predescu (psychiatry course,
Bucharest 1967: Molohov, Davidovski,
Ganuskin, Vvedenski, Fedorov, Orbeli, Anohin,
Baritasvili, Kupalov, Yubravili, Suhareva,
Krasnuskin, Lisetokovski, Popov Slucereski,
Gurevich, Nicolaev).
Whoever heard anything about these
"celebrities" Soviet? In those chapters,
however, those trained in the USSR, the KGB
school, sharing their dowry "scientific" that
came with the great Soviet Union. Here's a
sample of statements "university" in one
chapter (psihogeniile): "... in the field yet
33

dainuiesc psihogeniilor metapsihologice


current, being supported by followers
freudismului, neofreudismului, the followers of
Adler and Jung, but obviously, in Romania
could not be read, the action is a criminal
offense. Or even further: "The usefulness of
concepts pavloviste basic ideas, the
mechanism of disease, provide the basis for
their understanding, with Darwinian theory of
evolution, evolutionary-biological complex
pathology care in general and psychiatry in
particular. "wants to understand each as it was
the style of a" university "communist.
Increased from 18 years in the Soviet Union
and its psychiatry spirit, rewarded for his
actions not only teaching job but also the
ministry director, member of MAN, party
secretary of the University of Medicine, rector,
head problems psychiatric ministry, commission
chief psychiatric supraexpertiza - stop here - so,
with so much motivation that I could ask such a
man by the party or the KGB because he do
not?
Partisan style was quickly imposed in
psychiatry - with no arguments, the
arguments?, But by administrative means, all
bearing the hallmark of psychiatric "master" and
then continued, yesterday and today, by his
faithful - G. Ionescu, Romila A. Milea St., Nica
Udangiu etc..
ABUSE PSYCHIATRY-theoretical
foundations
34

To understand the role played by


psychiatry in totalitarian communist state
system is needed to elucidate two key
issues namely: the structure of "socialist
morality" and relationships as the
communist-totalitarian system and
secondly, was based on theoretical
postulates build "socialist psychiatry",
which then became a psychiatric abuse
and an ally of the totalitarian state.

As new socialist morality and relationships

Perhaps no one has clearly explained the


role of psychiatry in the Romanian society
than Ceausescu himself. Thus, in 1968, at
the opening of uiversitar he frankly
asserted: "Are there some who may think
that Romania today would be able to
threaten strong socialist system? I think
no longer exists. Collectivist peasants or
workers, or intellectuals, no one can afford
to doubt the soundness and strength of
socialism. Of course, there are crazy, and
crazy there all over the world, but our
society has to provide them all facilities,
including a strait jacket. "
It was clear in expressing mad dictator as
the only socialist policies can be applied,
but for them to properly prepare socialism
35

- a strait jacket.
The first issue that impacted on psychiatry
and was the communist ideology
pretending to build a "new society" and on
this basis a "new morality", new
relationships of law. Autoacreditare Thus
they were considered the right to confused
all moral principles and rules of law
recognized by civilized society and history
proved. It is not about what they called
"bourgeois morality, but of universal
principles of law and, above all those
concerning individual rights, the principles
reached after a long and difficult road of
history (from Roman law, to the principles
of Christian ethics and humanistic
movements of past centuries).
Starting from the Marxist concept under
which "property is theft", hit the
communist ideology of the sacred human
right to dignity, to his transformation into
an insignificant wheel of collective, mass,
abstract concepts Cabinet, on behalf of a
utopian ideal of collective happiness. If
theologians were made paradise beyond
the grave, the Communists claimed that he
was really "in the future, nor any future
from the dead and nobody came back to
confirm the communist utopia of heaven.
For communist socialism must mean a
new morality but, that our principles which
must fit the future society. These
36

principles emerged after the communist


ideology, based on study of Marxist
philosophy, whose concepts were more
than 150 years. "Morals" are not achieved
through internal transformation of
individuals in contact with "the right
company, but conversely, individual,
artificially, to be" match "philosophical
principles 150 years ago until the stage
when he was would be called "new man".
To pass the plan this mystification of
social practice, rules which ensure the
security of perpetual power, put into
service not only means of propaganda or
economic means, but especially prisons,
torture, domination by the Security
Company and party activists and , to our
unhappiness, psychiatry is assigned a
role. That's why using psychiatry for
political purposes in Romania should not
be viewed as a simple particular excessive
zeal of some Roman torturers who sold
their conscience. This is rather a
"metastasis" of Romanian communism,
because in the former USSR to China,
Cuba or Vietnam psychiatric problems
remain the same in the socialist camp. But,
like any office building, "new morality" had
to fail, and it failed miserably when it is
part of a repressive system collapsed.
Thus, private property and reject the new
building on a moral collectivist, communist
37

ideology to be considered utopian


socialism as not only benefiting from the
gradual decrease of crime, but the number
of mental illnesses, because all they had
their substrate in the "private property" . In
fact, the phenomenon has not changed at
all after these theoretical premises,
although this has not stopped state as
neuroses, for example, fall into socialism,
even for this faked statistics.
"Religion masses", that led to individual
masificarea principles as anomalous as it
should be: the principled adherence to all
the people to socialism, socialism and the
superiority of any society relentless march
towards socialism.
"Morality" inexistence aberrant socialist
asserted antagonistic conflict into
socialism, which is why pluralism and
socialism abroad was purely dissidence,
they were "impossible" both in theory and
in practice. For these reasons in
opposition to socialism was not the place
for it than be without being introduced
from outside - the export of counter - or
inside, in which case can only be accepted
as epiphenomenon of mental pathology.
This freak named with the term "new
principles" of socialist society put science
right in front of problems that humanity no
longer met, and psychiatric ethics had to
be subordinate to the new moral and
38

political or religious opposition to consider


as part of psychopathology. Psychiatry, in
fact, medical science, ideology was forced
to argue that there is no political
opposition to the doctrine of repression
and control bodies to accredit the idea that
this phenomenon is not just mental illness.
If this was done in ethically and legally, a
psychiatrist and no longer had to conceal
violations of ethics of profession, because
if he had "political consciousness", he was
in view of the party, party activist in the
field activity (psychiatry). This
indoctrination is embedded in the
consciousness quickly psychiatrist
mentally prepared to become a
collaborator, because this is what a
psychiatrist says that corresponded to
these criteria (M. Piticaru, Morning, 1992):
"... but why not a political or religious
dissident mentally ill "..., reason for their
removal from the street at the various
events that occur communist "shrink" the
logic of the psychiatrist, as he says, is to
socialism "agent of a given social order."
Psychology and psychiatry as dicipline
with ideological implications, were in fact a
particular expression of dialectical
materialism. Now it was clear that the party
and security could act as their own
domain, even without having to consult a
specialist.
39

Within this framework are registered


relationships between psychiatry and
political dissidents, and theories of
psychiatrists who served politicized
security and the Communist Party. These
concepts have become mandatory in the
totalitarian state, as required by
administrative means. The regime has
transferred as many psychiatric behavior
seen as acts of political (or religious anti-
socialist propaganda that in the 50s - 60s
condemn them based on communist penal
code). But very often these measures
could be controversial and pure inventions
or interpretations of Security.
A number of Marxist theorizing concepts
and their application in the field, came to
party ideology false allegation that
capitalism and private property would only
cause criminal behavior and motivation, as
a reaction against social injustices.
On the contrary, socialist society, crime
and especially political opposition against
communism were not only due to external
influences or mental imbalance. This
would explain the constant "attention" of
the political police from psychiatry, from
its organization until the problems
connected with the diagnosis or treatment.
For these reasons psychiatry will be
overwhelmed by party activists and
Securitate collaborators, making their
40

appearance so that the nomenclature


which he conducted yesterday, but today,
Romanian psychiatric problems.
Only by re-educating offenders, working
within teams or units such as correctional
prison in Pitesti, these political deviations
could be resolved. If after dissident
rehabilitation is not "peace" and especially
if they act against the regime again, it
could be only two reasons: either it was an
agent of a foreign power or an incurably
insane. For these reasons, political
psychiatry in Romania has placed a lot of
"recidivist" with political activities in
psychiatric hospitals.
If the Soviet Union, under the influence of
Snejnevski, May use a veiled diagnosis -
latent schizophrenia, Romania, the pupils
of Snejnevski (Predescu, Milea) will use
more medicalizate diagnoses such as
paranoid schizophrenia or paranoia. We
know that Western psychiatrists have
never recognized as a separate scientific
latent schizophrenia. He had ideas for the
regime to persist in them represent the
Romanian psychiatry torturers behave
pathologically paranoid type. In reality that
socialism could only aspire to normality
conformists. If security in many
communist countries they provide the only
direct control over admission stages in
Romania collaboration between
41

psychiatrist and member of the Security


was so tight, that most often fall
psychiatric repression only psychiatrist in
charge of outpatient or hospital.
This "trust" the Securitate in Romania,
"fellow" psychiatrists derived logically
from the evolution of the Legislative
Decree 12/1965, in which the main role in
the internment compulsory body holds
repression, the Decree 313/1980, in which
almost the entire responsibility resting
psychiatrist, it allowed or not allowed to
become an instrument of the organs of
repression and not as individual, but by its
function in the communist state.
"New morality", the assertion of socialism
infallible and invincible, made to put into
practice the so-called repression "aseptic",
ie a purely medical repression to hide
certain facets of the regime of repression,
managing to crawl on Romanian
psychiatry mystification of the largest road
and violations of medical ethics.
The question is whether junior
psychiatrists justify even the
nomenclature, nature forced repressive
psychiatric violations of ethics and, finally,
from medical ethics? Is it the danger that
the psychiatrist nonconformist panda was
so devastating?
Personally, after almost 40 years of
experience, do not think so. Lack of
42

professional loyalty, desire to reach the


addressee or to gain a certain position in
the hierarchy, even the need for peace and
not have problems were rather the most
plausible motivations. No relief from
liability - on the grounds that, ultimately,
the boss answered direct action - can not
constitute a strong argument. Nurnberg
Nazi experience process believe it is
edifying in this field. Is it the responsibility
to say that rank is only guilty Predescu,
Milea, Ionesco, or Romila Grecu and why,
ultimately, not only Ceausescu?
Trying to create a new morality and new
principles of law, although it failed social
practice principles and after half a century
of communism, was created as a unique
and painful, as social experiment.
So no fireworks propaganda to examine
the "new morality" socialist, but the true
results of the communist social
engineering experiment. Three problems in
this area seem more important, psychiatry
was deeply involved here:
A communist social engineering;
b. institutionalization of deceit and double
standards;
c. transforming psychiatry a servant of the
regime and the repressive communist
system.

Communist social engineering


43

The entire communist era, regardless of its


geographical area, has a permanent social
experiment, a constant attempt social
engineering, but not only in psychiatry.
Through this process have forced human
biological and psychological limits, always
trying to modeling in accordance with
some specific antichrist communist
ideological principles: class hatred,
atheism, creation of new man permanernte
practice hatred.
Perhaps nothing is more striking for social
engineering than the so-called communist
experiment in Pitesti, a standard
experiment, the degree and intensity in
particular be applied to the whole society.
It actually became a real field and
Concentration, why not become a true
world of terror that apply to the entire
socialist camp.
The phenomenon of social engineering
applied brutally in prison in Pitesti was
extended to various degrees in the whole
country, apelandu to the permanent
coercive methods, generating fear -
uncertainty in the rate of mass disloyalty to
the close, the any support or possibility of
appeal - through actions directed
"scientific": the fear of restructuring, the
denouncement, always running after food
or other goods that ensure minimum
44

existence, lack of chances in the


competition so if you're not conformist.
Even if the phenomenon argue fragility
Pitesti human condition in contact with the
river (because all those undergoing re-
education in Pitesti eventually gave in), the
ambition to take full adherence to atheistic
communist values aimed to fund the
identification with the aggressor, victim to
executioner transformation (or at least
opportunistic informer ). Such action on
such a large amount of time has led to
profound changes in human personality.
Generalization of poverty, chronic
starvation deliberate actions appear to us
today that the communist system, the
method for enslaving the human person,
such as forced and prison condition to be
concerned with only physical existence.
Totalitarianism, economic dependence,
education, residence and even the birth
control (the idyllic image of "Father State"),
have the sole purpose of not only
monopartidismul, but spiritual life in order
to control the individual and thereby
infantilizarii its handling.
Does such a mechanism could not explain
many oppressor before disposal, including
the psychiatrist working with political
power?
At Pitesti, as in great company, not just
follow a formal adhesion, superficial and
45

opportunistic against communism, but the


result is a real physical mutation, a change
in personality, that is precisely what
currently is called social engineering, a
action of "brainwashing", a specific
criminal act of dictatorship regimes
existing in human history. This action
actually follow evil forces transforming
effects convinced supporters of
communism in fact a true "mutation"
biological. Unfortunately, this phenomenon
was communism character table and
everyone Pitesti subject "re-education"
gave themselves up to become torturers.
Morally, the results of communist re-
education equals total degradation and
deformation caracteriale have maintained
and even appeared outside maneuvers and
repression, why not, even family or
personal life. This underscores D. Baku,
proves that changes the character suffered
in the totalitarian communist system were
very deep and, therefore, very durable.
Collective madness occurred as a result of
the communist social engineering during
the communist era was maintained
systematically by the real masters in the
art of dehumanization and the victims, if
psychiatry were both patients, and
psychiatrists. "Indescribable terror," as
she calls M. Popescu, social cult of fear
and insecurity that often led to identify
46

victims, for example, police and torturers


policy regime. Like the Pitesti experiment,
chronic malnutrition of the population,
were always stress that the fund is spent
those ideological maneuvers to lead to the
creation of "new man". Pitesti victim and
executioner were always together. In
company with us were always party
activists, informant, listening and
delatiunea methods, which can occur
anywhere and anytime. Both in Pitesti, and
in great socialist society the individual can
always be physically delivered his
torturers - the case of psychiatric abuse is
just one particular individual being in all
cases no support inside the dislocations
and religious moral values, her state of
mind must be in a constant panic.
That's why in prison, as in great company
faith in God was one of the favorite targets
of moral destruction that had become
abusive reasons for psychiatry to be
labeled as "paranoia." If individuals have a
particular religious faith or political creed,
it was accepted not only by the communist
society, but they must become communist
psychiatry subjects of clinical diagnosis.
Human cohesion, friendship, trust in the
protective figures, such as doctor had to
be such, had to be systematically
destroyed. Nothing was supposed to
support you in front of the communist
47

system. For party purposes, had


denigrated friend, hit her psychiatrist had
to denounce torture or even his patient, the
profession to help the organs of
repression. The individual must have been
feeling so "absolute delivery, a
phenomenon characteristic only child or
animal condition (Zamfirescu).
Perhaps nothing was more deadly than the
communist destruction of interpersonal
trust and support, that is exactly the
opposite of Christian morality. The
individual must not trust friends, doctor, or
even a priest. He could not confess, he
could not associate with anyone, had to
defend himself in front of power, his only
reaction to be followed only subject. All
these actions fully certify the claim that
under communism have always supported
the action of social engineering, a brutal
attack and aggressive transformation of
human subject in a creative antichrist
materialism laws that had to populate the
"evil empire" on communism had prepared
for mankind.

Institutionalization of the life of deceit and


double standards

Totalitarian communist system actually


reversed the laws of social evolution from
48

theoretical constructions cabinet, from


ideology to manufacture on a basis of
human society - the socialist and
communist society.
But to achieve this would be needed
supernatural, sacred, while the
Communists have long alungasera God in
the world. Artificiality of the action and
satanic pretend to chisel through social
engineering, another world - based on
forecasts of a philosopher who lived over
150 years ago - led to the most treacherous
totalitarian system, that system was based
on lies institutionalization, the a reality
with the double standard. The socialist
utopia that has preoccupied mankind since
the time of Campanela, it was Stalin and
Brezhnev, it was that the empire of evil and
human suffering in a society of crime and
sin.
This institutionalization of evil will be done
through coercive methods and will cover
all spheres of social life, all phenomena of
communication. Company also
underscores Flondor, and there we lived in
it and, unfortunately, longer live.
The system of institutionalized lies in
communism by defeating the aims of
asiduitatea natural repulsion and, as such,
removing the main support self-esteem,
freedom of conscience and dignity. Why
not, it would have been the situation of
49

some psychiatrists who were placed in


service dictatorship.
Institutionalization began deceit but from
early childhood, when parents or teachers
were forced to say that honest work can
create a free and happy life, but also was
clearly imminent life, the abyss between
what is said and social reality, perceived
that the child gradually. For this reason,
standard double life, double life appear as
natural. It teaches so you must tell the
truth, but you have to accept the official lie,
meaning that social unreality that regime
officials were claiming a call to reality.
The entire existence of the communist
society was subject, therefore, a double
standard and there is always need to
accept the difference between perception
and reality of what had to say. Sessions,
meetings were in fact simple staging that
"actors" - rulers and ruled - were well
aware of mystification of truth.
It is logical that such a system was
institutionalized until such individual
insensibilize any distinctions between
truth and untruth. Psychiatrist
nomenklatura, "scheduled" by the party
that provides a privileged existence, no
longer had a feeling that was wrong, and
always constituted the fundamental
element of duplicity "new moral"
socialism, thanks to printed item
50

permanent education system applied to a


huge mass individuals in all ways, day and
night. Deviation from this behavior was
regarded as a misunderstanding of reality,
as a misunderstanding of social
phenomenon, and why not, the line "just"
the Communist Party.
For these reasons, many individuals
become almost involuntary dissidents,
coming into conflict with officials, because
they could not face official lies not
recognize an obvious truth. The vast
majority of individuals in their constant
struggle with the needs of material
existence, gradually became increasingly
being duplicitous, realizing that without
duplicity can not succeed, at least in the
sphere of public relations, because here
expressing your opinions and beliefs mean
to open sets up a clash with authorities
everywhere destructive. But here,
underscores Flonta, the hit will be those
best endowed by nature with the right
skills and character.
For the vast majority is not only alleviate
suffering in resignation, accepting the lie
indifferent public, institutionalized, which
will gradually envelop completely
individual and who will now live in a world
that will say it is only propaganda which
allows full affirmation individual dignity
and free development of personality.
51

If those sensitive to such a situation was


able to depress him to the insensitive - and
what might be called a doctor who tortured
patients - this was becoming less
noticeable compared to a total
insensibilizare bad, especially thereby they
could obtain material advantages, often at
the expense of their fellows. It was the
decisive step towards a full markers in the
system and not accidental that, at least in
psychiatry, who collaborated with the
Securitate were either party secretaries or
heads of department, university
professors, members MAN, rectors,
directors of hospitals or clinics.
In these cases, in fact, a lucid moral
consciousness could only interfere with
their only consolation being that there
would be even worse than others and that
they actually do nothing but to "live as she
deserves."
It is conceivable that led to his psychiatrist
Torturer consuming burden of
institutionalized lies. How could he have
felt the psychiatrist who was made
overnight professor and in 1977, after the
Jiu Valley miners' strike, was shocked by
the internment of more than 100 miners in
the psychiatric hospital in the area where
active?
Once entered this game of compromises,
"the teacher will not denounce the abuse
52

of psychiatric and not only during the


Ceausescu era, but because today,
acknowledging the facts and now risking
his career decline. For this reason, an
individual also becomes champion
maintenance lies, shamelessly saying
today that there was no repression in
Romania, psychiatric, based on the fact
that a lie, his little lie no more.
But how many people involved in the
political life of the last decade were against
institutionalized deceit? If they, Flonta
said, would keep some sense of value and
personal dignity, they would have to feel a
deep sense of guilt.
Communist totalitarianism to extinction
wiped out but the boundaries between
personal and public life. This was done by
cultivating the notion of "mass" in which
individuals' masificat "was essentially
dissolved as individual entities, reduced to
something insignificant. Not only political
options, but options moral, religious,
understanding the meaning of life became
subject to the control authorities of the
"masses."
The ideal of socialism was to create the
new man, a poorly delimited personalitatre,
masificata, subject and conducted so that
the system comes to everyday life no
longer distinguish the regime essentially
barracks life or that of a camp. Specialized
53

organs of repression not only be subject to


individual, but it will be called and before
"court" of other courts, such as masses,
the working class, and why not the entire
nation. Many psychiatrists, including us,
have been called for dissident ridiculous
court accountable to the masses in the
overcrowded lecture with fellow
"indignant" because, as an opportunist
stress (Magureanu professor Sanda),
"throw mud in Psychiatry Romanian ",
which was their psychiatry, abuse and
underdeveloped.
In a world so "arranged, adaptive
resources of duplicity and deceit will be
overwhelming and will become the
currency in public relations, professional
and even personal.
This world has not disappeared since our
psychiatry, and now acting the same
constraints and fears, lie was still
tolerated, even if just a silent accomplice.
Appears here inability of the former regime
and favored people adapt to life alienating
the former communist societies can not
look critically world that created them and
can not break. Phrases like "the era
dogmatism" or "cult of personality" appear
to us today just as islands of refuge for
these people sociopath, just like the idea
of competence to be attributed to the
former nomenclature of psychiatry. This
54

may be just an idea meant to throw dust in


the eyes of society, as well as party
statement of reasons generous entrance.
But these are not only adaptive resources
of public deceit, institutionalized, without
whose exposure can not build a new
psychiatry. In psychiatry, as Romanian
society lacking institutional arrangements
to guarantee and support the development
of personality and social position based on
merit and business, founded on fair
competition and promote the professional
and moral merits.

Psychiatry - maid communist ideology and


the totalitarian system

I tried to present above principles


underlying the "new moral" introduced by
the communist system. In all countries,
and more so in those coming later,
"socialist legality" to be installed soon.
Romanian Communism has only the speed
and unique attachment that in 30-40 years
had to catch performances from the Soviet
Union had in 70 years. And psychiatry in
Communist Romania it recovered quickly
left behind.
Thus, as in the USSR, Romanian
communist state was coupled to an
ideological doctrine, which is why the
55

power structure and central place


occupied by the ideology facilitated an
intimate link between the communist
society and psychiatry. The primacy of
ideology in all spheres of social life in
between "revolutionary" remained intact in
the USSR and all communist countries.
Stalin demanded political consciousness
domination in all fields, including science.
Psychiatry was included in the field of
ideology for the following reasons:
1. No field of science that does not apply
dialectical materialism. Moreover, even
substantially psyche represent one of the
essential tenets of Marxism, and
psychiatry through the work they had to
prove it.
2. Lack of ideological training of
psychiatrist made in view of the party, a
pseudo-professional, the psychiatrist must
be a party activist to work in psychiatry.
3. Any professional must be well prepared
ideologically to become a political struggle
within his profession.
4. Any activity subject to social laws had
"goals", in fact, directives political organs,
only able to conduct social work, advanced
detachment and the Communist Party is
aware, the vanguard of the working class.
5. Professional must become an active
participant in the struggle for socialism
and communism success. Stalin's policy
56

was more relevant qualification than


professional, and this is expressed
through loyalty to the Communist Party.
6. Communist Party leader to serve the
whole society, including in the area of each
profession.

Party activists wanted in psychiatry


"professional revolutionaries"

Here is how to characterize this type of


communist Belu Silber, a man who
sincerely believed in the ideals of
communism (John Grosan quote): "Not
that his life had not even acquire a
profession, a profession and who had a
look on the and his "workplace qualifies.
know a number of recipes ideological
conspirativitatii rules, knew how to hold a
cell, how to control the activity of others,
as receiving and giving orders, as a
competitor or an opponent canceled , the
behavior of upper and lower face, you need
to talk and what not. She had people in
authority, had lives of others. This became
a professional power and degrade the
profession as an activist ... bringing them a
sense of moral atrophy with time, become
the object of others ... " It is timeless
portrait of an activist.
Authors and designers to defend each
57

other orders in psychiatry today. But I


wonder, should not even make medicine to
become such a monster-activst party in
psychiatry?
During the "revolutionary" of communism
in the early stages of repression,
psychiatry does not play a very important
(it was less developed in Leninist, and the
new in Dej). Only after 1956, with
Khrushchevite era - in Romania after
Ceausescu's coming - with the start of the
policy of peaceful coexistence of
Communist regimes pushed to diversify
forms of repression, it took a "camouflage"
for the purpose of presenting psychiatric
outdoors a liberal facets of their
communist regimes.
Psychiatric repression in Romania will
intensify in the seventh decade and will
reach its peak in the '80s, with the end of
communist regimes in Europe and the
permanent crisis of the communist world.
In this context, Ceausescu move to
intensify all forms of repression,
culminating with the 1989. Importance of
psychiatric repression can see the
emergence in 1980 of a new repressive
legislation on compulsory admission to
psychiatric hospitals (Decree 313/1980).
Following the example of the Soviet Union
and under the strict guidance of senior
staff of the Department of Psychiatry,
58

Bucharest (Predescu, Romila, Ionescu,


Milea, Gorgos, Grecu), even with the early
Soviet advisers, psychiatry will become the
servant of the communist regime, strictly
complying with ideological framework and
forming his own nomenclature directly
under the control of Security. "Teachers"
come from studies of U.R.S.S. Block will
begin refusing all psychiatric concepts
coming from the West, they were quickly
replaced with surrogates dialectical
materialist essence Soviet psychiatric
reality completely broken. Here's how it
took the position, which he called
"forward", some communist psychiatry
apologists (V Predescu, Romila A.
Psychiatry in the ministry, Medical
Publishing, 1976, pag.79): "Our position in
psychiatry as a branch dialectical
materialism applied to anthropology, is to
treat man as a unit psihobiologica ...
"although strangely psychosomatic
concept in their view represent a
bourgeois concept. And further "... in
psychiatry, perhaps more than in other
areas of medicine, it is clear our
conception of the world and life,
materialism - dialectical and historical
basis of scientific communism."
Now clearly apparent that was the vision of
these ideologues about psychiatry and
also that were the foundation of socialist
59

psychiatry, psychiatrists up a politicized.


If you want to raise the share of these
dicteuri communist, we do not communist
ideologue than listen to another (C. Gorge,
the spark of February 19, 1985) which, in
its adulation for the Secretary-General,
said: "I am full adherence to the proposal
as fellow . Ceausescu's beloved son of our
nation ... running for elections of
deputies. ... We believe that it is
irrevocable guarantee fulfillment of the
program unabated party ... Name Comrade
Ceausescu ... is today synonymous with
communist revolutionary spirit, patriotic
glow burn human personality the most
noble things ... Using this command ...
special concern is the protection of human
health ", etc.. etc.
This was not a naive man, he knew
perfectly deplorable state of health care to
people, not to mention mental health
disaster that was involved. But he was
primarily a party activist and twin principle
made him say things without
embarrassment in contrast to the reality
they knew too well.
With all this gloomy situation, such
practices could not happen in Romania
without some opposition, which would
have been a real disaster for the Romanian
intelligentsia. In one of the later chapters
we will deal with resistance Romanian
60

psychiatrists, the opposition always lie


against and to correct major damage
psychiatry by psychiatrists subdued
Roman ideology. Thus, just as an example.
If the 1976 V Predescu said emphatically,
violate truth, that: "Evidence of Roman
psychiatry within our socialist society is
convincing ... in terms of health, education,
research that provides an optimistic
perspective on the achievements in total
harmony with the multilaterally developed
socialist society ", I Cucu member of the
same departments, publicly stated that"
psychiatry should not become a
Cinderella, and this I look not only
psychiatrists, but all of us ... Our
psychiatry has lagged behind in terms of
principle, it adopted a physical model of
disease today ... concept of the late
nineteenth century ... The fact that there is
no psychological education is due to local
health professionals who have seen
overcome (the allusion was to Predescu) ...
In recent decades there was a conference
held in November or psychiatric Romanian
psychiatry remained far behind the current
thinking of the great world of psychiatry, a
situation which still exist today "(Flame,
May 10, 1979). Further underlined that:
"Even in the middle period of dogmatism,
the new psychiatric school in Timisoara,
led by Professor Pamfil led a titanic
61

struggle to overcome not risk free


inchistarii.
So, in contrast festivism sfidandu it on
ideology and it was possible that the
problem is our psychiatry, even in the
darkest years of the dictatorship.
Increasingly, psychiatrists and other more
dramatic or less dramatic, critical and even
began to expose abuses Romanian
political psychiatry.
62

Chapter II

MODELS OF ABUSE POLICY psychiatric


ideology

Since the communist period, we tried to


emphasize in a series of theoretical works that
way was based on psychiatric abuse in
November (Social Psychiatry vol II Buc. 1982,
1983). Parallel to this we tried to introduce
Western concepts and fundamental basis of
this concept of social psychiatry and
resocialization. Thus noasre works have
highlighted a number of models of ideology
enforced psychiatry who founded the abusive
use of psychiatry as a political weapon and
repression by the communist regime of
Ceausescu.
These are two theoretical models staged mainly
by nomenclaturistii representing psychiatry in
Bucharest, as I quoted above, the essence of
dialectical and historical materialism applied in
psychiatry, two models which we present next.
a. A model purely biological - medical model -
inherited from classical German psychiatry from
the beginning of this century, but will be
processed in the manner of Marxist ideology.
b. A model prison psychiatric treatment
institutions to reject psychological and
sociological concepts in the field instututiei
63

therapy and treatment. Model was taken also in


the history of classical psychiatry (psychiatric
asylum as an institution specify the Middle
Ages), and this time suffering a significant
"processing" Marxist.

Biological or medical model

One of communist ideology ambitions have


received from the party responsible for
psychiatry to manage was to promote in this
area and a materialistic view of reality discipline
ideological strait-laced in tight patterns of
communist ideology. This had created a
general concept of disease - a model - to
explain simplifying the materialist conception of
psychiatry. Meanwhile, the ideological model, it
should be "understandable" to the
understanding of party activists, unprofessional,
which actually was only able to authenticate
ideological purity in all fields, even the most
sophisticated professions . For this reason,
promoting biological model of mental illness
corresponds best (simple, understandable and
based on biological explanations only, so pure
"materialistic").
Although the medical model of psychiatric
disease was transferred by itself Kraepelin, at
the beginning it was just a stage for European
psychiatry-up to develop psychological and
sociological sciences - and then was dropped in
favor of new models which are based
64

psychiatry dynamics (psychological), social


psychiatry. Although the model has been
copied kraepelinian model is taken from the
history of psychiatry and with a certain
authority, however, having ideologizarii Marxist
model that led to aberrations based psychiatric
abuse. In an ideological system, the model has
shown only its negative aspects, that is
precisely the reasons for which he had
abandoned in the West.

In what the medical model?

As we presented in our papers cited above, the


model related to a particular conception
occurred in the late nineteenth century and
early twentieth century, it is considered an
individual's behavioral disorders as biological .
In such a vision, he became a "sick" depending
on the mother's mental state of organic factors,
biological, meaning he was a sick, sick ricare
tantamount somatic. This was done based on
establishing a non-critical way of an analogy
between somatic illness-physical, biological or
purely physical, the injury was paramount, and
mental illness in the biological factor participate
in pathology with psychological factor and
office.
The idea of such a relationship between
physical and mental agreed but a great party
activist in psychiatry and can also be shown
through it's level of understanding mental life
65

substantially (that is binding only by biological


factors of mental illness). In this context, the
body was made as a mechanical structure, and
disease, including mental, as a "deterioration"
of this mechanism.
Medical model appeared, therefore, somatic
medicine as a specific model being
implemented in psychiatry, and starts from the
simplistic assertion that in fact symptoms of
disease are intimately related to anatomical
lesions, all explanations of mental illness is
confined to physical phenomena, chemical ,
biological, genetic, etc..
The model was then built on the knowledge of
the late nineteenth century and early twentieth
century with mechanistic explanations,
mechanics were at that time the most
developed part of physics. Dominant philosophy
of the era was a mechanistic core. Healing
disease could not be seen only related physico-
chemical factors, factors which could help
eliminate internal or external agent, thereby
managing to rebalance the body.
It is easy to see that such a simplistic
explanation for the current period of
development of science has emerged as a real
godsend for thinking materialistic rudimentary
culturnicului of psychiatry, because the
explanations rudimentarismul "materialistic"
ideological support he received an undeserved.
It is true that the desire to break with obscure
statute that we have the beginning of this
66

century psychiatry, the mentally ill to get


medical status, parents classical German
psychiatry at that time accepted the medical
model that you have implemented in psychiatry
this represents a real advance for that period,
bringing psychiatry and psychiatric medicine in
the middle of which was virtually excluded.
Kraepelin introduced the medical model in
psychiatry based on the idea of the organic
mental diseases, and on that principle of
classification consists of classical psychiatry.
That organic lesions could emphasize major
mental illness, he explains the state of the art of
that era, that future technical progress will
solve. Unfortunately, except luesului
meningoencefalitic (PGP), this was not possible
in any other mental illness, although anatomical
study instrumentation became more
sophisticated, and the idea was that mental
illness organicitatii unreal. Moreover, targeting
the wrong model - the drastic removal of
psychological and social factors - has become a
serious brake in knowing not only pathological
phenomenon in psychiatry, but also for the
entire somatic medicine, where over 33 percent
of current pathology can not explanation of a
narrow and mechanistic thinking that provides
the medical model.
A big role in sustainability medical model in
psychiatry and had his introduction to the
psychology, Freud's work grace, whose band
medical organicista is well known and leading
67

thus to a regrettable analogy between body and


mind with absolute assertion, such as under
normal and pathological human behavior are
"internal causes" involved only organic mental
homeostasis appeared on a basis comparable
to physical homeostasis and the body is
considered a dark energy.
Although visceral antifreudismul of communist
ideology was well known, the medical model
will be better exploited in the field of psychology
to the assertion that mind is an extremist
secretion of the brain.
After the way psychiatry was applied in the first
half of the twentieth century, the medical model
is summarized by Purushotton in the three
postulates:
1. Any underlying cause is psychological
dezadaptare (dynamic or energetic), biological
and psychological at the same time - this
particular under the influence of Freud's
psychological studies (figure rejected by Marxist
ideology).
2. Symptom is a relative value, because
biological being the main element.
3. Diagnosis is a resultant of what behavior
shows that the external signs and what the
doctor means that from a "renowned theoretical
formulation.
Although the historical moment that placing
medical model has been progress, especially
neglect of psychological and social factors
leading to psychiatric care organization on the
68

principle of somatic disease hospitals,


psychiatric therapy on the somatic copied.
Moreover, psychiatric diagnosis and gained
disproportionate importance, and lack of ethical
criteria opened the door to abuses, including
the political.
These inaccuracies have caused in Europe by
1950, to defend the application of a permanent
decline medical model in psychiatry,
psychosomatic medicine and the development
of this decline to expand across the field of
medicine. For these reasons the communist
countries will show their inability to adapt to
new concepts of our century, paying a heavy
tribute and ideological paranoidismului
Concerned only serve to preserve the
totalitarian system.
Since its introduction of psychological and
sociological concepts, the Western medical
model and especially its application in
psychiatry will be subject to a concerted attack
not only by psychiatrists but also other
specialists. There were real gains questioned
the medical model (eg neuroleptics), but
criticized the model as explanatory models of
mental illness which only now coming into
conflict with the development of many new
sciences that have developed in the second
practice half of the twentieth century (medical
psychology, medical sociology, cybernetics,
modern genetics, etc.).
In the field of communist countries, on the
69

contrary, the idea was taken as a medical


model of medical doctrine based on psychiatry
and what is more important, began to bear
ideological improvements to be used as
"argument" and a political weapon that proved
substantially mental illness and to reject a priori
all the psycho-sociological concepts, especially
those of Freud. Ideological aspirations of
communist totalitarianism were well served by
this model "materialist" model to the
understanding of party activists in psychiatry.
Coleman and Broen stressed three main points
in the critical care model applied in psychiatry:
1. Many abnormal behaviors not imply the
existence of anatomical lesions, which is why
they can not be judged by the classical model
of a somatic disease. There is even the risk of
mental illness not only real, but simple deviation
from the ethical, legal or social problems
sometimes mere existence to be labeled by
way of looking at a somatic disease through
mandatory existence of anatomical structures
damaged. But in these cases no anatomical
lesion is due to diversion of behavior, but rather
mechanisms of social learning, the educational
system may be wrong, the existence of
abnormal social relationships.
2. Application of medical model in psychiatry
urge to produce a momentum composition of
the rigid classification of pathology, which is the
desire of both greater precision. How many
times does not match an undesirable behavior
70

may occur immediately a new clinical form of


disease (such as schizophrenia or inaparente's
dormant Snejnevski). But diagnosis is a relative
importance in psychiatry, and concepts can be
linked to the value of the person diagnosed,
while only about anatomy is suspected. For this
reason it was enough simply a change of
"ethics" - the socialist, for example - because
everything in this vision was undesirable
(pluralism, dissident, needs of individual rights)
was confused parts "science" of psychiatry that
are based on the medical model of disease and
normal behavior in a specific ethical system
appear in socialism as "schizophrenia",
"paranoid state", "psychopaths."
On the basis medical model, these "misfit" in
the scheme became mentally ill, so ill was
similar to somatic any disability, possibly based
on genetic or anatomical hard. Concern over
this type of "sick" now appear just as a
humanitarian action, the regime was forced to
protect him hospitalized for both themselves
and society because of their disease hazards.
3. "Sick role" is stubbornly cultivated medical
model, thereby encouraging is actually a source
of maladaptative behavior. Once an individual
has been formally declared sick, it must comply
with this statute, so the responsibility to give, to
give life to face situations, falling into an
individual's behavioral patterns actually somatic
patients. It is clear that attempts
71

resocialization were not even in these cases no


sense.
From the above we can conclude that applying
the medical model in psychiatry has serious
implications that we will try to summarize them
as follows:
1. Ideologizarea medical model of psychiatry
over the disease from the beginning led to the
refusal on ideological grounds, to accept
psycho-sociological concepts that have
developed in the West and allowed rejection of
the principle resocializarii - socialist society was
establishing itself as having the role sanogenic,
adherence to its principles is the only reason to
keep the individual's mental health.
2. Medical model is expressed in the form of
therapeutic practice institutional stereotypes
with a hierarchical structure of power which
were in fact a mirror image of society that
dreamed of communist ideology. Thus creating
a mental "monolithic" manu-military led by
nomenclature, without any chance of evolution,
so visible today, when, though the company
officially became more pluralistic and
democratic psychiatry same system built by the
Communists persist stagnant and authoritarian
vision so that disease and the patient and the
health institution.
The psychiatric hospital was and is organized
as a true pyramid, old-style absolutist
monarchy. Is headed by the director and
department heads, representing the full power
72

and not discuss with anyone. Yes, there were


still maintained the old boards and formats, of
course, all of them (heads of departments).
They are the only interlocutors of the Minister or
the health department director, the media, of
foreigners. They can promote or persecute
anyone, without having to give explanations.
Practiced since the appointment of department
heads without contest or contests fictitious life
of their appointment, the office was sometimes
sent their children, sometimes even named
their flag. Such a system is autocratic
leadership. These individuals are ripped, for
decades a real competition to motivate learning,
not cursory knowledge of psychology,
sociology, psychotherapy. Is beyond any
competitive system, they are viscerally opposed
to change, their only reason to be representing
a system of obedience to the past, from former
communist satraps, many of them still on the
same functions.
3. Medical model, although it says it promotes
logical and rational origins of mental illness,
does not take account of economic structures,
social, political, educational and relational
reason why the serious consequences of
stereotyping therapeutic formulation and
research and a poor orientation related
problematicele the mental health field.
Classifications "accurate" promoted by the
medical model are in fact arbitrary, because
symptoms, ie behavior, losing importance in
73

favor of causes, unknown - the unsuitable. For


this reason, the trend appears to require
hospitalization treatment Long dezantreneaza
only individual to social practice and now will
come true only adjustment disorders.
Admission will be based on "references" from
the outside by virtue of diagnosis - an
assessment, an opinion - and only here the
situation can become dangerous. This may be
because in psychiatric diagnosis indicates a
role for the individual, a certain behavior
expectations. From this point of view, according
to medical model, diagnosis indicates a specific
individual and "norm" of behavior.
But if the patient is hospitalized, he can
"borrow" new symptoms, as a behavior of
"adjustment" to the psychiatric hospital system.
This long process may end with "accepting" the
role that the hospital and prepared.
Position saying nosologica clinical, medical
model (Predescu, Romila, 1976) stated that it is
actually "dialectical materialism applied in
psychiatry, all other concepts must be fought
and considered dangerous: psychoanalysis,
psychosomatic, and even placing
resocialization psychology faculties of medicine
in the medical curriculum. Unfortunately,
anything I say does not belong only to the past.
Refusing to "social context" and only as a
thinking man law-abiding car physicochemical
communist ideology actually wanted to make
mentally ill as "culpable only for his suffering:
74

heredity, life, etc. against socialist society.


Thus, socialist society was deculpabilizata and
was not obliged to engage too much in therapy,
especially in the act of prevention. Moreover,
even ideological rules expected to decline
continuously until the disappearance of mental
illness, the crime in communist society,
because private property disappeared, it
disappeared because of all evil.
But until then, had to defend the socialist
society, and this, as said Ceausescu had done
with straitjacket. An entire system azilar had to
defend society from "dangerous" mentally ill. In
fact, it was of interest not only real patient
situation (who lived in the stables), but also
political opposition.
For over seven decades, psychiatry has
remained communist countries - that evolution -
in the biological psychiatry, as it was in the
West at the beginning. Now trying to use some
of the communist ideology DSM-American
sites, they forget to emphasize conventional
value of these classifications, but mostly looking
to explain the ideological and psychopathology
and that has led Americans to reach the
convention by the DSM classification. While
courses are based on taxonomy (DSM G.
Ionescu), they can not explain the psychological
and social psychiatry underlying these
classifications. When you want to try their works
(all G. Ionescu, but A. Romila, as their master,
Predescu), a methodology do after years 1950-
75

1960, which should add only their lack of


knowledge even in classical psychiatry , that
even that which one might think that a minister.
What is common clinical psychiatry Predescu
nosologica type or dynamic vision Ionescu
DSM-American sites?
Trying tricks like in November last, it is no
wonder that the current "scientific leadership" of
our psychiatry, in fact, want concealed normal
stages of development of psychiatry - biological
phase, followed by psychological and social.
"Modernization" of shape by joining DSM,
without appropriate scientific support, is
synonymous with the rejuvenation of old
cosmetics.
In essence, promoting the medical model of
communist ideology, accredited in our country
only to biological psychiatry affect the system,
in our opinion, these "benefits"
- Simplistic and mechanistic nature of the
concept made it possible to promote an
understanding of the vulgar materialism Party
activist;
- Culprits deculpabilizarea patient and
communist society are best served by the
medical model;
- Declared sick, the individual will be treated in
hospitals under azilare which gradually will take
more than appearance image and likeness
prison company in existence.
Elimination of physical and social causality
excludes essentially socio-prophylactic
76

measures, psychotherapy, social rehabilitation.


Model will not agree but the means of physical
and chemical treatment, other methods are not
grounded or are related to the infiltration
attempts of capitalist concepts, "dangerous":
psychotherapy, meditation, etc. group
psychotherapeutic methods.

Utility model of prison treatment

The second theoretical model which was


developed based on abusive psychiatry in our
country has been the model prison psychiatric
treatment institutions, a pattern consisting of
traditional homes and psychiatric hospitals in
the nineteenth century Europe. Prison
treatment model is closely linked to the medical
model that I described above, "patient" being
treated in a hospital for sick somatic hospital
type, but because of the large number of
patients and the need to maintain discipline It
will turn into a prison unit in which methods of
discipline will prevail over therapy.
Psychiatric hospital in the totalitarian
communist regime was organized by the same
principles as the totalitarian socialist society
(administrative pyramid, clear rules and
schedules, lack of communication, violence at
all levels, etc.).. This model prison, azilar
appears as a creative tool of abuse as a
psychiatric institution in which an individual is
totally available to torturers or while nursing
77

staff do not feel involved, hiding behind an


institution that protects it .
Continue to see which are the main features of
the psychiatric hospital, as was the era of
totalitarianism, as it is today because of
opposition to reform.
Asylum or psychiatric hospital classic was
actually an institution of treatment appeared in
the Middle Ages in Europe today which is why
he appears mainly as an anachronism, as
rejection of the civilized world and not having, in
fact, no vocation therapy. Moreover, such an
institution ought not to exist. You must be
animated by a great contempt for patients to be
able to enter into such an institution.
Psychiatric hospital in the form azilara cultivate
a true "psychiatric imperialism." Opposing
medical patient, staff subordinating all patient, it
no longer remains but to submit to the holder of
power and authority. The organic idea that
sustains itself is cultivated Pinel medical model
and it automatically leads to the idea of
incurability. Pinel and Esquirol If you consider
that the psychiatric hospital could be "an
instrument of healing in the hands of a doctor
can" then becomes asylum psychiatric hospital,
that place of refuge, a place where the patient
is machine joke. Gradually, these hospitals
have become a building mammoth size, with
thousands of patients and that due to
administrative difficulties will be transformed
into real correctional institutions. After 1950,
78

these institutions have started to disappear


from Western Europe because of the new
humanist conceptions of human rights, which
were developed by VI decade of this century.
Indeed, in the context of society based on
democratic principles, institutions legacy of
totalitarian prison with an internal structure
appears as nonsense, even as an insult to the
aspirations of society. For this reason, in the
West, the decline in this type of institution
began and ended long ago, while in communist
countries not only will the system be abolished,
but will be picked up and grounded, this time
ideological, leaving even present system which
is based permanently abuse against the human
person.
From the theoretical point of view, prison-
system model may be subject azilar destructive
attacks. This starts from the very totalitarian
structure and that the small company that
reflects the principles there. This institution is
organized to suppress any manifestation of the
subject system of voluntary hospitalization.
Hospital is in fact a place of residence and work
for a group of individuals - patients - broken by
society for a long period, the hospital becoming
a barrier to social relations, relations with the
outside, often with this purpose doors and
locked gates, high walls or fences, special
investments (such as hospital Voila, Poiana
Mare, etc.).
In terms of internal structure, like other units of
79

type prison, they are built on a totalitarian


structure. The individual is not free to come in
relation to who wants, he can work, sleep or
can recreate only after a plan "rational"
direction made. The hospital organized all
aspects of prison life as a program runs, the
same hours for all, under strict supervision. In
fact, for such an institution is to conduct official
business of the institution (discipline) and only
partially those of the individual. Patients in the
group are supervised, guided, subject to regular
inspection. A rift is created between the group
of patients and their carers. These two
categories do not love. Supervisors will say
about that is evil and sick will be held against
them as some senior. In contrast, those
surveyed believe them heaven on supervisors
feel excluded from decisions affecting them.
The organization of psychiatric hospital azilar
favors violence against patients, but
supervisors do not realize this, considering that
conduct logical and, anyway, as happening in
an existing referral system in which staff feel
involved.
It was very hard in such institution to establish
genuine therapeutic relationships. Hierarchy
and authority are kept in a severe discipline
without appeal channels, so that bottlenecks
occur at all levels.
The main feature here is that the individual
patient, but also domestic political dissident
80

abuse come with a certain culture, and during


hospitalization they suffer a real
"disculturalizare" or at best a lack of training,
which will make them unable to deal with their
daily problems and especially to those outside
the institution .
Hospital is not considering a true victory of
culture, just as it creates tension between
people, which uses blood as a strategic lever of
manipulation. Now it is clear that in this context
the influence of cultural psychopathology
institution it will influence healthy or marginal
dissident, leading sometimes to an institution
against azilara adhesion and severe personality
changes, which, retrospectively, torturers posed
as just "manifestations" which justified the
internment.
Indeed, individuals need to adapt their cultural
values cultivated by the hospital requires a
large effort will be made at the expense of the
integrity of personality, is worse when there is a
real disease which by itself produces significant
changes. How to make "Adaptation" totalitarian
institution values involves primarily a self-image
degradation, and contribute to this insulation
system that institution from the outside world.
Gradually, it emphasizes the depersonalization
and loss of autonomy, this serves to coercive
methods and often both punish disobedience,
and acts as the "reward" obedience.
If the individual previously had a certain
conception of himself once admitted, he will
81

lose support because of degradation,


humiliation and ego profanation. Prison
organization and the first barrier is warranted to
the world of self and role deprivation
strengthens these phenomena. This highlights
the very first contact with the individual
institution: history, teaching clothes and
valuables, bath, weighing - all making the
impression that the man entered a "machine"
which is in the hands of establishment. But
obedience test is passed when the new position
is established when the situation came to
expect it. If we add them and use neuroleptics,
electroshock and sometimes neurosurgery, all
without consulting the person, it will make clear
that integrity is not guaranteed. In this context,
individuals, whether sick or not, becomes
passive, defensive tackles reaction: will you
head down in humiliating positions, will humble
answers, having to ask for small favors:
cigarette paper etc.. Staff can call you by name
or by the nickname, he will laugh and
emphasizing the negative features, will talk
about him as if not present.
All these actions will produce a true process of
"mortification" of ego, an ego dezidentificare the
violation. In this type of hospital will make sure
that individuals do not have the status of man,
do not have the autonomy and freedom of
action. For this purpose, is used in striking
manner the system of rewards and
punishments. Patients will achieve their
82

permanent position of inferiority in relation to


the outside, will have a sense of exile and that
their time is wasted in vain. There is a big
contradiction between what the institution
actually is and what should be the official said,
is exactly the same principle of double standard
that existed in communist society.
The institution will develop a set of
institutionalized practices: visits, inspections,
spending anniversaries together, watching
movies etc.. All these are nothing more than
unjustified humiliation accentueeze this
syndrome.
Psychiatric Institute organized prison will not
allow any privacy, the individual admitted being
humbled, forming them into a folder, often the
first uniform, taking them into documents,
money etc.. But, as underlined by cynicism
Predescu (Emergencies in psychiatry, Medical
Publishing, 1983), using violence against the
mentally ill and may be "a real therapy," which
is "true freedom lost" due to illness.
Another aspect of totalitarian psychiatric
institution is the organization by its internal
hierarchical principles, rigid. Hierarchy is the
cornerstone of political psychiatric abuse,
without which it would be very difficult to
produce. Hierarchy is to determine the roles of
staff and patients, creating a true "serfs"
administrative, authoritative, first appeared
achievement level bureaucratic aspects of the
hospital. To this end we offer two ways to
83

achieve: the existence of rituals and


ceremonies and secondly, the organizing
principle of a rigid hierarchy.
Rituals are very fecvente in prison psychiatric
hospital type: bodyguard reports, visit the Chief,
contravizitele, inspections, etc.. All these tend
to give an impression of official reality, a public
reality. There are other types of rituals: meeting
of party, trade union, the account, etc.
treatment sessions.
The second way, used to subordinate patients,
a retreat was a hierarchical body and passing
responsibility on behalf of the body's own
material. It's a real administrative pyramid
whose base is the patients.
As in any organization, the hospital decided
how this works by a power which, apparently,
supposed to be a medical power, but in fact,
power from the communist era and Security
Party. Like any power, and it will be radicalized,
meaning that the relationship between patients
and staff will be pushed to the extreme
relationship became master - slave, because
there is no counterweight against the power of
staff (civil society organizations, real judicial
channels complaint, etc.). Although a hospital is
demagogic to say that the patients, they
actually had no word to say, which will generate
resentment, personnel conflicts will be solved
by authoritarian means - Content, forced
treatment, and punishment system rewards.
Another characteristic of a prison psychiatric
84

hospital type hierarchy constituted by the


totalitarian system, power is distributed
pyramidal section chief and giving dictatorial
powers. It is called, in fact, life, depending on
the attachment of political and security front.
Section chief necessarily be approved and
Security Party. He monopolized all the power,
take virtually all important decisions, gave all
notices of admission, diagnoses to put out,
decided on discharge, making doctors and
others on simple mechanisms and
depersonalized subject. Head to favor or
persecute anyone for any reason and can
preferentially distribute tasks.
Pyramidal organization of totalitarian limit, as in
the communist society, any enterprise,
department, hospital also become easily
manipulated by interested organs of repression.
An authoritarian leader was just enough (not
count professional competence) for psychiatric
institution to be subdued power. For these
reasons depersonalization and apathy will not
be limited only to patients, but vaor extended to
all staff in order to survive, had to "adjust" logic
boss arbitrary. Under these circumstances, a
psychotherapeutic dialogue doctor - patient was
impossible, all must turn to designers provisions
dictatorial boss and neuroleptics, occupational
therapy, electroshock in this system were the
means of repression rather, hospital, psychiatric
ward and losing any therapeutic vocation.
Even among patients appear a certain
85

hierarchy, service appeared good and bad


depending on the power head and power
advantages that it brings.
This system was designed to produce all
components of tension and frustration levels,
and contact boss - subordinate, doctor - patient
appear as depersonalized. If your boss is all,
others will feel frustrated and will handle more
voltage than sick people. Often, these tensions
would be fueled by the feeling that the boss is
"digging", which is why psychiatric service that
will turn into a veritable citadel of cold or hot
war, sometimes turning it into a real witch-hunt .
Can understand what is left of such a hospital
therapeutic vocation.
In conclusion, political psychiatric abuse, as
well as other kinds of abuses of the communist
period appear to be deliberate and relying on
theoretical and ideological bases better place.
Enormity and specificity of psychiatric abuse in
communism does not consist in the fact that he
really existed or how it was massive. Important
here is that the abuse was organized by the
Communist state which officially by its
employees engaged in psychiatry and the
judicial organs of repression or, in this case the
state itself becoming a "criminal organization",
organizing psychiatric abuse both in theory as
and practice. Such a situation has never been
history but only in fascist regimes. In this
context, the psychiatrist and patient or merely
become instruments of communist political
86

parties promoting criminal laws and regulations,


and conduct a criminal who tried to impose the
"normality" through the entire community
psychiatric ruling Communist nomenclature in
the field. The enormity of the proportions and
the improvement of the organization, the
communists have done something unique in the
history of psychiatric abuse to the level of
becoming a real crime organization.

NEED FOR SOCIAL Psychiatrists

As we noted previously, the communist system


halted the natural evolution of Romanian
psychiatry at the stage of biological psychiatry
and the introduction of ideological criteria was
reached while disabling psychiatric abuse any
Western influence (psychological psychiatry,
social psychiatry, etc.).
World Psychiatry far exceeded even the state of
biological psychiatry psychological adjudecandu
today, those gains, sociological concepts and
forming a new synthesis of biological models,
psychological and social, forming what today is
known as social psychiatry.
Social psychiatry is not like a name would look
at first sight, a psychiatric exclusive, but rather
a discipline that involves the whole evolution of
scientific trends, but focuses on social and
human aspects that old psychiatry, especially
that Biological exclusive shade, does not. It
puts particular emphasis on the institution
87

organizing the institution umanizand treatment.


How it was possible that an inhumane regime
that the communist regime to accept such
principles? They had solutions for all problems
in Marxist ideology and that worked for public
use by the great leader.
In our conception, conception publicly
expressed within articles and monographs our
work nearly two decades ago, psychiatry
practiced in the communist era, but today one
can not be reformed. It should almost
"destroyed" and reformulated in terms of
modern psychiatry. This classical psychiatry,
distorted by communist ideology, which rejected
all visceral scientific achievements of the
century, can not reform by cosmetic changes,
big financial injections or new construction. It
should be "destroyed" and replaced by social
psychiatry, one that has qualities and new
models of disease and a radical transformation
of the institution of treatment, a new focus on
the etiology and prevention in the field.
This "revolution" will create, as happens with
economic reforms, even for those well-
intentioned and supporters of democracy and
reform, that feeling of "destruction" specify any
action for radical change, then developing a
reflexive opposition to again. Will be a brilliant
opportunity for current and former nomenclature
to be able to provide "catastrophic" changes
expected in comparison with "lost paradise" of
our past psychiatric.
88

Easy handling of psychiatrists (psychiatrists


feminization would assume only a relative),
apathy, the old desire to finish his career in
systems that were used in Romania will be
difficult change process (and this even with the
current director the hospital in Bucharest, the
shade PNTCD, whose courage fails reform "of
knee frog" - Dr. Prelipceanu).
We have already shown that our ideological
grounds psychiatry could not overcome the first
stage of development of psychiatry - Biological
psychiatry.
Movement which led to the sociological
concepts of psychiatry and psychology began in
the U.S. and then expanded rapidly in Western
Europe.
The concept of social psychiatry, mentally ill is
not only an "isolated body" or simply a somatic
ill, but is placed in context or relational starting
from the first group to which they belong -
family - and going to the large size of the
society, economy geography and culture.
Sociogeneza underscores Porot is a set of
conditions that emanate from the social
environment and is likely to lead to the
production, development and evolution of
mental illness. Human existence becomes a
field of interaction of several dimensions:
biological - somatic - interpersonal - Psychic -
extrapersonal - social and cultural. In this way
the current social psychiatry is a
scienceinterdisciplinary, with focus on social
89

phenomena that are able to determine the


morbid condition or mental pressure of masses
of individuals in context and information boom.
In this respect stands today an increase in
"psychological density" of population, ie
population participatory entity more important
than the actual number of people (before
participation is limited to some categories of
age, gender, economic status etc.).
Undoubtedly the end of this century psychiatry
can only be a social psychiatry. Psychiatry
classic strait-laced tight circle of the medical
model of disease which he passed, with her
ambition to align somatic medical disciplines -
often even in a colonial way - can not ensure
progress because of individualism or of
mechanism and the it promotes.
Psychiatry classical biological explanations with
her gear, could not thrive in the field that I think
we mastered when the explosion occurred
dezadaptarilor increasing psychological and
fever of psychiatric illness.
This is not only about her deformed by
communist ideology. But classical psychiatry
failed (and in Western Europe) when it has not
been able theoretical and practical as
mammoth and hospitals only somatic therapy
were not able to give satisfaction, to match a
changing era accelerated, increasing citizens'
needs to the company and political
organization. Without denying the merits of
early and adjudecandu-and all valuable
90

achievements of biology or psychology, social


psychiatry was practically "pushed" the scene
by the company came after the human and
social disaster after World War II in the
presence new democratic society and a new
philosophy on human rights events that
occurred as a reaction to the threat of fascist
and communist totalitarianism.
For old psychiatric social and psychological
phenomena had a very important role, the
keystone being represented by biological
factors.
Unfortunately, the communist camp classic
dogmatize psychiatry and ideology, with heavy
gear or diagnoses and clinical forms appeared
on command, whenever the clinical reality did
not fit his mammoth asylums and hospitals,
rigid hierarchy and organization of prison led to
a decrease discipline and prestige to create a
genuine revulsion in the public eye.
In this fight for a psychiatric framework oriented
man - as a social being - to community needs
and community mental health promotion has
become a priority task not only for Eastern
European dissidents, but also for psychiatrists
who have esteemed profession or just simply
were animated by a patriotic attitude.
Seeking a first definition of social psychiatry, we
say that it represents a synthesis of biological,
psychological, sociological concepts interpreted
in the spirit of the humanities. This study
concerns the correlation, disturbance,
91

dizarmoniilor, hipoevolutiilor including all


spiritual people. Psychiatry may refer harmful
aspects of social life, the life within the social
group. Social Psychiatry handle all biological
and psychological problems of individuals, but it
exceeds the scope of psychopathology in
classical psychiatry is stopped.
However, even reached the stage of social
psychiatry, psychiatry will remain in its essence
a medical discipline
Social Psychiatry will but primarily a social
conception of rennet. It puts you in the practical
development of psychiatric care services at a
changing society.
For us social psychiatry is a discipline that
integrates biological and psychological
knowledge, the social dimension of man.
Studying all aspects of social psychiatry as
social issues related to mental illness, meaning
etiopatogenetice issues, developmental,
therapeutic and prophylactic. They should really
add to the problem of the social status of
mentally ill, it obligations towards society,
humanitarian organization of the institution of
therapy treatment and ways the community.
Also within social psychiatry will include means
psychiatry can influence factors responsible, for
the prevention and treatment of mental
diseases, and is appropriate social and even
political life through active paticiparea benefit
psychiatric and mental health profile actions.
There are, however, in establishing the limits of
92

social psychiatry, who hold differing opinions


particularly enlargement or contraction of its
scope of business vision. Thus, Bastide has
great field position somewhat, saying his social
psychiatry can own individuality cupride three
areas:
1. Social psychiatry - in the sense or small;
2. Sociology of mental diseases;
3. Ethnology mental illness.

In this sense, social psychiatry social behavior


follows the patient, the process of socialization
and loss of contact with the surrounding world,
ie the individual real society. Socializing
interested individual actually social psychology.
Connection between different social events and
various types of mental illness mental illness
should be the subject of sociology, the
discipline in which he introduces and group
psychotherapy, the combination of ideas and
methods relating to psychiatric treatment
institution, relations within this institution, and
the institution psychiatric and community.
Social Psychiatry studying social phenomena
so medical and psychiatric implications and the
Dissertation and Piazza's vision would be:
- Individual psychopathological phenomena
related etiopatologic context, social;
- Psychopathological phenomena of the
community;
- Adverse social effects caused by individual
and collective disorders;
93

- Interference between individual


psychopathology and that of collectivities.
Social Psychiatry and should include the
company's face psychiatric institution such as
the organization of treatment programs Mental
health debate in the media, issuing laws in
particular areas of psychiatric care. Therefore
social psychiatry deals not only of individual or
social group, but the whole unit. Social
Psychiatry, therefore, scientists who study
mental disorders of people as members of
society, is regarded as a unit.
For us social psychiatry has a meaning and a
broader definition, because we believe
psychiatry is only one and that is the only social
psychiatry. In this sense, to speak today about
the existence of biological psychiatry,
psychological or social (they were only stages
of evolution) is nonsense, psychiatry as a
discipline of bio-psycho-social, but biological
and psychological factors are subordinated
point Historically and socially, which is why the
current name the best psychiatrists is Social
Psychiatry. This implies that sociological point
of view to act at all levels (diagnosis, treatment,
prevention), including in the psychopathology
and institutional, which in fact represents a
radical transformation in the way traditional
psychiatric classification of diseases to manner
of organization and management of therapeutic
and rehabilitation actions. This represents the
current context criptocomunist from us a real
94

revolution in psychiatry, with that feeling


anxious to destroy an institution that provides
security personnel and especially its profiteers,
but produced ethical inadequacies and
mistakes. This is the only way that could make
building new social psychiatry in Romania.
Social psychiatry is still, even if we go up there
with the reform, an area with a young discipline
still imprecise, but that has already led a rush
renewing. Thus, if the old alienist clinician was
considered only a narrow and obsessed by the
desire to be considered a doctor, being
concerned mostly isolated cases and a low
morbidity, current psychiatrist is in front of some
very special situations. Place old epidemics
(plague, cholera) was taken today by the
enormous increase of psychiatric morbidity,
which made the current psychiatrist to be
concerned about the mental health of huge
masses of people.
Thus, underscores Coresi for old psychiatrist,
the patient was primarily a somatic patients and
concern about psychological and relational
problems of the patient were evident only to the
extent that they arose from the disease course
(As with other somatic diseases). For current
psychiatrist - a social worker - patient is a man
caught in his double individual and social
reality.
Social Psychiatry and is an interdisciplinary
field. He uses not only the psychopathology and
biology, but also sociological concepts,
95

psychiatry became a discipline in sociological


vision.
Sociology psychiatry borrow some specific
concepts, such as those of social groups, social
psychology, social group dynamics, the
importance of culture and civilizations.
Sociogeneza mental illness, and the duty of
society towards mentally ill get all the social
psychiatry.
Social Psychiatry borrow such concepts from
sociology and many views and even a certain
purpose, however with a medical discipline -
even though somatic medicine and is
increasingly becoming a social discipline.
Social Psychiatry medicine itself offers an
example that involves sociological dimension
and gives a field of sociology which activities
We would hardly have imagined alone.
Social psychiatry has relationships with medical
psychology. She uses all psychodynamic
explanations, uses psychological concepts on
the relation doctor - patient.
Social psychiatry as a branch turn, is a public
activity Scisa press, on TV, cultivate new values
in public opinion on the situation of mentally ill,
train company in the difficult process of
treatment and prevention of mental illness. She
is interested in economic life, a part of her work
unfolded in prevention programs in the
economic units.
Social Psychiatry offers various sciences and
fields a number of concepts and entities, and a
96

common business practice in many ways, in


order inbunatatirii quality of life and mental
health in a time when the world speaks of the
right to health of human beings.
Such tasks could not take but a dynamic
psychiatry, to build and biological knowledge,
but also on the psychology and sociology.
Psychiatry classical was static, limiting its
activity only at the boundaries of the hospital or
asylum, for which she has become a real
godsend for totalitarian societies (totalitarian
inclinations have itself).
To express the quintessence of psychiatry also
communism dialectical materialism applied
psychological sciences (for Marxism,
substantially psyche was the second important
concept by asserting that materiality of the
world), especially in a society that is no longer
based on moral or religious principles, nor on
individual rights.
I have sketched in broad ideological bases of
psychiatric abuse and Communist at the same
time I stressed the need for reform, creating a
solution providing psychiatrists Romanian social
model of Western psychiatry. That territory
would have to meet in good faith all
psychiatrists, psychiatric reform is in our current
sense of history, if we want the generations
who now walk in psychiatry and those who
come do not blame us we did not understand
this nor eleventh hour. Because, no matter what
will our generation, lived mostly in communism,
97

Romanian social psychiatry because everything


is born, again paraphrasing the same biblical
verse, if we do not teach us the truth, it will be
stones.

Relationship psychiatry - Morality

The relationship between psychiatry and ethics


is one of the major acute problems they raised
criptocomunista and post-totalitarian society in
which we live today. Modern psychiatry and has
had a dimension not only medical but also a
moral, mentally ill human being category
specific problems with a major social impact,
pentrru reason the company should take into
consideration these issues.
These problems are not unique ethics for
psychiatry only our time, it appeared from the
earliest times, Christian morality is the one who
raised it to the highest ethical heights.
Despite these considerations, in the course of
history "society" mentally ill has always been
subject to persecution for patients mentally
were "good" the most brutal forms of inhuman
treatment and most forms of care.
Empowerment mentally ill had to wait crucial
stage of history to change the fate of these
individuals. Thus, history cites the "liberation" of
Pinel, the effect of the French Revolution, that
mental illness can be viewed more
humanitarian, but undoubtedly played a leading
role in Christian morality.
98

Although mentally ill, according to Christian


ethics, has become "our neighbor", which was
developed was a real "disease of prejudice, and
violence and crime, normal phenomenon in all
societies, was transferred preferentially to the
mentally ill, although statistics show that there
are 1,000 mentally ill less violence than 1,000
people in the general population. This could not
mentally ill but was exempt from prejudice "its
permanence risk", citing an entire suite of
constraints, means deprivation of liberty,
without being able to apply and appropriate
treatment. Therefore, as we have shown,
nineteenth-century psychiatry is a psychiatric
azilara, but with awareness that this is required
by public utility to maintain social peace while
mental illness was considered hereditary, social
risk - the patient being the only culpable for his
illness, while the company was innocent.
Twentieth-century there will be a century of
culture or ideas, but will become a century of
ideologies, particularly those of essence
totalitarian (communist and fascist). Each of
them will have a destructive attitude towards
the mentally ill: fascism through euthanasia and
the physical destruction of an ethnic cleansing
mentally ill to be considered upper, communism
based on virtually the same item - hate - but not
ethnic but class. While you criticize Nazism,
Communism will make psychiatry a means to
place the system among those who criticized
the mentally ill, which then will not close their
99

traditional camps, but in psychiatric hospitals.


Existence of psychiatry in the communist period
was tragic, and morally, and religion as such,
had to live only by making compromises.
Communists, the ethical, attacked first principle
of human solidarity, cohesion between people,
the principle of association, freedom of thought,
being in total opposition to the principles of
pluralist democracy, of freedom of thought and
association. All communism was established in
standard measure passed by the communist
regime as it is greater or not.
Late appearance - the years 1960 - 1970 - in
the West for human rights movement, with its
extraordinary power of seduction, in the East
meant the beginning of the end that really evil
empire, as rightly said President Reagan.
Penetrability philosophy of human rights has
made in this regard to psychiatric ethics
profound change. Within this framework, new
principles of Christian ethics and existentialist
philosophers have made something irresistible
seduction democratic system, and if we add the
generation change, we can now explain the
avalanche "velvet revolutions" and the fall of the
communist system without stopping psychiatric
repression had no chance.
However, it should be noted that the victory of
democracy has made the ethical problems of
psychiatry to an end. Even in advanced
democratic systems do not appear to
definitively resolved things, fight for the moral
100

can not stop here either, never. Antietam Nazi


and communist morality shows us the fragility
and limitations when it comes to psychiatry.
This is actually one of the fundamental
arguments today to build a real social
psychiatry.
Rehabilitation of mentally ill today raise the
question a new vision, namely that of
resocializarii mentally ill, which is fundamental
ethical dimensions of current ethics in
psychiatry. Must be aware that because of
specific mental illnesses, they will never come
openly to society. They are withdrawn,
associated diseases that often are subjected to
prejudice. Why can not resocialization than one
way, the company (psychiatrist) to sick. This is
the correct moral conduct, which ends when the
patient comes into society as equal. Mental
illness strikes not the vitality to the individual -
or in biology - she hit him in his humanity, the
human specificity of his being, as it was created
by God and nature played. Resocialization is
one condition psihiatrtiei moral and social
ethics.
Although resocialization includes occupational
therapy (in labor camps, prisons to work), it
exceeds the concept that if there would be
limited, would not only make individual robot,
turn the bed into a chair. For this reason,
resocialization occurs as a complex behavior
that should mimic real life, for all its reantreneze
individual real-life roles.
101

Terapeutrica community and is a basic principle


of resocializarii, especially in severe mental
illness and socio-economic problems. This
should rise to its highest stage - Community
treatment - they are interested not only medical
factors but also economic, political, many other
personalities from parents, prelates, retirees,
people with economic potential - employers,
etc. .
Western experience of community treatment is
refreshing for a secluded psychiatric system as
ours, but it is clear that the economic side of
developing your community or nation. The cost
will be even greater, benefits society - peace or
productivity - will be enormous. In fact, it would
be done by a real crime prevention, juvenile,
antisociabilitatii, drugs and would make a real
process at the community mental health.

Chapter III
102

Resistors and dissident Romanian


Psychiatry

History of psychiatric abuse in the former


Soviet Union and new

Russia has a solid history of political abuse in


psychiatry. In fact, in Russia since 1836 are
cited the first case of political psychiatric abuse
when Russian philosopher Pyotr Sadaev was
characterized by Tsar Nicholas I as suffering
from "derangement and insanity", which is why
he was arrested in his own house and visited
weekly by a physician. But it was still a
deliberate state policy, only an isolated case.
After the 1917 communist revolution, the use of
psychiatry in the early years was done ad hoc
and sporadic. If Mary Spiridonova known
activist, who won great popularity by criticism of
the Soviet leadership, the Moscow
Revolutionary Tribunal in 1918, will condemn
the "removal from political life, during a year,
and her isolation in a hospital particular.
Spiridonova will realize that through this attempt
to discredit his political ideas along with its
physical removal. Be punished while both man
and his ideas, which meant a real "social
death." Her problem will be solved by sending
in Turkestan, commanding a propaganda train.
Stalinist period remains relatively obscure, in
103

terms of psychiatric repression, isolating Russia


is full time. In 1931 there is a clear law stating
frankly that psychiatry should aim to contribute
to class struggle. However, compared with
Stalinist terror, psychiatry will remain, as
underlined Bukovsky, a humanitarian territory.
A similar case with the miners in the psychiatric
hospital admission in Zam happened in
Moscow during the Second World War. Thus,
workers of a factory in Moscow refused to
perform volunteer work. All were arrested. All
have been diagnosed with schizophrenia and
then were transferred to Kazan psychiatric
hospital. Psychiatrists have been under
pressure to declare patients, believing that their
internment was a relief, the alternative being
concentration camp.
Consider that since 1956, after Khrushchev
came to power after the launch of "peaceful
coexistence", psychiatry will be given a greater
role. Taking the famous speech at the
Twentieth Congress of the CPSU, Khrushchev
and Stalin's horrors will denounce the
communist regime liberalization promises, but
at the same time, the Red Army destroyed the
Hungarian revolution.
Khrushchevite Soviet Union, as well as
Romania and other communist countries, will
be now between two contradictory tendencies -
the assertion that socialism in these countries
finally defeated and that there is no need for
political prisoners and repression to maintain
104

the system and in fact strengthen the fight anti-


especially the new generation. In this context,
the role of psychiatry becomes paramount,
opponents automatically become mentally ill,
something which, as we saw above, we
express and Nicolae Ceausescu in 1965.
This will make the '60s psychiatric hospital has
become a convenient alternative to
concentration camps and prison. Khrushchev
will be helped by academician Snejnevski this
act, as to us in this period come from studies in
the USSR and go directly into management of
psychiatry and St. V. Predescu. Milea. Like
Ceausescu, Khrushchev did not believe in
socialism, anti-socialist consciousness can
arise. Based on Marxist dogma which says that
the existence determine consciousness, they
believe that once all comunizata economy and
social life, they would make impossible the
appearance of anti-ideas. For this reason, no
past and no inheritance "diversion global
imperialism" could not explain the anti-ideas,
but mental illness can provide a wonderful
solution.
Pregnancy psychiatry advanced stage of
building communism was to re-educate these
"sick", so given the party people trust and which
we have already named. Since then, the
communist countries began a systematic policy
of internment in psychiatric hospitals.
Benefits based on psychiatric repression were
the first act of discretion (no process noise),
105

seduced by Khrushchev matter, as is the


Ceausescu. Since 1970, the use of psychiatry
for political purposes is well documented, a
veritable institution in which the state is
involved.
There are testimonies related to hospital in
Kazan, but only since 1970 this hospital will
become his true sinister reputation. Hospital in
Kazan is under the direct supervision of the
NKVD, here are gathered around the Soviet
Union political dissidents. Many patients were
delirious with the political theme, but there are a
small group of healthy individuals hospitalized
there for their beliefs.
'60s Were also characterized by the creation of
specialized institutions and by building in the
former USSR, and the new hospital-prison.
Thus, Cerniahvsk, Minsk Dnetropietrovsk, Orel
us to Balaceanca, Poiana Mare Raducaneni,
Manor, P. Groza organize a real gulag of
psychiatric hospitals for political dissidents. No.
hospitalized dissidents is very high, but the Iron
Curtain will not allow another to know the extent
of this phenomenon by the population
concerned or to the West. In the Soviet Union is
famous Serbsky Institute and us, by symmetry,
VIII Hospital Service Gheorghe Marinescu.
Dissidents known names appear because of
the reputation enjoyed: Nahum, Pisarev, Volpin,
Naritsa, Samsonov, Sultz, Belov, new Rosoga,
Nestor Smith, etc.. They have led protests and
international reaction which culminated in the
106

exclusion of Soviet psychiatrists World


Psychiatric Organization in 1982.
Communists in Romania have not found a
tradition of using psychiatric persecution of
political dissidents. The first signs of unrest
have emerged in the '70s, when acumulasera in
different psychiatric hospitals many dissidents.
In 1977 I had the first dissidents to national and
international reputation and who were under
psychiatric abuse of political power, being
aware adopted by international organizations
(Dr. Cana, V. Paraschiv, Nestor Smith, etc.). In
1978, independently, Amnisty International will
confirm the existence of political psychiatric
abuse in Romania, publishing a list of 30
proven cases of psychiatric abuse.
After this date Romania will be present with the
Soviet Union in all international meetings,
blamed for the use of psychiatry in action for
the persecution of political dissidents. Arise
protest movements and anti-League is
established in the country of Psychiatrists, in
conditions of illegality which aims to put
pressure on the Romanian psychiatry to come
under communist domination and Sovietized
group. Like Khrushchev, Ceausescu creating
adequate legislation we already talked about.

Romanian resistance and dissident


psychiatrists

Forty-five years of communist-totalitarian


107

regime has left deep traces in all fields of our


country. Cominformiste known principles of the
KGB - in which it was prescribed "recipe
revolutionary" transformation of the country into
a Soviet satellite on the basis of communist
ideology - were applied in all fields of social and
scientific. Psychiatry not only be an exception to
the rule, but we can say that ideology is
involved in this field with more aggression
bulversand honest principles and practice of
medical disciplines.
Romania has been a small country, it has a
small tongue movement. In a country such
heroes are often ignored and sometimes
heroism of an entire nation can be ignored.
Heroism belongs only to those large, and if
someone from a country like ours becomes a
hero, he must necessarily come to recognize
the other hand, a large metropolis and then,
usually, or not to be a citizen of his country .
Examples are too numerous and painful for
Romania.
Although it was often ignored and even
betrayed by Europe, in Romania there was a
strong resistance against communism. In
Romania, fought in the mountains at gunpoint
until the 60s, in Romania there Gulag and
perhaps most tragically of brain washing
experiment of social engineering - experimental
Pitesti - political repression existed in Romania
through psychiatry, but a fierce opposition to
psychiatry, as it were, unknown to the Western
108

world and without which enjoyed the reputation


of advertising eg Russia.
History of injustice and wrongs will small
countries, but a possible "doomsday" of history,
respecting the proportions, will our country
deserved an honorable place in the united front
of humanity who fought against tyranny.
Resistance phenomenon in psychiatry - a field
that included the regime means "aseptic"
repression - was started early in our country
and I would say almost a reflex, when the
communist regime became notorious brutality.
In the absence of written documents and
especially given the media in the climate of
disregard of Europe who had done so on our
various fairs in Russia and communist who later
started so beneficial to the human rights
movement, especially when the turned their
attention to this movement and psychiatric
repression, it was difficult was how deeply this
phenomenon and how great was the resistance
of psychiatrists, including our country, how
much abused psychiatric totalitarianism.
However, the subject can not be avoided, a
nation, even a profession need memory, need
to know the past, and if this history is written not
as early, the harder and less credible will be the
further work. Therefore, relying on memory of
facts on which we lived directly on the capacity
of understanding and synthesis that we have,
we try to address this issue following the
phenomenon of resistance and dissidence of
109

psychiatrists too long night of Romanian


Communist close two generations.
Small number of dissidents and opponents of
our psychiatry is not an impediment, not only in
psychiatry because they were few, but the tote
areas. Power of a group, as is known since
ancient philosophy, does not consist of
arithmetic sum of power of each individual, a
group that will exceed all mathematical
expression.
"In psychiatry there was Romanian dissident,"
said the former torturers nonchalance in a
series of pro-communist newspaper "morning"
or infamous reporter Valeriu E., in a television
series, when this institution was a servant to all
political formations criptocomuniste. Is it
coincidence that the psychiatrists who make
such statements are just those who raped
psychiatry for decades in communist
totalitarianism? "There were no psychiatric
abuse and there were no dissidents in
psychiatric teachers were competent and
extraordinary generosity," said Piticaru Almost
five years after the collapse of communism and
believed that they took advantage of fellow
psychiatrists seeing poor response as well as
poor memory of those who stood quietly in the
"cage" over four decades of totalitarianism and
will wear it for a long time behind the cage.
It is an error, gentlemen former and current
nomenklatura, informer, teachers today. The
truth is exactly the opposite. For what these
110

consisted competence "teachers" probably turn


on for decades? There the material terms or
manner of practicing psychiatry Obregia any
difference between his age (1923) - which for
the time or situation at European level - and our
current psychiatric status (except imports of
four to five drugs, all the West)? It was really
built after August 23, 1944 at least a new
psychiatric hospital?

1. Continuity and limits of dissident


psychiatrists Romanian

Problem opposition and dissident Roman is


clear that psychiatrists may involve passion,
hatred, revenge tendency of generations who
have lived 45 years of communism and, to
voluntarily or involuntary, have responsibilities
in the communist psychiatry.
However, for the coming generations to know
the historical truth and especially to not repeat
the tragic experience, you should write
about this age, to show the youth that will come
after us the truth about terrible attempt went
through psychiatry.
Our psychiatry, although it has a long history, is
best known in the twentieth century, when a
myriad of great teachers and professionals
(Obregia, Parhon, Balif Constanta-Parhon
Stefanescu, hide, Tomescu, Sebastian
Constantinescu, etc..) Have managed, with
exceptional efforts, to found a school
111

psychiatric hospitals psychiatric synchronous


with the European psychiatry in that era.
In fact, 1944 was a historic break psychiatry led
back to the communist Soviet psychiatry. The
communists have put the past to the index,
while an entire Roman pleiad psychiatrists who
vigorously afirmasera Europe. Psychiatry now
had to serve a political ideology, political party,
the Communist Party, to serve the interests of
class hatred of the antichrist.
And maybe now is the time to remember the
first dissident, I Scobercea, an eminent medical
assistant chief who, hearing of his intention
dereva (that fateful first communist director of
the hospital, depending on income still wearing
his clothes officer of the USSR) as ordered to
be melted Obreja bust (who built his fortune
from the hospital but was landowner), the
"stolen" bust scientist and buried in the cellar
or. Only in the '70s, when he appeared more
tolerant context and when everyone is asking
where is the bust of the scientist, it was
removed and redone by I. Scobercea hospital.
If the act was discovered, gentle gentleman
Scobercea Channel was sent by former spy
novel, now nomenklatura and former activist.
Does the fact that exceptional man was not a
communist regime brutality against opposition,
from our past history, against those who have
contributed to the progress of psychiatry.
Professor Tomescu made himself 16 years in
prison for the past two weeks of the Antonescu
112

government to accept the position of Minister of


Health. "How could I refuse to be a minister of
my country in case of disaster that is in those
moments? But I was never consulted on military
matters Antonescu, defending him at trial "war
criminals".
Here we join the action and the same director
activist and spy - dereva - which gave the
hospital that built its wealth on behalf of Obreja
of Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital, personality
stayed two weeks in the hospital, but have the
advantage was the son of laundering. When in
1973 the hospital asked senior professor and
deputy Communist MAN - V. Predescu - to take
steps to restore the State Council on the
hospital name should wear it - or that of the
founder - he said the problem is minor for the
"rape" during Ceausescu. Not only in 1973, but
today it no injustice has been corrected, so that
those who lead and run the hospital are the
same both mentality and as individuals (in fact,
now called The Hospital. Obregia, but not 1994,
when I wrote the work).
What followed after 1944 is known and can be
seen today. Our psychiatry has become an
underdeveloped discipline and coercive led by
people submediocre, limited intellectual power
who did not do school. Survival was only folder
frames, which had to be more suitable to the
requirements of the communist regime. Pleiade
entire old psychiatrists were persecuted,
imprisoned some, and gradually lost from or
113

died in an atmosphere of indifferent watching


almost everything they do, being so isolated
that have no influence on youth.
What generations of politruci to complain of
psychiatry, as the party selected him? First
humiliating them in front of accused political
conformism, stop any access to specialized
information. For 45 years there were no books,
magazines, participation in meetings or other
exchanges of information with the scope of the
Western world. But the most pressing,
especially youth, was terrible limitation to daily
reality, turning in what psychiatry actually is
today, that is a service pompieristic intervention
for agitated mental patients, total lack of social
dimension, rupture psychiatry all medical
discipline, the culture in general discipline
rightly getting last in the medical world. It can
now easily find that repressive regime enslaving
psychiatry was not the only evil that
communism has made psychiatry, it was added
to maintain discipline in a state of
underdevelopment.
This happens while many aspire to make a real
career, but really missed were discouraged or
emigrated. This policy has made generations of
psychiatrists in individuals who have passed
like shadows silent, nostalgic and who, without
opposition, left the forefront, at least in
psychiatric education, the people elected to
power. And thus have formed dozens of
generations removed, mediocre.
114

This was done by a subtle policy of artificial


selection, in which any particular project in May
was seen as a dissident, a reactionary thing.
Dissidence - often some facts which ought not
to harm anyone - of politruci was put down to
"lack of ideological orientation. Many have
engaged in a hopeless fight, but had to be
limited to the "teacher" to administer a number
of painkillers from the expected cure mental
illness.
So it was the atmosphere everyday in
psychiatry, where there is censorship of any
ideas or initiatives, with a so-called scientific
activity politruci, stereotypical and uninteresting,
without meeting with some mediocre ideas that
may have left nothing but memories of
interventions of some psychiatrists, all outside
Bucharest. It was, in fact, about a life lived from
hand to mouth, without horizon, with an obscure
practice of everyday life and a subculture.
Often occurs in small dissident disputes due to
incompetence bosses, but by no means it was
not dangerous, one can get all political
interpretation. Professional discussions were
not complete because the time came when
deciding the political attitude of the professional
discussion and all that remained unfinished.
Lack of communication or inauthentic
communication is not confined to relationships
with patients, but also the relationships between
doctors, everything seemed to be a procession
dull and stereotypical. Barriers were stiff and
115

permanently set. May young people they could


break the ice sometimes informational, to
realize that there is another type of psychiatry,
have vague notions of psychotherapy, social
psychiatry, community and even to know a
wider range of novel medicines to the doctor
could not dream. In practice, however, these
phenomena over there than resignation, they
were stopped by the material aspects and not
only insolvent, but especially the ideological
barrier, the fear of being labeled as reactionary
and get your career rate, the be thrown into an
asylum in a rural location on the map lost.
Communist ideology of psychiatry accredited
towards our youth the idea that everything is
clear in psychiatry and final match since the
party's ideology and psychiatry must first
respond to these demands. When I made the
reform programs within the narrow practice
when I was answered emphatically by
Predescu and Lohan: "There is nothing new
reformed, our psychiatry is as it should. How do
you allow to exemplify with our service? ".
The most serious phenomenon was that of
selecting and promoting cadres of the party
dealing with the greatest care. Within 24 hours,
people of high culture in the Department of
Psychiatry were fired, leaving instead
mediocrity, even dezechilibratii which, of
course, after the revolution began a fierce
struggle for power (all speakers have become
heads of works and Verdet's niece came one
116

day speakers without teaching practice, maybe


the fact that he was responsible for security in
the hospital during Ceausescu). Co-merituosii
been marginalized and permanently held in a
threat. For 45 years, psychiatry leadership was
in the hands of one man, only in 1989 when the
game was lost ideological, teachers were
quickly made two echelon Communists, with all
inferior to their former boss. In fact, all three
have only been away with all those capable of
discrete gestures. Remained as they deserved,
only to mediocrity.
How was this possible? Was it a calculated
process, one strategy? Looking back now, and
without passion, but we can not answer yes,
although this policy was carried out with
discretion and in everyday life have more the
impression that it is more than affinities and
antipathies of the great communist leader, as
everything depended on how that you had with
the bosses. Was the favorite subject, but even
the fawning was agreed that services can make
the head more or less professional and
especially those who had no aspirations sound.
Everyone was valuable time away. Political
attachment option and were essential, and true
loyalty to measure how many services could be
and how attached you were chief of the
Securitate.
Another element in the ideological dominance
of psychiatry has been the institutionalization of
psychiatry in Bucharest dominance over all
117

centers in the country. Here we decide to grant


titles and all posts across the country, despite
the discontent created by the communist
mandarin.
For this reason, dominance politruci Bucharest
had consequences for the entire country,
especially the whole training of young
psychiatrists was monopolized by Bucharest.
Imagine life in psychiatry just as derived from
other country's psychiatric centers, except
psychiatric school in Timisoara, where, thanks
to Professor Pamfil dissident, is active in
another world, a world ciracii Predescu and its
one exemplified the reactionary anti-socialist
and isolating it with all the power they had (but
do not forget that anticommunist revolution
started in Timisoara, which was different
cultural atmosphere).
All these phenomena have resulted in
mutilation and handicaparea Romanian
psychiatry. In psychiatry, for political reasons,
broke numerous disharmony or sociopathic
personalities, many coming from other medical
disciplines where they were rejection, many
sons or grandsons of political nomenclature,
people who in a short time became very
aggressive, oversaw rule only office in the
psychiatric departments in hospitals or
ambulatory. In this way, all these institutions
have been mutilated, promoting malignant
people created a real network of professional
incompetence, the unbalanced individuals to be
118

bullies, people with no vocation for psychiatry,


driven only by the desire to obtain success and
social power. Their appointment was made
without competition or after rigged contests, life,
while those deserving to obey or to leave,
including emigrate.
Such situations continue after 1989 in the name
of solidarity of the old practice of a solidarity of
evil. Even some psychiatrists honest sincere
attempt to create a professional association and
independent - Free Psychiatric Association, has
been decimated and virtually abolished by
infiltrating the leadership of former communists
and teachers use them to fight for positions and
material benefits for themselves. And this
happens after 1989. People past, after a short
period in which the actions expected of the kind
which have promoted herself, when the
communists came to power, went to attack,
they search assiduously November patrons
(especially among the traditional parties ).
So far there has been no reform in psychiatry
and people are still without merit lead
departments, the psychiatric ward, sometimes
as directors. Of course, everyone was assured
of the communist era with a curriculum vitae
with dozens of papers and several books
published in the Communist publishing houses,
where they had unlimited access to the political
base, many pompous titles, but analysis of
these works show a great wilderness, even if
attempts were made after 1989. In fact, that
119

alleged perpetrators have remained victims of


communist ideology, they have flirted guidance
for life and personality he has impregnated. And
all this imitation, this huge ideological
plagiarism brought them evidence of doctor, the
docent and waited without evidence of
academic embarrassment. In fact, it is a step in
the false values, false personalities, false
ambitions that have always put forward, and
now tries to falsify the past. Should we wonder
now that there have been or are abused and
only now?
In their struggle for reform, Free Psychiatrists
first tried an alliance with those of non-
psychiatric areas, not only with doctors in
psychiatry have become philistines book and
often blackmailed for their past, trying alliance
with people who know how to culture appreciate
freedom, who knew the meaning of life and
sacrifice, with journalists Democrats, a post-
revolutionary true revelation.
We must therefore look with sorrow and shrink
away from the type of conformist, philistine,
petty, based, in fact, the nihilistic ideas (that
nothing can be done, that nothing will ever
change, that everything is useless, Sisyphus,
that happens everywhere it hypocritical
masquerade and mental illness is a tribute to
civilization's relentless, waste, garbage
inevitable). These people apparently tolerant,
negligent, which actually form the majority, is
that in the past to handle mass of the former
120

nomenclature.
Although these people have that kind of
subintelectuali convicted, they were and are the
first in politics, patriotism, the phrase big
bombastic sympathize that the fate of patients,
which now looks sentimental, claiming that they
did not hurt anyone. But surely history will
condemn. It is certain that those who come will
more closely investigate these situations.
Deserved all the medical discipline have
stronger institutions, were brighter, while
psychiatry unwilling, unable out of political
abuse and ideologizarii curse them lacking
adequate treatment or research institutions.

2. Evolution of dissidents in psychiatric

Despite the pessimistic tone and immobility of


most psychiatrists, who in the big time when
change was possible, were delivered into the
hands of the mob power in psychiatry
movement of opposition and dissidents there
and must not excite us, but even watching it.
After all, lack of history, even a professional can
be the biggest curse. From this perspective our
work is primarily an attempt to reconstitute a
historical phenomenon that took place and
believe that this will someday honor our
discipline.
Seeking a systematization of the opposition in
Romanian psychiatry we thought that this
phenomenon could, teaching speaking, be
121

divided into certain distinct historical phases.


So we watch the most important stages:
1. Proletcult stage, which began with the Soviet
occupation and lasted until the mid 60's
decade. Is a pure phase and imposing Stalinist
Soviet model either directly (using Soviet
advisers and spies who worked for Romanian
or Soviet Comintern). As in the rest of the
sectors, and in psychiatry stage is
characterized by the deliberate destruction of
intellectuals, is the stage of direct repression,
implacable and without leave - with or without
political processes - the physical removal and
concentration camps that the Romans paid
psychiatrists a high human toll.
2. Creation Stage ideological structure and total
Sovietisation, without official to be a country
under occupation. Stage is emerging
frameworks of "specialists" trained in the USSR
(Predescu, Milea, Alexandrescu, etc.), covering
the '60s and '70s stage. Now political demands,
will lead to minimizing ideological
professionalism, censorship and ideological
control will be total and thorough, old tricks with
Soviet advisers who were tricked or old do not
go underground with new schools in Marxist
manner. Total Information censorship is
introduced, especially on literature and
information coming from the West is especially
ideologizarea discipline by creating entities
dialectical materialism, as was theorizing the
institutional medical model and I spoke earlier
122

prison.
Also, the need for external prestige then longed
Ceausescu, begins in this stage - not sporadic
in the past, but systematically - in the political
abuse of psychiatry, it became an ally in our
organs of repression.
3. Step dissidents and the opposition of small
open and courageous group of psychiatrists or
psychiatrists isolated actions that have led the
fight to support the new philosophy of "human
rights" between 1975-1989. It attacked not only
the dogmatic system of official psychiatry,
psychiatric abuse, but also individual and start
the reform actions and background of a
Romanian social psychiatrists, even if
everything had to be limited to theoretical
considerations.
4. Criptocomunista stage after 1989 and until
now, dominated the fight old communist
nomenclature or frustrated to enter the new
structures of power, ever formally renouncing
communism and all forms adhering to the
traditional parties, but also attempt to create
Free Psychiatric Association , an action which,
unfortunately, today it failed partly because its
management taken over by former communists
getter.

1. Step proletcult
Communism was brought to Romania by Stalin,
with the Red Army. In 1945, there were only
800 in our country by the communists, most of
123

them being active in at least the Cominform and


Romanian citizens.
Painstakingly, even before the occupation of
the country, the Soviet Union was formed,
under the direction of Stalin and Vasinski, a real
"5th column", which have plans and necessary
force - Red Army - for communisation Romania.
Years 1945 - 1960 were a period when our
psychiatry has experienced a serious decline in
discipline and forced Russification of direct
interference by Russia or former spies who
formed the 5th column, like that infamous first
director about I have already spoken. During
this period the Stalinist model put into practice,
well versed in the USSR - Destruction of the
intelligentsia and the elite in various fields,
psychiatry doing exception to this action. Not
only former leadership decimated, but the
discipline and outstanding personalities on the
grounds of class struggle and bourgeois ways
of thinking extirpation.
Romanian psychiatry had to take the step back
to level and align manierii Soviet practice of
psychiatry, there were already a communist 30
years experience. In Bucharest, dereva,
Cominform agent, activist and Soviet spy, he
takes delivery as head of the largest psychiatric
hospital in the country. It's an unprofessional
person who makes no secret of it. He came
dressed in uniform months in a row Soviet army
colonel who fought against the Romanian Army
until then, to his alleged countries.
124

Can not speak for this prototype of a communist


activist qualification. In fact, the real guy himself
psychiatrists unconcealed form and show a
contempt for life science or business meetings.
His mission was to Sovietized psychiatric
hospital in Bucharest, the largest in the country.
He offered, for example, by his own will, with
3,000 hospital beds for the Soviet experiment,
then in the early Soviet Union, namely the so-
called unification of hospitals, thereby
destroying and transforming this hospital
psychiatric nurse specialist for mammoth
become a district hospital with all medical
specialties included. But the return to normalcy
meant waiting decades of dysfunction and
psychiatric nurse.
In contrast, is praised in a Soviet newspaper,
Meditinskaia Gazette, who said at the time as
"unification experiment hospitals from Soviet
doctors still hesitate, managed in a hospital in
Romania, under the guidance of Comrade
Hippolytus dereva.
Since the Communist regime, was passed by
decapitation psychiatry specialists arrest on the
grounds that, in what practical ideas spread
reactionary, bourgeois, like psychoanalysis or
psychology. Those who had a role in the war
are condemned as "war criminals". Professor
Tomescu, for example, had this fate (16 years
hard labor), and Associate Professor Sebastian
Constantinescu, a prominent psychiatrist, was
sentenced to prison only because he also
125

worked in the Department of Psychiatry


Professor Tomescu.
The entire small community of psychiatrists -
about 200 people - is subject to harsh
repression. Prestigious psychoanalysts, as
Popescu-Sibiu, C. Vlad, as other personalities
are arrested (I Biberi N. Margineanu, Pope,
etc..), Once they are arrested and scientific
ideas that promoted the and elites who were in
unison with Europe in promoting new ideas and
psychological concepts. But psychology was
and still is the mortal enemy of the communist
materialist ideas in psychiatry. Should we
wonder why no old today, but in fact the current
communist nomenclature, not only formally
introduced in training psychology students and
even the psychiatrists?
Destruction and moving at the level of Soviet
psychiatry will ensure staff and by changes in
psychiatric losers entering other medical
disciplines, who were promised and have
obtained important leaders in psychiatry.
Dereva niece and her husband (wife Meiu), in
obscure medical advisers in general medicine,
will become heads of department and university
lecturers.
Resistance and opposition to psychiatry in the
context of a country occupied and comunizarii
country were minimal because any opposition
you link directly to concentration camps.
However, a number of young doctors at that
time, the A coffin, Balif-Negulici Alexandra
126

Retezeanu, Lichter, Rosenfeld, etc. Maller.


Continued a line passing youth psychiatric
ethics principles of psychiatry who was at that
time synchronous European Psychiatry.
Psychoanalysts such as C. Vlad Popescu-Sibiu,
though persecuted and arrested by their work
or direct contact with young people, have made
a contribution to psychological thriving (basic
psychoanalysis works, works whose level was
not touched so far) .
N. Margineanu in medical psychology,
although arrested and ostracized, Romanian
tradition will continue (with Goanga, Zapan)
basic editing works on personality, relationship
doctor - patient etc.Toti and they pay with long
prison to become some output Security
monitored shadows, no longer forced to come
into contact with young people until their
biological extinction "saved" communist
psychiatry valuable scientific ideas of the time -
and the psychological revolution that was in full
swing in the West has been missed in
Romania.
There have written, these personalities
consuming dissident in communist silence
spread over the entire country. Everything took
to general forgetfulness that generations that
followed were indulged by their conformity and
obedience, the lack of any desire for sacrifice.
Among the elite of the time psychiatrists
visceral opposition to communism in psychiatry
had an A coffin. Eminent physician of a
127

remarkable culture, with a real talent teacher,


was quickly dismissed from the Department of
Psychiatry, along with Alexandra Retezeanu,
making his place and his team Sovietized
Predescu, and in pedopsihiatrie eminent
university professor was fired Margaret Stephen
to make room for another communist came
from the USSR, "Professor" Stefan Milea, a flat
figure of politruci concern that studies and
especially since the communist indoctrination of
its lack of professionalism.
As simple entertainment, the famous left hand
that gave A coffin arrogant and a communist
and communist trade union leader who, for
years, suffered.
Nenominalizata resistance occurred in that
period against the introduction by administrative
means (through fines, dismissal, processing) of
pavlovismului crude produced in the
laboratories of the Soviet Union and Stalinist
ideology which was raised to "rank" the
essence of dialectical materialism applied within
neurological sciences. It was actually one of the
creations that fabricasera Soviet politruci also
materialistic prototypes in all areas
(miciurinismul,'s iarovizarea Lasenko, theories
of Oparin and Lepesenskaia etc.).
Unlike the continuous deterioration of mental
health were also noted protests, but infusion of
party cadres, the small number of psychiatrists
in the country have brought discipline
completely at the mercy of communist politics.
128

We can say without fear of error that this stage


is characterized by the destruction not only of
Romanian psychiatry, but by what followed has
opened a period of obscurantism from which
even now can not get out. If you have a concept
before Romanian psychiatry and scientific
milestones, general confusion after this period
will lead to discipline beliefs, fertile ground for
totalitarian policy of the Communist Party
through it to create an oppressive prison
system for political dissidents.
Fight the old generation, although laudable, will
not have any hope for decades, communist
night had spread over the entire country.
Resistance and dissidence will be added
anonymously nominal or general resistance of
our people. Gradually, the totalitarian system
will require psychological and neurological
sciences, bringing psychiatry and the situation
is today.

2. Step ideologizarii and deep Sovietisation


Conceptualization of "science" of psychiatry
abuse

After proletcultismului stage, which will apply in


psychiatry "revolutionary methods" where
politics is involved directly in the name of
purification and of proletarian class struggle, in
which professional value not play virtually no
129

role after 1960 things start to change. It gives


"permission" to criticize obsedantul decade in
all fields and psychiatry began to be caught in
nets ideology thoroughly subservient to the
policy of repression by the Soviet example, but
this time, the action is conducted by individuals
and especially schools those coming from
studies in the USSR
A myriad of "young professionals" for this
purpose comes from Moscow or Leningrad, as
directed by administrative ukase spheres
leading to the ministry, departments of
psychiatry, in unison with the policy in all
spheres of activity (culture, science,
engineering, etc. ). Apply now the party's new
strategy.
If in the first period of activity "theory" remains
in a rudimentary stage, if it was not completely
ignored, political dicteul brutally and directly
replacing scientific substantiation, theoretical,
as things tend to change in 1960, the party
proposing other means enforcement to obtain
the same result. Directing adult psychiatry, child
psychiatry, Direction large psychiatric hospitals,
will be taken in a "great campaign", the young
"Soviet" or those coming directly from the ranks
of the Securitate (Virgil Angheluta), young
people, hungry for power well indoctrinated and
ready to serve any compromise for those who
have their land taken out of mediocrity.
From this moment begins the program by
faculty ideological claim "science" begins to
130

build a new psychiatrists that they will now be


called emphatically "socialist psychiatry", of
course, in opposition to the bourgeois West. V.
Predescu becomes head absolutely, credited
by the Communist Party. He is chief of
psychiatry Romanian political and professional,
although it had qualified a child's general
practitioner, and St.. Milea will take the same
zeal child psychiatry, both teachers forced
pensionand holders.
As we see rapidly create their so-called school
consists of individuals rated by the party and
security, the files checked, then will start an
avalanche of writing and pavlovista Marxist,
true ideological guidance materials within
psychiatry socialist who was a born household.
By enslaving magazines will introduce tough
censorship, everything is controlled and
directed. Aspire to print any material previously
had to be checked and approved by two
ideological appointed and approved by
Predescu tart or even himself. They authorize
only those items targeted ideological and
tolerated no criticism, nor any deviation from
their official psychiatry.
In this era amounted to Edward Pamfil in harsh
conditions, in Timisoara, builds a school of
psychiatry for generations whose activity years
1960 - 1970 will remain grateful. Timisoara in
those years was poticneala stone of ideological
dogmatism in psychiatry represented by the
torque coming from the USSR (Miles -
131

Predescu) and has proven itself not only


repression, but especially toadyism, lack of
courage, spirit of sacrifice have made a mental
discipline and that no defense to psychiatrists
who believed that only shame was the only
conformism " tactics "of survival in communism,
which is why they gave up easily to any
opposition.
It should therefore present some biographical
data of the most representative of psychiatry
Romanian dissident Eduard Pamfil.
Pamfil Edward (1912 - 1994) and was educated
in Cluj, where he graduated in medicine in
1937. Go to France in 1938 and continues her
studies in Paris at the Neurology Center, under
the leadership of Lermitte.
Acts as a military doctor during the war, then
again in Paris working in several hospitals,
among them St. Anne H. EY.
Back in the country, working first as a
neurologist Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital, until
1948, in 1949 became lecturer at the
Department of Psychiatry, Cluj.
In 1959 he was arrested for political "gang led
by students" during some events on the
occasion of January 24. In fact, Pamfil uttered
only a patriotic speech from the balcony of the
house Hateganu teacher, who was to visit. We
are in proletarian internationalism and love for
the Soviet Union had to prevail over love of
country, which is why the teacher was
considered criminal action. It was held in jail
132

without trial for 10 months. At trial, the teacher


to defend himself and was sentenced to house
arrest at an irrecoverable infants in the border
town of Siren. Chair of the place was taken by
delatorul and its prosecution witness, some red.
In 1963, under pressure from his former pupils,
is appointed professor of psychiatry at the
Department of Timisoara. Political reasons and
because of Predescu, and is rejected as a
teacher coming in Bucharest and in 1977 his
dissidence is not supported and is forced
retirement.
Handicapped by political conviction, Pamfil
psychiatric and school that will be created for
10 - 15 years the reference point of resistance
against psychiatry rudimentary Sovietized
torque Predescu - Mile. We know that they
decimasera Department of Psychiatry,
Bucharest creating a new department consists
almost exclusively of suspicious individuals,
with a strong political file. The two will form a
thorough training and indoctrination plan of
Romanian psychiatry. New concepts are now
Soviet reference values, for which events begin
spreading national conference called bombastic
symposiums, which will launch with trumpet and
trumpet, new concepts of socialist psychiatry,
creating the illusion of these events and
confrontations a scientific reality, which does
not exist.
In this context was highlighted in Timisoara
school of psychiatry, led by Pamfil and having
133

them together on Stosel and Ogodescu, and a


whole pleiad youth. Unfortunately, after many of
them had no strength of character to master, to
the compromise pretandu Predescu for titles
and offices, transfer to Bucharest, it would be
worth without this moral failure. So finally
dissolved school in Timisoara, and retired
teacher Pamfil disgusted, but not defeated.
For the years 1960 - 1975 we can say that
resistance against ideological dogmatism in
psychiatry had the capital and other cities in
Timisoara in western Romania - Sibiu, Oradea,
Arad, etc..
Iasi, Bucharest, Cluj decimated the old guard
and replace it with politruci and Safety people
or just weak people who want only to advance,
did come with the attitude of the Soviet mission
to dominate their work and bringing psychiatry
deteriorate to the stage where it is today.
For 10 to 15 years school in Timisoara fought
for honor Romanian psychiatry against
communist obscurantism, to promote Western
values, progress in psychiatry. There have
been restated psychological values, which
played psychotherapy should play in relation
doctor - patient was informed about the
Western psychiatry.
Concepts prohibited by ideological dogmatize
psychiatry will be preached by Pamfil and his
school (psychotherapy, medicine
psihosomatioca, social psychiatry, social
rehabilitation, etc.). Clinical nosologic concept
134

ridiculing, materialistic,'s Predescu, Romila,


Ionescu, Milea, Timisoara school launched a
struggle, in its essence antiideologica on
Romanian psychiatry destiny, destruction of
Security and party mix.
As we have no written documents attesting that
fight, we only to exemplify the theme symposia
psychiatric 70s - '80, to see what the two
universities practiced psychiatry in Timisoara
and Bucharest. Bucharest symposia were
presented in printed programs Song Festival as
part of Romania. Here are examples:
1978 - psihoorganice chronic syndromes;
1979 - Biological therapies in psychiatry;
1980 - Schizophrenia.
Biological orientation is clear, "materialistic"
almost exclusively, without any interference of
"bourgeois science (psychology, sociology,
psychotherapy, etc.)..
Here are topics of symposia organized by the
school in Timisoara, in the same period:
1972 - Timisoara, Forensic Issues;
1975 - Sibiu psychotherapy in neurosis;
1976 - Sibiu psychotherapy in adolescents;
1977-Timisoara, psychiatric social work;
1978 - Sibiu, short-term psychotherapy;
1981 - Oradea anthropological psychiatry;
1986 - Timisoara, Social Psychiatry.
It is easy to note the psychological and social
orientation, dynamic orientation Pamfil school
teacher in Timisoara.
Maybe future generations will be hard to believe
135

that mere psychological themes of a


symposium can be seen as an act of
dissidence. During the communist period, as
Predescu, Milea and Ionescu, these topics were
considered bourgeois aberration "deceived" the
minds of youth. It will be very difficult to
understand what they meant for the 60 - 70
these bubbles of oxygen "in a psychiatric
ideological strait-laced, no perspective, no
horizon, broken by the civilized world
psychiatry. Even if future generations will
realize that it was not much, these symposia
psychiatrists community deeply upset after
each symposium, and especially the fate of
many protagonists are in danger of Timisoara.
These symposia, at the request politruci of
psychiatry, were well controlled by Security and
Predescu, Milea, Romila, Ionescu and their
associates organized the real public campaign
against the "aberrations" that these people
confused over which the impact was very
young. Some symposia often took the
appearance of exposure sessions in which they
only had to defeat the Communists,
representatives autenticii socialist psychiatrists.
However, under the authority of great prestige,
have been formed, even if not officially, anti-
psychiatrists across the country. With all the
number and prevalence of justice, Romanian
psychiatry remained tight throughout this period
conducted administrative group from Bucharest
who had the gun in his hand promotions,
136

transfers, issuance of securities, appointment


and dismissal, they are the only interlocutors of
the ministry and probably only credible security
organs and the central party. Ups, slander,
denunciations, blocking promotion or leaving
abroad - all have full use of the weapon and to
steer our anti-Western psychiatry.
A special position was a cheese in Iasi, which
at one point wanted to dissociate the group
from Bucharest, ill-famed, saying its theory-
called bio-psycho-social concept - which,
although The original had nothing compared to
Western psychiatry has become a new era in
the context of tartorii separation from
Bucharest.
Under the current second shooting, these tart
had cosmetic changes to bring their concept -
consistent materialist - and formally accept, to
end the decade in August, with some
modifications absurd claim that theirs long.
But, these phenomena of dissidence, the
absolute control of psychiatry will be
increasingly difficult to maintain and a decisive
assault of young generations will come directly
in conflict with concepts of socialist psychiatry
to claim desolate, for owners of psychiatry,
political repression that exists in Romania and
prisoners of conscience. A new stage of
dissidence will start now. Phase symposia and
"battle" to substantially overcome and tartorii
psychiatry psychiatry are now appearing on
bank charges to the public. 3. Step dissidents
137

and the opposition open

Only in the '60s - '70s western world will set in


motion a destructive conception to
totalitarianism, triggering human rights
movement, and a number of international
organizations will engage in combat against
torture and psychiatric abuse psychiatric
methods. President Reagan identify Empire of
Evil, speaking of the beginning of the end of
communism.
After 1968, there are more and more stories on
the use of psychiatry for political purposes,
beginning in the former USSR, then gradually in
all communist countries, among which Romania
will have great weight. In this context,
psychiatrists, not just in Romania, will feel
encouraged, the effort made by the West tend
to break the isolation in which psychiatrists
were communist countries.
Thus, between 1975 - 1985 in our psychiatry,
as we stated above, has started a dramatic
diversification of the dissident movement.
Groups were formed generally centered on
hospitals, which, in a more or less obvious,
were made open position against psychiatry
dogmatic. Much energy was spent at the
symposium I mentioned above, the reason for
the decade August they began to be
administratively locked. Teachers were
forbidden to go to Congress in May or
symposiums outside recess, that were allowed
138

only in July and August when, as a rule, such


events no longer hold due to summer holidays.
With the affirmation of I. Vianu - 1977 - that in
Romania there are prisoners of conscience
hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals,
international organizations and begin to deal
with the fate of Romanian psychiatry. Amnisty
International independent Vianu's statements, a
list of political prisoners interned in psychiatric
hospitals.
But in the 70 - 90 will develop an effervescence
and a dissident opposition across the country.
In 1977 we will see spectacular at Goma's
dissident who joined a myriad of citizens and
especially intellectuals such as I. I Vianu
Negoitescu and then shrink. Also in that year
will establish the Free Trade Union of Workers
in Romania - SLOMR - Dissidents led by Dr.
Cana, priest, etc. Calcium-Dumitreasa. These
dissidents will know not only the communist
prisons, but Romanian psychiatric gulag, where
much work already. Also assists in the
formation of political parties especially hybrid
socialist hue, attempts to restructure the
traditional parties - especially PNTCD - And
other political challenges, which will end in
psychiatry, prison or pushing for immigration.
However, what will happen in the country after
1977, including psychiatry, will bring to the
attention of international public opinion and,
through the Free Europe radio station, public
awareness of our country. BBC radio stations,
139

Free Europe and others will always provide


information on actual cases of use of psychiatry
to punishing political dizidentelor. Appear
outside and inside are taken lists "doctors
criminals" using psychiatry as an instrument of
psychological torture, is given to news of
national and international opinion on behalf of
hospitals that are tortured mentally ill (Sapoca,
voila, P. Groza Raducaneni Poiana Mare,
Poiana Marului).
The impression created was volcanic, torturers
brought before the public began to feel
intimidated, listing "of doctors criminals" had a
great influence, many former torturers never
lacking think their crime. Many psychiatrists will
now wear their professionalism and will refuse
to take their responsibility to hospitalization of
healthy people who justify this request was
based on opposition to the regime, some of
them are released emergency. Those
undergoing psychiatric expertise (by Predescu,
Romila, Prelipceanu etc..) Are part of a more
careful and often have prevailed. Great crust of
communist psychiatry is no longer directly
involved, try to involve third parties, usually
some naive bosses keen appreciation.
Beginning of the visible decline of communism
created a real panic, actions already started
hiding and destruction of documents, which
makes the Predescu to say: "Show me a
signature put me on the admission of a
dissident", for now he will not sign such
140

documents, but will push others, although


basically full control belonged. For these
reasons, often on lists of criminals given
doctors the medical device insignificant Free
Europe, pushed in front for the first time in their
lives, while the real culprits in the shadow
remains. This serves a great time today that the
former nomenclature by trying to guilty on all
psychiatrists because, as they say, "all or none
did abuse" and a simple violation can multiply to
hundreds of thousands. It was very difficult for
the doctor on duty to reject admission of a
"patient" made the address written by Militia
and Securitate organs and here is how, in fact,
psychiatrists may all be guilty nomenclature
vision. We still consider two types of dissidence
that existed in our psychiatry:
- Dissident unorganized, spontaneous;
- Dissident organized, systematic, which
included organized groups and actions;

Unorganized dissident
Unorganized dissidence was perhaps the most
spectacular and varied motivations, often
conflicting. Thus, from temperamental
outbursts, which were unable to withstand a
certain injustice in May (when Dr. Patrascu,
which erupts in front of the Security Director V.
Angheluta communist, saying: "Sir, in my new
man is not never gonna do mat) to dissident
ostentatious to obtain a passport or involuntary
actions in which the communists found
141

themselves rated as dissidents because of a


thoughtless gesture (eg, those intellectuals
drawn to transcendental meditation as Romila
A.) and were convinced that the action has the
approval of Cabinet in February, which fell into
the trap of some well-known communist tart of
art, science, ministries and even nomenclature.
Many intellectuals feel that say things with
common sense, as dissidents found themselves
admonished to "naivety" and accused them of
intellectualism, although they had had no
intention to cause political structures of the
regime.
Numerous acts of dissidence appeared as a
result of desperation demanding individuals
undergoing intolerable. Some opposition took
shape refined appearance of true artistic works,
such plugusoarelor New Year, by Dr. Cornel
Constantinescu, or took the form of its librettos
for satirical C. Tanase Theatre.
To obtain passports for emigration came into
dissidence many psychiatric doctors who, by
their desperate manner required emigration,
were able to go abroad, where they "silent
forever." We present a few important cases of
this dissident unorganized:

Dissidence of I. Vianu
Though motivated by stopping his promotion
because of five years, with the dossier
submitted to enter the party, it was not
approved, reason ultimately asked to
142

immigrate, we introduce to her reputation,


which was advertising made by Western radio
stations that broadcast in Romanian. It should
also be recognized that, once arrived in the
West, he turned into a great fighter for human
rights and against the use of psychiatry in the
oppressive purposes, his work in exile is a total
contrast to other psychiatrists who, after
emigrating, have seen their petty interests, not
giving any help to those subjected to political
repression in their former homeland,
necontribuind in any way to increase the
informing psychiatrists in Romania, as did many
psychiatrists in Western countries.
As one tells, since the '70s begins to realize
that in Romanian psychiatric system there are a
number of political dissidents and torture by
means of psychiatric deterioration. So the
lawyer met Ionescu, Brasov, who wrote a
memoir about the situation in Romania that the
UN sent and that, therefore, has been
repeatedly admitted to psychiatric poet
Vulcanescu Neagu, said schizophrenia in
identical circumstances.
True "conversion" by I. Vianu occurs in 1975,
when visiting in an official capacity (as envoy of
the Ministry of Health) hospital in Poiana Mare,
Dolj County, hospital admissions for court ruling
on the cases being considered dangerous and
with the different active crimes. But he will find
that in almost 100 patients, 20 were, in fact,
prisoners of conscience, confirmed and working
143

in this hospital doctor (Dr. Smith, a former


military doctor).
These patients were locked in Poiana Mare
because they were considered "social danger"
(among them, I Rosoga, Nestor Smith and
other dissidents). The report draws on that but it
is not taken into account by the bodies of the
Ministry of Health and even the line of hygiene
has not taken any measure.
In 1977, after the failure occurred in terms of
business that we recalled dissident use of P.
Goma, writing him a letter, published in Free
Europe in criticizing the regime, requiring the
migration imperative. As stressed P. Goma
even a broadcast of RFE's despair I Vianu
became extreme when, doing irreparable those
acts, passport delay to fault and, in contrast,
started a procedure against research could end
up with one of the many political processes in
fashion or even admission to a psychiatric
hospital. Already his colleague, Dr. Oancea
Security declared that his staff makes
outpatient electroshock Vianu, at his request,
he having high depressive bouts. For these
"merit" has become WHO's representative in
Romania (It does today because of the same
merits) and associate professor. But everything
ended well and I Vianu and his family could
emigrate to Switzerland.
He remained well-known letter of I. Vianu by P.
Goma, much publicized in Romanian language
radio stations in the West, where you read an
144

intellectual despair crushed the regime of


communist dictatorship, the absence of forced
migration as a true civil death. Although honest
letter that says: "I though, Goma, can not follow
the road all the way open to you, I Vianu
recognize their fatigue and exhaustion,
motivation unfortunate to ask openly
emigration, being aware of all the difficulties
which will result in this case.
What did I especially Vianu, was that after the
emigration he dealt only personal problems - as
did all those who have left the country - but, in
contrast, triggered a power struggle for and
exposing psychiatric human rights policy from
us and the whole communist system in the
context in which security said emphatically that
"revolution is long hand." Become a member
I.A.O.W.P. (International Association against
the use of psychiatry for political purposes).
After 1989 will fight the same location full of
risks for Romanian psychiatry ethically and
scientifically for its progress. Asked since 1989
to return his country to finish the fight that
started it in the West, he will refuse for personal
reasons, but while you say: "Be sure I will make
every effort to what we definitely wanted to
make, especially in our field, psychiatry, which I
will always care about. "
Although developed within a dissident
especially outside of dissidents when I Vianu
psychiatry has meant so much to us. Abroad,
and today I Vianu is a supporter of all shares of
145

psychiatrists in the country to promote the


progress of psychiatry, including its ethical
conditions. Many international contacts, even a
series of aid have led to progress on I Vianu.

Failure of the Ministry of Health officials


Many physicians were Ministry of Health
officers and many could not bear to patronize
these political abuses in psychiatry. Here
stands out action psychiatrist Valeriu Mirontov -
Toculescu, general inspector in the ministry
tasked specifically to deal with psychiatric
problems. It finds system forced internment of
political dissidents and, although old party
member, he does not understand and respond
to support this policy, "in despair", a national
rating service line, but will trigger a reaction
disproportionate from the ministry (minister was
the same teacher Proca man of the Ceausescu
family home, which took out our work plan and
medical publisher, Psychosomatic Medicine). It
is true that, to the despair of apparatchiks, V.
Toculescu manner called internment in
psychiatric hospitals as "fascist."
Thus, at the Universiade in 1981 in Bucharest,
a total of 600 political dissidents are brought
with force and hospitalized in the psychiatric
system in Bucharest. Naturally, there are many
complaints, and V. Toculescu decides to use
his position to stop these abuses. Although
aware that these admittances are part of an
organized system, encouraged by international
146

critics atmosphere in this area, the increase


dissidents within psychiatry, he proceeds to
attack directly the situation using a legal way.
The record consists V. Toculescu without
serious criticism applies to how the Decree
313/1980 on compulsory hospitalization of
mentally ill. It reveals that the list of "dangerous
patients" that were required to be admitted at
the 1981 Universiade was composed of a
physician-director of the Polyclinic of the
Security and Titan (C. Gorgos), the execution is
taken from 'device' Hospital GH . Marinescu,
where many cars with two nurses and orderlies
lifted abusive mentally ill suspects whom hold
the sheets in their own home or on the street
and then they carry the force of competition in
hospital security organs. Most of these
"patients" had no status before hospitalization
or to justify the label mentally ill, some are
employees. Thus, the terms of the law were
violated, giving unlimited powers of an
outpatient psychiatrist, avoiding ticket for
admission without a medical consultation.
Moreover, repressive measures were covered
by documentary and fictional characterization
as urgent cases in discordant with reality. This
justifies the statement of V. Toculescu, which
characterize the situation as "hunting sick Nazi-
style." These measures appear outside the law
- that of course just the force at the time and
characterized them as abusive and without
discernment. Pressures are highlighted in the
147

note Interior Ministry bodies (especially the


security) for these new shares, interference with
these bodies in psychiatric problems. Also,
many people made subject to such actions,
because of this, or serious psychological
reactions were subjected to public oprobiului.
When V. Toculescu prepares and sends a note
to the deputy minister Proca, he is annoyed and
in language specific wood will refuse all
subsequent criticism of Toculescu going to
punish him. Thus, V. Toculescu appears as
"scared and overcome the tasks they have"
tasks, moreover, will be taken soon.
Universiade action was coordinated directly by
the Deputy Minister Mihai Aldea Proca, which
meant in effect annexing Security psychiatry
methods. V. Toculescu is accused of "alarmist
presentation of the situation" of poor targeting,
to guide you is the main task of a good
communist. And accused of "low political level,
he will receive a reprimand with a warning that
was to serve as a lesson because" it left
overwhelmed.
From reading the two notes can deduce what
was prepared as a Communist organ of state
power to take into account even the normal
complaints and service coming on line until
proved otherwise, with good intentions. For
information on the above-quoted note has
turned an ominous response style Security,
Inspector General suddenly became suspect
bad intentions.
148

Indeed, following the denunciation of using


psychiatry for political purposes, V. Toculescu,
ultimately, is permanently removed and chased
by security. But there was no question of any
form to take measures to stop the abuses, at
least to change the political system through
psychiatric admissions, this proves the fact that
official action was systematic and organized by
the regime. It was the work of mistakes of
execution of incompetent officers or doctors. On
the contrary, who was punished before and
watched by security, while political repression
psychiatric system remained unchanged.

Transcendental meditation business


The affected and psychiatry. I do not propose
to discuss the diversity of the communist
regime because it did not concern only
psychiatry, but the entire country's leading
intellectuals. Intellectuals broke the outside
world, forced to move in narrow limits of the
most orthodox Marxist countries have been
victims of this action challenging trails, created
entirely in the offices of Security.
Interested intellectuals, including those in
psychiatry, were well fit into the system, were
party members, academics, some in high
positions in state and Communist Party.
However, heavy burden for the system to fit
these intellectuals made the first temptation to
give up easily. Unfortunately, with different
destinies under discussion on this occasion
149

were, and some psychiatrists and


psychologists, among them A. Romila, old party
activist, lecturer, political education, a close
associate of V. Predescu (called just "
Predescu's gun), author of Marxist literature,
which became uncomfortable by holding a
service and social rehabilitation of the parents
committees of psychiatric patients.
Briefly, in 1981, some engineer Stoyan,
ambiguous and challenging element, probably
external agent of the Securitate in Romania,
Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital presents all
necessary approvals, including that of the
cabinet 2, and accompanied by the psychiatrist
Security - Dr. Radulescu - requesting
permission to conduct an experiment
ambiguous method of psychotherapy -
transcendental meditation - a new method in
principle forbidden, as was de facto banned all
psychotherapy. Romila directly involved by V.
Predescu boss and patron, who asked to make
a report regarding the results of the method.
The paper was commendatory and even
placing method proposed in the curricula of
secondary physicians
On timing, security starts "exposure" and that
academic intellectuals Milcu, psychiatrists
chenille, Romila, Dr. Sahleanu and Radulian,
many psychologists (Stoltz, Golu, etc..) Suffer
all forms of repression: dismissal of officers, the
exclusion of party threat of lawsuits, etc. refer to
unskilled labor.
150

Organized dissidence
An opposition organized and officially known
during the communist regime could not tolerate.
Such action was seen as an act of anti-socialist
and could not fit than the Criminal Code.
Conditions can understand some "outputs" to
understand some unorthodox literary
productions which, however, had a small range
of distribution. He understood even by those
who were opposed to something to emigrate
and those who participated in transcendental
meditation has forgiven (Romila was reinstated
in the party even at the last party congress in
November 1989). The organization groups
tolerate any purpose, it was inconceivable, any
organization need to be approved by the party
and security. In this context, was born and
worked, evident in the underground, anti-
League of Psychiatrists.
Anti League of psychiatrists could arise in the
context of the increasing number of dissidents
emulative of our country in many areas,
especially after his dissident Goma and all
phenomena related to the move which proved,
among other things, that Romania can not exist
legal opposition, the ending is in jail or in
psychiatric or through emigration. Manner that
Goma has directed movement was exemplary,
an uncommon intelligence and energy, but the
ambition to turn legal, even within the tight
communist laws, proved an illusion, and its
151

movement to the Romanian context proved an


easy exercise to obtain passports for
immigration. Goma itself was expelled from
their homelands.
After 1977, many international organizations
have become more radical in the pursuit of
human rights and ultimately will give more
importance to Romania, including in terms of
psychiatric repression. In this context, many
psychiatrists are becoming more radical, so in
1979, after the highest principles of illegality, a
small association was formed, initially
consisting of four members that calls itself anti-
League of Psychiatrists, having radical anti
orientation . Gradually, they added just a few
members from other universities than
Bucharest. Under the circumstances, the group
has not proposed a direct confrontation with the
regime, a commitment to fight the girl. Such a
situation was dangerous and deadly, especially
because we lacked a media type or Vianu
Goma, and with new reckoning would have
been different. Even the prospect of exile was
for us worse than any repression - as proof that
we received passports for 6-7 times, all granted
by the authorities in order to not come back.
League will engage in an activity instead of time
with well-defined goals to promote some
changes of the disease concept and institution
of treatment to fight communist and dogmatic
concepts, all done in a style that at least on the
face to defend our good faith. The Securitate
152

was the proverbial statement that we follow and


said: "I cut slowly with hatchet with root root,
until you take down all the trees and I believe
you will succeed."
League has also proposed, also within
reasonable limits to create through various
media means a lobby (Paunescu's flame was a
newspaper that can), sometimes in some
magazines especially from abroad, although
censorship was very tough to beat.
Another task was the power station Free
Europe material on psychiatric abuse, but other
anti-material. In the field of psychiatric abuse
itself has proposed creating an atmosphere to
frighten or shame involved colleagues often
consciously or unconsciously, to discourage
colleagues from various committees of
expertise because, although the communists
check
You, their attachment to the party was doubtful.
The actions were successful because, in
combination with the Free Europe news, the
whole system of psychiatric abuse was timid.
Another course of action was a "compromise"
main politruci of psychiatry (Predescu, Grecu,
Ionesco, Romila, miles, etc. Pirojinski.) Which
the party had a free hand in psychiatry. Often
this is done the position of "honest communist"
who could not bear imposture, defendants were
in the end with some outlet for this type of
organ (Legionnaire filiation to Predescu, lack of
communist orthodoxy, organizational
153

incompetence, lack of professionalism, stifling


criticism). Be said that even communism tartorii
enjoyed one another's evil. Although viewed
retrospectively, it seems naïve, had a very
successful action, the party is tired of the
inability of these persons and their immobility,
even in the Marxist-ideological issues. Thus,
gradually lost Predescu "light frame" of the
party, lost his deputy, phenomena which threw
him into a state of deterrence has not come
back again. Ionescu and the delayed transfer to
the Faculty of Philosophy of Medicine, and his
attitude and especially antipsihanalitica
antipsihologica began to be publicly
condemned in various works (I Cucu - Medical
Psychology, 1980).
Based on this background of vulnerability could
trigger coordinated attacks on the entire
construction of socialist psychiatry at which the
crust had worked painstakingly for decades.
The first breakthrough was the permission to
remove monographic works on own. The
contribution provided with money recovered
from selling all, the organization has allowed
the development of fundamental pioneering
works for a communist country like ours
(Psychosomatics, Medical Psychology,
Psychotherapy, Social Psychiatry in two
installments, adolescent psychiatry, etc.).. Even
if tartorii communism - Predescu, Proca, as I
mentioned, were removed from bookstores
Social Psychiatry by memorandum to Cabinet
154

in February, gaining and disbarment from the


May print entitled, "River" is produced and it
was irreparable, the works existed and there.
For over seven years until dezmeticirea
repressive bodies, drafting an alternative to our
psychiatrist is produced, and the construction of
decades of socialist psychiatry began to
crumble.
In 1979, with the league organization, all based
on lobbying, Flame magazine will publish an
interview with I. May 10 Cucu, where, using the
pretext, will be given strong dogmatic
communist attack on psychiatry. Attacked
dogmatism (ie speaking psychiatry veil built
Predescu, "socialist psychiatry"), ridiculing its
claims festiviste author bemoans directly, read
the magazine era, our fate psychiatry, which is
presented as a principled and instiututional
exceeded and the which evaluates verbatim as
synonymous with the nineteenth-century
psychiatry. V. Predescu is not covertly attacked,
but rated for this situation is to blame for
blocking the psychological faculties of medical
education or training and psychiatrists, all
ostentatious, schools psychiatric in Timisoara
and Iasi are cited as being in combat with
dogmatism and obscurantism in psychiatry. The
complaint also directly absence of real life
science, prodigious before the war, the absence
of any psychiatric congress in the country, a
frame that psychiatrists and to discuss
professional issues.
155

Here today, after so many years, a statement of


Dr. Popa, made the last Congress of History of
Medicine, 2004, communication that we present
in full:
"A man of courage - Ioan CUCU
Flame magazine No. 19 (1248) of 10 May 1979,
appears an interview with Dr. John Cucu, MD
psychiatrist, doctor of medical sciences,
assistant chair of psychiatry at the Institute of
Medicine and Pharmacy (as it was then called,
after the Soviet Fashion , UMF Carol Davila),
who recently published a book in two volumes -
"social psychiatry" - that made some very
critical statements, which have caused a huge
valve psychiatric world, and not only of time.
Post interview was "Psychiatry should not be a
Cinderella, and this concerns not only
psychiatrists, but all of us." In the interview, the
doctor Cucu, which we knew and we know that
was my assistant, made a severe criticism of
psychiatry in Bucharest, his criticism of the
book develops several pages. Here are some
important ideas. After the dates on the situation
of psychiatry in developed countries, where
affected bedding specialty (besides a great
development of forms of ambulatory care)
exceed in number those affected by all other
specialties, after saying what should be a
psychiatrist in the age modern confessor it took
place after merits special mention of Professor
Pamfil School and, mutatis mutandis, Professor
School of cheese in overcoming dogmatism,
156

the doctor Cucu addresses the main theme,


namely critical "school in Bucharest, remained a
prisoner of nineteenth-century psychiatrists,
physical model of disease, mechanistic
materialist, which neglects the social and
psychological factors in the etiology of
psychiatric disorders so caught Next, referring
to the underestimation of psychiatry and its role
in modern society. And Graduate School of
Psychology, notice the lack of this discipline in
the Faculty of Medicine curriculum. Notice then
the small number of psychiatric day stationary,
remaining number, unfortunately, to this day
almost unchanged.
In his book, which was proposed to be
withdrawn from bookstores and on the blast
pressure from management to the Department
of Bucharest, the doctor Cucu critical mobs
promotion system, feudal way of driving
sections of the hospital, who were kind feud
sites awarded on the lives of people agree with
management (existing situation, moreover, to
all communist health system that is perpetuated
today) etc.
Department of Bucharest leadership's reaction
to hospital (Gheorghe Marinescu then, now, "Al.
Obregia) was vehement denial and public
obloquy inquisitorial type Stalinist unanimously
to shame all participants. Were convened in the
auditorium all clinic doctors big speakers were
heads of departments, hospital director, then
chief of the department and lecturers. The
157

author of these lines has assisted in the hall,


the resident doctor on this release in the pillory.
Doctor Cucu was defended with dignity and
courage. I remember comparing the attitude of
the management department and its camarilla
(is a tendency, sechela of communism in the
collective mentality, the restoration of the
pyramid of power in psychiatry, with miserable
consequences of halting all progress, we lived
in the past regime. Participate the competition,
as the pinnacle of ridiculous and kind of
feminine Zaroni on how intellectually modest,
as ambitious and self-excited, encouraged
interested ironic cynicism of a kind of ring
master, great manipulator of university medical
education Current Bucharest), who display their
"grand achievements, that of a poor man who
bicker all the time the bag with some money, to
create the impression that it is not quite so
poor. Cucu doctor was not arrested or
convicted (he was still a post-Stalinist),
Department and remained in his place of work,
and marginalized but also nurses retired.
Unfortunately psychiatry situation remained
almost unchanged, despite the efforts of Dr.
Cucu and many other valuable psychiatrists.
After the Revolution, Dr. Cucu APLR action
immediately hooked, but realized pretty quickly
that the 50 years of communism have left
antiselectie surgery scars that can not be
removed in a short time.
158

Dr. Marian Popa, MD psychiatrist, Doctor of


Medical Sciences, Hospital Al. Obregia
"Bucharest"

The interview was taken by Dr. Cucu Free


Europe (Annelise Gabani) and caused a great
stir among psychiatrists. One of the first
activities of the League of Anti Psychiatrists,
interview triggered an angry apparatchiks hard
to describe the psychiatrists. For now, nor how
they could achieve was possible, if this is not a
signal that the power would be willing to get rid
of these tart. But it was not the case, it was just
a cold shower. Gradually, things were
"normalized", the author has made a public trial
at large auditorium of the hospital where, under
the guidance or rather she-devil communist
threat, different doctors - elements of maneuver
- they talked vaguely about "achievements"
communist psychiatry, but, to her exasperation
organizers who wanted to remain in the
shadows, no words of condemnation
pronounced. It took the great neurologist and
academic, but it was not a psychiatrist, Vlad
Voiculescu, get up and ask: "Why lose time
here in November? We were told we need to
condemn Dr. Cucu. Why did this have such a
respectable man will remain a mystery. In fact,
the organizers was a fiasco, especially since no
long-awaited organizational measures were not
allowed to take, is confined only to stop any
159

promotion, within those 15 to 20 competitions


held for the post of chief works with people in
any professional value.
I still play to discuss "where CUCU" session by
party colleagues of the department, as was
reported in the minutes of the meeting.
Presentation will be speaking essence of these
"colleagues".
Octavian Hanganu, collaborator, the straw man
of the regime, perennial member of the legal
expertise, where they decide the fate of
dissidents, the eternal Secretary of the
promotion, where the manipulated cells and
that in 30 years did not work for a doctorate at
is enrolled, the leader is friend, Predescu: "The
department has worked hard, but Dr. Cucu not
shown in the attitude to critical activities with
students as classes were held, and his criticism
could be made even in the Chair. Not noticed
that we started to do and psychotherapy. "
So the communists tried to trivialize critical
attitudes, calling a series of achievements
piecework. As for psychotherapy, it is not even
today (that is at times in a clandestine manner),
and PhD's Hanganu with psychotherapy did not
appear even today, after a quarter century.
Milea consider our practice in psychiatry has
taken a theory before and that cracks were
found and criticized by Dr. Dance list, as
Hanganu, each task (service) run the
Department. It looks like we'd be outraged at
the nineteenth century. Although the reading
160

material published by Dr. Cucu did not


understand anything (and it was hard having
psychiatric studies made in Moscow). Of
course, not an apology for a missed opportunity
"colleague" of study in the Soviet Union, V.
Predescu.
Oancea notorious collaborator of the organs,
the man who allegedly treated with
electroshock Vianu, sent to represent us in
WHO, feels offended by criticism and especially
Dr. Cucu cry of alarm, saying that psychiatry is
derived Romanian and the systematic
materialistic Professor Predescu is made in
derision, as "new" stay local. These
phenomena are due, obviously, "training gaps"
of the critics. "We must defend ourselves
against those real psychiatric science in
Timisoara or Sibiu those who have chosen a
dangerous path, antipsihiatrica" (so they called
those who did not accept the concept of Clinical
nosologic, materialism of "Chair" of Bucharest).
Ciurezu, cousin of the minister of state,
Stanescu Dr. Cucu reject opinions. It is
particularly outraged by the term "veterinary
treatment" used to address our psychiatrists
when treating mental illness with drugs only. Do
not believe in psychology and resume, as
Ceausescu, "achievements" chair actually the
few tasks routinely.
Why, says Nedelcu, who then fled to the West,
did not go to the head of department to say
what he said and went to Flame? Was it naive
161

or Lingus chief to receive passport as "saved"


the country and this department so good?
Meiu, who always said that is ostensibly a party
member in 1945, the Department brought piles
of "Uncle" dereva Director communist who
came dressed as a Soviet officer, is asked:
"Who advised me to do something, to say now
because I've got a great responsibility. " He
sees Dr. Cucu neglect work of the Department.
Neicu, incompetence and cynicism legendary
figure said: "To tell the doctor Cucu has many
lessons, one group stage (which was about the
subject?). What was the contribution of Dr.
Cucu? Why not addressed hierarchically (ie just
the one who destroyed the Romanian
psychiatry, V. Predescu), how can say is guilty
V. Predescu? In fact, the doctor Cucu stoned
psychiatry. Neicu think there disagreement
among psychiatrists because we do not accept
the position "forward" by Predescu and requires
that publicly doctor Cucu regret to say that
those made.
Damian believes that these critics have been
inspired by the former leadership of the Ministry
of Health, the Department does not actually
(Predescu) is to blame for the issues
mentioned, but "senior" (who does?). That we
have meetings, Congress does not depend on
us. And it is considered injured, but believes a
doctor Cucu do not work and that is publish the
devices are plagiarized (not saying who he
plagiarized). It puzzled who could be
162

"dogmatists", although I was particularly friends


and talk just as I was writing and all agreed. But
that friendship was communism.
Lohan made the State Department by a large
cell PCR of the Executive Committee, which
promised to care what schizophrenic girl and
killed her mother was obliged to adoption, being
made for it in Bucharest. There he received the
villa, after the Department for himself and wife,
etc.. "Dr. Bo handled by certain forces (it is
obvious tone of the Security). Has a sense of
great sorrow that I asked his opinion Predescu
to post the article, so proceed because a loyal
party member (Dr. Cucu was not so obvious).
Dr. Bo feels repins group of community (old fad
with the masses), but also represents a group
(if they knew it). In his view, I could easily
escape if I said I was imposed Article reporter.
In fact, in psychiatry, under the leadership of
Comrade Predescu all goes well, we have
nothing changed
Brasla, eternal party secretary, whose daughter
chose "freedom" in Germany, further alleges
that I have not discussed with the party (but
newspapers were not party?) That express an
egocentric point of view (I approach the
problem general in fact), that were eliminated
all party members who actually rejected me and
that I trusted party group.
Mrs. psychologist Rascanu notorious
collaborator, which is ostensibly her picture on
my desk with Ceausescu, when he attended the
163

Tenth Congress of Communist Party, as


delegates, as nothing I followed the Faculty of
Psychology, because I have not used it ( but
just call the use of psychology in the psychiatric
treatment), thinks this way will not make
medical psychology at medical faculties and
believe that a flame article has no value (then
why so much fuss and discussion?).
Sanda Predescu Magureanu believe is
responsible for the gaps (but he ran psychiatry)
psychiatry as stoned. She believes that if we
are organicisti and dogmatic (communist logic).
George Constantinescu, a man of great
intellectual value which was always deferred to
be called teacher raises, "Dr. Cucu material out
randomly, because to us there was a dogmatic
atitudune (particularly critical although more
than me of course Russified Predescu's
rudimerntare and its concepts and that to me
was as a teacher's teachings, as I was
actually). But error in public says: "The opposite
of dogmatism is existentialism, but dialectical
materialism (the exact opposite from what is
expressed in particular). Admits that sometimes
"it is disguised dogmatism.
Predescu, satisfied with the performance of
"team" and that's before they reach the critical
issues is not considered guilty of failing in
health psychology syllabus (although he was
rector, but was cheated of Piraeus, who
promised to make them courses that help
sustain them as the first teacher that taught
164

medical psychology, only that the first reward a


passport before making courses, he chose
"freedom" in Germany and never brought
psychology to medicine). But it's nothing, man
says he "has always championed." None of the
medical model of mental illness than it is
materialism that model must accept it. He would
do much to psychiatry, but oppose higher
bodies (although he was deputy MAN, vice,
party secretary of the Institute of Medicine,
member of Party committee of the university
center, etc.). What would have wanted to be to
have the power to act?).
What could the doctor Cucu that even his
closest colleagues had left him alone in the
bank, ostensibly retreating away from him?
Says that even in terms of P.C.R. is wrong to
say that there is nothing to criticize. In
November was not dogmatism, but the
communists concerned themselves from
"obsedantului decade, Dej era as a period of
dogmatism, which exists today in psychiatry,
given the non-acceptance of scientific
advances, even if disguised as incompetence
the resistance to change etc.. We note that
some felt directly touched by the notion of being
dogmatic, which is why we have witnessed true
deculpabilizatoare autobiographies. Not enough
to criticize "the era of dogmatism, but
dogmatism in psychiatry today.
Lingusitorilor's ears were deaf communist, so
everything remained as before, even if some
165

guys in the room were unknown, with "blue


eyes".
Between 1979 - 1983 appear consecutively on
own, the above works, works in the psychiatry
socialist - staged by Predescu, Ionescu, Milea -
was virtually abolished, in magazines are also
published several papers in psychology, social
psychiatry , psychosomatic.
Although the league has not formally declared
the existence never was felt and created a
great confusion among nomenclature, with
some unusual opposition. From this time
creates a situation that psychiatry, within certain
limits, can be challenging if there is courage,
something unthinkable before 1979.
A number of materials were sent RFE, NC
Munteanu's directly taught, but their broadcast
transmission was made after an
incomprehensible logic: there were only
published the most significant. It seems that the
materials have been handed to him Vianu give
feedback and they had suffered censorship or
lack of interest, so never reached the post.
What materials were good about our situation
psychiatry (over 200 typed pages)!
Revolution of 1989 found intact and in full
offensive league, wants to legalize under this
name, but the attempt seems too radical and
Free Psychiatric Association was founded
which, unfortunately, is taken to the death of A.
Romila, after he used it to get a teacher and
became a leader in psychiatry flirting with the
166

democratic opposition. This association is silent


now, the only remaining members of the service
Romila and several doctors that he had the lead
and remained understandable reasons, losing
organization and any national or opposition
vocation in psychiatry. Instead, he brought
some material benefits to its initial leaders.
Thus was finally a beautiful dream.
In 1992, anti-League of Psychiatrists still trying
to legalize, but the action fails, courage
psychiatrists not even allowed to be called
"anti". Legalization league was dropped
because so few members who - without fuss,
trumpet and trumpet - the need to use their
experience in slippery situation our country is
going through, when a return to the past is
impossible and anyway not the way our
psychiatry has undergone significant changes
since 1989 (the same ideas, the same leaders,
any action for reform, even if we have a
directory PNTCD specialist who dream realized,
advanced).
In any case, the league remains an alternative
form of struggle of people who have watched
jobs or social position, but good Romanian
psychiatry. .

4. Step criptocomunista

After 1989, unfortunately our country will have


to drain a long stage criptocomunista in
contradiction with what happened all over
167

Eastern Europe, except former countries that


have emerged in the USSR At this stage,
former Communists in the second line, which
always keeps Ceausescu back, take political
power in the country and on this basis in all
fields, including psychiatry. For these reasons,
the road to reform in all areas will have to wait
long, especially as the opposition now in power
have the same attitude begins to fear the
reorganization of the country.

Difficult confrontation with the past


"Nothing can save us from the past, there was
a" recovery "of the past. The future can be won
only through reconciliation and not by reckoning
or revenge, "said Countess Marion Donhoff
rightly.
Psychiatrists, as is the entire population of the
country, were put into a situation that could not
foresee that a time length compatible with their
life, communism will end. For these reasons
there were only two possibilities: either to
adapt, to silent and try to survive or to refuse to
compromise and end up in isolation, suffering
or as victims of repression.
The tranquility and peace that we give the past
years after the revolution, we can today to look
at the situation more objectively communist era.
Do not forget that many citizens, including
psychiatrists, is "aranjasera" Procust his bed
system, have lived, worked and sometimes
experienced and joy - as paler highlight - while
168

the current uncertainty, deception tend


increasingly take the form of constant
defensiveness, often manifested by depression
of mind and hatred. Do not we already started
to hear that in fact "before was not so bad?".
The practice until now has not only produced
frustration, victims and executioners were often
met, just as in psychiatry met and persecutatii
tartorii, torturers and victims. Therefore the goal
should not necessarily be identifying individual
culpability, but rather to share collective truths,
truths that surging look inside the perverse
system of oppression with psychological terror,
with rewards for informer and collaborator, the
surveillance device or extremely well branched.
Effect should correspond to that of a seminar
that tries to establish criteria for ethical-conduct
policy. Recovering the past is very important for
our country, but must be sanctioned actions
and not beliefs.
We must not forget how it was improved
surveillance system in Romania's Securitate.
Who wanted to study, even when it was modest
professional studies, who aspire to fame or
higher incomes, had to adapt, because the
famous right to work, study etc.. of communist
propaganda was not valid, in fact, than for
those loyal to the "adapted" and not even for
dissidents and indifferent. Therefore a
classification of major psychiatric guilty, guilty or
complicit secondary, which strive work order
fanatics, it is not possible. There can be
169

processed in order to do justice, what


happened 45 years earlier. Any one or more
criminal trials will not be able to clarify the
history, this serves only to "law enforcement
material." This area is included primarily to
create "legal peace" that are more remote today
than it was 7-8 years. Because of strict
discipline of the communist party "democratic
centralism", which allowed no deviation from
party discipline, most psychiatrists have been at
the same time perpetrators and victims. As
Pitesti phenomenon, Nazis and communists
had provided in their system of oppression that
dual role - the executioner and victim. For this
reason, hundreds of thousands of aids that
have served these regimes, psychiatrists are in
fact a minor case, were not criminal in nature.
Only a minority have access to power in this
context and social violence initiative, including
psychiatry. The vast majority consisted of small
bourgeois norms, which in other circumstances
and would have done with their daily duties
conscientiously. Is it true that after these people
have destroyed a significant part of their lives
now to be stigmatized for life that is left?
So these psychiatrists can not be denied
simply, the right to work, to be pushed into
bitterness and opposition. It's hard to fault
dozezi everyone, as there are a norm that
establishes the boundary between both could
support or resist, but could adapt.
There are several benchmarks established
170

psychiatric ethics:
First, the crimes can not be overlooked nor
forgotten. An individual whose brother was
tortured in a psychiatric asylum, or even killed
may be asked not to forget this and more so
those who felt the psychiatric torture on my
skin.
Collision trauma of arrogant power and brutality
of these officers in the field of medicine can not
easily forget. All these crimes must be called,
must be disclosed to the public, but must be
reflected in terms of compliance with the rule of
law, constitutional. It therefore followed three
principles in this context, at least in a state of
law:
Action and not be sanctioned only conviction.
- May be decided not only criminal law in force
in committing the crime. Communist formal laws
prohibiting torture, psychiatric abuses and civil
rights ensured. Crime is that they did not
comply with its laws, its own constitution.
- Crime must be proven to anyone.
Applying these principles in psychiatry, two
actions are crucial if we are not just a reform of
psychiatry, but within or establish a new ethical
vision:
1. Punishing criminals on the above principles;
2. Replacing communist elites who continue
driving in psychiatry today hold key positions.
However, we must clarify two things: to be
achieved and what can be achieved. Can not
resolve a state of sin by means of a
171

constitutional state.
Communist state crime can hardly be pursued
under criminal law. Can not be measured
retrospectively with the criteria that time and
pluralist democracy would not be fair. As we
have already shown and argued, communism
Romanian psychiatry created a real "criminal
organization" by its official involvement, abuse
and execution of a real ideologizarea
repression by psychiatric methods.

Prospects of post-communist Romanian


psychiatry
Psychiatry and former communist countries
primarily those in the USSR Romania and not
only suffer a serious fall behind due to her
psychiatric socialist transformation and thus a
lack of vision scientific psychiatry, but also a
chronic gangrene, gangrene ethical violations.
Thus, for many decades, psychiatry, with its
instiututiile, was the repressive system available
painstakingly created by the Communist Party
of arms or armed - security.
Psychiatry leaders since 1989, teachers and
heads of department were zealous servants of
the past communist policy and feel already
fastened on their posts, as a by-product of a
corrupt and arbitrary regime even if it is
completely gone obvious decline.
To these dinosaurs, young psychiatrists feel
perplexed and brake in the fight for true
learning psychiatrists, they are intimidated and
172

today I can not give gifts to promote if not


consistent or are not conformists with former
and current communist bosses. What can you
really understand these young people in May
when reading the works of two teachers, now
appeared, but that seemed to come from a
world of the past. In contrast, former
Communists tart feel encouraged by the
political elements that lead the country, take
advantage of all the freedoms that they never
would have given their colleagues.
Was exemplified only by action of defamation in
the press - put in motion by a Minister, Mr.
Mironov, a former advisor to former president -
a television director (Valeriu E.), some
newspapers alleged democratic party such as
MORNING.
But working here is how some official organ of
the state to ascertain the truth of psychiatric
repression. The Ministry of Interior asked the
parliamentary line if the Universiade in 1981 in
Bucharest were picked up only 600 individuals
and forcibly interned in psychiatric services.
The answer is disarmingly and play it from
memory at its core: "MI bodies have taken all
measures for proper development of the
Universiade, the action received the code
name" marathon ". Data on these shares are no
longer kept in the archives but only for a period
of five years. Therefore, all data on the action
"marathon" were destroyed.
Let's see what answered S.R.I. the same
173

parliamentary committee, at its request to have


the list handed psychiatrists who collaborated
with the Securitate. Also quote from memory:
"There were no psychiatrists who had
collaborated with the Securitate, but attention!"
Problem remains our attention. "
Finally, in connection with what could happen in
so-called medical center Brosteanu Street
(where there have been brainwashing
experiments with LSD deconstructed
personality type), which appeared in the press
event after complaints from the neighborhood.
General Directorate of Police point out that
there exists a medical unit for teaching IM and it
is a militarized guard unit.
Clearly, all "understood" answers to
parliamentary committees and the press and
answered just like any party activist.
So we see practical foundation that support the
old psychiatric nomenclature. These people are
clearly against reform because they will never
attack a system they have created and which,
in turn, has strengthened. Return of Romanian
psychiatry is primarily leading exponent of this
class return of psychiatry. These people
became victims of their actions in rejecting
concepts that demolition occurred in psychiatry
over the past 50 years, only because they came
from the West - psychology, sociology,
psychosomatic, etc. resocialization. How could
it today to win these concepts or to laugh, they
do psychotherapy, a method which ridiculed a
174

lifetime?
Criptocomuniste age psychiatry should be
present on these issues:

- Fierce struggle for power was nomenclature


Power struggle includes both old nomenclature,
a true gerontocracy today, and second-line
Communists, who because of incompetence
were always kept in tension by large tart, which
is why today's furious assault positions of power
(the need became liberal or PNTCD-ists). All
teachers and heads of department of
psychiatry, almost without exception, have
functioned under communism, and today have
the same levers of power. Although political
dossier today seems not to have great
importance and no communist party can not
support its Ministry of Health, regardless of
ownership (of course not referring to
catastrofalul Mincu, for which no degree of
comparison), maintains the same antireformist
officers and reactionary. There are no real
contests or competitions and obtained positions
are held for life. In this context, psychiatrists
and now opposition is insignificant, even young
people do not exercise than conformism.
In these conditions, the former and the new
nomenclature is not only concerned with a
permanent offensive "charm", especially to
Western organizations and personalities, but,
as in the past, little concern Romanian
psychiatry Westerners. If American and British
175

psychiatrists are more circumspect, the German


and Dutch and French in particular were left
almost overwhelmed by the "charm" the former
nomenklatura. Some even hold former
nomenklatura positions in international
professional organizations and their own before
1989, that is, when such appointments shall be
subject to Security proposal.
- Support officials, especially the Ministry of
Health, for the former communist nomenclature
Without making the process of intention, the
Ministry of Health has promoted a peculiar
verve in decision-making, sometimes, people
few years, in any case all tartorii communist
psychiatry. Thus, psychiatric committee at the
Ministry of Health is comprised solely of current
and former nomenklatura and the Gorge, which
deals with "lifting" of dissidents, was secretary
of the commission of psychiatry, but it was and
"Order of doctors' biggest institution of medical
ethics. Very often, as in the past, appears to
change periodic rotation of different
management positions. Teachers communist
past (Ionescu, Milea, Grecu, Romila) are heads
psihiatritice issues and educate students and
residents. All heads of department of the old
regime now has the same features, forming the
Team of all committees of psychiatry (forensic
expertise, work capacity, etc..), they are the
only interlocutors direction, of foreigners who
visit the hospitals themselves as the only
speakers and press. Nomenklatura in these
176

provinces form a truly local Mandarin former


communist power.
Once taking office as Minister of Health by
Mincu infamous communist, and an oil slick
spread on psychiatry. All special committees
have been treated by any physician who is not
part of the old communist staff, psychiatric
abuse research Committee - Diacicov - was
virtually abolished by Professor Ionescu
appointment as president, which meant in fact
freeze any activity. Ministry of Education and
U.M.F. Bucharest apply the exact same
communist measures, promotion of imposture
and faked competitions.
Although no longer in office, Mincu Julian is
known as a person with a hateful moral profile:
former president of the ideological research
teachers, man of the house of Ceausescu, who
underpin the programs of "rational power, the In
fact, the starvation of the population. But we
find that profile or morally do is to reproduce a
letter to the tart incompetent by party organs,
letter written on May 7, 1970, in which he
denounces chief whose job it will, it is not just
another scientist specializing in diabetes
Professor Paul faces his master. Life Medical
reproduce letter of December 30, 1994:
"Comrade President,
On 29.IV.1970, with no address. 2721/1970,
we received from USSM Society of Internal
Medicine, department of nutrition, disease, a
form signed by Prof. Dr. Paul John Sdrobici
177

Dan, the National Congress of Diabetes


program, which Congress will take place from
23 - September 24, 1970, in Bucharest.
As head of the Department of diseases of
metabolism and nutrition, the only department
of the central methodological profile and for the
country as a member of management, disagree
with the current way of working of the
department chairman, for these reasons .. .
Also at this congress is proposing N. Paulian
reconsideration on the grounds that it would be
discovered insulin. I believe that this intention
should be given more attention. In fact here
there is the answer for all activity in the past 30
years Professor Paul, who not only created a
romaneasaca school nutrition, but tried to
destroy and denigrate everything that was
capable and progressive in this area.
First, we are forced to reconsider the issue in
terms of Paulescu discovered insulin (following
a tendentious list of facts).
Global scientific world does not recognize it and
not ever recognized as the discoverer of insulin.
Now assume an unproven scientific fact and not
recognized at that time is ridiculous ...
Space does not allow us to underline his thesis
in the final reaction in biology, materialism, etc.
God and soul. It also denies that Darwinism,
materialism, evolution places it may be the
most reactionary position that ever stood a
Roman scientist.
Did they credit for that USSM by Paul wants to
178

restore his memory Paulescu ...".


It is patriotic and Minister Mincu and, imagine, if
you wrote to USSM so, as he made his
informative notes on Security. And yet, Mr.
Iliescu appointed him Minister of Health. What
country can expect from this man? But
psychiatry?
Under his leadership Mincu virtually halted
research work of the psychiatric abuse. Can
you imagine the results and call it objectivity.
- Free training psychiatrists Association
One of the most important actions was the
creation era criptocomunista Asotiatiei Free
Psychiatrists (APLR). The idea of association,
as I mentioned, has existed since the
communist dictatorship. After the revolution, the
need for independent associations with high
acuity and to put the idea to create it appeared
very early days. Acts will run faster. Psychiatric
nomenclature was confusing and expect
retaliation, as they had done with elite
psychiatrists when they took power. However,
actions were reported to destroy records by
burning and flooding. Excess of democracy and
especially to her anticeausism become
grotesque.
On December 31, 1989 is officially launched its
first call for the establishment APLR Marian
Popa, based on long experience of fighting anti,
after long discussions with Professor Pamfil
launching a pathetic appeal to community
psychiatrists call nerevendicativ and without
179

desire for revenge.


Things will precipitate. Nomenclature of
numbness comes when he sees that protects
democracy and to attack, and they suggest an
association called the Association of
Psychiatrists of Romania (APR). It makes a
great conclave in Predeal nomenclaturistii
country in which all discuss the seriousness of
the situation. Now appears that the imminent
appointment of C. Gorgos as chief physician of
the capital. This time, the future free
psychiatrists react violently. It launched a
vigorous protest, and his appointment is
terminated. The teachers are trying to be
paternalistic and subordinate to APLR, but will
not succeed if Ionescu, unfortunately, will
succeed Romila. Future between the two
organizations have exchanged messages and
accusations. Predeal Party is rightly accused of
any abuse psihiatice Ceausescu era.
On March 11, 1990 the initiative group of APLR
Association organized a discussion with former
political prisoners, where an action is set
benchmarks for rehabilitation of former
communist victims of psychiatry. Already in the
press, Dr. Diacicov calls for research for a
commission of psychiatric abuse. Commission
set up under the leadership of Diacicov and
many members of the group APLR But a long
and Health Minister dismissed him and named
a former nomenklatura Diacicov Professor
Ionescu, after the committee has practically no
180

activity.
On January 19, 1990 Rompres composition of
APLR announces imminent, and many appear
in the press materials on psychiatric abuse. On
February 18, 1990 the state makes up the first
form APLR by Dr. Marian Popa, then begin
collecting registration adhesions. Be submitted
to court and file through award 1763/1990, on
June 20, the organization gain legal status.
On May 26, 1990 the first congress was held
up, followed by numerous seminars, which
initially were held monthly in different
psychiatric centers in the country.
Colloquium Jubilee celebration incurred a year
of existence is forward parliament and MS call
for reorganization and reform in psychiatry, but
remained without result.
Between 2 to 4 October 1992 held the first
International Conference of APLR, where they
presented papers in national and international
personalities.
Unfortunately, after an active period, the
management, led by Romila, business
association has a work routine, uninteresting,
thinning the ranks of the association were due
to the disappointed and which could not
achieve as an organization and would still initial
principles be maintained. Management has
enjoyed some gains actually Association
donated materials: photocopy, computer and
some money were not checked as a
destination, which amounts could edit a treaty
181

of psychiatry, Romila became eternal guest


abroad whenever it sent invitations to
association. Instead, Romila decided minor
editing of translations, not to mention their
quality. Association activity gradually became
alienated, dictatorial management methods,
formal elections and with the same results
(Romila president), the youth disappeared, and
his organization into a group related
administrative Romila, meaning his
subordinates from service in September which
he is chief physician. So died a great illusion.
Today, A.P.L.R. there was just some naive
foreign colleagues. It now requires a reform of
the youth organization and they play that really
should take the lead away and set strategy.
Does Romila - teacher - will ever give a
business so important?

Chapter IV

PROBLEMS OF ROMANIAN post-totalitarian


Psychiatrists
182

Postwar Western Europe economically


devastated, traumatized by totalitarian
ideologies and the horror of concentration
camps, developing a democratic and
humanistic conception, will engage in the
construction of what would later call "the human
rights concept," a formidable instrument of
opposition against any forms of totalitarianism
or tyranny, whose victory became evident once
the collapse of communist ideology and de-
structuring in Eastern Europe and especially in
the former USSR
Full effort in establishing a new concept of fate
and human rights, public opinion in Western
Europe will be surprised that in its immediate
vicinity - in the privacy of her - an institution built
persist after the totalitarian principles on which
society formally rejected it, an institution debase
human personality - a psychiatric institution for
treatment, inherited from previous centuries.
So began the great sociological revolution in
psychiatry, the revolution that shook the
foundation not only psychiatric hospital, but
actually what is called classical psychiatry. This
revolution has imposed radical changes both in
the field of psychopathology concepts, but
especially in the field of therapy and institution
of treatment.
Mankind traumatized by the horrors of fascism,
threatened with a new totalitarianism - the
183

communist - with its institutions such gulag, he


could not afford, under cover of an old ideology,
institutional structures to support prison-type
azilar, generating institutions suffering and
human debasement. Unfortunately, this
revolution will have no chance to overcome the
Iron Curtain, which is why today we can count
accurately backwardness years - 45 - which will
be added, no doubt, is exactly as long as others
criptocomunist system and nomenclature will
linger in Romanian psychiatry.
Romans discovered after the events of
December 1989 horror abandoned children, the
"baby houses" and homes - hospitals,
psychiatric hospitals spread horror of the
communist regime across the country.
If Western Europe was devastated
economically 50s, but ready to be reborn
spiritually, allowing deployment of a
"sociological revolution" in psychiatry,
Romanian psychiatry seems to be on track to
lose its historic chance of revival. Totalitarian
period psychiatry was a faithful copy of the
society in which place, and after 1989, will
present all the same psychiatric racilele
Romanian post-totalitarian society: this same
nomenclature in key positions and at all levels,
ideological confusion and lack of power to
motivate change to most psychiatrists,
scenarios and actions such diversionary
Security, generalized apathy, hopelessness,
etc. petty materialism.
184

Although it may seem absurd to speak of


dissidence after the anticommunist revolution in
1989, when at least theoretically a number of
liberties were obtained despite the official
character of the democratic system established,
however remained only formal psychiatric and if
it is almost that did not get anything. We can
say without fear of error, that nothing happened
in psychiatry significantly after 1989. It is not
about the nuances and metaphors, the task of
reforming the post-totalitarian Romanian
psychiatry is more difficult than that of
psychiatry occcidentale after 1945.
In Western Europe of that time, war and fascist
totalitarianism were interrupted only for a few
years a democratic system which, due to the
removal of cases, could soon resume its normal
course. Moreover, years of repression and
terror led to an acceleration of this process.
Sociological revolution that followed was "in the
sense of history, it came a desire to complete
the perfection of democracy as a system.
Where someone sees us like conditions? In
Romania, the post-totalitarian situation is
different. Force was strong prewar democratic
confused at first by fascism and then by war,
Soviet occupation and more than two
generations indoctrinated Marxist experiment
45 years of communist totalitarianism.
There can be no talk of any continuity or a small
break. Romanian democracy must be rebuilt
almost from the beginning, the only remaining
185

hope only that model of Western leaders,


unfortunately so indifferent to our needs.
This phenomenon is felt by the entire Romanian
society. Psychiatry is too small to propose to
solve both its own reform, revolution and
democratization of Romanian society.
Theoretically speaking, the current reform
movement in psychiatry, given the generally
held that appears, as in the communist period
as a difficult and dangerous process, our
company is still impregnated with the
communist mentality, and the evolution of our
society is not a way as to democracy, but we
could even say the contrary. Unfortunately we
should recognize that the current generation of
psychiatrists will make reform of psychiatry as a
"destruction" of the discipline in which they lived
from adolescence to adulthood beyond. This
sense of "destruction" has been met and the
psychiatrists in the West, when the reform was
put into work, there is no reason why
psychiatrists have not been at the forefront of
the reform program.
This is not just the aggressive former
nomenclature, which today occupy all key
positions, but claiming a generation of doctors -
in a spirit of socialist psychiatry, with a scientific
level similar to the years 1920 - 1930, which
was forbidden even administrative contact
Western psychiatry ideas - to participate in the
destruction of old psychiatrists who practiced
and practiced again, maybe it should be
186

understood that demand too much. This partly


explains the apathy, adherence old girl,
disqualification, fear of change and pick the old
nomenclature, with the action that management
secured by this one exercise (as some still
crave inappropriate paternalistic socialist state
after they secure their lives misery).
Even in the West, leading the psychiatric reform
were primarily the great men of culture,
journalists, psychologists, prelates and not least
public opinion. Unfortunately, psychiatrists are
always queue Romanian reform movement
here and can apply best sociological finding
that "an institution can not be changed by those
within it, especially if they take advantage of the
traces of this institution."
Such an institution can not be changed only by
those who suffer from it - but who give
important mental alienation? - Or by people
coming from outside instiututiei, if our younger
generation. Cries of the suffering of mentally ill
are not heard, the company will give difficulty to
mentally ill tend to rejection and prejudice will
affect the disease for a long time on psychiatry
and psychiatric patients.
It is therefore natural that journalists, other
people of culture who value freedom are more
"first wave" to require a change of anachronistic
institutions.
In psychiatry, the revolution of 1989 did not
bring anything essential, or the general concept
of disease or mental health or in that which
187

concerns the institution of treatment. After


discovering fervor "psychiatric camps, and
especially the international press were able to
find the international outrage that psychiatry
had to face not only mocked and indifference
psychiatric management structures, but
opposition and violence after a well-tuned. This
was possible because the entire edifice of
organization, the entire pyramid of power in
psychiatry remained unchanged after the
"shock of revolution," they found that they have
nothing to fear, nor what to modify their
behavior, being small cosmetic operations them
familiar. Thus, if these leaders in communism
teaches that psychiatry is a discipline with
"great ideological implications", a discipline that
dialectical materialism is particularly involved in
the explanations they gave physical life, after
the revolution the same way individuals radical
change in tone psychiatry as a medical
discipline stating pure that communist ideology
would not be mixed, even worse, began to
accuse any reorganization or reform idea would
mean an abuse of psychiatry against political
psychiatry.
It is clear that in a psychiatric practice to tow the
old system and the former nomenclature, the
entire structure of opposition and dissident in
pre-revolutionary period have to fight in almost
identical terms, subject as in the past
marginalization, persecution and most recently,
of slander campaign through newspapers and
188

TV, including direct physical attacks. That's why


the League of Anti-psychiatry, which was
founded in 1979, no longer wants legalization to
keep intact the organizational structures in the
context in which a total return to the past,
including political psychiatric abuse can
become whenever possible. For these reasons,
we believe that whatever progress has been
achieved in the fight to keep all of psychiatry
since 1989 and dissident and opposition
movement will be just as long as the psychiatric
establishment is steeped in Marxist thought and
directed by former nomenclature. In this context
the opposition of psychiatry will continue to be
active, will use specific methods of fighting the
communist period, will continue to expose
abuses and will fight for promotion of Romanian
real social psychiatrists. There is thus a serious
tradition. Since 1977, I officially announce
Vianu domestic and international public opinion
about the existence of unfair admissions in our
country, the manner in which they were treated
prisoners of conscience. While weakening our
psychiatric ethics was highlighted and the
return to scientific, ideological dogmatism
abuse (I Cucu 1979, 1982, 1983), then
"psychiatric arrests" will be unmasked by Dr.
Mirontov-Toculescu, condemning is the use of
psychiatry against political dissidents who had
the eighth decade of open issues in the mass
ratio (especially prejma political significance of
events). These real psychiatric arrests could not
189

occur only with the collaboration of health


authorities providing the means, while a
security offered lists of undesirable persons and
watching psychiatrists loyalty into action.
After 1989 it was considered it would be natural
to take stock of the abuses and injustices of the
communist regime. Hundreds of verified cases
come before the official and independent
commissions as a first step towards finding the
truth.
In 1990, Decree-Law will be developed that
establishes nr.118, as with political prisoners,
psychiatric gulag prisoners rights to be
compensated for material and moral damage.
Many have been rehabilitated, but many have
refused to restore the truth.
Presenting the situation in our country, I Vianu -
1990 - stressed that it is characterized by the
coexistence of freedom in other areas of
extreme terror. Although the press is free and
within many institutions many are not shy to say
their opinion, knowing they will have to face
risks, those ousted from power still use gross
defamation and even physical attacks.
Everywhere, and especially in psychiatry, there
are some forces of darkness ubiquitous, in
contrast to the Romanian landscape is born.
During the Ceausescu regime, security, linked
by thousands of threads of the Party, already
turned into a formidable force, a truly monstrous
criminal organization with multiple branches,
protecting not only the communist regime with
190

all its abuses, but by evolving and a terrorist


network, and partially autonomous uncontrolled,
which can indulge in the most arbitrary acts of
tyranny in the name of defense that served with
zeal. If psychiatry and its use by this monster is
just a special case and minor in scale
compared with his actions.
Security was prepared in the old regime and
armed a perfect way to enter clandestinely, and
if it proves that psychiatry was not only possible
but is also present.
Safety of multiple structures, including those in
psychiatry, which probably escaped internal
control, were and are ready to turn in as many
independent commandos to act on their own or
order in certain institutions or across the
country and, why not, and abroad.
Romanian arsenal of the Security used in
psychiatry since 1989 has been varied:
individual and group threats, attacks against
individuals, slanderous campaign targeting
supporters etc. renewal. These forces of
shadow is the main obstacle to change
psychiatry, and cancer of the Security Terrorism
does not currently have no chance of being
stopped. Psychiatry became hostage to current
and former nomenklatura and institutionalized
by the Security system since the Ceausescu
regime.
Perhaps nothing is more characteristic
underscores I. Vianu, but style-psychiatric
securisto to act on trade union leader V.
191

Paraschiv case known in our country, as well as


abroad.
Here's a sample of what is happening in
Romanian psychiatry with only nine months
before Ceausescu's downfall, when the whole
European communist system was destroyed,
except Romania and Albania. Thus, on March
22, 1989, VP is kidnapped by a commando of
individuals who are identifiable as security
officers. VP is taken underground in a house
where for seven days, is savagely beaten and
subjected to glare sources. It threatened to be
issued against him a few vipers kept in
adjoining cages. After the seven days of torture
is headed Voila Hospital, where he is forcibly
hospitalized for 21 days, without receiving any
psychiatric treatment, only the time needed to
erase traces of torture and disappearance of
bruises. VP day discharge is required by your
department head and as "psychotherapy" is
delivering his speech which is required to
renounce his beliefs that are untrue, his political
hopes of being impractical. The doctor ends
with this unforgettable threat addressed to
"patient" and through him to all who would dare
to bloody conflict with securisto-communist
dictatorship, "patients are buried in the ground
and buries itself in medical papers", which was
forged psychiatric file . On April 18 VP is
discharged with a diagnosis of chronic
systematized delirious psychosis, diagnosis in
total contrast with reality, a real forgery. Today,
192

when the VP's ideas were made (be said in


passing, he was declared honorary citizen of
Ploiesti), when many unions were formed
independent, how could those who were
tortured in May to support that he was mentally
ill? Well, I can see that. This will support him
today, based on papers "in which he buried
conscience, while VP appear before any
evidence that a mentally normal individual,
address and identity.
"We're free," said A.P.L.R. call in February
1990, we can finally say the truth, the truth of
which he feared so much dictatorship.
Psychiatry, the authors call has been given for
decades almost underground status, minor
professional, even shy, although she often
served strength. But in a society of terror
aberration and high-ranking state policy
everything is possible. Everything is possible in
a company cultivate the concept of "new man"
cultivating, in fact, hatred of people, servitude,
duplicity.
The social was established that "double
standard", then double consciousness, one for
the front and another for internal use. This
strategy has proposed the annihilation of
human beings and, unfortunately, it also
included the collaboration of psychiatrists to
subject man to suffering a planning document
by the dictatorship. Thus we have seen grinding
permanent physical and mental strength of
people through starvation, cold, jail, confusing.
193

The whole society has become a concentration


camp, a real gulag whose consequences can
not be properly assessed but which will
undoubtedly lead to increasing demands for
medical help.
Psychiatrist became the last haven of hope,
being intimately linked, perhaps the most
intimate tragedy of the entire nation. Each
psychiatrist, in this context, he worked more or
less courage and skill, often had to sit and wait,
but most psychiatrists were mainly people well.
After the revolution, such oscillations have not
even sense or justification. To shrink no more
fear today deprivation of liberty or physical
suppression. For these reasons, today, silence
is a mistakes, and by tactical fidelity
remuneration policy should no longer have its
place. There were highlights one APLR calls,
doctors who have worked with power, while
others protested risking their lives. It is time for
both to reassess the situation and fight for the
rebirth of moral and scientific profession that
vocation.
1. Political abuse - post-revolutionary avalanche
of revelations
Since the Communist regime, a leading
personality of the nomenclature, the general
Ioan Ionita, Minister of National Defense, had
the courage that the Political Bureau of
Communist Party ask for explanations on the
functioning of psychiatric hospitals subordinated
to the Ministry of Interior.
194

Echoing the many news coming from Romania,


Tass agency - the former USSR - Transmit the
following: "Until recently, Romanian citizens
were witnessed terrible news: nurses and
militiamen grabbed directly from the street
people who desperately resisted, tied them and
I went with a direct Save unknown. These
events are mostly spent on the eve of important
political events (the party congress, state visits).
Territorial directions for health care hospitals
sent lists of "dangerous patient" hospitalization
accompanied by necessary documents, having
them marked 'urgent'. Among these "clients" of
hospitals include both individuals with mild
mental disorders, and cases with dissident
inclinations. Protests led to the dismissal of
their psychiatrists and subsequent research led
to the conclusion that these "hospitalizations"
were made at the request of safety. "
It's unbelievable how these conditions - known
to all psychiatrists in the country, as
international public opinion - Romanian head of
psychiatry for decades (not to mention, its
owner) says nonchalantly that "psychiatry has
been used in our political purposes. "
As in the former Soviet Union, and new people
at the top of the pyramid were ranked the truth.
As Morozov or Babeev former USSR, V.
Predescu, Ionescu, Milea ritos said they were
unaware of the existence of psychiatric
hospitalizations for political reasons. As
happened in the former USSR, and in our old
195

psychiatric nomenclature remained in charge of


discipline and therefore is excluded from
psychiatry reform process. In fact, it is
Communist style, always aggressive denial of
reality, even when it is evident here as these
older party activists and their work style.
After all, compared with all communist abuse,
mental abuse are limited. But in this case is
about doctors and their alliance with a non-
medical power, the power of repressive
dictatorship. For this reason we can say that
psychiatry, like Hitler's eugenics was used to
meet the greatest villains of social life. It is sad
to find many of the communist regime to
succeed than involving psychiatry and lead to a
priori reject all concepts of the humanistic
disciplines.
Use of psychiatric diagnosis in order to discredit
political dissidents in psychiatric institutions and
their isolation were serious things and some
people accommodated only evil and lies could
tolerate such careless acts. Is a typical example
of use of medical science in a work of robots
systematic brutalization and social life.
Psychiatrists torturers were slighted in terms of
civic devedere patients and then only because
they were brought by the organs of repression.
Only a little reflection was needed because
otherwise the prestige of psychiatry today
show.
A further study on the use of psychiatry Policy
Committee undertook research on psychiatric
196

abuse Bucharest, as long as he was led by Dr.


S. Diacicov, in contrast to the opacity and the
bad faith of similar committees in the various
counties. The study was published in 1991 by
S. Diacicov. We still refer to data that have
been highlighted in this study.
Thus, it envisages the beginning that the
number of psychiatrists who worked in the end
the repressive communist regime is very small,
but enough to throw a bad light over this noble
profession. Are enough proven cases in which
abuse is indisputable. S. Diacicov supports the
trenchant analysis of the works committee that
he heads (founded in 1990) resulting in two
essential aspects:
a. use of psychiatry by the organs of
repression;
b. enslaving of psychiatrists.
Although in all countries there are laws
concerning the mentally ill, the study of law is
not decisive, most important being Democratic
or dictatorial atmosphere. In a state of law,
even a legal framework for severe mental
illness will lead to repressive measures much
easier than in a totalitarian state. In fact, as I
said Vianu, psychiatry in the world is an agent
of social control, but in a communist regime will
play a political role. Most trivial conflicts in
which, however, involved people who have
power can degenerate into psychiatric
diagnoses and treatments. Internment was
made forcefully here for the disease, but events
197

- real or not - that disturbed power.


It was much easier, says Diacicov, its internal
someone in a psychiatric hospital in which the
individual could linger for life and where any
form of protest was impossible or not taken into
account than in a prison, especially when the
system is boasted that no longer has any
political prisoner.
All those examined by the Commission chaired
by Dr. Diacicov were hospitalized in the past
with the militia or security force, sometimes with
the participation of the Prosecutor to provide a
justification. Sequelae such behaviors have not
healed, S. Diacicov citing a number of
psychiatric abuses after 1989.
As result of work of the Commission, the
abuses were possible for legislation that
intentionally leaves the possibility that a simple
interpretation, anyone can be declared insane.
Here the ambiguous wording of Decree
313/1980 "dangerous mentally ill are those
who, through their events, endanger life, health,
physical integrity or their own or others
repeatedly and seriously disturbed the normal
conditions of work and family life and society.
The police will now be able to appreciate the
seriousness of the subjective in that they can
register and dissemination of leaflets, letters,
complaints, words do not agree. Security
organs or the party, in fact, have short-circuited
phases stipulated in the Ordinance and
"patient" was brought directly to the hospital
198

when trying to manifest, even if the constitution


of guaranteeing these rights.
Another deliberate failure of the law, as the
result of study of psychiatric abuse was and
compulsory psychiatric treatment hospital, no
provisions in the legislation of any civilized
state. In November, a person rightly or wrongly
considered crazy, dangerous, even if it could
cure, was considered in binding. This explains
why special events throughout the country,
were collected and boarding suspicious without
cause psychiatric hospital. Security of this deal
and every health facility was owned by a
member of the Security which was a well
planned methodology to collect on the
dangerous.
Thus, referring to the system in place in
Bucharest, as seen from the study of Diacicov,
these actions were organized commando
Gorge, nomenklatura who led the entire
network of ambulatory capital. A similar system
exists within each county, the local's officers. Is
available by default releasing bogus tickets for
admission without prior consultation. In every
county there is a hospital-store, in Bucharest
that it starring role Manor Hospital, outside the
hospital ward Gheorghe Marinescu. All this
action in Bucharest was supervised by the
Secretary of the Party "Health", the famous
companion Purdel, renowned for his brutality.
The scenario was similar throughout the
country.
199

Please imagine, says S. Diacicov, a mass of


people, subject to Decree 313/1980, was
regularly forced to controls, people who, from
time to time, despite their position, were taken
at home or at work even on the street and
forcibly hospitalized. Some people in this
category voluntarily presented themselves for
admission and around various events in order
to prevent degrading attitude to be "fishing" by
force and taken to hospital.
Expertise on the Board of Decree 313/1980
psychiatrists make a connection between
"violence" described the framework of the
Security and a nosologic - most commonly
schizophrenia. But this may not only be based
on poor training (usually committees were
composed of chiefs of sections advertise on
file), or ethical flaws which, in fact, due to same
reasons. This can extend to forensic psychiatric
committee that included the heads of territorial
psychiatric problems after they were approved
by the Ministry of Justice Roll (for example,
commission chief supraexpertiza the country
was itself V. Predescu). From such reasons,
these peaks in the nomenclature of psychiatric
patients examined as they are actually attached
to instructions received from party and security
organs, the most common diagnosis for
opponents is that paranoia or schizophrenia as
an appreciation of "detachment from reality"
these people actually are about their lack of grip
towards socialism. If someone criticize a state
200

of affairs can be labeled by doctors as being


"detached from reality", so a paranoid, crazy.
As Chairman of the abuse of psychiatric
research, says S. Diacicov could not do much
for the suffering of these people. Sought to
provide moral reparation just by wishing it to
wash the stigma of shame that led to psychiatry
in its entirety. Truth no longer be sentenced to
prison, nor to any institution.
Enjoyed a real support from the Romanian
dissident's Amnisty International, Romania is
considered, along with the USSR one of the
most repressive countries in using psychiatry
for political purposes.
In 1991, APLR, noting deteriorating psychiatric
hospitals, is an appeal by Romania's parliament
that proposes:
1. construction of several psychiatric hospitals
and Humanized appropriate;
2. classification of psychiatric hospitals with
sufficient staff and especially nurses and social
assistance;
3. medicamete adequate supply;
4. appropriate programs for students and
secundarii of psychiatry
5. changes in legislation to protect mentally ill;
6. organization of an Institute of Social
Psychiatry;
7. the formation of a mental health program;
8. political abuse of psychiatry research the
communist era.
International interest and support was
201

welcomed by psychiatrists fight the Romans.


Thus, also in 1991, the British Parliament has
held a special meeting devoted to psychiatric
hospitals in Romania. Purpose of the meeting
was to identify psychiatrists who collaborated
with the Securitate Romans and became its
instruments to perform forced hospitalization,
and psychiatric abuses from discussing
dissidents, but also to psychological ill, and
opening channels of communication between
psychiatrists and the West of Romania. British
parliament condemned the psychiatric abuses
in Romania, and a British delegation visited
Romania to satisfy the international press that
the misconduct or not true. Are identified and
personalities involved in psychiatric repression.
But there was no need. Romanian media
identified them than this tart.
Here are the conclusions of this paper "Word"
(No dec.199l 46/11/17)
"Psychiatric abuse occurred under the reign of
mad doctors who had the courage to play with
people's minds, and courage that caused him
occupied high functions."
Are presented as "tartorii" Romanian
psychiatry, people who directed, at least in
Bucharest, by means of psychiatric torture
prisoners of conscience. Even if they personally
have used drugs or electroshock, who have the
responsibility to get it was enormous, and their
lack of criticism is a real challenge today. Listed
by name in the main newspaper guilty of
202

psychiatric abuse, that those few who have


defiled the honor nomenklatura psychiatry in
our country. We do not list them as we make
paper, but we present their main
characteristics.
It is about five - six nomenklatura guilty of
psychiatric abuse, they're basically all thruster,
poor people as standard intellectual, cultural,
professional knowledge and even philosophical
and political, including knowledge of Marxism.
But all will use the formal attachment to
communism, the party and the Soviet Union as
the main advantages in gaining leadership
positions in the profession. All were, in
essence, some party activists in the field of
psychiatry. Perhaps all were paid employees of
the Securitate. Two of them, always remember,
the teenager made complete study in the USSR
(Faculty and doctoral), some had no
qualification in adult psychiatry (V Predescu as
child) and another (G. Ionescu) transfer came
from a Department of Psychology, University of
Bucharest, still associate, but the institute
medicine in a clinical department such as
psychiatry. Other two of them were promoted
directly from the medical services of security,
which is not occupied by psychiatry, but were
put executives of the largest psychiatric hospital
in Romania (Gheorghe Marinescu) and of the
great big district polyclinics - Clinic titanium. All
were polluted with writing the compilation
psychiatry, ideologically indoctrinated, works
203

that they have called psychiatric treatment,


encyclopedias, manuals, etc. Single., Based on
which they were forced to train young doctors.
Absolutely all served on the party: party
secretaries, deputy MAN, vice-rectors,
members of party committees in the University
Center or the Health Committee of the party. All
were members or heads of committees of
medical-legal, political institutions that ran
inmates to psychiatric camps. I wonder how
difficult officials today would be to identify and
see what crimes have made, even in the
context of communist laws from that era, but, as
the former opposition now in power, "if there is
political will." Any professional advancement
was approved or rejected by them. Formally
dealt with different sectors of psychiatric
repression (outpatient, hospital clinics, the jail
system practical, the system of laws and
regulations relating to psychiatric repression).
Any newspaper, any paper, magazines, all
were under their supervision. No idea if it could
not take the road pattern was not approved by
them tart. Often in the sectors led her troops
vrajitoate real organized. Her opinion of
psychiatrists leaving abroad, including those on
holiday. From them have suffered not only
interned dissidents, but many psychiatrists,
starting with those whom he removed in order
to make it happen (Margaret Stefan
Stefanescu-Parhon Prof. A. coffin, A.
Retezeanu etc..) easy to psychiatrists, but
204

recalcitrant.
They were actually leaders of "socialist
psychiatry" psychiatry who considered an
ideological battleground. All declared their
competence in an aggressive manner, they
imposed authority through violence, through
administrative means. They were the only party
accredited to edit books, write articles and
reports "programmatic" censor any new idea or
nonconformity in psychiatry. Organizing
collective "black", all have launched a largely
ideological literature, whose professionalism he
stopped the classical literature of the 1920s or
the Soviet single textbook. Almost all papers
were published by "collective", but "under the
redaction" of the tart. Structure Marxist
ideological obstinacy of these works was shown
in the eyes of their masters and modern
Western concepts were rejected on line party
activists rebelled against capitalist residues. We
have no competition, this kind of literature has
invaded the market, being presented as' real
materialist psychiatry ", in contrast with the
decadent literature of dissident psychiatrists
when very rarely and on own, and they were to
publish their works in print pocket each work.
Registration and rehabilitation of victims of
dictatorship welcomed psychiatry in the period
after the revolution, many crashes and ill will.
Thus, FG Marculescu - 1991 - noted that
neither the Ministry of Health nor the prosecutor
had not made any effort to identify victims of
205

political psychiatry and the perpetrators of these


abuses, at least as long as former torturers kept
their positions and those of second line came
teachers, taking place all their former masters.
So they could hide evidence, documents were
burned, then go to the persecution and
intimidation of those who had the intent to
reveal the truth.
Can not speak of patriotism and competence to
former nomenklatura. On the contrary, they
were constantly subjected to either an ideology
or a foreign power. Former and current elite of
communist rule in psychiatry not only will allow
truth and punish the guilty, but will oppose any
reform of psychiatry, in fact perpetuating
psychiatry socialist anachronism.
System itself to passively wait for complaints
were persecuted is a failure and ask how the
author is misunderstanding the situation and
how is the desire to hide the truth. Had the
British magazine "The European" to make
inflammatory statements to get the Ministry of
Health of sleep. But investigations have served
a true commando made against those who
sought disclosure of the Security psychiatric
abuse.
Why, asks the author, everything should be
done to elucidate the psychiatric abuse must
necessarily receive impetus from outside, while
Romanian psychiatrists who raise such issues
are subject to stigma and punishment. Does
this action can not be seen increasingly as an
206

abuse?
Prominent members of A.P.L.R. were
threatened, physically abused and slandered in
the media criptocomunista.
Does it ask Fiona Anderson - 1992 - Romania
does not repeat what happens in South
American democracies, where freedom has
been conquered, but it is dangerous to threaten
the torturers of the past?
Who were the torturers of the past and who
supports them, is today one of the great dramas
of the post-totalitarian psychiatry in Romania. If
torturers to be confused, in part, by former
nomenklatura, people with officials of the old
political and administrative system of
psychiatry, is harder to understand a number of
"conversions" post-communist personalities that
we see success social-communist experiment
type "Pitesti phenomenon.

a. A tragic case
Consider discussing one of the most tragic
examples of conversion, if MP
Excellent doctor and an eminent student of
ours, from a family that suffered greatly
because of communism, having himself
suffered a second degree in Theology.
But bad luck has to be drawn, perhaps
unwillingly, in the repressive system psychiatric
hospital developed at Voila and even has the
bad luck of being "treated" by the renowned
dissident V. Paraschiv. It is true that the name
207

has been mentioned by the doctor Amnisty


International Criminal practitioners involved in
the process of psychiatric repression.
Rather than proceed to an honest recognition,
himself being the victim of an evil gear instead
fit to fight for renewal of professional ethics as
would be permitted capacity becomes, against
all evidence, in an active supporter of
communist dogma applied in psychiatry. Here is
how to explain it if dissident V. Paraschiv:
"V.P. was seen by more than 20 psychiatric
doctors from various hospitals and clinics, but
patients like today is not unlike that of
yesterday. " VP would be sick for that, since
1952, it rejected his carers. Voila had to
treatment, but he received only napoton and
electroshock (clean professional treatment).
How was the Voila occupied a bed in one of the
best salons and, for that cynicism to reach the
summit, MP describes the basic theme of the
session, "psychotherapy" that makes them
patient, "we advise you to proceed something
smarter to fight employee policy. So what was
the VP, ill or a person employed in a political
fight? MP avoided when a trenchant answer,
when is the next.
To go from the absurd to the ridiculous is but a
step and MP do so when it starts a tirade simply
argue that all psychiatric abuses. To track with
consternation: "The pick of the street and
forcibly interned in psychiatric hospitals, at
various political events were not only mentally
208

ill. Can not be criticized as doctors were not


subject to power and were outrage, because
doctors were forced by the profession to be
agents of social order data and then the British
judge us? They did not wrong at Yalta? ". is
almost incredible, so much cynicism in an
excellent physician intellectual endowment.
And the following statements would be
incredible if he had not written: "By 1960 the
Romanian mountains died stupid, deceived."
Security, says MP can not be silly, we would
not have done abuses because "we would not
be allowed" Security. Furthermore, security was
very suspicious and jealous because I stole the
"offenders" that the hospital had a better
system and, often, the doctor was accused of
doing so out of sympathy or interest. Moreover,
the diagnosis of claiming (be embarrassed to
say dissident) was made by a committee, and
hospitalization and doctor have always been an
area of refuge where he tolerance and
solidarity.
To end any illusions, MP asks: "But why not a
political or religious dissident mentally ill, when
madness itself is a dissident from normality?".
The truth is that "shrink pro or anti-communist
novel did not abuse. No mistake or ill will, but
simply could not make them. Days governors
not considered mental illness as a civilian dead
and hence not used psychiatry, because they
actually wanted dissident civil death. "
So he sold everyone who was left shaken by
209

the image of psychiatric gulags of the Soviet


Union, Romania, Cuba or China or shattering
testimonies of former psychiatric inmates. In
vain was fighting international organizations to
expose political abuse psihiatrie.Totul was just
a lie. Only now I find the MP In fact,
communism was not interested in psychiatric
abuses, and even forbade them vigorously.
To finish, get ready to hear and a maximum to
which we always return. Thus, the MP said:
"Teachers formerly communists were a definite
humane and professional" and that we even
dared to wonder how the Romanian people to
overthrow such a system so full of humanity?
We called this type of conversion tragic and
inexplicable event, a phenomenon that can not
be interpreted only through specific social
engineering experiment in Pitesti. Not credible,
even the most zealous Communists have not
dared to go with their statements so far, defying
the truth and the whole world. It is indeed a
tragic case, a case in which fear and anxiety of
the former regime and can act when it no longer
exists, based on known theories that reminds
Paler - "psychological cage".

b. A case of duplicity
In contrast to such a tragic and sad case,
psychiatrist or psychologist if communist,
arrogant and insensitive to reality seems almost
refreshing.
A few words about the LG, which only makes
210

his self-portrait in a few lines. Work, or rather


work for the newspaper "Today", where "anti-
Romanian pulled hard in the pack." Today has
found the place really deserves - "Greater
Romania". Here, subject to national-communist
logic, grouping APLR which has undertaken to
renew our psychiatry in which he was originally
a member: "APLR Manu-military models, so-
called brain psychiatrists who do not fall into
totalitarian forms new political order for the
party advocating the power of Satan and
cannibal criptolegionarismul Corneliu Coposu
and Social Dialogue Group, organizers of the
destabilization of the country's de facto interior
and deterioratorii Romania's image worldwide. "
Thank goodness, as if the land law, drugs from
the University, the miner riots, was found guilty
and he is none other than Cornelius Coposu.
But let politruci to deal us another tragic case
because of his duplicity, you see that can
destroy a power take on a personality. It is not
just an individual matter but one example of
many psychiatrists Romanian consciousness
anesthesia unfortunately, including the APLR,
which gave high goals for 'some power' offered
by the former nomenklatura who still have
bread and knife in hand.
Mircea Lazarescu (ML) was and is an eminent
psychiatrist, was raised by Professor Pamfil
elite psychiatrists in the spirit of the school in
Timisoara practiced even in the darkest years
of Communism defying psychiatry's socialist
211

Predescu. He spoke but a desire for power,


master weakened and then left of us, vanity
power of nomenclature was well weighed
against which teacher or fought. Method
nomenclature, as always, was simple and
efficient. Professor ML quickly reach (jumping
three steps at once), who leap anesthesia
awareness. Quickly reached Chair, president of
APR - The association was officially
nomenklatura of psychiatry. For now he will
listen to former communist psychiatry tart of
being used as a true flagship (just came from a
dissident school) to block any reform, especially
reform of ethics or any exposure of psychiatric
crimes. Nor could a better person.
Contrary to his previous convictions, now think
of ML could be summarized as follows:
psychiatry was really bad, but I became chief,
he became good and there is no need for a
change. Reform of fighter he is now engaged,
body and soul, to maintain the old structures
that only a few months ago to fierce criticism.

To pursue ongoing cameleonismul


On February 12, 1990, the Medical Life (No. 6),
when there was a teacher, said: "Romanian
psychiatry has come to halt after 70 years,
ranks last places in Europe. Promotional
contests in Romania (see where beats) have
not been held since 1982 ... There is one leader
and doctorate in psychiatry, V. Predescu, and
doctoral last contest was held in 1989 ...
212

Teachers unable to attend Congress during the


school year ... Psychiatry was not viewed
favorably by high officials of the country ...
National Committee for Psychiatry (of which it is
not part) has not met since 1982 and has a
strange component, undemocratic and
unrepresentative and not know who made it ...
Who elected leaders of the Romanian Society
of psychiatry? ".
In fact, as any psychiatrist Roman Pharisaic
knew all the answers to the questions posed,
but he beat someone saddle and actually
understand what the man wants. Moreover, for
the awesome, ML agrees in aggressive
manner, the political use of psychiatry and
research is even excessive zeal: "this will be
done with the participation of international
organizations.
I wonder how many cases discovered in his
geographic area or you can say something
about the 100 miners hospitalized in Zam,
geographic area of activity after the 1977
miners' strike?
In 1990, the nomenklatura future post-
totalitarian era was very active, and in
November 1990 published in the newspaper
"medical opinion" working group findings for
psychiatry and psychiatric abuse, the group met
in Timisoara as "High" or patronage. Here you
may find this group, convened and presided
over by ML:
1. Political psychiatric abuse were endorsed
213

and coordinated the testimonies from different


sources and from people who have worked
independently. These abuses have taken a very
different character: Long-term internment of
dissidents, harassment of people clashed with
authorities or with some members of the
nomenklatura, the short-term hospitalization of
persons suspected of disturbing public order in
major celebrations communist. In all these
cases has revealed some psychiatrists working
together with the organs of repression.
2. Care of mentally ill always left lacking in
communist Romania.
3. Response is required to come out of the
impasse psychiatry.
The group also points out that at 10 months of
violence since the collapse of the communist
regime were not undertaken any measures to
lead to improved quality of care and the
mentally ill fate. Group of valuable proposals
include: establishing a balance of political
abuses in psychiatry, of any kind, including
other forms of abuse, the acceptance of a
plurality of scientific and organizational activity
psychiatrists drafting normative acts in the field
of psychiatry, creating the legal framework for
rehabilitation moral, legal and material to the
victims of psychiatric abuse, scientific research
"psihiatrismului totalitarian" and post-
totalitarian, based on the study of archives and
the testimony of those who suffered from
dictatorship, in the spirit of section 8 of the
214

Timisoara Declaration, should be that


psychiatrists who have held political and
administrative functions under the communist
regime to retreat from these positions.
There were no past two years (or until the third
playing of the rooster) and ML is different this
time: Professor (jumping three steps at once),
president of APR (Predescu's perpetual position
over 30 years), now lead and doctorates go to
all conferences abroad. Well, now man
remembers nothing of what he wrote before, is
another, sees other past and present.
Of course nothing happened in psychiatry
significant, except advances its meteoric.
Would now like to speak of a different mental
and therefore not for demanding an
investigation of an international commission.
Here he begins to declare now, newspapers
criptocomunist Morning (1992):
The group with which he worked out the above
statement, you are hosting, employers and
suddenly becomes a grupusul insignificant and
isolated mass of professionals whose attitude
he did not impress him. Disclaimers group (and
signed it) become "slogans" like allegations of
brainwashing, the internment of dissidents,
psychiatrists working with security people.
Attempts to establish a similarity with the
phenomenon of Soviet psychiatry would be
ridiculous (thank God that at least
acknowledges the abuses of the Soviet Union),
that is how we believe that Romania would
215

have imitated the great country of victorious


socialism.
A.P.L.R. should be composed not of fellow
psychiatrists, but in vero and no moral person
(though many of them were opponents or
dissidents in psychiatry in the Communist era).
Denigration psychiatrists continue to grow up
free from defamation. Thus, using the national
language-communists, they went so far "have
betrayed the interests of the country", although
He is one who writes from Germany Weinberg,
president of the German Association for
Political Abuse in Psychiatry, a letter in which
he and colleagues portray , by his logic, and
country. In this letter, ML said that psychiatric
abuses in Romania was not systematic, that
Romania was not a metastasis of communism.
Answering these statements unworthy, I Vianu
wonder to what level of abuse can be
considered systematically when the USSR A
few million people, were identified thousands of
political psychiatric abuse. This can be
considered unsystematic? But if we take
account of population, political abuse of the
population of Romania is the same proportion
and that only 45 years and not 70. Thus, Sidney
Bloch and Peter Deddaway point out that,
according to statistics in the Soviet Union in a
period of 21 years (1964 -1984), has been
hospitalized a total of 486 dissidents in
psychiatric hospital. But until 1968 there were
no well-organized movement to collect data.
216

These actions begin after 1968 and will occupy


more than the USSR, Romania only in 1975
-1977 international organizations begin to
collect data. Thus, if the Soviet Union in 1968, it
reported 24 dissidents in psychiatric
hospitalized, a more active research activity is
that in 1971 their number to grow to 54, and a
protest movement on the growth of their
number falls to West 24 in 1975 to increase to
42 in 1980 - the year the Moscow Olympics.
Given the size ratio of the two countries, only
the 600 cases admitted to Bucharest at the
1981 Universiade it would turn yellow if the
teacher Lazarescu would obviously have a
sense of proportions, not to mention hundreds
cases presented to the Committee on
Psychiatric abuse research only in Bucharest,
while in Timisoara, where my teacher is to be
found now, there has been no question of
setting up such a commission, though, if you
read the press might have been moved at least
fate of 100 miners hospitalized in his area after
their strike in the Jiu Valley.
Become an exponent of nomenclature, ML
supraliciteaza to absurdity. He believes that
psychiatric abuses, even if they occurred,
occurred before 1980, that is, when he was a
teacher, but can Professor Pamfil - imfamie
terrible.
To our regret, we have data testify the opposite.
In the first period of communism, psychiatry is
not too large a role in the repression of
217

dissidents, but only after the early period of


"peaceful coexistence" became necessary to
use psychiatry and came to the attention of the
communists. Moreover, in 1980, Ceausescu
regime conscious mess or repression
intensified, including through psychiatry
(Decree 313 in 1980 appeared even, that is
exactly when the teacher Lazarescu "says" that
psychiatry is no longer used as a method of
repression of political dissidents).
In conclusion I consider necessary to reproduce
a letter to Mrs. Ellen Mercer, the American
Psychiatric Association (APA), addressed to Mr.
Lazarescu is in action just to revive the former
communist nomenklatura compromised and
compromising, resumed and all the slogans of
the communist period.
"Dear Mr. Lazarescu,
I recently had the opportunity to read a
statement made by you in connection with
APLR and I want to answer your question.
Above all, we must say that more American
Psychiatric Association supports free
movement of psychiatry throughout the world,
including Romania.
I had the pleasure to visit your country in
August last year and spent more time driving
APLR In addition, they have helped me several
visits to different hospitals and clinics, and other
organizations providing care to patients. I find
your comments on the lack of "elementary
morality" from these people as completely false,
218

according to my experience. They had a high


degree of professionalism and behavior
regarding their patients and colleagues and we
were especially impressed both by the
leadership of this organization and the efforts
they have tried to make the benefit of a quality
psychiatrists in Romania .
Unfortunately, your association members were
not counted as time to meet with me during my
visit to Bucharest. But, of course, is your right to
refuse to meet with a representative WATER
and we took note of your lack of interest.
I heard about the consequences of psychiatric
abuses in Romania from many people in your
country, most being members APLR A.P.A.
specifically criticized the practice open,
wherever they occurred, even if the most
systematic form of abuse took place in the
Soviet Union. However, psychiatrists in the
Soviet Union have now assumed important
roles in investigating these abuses and in many
cases have acknowledged that this practice
was imposed there. A.P.A. consider such steps
as positive as possible and share CIS
colleagues hope that such practices are not
repeated. Steps that are in the direction of
investigation and exposure of such abuses
come a long way to shrink the certainty that the
profession will not be subject to abuse again.
Unfortunately A.P.R. not ready to take on this
noble task in Romania.
It can be a positive way for you to reflect on
219

why some patients and potential responses to


letters written by dumnevoastra Romanian
press. It seems to be quite difficult for patients
to seek psychiatric help and psychiatric
organizations should take their responsibility to
facilitate the prospective patient trust, rather
than scare through such battles in the press,
where statements like those made by your . can
be seen by people who might otherwise require
psychiatric help.
A.P.A. has several committees to help its
30,000 members, some of them might interest
you:
1. Ethics Committee which deals with
complaints related to ethics made against our
members and sets standards of ethical conduct
to which our members must adhere.
2. Committee A.P.A. on international abuses of
psychiatry and psychiatric psychiatrists
investigating alleged abuses in other countries,
including Romania. We have received reports
of psychiatric abuse in Romania long before
APLR formation, but we appreciate their ethical
concerns on these issues.
3. Committee A.P.A. abuses and misuse of
psychiatry in the USA
A.P.R. might have in mind at some point in the
future formation of committees for a serious
study of the abuse spoken about psychiatry in
your country rather than simply criticize and
fight those who try to improve psychiatry
standards of your country are many
220

organizations around the world who would be


happy to provide assistance to organizations
that fight for a high-quality medicine and ethics
and those few who would be interested in
helping those who prefer to sit back and
criticize colleagues who undertake such activity.
A.P.A. has very strict principles of ethical
behavior of its members. Thus, applauded the
efforts of Dr. Toculescu and your colleagues for
what called "irresponsible statements" under
the whole world on notice of psychiatric abuse
problems in Romania.
I hope sincerely that you will find a better way to
help psychiatry and potential patients in
Romania.
Sincerely,
Ellen Mercer
Director of the Office of External Affairs.

2. Psychiatric abuse
Romanian psychiatry situation disclosures
totalitarian era

After inhibition of consternation and organs of


repression that swept along with the revolution
of 1989, after the events they are waiting to be
put on trial for their violent manner similar to
capture power in 1945 nomenclaturistii quickly
realized that we do not have to fear, so that
gradually became more aggressive and soon
began to unfold.
221

Disclosure of political repression but did not


inhibit psychiatric briefly on the former torturers
still held the leading position, on the contrary
they have become more violent.
Psychiatric abuse underscores Toculescu
(1992), is also preferred firing compensate and
mentally ill are licensed under the rigors of the
market economy, because after this
marginalization be forgotten by society. Abuse
seems here the more terrible the more
deliberate.
Not even today, many victims of psychiatric
rehabilitation have not received promised by
Decree 118/1990. Refusing to recognize abuse,
psychiatric nomenclature frustrate the rights of
these categories of citizens only to discover
they are not crimes. Press and TV campaigns
humiliate and disparage the human person just
because they are mentally ill.
As we move away from 1989, the old forces of
political imposture, interested in reality
masluirea psychiatric abuse, become more
aggressive. There - and our experience
demonstrates - and the danger of returning to
old practices.
Fixed term, December 31, 1991, for dealing
with psychiatric abuse was too short, many
cases disappearing. How to publish lists of
psychiatrists explaining they were paid by the
Securitate, while in other former communist
countries this was done (East Germany, the
Czech Republic and even Bulgaria).
222

We play in these violent few who have also


been published in newspapers.
Assassination attempt in Craiova (Romania
Libera, 24 March 1992). Stere journalist
Petrescu miraculously escapes the bullet of an
individual murderer, sniper, who pulled in next
block. Because it was an investigation that a
journalist made the psychiatric institutions in
Dolj and important documents close.
Numerous cases of physical assault is
published in the press. Mischie Engineer (LR,
29 December 1990) was attacked in a subway
station. He was a political prisoner and
subjected to psychiatric treatment to elicit
information related to dissident activity. Also in
this respect, a number of street dwellers in a
newspaper advertisement that Brosteanu
Ernest, 1975, in a seemingly quiet building,
brought unconscious person. Neighbours heard
screams during the night strong. After the
Revolution the house was renovated, but the
situation continues to be mysterious.
Abuse and psychiatric hospitalization are
described after 1989. Also have to add here the
moral and physical pressures that were made
on members APLR and especially those in
leadership. It's night telephone threats,
threatening letters, physical assault, including
the families of these people, throwing paint on
walls and doors APLR members, all acting over
those forces of darkness who fear discovery of
truth.
223

A. The psychiatric hospitals, post-


revolutionary insights
One of the tragedies of yesterday and today
psychiatry is the psychiatric hospital situation.
We showed from the first chapter azilara
hospital and prison manner that promoted a
communist psychiatry. It is known that after
1945, despite Verve constructive regime has
not built any new psychiatric hospital on the
entire course of 45 years.
Disclosures made in the Romanian public
opinion on this issue were a true revelation
bringing public targeted by subumane
conditions of these institutions which have lost
any therapeutic vocation. Have been discussed
many psychiatric hospitals, their mood, some
considerations are going to continue like this it
was reported about them in media.
Voila Hospital was often brought into discussion
by its use within psychiatric repression
(Prahova being one of the largest counties).
Interned dissidents here were kept under lock
and key (Flame, 1992), and patients were often
forced to use the bucket. "Treatment" was
applied with force, after which patients almost
always slept, and then always having dizziness.
Doctors are used to discourage psychotherapy
May dissidents to fight for their ideals, patients
were almost always supervised through the
viewfinder. About dissident V. Paraschiv
treatment in the hospital have already spoken
224

above.
The Commission for examination, "sick"
because they were always admonished the
streets to demonstrate and often were forced to
give statements to give up their work.
Poiana Mare hospital with Raducaneni
hospitals and P. Groza Concentration cradle of
psychiatry in Romania. Living conditions here
were much like cattlemen. "Stable" have doors
that gave the pens, which in turn had high wire
fences, recalcitrantii allowed to leave or lacking
in these pens. They were treated as patients,
but that prison inmates. Some, because of
conditions of stay have become irrecoverable.
In this hospital, said Anna-Lena Haverdhal,
there were 10 buildings that were interned
"enemy people." The smell was fetid, smelling
dirt everywhere, there were no showers (it
takes two baths a year). All patients wore
striped uniforms and stood barefoot on cement
empty. Some patients lay apathetic, and if they
wished to speak was afraid to answer. Their
only hope was a commission arrived from
Bucharest to save them. It is hard to believe,
said the journalist, as here, after 10 years of
incarceration, could someone still all there.
Director QA can not speak too clearly about
these sick crimes, but remembers that the
director Corneliu Nestor stayed here two years
for "crimes" to be Adventist.
A committee still came in Bucharest in 1990
and it was comprised of: I. Vianu, Stuka Prof.
225

Dr. Erique Sottas, Dr. Marian Popa, associate


Alex. Olaru, Dr Udristoiu Dr. Dragos Marinescu
and, in the Dolj county Sirectiei of Health, Dr.
Marin Radulescu. Was also attended by
Director Dr. Michael Katinski Hriscu, chief of
special sessions with mentally ill fall in art.114
hp Commission found a very modest
endowment of the hospital, inadequate hygienic
condition of buildings and laboratories,
physicians derisory compensation, medium and
ancillary staff.
The discussions revealed a range of abuses
committed by authorities in psychiatry:
1. Admittances in the clinic of Craiova, at
political events, of former mentally ill resolved,
but who had ideas for arrangements.
Hospitalization was not dictated by the patient's
condition, but political considerations of
security. Treatment is done either complacency
or not done at all, and admissions were of short
(one to three days), patients being brought by
bodies MI
2. Admissions from December 22, 1989 were
141 patients, but soon no longer than 96
interned were finding.
3. There have been cases of hospitalization of
political opponents or dissidents convicted of
crimes invented and then introduced into 114
hp
Political psychiatry was the wildest and most
traumatic sights of the communist regime. Mr.
Mircea Bivolaru president A.F.D.P. County,
226

conducted an investigation on its own Poiana


Mare Hospital, under a total non-cooperation of
health professionals who had an intense
consciousness of guilt and a bad total will to
record keeping. Still have counted 24 cases
diagnosed with paranoia, psychosis involution,
which, in fact, had been convicted of
"propaganda against the socialist system."
Although considered ill, they were convicted by
military tribunals. It is curious that as, during the
Revolution, 45 cases have gone without any
formality, although each has its own file his
conviction.
Manor Hospital has gained an infamous, here is
"stored" all indezirabilii Bucharest, for political
dissidents, especially near the congress party
and other political and even sporting events,
such as the Universiade.
Former Chief of boldly press Manor offers
several significant dates: in 1986 were made in
the manner described above, that is abusive,
156 people, only 68 in 1987 and 1989 and
fewer - 49. The other occasions were brought
here many 100 people, about the same every
time.
In a totalitarian society, to think differently than
the official ideology was crazy, these individuals
were considered no sense of reality, dangerous
for ordering the socialist and national security.
But "madness" of the dissidents had testified to
acts right.
Victims, former head of the Department
227

emphasizes Manor, were sent to hospital often


beaten. Each case was accompanied by an
address from militia bodies, so they could not
refuse. Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital in all
departments (and Manor because it was just a
part of the hospital) was known a number of
drug cocktails. All wards in which dissidents
were staying was closed grateful. It says: "See
to them what to do This one, and we know what
this means. Some doctors acted in order,
others of excessive zeal, not to lose benefits.
We have to acknowledge what was said former
Chief of Manor, and start a good thing, because
people have become nothing, and it is a crime,
however can not be recovered. "They did
nothing of the man and it is a crime, some
brought to the hospital morgue zdraveni
reached ... . I feel ashamed of the cruelty he
had been a support for the 2915 lei per month. I
must have pride and all this money to buy
candles.
Such an honest statement of the doctor forced
to become an instrument of torture of inhuman
treatment of a psychiatrist becomes communist
"denigrating attitude" towards the country and
from Romanian psychiatry.
Here's how one journalist describes the living
conditions of the Manor Hospital: "Salons are
actually some stables, patients have sufficient
light, stable glasses are usually small. On the
exterior walls are made grotesque drawings.
And all 159 patients are asking not only for
228

bread, cigarettes and discharge. Many are


abandoned by family here. Day visit was
"potato day. The room can not stand because
the smell of mold and urine. Patients were dirty
and torn them gowns.
Zam psychiatric hospital is located near
Hunedoara and it became a place of detention
for dissidents and regime opponents. In 1977,
after the Jiu Valley miners' strike in this area
were many infuse Securitate. Each work team
was accompanied by two "new employees".
Daily disappeared former union leaders. It was
found that many had gone missing, actually
interned in psychiatric hospital Zam.
O. Luchian Health Ministry Inspector General,
found in this inspection period at that hospital,
he was surprised to see two doctors and three
individuals with white coats, but with boots
ofiteresti who made their "rounds". He learns
that only the day before were brought there 40
miners without admission tickets without being
registered to the emergency room. None of the
"patients" have no observation sheet.
During the inspection on which the service line
is always accompanied by three officers. The
inspector, in these conditions, also found that
"patients" wore helmets and miner's overalls.
One of the miners was the glass and shake a
room, hooked bars, shouting: "Let me leave
here, I have nothing."
Trees psychiatric ward is described by journalist
Carmen Antohi (1991) as an inferno.
229

Department is located in a former noble


mansion in which "store" 70 patients. Sanitary
state of degradation are incredible, pipes are
broken, missing taps. Ceilings are cracked and
threatening with imminent demolished, the sick,
the walls are swollen by dampness. Some
salons are not heated, and electric light does
not work because of very old plants.
Psychiatric hospital in Tg. Mine is described by
S. Fahi as a neuropuscarie. He works in a
former prison building dismantled because
paraginirii. Instead of mentally ill prisoners are
today.
Hospital is old and high stone walls which are
raised with barbed wire. Large locks and
fencing are everywhere, so that patients are
well guarded, but the question is not being well
cared for. Nothing here makes you not think it is
a hospital. Over that same smell of urine, same
broken windows. Women can see the halls of
mating pairs under the impassive eyes of other
patients, and men working the halls of
homosexuals. Everywhere is cold, barely
terracotta stoves are hot. Those with sleep
wearing coats, blankets were thin and broken.
Patients in more power are used for forced
labor.

b. commando attack securisto-psychiatric


In 1992, the communist nomenclature of
psychiatry decided to go to an adjustment of
accounts in the days of her best. In the context
230

of "new" political leadership of the country when


it deems it opportune to undertake a demolition
action, style glory years, psychiatrists have
begun to criticize the face and especially
psychiatric abuses against APLR, which
distinguished group particularly in this context.
Speaking of Stalin and Stalinism, Roy
Medvedev characterize excellent way of
thinking politics of communism, characterized
by a continuous offensive against the
opposition of left or right, to deceive public
opinion by organizing diversions "counter" that
they often invent , appearing in the role of
"saviors" of the country. debacle was always
put down to "diversionary" bourgeois elements
hostile and treacherous, the saboteurs, reason
to falsify the truth is rude. paralyzed by fear, will
thicken supravetuitorii among choir praises to
"leader."
The emergence of communism, the Romanian
metastasis, Stalinism and the epiphenomenon
or - psychiatric abuse - the same scenario took
place everywhere and fight for the former
communist nomenklatura ariegarda of
psychiatry fits perfectly with the classical type of
Stalinism.
Based on this ideology, in early 1992, after a
guilty silence after you were convinced that in
Romania there will be a trial of communism, the
main perpetrators of abuse triggered a
psychiatric type commando action against
those who championed now directly and
231

aggressively to reform psychiatry.


Television campaign and Emanuel Valeriu
along series of power since the communist
newspaper - "Morning" - is a typical example of
an action inspired by the Securitate, especially
by calumny and disinformation in professional
manner.
Pushing against a doctor insignificant
caracteriale with serious problems, family and
professional, it allegedly takes "full
responsibility" but in fact he gave at the
nomenclature - opening this "discussion"
articles in the press by anonymous or by
entering the scene she-devil - to organize a
campaign of denigration and lies in the days of
their best (invective, lies, etc. Artificial
indignation.).
For the attack to have a minimum of credibility,
commando accusations need "specific" country
betrayal, betrayal of psychiatry, verocitate,
careerism, but at the same time opponents are
an "insignificant group, staff psychiatrists are
obviously with everything around them, just as it
was until 1989 the Roman people as a monolith
around "leader." And this is how true are the
claims that the poet says: "First desfigureaza
your opponent and then you can treat as a
monster." As under communism, are the main
opposition leaders guilty of psychiatry, the rest
are just "wrong recoverable. Trying to decipher
the mechanism.
Taking advantage of the international media
232

and in particular anxiety of some accusations


brought by the British magazine "The
European" repeated accusations by the major
dailies in the country that demonstrate the
existence of psychiatric abuse and after 1989,
commando transfer such information, in part
untrue, APLR management Show that at the
appearance of "Morning" and the TV situation
was clarified and public official for over a year,
meaning that international media were not
exaggerations based on information from
APLR, had no idea those dominated by slander
and revansei no importance. For communist
thinking truth is relative and partiality (Lenin),
and the panoply of cliches will be put in motion.
If "their truth" does not exist, it will produce. In
this way, broadcasts his show and his Valeriu
E. Duica of "Morning" political events have
become well-directed by former secret police
and communist psychiatrists by their
colleagues.
For now, the scenario will develop in typical
fashion, well known from former "Spark."
A.P.L.R. management claims of damages is
"The European", as that in Romania there were
300 prisoners of conscience hospitalized in
psychiatric hospitals and "Ministry of Truth"
requires "guilty" to be branded as traitors.
Dezvinovatirile, denials, arguments, written
documents can not have any influence because
this campaign is not actually proposed their
truth, but denigrates certain ideas, attitudes and
233

ethical presentation of psychiatric abuse in the


past like lies.
Perhaps typical slander listing communist
mentality should not concern us. A white book
on psychiatric abuse is primarily a communist
piece of memory for a few years calomniatorii
not to say that today lies were truths. Here and
in the following summary, defamatory manner
which filled 60 pages of newsprint and hours of
broadcast on public television.
The authors argue that work A.P.L.R. series to
expose psychiatric abuses Communist prestige
affects an entire socio-professional categories,
but, even worse, this also means a betrayal of
the fatherland. A.P.L.R. group is very small,
unrepresentative, less than 1% of psychiatrists
Romans, while their association - APR - Would
have over 1,000 members, namely, not to
mention, all psychiatrists in Romania. Though
so small, this may grupuscul careful to honor
the profession and why not, the entire medical
guilds and even whole countries. A.P.L.R. goal
was established only to undermine psychiatry
and to blame all psychiatrists (five - six tart
guilty now identify all psychiatrists) and, of
course, accuse just imaginary facts. The stated
goal of the association would be to identify
victims and psychiatric doctors guilty of abuse,
but proves unable eloquent found guilty as all
those who have held leadership positions in
psychiatry, whose members APLR posts they
are concerned with "hungry eyes". But, upon
234

former nomenklatura, even if there were


political abuses were not in proportion to mass
(the old argument Lazarescu, which replied
Vianu, as shown above) and in any case after
1980 (ie at a time reasonably be verified).
Because, they say, what a totalitarian regime
should not use psychiatry and prisons? Like not
knowing the hunger for international prestige
communist leaders.
In relation to security, psychiatry was only a
defender of the patient. Security by way
psychiatry was a "humanitarian" in that they
help the individual, a luxury for individuals and
for psychiatry it was only a "complication." In
fact, it belonged to dissident Security and only
in case of "irecuperabilitate" severe was
assisted by a psychiatrist, but be careful, but
the benefit dissident.
We believe that these statements by the
cynicism has reached maximum. And then
continue nomenclaturistii, there were no
dissidents, because there was no new
Sakharov (just like a joke that gets pot neighbor
who borrowed the following answer: First you
gave me not one, and secondly was broken and
then you've returned it).
Science securisto slander has become an art-
communists. Therefore slanders continue:

A.P.L.R. actually became a family association,


around three people, all intent on high posts
(the post of director of that era it was "teacher"
Ionescu V. Predescu was Chair and Director
235

Titan Polyclinic, the famous C Gorgos), but,


thank God, so far these high posts were saved.
In fact, they were thereby unmasked as the true
inspirational and TV media campaign, nobody
else had this power in Romanian psychiatry.
Following the reasoning above, members
A.P.L.R. some are actually pseudo-psychiatrists
who have done just the aura of dissidents.
It then proceeds to slander each party leader
and begin first with the president, who was a
"notorious Communist" and Toculescu Decree
313/1980 as author, although it is known that all
legislative initiatives in psychiatry, even
ministerial decrees were designed by V.
Predescu. Blinded by anger, this time they
admit their existence "a temple of the Romanian
political psychiatry" Balaceanca Hospital, where
he was once president APLR directory. So, in
Romania there was no psychiatric policy, but
there was "a temple" is precisely where worked
one known dissidents of psychiatry and
president APLR to see, but even from the
mouth of the Communists without a sense of
honor, this looks like a temple whose existence
accept in a country that swears that there was
no repression by psychiatric poitica .
Thus, there is an observation that non-medical
hospital, although doctors working here.
Against usage, doctors here were equipped
with tape. There were interned all potential
dissidents, prisoners of conscience, victims of
psychiatric abuse brought by famous Decree
236

12/1965.
So we see that precisely these people,
obviously throwing in the backyard neighbor's
cat, I admit there was political psychiatry. And
what can be witnessed most avid
nomenclaturistii than themselves, that
perpetrators.
Shop with communist propaganda cliches
continue. President A.P.L.R. collaborated with
the Securitate (then what it would cost to be
with her all the way?) actually proclaimed
himself president of APLR (Like new after 1989,
we established a cell PCR). All activity is
punctuated only president of offenses: false
medical certificates, bribes, evident in the
currency, he admitted to psychiatric mother
inherited it faster.
Unfortunately, at that time was vice president
actually from their vices and managed to
destroy practically APLR site. But to see how
he characterized his colleague, Professor
Romila.
He was part of almost perpetual forensic
psychiatric committees, becoming a champion
of political psychiatric abuse, you have done, by
him were made. It is a fanatical communist and
indeed was expelled from the party during
transcendental meditation, all made statements
to tear the party congress to be reinstated and,
for bad luck, or it just happened the last
congress in November 1989. Now flirt with
P.N.T.C.D. and especially as the election agent
237

of Mr. Ratiu, although 12 years was a lecturer in


education of the party, wrote monographs
atheistic and materialistic, in collaboration with
a lecturer from the Department of Marxism, all
power and functions to achieve high in the party
and the Department of Psychiatry. Effectively
as any communist nomenklatura, they found
that the teacher has no scientific work, and
dissident activity has, if you want, check with
the Securitate after 40 years was stolen from
military service, displaying a fictitious disease
all proven to photocopy.
Unfortunately, as I mentioned, many of Romila's
allegations proved true and it seems that he
and the tribute paid by destroying the inside of
APLR to be added dizarmoniile his personality,
and after last activity "publishing" a serious
involuare a personality that was smart.
The third is taken in Colima I Vianu, Romanian-
born Swiss psychiatrist who became a fearless
fighter for immigration after human rights. And
he is still guilty of setting A.P.L.R. Course and
apply the pattern: it was a party member
(inaccurately, has applied for registration, but
for five years, has not been received, and thus
blocking the promotion and forcing them to
emigrate), not to fulfill any foreigners
sacrosanta mission to bring aid course is traitor
to the nation and country and think of the
enormity of being "sold Hungarian Transylvania.
There was also a great supporter of Marxism
and socialism (why, Lord, have to emigrate? ").
238

Finally, Dr. Marian Popa, Secretary A.P.L.R.


and it was great communist and security agents
known (why would this fault and not quality,
since they themselves were and did not show
any shadow of regret) and more extract and
official documents of the Ministry ( regret is
obvious, for such they could not burn them).
All leaders APLR, block, undifferentiated, media
trained, slandering political institutions in
psychiatry, have abused the prestige of the
country, have turned to supportive of
international organizations. A.P.L.R. thus
appears as a body and blackmail blameaza
Psychiatry antipsihiatriei tool (which does
psychiatry refers to the socialist?), want to
dismantle the psychiatric nurse. Although a
small and insignificant grupuscul, A.P.L.R.
panic makes them the "true" psychiatrists.
Demanded punishment for these individuals
should be exemplary, and the Ministry of Health
is excited into action.
In fact, we must have mercy on these people.
On the day came when the 2-3 years before it
was required only a simple note to the Security
informative and everything was resolved. Now
her most "competent", have to go with
grievance with arguments. What could they
organize staged in their glory years, while now
we have to humiliate and to pray to a deaf ear
that appears.
Here, finally, the conclusions reached by the
organizers of the campaign media action-
239

psychiatric securisto APLR activity and those


who criticize political repression in communist
Romanian psychiatry: portray health body and
the Ministry of Health, portray the country by
allegations of breaches of human rights,
although it seems to be about "their country,"
meaning by that comunisto-nationalist image of
the country with nostalgia whose left, portray
the current legislative and executive power
structures of the country.
To ask any political prisoner and now everyone
is somewhat accustomed to the way criminal
cases are made up during the communist
regime, if this action is not securisto-psychiatric
rules made by the highest professionalism of
the former regime. What would now be
necessary to infer guilt of "crimes against the
socialist system and state security" and if
possible leadership APLR would have the fate
of the hat.
Let's face it, fellow communists in psychiatry
and elsewhere, today dumnevoasta swim
against history, even the younger generation
will be expelled blood price, no future and
therefore you who fight for reform in psychiatry,
including ethics reform, will Pati nothing.
So we see who are those who consider
themselves the true promoters of Romanian
psychiatry, competent, patriotic out of their
communist past and Torturer head up and
hitting the "pack" anticommunist, said as Mr.
Gavriliu.
240

c. public reactions, the press


It is reassuring that when you are engaged in a
social work of others to feel solidarity. We also
stressed that the situation of dissident
psychiatrists who are fighting to reform
psychiatry in the context in which the entire
leadership of psychiatry is in the hands of
former communist nomenklatura or second line.
Criptocomunistilor attack was well thought out
and supported. Think of it as he had endorsed
presidential adviser Republic, Mr. Mironov.
Attack of the morning newspaper and the
government national television (the last refuge
of the communists in the media) was an
opportunity for us to feel comforting solidarity of
others and progressive purpose of our
approach.
We begin with teacher feedback twitter,
morning newspaper director, who began to
understand the calomniatorii dissociate the
newspaper who used the space without
approval. Heavy days came to have
communists in psychiatry if unable to find a
place on earth, a newspaper to share their
actions, and seek to sneak in contraband, being
disowned by the director himself in the
newspaper "had access" . Here's how the
teacher highlights twitter sitautia created (in the
Express store in Feb. 11 1992): "Unfortunately,
the foundation started the morning with some
brochures in which reproduced Duica C.'s
241

messy series. I was opposed to publication of


this material is not defamatory or prestige of the
country well. Then he (Duica) asked the help of
Mironov (President Iliescu adviser), which gave
the green light. I do not think it's plugged
Iliescu, but rather one Gorgos. Some articles
are unsigned, contamination of the Gorge. If it
were for me, I'd kick the Duica, which is an
imposter. "
Then why do so for a small and insignificant
group needed a counselor to the president of
the country involved was cheating a publisher
vigilant, to have to deal with people who
consider them their own boss and all the
imposters to print "Gorgos's filth?
Rector of the University of Medicine, he also
shocked and dirt, said: "In my life I had the"
privilege "was found harmfulness medical envy,
but never hatred, cowardice, slander,
vengeance is not gathered in an action so
reprehensible .
TV editor who was engaged in the same action
denigrating Emanuel Valeriu was fired and even
today has not regained the post in May. And all
this mess only to be united with the
Communists and torturers of psychiatry.
International organizations were alerted. Mr.
Anthony Coombs, the British parliamentary
human rights group, said at a press conference:
"Both the Ministry of Justice, the health and
agree that psychiatric abuses were committed
in Romania." The British MPs visited psychiatric
242

institutions seen as "people living like animals"


and to Podriga, Botosani county, volunteers
who live and work in British House of psychiatry
(including the daughter of a British parliament)
were beaten in order administrator .
By Valeriu E.'s TV show in the morning and
stressed Sanda Angelescu (1992), launched an
attack against the victims of totalitarian
psychiatry. Devices are, in turn, those directly
involved in torture, as Communist morality in
general.
But the problem is best handled Free Youth, by
Dan Rock.
It was said - the author shows - vulgarizandu is,
that all Romanians who fought in one way or
another against Ceausescu. But it is only
compromised dissident phenomena, much as
was. And reasoning about it is those who, citing
anonymous form and collective struggle of the
Romanian people have denigrated any
dissident position. On this line, the compromise
Romanian dissidents were enrolled and actions
to put the morning newspaper, allegedly in
order to defend our psychiatry service of
betrayal from inside and outside. This, in their
opinion, would defile the country's reputation,
because if dissidents hospitalized in psychiatric
clinics were not far from the intention to protest
against the dictatorship, they were just some
poor 'minds stray. In fact, when there was no
communist repression, limiting it only to "toad"
on May 1 applied to the militia who threw one
243

"flyer" on the market. That would actually look


and E. Valeriu morning newspaper, which
carried an embarrassing story about human
beings some crying, but more than likely that E.
Valeriu has anticipated and deserved dismissal.
Communist system went so far as those who
oppose must not be guilty, but rather insane. In
this way psychiatry has become a means of
therapy, a way to destroy the man who would
have liked to think freely. These things are well
known. Unknown is the moment you look for
evidence. Thus, people can crack and mental
conditions because they live in and then run
them out of my head neuroleptics gargaunii
revolution. For this reason there is a big
difference between those who knowingly and
damaged badly treated. This includes cases
multcomentatele (Bear, honey, etc.).. If the
appearance of psychiatric institutions in
Romania is degrading, it increases the
confusion, making foreigners believe that these
institutions camouflages in fact true prisons.
Morning newspaper wonders why the
communist repression of candor needed to use
the means to annihilate the individual
psychiatric, already available with traditional
means. The answer is simple. Because in the
latter case, evidence that is easy to gather
political prisoner, while in case they are deleted
from psychiatry itself, depending on the
formulation of a diagnosis interpretable.
Somehow, the psychiatrist who becomes a
244

killer leaves no traces. But the author wonders,


in fact, the trial of communism, why not be
accompanied by a process of psychiatry?
In a country that was not just Cinderella
medicine psychiatry and psychiatrists were
seen as parasites if not put in the service of
authorities, a pond and people the facts is
necessary. Referral international fora that in
Romania there were 300 prisoners of
conscience, even if it corresponds to truth, was
welcomed to a close examination to determine
the past, which showed him to be both present
and future.
Securisto-psychiatric putsch that is a challenge
is made clear by Dr. Toculescu, which states
that there APLR The information given to
community and that, in this sense, has needed
both denials mentioned publication, as well as
BBC radio station. Neither the British parliament
did not support assertions English press, but on
the contrary, it has fought. Clarificasera things a
year before the series of morning and TV.
But all this would have been valid for people
who wished to serve the truth, while dirty media
campaign was only one type of the Security
commando action that truth played no role.
Fortunately, the entire action has failed
ridiculous.
To see how easy it would be for the psychiatric
nomenclature forbid any interpretation, at least
from now, we present further, briefly, the
manner in which admissions are made in
245

Geneva, Switzerland, as reported Professor J.


Stuky during a visit which he did in November.
Switzerland has developed that puts a modern
psychiatric treatment based on outpatients.
Admissions are not timed and occur only in
times of crisis. There is a law for psychiatric
admissions. Thus, hospital doctor should give a
certificate of admission which must match
specific criteria, such as the diagnosis, somatic
imminent danger, the need for care in the
hospital. This certificate is verified by a medical
commission and if it seems incomplete and add
new data.
On admission, the patient is handed
"admissions law. The patient has 10 days to
appeal admission. It must be examined by one
of the members' supervisory committee. Most
people charged to outpatient services. Today in
Geneva talks more than a hospital and more
than one outpatient. The basic idea is that the
patient be hospitalized as soon discharged and
handed outpatient services.
In Switzerland, the principle is that the
psychiatric hospital to be opened. For agitated
patients can hang a flag or a room, for short
periods, but the patient or family to explain why
such measures are taken. Not a perfect
situation, but is an attempt to limit as much as
possible measures of constraint. The
psychiatric hospital closed there is a section
which is actually a section of the prison. There
are those who are ill treated in prison. This
246

section is independent of prison authorities.


If offenders, the patient is under investigation by
the judiciary, where the lawyer or the
prosecutor may request a psychiatric expert if
you think it is a mental illness. Court may
declare the patient irresponsible or partially
responsible, according to the Criminal Code,
and may have a hospital or outpatient
psychiatric treatment. If you are cared for in
hospital, discharge patients depend on the
"supervisory board". For some it decides on the
basis of trial and freedom are necessarily
required to follow the services out of the legal
incidence. Patients can be discharged from
probation and then can be restored.
Here's how easy it would be appropriate to
apply this experience to modernize Swiss
Romanian psychiatry without requiring
budgetary funds, in fact, on the contrary, by
reducing the cost ambulatory services to one
third of the cost of hospitalization. Inertia you
thinking not only of communist 5-6 tart, but the
high number of doctors who take advantage of
the current system of organization (heads of
departments, pyramid power, neacomodare
with new, specific methods with outpatient
treatment, with psychotherapy in While in
hospital you come to the time given, you can
see the patient once a week and I can give
home treatment that you can not change it
anymore).
Such reform proposals have done regularly
247

since 1972, then after the revolution, directors


Angheluta, Casa, Ionesco, presenting medical
and financial reasons, although I've never been
abroad to study psychiatric organization as they
have done it repeatedly. I chose to ridicule,
silence, the label "is kind of crazy." It is clear
that the privileges it offers current archaic
organization of department heads will make
impossible any psychiatric reform.
This is actually true situation in Romanian
psychiatry, resistance to any change, dirty
attack against those who "disturb" and a
consensus of mediocrity, the fear that changing
the system of organization are excluded, unless
of psychiatry, in those small and petty privileges
- Heads.

3. Reform in psychiatry does not antipsihiatrie

As we have seen, the main arguments of the


communist nomenclature mainly related domain
invectivelor and defamation because of their
poverty arguments. However, some tart,
teachers began urzeasca "scientific arguments"
accusing those who want reform in psychiatry
that would be antipsihiatri, it belongs to a notion
that once appeared in Western psychiatry -
antipsihiatria. So those who do not like their
psychiatry are only some antipsihiatri (that will
psychiatric cancellation). Great poverty of spirit
to these teachers!
Antipsihiatriei subject is little known by our
248

psychiatrists (educated Gorgos's books,


Ionesco, Predescu, Romila), speech and their
"teachers" have developed the problem,
especially as the deadline came as a godsend
when opposition intensified psychiatry against
them, the backward and abusive. Teachers as
Lazarescu, Ionesco, Predescu, Romila cast
before 1989, as now, antipsihiatri label all those
who wanted a small change how the old
structures of psychiatric or disagreed with them,
currently the most " antipsihiatri "being
members APLR Moreover, in a language
criptocomunist M. Lazarescu mental illness
stress dependence of action "repressive"
bourgeois society. Mental illness conception to
occur as a consequence of "class struggle". For
these reasons, says Professor West would not
be interested in the issue of psychiatric abuse
in Eastern Europe. HeItalian psychiatry fate
complain example where, due to certain laws
"at the insistence antipsihiatrilor, psychiatrists
have no institutions, hospitals that treat
patients, while Dr. Crosignani was amazed that
there are institutional therapeutic chances in
Timisoara. But wonder that lately there is an
ascent to us antipsihiatriei movement (read
reform movement in psychiatry) which allegedly
broke Europe. Wonder if after all too frequent
visits made in the West, with financial efforts
that do not belong, so he could find in Europe -
nostalgia azilara organization that thrive in
Romania under the patronage.
249

The main fear of M.L. is the "inner movement,


the ethics of psychiatry, busy studying and
abuse cases, do not fall into the other side of
the barricade, which was antipsihiatrie. We can
assure him that he better worry about
unnecessary and would reflect on other issues
of real importance.
But the teacher gives us the solution: "in these
shares should be called only those items
(without discussion that is thinking Predescu,
Ionescu, Milea, Romila, and Grecu and can it
evident, that to those who" outlaws " psychiatry
for decades communist people becoming "the
job").
But let aside elucubratiile teacher - who pays
progressions then he longed so - to explain why
these criptocomunisti antipsihiatrie use the
term, hoping maybe so will bar any reform in
psychiatry and social psychiatry in particular will
bar, stage that psychiatry today is that Europe -
for his information - Italy occupies a prominent
place. Reaching the stage of social psychiatry,
which ML sees as "separation of reform, by
contrast, is a completely reform the current
requirements and the sciences that are missing
from psychiatrists about our country, thanks
primarily" teacher " .
It takes a little history here. Psychiatry has
evolved in the twentieth century in three
successive stages, depending on the
development of different sciences (biology,
psychology, sociology and humanistic
250

concepts). So here these steps:


1. Biological stage, appears at the beginning
based on the explosion of biological knowledge
(studies anatomy, physiology, genetics,
biochemistry, detection microscope, the
microbes, etc.).. Kraepelin accept the medical
model (biological) and correspondent disease,
psychiatric hospital, built according to principles
of somatic disease hospitals. This model has
absolutely dominated psychiatry Europe until
1945 - 1950, but unfortunately in the USSR and
all the socialist camp, the evolution of
psychiatry will stop at this level, the only
contribution being ideologizarea, that
accreditation policy of the psychiatric system as
dialectical materialist and developing so-called
nosologica clinical psychiatry. This has frozen
the evolution of psychiatry ideologizare
communist countries rejecting such
psychological concepts (and ML knows how he
fought to bring psychiatry professor Pamfil
psychological phase). But now, M.L. wants to
continue the same psychiatric (may be thought
a fool only populated discipline) and I'd make
ecstasy Italian doubt that he saw reminded ML
psychiatric organization in November.
2. Step psychological and psychodynamic
psychiatry appeared in Europe, but because the
war was more prolific in the U.S., the country of
asylum for many scientists, including
psychologists, many being Hebrew persecuted
by Nazism. Occurring concepts based on
251

studies of Freud, was born medical psychology,


which offers new theories on personality, will
have specific therapeutic methods, will be able
to give many psychopathological explanations.
All these concepts have been banned by
communist ideology and of course new
psychiatry tartorii Communist Party's policy
applied in practice. As Europe goes, we
stagnate (as in cybernetics, genetics and
more).
3. Step sociological and social psychiatry began
after World War II U.S. and then expanded
rapidly in Europe, leading psychiatrists to create
a comprehensive bio-psycho-social, which in
everyday language has been called by many
authors as social psychiatry, not because of an
exclusive vision, but to emphasize the side of
psychiatry umanizatoare Current. This action
put in psychiatric institutions for treatment
especially in November, highlighting the
community and resocializarii treatment, but also
created new patterns of disease based on
humanistic theories on sociology and
philosophical ideas of our century put them in
circulation.
The last two stages were not held in former
communist countries, in Romania, so no, it
needs because of ideological purity, the
revulsion against Freud and declare Marxism
as the only sociological concepts.
This is where the nomenklatura group called
the lack of other arguments and antipsihiatrie
252

any conception that deviates as little of the


ideological purity of socialist psychiatry.
Psychiatry communist era remained only one
biological psychiatry and azilara and any output
from the front was labeled antipsihiatrie crime
(that is, if you had to explain, it is antipsihiatrie
in the sense of "them against psychiatry. Who
was not psychiatry They were obviously a
antipsihiatru.
We have shown that the vast sociological
reform movement in psychiatry appeared in the
West after the war. When Westerners have
observed with astonishment that despite the
humanistic concepts are developed and
democratic system, there instiututie built by
totalitarian principles - classic psychiatric
hospital or asylum. He started a real revolution,
though no psychiatrists there have been at the
forefront of change. However, country by
country, newspaper after newspaper ranged
from foot to expose and challenging those
institutions which were not only good treatment,
but should not occur again. For ML's
disillusionment in Italy was a great sociological
movement and the press has been at the
forefront of promoting change. Of course there
were also some drama. Many psychiatrists
have been feeling the destruction of an
institution, they were opposed and many
denigrators, but today Western psychiatry is a
social institution of treatment and completely
humanized. To be honest, I rather think that the
253

ML sense than to believe that your admire


Italian institution he runs (for example, what
happened to hospital Zam?).
But such "defamation" in the context of Western
democratic systems has never been interpreted
as a betrayal of the country or antipsihiatrie,
although, as we have shown here, the process
took place noisy. Took part in these discussions
sociologists, philosophers, lawyers, prelates,
human rights activists, psychiatrists, etc.
reformers. And West was a resistance to
change from the old servants of these
institutions (without the communists), and most
of the staff lived physiological sensation that
"destruction" of psychiatry, because of a natural
defense reflex.
In this terrible struggle appeared different
concepts in the context of democratic
atmosphere, they faced were denied each
other, but eventually formed the great
movement of reform in Psychiatric Sociology.
Such a large plurality of positions and
approaches leading to the possibility that, in
retrospect, to be able to distinguish two major
current:
a. A current and constructive reformer,
subjecting an old psychiatric criticism, offers
solutions based on which grew the current
social psychiatry and its institutions. In this
current pledged all professional psychiatrists.
The result was a total change in the structure of
psychiatry, a new vision of mental illness and
254

the institution of treatment.


b. A lot of concepts especially heteroclite issued
by the layman, that - although they have
contributed to renewing current - could not be
supported by specialists, they necorespunzand
rational reform and no practice. This
polymorphic group of conceptions, which often
disturbed by blood that were held, was
designated as the antipsihiatrie.
We have no idea to what extent teachers
know, but we must emphasize that the
existence of institutionalized vigorously an
entity to designate antipsihiatrie there and the
word began to gain increasingly pejorative
aspects, unfortunately
to us is used only by detractors of the reform in
psychiatry, while in the West it has gone a long
dispute with the victory of social psychiatry.
Here, then, what he actually Mr. ML - a
mystification in an environment that is less
informed (although, unfortunately, it seems that
he is perfectly aware of this.)
On the other hand, are very divergent theories
antipsihiatrice, sociatrice or political choice, the
extreme right and left.
Since psychiatric era dissidents in Romania
nomenclaturistii today and yesterday fell as
pejorative antipsihiatri anyone who "came out in
front." For example, our work "Social
Psychiatry" was released in bookstores and on
the melt because of antipsihiatrie.
As I mentioned, the change in Romanian
255

psychiatry will never come from those who


profit from the old structures. Therefore the
involvement of outside psychiatry (men of
culture, journalists, etc..) Will be a necessary
historical stage as in the West.
Romania's case becomes even more acute by
the fact that psychiatrists have been trained
under the guidance books and after
indoctrinated by communism. However, after 50
years of biological psychiatry, Marxist ideology,
pavlovizata the Stalinist era, will be very difficult
for older psychiatrists to adapt to new demands.
Basically, they should retrain, whole areas of
current psychiatry being completely unknown to
them, their action is a type pompieristic
psychiatry, as learned from the books they read
(which had allowed them read). I remember an
anecdotal basis of teacher thinking Predescu
pearls. "Look, he said, all doctors from other
specialties who have emigrated have done
there, some in great way. But I do not know any
psychiatrist who emigrated have done a great
career in the West. " I do not know what he
wanted to tell the teacher, but for me it was
clear everyone was "beware of success"
because they subcalificarii assured her he had
just taught psychiatry department and by "its
treaties Psychiatric .
It is clear that only young psychiatrists,
uninterested in the rigid hierarchy of psychiatric
organization could hope for under current
conditions, the appropriate qualifications. Here's
256

why there is this fierce resistance to any reform


in our psychiatry. Clearly A.P.L.R. will always
be accused of antipsihiatrie. But the highlight
Marian Popa, A.P.L.R. is ready to compete with
the old style of psychiatry, starting from the
premise of the review and renewal of
psychiatry. A.P.L.R. not propose to remove or
prosecute the psychiatrists who must adapt to
new psychiatric concepts, but realizes that with
this change there will be a minority who will
suffer and that will require tolerance and
understanding.
Abuse are required files inventoried primarily
because there were psychiatrists who honestly
believed that dissidents are mentally ill.
Predescu's psychiatry was based on that which
is not easily matched social consensus can be
framed in a rigid classification, in which time the
disease had a connotation somatic final and
largely sunk. Restoring truth has nothing to do
with a little reckoning and not a cause for war
between psychiatrists.
During the dictatorship, through deliberate
policy of isolation, psychiatrists have been
isolated so medicine, and population. For those
who were the leaders of psychiatry erijat,
normality was an obedient man with no other
views than those of power, which justify the
double standard and double consciousness
(one front and one for you), in fact, a real social
schizofrenizare . Judging normality become a
true monopoly of power and an implicit
257

psychiatrists submissive and servile. Why not


call so many times today people can not
conceive of any change, declaring those who
will change as enemies of psychiatry.
What can be accused in such a context
psychiatrist absurd and repressive? First,
ignoring the fact that the company, the system
has become pathological. Psychiatrist was
forced to ignore the general insanity and
confined to office and his books, secretly
cooperating with other authorities to isolate the
so-called dangerous patients. Under this label
were often hidden political interests linked to
dissident.
Romanian psychiatry, as well as the entire
social system was totalitarian, maintaining in
effect an antisocial atmosphere, contributing to
uniformity, depersonalization and loss of
confidence in man. This has been going on and
no contest guilty of some psychiatrists. The
culprits were few and they were always called,
both past and present. You can easily
recognize that communism has always been
rewarded for services performed (high salaries,
overlapping of functions, obtained many titles
without merit, rapid promotions, departures
abroad almost exclusively, without freedom of
the print coverage of value, benefits economic,
without being sanctioned rules violation, etc.)..
Psychiatry in the era of totalitarianism, not
milling absurd logic, and not antisociabilitatea
socialization. Fight for social rehabilitation of
258

psychiatric made this to be seen with hatred


and considered dangerous.
From the theoretical point of view, psychiatry
has surpassed communist biology horizon,
considering the disease as a fatality. Psychiatry
future exceed the system and collaborate with
the social system, but for the good of the
patient. For these reasons, A.P.L.R.
government proposed setting up an institute of
social psychiatry to form specialists able to find
work in social psychiatry and social
rehabilitation.
Situation that we are not lead to deterrence,
especially when human rights instruments and
international organizations. Reactionary group
which owns the main functions in psychiatry
and opposes the reform will not have much time
power, God works only with eternity.
The main problem with us today is the birth of
modern psychiatry and an old rupture of
biological psychiatry and azilara, authoritarian
and poor. Thus our hope that the timing of
European psychiatry.

Chapter V

Psychiatrists ABUSE POLICY IN ROMANIA

Practical study
259

Romanian psychiatric vulnerability

As outlined in previous chapters, non-medical


reasons misuse of psychiatry has reached its
peak during the fascist and totalitarian regimes
especially communist. Periodically, the
accusation of abuse can be directed against
any psychiatrist, regardless of where it
originated, and is normal, everyone can make a
mistake. But this seems a real loss when the
whole system includes a professional reason to
serve a non-medical system - a system of
repressive totalitarian societies.
Political abuse of psychiatry is not so odious
that existed even by its high frequency, but that
in communist countries it was organized by
state, thus became a real "criminal
organization" involving officials officials (party
activists, doctors in an official capacity, the
state's repressive organs, including the
magistracy). Such organized crime by the state
was not known in human history.
1. Political abuse in psychiatric

Use of psychiatry for political purposes by the


Romanian communist apologists is at least
original. This was introduced in November after
the Soviet example and strengthened on the
basis that "fifth column" composed of
Romanians, who became Communist
opportunism in a country where there were
initially 800 party members.
260

a. The role of psychiatric abuse


Concrete study of psychiatric abuse cases on
the lot of us to do detailed study. The first
problem we put it was the role played by
specialist psychiatric repression.
Romanian psychiatric asylum has been turned
into a tool of political persecution and was not
something abstract, but was built by the
Communist authorities, the Romanian
psychiatry tartorii (name that I took it from the
media) as a truly oppressive system. Putting
into practice such an oppressive system
required but psychiatrists working in a more or
less, they are easily accepting totalitarian
instrument. It is not conceivable without talking
psychiatric abuse and the role of psychiatrist.
The study that I undertook that appeared
obvious to us that involves the classification
and grading some responsibility:
1. Psychiatrists who were officials of psychiatry
(nomenclature) - in close cooperation with
security and party organs - themselves large
occupying leading positions in the party and
perhaps different degrees in safety. They are
those who consciously organized repression of
psychiatric theory and practice.
2. Psychiatrists dissidents or opponents, in the
very small number (at least those known)
understood, but the great mass of active
unsubstantiated psychiatrists. They criticized
abuses systematically or sporadically or have
261

initiated their own movement ideologizing,


informal or coverage, but all were critical of
psychiatry and official spokesmen on them.
3. Great mass of honest psychiatrists, but
disinterested and misinformed, psychology
tributaries "of the cage, often paste colonial
manner" teachers "in their geographical area,
administrative advantages for small or quiet life.
The first group are few individuals, perhaps a
dozen, if you subtract the so-called official
culture that those personalities communists
always used them as "papusniki" as Lenin
called them, or rather as "ephemeral fellow
travelers". This nomenklatura dozen deals and
take all positions of power today and in these
positions a small community, about 1,000
people, handle and manipulate all of psychiatry
and psychiatrists. To enjoy the party, they
became great theorists opposing concepts of
modern psychiatric coming from the West. This
group participated in the abuse, organizing it
and rewarding those who were torturers erijat
the performers.
What was the motivation for this collaboration
with the communist political system? From this
point of view I could reveal these motivations:
1. Ideological motivation, sincere or
opportunistic, the belief in communist ideals
and loyalty to the party. For these individuals to
criticize the Party or socialism can be a
phenomenon of social maladjustment and even
mental illness. For these reasons they will label
262

the individuals subjected to "treatment" for their


suffering from schizophrenia or paranoia. We
must emphasize however that this group often
have the behavior of dubious convictions as
evidence that after the revolution some were
immediately registered parties have become
apolitical or right (only Dr. Anghel went into
PSM, where candidate for the Senate
unsuccessfully).
2. Desire for promotion, which gave them power
and influence, satisfy ambitions, benefits for a
better life and often their ambitions go beyond
psychiatry, desiring to become ministers, MPs
and even members of the Central Committee.
3. Their policy rating determined appointments,
while psychiatric classification was subsidiary.
For these reasons must always renew the
proofs of attachment to the party and ideology.
V. Predescu was 25 years secretary of the
party, then rector, member of MAN, but it also
had political functions and time trials in the
USSR For these reasons the study of party
documents, the various changes in its
ideological hold most of the time, professional
issues occupying last place, their social position
are not related to professionalism. The problem
became dramatic when the party leadership
(local or central) is changing, and attachment to
the charge of former party leader could lose
political functions which were in fact the
foundation of their career.
4. Party promote dedicated and reliable staff in
263

the first echelon of psychiatry and to facilitate


control and security. In the first stage, studies in
U.R.S.S. were absolutely necessary, because
the attachment to the party at that time was
really needed and proof attachment to the
Soviet Union.
In this context, the vulnerability of psychiatry
was very high, it remained practically at the
mercy of political power. Psychiatrists in this
category had to choose between party and
patient, but to preserve the privileges they will
always choose the party. Working with the party
arm or armed - security - means that they had a
common enemy-dissident. For now, the
persecution of dissidents ethics explanations
were much simpler, so the party decided that
obviously no mistake. Nomenklatura
psychiatrist knew that the owner or party and
that any abuse is in line with its desire.
Following the collaboration, psychiatrist
nomenklatura received as a salary benefit fully
dimensioned, leaving abroad, holiday villas,
access to special stores, luxury goods and
other rewards for services rendered. For these
reasons, some of them have become true
communist apologists even internationally,
through the various congresses mental attitude.
Psychiatrists dissidents were and are few in
number and criticized openly or covertly regime,
especially the use of psychiatry against political
dissidents. Some were punished severely,
others forced to emigrate, were organized and
264

even ups public judicial processes. Especially


those left in the country have been
marginalized, have not been promoted, were
taken right to publish. Other dissidents were
clustered in small groups more or less
formalized and managed to have some activity
in the press have published some work on own.
Has paid a great price, but dissidents have
assumed this risk.
Dissidence "passive" was also one way of
fighting. Thus, many psychiatrists and even had
a benevolent attitude of "fraternizare" with
dissidents admitted, this was said by many
dissidents in psychiatric hospitalized.
Psychiatrists were unemployed absolute
majority. Compromise their behavior was
motivated by fear, uzand denial and
rationalization of procedures to avoid painful
ethical issues. But fear and compromise, in fact,
characterized the entire population of the
country and may therefore constitute an excuse
for psychiatrists.
Psychiatrists know the rules and convention
conformist communist Romanian society and
knew that one wrong step was full of risks.
Therefore, their first concern was to avoid
having to deal with dissidents, and if this could
not be avoided, blamed the "circumstances".
Many have tried to respond to requests
nomenclature by tacit agreement over what it
claimed. On the other hand, was hard to believe
that, as psychiatrists, to avoid all risk of having
265

to deal with dissidents. Often unable to avoid


contact with them, could play a charade for the
next way: "I know you're not mentally ill and that
you should not internal, but you Pati think if I
would give their hand and what my bad you do
too. I can do more, bosses watching me, but
you know I hate this mess. Both are in the
same boat. "
This charade, in which we ignore each other, is
essentially a way of conformism. Normal people
talking about rights, interests and conventional
beliefs. These people believed, in fact, in the
immortality of the communist system and lack
of sense of resistance. In fact, they do not
understand them on dissidents, which
constituted a kind of fighters with its windmills.
When you have an apartment, a family, a
service is not worth exposing yourself and
corporate communist agree not nonconformity.
Conformism actually dominate the whole
society. For this reason the compromise of
psychiatry is part of a social system that we
practice the majority of citizens.
Lack of information, failure to follow the
movement of ideas in the sciences led to
capping and neurological toxicity Romanian
psychiatrists, bind to read only literature that
bear the official endorsement, that of the least
professional of them. Psychiatry, in accordance
with these books, became a discipline with 9-10
diseases which reduces the entire complexity of
the discipline in a purely biological view. Even
266

the study of "taxonomic" by G. Ionescu, made


in desperation for a new compromise after the
revolution, is intended to prove unsightly DSM-
American sites are nothing more than confirm
the materialist conception of dialectic and
biologizanta that they always practiced .
In these conditions it is not surprising apathy
and intellectual laziness even average
psychiatrist, forced to practice 20 -30 years in a
discipline with nine diseases and 10 drugs, and
teaching style that quickly became mean
"doctors". For over 45 years, psychiatry has
been and is dominated by this horrible "elite".

b. The extent and forms of abuse


Psychiatric abuse consisted of the deprivation
of liberty of an individual who was forced to be
admitted under a false diagnosis,
hospitalization and is done contrary to the
interests of the individual against his will, under
the pressure of political authority by the police,
the intimidation or repression in the name of an
ideology. All abuse is and hospitalization of a
patient without medical reason at that time.
After studying the casuistry of which we
received, investigations undertaken and the
documents studied, we could compose the
classification of psychiatric abuse has been
charged in November:
1. Admissions related to political events were
most frequent and were the most harmful, and
intimidating sicanand tables bordering hundreds
267

of healthy people, including patients in a state


of remission for years. Thus, psychiatric
hospital, were hospitalized healthy individuals
or marginalized, but in all cases, the common
element was the opportunity to use the
occasion for a political event that hostile
demonstration against the regime. Thus, on
these occasions Security "mature" cities
hundreds of "mentally ill", meaning people from
politically inconvenient. Thus, short periods (5-
10 days), cohorts of "patients' bodies were
brought to me and submitted to regional
hospitals, already overcrowded and closely
guarded. After consuming all the political events
were released, some of them without written
formality or a medical examination.
This is not a psychiatric abuse, but abuse of
psychiatry. It was virtually impossible for
doctors to simply rebel against such actions
that target hundreds of people and had a
deliberate and perfect organization in which
only directors of hospitals were involved in the
professionals. Opposition not only would have
led to dismissal, but the interpretation of
gesture politics.
2. Illegal actions for political purposes from
persons who had a mental illness. From this
perspective, our research has identified the
following categories:
a. Diagnostics manipulated for political reasons
on the need for hospitalization, such as
schizophrenia, paranoia, etc.. As the symptoms
268

were worse, the more clearly was that the


patient "has no awareness of his illness."
b. neuroleptics or electroshock therapy without
medical reason. From time to time, prisoners in
communist prisons or psychiatric hospitals
receiving electroshock or neuroleptics, although
this was not necessary. A testimony to this
effect has left a deputy Radu Ciuceanu. He said
it neuroleptizat without any medical basis.
Treatment is applied in similar cases as
punishment, to make the individual more
submissive and harmless for the political
regime.
c. closely guarded psychiatric sections, which
were at most district hospitals, but there are
safer sections fully isolated sections in which
only the medical staff and officials had access
to special. These sections were intended only
inmates from a psychiatric practice is unfair. A
section has also founded and Gheorghe
Marinescu Hospital, as the eighth section, and
was led by Dr. Epaminonda Tomorug.
d. specialized institutions, for "treatment" of
dissidents particular. In Romania had this sad
reputation Hospital ready (the Clinical Professor
Department of Timisoara Lazarescu), especially
in the 50s, hospitals Poiana Mare, P. Groza
Raducaneni, etc. Balaceanca. A special
position, if still not understood, one has
Physiological Research Center in Bucharest,
where he would have done experiments with
deconstructed personality.
269

e. diagnostic for patient abuse. A number of


doctors say that communism has engaged in
false diagnoses to save patients from a worse
situation that would be expected. Situation is
still unclear in terms of ethics and medical
ethics, especially as all these cases the
psychiatrist himself would have risked a lot.
3. Legislation as a factor encouraging the
abuse was also an important thing. Legal
structures of the years of dictatorship in
Romania were so designed that could facilitate
mental abuse. Even the Criminal Code opens
the door political psychiatric abuse. Thus,
Articles 114, 113 c.p. are exemplary in this
respect. These articles assumed conviction for
crimes of political nature or politically motivated
and therefore, assured the imposition of
sanctions or deprivation of liberty, including
deprivation of certain rights to remove dissident
in politics or blame him and his ideas. These
include compulsory treatment in a hospital or
ambulatory institution before or after conviction,
prohibit the practice of a profession or public
office.
Other specific laws such as the withdrawal of
the lead car were equally harsh.
Indeed, empowerment abuse are encouraged
by laws relating to mental incapacity of an
individual declaration. This is particularly
evident in the Law. 3 / 1978 which allows
seizure in case of medical emergency. Thus,
so-called urgent medical emergencies were
270

transformed into political and that the under


detention on grounds of illness.
Decree 12/1965 provides hospitalization for
"hazard" based on statements taken from
neighbors or family members without the
individual can appeal against these
accusations. Court judge in closed session,
without defense or evidence. Charges could be
brought by relatives, friends, and authorities.
Also, Decree 313/1980 provides for compulsory
treatment in a single psychiatrist indication that
authorities can be easily under pressure.
Moreover, if this decree, the entire action of
detention was delegated to individual health
body, while directing the shadow security, this
criticism because of Decree 12/1965.
A sensitive issue concerned the nature and
duration of detention in a psychiatric unit under
orders MS 56/1976 and 261/1987. The risk
involved is that legal procedures, rather
inaccurate, leading to detention for reasons of
health of persons who need treatment
(including political opponents).
Another aspect of the suspicions was the so-
called collective responsibility in psychiatric
surveys involving abuse or political. There was
a treacherous mix of formally - legally and act -
discretion. Since the formulation of the decision
belonged to a committee, it could not be
formally challenged.
But all psychiatric expert committees consisted
of members who had obtained formal and
271

binding opinion of the Security and the Ministry


of Justice, which suggests that it was selected
and checked people politically. Furthermore,
the committee finally gave supraexpertiza that
final decision, have the perpetual president on
V. Predescu.
4. Perjury statement politically motivated. A
difficult problem arises when the diagnosis is
established on the basis of "proofs" in which
various officials involved and is presented with
their own version of the facts. With no evidence
to the contrary, the person was hospitalized
only in accordance with statements repressive
organ. Here is a very relative way of assessing
a mental patient. But every day, such a label
was denied harder, now became the "event" in
the observation sheets and thereby became
indubitable.
5. Ignoring psychiatry in the context of the
country's economic misery. Impoverished
Romanian society has made psychiatry be
considered Cinderella medicine. Care staff in
psychiatric hospitals was insufficient to handle
the large number of patients, the nurses were
very few specialist in psychiatry, social workers
had long since been disbanded as a function of
the establishment plan. Hospital buildings were
shattered, nonexistent sanitation facilities, soap
and detergents almost impossible to obtain,
inadequate food and low fat.
It is hard to accuse psychiatry of these
conditions, the suffering caused by these
272

factors, factors which in fact represented a


certain political mentality. Psychiatry
desecration, under the circumstances was not
an abuse of practicing psychiatry, but one of the
political authorities on psychiatric institution.

2. Studied material processingDetailed study of


the batch of cases for which we have been put
in evidence on these important issues, which
we present below:

a. admission abuse
More accurate assessment of the number of
victims is in itself a minor abuse is intolerable in
itself, and even if it were a single individual.
However, assessing the number of victims may
allow an overview of psychiatric abuse. But
such an undertaking is very difficult to do in
Romania.
Despite these adversities we managed to
include in our study 60 cases, a number
sufficient to demonstrate a systematic use of
psychiatry for the purposes of the Communist
Party.
About the internment in special hospitals
(psychiatric fiefdoms repressive communist)
opposition of the authorities was complete and
efficient, which is why we do not have official
data. A.F.D.P. Dolj County has provided some
data still political prisoners interned at Poiana
Mare, where he held the 20 cases, but noted
that immediately after the revolution had gone
273

there without any legal form, 40 cases. We


believe that these 60 patients may help us to
get an idea of the extent of admissions policy,
even if the number refers to a single hospital in
Romania.
Regarding the political criteria internment in
psychiatric hospitals usual, is illusory to hope
that we will ever get data as long as these
hospitals, most of them are run by former guilty.
We've talked very serious action to destroy
records of internment of dissidents or their
restoration.
The first step in the political abuse of psychiatric
hospitalization constituted abuse. Admission
abuse occurred when you came into conflict
with dissident political system when the
Communist Securitate psychiatrist called on to
decide whether this behavior can be considered
as abnormal. Since this opinion was given
dissident status changes, he became mentally
ill whom one could apply the measures of
forced hospitalization, electroshock,
neuroleptics, etc. Content measures.
Dissident behavior at first contact with staff on
how to have great importance as will be
discussed subsequently (was given to agitated,
closed or left open, sometimes left with
outpatient treatment).
In fact, their fate in the hands of dissidents was
more organs of repression, but relationships
with care staff was also important.
Normally, cases were brought to shrink in
274

several ways:
1. Civil procedure with direct admission "clean"
act of dissidence that it becomes a psychiatrist
phenomenon psychopathology. In these
situations could occur following categories:
- Dissident make certain facts, was found,
arrested and hospitalized, and then undergo a
psychiatric expert to acknowledge "mental
illness". This security can make a formal
request, but often bringing dissident psychiatrist
at the hospital was enough conformist who
understands what needs to be done;
- Dissident was claimed by neighbors, relatives
and even his wife. Militia was called, was taken
to the dissident section where the officer on
duty gave their opinion and the person was
taken to hospital against his will.;
- Kidnappings across the street, at work or
home, without warrant. The person was taken
to the psychiatric hospital without explanation
and without a medical advance.
2. Criminal procedure - when dissident was
arrested for an alleged common law tort and
transferred to psychiatric for "medical".
3. Procedure by which dissident was tried and
convicted for acts deemed to be ordinary, but
subsequently transferred to the prison hospital
for mental illness.
If these methods looked especially first
admission, subsequent admissions could be
made because of "the deterioration of his
health." Many times the action was presented
275

as a purely medical prevention. These


admittances were mainly related to different
events when dissidents were rounded up at
hospitals so-called "warehouse" type hospitals
Manor, ready, Zam, etc. Balaceanca. Although
the term used everywhere is dangerous
mentally ill, none of the cases studied by us do
not fit into this category without dissidents
mention completely healthy. However, the
observation sheets were past their symptoms
as: suicidal events, agitation, delirium, etc.. The
responsibility for all these facts undoubtedly
falls on the psychiatrist, who agreed to play this
role against professional ethics.

b. The events that led to hospitalization


The common element of these unfair
internment was that concerned citizens wanted
to exercise rights guaranteed by the
Constitution peacefully (the right to
demonstrate, the right to faith, political belief, to
petition), but the organs of repression, serving
purposes totalitarianism, opposed free and
peaceful exercise of these rights. Based on the
study were able to systematize the main types
of documentary evidence of admissions.
# Political activities. Communist constitution not
formally opposed by citizens exercising political
activities. However, in practice any political
activity, except as directed by the party were
banned. Here are some examples of the
admissions policy reasons: to defend human
276

rights activities, formation of trade unions or


some hybrid game 3-4 members, verbal or
written complaints to the policy of the
Communist Party or the Party and state
leaders; criticism of workers' rights violations
(wages, working hours, voluntary activities etc.
for displaying banners, printing leaflets
expressing views critical reading some books or
magazines banned by authorities.
# Instance of emigration. Many dissidents were
hospitalized for repeated attempts to cross the
border and even special entreaties to emigrate.
Also to penetrate the embassy insisted could be
considered a mental illness.
# Religious activities - the practice of religions
other than premises in silence and worship was
condemned either offense (religious
propaganda), or was regarded as a
phenomenon psychopathology - paranoia. Here
they come, especially members of the Baptist
denominations, Adventist, Pentecostal.
Sometimes hospitalization can include an entire
family.
# Wording of statements or petitions can be
cataloged and a mental illness. Although the
system memory and petitions rarely answered,
the nature poliltic were immediately sent to the
Security which often are used for weapons and
psychiatry. Lack of cooperation with security
could be another reason for using psychiatry.
Citizens who were often statements were
admitted to psychiatric few days with the
277

justification that is given a brief medical


psychiatric, and this is done to intimidate.
Psychiatric abuse cases subject of our research
have been arrested by security or militate
directly and in all cases those shares were the
subject of a political nature. Many of those
investigated have had to deal with the militia
and security long before their first contact with
psychiatry.
The majority, on this occasion, had been
subjected to long interrogations, sometimes
even tortured. In some interrogations and
electroshock were used.
Legislation on which they have been forced
internment was either Decree 12, Decree 313
is, but in most cases no longer appeals to law,
internment being made without any legal
justification. Also, security threat used to
determine admission to psychiatric dissident
cooperation. Often admission was made after a
trial or after pronouncing a sentence. In most
cases security and no psychiatrist ordered the
internment of dissidents.
For the psychiatrist, the first problem to be
solved was to consider admission as a
dissident under social danger, a violent person
in relation to others or to himself. But it was
difficult to prove. This is where sample just
"loyalty" towards the psychiatrist and Security
Party. For this reason, in many cases using the
phrase "patient represents a risk to the social
system, said it infinitely easier.
278

Arrested dissident loses in practice, all right.


According to criminal law, he was only entitled
to a fair trial, something that rarely happens in
practice. Investigators were now asking the
judge his or psychiatric expertise, but prisoners
were forced to announce it or tell him the
outcome of expertise or medical advice. The
accused was not allowed to know criminal case
or investigation findings. Right to a lawyer was
often circumvented in practice and was elected
anyway accused lawyer and the lawyer has no
obligation to meet with the accused.

c. Length of hospitalization period


In the cases we studied length of hospitalization
ranged from days to years carteva. There is a
connection between political motives and its
length of hospitalization. Most dissidents were
confined mostly short term, at events.
In fact, the choice of hospitalization and length
was a tactical problem for the authorities. Use
discretion and take advantage of psychiatry that
was very expeditiously. Under discussion here
was not only the victim, but his ideas "crazy."
But the question arises why some dissidents
were hospitalized in psychiatric and others
rather to jail. It is very difficult to establish
reasons for this behavior. In our opinion, the
psychiatric hospital should be reserved for
dissidents most reluctant - V. Paraschiv
example - which were difficult for those who
had undergone or pure political demands.
279

Instead of difficult judgments (dissidents not


actually violate the Constitution), they were
liquidated by psychiatric summary, without
taking into discussion ideas, but their alleged
irresponsibility. In many cases "the defendant"
was not presented to the so-called process.
Risk of demonstrations in court this foreign
journalists no longer exists.
Also admitted to psychiatric dissidents were
taken to secret locations for families, hundreds
of miles, and with neuroleptics and a so-called
"psychotherapy" to try brainwashing of those
individuals.
Psihiatrizat dissident had no hope, as he knew
no state is in the hospital (all in how to give his
ideas), had no support, being hospitalized in the
same halls with the mentally ill and dangerous,
so in a constant danger day and night.
Torture by-neuroleptic psychiatric treatment and
electroshock was heinous and with long term
hospitalization were designed to cause
personality changes, often irreversible.
Moreover, the hospitalization were also an
intimidation of dissident groups to which they
belong.
Robotizarii failure was attributable dissident
psychiatrist, which is why often it makes
excessive zeal, despite the danger of large
problems.
Reason internment in a psychiatric hospital was
an especially common assumption of a shorter
hospitalization, when assessing security as
280

simply a hospital would be enough. Also, all


these minor crimes were treated in hospitals,
petitions, etc. clashes with bosses.
Short-term hospitalization is especially practical
in the '80s, this means not allowing the
emergence of campaigns in the West and,
anyway, when it was much appear dissident
released. Also used in hospitals to shorten to
do those mass internment of political dissidents
at events, state visits etc..

D. Place and conditions of detention


(internment)
If special psychiatric hospitals have always
maintained formal aspect of prison, psychiatric
hospitals were part azilar usual, which was
almost identical in practice. We have shown
previously worked under what conditions these
hospitals.
In the following we will organize on the basis of
our investigation, the main issues caractereizau
life in these hospitals in which dissidents were
imprisoned.
Supraaglomeratia and lack basic hygienic
conditions. All psychiatric hospitals (ordinary or
special) by two patients were overcrowded with
a bed, in the salons of 30-40 beds, with fetid
odor, no proper toilets (sometimes even to
keep). Patient's life was like a prisoner. Cold,
mosquitoes, humidity, damp conditions were
common. Exit corridor room just to watch staff.
Food was often served in dining halls or
281

unhealthy, the metal plates. Often served in a


cup 2 to 3 patients. Lack of bathrooms, this
parasite, dermatological diseases was okay.
Hospital uniforms were torn and dirty, sheets
were changed frequently and were as hateful.
There is the added frequent immobilization in
bed for the smallest deviation from the
discipline imposed by the nurses.
Restrictions and censorship in a system
consisting of correspondence drastically, visits,
receiving packages, lack of permission to have
some private objects. Often in special hospitals,
doctors approve the right to correspondence.
Intellectual activities like reading, writing was
impossible. A true censorship was instituted,
and nothing that happens in the hospital did not
have to thrive outside.
Violence against patients, carers with practical
permission to link patients, making them
electroshock. Dissidents complained especially
despotism staff, lack of qualification and its
collection from among persons with defects of
common law prisoners, alcoholics, psychotic,
ex-mentally ill. Sometimes applied beatings
sadistic. Often "prisoners" had the feeling that
this person had the right of life and death over
them. If medical personnel stood less among
patients, nurses stayed virtually always, true to
form clans are helping each other.
In fact, doctors and nurses were solitary in
terms of practicing violence, even if your not
hitting, reclaiming nurses has triggered
282

investigations, the reason being invariably - the


patient was restless. Very often sentences
consisting of increasing doses of neuroleptics
and or practice of electroshock. Maintaining an
iron discipline was particularly special hospital
characteristic, which seemed to be
dehumanizing for patients with any thinking
murder her free of any political consciousness.
Moral pressures and attempts to change their
political beliefs are constantly engaged in
special hospitals. Often such actions were as
cover psychotherapy session. I noted the main
physiological actions:
- Aberrant isolation in hospitals or in special
exhibitions in key agitated. In addition, the
prohibition of visits, animosity between
psychiatrists and patients' families, etc..;
- Absence of any recourse or legal protection,
censorship, permanent control of prisoner
control its relations with other patients. The
official psychiatric hospital staff had no legal
obligation to make complaints reach a
prosecutor patient and family complaints were
not taken into account;
- Hospitalization was indefinite, any dissident
can not know how I will remain in hospital, only
giving up dissidence was an argument to get
the issue. Even in the fall to 12 or 313 decrees
were not respecting the right to be reviewed in
six months.
Promiscuity linked to the mixture of people of
ages, degrees of different cultures, blending the
283

real mentally ill. After discharge the patient was


"dispensarizat, now under surveillance not only
security, but health and territorial bodies,
neuroleptizat patient. For this reason, said
dissident "mentally ill" could be kidnapped at
any home or street, without further ado on "the
history" of his.

E. Diagnosis
Psychiatrists Romans had access to Western
literature and were instructed only after the
country psychiatric textbooks, all published by
tartorii psychiatry and totalitarian as described
"programming" of directors or teachers. For
these reasons, diagnosis of psychiatric practice
has become a real farce simplistic and easy to
fulfill.
I said above that psychiatry has become a
disease diciplina 9 and 9 drugs. Here these
diagnoses, as they were taken and introduced
by ukase, list any psychiatrist who was on the
table, including the code necessary statistical
processing:

Code
1. Crawler and presenile organic psychotic 210
2. Schizophrenic psychosis 211
3. Affective psychosis 212
4. 213 Alcoholic psychosis
5. 214.0 neurotic disorders
6. Personality disorder 214.1
284

7. Alcoholism 215
8. Drug addiction 216
9. Mental delay 217
10. Other mental disorders 219

Inconsistent parts of diagnosis and mode of


practice appear as random factors additional to
facilitate imixiunea especially ideological
criteria. An example: the concern officials to
mask his alcoholism led to the invention of
diagnostic formulations (just as the Ministry of
Health hiding under the name of the disease
cholera diarrhea). Except in cases of delirium
tremens psychosis or ethyl, or another form of
alcohol-related pathology is no longer recorded.
Is a typical example of transgression of the
psyche and to limit the establishment of early
treatment. Same conditions and diagnoses
were made in order to complacency abortion.
Do not forget, however, the decision protecting
or not protecting the patient from diagnosis
euphemistically remains constantly available to
psychiatrists, whom had been put to the test or
possibly even validate a discretionary power.
We can not ignore the means, motivation and
benefit, as we can not ignore the fact that a
psychiatric diagnosis may become evidence in
court superfluous even against the beneficiary
(a diagnosis which can then allow abortion to
be a thorough test of divorce).
Seem strange in this context M. Lazarescu's
public statements, such as system and
285

psychiatric clinic in Timisoara, which he says


should be there during communist regime
scores of cases of dissidents "protected" by the
gentleman made diagnoses of complacency,
these forming there a true "academy" - each
made their PhD, others do scientific research -
a real Socola Red "led by Lazaresacu. But what
about the ML's statements that helped promote
the idea that, in Romania, there were dissidents
hospitalized psychiatric abuse, you have now
said that dozens of dissidents whom the
diagnosis of complacency due to protect his
soul so good. But what could be said about the
100 miners hospitalized at Zam just because
they had "illness strike. Of course, apply ML
Leninist theory of relative truth "is true for one is
not true for other" - pure logic teaching.
Place therefore legally ethical question: to what
extent a psychiatrist can use his "medical
power" and to what extent, believing that better,
actually bringing a real dictatorship medical
power? We all call it abuse and false
philanthropy, that lack of medical ethics.
Medical power is not on our society to make it a
dictatorship. However it is clear that by actually
witnessing the output of the reference system of
psychiatry. These practices tend to falsify
diagnoses has become contagious, because
what is allowed by ML can afford any other
psychiatrist.
But put fictional retirement diagnosis,
interruption of tasks., By ignoring the medical
286

criteria, not legal was tacitly sanctioned by


power, by any other clinical situation but it
became possible to be mystified. Thus, we
performed indiscriminately between psychiatry
and extrapsihiatrie and ultimately proliferation
omnipotent and free choice of doctors by their
function, especially that policy, could
circumvent the ethical norms and law in
general. So why not any kind of law? Only in
this context was possible malignant abuse. But
large or small are congenere abuse, are
interrelated and mutually facilitating, in the path
of the same professional immorality.
Suprainvestirea with dictatorial powers and
discretion of false scientific figure was
determined by agenesis of the whole ethical
system. Unlike other medical specialties -
where ethical reasoning and ethical decision
succeeding professional reasoning and
decision -. Romanian psychiatry in totalitarian
vague and inconsistent nature of the conceptual
system has not seldom to freak. Judgement
ethics and ethical decision that should refer to a
kind of rule - recently validated in democratic
countries - were a priori in a vacuum, without
reference other elements than those of "big
brother from the east" remains unknown
enough professionals and regulations until the
1973 World Medical Association.
Old studies of psychiatric abuse in Russia have
endorsed the use mainly of diagnosis
"schizophrenia inaparenta" if dissidents. This
287

match also because mostly these dissidents


were middle-aged men. To make this diagnosis
there was no need for the presence of clear
symptoms, like schizophrenia is common case
(autism, bizarre behavior, hallucinations or
delusions present). As described by Snejnevski
(ideologist of psychiatric abuse in the Soviet
Union), individuals with this disease seem
healthy. Pathological behavior is manifested by
"freak" like autoimportanta ideas, ideas of
grandeur or reform. For this reason, said
ideologue, one can not be diagnosed
schizophrenic inaparenta than experienced
psychiatrists. Entity that Western psychiatrists
have never admitted it and was baptized with
the term - sovietofrenie - became a current
diagnosis for political dissidents. Gradually,
however, this diagnosis underwent aberrant
obsolescence. Psychiatry "sister" Cuba, for
example, was more direct, using the delirium
diagnosis of human rights struggle for socialism
or apathy. In many cases, in Cuba, no longer
considered necessary to establish a diagnosis,
as practice officially recognized abuse.
In Romania, the Soviet experience and reject
the study and an honest recognition of the
Cuban type, the diagnosis was psihiatrizat.
Thus, the first hospitalization, the diagnosis
wavered between psychopathy (65%) and
schizophrenia (35%), and the terms of paranoid
or paranoid diagnosis came to color.
It is interesting that although statistics show a
288

big difference in how psychiatrists make


diagnoses, about dissidents was very limited
palette, torturers understood each other
perfectly in this field (paranoid schizophrenia,
delirium systematized nehalucinator or
parafrenie). Adopting the formula Ceausescu in
Romania that only fools oppose socialism, local
torturers have transposed this indication in a
nosologic limited context. Treatment was not
generally related to disease.

f. Misuse of electro-seizure therapy


There are some psychiatrists who recognize the
value in the treatment of psychiatric
electroshock. With civilized countries is under
anesthesia and muscle relaxants to prevent
complications. Are six - nine sessions, about
two - three a week.
Dictatorships around the world have adopted
this technique for torturing dissidents. In the
electroshock (ES), the individual in a state vital
stress, a situation that simulates the imminent
threat to life.
In our study group, ES was used as a method
of punishment and repression, end its only
been in forced manner. Often they did even in
the absence of a physician. Were made
between three and twenty-ES, and the
diagnosis has no role selection. Neither
dissidents nor their families were not asked.
There was no notation made on the ES. In
general, "patient" was taken by force by two to
289

three individuals, often followed by other


patients, sometimes even before the urine or
feces. There was no protection, often are not
taste anything, which is why many have broken
teeth or have bitten tongue. Also, HE was not
always done in the head region, often on other
body parts, and sometimes were forced to
attend meetings of HE others.

g. Abuse of neuroleptic
All dissidents in our study had no right to
choose their doctor, which, in turn, had no duty
to decline and identity. Neither the patient nor
his family had no influence on the type of
treatment. Usually used powerful drugs (Haldol,
chlorpromazine, trifluoperazina, majeptilul).
Although these drugs are used specifically to
certain diseases, they receive an undetermined
dissidents. But such treatment had harmful side
effects such as lowering blood pressure, blood
changes and extrapyramidal adverse to the
emergence of parkinsonian disease. In
association dissidents medicines to combat
these effects was often forgotten. Often justify
the use of drugs to be made only in accordance
with the "diagnosis" which set the individual.
There, as shown above, already prepared a
number of cocktails for dissidents. These
patents were true heads of department of some
doctors, they automatically apply the teaching
medium or even nurses.
In fact, this manner of treatment and the
290

application was intended to persuade dissident


to abandon their beliefs, accrediting the idea
that he is totally at the discretion of his torturers.
Shortly, we studied people said they became
unrecognizable even by their family members,
patients now having any shape mentally ill
(facies fijat, automatic obedience, looking down,
lack of opposition, like a real robot or to be in
tune with the torturers, were transformed into a
"psychiatric Doll").
A true ororare for internal dissidents formed a
link, Content. At the slightest act of
"indiscipline" is throwing a sheet over his head,
then was harness with ties to the arms and legs
and "stretched" with a link under the armpits. In
this case the patient could no longer make any
movement, so often forgotten or hours to
declare he will not oppose.
Way of reaction against dissidents was
particularly common to those in special
hospitals, where treatment was much tougher.
Special psychiatric hospitals for mentally ill
were convicted under the Criminal Code
dangerous or hospitalization, to complete
healing. Unfortunately, there were hospitalized
and the most "dangerous" dissidents. No legal
code does not regulate conditions of detention
in these places. Both real patients, and
dissidents had no right recognized, there could
not protest, although, officially, and these
people were citizens of the country. No
procedure can correct errors or abuses of
291

psychiatric or judicial. There is the possibility of


contact with law enforcement authorities,
practically all these people were separated from
the exterior world, being only at the discretion of
administration, the psychiatrists and often
security officers. These institutions were often
placed under the dual authority - MI and M.S. -
Actually turning into real prisons (high fences,
armed guard outside, special uniforms, etc.)..
Ordinary psychiatric hospitals were all azilara
organization, an organization that is prison. In
these hospitals patients did not stay too long
and were led by MS
Although, compared to special units, there was
more gentle treatment, there are big
differences, depending on attachment to the
party chiefs or department depending on their
personality, some often marginalized. Some
looked with hatred on any dissident intuitive.
Both special hospitals, and not the usual
duration of hospitalization never anticipated.
Even external dissident will now be stigmatized
as mentally ill, as required under
"dispensarizarii. So he was taken into evidence
by polyclinics and threatened to be forced at
any time reinternat that will decide the security
organs or any manifestation of opposition to the
regime.
Political dissidents were subjected to a
permanent segregation on holding a job,
promotion, remuneration. In this context, the
inclination to protest once was almost normal
292

and that increase the danger of new


admittances.

3. Violations of patient rights

Although dissidents were admitted to


psychiatric in different circumstances, the
common element we represent the tendency to
exercise those basic liberties known to human
rights. It was especially written or oral
expression, critical views on government
practices, petitions to the authorities,
participation in officially endorsed
demonstrations, informal group membership,
participation in religious events, repeated
attempts to emigrate, attempts to cross the
border illegally .
In many cases, dissidents always had been
previously warned and that the dissident was
not admitted that he is ill because of "his lack of
awareness of the disease.
In the last two centuries, the world psychiatrists
had to accept, gradually, as patients in
psychiatric hospitals have some rights and they
should be protected from certain abuses. Such
compulsory hospitalization was severely
restricted, has emphasized the right of patients
to individualization of treatment, the right to be
treated properly and in a reasonable time, the
right environment to an acceptable standard of
hygiene right, right to refuse treatment or a
person who treated him to refuse an
293

experiment, the right to be treated by qualified


persons, the right to security in the hospital.
Very few of these rights were respected in our
communist period.
Treatment, as we showed, was not applied
properly and was abused wards were described
as a real prison where violence is practiced,
both from staff and from some real mentally ill.
Treatment can not be denied, and that's why he
appears more like a punishment. There is an
abuse of psychiatric admissions within our
group and the statement may be based on the
arguments listed below.
A number of dissidents (V. Paraschiv, Dr.
Cana) were reviewed in the West and were
found healthy.
Lack of dissidents acts of violence, recognized
by Security. Sometimes the whole mass of
people were reported as suffering from mental
illness - for example, after the miners strike of
1977 - It was impossible and incredible that a
mass of hundreds of people, a professional
group to psychiatric ill spontaneously.
Forensic psychiatric examinations were
superficial and inadequate. This summary is
often a few questions, all lasting only minutes
after it decides the fate of the patient.
Diagnoses were established on the basis of
subjective notations and especially after the the
folder or "criminal" Security made.
Ambiguous personnel working in psychiatry, in
a centralized state, which is why it can be used
294

by the state and especially the Security, which


aims to strengthen political control over the
population. Psychiatrists expert committees
were selected by the repressive organs after
the criteria of loyalty and obedience to them.
Never dissident could not choose a psychiatrist
in these official committees. Very often
psychiatrists expert committees hide their name
from dissident. Was hidden as a diagnosis and
taking the decision on the fate of the patient.

4. Abuse as a form of torture

In line with the international


community, torture is defined as an act of
causing physical or psychological suffering
intentionally in order to obtain information or
confessions or to punish the individual for an
act or blackmail or a third person. These
actions were taken by civil servants or other
persons acting in official capacity.
Attest to the phenomenon of torture, the state
must play a role in tolerating and encouraging
such practices. Sadism not torturers, but that it
is a machine controlled by the state to punish or
suppress the dissident, is important.
Make torture with electroshock or syringe was
under communist action directed by the state.
There are several criteria to determine if an act
can be defined as torture (after Amnisty
International)
- Severity of physical and mental abuse;
295

- That the act is premeditated;


- The official involvement of the state;
- Deliberation of the act.
Thus, excessive use of ES is a form of torture
that was used. In this context come and
unjustified use of neuroleptics.
None of the rights of a real patient was not
observed: standards of hygiene, the right to
refuse treatment or the person who the
Administration, etc. to ensure safety. Dissidents
were mixed with real mental patients and
ensure discipline by beating ES overdoses of
neuroleptics, content, restricting visits.
Considering these actions as torture, Amnisty
International argues this based on the following
criteria:
1. The victims were admitted under the dual
responsibility of medical and security organs.
2. Torturers were always victims of physical
control.
3. The victim was subjected to physical and
mental.
4. Victimization process was deliberate,
systematic and was in fact the purpose of the
activity.
5. The purpose victimization "therapeutic" was
not to decrease suffering, but to get some
information, a confession, humiliation and
destruction of life, personality, leading dissident
to give up the fight.
6. Mental processes are not only to punish the
victim, but to frighten other dissidents as forced
296

to renounce their political beliefs.


7. State participates directly or indirectly to the
torture organization that will take place in a
state institution, doctors staged by employees
of state and the communist state security
officers.
Summarizing, we can say that political abuse of
psychiatry to target dissidents in Romania
following categories:
- Dissidents without psychiatric history, with no
signs of mental illness but were "madness" to
publicly criticize the regime. ES Content,
neuroleptics in this context constituted a
punishment for their political activities;
- The same type of dissidents, who have
publicly criticized the regime, but were
disturbed administrative power line at various
levels. Their internment was made for the
purpose of despondency and terror, to avoid a
criminal trial;
- Healthy dissidents, but fearless in their
political activity, hospitalized in order to be
punished to avoid a trial and a campaign of
protest in the West;
- Neurosis of dissidents who were subjected to
persecution, presenting only mild disorders and
who did not need hospitalization.
Hospitalization and treatment of abuse would
be made for the purpose of intimidation;
- People with real mental disorders, but the
political theme and undesirable events (delirium
political, religious, social reform, etc..), But often
297

were hospitalized for non-medical reasons not


to show in public, especially prejma and events
especially not to become contagious.
These abuses, as we shall see below, were
made by forced internment, with or without
medical justification, people were brought to
safety or health bodies.
The detection of casuistry to which we refer,
had a big role in the abuse of Psychiatry
Research Committee in Bucharest, headed by
S. Diacicov. After his dismissal and the
appointment of Professor Ionescu Mincu such
cases, abruptly, "there were no more." Of 200
cases which the Commission has sought
Diacicov, 60 proved to be psychiatric abuse.
Committees judetiene either not formed or that
were directed to former torturers and, naturally,
had no reported cases.

ANNEXA I

Presentation studied casuistry

Present below the cases studied and made


available new. We will not give names of
patients, but some initial order not to these
people a new suffering, their condition is
mistaken. It is painful that nobody in the
298

organization of past and present psychiatric not


helped us, except for work performed by Dr.
Diacicov, who took seriously the task of
restoring ethics to psychiatry, and Dr.
Retezeanu, who has made casuistry available.
Any official document, observation sheets,
records of internment we were not made
available, I was suddenly everywhere and
insults.
Thank you so, with gratitude and Dr. Dr.
Diacicov Retezeanu who helped us, and also
president APLR Dr. Toculescu, who
encouraged us, gave us personal material
published in newspapers, made the necessary
steps Mr. Paler accept that one of his works
represent a "Foreword" of our work. Dr. Marian
Popa thank him also, because we have made
available all official documents in its possession
APLR

Thank you all.

Present below the cases on which we


undertook our study:

1. M.C., Craiova. In 1986 made statements


hostile to the socialist and social-political
structures. Pavozeaza his office with pictures,
signs and slogans that "contrary to the purpose
institution. It has no admission to hospital. 3 of
Craiova and expertise to determine the
discernment. Bodies of data sent investigation
299

shows that in 1975, while perform military


service, had an anti-socialist attitude.
I established the diagnosis of paranoid delirium
syndrome. Psychological examination
concluded that the development presents an
interpretive aspect paranoiac personality. After
a brief hospitalization is discharged and will
never return. Diacicov Commission determines
that the individual is and was mentally healthy
and as such should be rehabilitated.

2. A.T., Bucharest, carpenter. In 1962, at a


meeting of the party expressed dissatisfaction
with the wages of workers who "do not get any
to eat." Party is called and questioned by two
Securitate who is enemy of the people say. I
insceneaza a public trial for anti-communist
propaganda, and against anti-Soviet
collectivization, was insulted and infuriated the
workers exposed. After a month and resulted in
a high security for a statement, which is
supervised by permanent, is not allowed to
participate in the demonstrations of May 1 and
August 23, is always called party secretary.
1965 can not bear and asked Security to be left
alone or arrested. As a result, high strength and
admitted to hospital with Gheorghe Marinescu
with the diagnosis of delirium Sensitiv
relationship. After this admission is repeatedly
high, still without any explanation. In 1974 he
was hospitalized with diagnosis of affective-
paranoid psychotic decompensation in 1978
300

with post-procedural psihopatoida state in 1979


with atypical hipertimica state in 1982 with
paranoid psychosis. I do electroshock is
neuroleptizat until they lost consciousness.
During the hospitalization, or is chased by
security, or is always called by medical
authorities for control. Diacicov Commission
said it healthy.

3. TM Craiova Vaslui worked as a teacher and


then a curator. In 1971, as a student of history,
read at a sitting UTC material in which criticism
of Ceausescu's personality cult and "the
emergence of a new bourgeoisie and the state
party." It was proposed to be excluded from
U.T.C. and faculty and was threatened with
prison. However, it received only "reprimand",
and upon graduation was assigned to a village
of Vaslui, despite its excellent classification.
In 1973, after a conflict with some colleagues,
they can advertise DC of P.C.R. that school is
religious propaganda and the party is hostile
events. In 1974, at 3 months after beginning
military service, forcibly interned at the military
hospital where the diagnosis is discordant
syndrome, although at that hospital, then there
is no specialist in psychiatry. Following this
hospitalization abusive Ceausescu sent a letter,
requesting to investigate the abuse. Removed
from education in 1974, arguing that students
should be submitted ideas and knowledge in
conflict with party ideology. 1975 submitted to
301

C.C. a statement of all the persecutions


undergone, but the consequence is high and
internal Socola Iasi where the diagnosis of
psychosis is discordant. In 1986 is called to
military prosecutors on the grounds that it
minimized the revolutionary activities of
President Nicolae Ceausescu and his youth is
admitted to Hospital Craiova wild-paranoid
syndrome, but not receiving any treatment.
After the revolution is kicked out of office
(1991), after a conflict with the museum director
who worked for an icon that should be avoided.
After investigation the prosecution is reinstated.
Diacicov Commission said that it was and is
mentally healthy.

4. PD bricklayer in Brasov, now is retired. In


1972 he took a stand against existing
irregularities in the head, where some of the
harvest and was stolen and sent to the county
party leaders. Is called the county militia,
questioned, beaten and hospitalized at the
psychiatric hospital in Tarnaveni diagnosed with
depressive reaction with paranoid features. At
hospital discharge specified on the ticket he
had behaved properly and were not applied to
the stipulation of Decree 12. However, in 1975
he was hospitalized forced Gheorghe
Marinescu Hospital, Bucharest, with reactive
depression neurotic intensity. Chicane and is
then permanently bound to report regularly to
controls. Research Committee of abuse
302

diagnosed healthy.

5. D. F., in Botosani, unemployed. He worked


as an unskilled autobaza. On October 21, 1980
is canceled by contract, entering into conflict
with management who have abusive behavior.
Will always be dismissed and reinstated.
Following complaints made, it makes up a
commission of inquiry, finds illegalities claimed,
but all measures are taken against him. On
August 18, 1988 contact the Hungarian
Embassy in Bucharest and seek emigration to
West Germany the reason that is unemployed.
He manufactured the and a slogan saying "are
unemployed in Romania." Is immediately
arrested by the militia and admitted to hospital
four Gheorghe Marinescu. I make a diagnosis
of paranoia, being subjected to electroshock
therapy and neuroleptic. Treatment and is done
by force and they feel very bad. After discharge
will not make claims, but lives under the
impression that it is destroyed. And he is
declared healthy by the committee.

6. T. I., Calarasi was Colonel MND In 1968,


disagreeing with the new pay system, was
removed from among military personnel. Soon,
he was hospitalized with force to the Central
Military Hospital with a diagnosis of the
decompensation psihipatoida interpretative
state-reactive interference ethanol. 1984 is the
same hospital with the diagnosis reinternat
303

syndrome psihoorganic interpretative. In the


summer of 1984 he was arrested for "actions
against President Nicolae Ceausescu" and
would be writing on file or to be executed, but
then asked him to psychiatric hospitalization,
first at Smelly, Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital
and then as was saved. He was retired and
second degree. Diacicov Commission said it
healthy.

7. S.c. in Bucharest. He worked as a


photographer and electrician. In 1963 he was
arrested for the attempted crossing into
Yugoslavia, but Gheorghe Marinescu is
admitted to hospital, where he is diagnosed
paranoid schizophrenic. For 10 years could not
commit to nowhere, then had to change many
jobs. Agrees that the admission of 30 years ago
saved from prison, but now wants rehabilitation.
Commission declared him healthy.

8. T. C., Miercurea Ciuc, accounting. In 1968,


because it makes financial controls, has
clashed with the party and administrative
organs. Being a righteous man and discovering
corruption, came to have many enemies. In
1973, after a trivial advice for sick leave, is sent
to the leadership polyclinic, where, to his
surprise, is given a note indicating that the
second degree is retired. Go to the hospital
from Miercurea Ciuc to discuss with the doctor
who signed the decision, but it no longer
304

allowed to leave the hospital. I diagnosed


paranoid schizophrenic. Although he tried to
fight this diagnosis through voluntary
hospitalization made to hospitals in different
towns, does not succeed. No statements by
Ceausescu and no legal way do not work. Tries
in 1978 in Bucharest, but without success. For
these reasons bear any humiliation to the
revolution. Diacicov Commission said it
mentally healthy.

9. EC, engineering physicist, retired in the


second degree in 1988, in Bucharest. In August
1981, following the worsening economic
situation in the country and under the influence
of protest movements in Poland, and after
arrest father-Dumitreasa Calcium, EC
attempted to organize a democratic party with
the following program: choosing the president
by universal suffrage and secret political
freedom, multiparty system, freedom of religion,
right to strike, leaving Romania in the Warsaw
Pact. Contact more people and is partially
successful.
In 1982 wrote an article in the institution journal
wall, they look hard state the population. In
1982, at a party meeting, require that party
members are properly informed about the
economic situation. Was interrupted and booed
by a group. After two days he was arrested and
interrogated, but by all means of torture does
not disclose anything about the party set up,
305

although he was faced with two colleagues who


had joined the party.
He was taken to prison Securitate in Bucharest,
in a cell with a guy who beat him all the time.
Jilava and was beaten, especially by the head
of the cell, and was subjected to sexual
perversions. Feeling that can not resist, cried
that has it all. Was immediately transferred to
the prison security, which was always
questioned, beaten and subjected to sexual
perversions. He then returned to Jilava
continued to be treated equally. In this context
began to have hallucinations and, after
examining psychiatric and psychogenic reaction
is diagnosed with psychotic intensity events.
Is released on June 10, 1982. After his release
he had long periods of insomnia and
hallucinations have reappeared, for which
reinterneaza. I loosen the labor contract, and
colleagues are saying she did spy. Under these
circumstances, accept medical retirement.
Although it was not admitted abuse, the disease
started after strong stress caused by security
investigations without being guilty. The
Commission said it currently mentally healthy.

10. VI, in Bucharest, was sleeping car


conductor. In 1985 he took the fire wagon, a
wagon that was part of the park's special
Ceausescu. Investigation is made and is
dismissed. Secretary of the party making the
complaint that V.I. would have burned the
306

wagon, which is why it is relegated to unskilled.


It addresses the party organs. It shows about 3
Militia to receive an answer, but is detained and
sent to the Manor Hospital. I diagnosed with
psychopathy impulsive, explosive toxic
interference. In 1989, the day railway worker,
took a petition to DC he wanted to personally
hand over a Ceausescu. It stopped the militia,
who break statement and it forcibly hospitalized
Manor Hospital on the grounds that "repeatedly
violate tenants, being aggressive and that
several times and began appearing in the
Palace Hall, being ruled by violent impulses
towards the bodies of Militia, which is
dangerous for the public street, being mentally
ill. " Manor sits in 22 days with impulsive,
unstable psychopathy. Reinternat Also in 1989,
after a conflict with a colleague that he wanted
to beat. Admissions have continued after 1989
at his request. Try to get old job at the railway,
but fails.

11. VF, Oradea, Faculty of Philosophy and a


graduate of the Military Academy. In 1969 he
sent the address of the Ninth Congress of the
Communist Party a letter with "invective and
slanderous content at DC and Ceausescu
denigrate domestic and foreign policy of the
state, distorting economic and social realities in
the country, asking delegates to the congress to
take action against the Secretary General."
During house searches and there is a copy of
307

the letter and others with the same hateful


content, but that had not been sent. He is
accused of "propaganda against the socialist
system" by the military prosecutor in Oradea. In
1971 it removed the criminal investigation and
the psychiatric hospital in Oradea, then
transferred to Bucharest, where it held 10
months and then transferred under escort to
Cluj, diagnosed with paranoid depressive
syndrome. From 34 years has been
marginalized, was retired to be removed from
social life. Reinternat after the revolution and
expertise of committee, is declared healthy.

12. T.E., 60 years old, from Cluj care. Witness a


conflict between the director and her husband
enterprise, which eventually burst and contract
work. Husband to court, being co-applicant in
this context. Gradually, by placing it in the file
number of calumnies, and then the defendant is
accused of committing serious crimes, and
slander antisocial acts at central and local
authorities. Is arrested and interned in
psychiatric hospital in Cluj in 1974. It is the
expertise and diagnosis of paranoid delirium
systematized. In front of this hunger strike, but
the provisions of art.114 hp is with compulsory
admission. In 1975 he was hospitalized in
Bucharest and reexpertizata, establishing
interpretive diagnostiucul reaction against a
development disarmonice paranoiac personality
type. I applied security measures under Article
308

113 hp Man continues to make statements on


radio, TV, but without any result. Reexpertizata
in Timisoara in 1976 and in 1978 in Cluj, with a
diagnosis of paranoid delirium systematized
interpretative depression, persistent reaction.
Challenge both diagnosis and security
measures. Process last win in 1981, is removed
from the scope of Article 113 hp, but the
address will not arrive until after the revolution.
Reexpertizata since 1989, is declared healthy.

13. V.Gh., former professor, now retired. In


1951 he was detained and interrogated by
security for propaganda against the socialist
system. Vacaresti transferred to hospital as a
result of coming into a hunger strike.
In 1970 he was convicted by military tribunal for
all the propaganda against the socialist system,
but is sent at voila Hospital, where he received
a diagnosis of paranoid psychopathy, with
manic states of excitation type, it is released
under the prosecution. In 1971 he was
hospitalized all forced to Urlati, and in 1974 was
subject to the provisions of art.114 hp and 113
hp then to 1980. In 1980, after a hunger strike,
is forced to Voila reinternat and kept on record
until December 1988. Mentioned that, after
searches made, and were confiscated literary
(written under the pseudonym Snow). After the
revolution is no longer reviewed and found
psychiatric disorders.
309

14. U.C. Bucharest. Wanting to work in


Germany, asked the Council of State to enable
the departure. Not receive response, write a
memo in which complains that while the leader
walks, he has the opportunity to work abroad.
As a result, on August 30, 1972, is higher by
about a militia and went straight to hospital for
psychiatric Balaceanca. It is the expertise and
diagnosis of paranoid psychosis. I discharge
the condition is not to come to Bucharest.
Already the service is canceled by contract. In
October 1974 the militia reinternat Socola
Hospital, where he changed the diagnosis in
neurotic syndrome residual depressive
decompensation. The wife is pressing for a
divorce because it would be a traitor to the
country. After the revolution, requires
recognition of seniority and pay entitlements.
Mental Health Commission says it Diacicov.

15. Ş.V., statistician in Bucharest. In 1982,


while he was on sick leave and loosen labor
contract. Try audiences memories, but can not
solve anything. In 1983, desperate situation
unresolved, leaving the car in front of
Ceausescu. He was arrested, then released
and received in audience at CC, then is
reinstated in another sector, which it enought.
In 1984, again leaving the car in front of
Ceausescu to give you a letter in the same
issue. And is arrested and released. After two
days, however, is high at home and taken to
310

hospital Gheorghe Marinescu. He had no


psychiatric history. On August 30, 1984 is the
Institute of Forensic expertise in the diagnosis
of personality type accented hipertim, cverulent,
demanding and forward a file Polyclinic Titan.
On November 16 the militia is back in hospital
for Gheorghe Marinescu "shows serious
behavioral disorders in the form of protest
actions." After eight days before it is discharged
with the diagnosis. In 1987 and forcibly
hospitalized, but keep the old diagnosis. All
admissions received no treatment. Diacicov
Commission finds it psychologically normal.

16. S.N. economist in Bucharest. In 1977 he


was chased by security for religious
propaganda, being admitted to hospital forced
Gheorghe Marinescu and retired diagnosis of
paranoid schizophrenia. The diagnosis was
based on his religious beliefs and his actions
following the preaching of religion. For eight
years called right to work, but has been
systematically denied by psychiatrists, denying
him the depensionarea. At Clinic Titan was
threatened if religious propaganda will cease
permanently admitted to Balaceanca.
Addressed the Institute's expertise work
capacity to work, but to his surprise, now have
paranoia. In all its efforts for a job and has said
that as long as you do "religious propaganda"
would be considered mentally ill, although he
said religion is the belief of his life. After the
311

revolution is found by the commission that has


always been healthy.

17. S. Gh. Pitesti. His father is blind, was the


custom of sending anonymous (1957)
Gheorghiu Dej, demanding cancellation of
collective farms. Realizing the danger, S.Gh. go
away from home and, in 1962, reached a head
office scaffold extraction. Since his father was
arrested meantime, this service becomes aware
of his shots and will be treated as an "enemy of
the people, being relegated to no longer had a
responsibility. File a lawsuit, but the result is
taken to a psychiatrist who diagnosed asthenic
neurosis with paranoid elements. Justice does
not give satisfaction, and so he would charge
these organs. Medically retired in 1964 finds
himself diagnosed with paranoid psychosis, but
refuse pension. The new director, who was also
a member of the County Party Committee,
required no explanation, the dissident under
interdiction. Covering use L.S.M. Pitesti which
conforms to and establishes the diagnosis of
paranoia. Following complaints and other
pleadings and only in 1988 a committee to
formulate a new Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital
diagnosis, psychopathy polymorphic in good
remission stage. I recommend the resumption
of activity. After the revolution will be declared
healthy, but the range of administrative
harassment and abuses continue today.
312

18. R.N., programmer from Bucharest. Having a


child with congenital disorder, has not wanted
to have and other descendants, so that the
psychiatric hospital. In '83 and '84 is admitted to
the hospital psychiatric ward Tulghes, then LSM
Titanium diagnosed with depression, anxiety,
substance disharmony and, therefore, could
make abortions legal. But 1984 is hospitalized
forced second reason has attempted suicide.
After the revolution, the fear of forced
hospitalization in November, is seeking
challenging diagnoses made. Diacicov
Commission appreciates his health and that
earlier were diagnosticlele complacency.

19. B.P. of Dambovita, retired officer. In 1965,


as officer in Tg.Jiu, you know, during the
election campaign, the comrade. Marine
clothing factory director and candidate for
election. Soldiers who took the word being
asked to take the unit inside a food stall. B.P.
took the floor looking like comrade. Marin
seems to be a competent candidate, calling him
a dummy, not knowing why he came to military
voters. After three days is required to Bucharest
and made to do a report on the incident. Upon
returning unit is excluded from UTC, not
compatible with the position of officer, which is
why retired. Follows a period in which the
organs as memory, but no reply. In desperation
addresses of foreign embassies, England,
France, West Germany - and even American
313

Library. In fact, any statement not reach the


destination, they are filed or Security. For 20
years is harassed in the administrative
labyrinth. Hardly earn their living, is
marginalized and persecuted. In April 1977,
being employed in a trust building in Craiova,
arrested without cause, severely beaten and
hospitalized at the psychiatric hospital in
Slatina. Here, your I.D. says frankly that has the
duty to retire, then he must leave Slatina. While
paranoia is diagnosed, the service is canceled
by contract, retroactive, although the decision
was not served. Appeals made him walk in
many psychiatric hospitals during 1977-1986.
Persecution continued and the home or, where
in December 1979 is beaten by Sergeant
Manea, who prohibited to leave the village. I
shall take the fingerprints and is required to sign
a pledge that he will not write memoirs and will
not address other forums. In 1987 reached
Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital, where Clinic
chief asks to stop his actions contesting, as this
would bring more trouble. If the dispute
diagnoses, it would make available to its
security and media. Convinced by these
explanations, he will give up all protest actions.
After the committee Diacicov revolution and
shows that it is not mentally ill.

20. B.I., former officer of Cluj. 1962 is removed


from the army for military clothes lent to
individuals, for a show. Then working in several
314

places. Realizing the many injustices of


communist society, begins to write statements
that expose the guilty, incompetent, expose
abuses. This becomes more dangerous with
this circle appear as people driving or
nomenclature (ad even a first secretary of the
party). For these reasons it is always fired,
demoted and ultimately arrested him
inscenandu is a process. Not recognize the
accusations and said the hunger strike.
Cumulative convictions totaling 30 years in
prison, which conducted 23 years, but are
retained for his criminal acts and civil
disobedience outside complaints. Against
irregularities in prison, always protest by hunger
strike, but is systematically tortured - and are
injected to cause him pain, etc. is immersed in
hot water.
Psychiatric odyssey began in 1976 when it
becomes clear that traditional methods of
repression can not intimidate him. On March 5,
1976 was that he was medically retired with a
diagnosis of paranoid delirium systematized.
Refuse and retirement, and diagnosis.
Following a period of psychiatric hospitalization
for the entire pathway gulag: Hospital P. Groza
Poiana Mare Jilava Gherla White Gate etc..
Was placed in art.114 c.p. and then passed the
113 c.p. After the revolution is declared
mentally healthy.

21. G.B., laborer in Bucharest. In 1977 is


315

subject to successive legal convictions and


antisocial behavior perseverarea this behavior.
1987 is charged, together with other youth, the
offense of "unauthorized dissemination of
printed to be used as a means of public
information", and "spreading obscene material,
purchase of tapes, cassettes video publications
mystical nature, obscurantist which have
multiplied from Xerox and dactilo. Also, charges
in May claiming that "sexual aberrations
followed the meeting with typical manifestations
of a personality disharmony with obsessive
interests in matters of sexuality." On June 23,
1989 is again arrested for distribution of
obscene material.
To end such activities and to relieve the
security organs of liability, on August 4, 1989,
GB is framed art. 114 hp, by ruling of the Court
sect.1 Bucharest, his appeal being rejected. On
August 8, 1989 is admitted to prison and
hospital with a diagnosis of paranoid personality
development of obsessive-phobic elements,
schizoid psychopathy, and on August 15 is a
new expertise with the same diagnosis. Given
the criminal history, the committee believes that
"the above-mentioned shows a high degree of
risk, for which it is estimated that discernment is
lost in relation to the offense for which
investigated and recommended the application
of medical measures, stipulated in Art. 114 hp .
As a result, removed from prison and sent to
Poiana Mare Hospital, where, after the
316

revolution, is urgently discharged (on December


30, 1989) from what physician, during
hospitalization, the patient was perfectly
adapted to the situation and has received only
one minimal treatment (except HE at the
beginning). Commission's diagnosis is not
confirmed and after the revolution is declared
healthy.

22. C.V., retired chemical operator in Braila. In


1975 he was accused of propaganda against
the socialist system, following a memorandum
sent Ceausescu in urging the RCP to stop
interfering in union affairs. The Bucharest
Military Prosecutor's ordinance is accused of
mailing two letters written and the party
leadership in the manner designed to create the
impression that its views to a group of factory
workers in progress. Would have made libelous
and hostile to the current social oranduirii on
certain economic, social and health care, who
uttered letters and threats aimed at senior
managers of the party and included the idea of
replacing it. Another letter signed "Brothers
Romania" was put in a mailbox on May 26,
1975, document was anonymous and no
destination. During the criminal investigation, it
appears that C.V. is the author of the letter. I do
is search and looked at the Security in Braila.
Being asked "where concealed weapons, C.V.
respond that the kitchen is a disassembled gun.
This statement made in jest to lead to
317

hospitalization in an abusive manner, on


December 16, 1975, the psychiatric hospital in
Braila, with a diagnosis of psychopathy
polymorphic, predominantly explosive,
paranoid, with frequent decompensation,
confirmed diagnosis of IML expertise Braila.
Ticket was issued by the doctor referring DM
Clinic of Braila, without even having seen the
patient or that it has been in the polyclinic
records. Although retired for sciatica and that
retirement will be canceled and be done with
other psychiatric diagnosis. After this procedure
led to the trial court is Emergency Braila and
judged by applying them to safety measures
and security is required by ordinance to control
this month in psychiatry. In March 1976 C.V.
required to set aside retirement and could
return to work, but its application is refused,
appeals made to the Ministry of Labour is futile.
Security is called in Braila, where he said that if
peace will not be "hidden it will not find
anyone." Is required to sign a pledge and
threatened with evacuation of the apartment
and family.
After the December 1989 attempted to clarify
the situation, but was carried from one
institution to another commission-declinandu
local expertise and competence. Abuse
Research Commission said it normally but
mentally.

23. CI, retired statistician from Bucharest. On


318

October 2, 1975, during an audience (an issue


related to service) the first secretary of the
Sector 5 Bucharest, comrade. Ganea Nicolae,
is determined by its rude to retaliate. Secretary
of the Party, also being used to pay afronturi,
revenge forcing management to an enterprise
in which to work off. States not party to convene
a meeting at which the first secretary sends an
activist pushing and get fired. Because of the
situation they're in, C.I. has attempted suicide
and thus reach psychiatry. There will not be
available given the hospital without the first
secretary of state admitted reason for 21 days.
After three days the hospital is built abusive
home by police and forcibly admitted to
Balaceanca, which is subject to abuse as an
expert. To the surprise of her doctors reject
compulsory hospitalization. Between 1975 -
1979 no longer has problems with psychiatry,
though without his will was kept in its record.
Home sectoristul conflicts with a bad payer of
its block. It baffles Militia and fingerprints taken
on the grounds that "they have committed
crimes in the neighborhood, his name being
given to the psychiatric clinic. All for no reason,
in 1986, her unit has a territorial social
assistance from the clinic asking neighbors
about her references, but do not get negative
statements. On June 3, 1989, according to a
report of the clinic doctor is high abuse at home
and admitted to Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital,
where the committee rejects compulsory
319

hospitalization. It shows the decision to the


clinic doctor, and he, in front of her, calling a
doctor at the hospital claiming that she would
be agitated unreal. After the revolution is
declared mentally healthy.

24. CI, retiree medical, former engineer. In


order to do good job, had to protest against the
abhorrent conditions of reversal of values, but
all his criticisms were rejected. Is dismissed
improperly, high security and compulsory
psychiatric treatment and subjected to
unbearable. Thus, repeatedly admitted to him
militia Gheorghe Marinescu or Manor Hospital
with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. In
1981, on a Titan Polyclinic address and GC's
examination, the patient did not never seen,
and is set improperly diagnosed paranoid
schizophrenic and concludes that it is a social
danger, he is applying the provisions of
Ordinance 313. Following this, the high street
and admitted to hospital Gheorghe Marinescu,
totaling more abusive hospitalization. And he is
declared healthy Diacicov committee.

25. D.V., electronics in Bucharest. Conflict with


security for a series of political statements,
antitotalitarian. In a series of letters he criticized
the leadership of top security and the state
party. It was built with arrest and prosecution
file was made military. Between 1979 - 1980
has been repeatedly summoned to security and
320

because of continuing political activity is


admitted to psychiatric hospital in Podari-
Craiova. He was expelled from college and
marginalized, socially isolated. After discharge
from hospital Podari was constantly watched by
security, including through technical means.
During his long period of persecution was
always under stress, he started drinking
alcohol, became depressed, vulnerable, his
social position has deteriorated. Examined by
the commission said abuse is mentally normal.

26. D.P., retired accountant in Craiova. In 1948


the communist regime made unfavorable
statements, being arrested, which is repeated in
1950. Out of prison, shows traces colleagues,
bruises and other signs of torture. In 1957 a
former comrade from the front hides Security
searched, being close to it until 1961. Make a
statement in 1965 calling for a final departure
from the country and write a statement that
insult the government and party organs.
Forcibly interned in psychiatric hospitals in 1966
and Craiova undergo psychiatric expert, where
he established the diagnosis of paranoia. After
application of decree 12 Podari admissions to
succeed, and in 1970 transferred to Poiana
Mare Hospital, where he was hospitalized
following a decision by the Military Tribunals
Timisoara. During this period D.P. continues to
make negative feedback system. In 1973 he
was arrested without blame as being involved in
321

a crime, and in 1976 is accused of perjury.


Hospitalization succeed every time and Podari
Poiana Mare Hospital. After the revolution and
he is declared mentally healthy.

27. FN, a former locomotive engineer, now


retired, in Bucharest. Between 1949 - 1950
worked at the Embassy of Albania (Albanian
citizen was his wife). In 1960, alter, into
relations with Albania, is accused in the station
would be exceeded Ciorogarla signal stopping
the locomotive. After this setup is canceled by
contract. Begin to take steps to repair the
injustice. Is invited to Gheorghe Marinescu
Hospital, where he unexpectedly retired
medical diagnosis is interpretive response on
the merits disharmony. Expertise since 1989, it
no psychiatric disorder.

28. G.I., retired professor in Bucharest. He was


arrested by Security on July 14, 1970 for proper
fault to be writing poems and widespread anti-
government character.
I have confiscated manuscripts, books and
typewriter. Gheorghe Marinescu is admitted to
hospital and then sent to Balaceanca.

29. G. Gh., Former school director, now retired,


in Bucharest. He was secretary P.S.D. in Tg.
Neamt, where he had to face many ups and
even one attempted murder. In 1989 he was
devastated house and was molested, while
322

offenders who have admitted guilt were


released at the intervention of party secretary in
Tg. Neamt. Following numerous complaints
made, was admitted to the psychiatric hospital
in Piatra Neamt, where she was diagnosed with
paranoia. During the Congress Party of
noiembrie1989 is again forcibly hospitalized
with a diagnosis of paranoia. All admissions
were unjustified and illegal. After 1989, he
declared mentally healthy.

30. GI was commodities, now retired from


Bistrita Nasaud. Refugees from Bessarabia, is
advised to join the party for not being deported
to the USSR. 1952 is excluded from the party
and removed from the army on the grounds that
it ran the USSR. Made many attempts to be
reclassified in work and succeed only in 1968,
but soon transferred to a lower salary. 1970
starts to complain, so will be prosecuted. In
1972 he is again fired, and then evacuated the
house. Still make claims and demands and
leaving the country. In this context, on July 29,
1976, is raised by police and forcibly interned in
psychiatric hospitals in Bistrita to recommend
you apply Decree 12/65. I syndrome is
diagnosed by performing reactive, but refuse to
integrate into the Ordinance. Prosecutor
decides not content and forced internment in
the clinic for a new expertise in Cluj, but not this
time does not apply Decree 12. After discharge,
he oversees security officer threatened him that
323

if he made statements in May, will be taken to


the border with Yugoslavia and shot motivating
he wanted to flee. He continued to be
monitored. Whenever Ceausescu came to visit
in Bistrita, he was forcibly admitted to hospital
psihitrie. After the revolution is declared
rehabilitated and mentally healthy.

31. ML, a former engineer, now retired, in


Bucharest. He began to be persecuted in 1969,
as Following the correspondence on scientific
subjects with a university in France. In 1970,
following a conflict with the boss or Bottom, is
moved disciplinary Mogosoaia. Notice that is
watched by security, because in 1974, the
intervention of former boss, forced to be
admitted to hospital Gheorghe Marinescu with
the diagnosis of psychogenic paranoid reaction.
The observation sheet there is a note referring
not know how it got there, the patient being
examined by the clinic. Is medically retired in
January 1975, although he has not requested
them. In 1976 found that one of his works
appear to the committee for approval of the
Ministry of Agriculture, but the author is the
director just persecutor. Although asked to be
reinstated in service, and they say they are not
places. In the period 1977 -1979 is ostensibly
aimed and ups are different (is accused of theft,
foreign relations, possession of pornographic
photos). This period is eight memories at CC
and returned book in protest party. In 1982,
324

captures the home or the security agents


entered through double keys. Also, the surgery
has the impression that the doctor wanted to kill
him (he was in prison doctor Vacaresti). To no
longer be considered wild, cease to make
memories. After the revolution, the Commission
Diacicov rehabilitate him being mentally
healthy.

32. MS, formerly working in the trade, now


retired, in Bucharest. In 1954 she was arrested
and sentenced for the crime of high treason.
The prison is molested, beaten. Also, her
husband was forced to divorce her in detention,
and children have been taken. He was
hospitalized several times in psychiatric
hospital. After the revolution was declared
healthy.

33. JI Colibasi engineer from, transferred to


Bucharest. He graduated college with a degree
of honor in the USSR. Romanian industry is
facing difficulties with outdated technology.
Proposes a series of measures to stimulate
technical progress and is even subject of praise
in the press against him. In 1970 - 1971 the
question of collectivization mountain areas.
Being Rucar, realizes that such a measure will
lead to impoverishment and disappearance of
mountain village. It also opposes a proposed
hydropower systematization of Dambovita
approved by Ceausescu, which would have
325

resulted in the destruction area. Himself


proposes an alternative plan, which would have
saved the region. CNST is called to office in
February, where talk with a counselor. Exiting
the building is anchored by two individuals,
forcibly boarded a black car and is said to be
arrested. In fact it went straight to the reception
given to Dr. Balaceanca and guard. I give a
striped uniform and is sent into a room shake.
Refuse treatment, but conditions are miserable
accommodation. Expertise is four times
successively. Appeal to the conscience of
doctors committee, and one says doctors "are
born you had to wait over 100 years, if the
company will evolve as hoped. Is discharged in
two months, but a statement is required to show
he will not mind "bodies." Returned to service,
establishes that is transferred to another
company. Security is always supervised, is
forbidden to attend gatherings or meetings held,
and during Ceausescu's visit is isolated and
kept in the company. Always advised his wife to
divorce him because it would be a social
danger. Participate in the revolution of 1989
and elected president of NSF the plant. It said it
may be reclassified or old job, plant Republic.
And he is declared mentally healthy.

34. N.E., retired in Bucharest. In 1974 he


protested against the demolition of the house,
refusing to move house. Expressed his
displeasure in front of numerous authorities and
326

sent a letter to Ceausescu - which teaches


brother dictator, who worked at Casa Spark -
letter telling about the hard life of peasants and
workers. Subsequently, being all unhappy, ask
for a passport to emigrate, but all letters were
gathered by the Security folder. On October 31,
1974 is higher by two security officers and
admitted to hospital forced Gheorghe
Marinescu, during Brezhnev's visit to Romania.
The observation sheet notes that the claim is
unjustified. After the revolution, the committee
finds that Diacicov is mentally healthy.

35. M.I., teacher, Mangalia. After a hospital and


a medical retirement, and work resumed conflict
with school officials and, therefore, is a series of
memory addresses that issue "Flame." In 1989,
after conflict, is admitted by force, at the
request of the director of Decree 313 and
inserted, then interned in psychiatric hospitals
Palazu Great. After the revolution is
rehabilitated as mentally normal.

36. CN tiller in Bucharest, now retired. 1956 is


unjustly accused of murder and that he wanted
to get rid of PAC's. It closed at Vacaresti and
expertise to Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital,
diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. Will be
five years in a psychiatric hospital. 1962 is
discharged and will work as a postman nine,
then 15 years doorman at the Ambassador
Hotel, where it is retired. After the revolution
327

judged to be mentally healthy.

37. C.V., a former security officer, in Ocna


Mures. In 1955 he was accused of treason
(Titoist), tried, released, expelled from the army.
Following a memorandum to DC, gets a job as
a mechanic, but requesting a transfer, it is
rejected and he will give the party card. After a
year and is expelled from the party be canceled
by contract to not be employed anywhere.
Coming to Bucharest to address the CC, but to
the police detained three days, then transferred
to Security and then admitted to the prison
psychiatric hospital Vacaresti, where expertise
and diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. Is
then carried through several prisons, the last
being that of Sighet. Hunger strike and is
moved to Sighet psychiatric hospital, where
said irresponsible, and his brother be appointed
guardian. While making the appeal, is not lifting
the prohibition. Is declared healthy by the
research of abuse.

38. P.V., laborer, from Ploiesti. In 1968 wrote a


memorandum addressed to Ceausescu, but he
tried to read in a party meeting. After finished
reading, they make the book party. On June 29,
1969, during Nixon's visit is high and domestic
abuse militia Urlati Hospital. Here is a hunger
strike demanding that the state will be informed
of this abuse. He asks what respect Ceauşescu
claimed in a speech: "A man went to the service
328

must be sure to get home." After five days of


hunger strike, the four people who joined and is
without a ticket outlet discharge without
diagnosis. A complaint against the internment
abusive, but the court refused to take it into
consideration. Noticed that in the five days of
hospitalization was clock at work.
The second admission to hospital forced to do
Voila -1976. Prior to admission, P.V. Free
Europe sent a letter asking for increase of
wages to former members of the Social
Democratic Party, which was concealed PCR
From search and have found other copies of
similar letters sent to the radio, expressing
belief that the communist regime will fall. It's
expertise in power, shut in a room with bars, but
not receiving any treatment, no-one attention.
At hospital discharge diagnosis is paranoia, and
hospital director says that "fight with windmills."
In April 1977 for the third time is forcibly
admitted to hospital Sapoca, which he
describes as a hell. He was arrested while
trying to make a visit to Goma P. challenging
writer. Just block his door is caught, severely
beaten, always being asked if he signed the
letter of Goma. Refuses to sign the signature
statement of withdrawal. It reinternat to Sapoca
to shake, and then transferred to alcohol. For
45 days and are high doses of neuroleptics and
ES. During his hospitalization Sapoca is
brought there and NM, in Ploiesti, who asked to
emigrate, as well as PC, emigrated to Canada
329

today. After discharge is required by the Ploiesti


Court to determine what hospital will be
admitted. Hospital security asked Calinesti-
Prahova, but the court decided to be left under
control patient, his wife being forced to be his
guardian.
Another one is hospitalized and voila had a
dramatic progress presented in a previous
chapter.
V.P. - Known political dissidents at
home and abroad, has established a free trade
union. In 1976 she went to the West, and in
February 1978 in Paris held a press conference
and spoke about the use of psychiatry for
political purposes in Romania. He also called
on workers freedom to organize unions. On
being refused entry back into the country, but
following protests is rehired. I changed job and
then was forcibly retired. Both Paris and the
country (after the revolution) was examined and
found to be perfectly healthy mentally.

39. P.F., civil engineer from Cluj. In 1983,


Gorbachev writes letters that show the plight of
the country. It also sends critical statements by
the ministry and therefore is dismissed. Make a
statement by Elena Ceausescu, the look of the
negative aspects of construction, megalomania
criticism in this area. Begins to be watched by
security, especially as he continues to write
memoirs Ceausescu. In this context, the 1986
is high and the service is put in to unmask
330

friends because otherwise everyone will be


terminated "with the whole family. Decided to
simulate a mental illness, which is why stage a
suicide attempt, was admitted to psychiatry.
Here, a doctor (SD) you better learn how to
simulate mental illness, which is why he stayed
93 days in hospital and was helped to retire
with a diagnosis of melancholic depression,
with interpretive elements, the substance melts
paranoid. After the revolution is hospitalized for
deciding that is not mentally ill.

40. V.D.S., retired waiter, in Bucharest. Even


after completing military service, have the habit
of writing memoirs Ceausescu.
While Ana Muresan visit or shop and I address
some unfounded criticism, VDS had the
audacity to kick in a store. Soon be visited by a
security officer who requires it to give
statements in connection with one of his
colleagues, former political prisoner who was
later killed in mysterious circumstances.
He then took about a group show patterns
anticomuniste.Sotia, convinced the party
secretary, insisted that the VDS to be
hospitalized, reason on its own initiative, has
some to psychiatric hospitalization.
In 1984, however, is high, the saving, on the
street and admitted to hospital compulsorily
Gheorghe Marinescu. After discussion with the
hospital has a comrade. Carol, the first
secretary of the sector in March and, after some
331

violent word, you hit it on the head with a folder.


Leaves, but not get very far. It took three
individuals on the street, brutally beaten and
she is a domiciliary. Reinternat then forcibly
from the same hospital, where neuroleptizat
massive (and is given a mixture of 14 ampoules
of neuroleptics simultaneously) and is kept in a
permanent state of sleep. He was forced and
ES. After the beatings received them is crushed
nose, then a epitelom appearing on the site. I
shall apply the provisions of Ordinance 313,
although not known ever to have been expert. It
was found that the 1984 observation sheet was
replaced with another, and another with a
different diagnosis's.
After such history, status decompenseaza
patient, must make annual hospitalization.
Current diagnosis of personality is disharmony,
but felt sore all what happened, all the brutality
that has been treated making it a client of
psychiatric hospitals. He took an active part in
the revolution and on June 13, 1990 was
horribly beaten by miners. She is now retired
medical and psychiatric hospital shows
periodically on their own initiative.

41. AT neurologist, in Bucharest, the


granddaughter of a great political figures of the
past. Is bad luck to live near the Royal Palace.
His father was a matter of policy and was a
political prisoner for 15 years. In 1976 made a
statement in DC, demanding damages for
332

detention years. The only answer was arrested


at his daughter's statement, AT, and her
admission to hospital Balaceanca. I let go after
two days, but his father will make an impact and
will remain crippled for life.
In the 1982's A.T. insceneaza is a process for
discharge home, but won in 1984. On
November 15, 1984, the Congress party, is
lifted and admitted to the Manor Hospital. In
1985 an old man in a neindemanatec and
provovator, I make a scene on the streets,
staged staged by sectorist. On some days,
based on a handwritten note of sectorist, is
again hospitalized in Manor, where it is
discharged shortly.
Third admission is made during Gorbachev's
visit to Romania in 1987, and again she was
taking the Manor. Her companion told the
doctor: "Gorbachev when he sets foot on the
ladder plane, it can be released." I figured it
made a diagnosis by a doctor who had been
fellow students. He later motivate his deed: "I
did not to lose my bread."
She was declared mentally normal.

42. MS runner from Roşiorii the Vedas. At the


age of 15 years listening to pop music and
comments of Free Europe. Enthusiastic, in
1969 wrote two letters this station saying that
Marxist philosophy is a lie, and the Communist
Party would be identical to the Nazi. Shortly
thereafter, is required to make a statement
333

related to the theft of books. Was actually a


sample graphological. It investigated the
Security and tortured. Recognize the written
innocently, that one reason for Securitate said:
"boy this is not healthy head. Is immediately
sent to psychiatric and it does not preclude, nor
knew what significance is. Gheorghe Marinescu
Hospital and is a brief examination. Tried for the
offense of conspiracy against state security, is
classified as a social danger. The appeal is
refused. Diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia
Committee. Balaceanca is immediately taken to
hospital, admitted in a particular flag, with a
patio, place of barbed wire and guards. Living
with mentally ill and dangerous, especially
epilepsy.
Here is a group of students who demonstrated
against the regime in 1968. I shall be forced
neurolepticre cure and ES. Since it is claimed
that listening to Free Europe in the hospital,
physician CE ordered to be transferred
immediately to the chronic ward, is related to
bed and are neuroleptics. In 1971, safety
measures shall be suspended and is
discharged with a recommendation to be
obliged to ambulatoiriu treatment. Because of
this hospitalization, B.M. could not follow high
school who aspire to music. Make a lathe and
then becomes school runner. Security is always
watched, and at political events is sent to the
locomotive at great distances. Diacicov
Commission said it mentally healthy.
334

43. M.V., locksmith, in Bucharest. Spreading


anti manifest in April and May 1989. Is caught
and went straight to psychiatric expertise
Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital, where he
diagnosed paranoid schizophrenic. In August
1989 he was hospitalized at Poiana Mare
Hospital placed on art. 114 c.p. Suddenly.
several months after the revolution, is released
with no explanation. It said mental health.

44. I.M., working in Bucharest. Obor Market in


1969 out of a placard that said "Down with
Ceausescu". Is high, went to the police and
from there directly to Gheorghe Marinescu
Hospital, where hospital director says "special
case" and "will be kept in hospital. Militia
specify only the address block traffic. I shall be
quick and expertise diagnosed paranoid
schizophrenic, was framed in art.114 hp, then
sent to the Poiana Mare hospital. After the
revolution he is released without explanation,
and the commission finds him mentally healthy.

45. A.T., carpenter, in Bucharest. In 1962,


during a session, expresses dissatisfaction with
pay. Is called the party investigated the Security
and enemy of the people said. I insceneaza a
process for anticommunist propaganda, and
against anti-Soviet collectivization. After a
month of investigation and torture is admitted to
hospital with a diagnosis of delirium Gheorghe
335

Marinescu sensitive relationship. I shall apply


the provisions of Decree 12. After the discharge
is always followed by Security and consistently
high at political events. After the revolution is
declared healthy.

46. G.T., carpenter, in Bucharest. During


Brezhnev's visit, in 1976, forcibly interned
Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital, Bucharest that
was intended to stand against the party
leadership and state pentreu handed over a
letter. Is released after several days without
discharge diagnosis or ticket.

47. F.F., sergeant of militia, in Bucharest. In


1985, addressed C.C. more letters to draw
attention of senior management and the state
party on complaints and shortcomings, and the
mood of the population (electricity disruption,
starvation, cold, etc.). In 1986, though not sent
letters, he was arrested 10 days on false
grounds that failed to perform their service.
Through coercion and intimidation, and take a
statement in custody, which is dictated them
actually admits that caused serious injuries and
state party leadership. Is subjected to daily
interrogations and is brutally beaten. The family
is spinning and investigated. Although the
military, he is not allowed to report to his
superiors that the situation was. After 10 days
of arrest is forcibly interned at Central Military
Hospital, Psychiatry Department, but the
336

hospital is not handed any act. On July 23,


1986 is retired by a false report and the same
day is excluded from the party. Immediately and
shall be made as is medically retired. Over the
next three years is always subject to medical
examinations, as there was

diagnosed with schizophrenia, but is constantly


watched by security.
After 1989, although mental health is said, can
not regulate the situation and can not be
rehabilitated in line administrative. I said no jobs
its preparation.

48. AND, in Bucharest, lives near the Royal


Palace. On February 8, 1989 sees a policeman
brutalizand a citizen and can not help throwing
a pot on the street. After several hours, shows
him a policeman who takes him about three
militia. After a search of several hours during
the night it went straight to the Manor Hospital.
Here is held one month, massive neuroleptizat
no longer knows what he is, is astounded. I let
go with no ticket and no discharge diagnosis.

49. T.D., in Bucharest. Socialist Party founded


in 1971 technocrat. Party is dissolved in 1975,
when he is arrested, and some party members
are admitted to psychiatric facilities. T.D. is
accused of being bartender, sells lack the
grammage. It lasted a year at the Security,
Rahova Street and two months after release is
337

rearestat presented a court where there is


diagnosed as paranoid. Chief committees lack
the expertise, Dr.T., diagnosis explains them:
"You mean you want the post of president of
Romania. Two days after the process is leading
to Poiana Mare Hospital (on whose frontispiece
wrote TB Hospital), where he meets and other
political dissidents. The hospital was
surrounded by barbed wire three meters high,
the guards had canes with heads shaped fork.
One of the doctors - Dr. L - said: "Well, guys,
what would you do if you wanted to eat ass and
change the world? So, who knows when I get
out of here? And never changed will not change
nothing. " In 1978 is released, but can not find
employment. Yet reached the ITB, which even
manages to promote a responsible work. In
1984, he writes poems for the system, whom
they find security. Is gone and in psychiatry,
where he is diagnosed disharmony of
personality structure, personality type
paranoiace. No longer sent to the psychiatric
gulag system, but is sentenced to four years
imprisonment, being always in a cell isolated.

50. O.E., working in Bucharest. In 1979, at 21


years, joining S.L.O.M.R. - Secretly organized a
syndicate of Dr. V. Paraschiv Cana. Is
immediately taken to hospital three weeks
Force and Manor Hospital. Here and are high
doses of neuroleptics with sedative and pain. Is
discharged without diagnosis or discharge note.
338

Is always followed by security. After the


revolution is declared healthy.

51. M.M., in Bucharest. Returns from France,


where emigrated in 1980. Romanian Embassy
have faith in the promises that it will ensure that
home and workplace. On August 15 is at C.C.
with a statement that complained that the
promises are not met is arrested and admitted
to hospital four days without constant
psychiatric diagnosis and no type of discharge.

52. R.I. engineer from Cluj. In 1974,


Ceausescu's write a letter in which he accused
the country's dictatorial government. Is high in
the workplace by security organs of Tg. Jiu and
then admitted to local psychiatric hospital. It
neuroleptizat massive and ES are in this state
is led to an expertise that is declared
dangerously mentally ill, was hospitalized in a
chronic hospital, diagnosed with paranoid
schizophrenia. Manages to escape and show
broadcast on hundreds of anti Craiova. Is
caught, and admitted reexpertizat Bucharest
Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital. Neuroleptizat is
massive and I are still HE and forcibly make
him an air insufflation in the brain, unnecessary
handling, but very painful. After the analysis is
established diagnosis of paranoia and in that
time will be available only Security. Since 1989
trying to do extraordinary appeal for annulment
of judgments, but is rejected everywhere.
339

Consequently, addresses numerous


international organizations.
On March 24, 1992, Emanuel Valeriu transmit a
TV show, where he is listed as mentally ill,
something that will read later in the morning
newspaper. Remain perplexed and dismayed.
Furthermore, Emanuel Valeriu contact him
personally and I propose to sue APLR
personality of leadership and instead i will get a
good job. "Journalist" by Emanuel Valeriu
accompanying the patient was admitted as fact
Dr. C. Gorge, Titan polyclinic director, who are
making lists of patients who had forcibly
interned in psychiatry at political events. They
will be accused of it that have brought great
harm by press and TV. Consider a stigmatized
and would like to be restored contact with them
destroying existing psychiatry. Obviously it is
declared mentally healthy.

53. I.A., lawyer, in Brasov. He was repeatedly


admitted to psychiatric hospital at Brasov and
Bucharest, as he wrote letters to UN Secretary-
General, in which she argued that in Romania
are not respected human rights. I had to quit
because of repeated abuse in psychiatric
hospitalization Security made to order.

54. V.N., poet, Bucharest. He criticized the


security, which is why, repeatedly, is admitted
to hospital abusive Gheorghe Marinescu. Here
are neuroleptics and HE is massive. She is now
340

emigrated to the USA.

55. NP, philologist, editor of the film studio. To


1987 was forced to work as a laborer. In 1987
can apply for U.S. immigration. Try to enter the
embassy, but does not succeed than to throw a
letter in its garden. He was arrested
immediately and sent to the prison psychiatric
hospital Jilava where he is diagnosed paranoid
psychosis. After a month, a District Court has
required his hospitalization. Criminal act would
have constituted the crime against morality and
public nuisance. It led to psychiatric hospital in
Poiana Mare in November 1987. The hospital
had a special, and well accommodated and
allowed to have books. Doctors propose his
discharge, but the Court of Bailesti reject the
application. Do not call the hospital, but is
driven by scale airplane to Poiana Mare, where
we expect U.S. passport, immigration and the
whole family.

56. D F.S., driver of Ramnicu Valcea. In a bout


of anger, arguing with superiors and cursing
and even the party congress Ceausescu. He
was arrested and taken to hospital for
psychiatric territory, where the diagnosis of
psychopathy is polymorphic, with explosive-
impulsive events, the disease that normally
does not require lack of discernment. I applied
art. 114 c.p. and is sent to Poiana Mare
Hospital. Escapes during the revolution, along
341

with five other inmates. Though condemned by


a court, then no more search and operates
normally.

57. V.M., in Bucharest. In July 1989 the street


shouting: "I no longer part of the golden age!
Down with Ceausescu." Is taken about the
militia, brutally beaten by several youth militia,
who could be my grandmother. Then is taken
directly to Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital, where
five weeks and neuroleptics are massive. After
this treatment could not speak and finally died.

58. M.S., mechanical engineer, in Bucharest. In


1952 - 1954 founded the organization "Eagle
Mountain" in order to spread leaflets. He was
arrested, beaten and left with serious sequelae.
In 1988 is high at work by a security officer,
went into a building and subject to a special
device, the operator wearing protective clothing.
After this "treatment" effect of fatigue felt solid
and "mixture of ideas, could not concentrate.
Then gradually settled and was not bothered by
the militia.

59. G.I. in Bucharest. Spreading leaflets in


Union Square. Had done this several times
without being detected. This time he is caught
and taken at the Security, and prison and then.
Without any other formality is leading to Poiana
Mare Hospital. Only later realized that it was the
expertise and he would be diagnosed with
342

paranoid schizophrenia and discernment that


has fallen. May find that I have applied art. 114
c.p. Is released with great speed after the
revolution, when declared mentally normal.

60. D.T., driver of Bucharest. For Gorbachev's


visit they put a placard that said: "We glasnost
and perestroika. Nor in the street started to pull
placard - one hidden in the car - when he was
arrested, being "cast" of a colleague. He was
taken directly to the Manor Hospital and kept
there as Gorbachev's visit lasted. Received no
diagnosis and no discharge slip.

61. D.E., in Bucharest. Go to DC, where the


audience wants to enter but was prevented
noise occurs. He was arrested immediately and
taken to the Polyclinic Titan here, without being
examined, and epilepsy is diagnosed with
mental disorders. On the grounds that he
committed antisocial acts, committee or
imposed polyclinic Decree 12 and is forcibly
admitted to hospital Balaceanca.

Cases of abuse or attempted


abuse since 1989

62. T.V.R. in Bucharest. In September 1990


made a few days on hunger strike in order to
claim their rights. In Brasov station is attacked
by an individual who tear the bag. To her
surprise, the police appear, but arrested her
343

and transported in a psychiatric hospital in


Brasov. Here is connected, and are high doses
of neuroleptics and is held eight days. At the
insistence of his mother and discharge is
diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia.
Company physicians, although non-
professional, send the patient for admission to
hospital Gheorghe Marinescu, who ruled in
Brasov's diagnosis.

63. PI 1991 hunger strike in front of General


Prosecutor, which is arrested and sent directly
to Gheorghe Marinescu Hospital. Was not
hospitalized, the doctor on duty refused to do
so.

All this proves he still has not been


extinguished habits and reflexes which have
gained over the communist era certain
"organs." Psychiatry is still a means of
repression and an ally of Police.
It is true that the last two cases refer to events
that occurred during the years 1990 - 1991, but
equally true is that there criptocomunista era
officially until 1996. And who can assure us that
she's gone completely?
344

Bibliography

1. N. Adler, G.O.W. Muller, M. Azat, Psychiatry


under Tyranny - ASSESSEMENT year of the
Political abuse of psychiatry Roumanian During
Ceausescu you Years, Report of Mission to
Consultation On behalf of the Geneva initiative
of Psychiatry, June 7 to June 12, 1992;
2. Antim C., Psychiatry-sounding official
ideology, RL 627 / 9 April 1992
3. Antim C-war psychiatrists, RL, 628 / 10 April
1992;
4. Arun G., Filip Florian - butchers with a human
face. Word, dec.1990 46/11-17;
5. Alexe Elijah J - The Truth about Manor,
Romania working., March 20, 1990;
6. A. Anghelescu - Antideontologia, 22,8,109,
28 II - 5 III 1992;
7. Arun G., gentlemen of the morning walk with
fofarlica, Word, 7, 107, febr.1992;
8. Antohi C., talk more, the nightmare
continues, RL, 10 IV 1991;
9. APLR / show deceit, R.L., January 22., 1992;
10. Basque D. Romans are killed by fear,
Telegraph, October 8. 1992;
11. Băleanu A. Why lie again, Mr. Valeriu?, RL,
2 IV, 1992;
345

12. Bloch S, P. Redaway, Soviet psychiatric


abuse, London, V. Gollanc Ltd, 1984;
13. Brown Ch.J., a.m. Lake, The policy of
Psychiatry in the Revolutionary Cuba, Human
Right of Freedom House, Washington, 1991;
14. Bacanu PM's Parliamentary Commission
deny revelation Mischie, RL, 29, dec.1990;
15. Bacanu PM Parliamentary Chronicle, RL,
29 dec.1990;
16. Bacanu PM destabilizing destabilizing RL,
June 11, 1991;
17. Bart A. Correspondence from Sweden, R.L.,
November 11. 1990;
19. Balaceanu Stolnici C., political culture,
ethics and psychiatry, 22, 22, June 15, 1990;
20. Buzura A. files Truth, Tribune, 5, 1 Feb.
1991;
21. Claus, Einar Langen, Against The abuse of
psychiatry, Francfurter Algemeine Zeitung,
November. 12, 1992;
22. Cretulescu M., truths about the abuse must
be made known, interview with Andre Koppers,
Newspapers, November 10. 1992;
23. Costian T., How much and how much
psychiatric ethics, Time, 41, October 20. 1992;
24. Bo I, Galina Raduleanu, Backstage
psychiatric abuse, Newspapers, October 30.
1992;
25. Bo I, Part I, Social Psychiatry (1982), Part II
(1983), ed. Point, Bucharest
26. Bo I, psychiatry should not be a Cinderella,
and this concerns not only psychiatrists, but all
346

of us, Interview in Flame, 19, 1248, May 10,


1979;
27. Diacicov S. Bishops were not "crazy", the
Universe, 141, March 1991;
28. Duica C. Psychiatry unleashed political or
hate? Morning, 34 and 35 of febr.1991 20-21;
29. Dohotaru A., Bishops feared rescue, Flame,
1 Feb. 1990;
30. Frank N., involved in psychiatry for political
purposes in the USSR and Romania, 90, April
7. 1990.
31. Filip S., abuse - a bitter memory. Magazine,
55, May 23, 1992;
32. Filip Florian abusive Arrested for our
silence, word, 5-11 Feb. 1991;
33. M. Flonta continent lies, Newspapers,
October 30. 1992;
34. Fugariu C. Magnetoencefalograful in job
security, 1 to 6 August 1990;
35. Fahi S., between neuropsychiatry and
neuropuscarie, Tinerama, 60, 28 II - 5 III 1992;
36. Gavriliu L. APLR Goodbye, Time, January
15. 1993;
37. Gabriel F. There are still abuses in
Romanian psychiatry, RL, March 1, 1991;
38. Galatea M., repressive psychiatric clinics,
hospital Voila, Flame, 15, 15 to 21 April 1992;
39. Geica M., psychiatry should not yield to
politics, newspaper, 115, 280, April 16. 1992;
40. Geica M., Psychiatry under tyranny,
newspaper, 125, 1 VII 1992 VII 2 132 1992;
41. Geica M., about victims of totalitarian
347

psychiatry, newspaper, 132, 9 VII 1992;


42. Gerard F. Psychiatrists against
psychiatrists, Free Youth, 1990 VII 169/12,
170/13 VII 1990 VII 1990 174/18, 168/11 VII in
1990;
43. J. Geller, Glimps of Roumanian psychiatry,
Documents, 59, October-November 1992;
44. Grosan I. activist eternal Ziua.1064/16
December 1997;
45. Hartuny K. We Are the gosts, Die Zeit, 45
October. 30, 1992;
46. Elijah I. insane in hospital, patients are
shareholders in hell, Express, 8, 159, 23 II 1 III
1993;
47. Itu I, psychiatry for political purposes,
Tinerama, 72, 10-16 IV 1992;
48. Hazel V. Pitesti phenomenon, Humanitas.,
Pcs., 1991;
49. A. Koppers, A Biographical Dictionary on
The Political Abuse of Psychiatry in the USSR,
International Association on the Political Use of
Psychiatry, Amsterdam, 1990;
50. M. Lazarescu, destinies Romanian
psychiatry, Medical Life, 6, 8, 12 II 1990;
51. Modorgea G. mystification of history,
Romania, 4, 23, 3-9 II 1992;
52. Modorgea G., Mr. Valeriu Emanoil continue
campaign mystification of psychiatry, Romania,
14, 11-17, 1992;
53. T. Okada, security is active, Romania
Libera, 78, July-August 1990;
54. Oloieru G. Memorial pain, 22, 8, 160, 25 II -
348

5 III 1992;
55. Press NA, assassination attempt in Craiova,
RL, 615, 24 III 1992;
56. Palade R., Anatomy of a political abuse, 22,
8, 28 II - 5 III 1992;
57. The twitter., I think it's stuck here, Iliescu,
Express Magazine, June, 80, 12-19 II, 1992;
58. V. Paraschiv Inside Romanian: the
Psychiatric Prison Hospital, Document,
November 7. 1991;
59. Petrisor M., Fort 13, ed. Meridians, Pcs.,
1991;
60. Palade R., discernment in a strait jacket, 22,
22/l5 IV in 1990;
61. Pat G., Hell is called Poiana Mare, zigzag, 7
to 13 August 1990;
62. E. Smith, Interview with Nicolae Radu, N,
21.15-22 VIII 1990;
63. Palade R, Patients and physicians are
covered with earth with papers, 22, 22, 15 VI
1990;
64. Retezeanu A. The research report of the
totalitarian abuses of psychiatry, Newspapers,
October 30., 1992;

65. Romila A. The social dimension of


specialties, 22, 22, 15 VI 1990
66. Romila A. The relationship between
psychiatry and ethics, Newspapers, October 30.
1992;
67. Radulescu M., tunnel towards the light,
literary and artistic truth, 108, 15 III 1992;
68. Ruha R., S., BBC psychiatric denounce
349

abuses in Romania, Tinerama, 53, 15 to 21 in


1991;
69. Rosoga I, I was promised job if he will sue
Dr. Romila, NO, 72 - 7 - 13 III 1992;
70. Rock Dan, How do TV, Free Youth, 617, 18
III 1992;
71. Dan Rock, Psychiatry is a part of
civilization, Free Youth, 676, 11 VI 1992;
72. Dan Rock, psychiatry and politics, Free
Youth, 610, 7 III 1992;
73. Stanescu C, "Bishops" are again among us,
truth, 6024, April III 1992;
74. S. Sandulescu, True Doru Viorel Ursu
daughters, Justice, 21 XII 1990;
75. M. Rock, interview, psychiatry and events,
RL, 1 III 1991;
76. Tanea L. Ernest Brosteanu Mystery Street,
RL, 13 XI 1992;
77. Tiron D. folders psychiatric abuse, youth
leisure? 37, 25 II 1992;
78. Thomas F., L. Doe, I think I could say, daily,
53-18 III 1992;
79. Tuculescu, Excerpt from the letter to Dr.
Weinberger, Documents, 62 April, 1993;
80. Tuculescu V. Patients in the bars, the Civic
Alliance, 6-9 VII 1991;
81. Tuculescu V. A psychiatrist asks police
protection, free Youth, 664, May 26, 1992;
82. Tuculescu V. attempt psychiatry political
servitude, RL, 347, 1 II, 1991;
83. Tuculescu V. Romanian psychiatry, a
critical, daily, October 30. 1992;
350

84. Toculescu V. Psychiatry - served of politics,


Documents, 56 June 1992;
85. Tuculescu V., F. Galda, mental health in the
contemporary world, Ed Medical, Buc., 1986;
86. Toculescu V., moral competence, 22, 15 VI
1990;
87. Vianu I. abusive psychiatric practices,
Flame, 11-14 III 1990;
88. Vianu I. Recognition of political abuse of
psychiatry, Newspapers, 18 II 1992;
89. Vianu I. Psychiatry and the apparent denial,
22, 34 - September 7. 1990;
90. Vianu I. Conclusions of the Working Group
on psychiatry and psychiatric abuse, medical
opinion, 9-28 XI 1990;
91. Vianu I. Human Rights as a therapeutic
way, medical opinion, 9-28 XI 1990;
92. Vianu I. The five reforms reomanesti
psychiatry, Medical Life, 1991 XI, 46.15;
93. R. van Voren, Koryagin, a man struggling
for the Human Dignity, Second World Press,
Amsterdam, 1987;
94. Valeriu A. Why shut psychiatrists, medical
life, 8-21 II 1990;
95. Zamfirescu V. Identifying the aggressor,
Newspapers, 30 oct.1992;

CONTENTS
1.Cuvant
351

before. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
. . Pag.4
2. Vladimir Bukovsky "And the wind is"-
fragments. . . . . . . 6
3. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
............8
CHAPTER I
Ideological political abuse of psychiatry. . . . 12
1. Psychiatric abuse: Theoretical
foundations. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .13
2. The "New Morality" and relationships as a
socialist. . . . . . . . . . . 14
Social a.Ingineria
communist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
b.Institutionalizarea lies and double life
standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .17
c.Psihiatria-servant ideology and system
Communist
totalitarian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
CHAPTER II
Ideological model of political abuse in
psychiatry. . . . . . . .22
a.Modelul biological or medical. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 22
b.Modelul prison treatment institutions. . . . . . .
26
Need for social psychiatry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .29
Mental-moral
relationship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
352

33
CHAPTER III
Romanian resistance and dissident
psychiatrists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
1.Continuitate and limits of dissident
psychiatrists
Romans. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .
. . . . . . . . . 36
2. Evolution dissidents in psychiatry. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .39
a.Etapa
proletcult. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
b.Etapa Sovietisation ideologizarii and deep;
Conceptualization of "science" of psychiatry
abuzive42
c.Etapa dissidents and open opposition. . . . . . .
44
-Dissident unorganized. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 46
-Dissident of I. Vianu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
-Failure of officials of the Ministry
health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
-Organized
dissidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Anti-League of psychiatrists. . . . . . . .49
d.Etapa criptocomunista. . . . . . . . . . .... . .. . . . .
. . . . 51
3.Dificila confrontation with the past. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 51 ..
Postcommunist Romanian psychiatry
4.Perspectivele .. . . . 53 ..
Fierce struggle for power, the former
nomenclature .. . . .53
353

-Support officials, especially the Ministry of


Health
for the former nomenklatura. . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Psychiatric Association-Free Training. . . . . . .
55
CHAPTER IV
Posttotalitare Romanian psychiatric
problems. . . . . . . . . .57
1.Abuzul postrevolutionary political-avalanche
desvaluiri .. 60
a.Un tragic case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
b.One case of duplicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
. 2.Abuzul psychiatric-desvaluirile the situation
Romanian psychiatry in totalitarian times. . . . . .
. . 69
a.Situatia psychiatric hospitals; desvaluiri
postrevolutionary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
b.Atacul securisto's commando-psychiatric. . .
72
c.Reactiile public, the press. . . . . . . . . . 75
3.Reforma in psychiatry does not
antipsihiatrie. . . 78
CHAPTER V
Political psychiatric abuse in Romania
Study specific
Romanian psychiatric
vulnerability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
1.Practica political abuse in psychiatry. . . . . . . .
. . . . 82
354

a.Scurt history of psychiatric abuse in the U.S.


and us
b.Rolul psychiatric abuse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
c.Amploarea and forms of
abuse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
2.Prelucrarea material
studied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
a.Internarea abusive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
87
b.Evenimentele which led to hospitalization. .88
c.Lungimea
hospitalization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
dtentie d.Locul and conditions
(hospitalization). . . . 90
e.Diagnosticul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
91
f.Abuzul electroconvulsivaNta therapy. . . . 93
g.Abuzul of neuroleptics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
93
3.Incalcarea patient rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.Abuzul as a form of torture.
. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 96
ANNEX I
Presentation of casuistry.
. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .97
BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
111
CONTENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 114
355
356
357

ANEXA I

Prezentarea
cazuisticii studiate

Prezentam in continuare cazurile


studiate si puse noua la dispozitie. Nu vom da
numele bolnavilor, ci doar niste initiale pentru a
nu aduce acestor oameni o noua suferinta,
starea lor fiind gresit interpretata. Este dureros
ca nimeni din organizarea psihiatrica trecuta si
prezenta nu ne-a ajutat, cu exceptia muncii
prestate de dr. Diacicov, care si-a luat in serios
misiunea restabilirii etice a psihiatriei, si a dr.
Retezeanu, care ne-a pus la dispozitie
cazuistica. Nici un document oficial, foi de
observatie, registre de internari nu ni s-au pus
la dispozitie, peste tot am fost bruscati si
insultati.
Le multumim, deci, cu recunostinta
doctorului Diacicov si doctorului Retezeanu,
care ne-au ajutat, si de asemenea presedintelui
A.P.L.R., dr. Toculescu, care ne-a incurajat, ne-
a dat materialele personale publicate in presa,
a facut demersurile necesare pentru ca dl.
Paler sa accepte ca una din lucrarile sale sa
reprezinte un "Cuvant inainte" al lucrarii
358

noastre. Doctorului Marian Popa ii multumim,


de asemenea, caci ne-a pus la dispozitie toate
documentele oficiale pe care le detinea
A.P.L.R.

Tuturor le multumim.

Prezentam in continuare cazurile pe


baza carora am intreprins studiul nostru:

1. M.C., din Craiova. In 1986 face


afirmatii dusmanoase la adresa oranduirii
socialiste si a structurilor sale social-politice. Isi
pavozeaza biroul cu tablouri, insemne si lozinci
care "contravin scopului institutiei". Se dispune
internarea in Spitalul nr. 3 din Craiova, pentru
expertiza si stabilirea gradului de discernamant.
Din datele trimise de organele de ancheta
rezulta ca si in 1975, pe cand efectua serviciul
militar, a avut o atitudine antisocialista.
I se stabileste diagnosticul de sindrom
delirant paranoid. La examenul psihologic se
trage concluzia ca prezinta o dezvoltare
interpretativa a personalitatii de aspect
paranoiac. Dupa o scurta internare este
externat si nu va mai reveni niciodata. Comisia
Diacicov stabileste ca individul este si a fost
sanatos mintal si ca atare trebuie reabilitat.

2. A.T., din Bucuresti, tamplar. In 1962,


in cadrul unei sedinte de partid si-a exprimat
nemultumirea in legatura cu salariile
359

muncitorilor, care "nu ajung nici pentru


mancare". Este chemat la partid si anchetat de
doi securisti care ii spun ca este dusman al
poporului. I se insceneaza un proces public
pentru propaganda anti-comunista, anti-
sovietica si impotriva colectivizarii, fiind insultat
si demascat de muncitorii infuriati. Dupa o luna
este ridicat si dus la Securitate pentru o
declaratie, dupa care este supravegheat
permanent, nu este lasat sa participe la
manifestatiile de 1 mai si 23 august, este mereu
chemat la secretarul de partid.
In 1965 nu mai poate suporta si cere
Securitatii sa fie lasat in pace ori arestat. Ca
urmare, este ridicat cu forta si internat la
Spitalul Gh. Marinescu din Bucuresti cu
diagnosticul delir sensitiv de relatie. Dupa
aceasta internare este in mod repetat ridicat,
fara a i se mai da vreo explicatie. In 1974 este
internat cu diagnosticul decompensare
psihotica afectiv-paranoida, in 1978 cu stare
psihopatoida post-procesuala, in 1979 cu stare
hipertimica atipica, in 1982 cu psihoza
paranoida. I se fac electrosocuri, este
neuroleptizat pana cand isi pierde cunostinta. In
perioada dintre internari, fie este urmarit de
Securitate, fie este chemat mereu de catre
organele medicale pentru control. Comisia
Diacicov il declara sanatos.

3. T.M., din Craiova, a lucrat ca profesor


la Vaslui si apoi muzeograf. In 1971, fiind
360

student la istorie, a citit in cadrul unei sedinte


U.T.C. un material in care critica cultul
personalitatii lui Ceausescu si "aparitia unei noi
burghezii de partid si de stat". S-a propus sa fie
exclus din U.T.C. si din facultate si era
amenintat cu inchisoarea. Totusi, a primit doar
"vot de blam", iar la absolvire a fost repartizat
intr-un sat din Vaslui, in ciuda clasificarii sale
excelente.
In 1973, dupa un conflict cu niste colegi,
acestia il reclama la C.C. al P.C.R. ca face
propaganda religioasa in scoala si are
manifestari ostile partidului. In 1974, la 3 luni de
la inceperea stagiului militar, este internat cu
forta la spitalul militar, unde i se pune
diagnosticul de sindrom discordant, desi la acel
spital, atunci, nu exista nici un specialist in
psihiatrie. Ca urmare a acestei internari
abuzive, trimite o scrisoare lui Ceausescu,
solicitand anchetarea abuzului savarsit asupra
sa. In 1974 este scos din Invatamant, pe motiv
ca ar fi transmis elevilor idei si cunostinte in
contradictie cu ideologia partidului. In 1975
depune la C.C. un memoriu privind toate
persecutiile la care a fost supus, dar ca urmare
a acestui fapt, este ridicat si internat la Socola
din Iasi, unde i se pune diagnosticul de psihoza
discordanta. In 1986 este chemat la procuratura
militara pe motiv ca ar fi minimalizat activitatea
revolutionara din tinerete a tovarasului Nicolae
Ceausescu si este internat la Spitalul Craiova
361

cu sindrom delirant-paranoid, dar nu primeste


nici un tratament.
Dupa revolutie este dat afara din serviciu
(1991), in urma unui conflict cu directorul
muzeului in care lucra, pentru ca ar fi sustras o
icoana. Dupa ancheta procuraturii este
reangajat. Comisia Diacicov il declara ca a fost
si este sanatos mental.

4. P. D. a lucrat ca zidar la Brasov, in


prezent este pensionar. In 1972 a luat pozitie
impotriva unor nereguli existente la C.A.P.,
unde o parte din recolta era furata si si trimisa
unor conducatori de partid de la judet. Este
chemat la militia judeteana, anchetat, batut si
internat la psihiatrie, la spitalul din Tarnaveni,
cu diagnosticul de reactie depresiva cu
elemente paranoide. La externare se specifica
pe biletul de externare ca a avut un
comportament adecvat si nu i s-au aplicat
prevederele Decretului 12. Totusi, in 1975 este
internat fortat la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu din
Bucuresti, cu stare depresiva reactiva de
intensitate nevrotica. Este apoi sicanat in
permanenta si obligat a se prezenta periodic la
controale. Comisia de cercetare a abuzurilor
pune diagnosticul de sanatos.

5. D. F., din Botosani, fara ocupatie. A


lucrat la o autobaza ca necalificat. Pe 21
octombrie 1980 i se desface contractul de
munca, intrand in conflict cu conducerea care
362

avea o comportare abuziva. Va fi mereu


concediat si reangajat. Ca urmare a
reclamatiilor facute, se alcatuieste o comisie de
ancheta, se constata ilegalitatile reclamate, dar
masurile se iau tot impotriva lui. Pe 18 august
1988 contacteaza Ambasada Ungariei din
Bucuresti si solicita emigrarea in R.F.G. pe
motiv ca este somer. Isi confectioneaza si o
lozinca pe care scria "sunt somer in Romania".
Este imediat arestat de catre patru militieni si
internat la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu. I se pune
diagnosticul de paranoia, fiind supus unui
tratament cu electrosocuri si neuroleptice.
Tratamentele i se faceau cu forta si dupa ele se
simtea foarte rau. Dupa externare nu va mai
face reclamatii, dar traieste cu impresia ca este
distrus. Si el este declarat sanatos de catre
comisie.

6. T. I., din Calarasi a fost colonel


M.Ap.N. In 1968, nefiind de acord cu noul
sistem de salarizare, a fost scos din randul
cadrelor armatei. La scurt timp, este internat cu
forta la Spitalul Militar Central cu diagnosticul
de stare psihipatoida cu decompensari
interpretativ -reactive si interferente etanolice.
In 1984 este reinternat la acelasi spital cu
diagnosticul de sindrom psihoorganic
interpretativ. In vara lui 1984 este arestat pentru
“actiuni impotriva tovarasului Nicolae
Ceausescu" si s-ar fi scris pe dosarul sau "sa
fie executat", dar atunci a solicitat el internarea
363

la psihiatrie, intai la Pucioasa, apoi la Spitalul


Gh. Marinescu si astfel a fost salvat. A fost si
pensionat gradul doi. Comisia Diacicov il
declara sanatos.

7. S.C., din Bucuresti. A lucrat ca


fotograf si electrician. In 1963 a fost arestat
pentru tentativa de trecere a frontierei in
Iugoslavia, dar este internat in Spitalul Gh.
Marinescu, unde i se pune diagnosticul de
schizofrenie paranoida. Timp de 10 ani nu a
mai putut sa se angajeze nicaieri, apoi a fost
nevoit sa schimbe numeroase locuri de munca.
Este de acord ca internarea de acum 30 de ani
l-a salvat de la inchisoare, dar in prezent
doreste reabilitarea. Comisia il declara sanatos.

8. T. C., din Miercurea Ciuc, contabil. In


1968, din cauza controalelor financiare pe care
le facea, a intrat in conflict cu organele de partid
si administrative. Fiind un om drept si
descoperind acte de coruptie, a ajuns sa aiba
multi dusmani. In 1973, dupa un consult banal
pentru un concediu medical, este trimis la
conducerea policlinicii, unde, spre surprinderea
lui, i se da un act din care rezulta ca este
pensionat gradul doi. Merge la spitalul din
Miercurea Ciuc pentru a discuta cu medicul
care a semnat decizia, dar va constata ca nu
mai are voie sa plece din spital. I se pune
diagnosticul de schizofrenie paranoida. Desi a
incercat sa combata acest diagnostic prin
364

internari voluntare facute la spitale din localitati


diferite, nu reuseste. Nici memoriile catre
Ceausescu si nici calea juridica nu dau
rezultate. In 1978 incearca si la Bucuresti, dar
fara succes. Din aceste motive va suporta toate
umilintele pana la revolutie. Comisia Diacicov il
declara sanatos psihic.

9. C. E., inginer fizician, pensionat gradul


doi din 1988, din Bucuresti. In august 1981, ca
urmare a agravarii situatiei economice din tara
si sub influenta miscarilor de protest din
Polonia, precum si in urma arestarii parintelui
Calciu-Dumitreasa, C.E. a incercat sa
organizeze un partid democrat cu urmatorul
program: alegerea presedintelui prin vot
universal si secret, libertatea politica, sistem
pluripartid, libertatea religioasa, dreptul la
greva, iesirea Romaniei din pactul de la
Varsovia. Contacteaza mai multe persoane si
are un succes partial.
In 1982 scrie un articol la gazeta de
perete a institutiei, in care arata starea grea a
populatiei. In 1982, la o sedinta de partid, cere
ca membrii de partid sa fie corect informati
asupra situatiei economice. A fost intrerupt si
huiduit de un grup. Dupa doua zile este arestat
si interogat, dar cu toate mijloacele de tortura
nu divulga nimic despre partidul infiintat, desi a
fost confruntat cu doi colegi care aderasera la
partid.
365

A fost dus la inchisoarea Securitatii din


Bucuresti, intr-o celula cu un individ care il
batea tot timpul. Si la Jilava a fost batut, mai
ales de catre seful celulei, si a fost supus
perversiunilor sexuale. Simtind ca nu mai poate
rezista, a strigat ca va spune totul. Imediat a
fost transferat la inchisoarea securitatii, unde a
fost interogat tot timpul, batut si supus
perversiunilor sexuale. Ajuns din nou la Jilava a
continuat sa fie tratat la fel. In acest context a
inceput sa aiba halucinatii si, in urma examinarii
psihiatrice, i se pune diagnosticul de reactie
psihogena cu manifestari de intensitate
psihotica.
Este eliberat pe 10 iunie 1982. Dupa
eliberare a avut lungi perioade de insomnie si i-
au reaparut halucinatiile, pentru care se
reinterneaza. I se desface contractul de munca,
iar colegilor li se spune ca a facut spionaj. In
aceste conditii, accepta pensionarea medicala.
Desi nu a fost internat abuziv, boala s-a
declansat dupa stresul puternic determinat de
anchetele de la securitate, fara a fi vinovat.
Comisia l-a declarat sanatos psihic in prezent.

10. V. I., din Bucuresti, a fost conductor


de vagon de dormit. In 1985 i-a luat foc
vagonul, vagon care facea parte din parcul
special al lui N. Ceausescu. Se face ancheta si
este concediat. Secretarul de partid face
reclamatie ca V.I. ar fi dat foc vagonului, motiv
pentru care este retrogradat ca necalificat. Se
366

adreseaza organelor de partid. Se prezinta la


Circa 3 Militie pentru a primi un raspuns, dar
este retinut si trimis la Spitalul Cula. I se pune
diagnosticul de psihopatie impulsiv-exploziva cu
interferente toxice. In 1989, de Ziua
Ceferistului, a facut o petitie la C.C. pe care
dorea sa o inmaneze personal lui Ceausescu.
Este oprit de Militie, care ii rupe memoriul si il
interneaza cu forta la Spitalul Cula, pe motiv ca
"in repetate randuri tulbura linistea locatarilor,
fiind agresiv si ca de mai multe ori si-a facut
aparitia in zona Salii Palatului, fiind stapanit de
porniri violente fata de organele de Militie,
acesta fiind periculos si pentru publicul stradal,
fiind bolnav psihic". La Cula sta 22 de zile cu
psihopatie impulsiva-instabila. Tot in 1989 este
reinternat, in urma unui conflict cu un coleg de
serviciu pe care a vrut sa-l bata. Internarile au
continuat si dupa 1989 la cererea sa. Incearca
sa obtina vechiul loc de munca la CFR, dar nu
reuseste.

11. V. F., din Oradea, absolvent al


Facultatii de Filozofie si al Academiei Militare.
In 1969 a expediat pe adresa Congresului al IX-
lea al P.C.R. o scrisoare cu "continut calomnios
si cu invective la adresa C.C. si a lui
Ceausescu, ponegrind politica interna si
externa a statului, deformand realitatea
economica si sociala din tara, cerand
delegatilor de la congres sa ia atitudine fata de
secretarul general." Cu ocazia perchezitiei la
367

domiciliu i se gaseste o copie a scrisorii si


altele, cu acelasi continut dusmanos, dar care
nu fusesera expediate. Este acuzat de
"propaganda contra oranduirii socialiste" de
catre procuratura militara din Oradea. In 1971
este scos de sub urmarire penala si internat la
psihiatrie, in Oradea, apoi transferat la
Bucuresti, unde este tinut 10 luni si apoi
transferat sub escorta la Cluj, cu diagnosticul
de sindrom depresiv paranoid. De la 34 de ani
a fost marginalizat, a fost pensionat pentru a
putea fi scos din viata sociala. Reinternat dupa
revolutie si expertizat de comisie, este declarat
sanatos.

12. T.E., de 60 de ani, din Cluj, asistenta


medicala. Asista la un conflict dintre directorul
intreprinderii si sotul ei, caruia in final i se
desface contractul de munca. Sotul se
adreseaza justitiei, ea fiind in acest cadru co-
reclamanta. Treptat, prin introducerea in dosar
a o serie de calomnii, este inculpata si apoi
acuzata ca a comis fapte penale grave, fapte
antisociale si calomnii la adresa autoritatilor
locale si centrale. Este arestata si internata la
Spitalul de psihiatrie din Cluj, in 1974. Este
expertizata si i se pune diagnosticul de delir
paranoid sistematizat. In fata acestui fapt
declara greva foamei, dar i se aplica
prevederile art.114 c.p., cu internare obligatorie.
In 1975 este internata la Bucuresti si
reexpertizata, stabilindu-se diagnostiucul de
368

reactie interpretativa pe fondul unei dezvoltari


disarmonice a personalitatii de tip paranoiac. I
se aplica masurile de siguranta conform art.113
c.p. Continua sa faca memorii la M.A.N., radio,
TV, dar fara nici un rezultat. In 1976 este
reexpertizata la Timisoara, iar in 1978 la Cluj,
cu diagnosticul de delir paranoid sistematizat,
stare depresiva interpretativa, reactie
persistenta. Contesta atat diagnosticul, cat si
masurile de siguranta. In 1981 castiga ultimul
proces, este scoasa de sub incidenta art.113
c.p., dar adresa nu-i va parveni decat dupa
revolutie. Reexpertizata dupa 1989, este
declarata sanatoasa.

13. V.Gh., fost profesor, in prezent


pensionar. In 1951 a fost retinut de catre
Securitate si anchetat pentru propaganda
impotriva oranduirii socialiste. Este transferat la
Spitalul Vacaresti, ca urmare a intrarii in greva
foamei.
In 1970 a fost condamnat de catre
Tribunalul Militar tot pentru propaganda
impotriva oranduirii socialiste, dar este trimis la
Spitalul Voila, unde primeste diagnosticul de
psihopatie paranoica, cu stari de excitatie de tip
maniacal, fiind scos pe aceasta baza de sub
urmarirea penala. In 1971 este internat tot fortat
la Urlati, iar in 1974 i se aplica prevederile
art.114 c.p si apoi 113 c.p. pana in 1980. In
1980, dupa o greva a foamei, este reinternat
fortat la Voila si tinut in evidenta pana in
369

decembrie 1988. De mentionat ca, in urma


perchezitiilor facute, i s-au confiscat opere
literare (scrise sub pseudonimul Zapada). Dupa
revolutie este reexaminat si nu se mai constata
tulburari psihice.

14. U.C. din Bucuresti. Dorind sa lucreze


in R.F.G., a solicitat Consiliului de Stat sa i se
permita plecarea. Neprimind raspuns, scrie un
memoriu in care se plange ca, in timp ce
conducatorul se plimba, el nu are posibilitatea
sa lucreze in strainatate. Ca urmare, pe 30
august 1972, este ridicat de Circa 1 Militie si
dus direct la Spitalul de psihiatrie Balaceanca.
Este expertizat si i se pune diagnosticul de
psihoza paranoida. I se face externarea cu
conditia de a nu mai veni in Bucuresti. Deja la
serviciu i se desfacuse contractul de munca. In
octombrie 1974 este reinternat de Militie la
Spitalul Socola, unde i se schimba diagnosticul
in sindrom nevrotic rezidual, cu decompensari
depresive. Asupra sotiei se fac presiuni pentru
a divorta, deoarece ar fi un tradator de tara.
Dupa revolutie, cere recunoasterea vechimii in
munca si plata drepturilor banesti. Comisia
Diacicov il declara sanatos mintal.

15. S.V., statistician din Bucuresti. In


1982, in timp ce era in concediu medical, i se
desface contractul de munca. Incearca
audiente, memorii, dar nu poate rezolva nimic.
In 1983, disperat de nerezolvarea situatiei, iese
370

in fata masinii lui Ceausescu. Este arestat, apoi


eliberat si primit in audienta la C.C., dupa care
este reangajat in alt sector de activitate, ceea
ce il nemultumeste. In 1984 iese din nou in fata
masinii lui Ceausescu pentru a-i inmana o
scrisoare, in aceeasi problema. Este iar arestat
si eliberat. Dupa doua zile este insa ridicat de la
domiciliu si dus la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu. Nu
avea antecedente psihiatrice. Pe 30 august
1984 este expertizat de Institutul Medico-Legal
cu diagnosticul de personalitate accentuata de
tip hipertim, cverulent, revendicativ si se
inainteaza Policlinicii Titan cu un dosar. Pe 16
noiembrie este readus de Militie la Spitalul Gh.
Marinescu pentru ca "prezinta grave tulburari
de comportament, sub forma actiunilor
revendicative". Dupa 8 zile este externat cu
diagnosticul anterior. In 1987 este iar internat
fortat, dar se mentine vechiul diagnostic. In
toate internarile nu a primit nici un tratament.
Comisia Diacicov il gaseste normal psihic.

16. S.N., economist din Bucuresti. In


1977 a fost urmarit de Securitate pentru
propaganda religioasa, fiind internat fortat la
Spitalul Gh. Marinescu si pensionat cu
diagnosticul de schizofrenie paranoida.
Diagnosticul s-a stabilit pe baza convingerilor
sale religioase si ca urmare a actiunilor sale de
predicare a religiei. Timp de 8 ani a solicitat
dreptul de a lucra, dar a fost sistematic refuzat
de psihiatri, refuzandu-i-se depensionarea. La
371

Policlinica Titan a fost amenintat ca daca nu


inceteaza cu propaganda religioasa va fi
internat definitiv la Balaceanca. S-a adresat
Institutului de Expertiza a Capacitatii de Munca
pentru a putea munci, dar, spre mirarea sa,
acum avea paranoia. In toate demersurile sale
pentru un loc de munca i s-a raspuns ca atata
timp cat va face "propaganda religioasa" va fi
considerat bolnav psihic, desi el a declarat ca
religia este crezul vietii lui. Dupa revolutie se
constata de catre comisie ca tot timpul a fost
sanatos.

17. S. Gh. din Pitesti. Tatal sau, orb fiind,


avea obiceiul de a trimite anonime (din 1957) lui
Gheorghiu Dej, in care cerea desfiintarea
colhozurilor. Sesizand pericolul, S.Gh. pleaca
departe de casa si, in 1962, ajunge sef de birou
la o schela de extractie. Deoarece tatal sau
fusese intre timp arestat, acest lucru ajunge la
cunostinta serviciului de cadre si el va fi tratat
ca un "dusman al poporului", fiind retrogradat
pentru a nu mai avea nici-o raspundere.
Deschide actiune in justitie, dar ca rezultat este
dus la un psihiatru care ii pune diagnosticul de
nevroza astenica cu elemente paranoide.
Justitia nu-i da satisfactie, astfel incat el va
acuza si aceste organe. In 1964 se trezeste
pensionat medical cu diagnosticul de psihoza
paranoida, dar refuza pensia. Noul director,
care era si membru in Comitetul judetean de
partid, cere fara nici-o explicatie punerea
372

dizidentului sub interdictie. Pentru acoperire


recurge la L.S.M. din Pitesti care se
conformeaza si stabileste diagnosticul de
paranoia. Urmeaza alte plangeri si memorii si
abia in 1988 o comisie a Spitalului Gh.
Marinescu formuleaza un nou diagnostic,
psihopatie polimorfa in stadiul de buna remisie.
I se recomanda reluarea activitatii. Dupa
revolutie va fi declarat sanatos, dar sirul
sicanelor si abuzurilor administrative va
continua si in prezent.

18. R.N., programator din Bucuresti.


Avand un copil cu tulburari congenitale, nu a
mai dorit sa aiba si alti urmasi, motiv pentru
care s-a internat la psihiatrie. In ‘83 si ‘84 este
internata la sectia psihiatrie a Spitalului
Tulghes, apoi la L.S.M. Titan, cu diagnosticul
depresie anxioasa, fond dizarmonic si, drept
urmare, va putea face legal intreruperi de
sarcina. Dar din 1984 este internata fortat,
motiv pentru care are doua tentative de
sinucidere. Dupa revolutie, de frica unor noi
internari fortate, face demersuri pentru a
contesta diagnosticele puse. Comisia Diacicov
apreciaza starea sa de sanatate si faptul ca
diagnosticlele anterioare au fost de
complezenta.

19. B.P. din Dambovita, pensionar, fost


ofiter. In 1965, fiind ofiter la Tg.Jiu, il cunoaste,
cu ocazia campaniei electorale, pe tov. Marin,
373

directorul fabricii de confectii si candidat pentru


alegeri. Militarii care au luat cuvantul au cerut
sa ia fiinta in incinta unitatii un chiosc de
alimente. B.P. a luat cuvantul aratand ca tov.
Marin nu pare a fi un candidat competent,
numindu-l manechin, care nu stie de ce a venit
in fata alegatorilor militari. Dupa trei zile este
chemat la Bucuresti si pus sa faca un raport
privind incidentul. La intoarcerea in unitate este
exclus din UTC, situatie incompatibila cu functia
de ofiter, motiv pentru care este trecut in
rezerva. Urmeaza o perioada in care face
memorii catre organele in drept, dar nu
primeste nici un raspuns. In disperare de cauza
se adreseaza unor ambasade straine -Anglia,
Franta, RFG - si chiar Bibliotecii americane. De
fapt, nici un memoriu nu ajunge la destinatie,
ele fiind depuse la dosarul sau de la Securitate.
Timp de 20 de ani este hartuit intr-un labirint
administrativ. Isi castiga cu greu existenta, este
marginalizat si persecutat. In aprilie 1977, fiind
salariat la un trust de constructii din Craiova,
este arestat fara motiv, batut crunt si internat la
Spitalul de psihiatrie din Slatina. Aici, medicul
I.D. ii spune sincer ca are obligatia de a-l
pensiona, dupa care el trebuie sa paraseasca
Slatina. In timp ce i se stabilea diagnosticul de
paranoi, la serviciu i se desfacea contractul de
munca, retroactiv, desi decizia nu i s-a
comunicat. Contestatiile facute l-au plimbat prin
multe spitale de psihiatrie in perioada 1977-
1986. Persecutiile au continuat si la domiciliul
374

sau, unde in decembrie 1979 este batut de


plutonierul Manea, care ii interzice sa mai
paraseasca satul. I se iau amprentele si este
obligat sa semneze un angajament ca nu va
mai scrie memorii si nu se va mai adresa altor
foruri. In 1987 ajunge la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu,
unde seful clinicii ii cere sa renunte la actiunile
sale contestatare, deoarece acest lucru i-ar
aduce multe necazuri. Daca ar contesta
diagnosticele, el s-ar pune la dispozitia
Securitatii si a mijloacelor sale. Convins de
aceste explicatii, el va renunta la toate actiunile
revendicative. Dupa revolutie se prezinta la
comisia Diacicov si se constata ca nu este
bolnav psihic.

20. B.I., fost ofiter din Cluj. In 1962 este


scos din armata pentru ca a imprumutat haine
militare unor particulari, pentru un spectacol.
Lucreaza apoi in mai multe locuri. Dandu-si
seama de multele nedreptati din societatea
comunista, incepe sa scrie memorii in care
demasca pe cei vinovati, incompetenti,
demasca abuzurile. Acest lucru devine cu atat
mai periculos cu cat in acest cerc apar
persoane din conducere sau chiar din
nomenclatura (reclama chiar un prim-secretar
de partid). Din aceste motive este mereu
concediat, retrogradat si in ultima instanta
arestat, inscenandu-i-se un proces. Nu
recunoaste acuzatiile si declara greva foamei.
Condamnarile cumulate au totalizat 30 de ani
375

de inchisoare, din care a efectuat 23 de ani,


fara a se retine contra lui acte criminale, in
afara nesupunerii civile si a reclamatiilor.
Contra neregulilor din penitenciare, protesteaza
mereu prin greva foamei, dar este sistematic
torturat - i se fac injectii care sa-i provoace
durerea, este cufundat in apa fierbinte etc.
Odiseea psihiatrica incepe din 1976,
cand devine clar ca metodele clasice de
represiune nu pot sa-l intimideze. Pe 5 martie
1976 afla ca a fost pensionat medical cu
diagnosticul de delir paranoid sistematizat.
Refuza si pensionarea, si diagnosticul.
Urmeaza o perioada de internari pe toata filiera
gulagului psihiatric: Spitalul P. Groza, Poiana
Mare, Jilava, Gherla, Poarta Alba etc. A fost
incadrat in art.114 c.p. si apoi trecut in 113 c.p.
Dupa revolutie este declarat sanatos mintal.

21. G.B., muncitor necalificat din


Bucuresti. In 1977 este supus unor condamnari
juridice succesive pentru comportament
antisocial si perseverarea in acest
comportament. In 1987 i se reproseaza ca, in
colaborare cu alti tineri, a savarsit infractiunea
de "difuzare fara autorizatie a unor imprimate
destinate a fi folosite ca mijloc de informare
publica", precum si "raspandirea de materiale
obscene", procurare de benzi magnetice,
casete video, publicatii cu caracter mistic,
obscurantist care s-au multiplicat la xerox si
dactilo. De asemenea, acuzatia mai pretinde ca
376

"a urmarit satisfacerea aberatiilor sexuale cu


manifestari tipice a unei personalitati
dizarmonice, cu preocupari obsesive in
probleme de sexualitate". Pe 23 iunie 1989 este
din nou arestat pentru difuzare de materiale
obscene.
Pentru a pune capat acestor activitati si
a degreva organele de securitate de
raspundere, pe 4 august 1989, G.B. este
incadrat in art. 114 c.p., prin sentinta
Tribunalului sect.1 Bucuresti, recursul fiindu-i
respins. Pe 8 august 1989 este internat la
spitalul penitenciarului Jilava cu diagnosticul de
dezvoltare paranoida a personalitatii cu
elemente obsesivo-fobice, psihopatie schizoida,
iar pe 15 august se face o noua expertiza cu
acelasi diagnostic. Avand in vedere
antecedentele infractionale, comisia considera
ca "sus-numitul prezinta un grad mare de
periculozitate, fapt pentru care se apreciaza ca
discernamantul este pierdut in raport cu fapta
pentru care este cercetat si se recomanda
aplicarea masurilor medicale, prevazute in art.
114 c.p". Ca urmare, este scos din detentie si
trimis la Spitalul Poiana Mare, de unde, dupa
revolutie, este urgent externat (pe 30
decembrie 1989) Din relatarile medicului curant,
in cursul internarii, comportamentul pacientului
a fost perfect adaptat situatiei si a primit doar
un tratament minim (cu exceptia ES la inceput).
Diagnosticul pus de comisie nu se confirma si
dupa revolutie este declarat sanatos.
377

22. C.V., pensionar, fost operator chimist


in Braila. In 1975 este acuzat de propaganda
impotriva oranduirii socialiste, in urma unui
memoriu trimis lui Ceausescu, in care cerea
P.C.R.-ului sa nu se mai amestece in treburile
sindicatelor. Prin ordonanta Procuraturii militare
Bucuresti este invinuit ca a redactat si expediat
postal doua scrisori conducerii de partid,
concepute in maniera de a crea impresia ca
exprima opinia unui grup de muncitori de la
Uzina Progresul. Ar mai fi facut afirmatii
calomnioase si ostile la adresa oranduirii
sociale actuale, privind anumite aspecte
economice, de asistenta medicala si sociala,
scrisori prin care a proferat si amenintari care
vizau conducerea superioara de partid si
includea ideea inlocuirii acesteia. O alta
scrisoare semnata “Fratii Romaniei” a fost pusa
intr-o cutie postala pe 26 mai 1975, inscrisul
fiind anonim si fara destinatar. In cursul
urmaririi penale, se dovedeste ca C.V. este
autorul scrisorii. I se face perchezitie si este
cercetat la sediul Securitatii din Braila. Fiind
intrebat "unde a ascuns armamentul", C.V.
raspunde ca in bucatarie are un tun demontat.
Aceasta afirmatie facuta in gluma duce la
internarea sa in mod abuziv, pe 16 decembrie
1975, la Spitalul psihiatric din Braila, cu
diagnosticul de psihopatie polimorfa,
predominant exploziva, paranoica, cu frecvente
decompensari, diagnostic confirmat de
378

expertiza I.M.L. Braila. Biletul de trimitere a fost


eliberat de medicul D.M. de la Policlinica Braila,
fara ca macar respectivul sa fi vazut pacientul
sau ca acesta sa fi fost in evidentele policlinicii.
Desi este pensionat pentru sciatica, i se
anuleaza aceasta pensionare si i se face alta
cu diagnostic psihiatric. Dupa aceasta
procedura este dus la Judecatoria Braila si
judecat de urgenta, aplicandu-i-se masurile de
siguranta, iar prin ordonanta Securitatii este
obligat a se prezenta lunar la psihiatrie pentru
control. In martie 1976 C.V. cere anularea
pensionarii pentru a-si putea relua activitatea,
dar cererea ii este respinsa, contestatiile facute
la Ministerul Muncii fiind zadarnice. Este
chemat la Securitatea din Braila, unde i se
spune ca daca nu se astampara va fi "ascuns
de nu-l va mai gasi nimeni". Este obligat sa
semneze un angajament si amenintat cu
evacuarea lui si a familiei din apartament.
Dupa decembrie 1989 a incercat sa-si
clarifice situatia, dar a fost purtat de la o
institutie la alta, comisia de expertiza locala
declinandu-si competenta. Comisia de
cercetare a abuzurilor il declara insa normal
psihic.

23. C.I., pensionara, fost statistician, din


Bucuresti. Pe 2 octombrie 1975, in timpul unei
audiente (legata de o problema de serviciu) la
primul secretar al sectorului 5 Bucuresti, tov.
Ganea Nicolae, este determinata de grosolania
379

acestuia sa riposteze. Secretarul de partid,


nefiind obisnuit sa suporte asemenea afronturi,
se razbuna obligand conducerea intreprinderii
in care lucra sa o concedieze. Nefiind membra
de partid, se convoaca o sedinta la care primul
secretar trimite o activista care preseaza si
obtine concedierea. Din cauza situatiei in care
se afla, C.I. are o tentativa de sinucidere si
astfel ajunge la psihiatrie. Aici s-a dat dispozitie
sa nu fie externata fara aprobarea primului
secretar, motiv pentru care a stat internata 21
de zile. Dupa 3 zile de la externare, este
ridicata abuziv de la domiciliu de catre Militie si
internata cu forta la Balaceanca, unde la fel de
abuziv este supusa unei expertize. Spre
surprinderea ei, medicii resping internarea
obligatorie. In perioada 1975 - 1979 nu mai are
probleme cu psihiatria, desi fara voia ei era
tinuta in evidenta. La domiciliu vine in conflict
cu sectoristul, un rau platnic din blocul ei. Este
sicanata de Militie, i se iau amprentele pe motiv
ca "s-au comis crime in cartier", numele fiindu-i
furnizat de policlinica de psihiatrie. Tot fara
motiv, in 1986, in blocul ei se prezinta o
asistenta sociala de la policlinica teritoriala care
cere vecinilor referinte despre ea, dar nu obtine
declaratii negative. Pe 3 iunie 1989, pe baza
unui referat al medicului de policlinica, este
ridicata abuziv de la domiciliu si internata la
Spitalul Gh. Marinescu, unde comisia respinge
internarea obligatorie. Se prezinta cu decizia la
medicul de policlinica, iar acesta, in fata ei,
380

telefoneaza medicului din spital sustinand in


mod nereal ca femeia ar fi agitata. Dupa
revolutie este declarata sanatoasa mental.

24. C.I., pensionar medical, fost inginer


electronist. Pentru a-si face bine profesia, a
trebuit sa protesteze fata de conditiile aberante
de rasturnare a valorilor, dar toate criticile sale
au fost respinse. Este concediat in mod abuziv,
ridicat de Securitate si supus unui tratament
psihiatric obligatoriu si greu de suportat. Astfel,
in repetate randuri, militienii il internau in
Spitalul Gh. Marinescu sau Cula cu diagnosticul
de schizofrenie paranoida. In 1981, pe baza
unei adrese a Policlinicii Titan si a examenului
lui C.G., pe care pacientul nu l-a vazut
niciodata, i se stabileste abuziv diagnosticul de
schizofrenie paranoida si se conchide ca este
un pericol social, aplicandu-i-se prevederile
decretului 313. In urma acestui fapt, este ridicat
de pe strada si internat la Spitalul Gh.
Marinescu, totalizand multe internari abuzive. Si
el este declarat sanatos de comisia Diacicov.

25. D.V., electronist din Bucuresti. Intra


in conflict cu Securitatea pentru o serie de
afirmatii cu caracter politic, antitotalitar. Intr-o
serie de scrisori adresate Securitatii el critica
conducerea superioara de partid si de stat. A
fost ridicat cu mandat de arestare si i s-a facut
dosar la procuratura militara. In perioada 1979 -
1980 a fost in repetate randuri convocat la
381

Securitate, iar din cauza continuarii activitatii


politice este internat in Spitalul de psihiatrie din
Podari-Craiova. A fost exclus din facultate si
marginalizat, izolat social. Dupa externarea din
Spitalul Podari, a fost urmarit in permanenta de
Securitate, inclusiv prin mijloace tehnice. In
perioda lungii sale persecutii a fost supus unui
stres permanent, a inceput sa consume alcool,
a devenit depresiv, vulnerabil, pozitia lui sociala
s-a deteriorat. Examinat de catre comisia de
abuzuri este declarat normal psihic.

26. D.P., pensionar, fost contabil la


Craiova. In 1948 face afirmatii defavorabile
regimului comunist, fiind arestat, lucru care se
repeta si in 1950. Iesit din arest, arata colegilor
urmele, vanataile si alte semne de tortura. In
1957 ascunde un fost camarad de front cautat
de Securitate, fiind inchis pentru aceasta pana
in 1961. In 1965 face un memoriu cerand
plecarea definitiva din tara si scrie un memoriu
in care insulta guvernul si organele de partid.
Este internat cu forta in Spitalul de psihiatrie
Craiova in 1966 si supus unei expertize
psihiatrice, unde i se stabileste diagnosticul de
paranoia. Dupa aplicarea decretului 12,
internarile se succed la Podari, iar in 1970 este
transferat la Spitalul Poiana Mare, unde este
internat conform unei decizii a Tribunalului
militar Timisoara. In toata aceasta perioada
D.P. continua sa faca aprecieri negative asupra
regimului. In 1973 este arestat fara vina ca fiind
382

implicat intr-o crima, iar in 1976 este acuzat de


marturie mincinoasa. Internarile se succed de
fiecare data la Spitalul Poiana Mare si Podari.
Dupa revolutie si el este declarat sanatos
mental.

27. F.N., fost mecanic de locomotiva, in


prezent pensionar, din Bucuresti. Intre 1949 –
1950 a lucrat la Ambasada Albaniei (sotia era
cetatean albanez). In 1960, alterandu-se
relatiile cu Albania, este acuzat ca in statia
Ciorogarla ar fi depasit semnalul de oprire a
locomotivei. Dupa aceasta inscenare i se
desface contractul de munca. Incepe sa faca
demersuri pentru repararea nedreptatii. Este
invitat la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu, unde in mod
neasteptat este pensionat medical cu
diagnosticul de reactie interpretativa pe fond
dizarmonic. Expertizat dupa 1989, se constata
ca nu prezinta tulburari psihice.

28. G.I., pensionar, fost profesor in


Bucuresti. A fost arestat de catre Securitate pe
14 iulie 1970 pentu vina de a fi scris si
raspandit poezii cu caracter antiguvernamental.
I s-au confiscat manuscrisele, masina de
scris si cartile. Este internat la Spitalul Gh.
Marinescu si apoi trimis la Balaceanca.

29. G. Gh., fost director de scoala, in


prezent pensionar, din Bucuresti. A fost
secretar P.S.D. in Tg. Neamt, unde a avut de
383

infruntat numeroase inscenari si chiar o


tentativa de omor. In 1989 i-a fost devastata
casa si a fost molestat, in timp ce infractorii
care si-au recunoscut vina au fost eliberati la
interventia secretarului de partid din Tg. Neamt.
In urma a numeroase reclamatii facute, a fost
internat la Spitalul de psihiatrie din Piatra
Neamt, unde i s-a stabilit diagnosticul de
paranoia. In timpul Congresului Partidului, din
noiembrie1989, este din nou internat cu forta,
cu diagnosticul de paranoia. Toate internarile
au fost nejustificate si in afara legii. Dupa 1989
este declarat sanatos psihic.

30. G.I., fost merceolog, acum


pensionar, din Bistrita Nasaud. Refugiat din
Basarabia, este sfatuit sa se inscrie in partid
pentru a nu fi expulzat in URSS. In 1952 este
exclus din partid si scos din armata pe motiv ca
este fugit din URSS. Face multe incercari
pentru a fi reincadrat in munca si reuseste abia
in 1968, dar la scurt timp este transferat cu un
salariu mai mic. Din 1970 incepe sa faca
reclamatii, motiv pentru care va fi persecutat. In
1972 este din nou concediat, iar apoi evacuat
din locuinta. Face in continuare reclamatii si
cere si plecarea din tara. In acest context, pe
29 iulie 1976, este ridicat de Militie si internat
fortat in Spitalul de psihiatrie din Bistrita cu
recomandarea de a i se aplica Decretul 12/65. I
se pune diagnosticul de sindrom interpretativ
reactiv, dar se refuza integrarea in decret.
384

Procuratura nu se multumeste si decide


internarea fortata in clinica din Cluj pentru o
noua expertiza, dar nici de aceasta data nu i se
aplica Decretul 12. Dupa externare, ofiterul de
securitate care il supravegheaza il ameninta ca,
daca va mai face memorii, va fi dus pe granita
cu Iugoslavia si impuscat, motivandu-se ca a
vrut sa fuga. A continuat sa fie supravegheat.
Ori de cite ori venea Ceausescu in vizita la
Bistrita, el era internat cu forta in spitalul de
psihitrie. Dupa revolutie este reabilitat si
declarat sanatos psihic.

31. M.L., fost inginer, in prezent


pensionar, din Bucuresti. A inceput sa fie
persecutat din 1969, ca urmare a
corespondentei pe teme stiintifice cu o facultate
din Franta. In 1970, ca urmare a unui conflict cu
seful sau de la Fundulea, este mutat disciplinar
la Mogosoaia. Observa ca este urmarit de
Securitate, pentru ca in 1974, la interventia
fostului sef, sa fie internat fortat la Spitalul Gh.
Marinescu cu diagnosticul de reactie psihogena
paranoida. In foaia de observatie exista un bilet
de trimitere care nu se stie cum a ajuns acolo,
pacientul nefiind examinat de policlinica. In
ianuarie 1975 este pensionat medical, desi el
nu a solicitat acest lucru. In 1976 constata ca
una dintre lucrarile lui apare la comisia de
omologare a Ministerului Agriculturii, dar are ca
autor tocmai pe directorul persecutor. Desi
solicita sa fie reprimit in serviciu, i se spune ca
385

nu sunt locuri. In perioada 1977 -1979 este in


mod ostentativ urmarit, i se fac diferite inscenari
(este acuzat de furt, de relatii cu strainii,
posesie de fotografii pornografice). In aceasta
perioada face 8 memorii la C.C., iar in semn de
protest restituie carnetul de partid. In 1982
surprinde la domiciliul sau agenti de securitate
ce patrunsesera cu ajutorul unor chei duble. De
asemenea, in cursul unei interventii chirurgicale
are impresia ca medicul voia sa-l omoare
(acesta fusese medic la inchisoarea Vacaresti).
Pentru a nu mai fi considerat delirant, inceteaza
a mai face memorii. Dupa revolutie, Comisia
Diacicov il reabiliteaza, fiind sanatos psihic.

32. M.S., fosta lucratoare in comert, in


prezent pensionara, din Bucuresti. In 1954 a
fost arestata si condamnata pentru crima de
inalta tradare. In detentie este molestata,
batuta. De asemenea, sotul ei a fost obligat sa
divorteze de ea in perioada detentiei, iar copiii i-
au fost luati. A fost internata de cateva ori in
spitalul psihiatric. Dupa revolutie a fost
declarata sanatoasa.

33. J.I., inginer din Colibasi, transferat la


Bucuresti. A absolvit cu diploma de onoare
facultatea in URSS. Se confrunta cu greutatile
industriei romanesti, cu tehnologia invechita.
Propune o serie de masuri care sa stimuleze
progresul tehnic si devine chiar subiectul unor
elogii care i se aduc in presa. In 1970 - 1971
386

se pune problema colectivizarii zonelor


montane. Fiind din Rucar, isi da seama ca o
asemenea masura va duce la saracirea si
disparitia satului de munte. De asemenea, se
opune unui proiect de sistematizare
hidroenergetica a Dambovitei aprobat de
Ceausescu, care ar fi dus la distrugerea zonei.
Propune el insusi un plan-alternativa care ar fi
salvat regiunea. Este chemat la C.N.S.T., la
cabinetul 2, unde sta de vorba cu un consilier.
La iesirea din cladire este acostat de doi
indivizi, urcat cu forta intr-o masina neagra si i
se spune ca este arestat. In realitate este dus
direct la Balaceanca si dat in primire doctorului
de garda. I se da o uniforma vargata si este
trimis intr-un salon de agitati. Refuza
tratamentul, dar conditiile de cazare sunt
mizerabile. Este expertizat de patru ori
succesiv. Face apel la constiinta medicilor din
comisie, iar unul dintre medici ii spune "trebuia
sa asteptati sa va nasteti peste 100 de ani,
daca societatea va evolua asa cum speram".
Este externat peste doua luni, dar i se cere o
declaratie in care sa arate ca nu va mai supara
"organele". Reintors la serviciu, constata ca
este transferat la alta intreprindere. Este in
permanenta supravegheat de Securitate, i se
interzice sa participe la adunari sau mitinguri
organizate, iar cu ocazia vizitei lui Ceausescu in
intreprindere este izolat si pazit. Sotia sa este
mereu sfatuita sa divorteze de el deoarece ar fi
un pericol social. Participa la revolutia din 1989
387

si este ales presedinte al F.S.N. pe uzina. Este


anuntat ca poate fi reincadrat la vechiul sau loc
de munca, Uzina Republica. Si el este declarat
sanatos psihic.

34. N.E., pensionar, din Bucuresti. In


1974 a protestat impotriva demolarii locuintei,
refuzand sa se mute din casa. Si-a exprimat
nemultumirea in fata a numeroase autoritati si a
adresat o scrisoare lui Ceausescu - pe care o
preda fratelui dictatorului, care lucra la Casa
Scanteii -, scrisoare in care relata despre viata
grea a taranilor si muncitorilor. Ulterior, fiind tot
nemultumit, solicita un pasaport pentru a
emigra, dar toate scrisorile s-au adunat la
dosarul lui de la Securitate. Pe 31 octombrie
1974 este ridicat de doi ofiteri de securitate si
internat fortat la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu, cu
ocazia vizitei lui Brejnev in Romania. In foaia de
observatie se noteaza ca face reclamatii
nejustificate. Dupa revolutie, comisia Diacicov
constata ca este sanatos mental.

35. M.I., invatatoare, din Mangalia. Dupa


o internare si o pensionare medicala, reluandu-
si activitatea intra in conflict cu conducerea
scolii si, drept urmare, face o serie de memorii
pe care le adreseaza revistei “Flacara”. In 1989,
in urma unor conflicte, este internata cu forta, la
cererea directoarei scolii si introdusa in decretul
313, apoi internata in Spitalul de psihiatrie
388

Palazu Mare. Dupa revolutie este reabilitata ca


fiind normala psihic.

36. N.C., muncitor agricol din Bucuresti,


in prezent pensionar. In 1956 este acuzat pe
nedrept de crima si pentru faptul ca ar fi vrut sa
destrame CAP-ul. Este inchis la Vacaresti si
expertizat la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu cu
diagnosticul de schizofrenie paranoida. Va sta
cinci ani intr-un spital de psihiatrie. In 1962 este
externat si va lucra ca factor postal noua ani,
apoi portar la Hotelul Ambasador 15 ani, de
unde este pensionat. Dupa revolutie se
apreciaza ca este sanatos mental.

37. C.V., fost ofiter de securitate, din


Ocna Mures. In 1955 a fost acuzat de tradare
(titoist), judecat, eliberat, dat afara din armata.
In urma unui memoriu la C.C., primeste o slujba
de mecanic, dar, solicitand un transfer, acesta i
se respinge si el va preda carnetul de partid.
Dupa un an este exclus din partid si i se
desface contractul de munca pentru a nu mai fi
incadrat nicaieri. Vine la Bucuresti pentru a se
adresa C.C.-ului, dar este retinut la Militie trei
zile, transferat apoi la Securitate si apoi internat
la Spitalul de psihiatrie al inchisorii Vacaresti,
unde este expertizat si diagnosticat cu
schizofrenie paranoida. Este purtat mai apoi
prin mai multe penitenciare, ultimul fiind cel din
Sighet. Face greva foamei si este mutat la
Spitalul de psihiatrie din Sighet, unde este
389

declarat iresponsabil, iar fratele lui este numit


tutore. Desi face contestatie, nu i se ridica
interdictia. Este declarat sanatos de Comisia de
cercetare a abuzurilor.

38. P.V., muncitor, din Ploiesti. In 1968


scrie un memoriu adresat lui Ceausescu, dar pe
care a incercat sa-l citeasca intr-o adunare de
partid. Dupa ce termina de citit, isi depune
carnetul de partid. Pe 29 iunie 1969, cu ocazia
vizitei lui Nixon, este ridicat de militieni si
internat abuziv la Spitalul Urlati. Aici face greva
foamei cerand ca organele de stat sa fie
informate de acest abuz. El cere sa se respecte
ceea ce afirmase Ceausescu intr-un discurs:
"un om plecat la serviciu trebuie sa fie sigur ca
va ajunge acasa". Dupa cinci zile de greva a
foamei, la care mai aderasera patru persoane, i
se face externarea fara bilet de iesire si fara
diagnostic. Depune o plangere impotriva
acestei internari abuzive, dar tribunalul refuza
sa o ia in consideratie. Constata ca in cele cinci
zile de internare a fost pontat la serviciu.
A doua internare fortata s-a facut la
Spitalul Voila -1976. Anterior internarii, P.V.
trimisese o scrisoare la Europa Libera cerand
marirea salariilor fostilor membri ai partidului
social-democrat, care a fost inglobat in P.C.R.
La perchezitie i s-au gasit si alte copii ale unor
scrisori similare cu cea trimisa la radio, in care
isi exprima convingerea ca regimul comunist va
cadea. Este expertizat cu forta, inchis intr-un
390

salon cu gratii, dar nu primeste nici un


tratament, nici-o atentie. La externare i se pune
diagnosticul de paranoia, iar directorul spitalului
ii spune ca "se bate cu morile de vant".
In aprilie 1977 este pentru a treia oara
internat cu forta, la Spitalul Sapoca, pe care il
descrie ca pe un infern. Este arestat in timp ce
incerca sa faca o vizita scriitorului contestatar
P. Goma. Chiar la usa blocului acestuia este
prins, batut crunt, fiind mereu intrebat daca a
semnat scrisoarea lui Goma. Refuza sa
semneze declaratia de retractare a semnaturii.
Este reinternat la Sapoca, la agitati, iar apoi
transferat la alcoolici. Timp de 45 de zile i se
fac doze mari de neuroleptice si ES. In
perioada internarii sale la Sapoca este adus
acolo si N.M., din Ploiesti, care ceruse sa
emigreze, ca si P.C., astazi emigrat in Canada.
Dupa externare este chemat de Tribunalul din
Ploiesti pentru a se stabili in ce spital va fi
internat. Securitatea ceruse Spitalul Calinesti-
Prahova, dar tribunalul decide sa fie lasat sub
control ambulatoriu, sotia lui fiind obligata sa-i
fie tutore.
Alta internare o are la Voila si a avut o
desfasurare dramatica prezentata intr-un capitol
anterior.
V.P. - cunoscut dizident politic in tara
si strainatate, a infiintat un sindicat liber. In
1976 a reusit sa plece in Occident, iar in
februarie 1978 a tinut la Paris o conferinta de
presa in care a vorbit despre utilizarea
391

psihiatriei in scopuri politice in Romania. De


asemenea, a facut apel la libertatea
muncitorilor de a se organiza in sindicate. La
intoarcere i se refuza intrarea in tara, dar ca
urmare a protestelor este reprimit. I s-a
schimbat locul de munca si apoi a fost
pensionat fortat. Atat la Paris, cat si in tara
(dupa revolutie) a fost examinat si gasit ca fiind
perfect sanatos mintal.

39. P.F., inginer constructor, din Cluj. In


1983 ii scrie lui Gorbaciov scrisori in care ii
arata situatia grea din tara. De asemenea,
trimite memorii critice catre minister si ca
urmare este destituit din functie. Face un
memoriu catre Elena Ceausescu, in care arata
aspectele negative din constructii, critica
megalomania din acest domeniu. Incepe sa fie
urmarit de catre Securitate, mai ales ca el
continua sa scrie memorii lui Ceausescu. In
acest context, in 1986 este ridicat de la serviciu
si i se pune in vedere sa demaste toti prietenii
pentru ca altfel "va fi desfiintat" impreuna cu
intreaga familie. Se decide sa simuleze o boala
mintala, motiv pentru care pune in scena o
tentativa de sinucidere, fiind internat la
psihiatrie. Aici, un medic (D.S.) il invata cum sa
simuleze mai bine boala psihica, motiv pentru
care a stat 93 de zile in spital si a fost ajutat sa
se pensioneze cu diagnosticul de depresie
melancolica, cu elemente interpretativ-
paranoide pe fond involutiv. Dupa revolutie se
392

interneaza pentru a se decide ca nu este


bolnav psihic.

40. V.D.S., pensionar, fost ospatar, din


Bucuresti. Chiar dupa terminarea stagiului
militar, avea obiceiul de a scrie memorii lui
Ceausescu.
In timp ce Ana Muresanu vizita
magazinul sau si ii adresa unele critici
neintemeiate, V.D.S. a avut indrazneala de a o
da afara din magazin. Imediat este vizitat de un
ofiter de securitate care il obliga sa dea
declaratii in legatura cu unul dintre colegii sai,
fost detinut politic, care ulterior a fost ucis in
conditii misterioase.
A luat apoi legatura cu un grup care
tiparea manifeste anticomuniste.Sotia, convinsa
de secretarul de partid, a insistat pe langa
V.D.S. sa se interneze, motiv pentru care, din
proprie initiativa, are cateva internari la
psihiatrie.
In 1984 este insa ridicat, cu salvarea, de
pe strada si internat obligatoriu la Spitalul Gh.
Marinescu. Dupa externare are o discutie cu
tov. Carolica, primul secretar al sectorului 3 si,
in urma unor violente verbale, il loveste pe
acesta in cap cu un dosar. Pleaca, dar nu
ajunge prea departe. Este luat de pe strada de
trei indivizi, batut in mod bestial si i se face
perchezitie la domiciliu. Apoi este reinternat cu
forta la acelasi spital, unde este neuroleptizat
masiv (i se administreaza un amestec de 14
393

fiole de neuroleptice simultan) si este tinut intr-o


stare permanenta de adormire. A primit fortat si
ES. In urma batailor primite, ii este strivit nasul,
ulterior pe acel loc aparand un epitelom. I se
aplica prevederile decretului 313, desi nu stie
sa fi fost expertizat vreodata. S-a constatat ca
foaia de observatie din 1984 a fost inlocuita cu
alta, avand un alt diagnostic si alt scris.
Dupa asemenea istorie, starea
pacientului se decompenseaza, anual trebuind
sa faca internari. Diagnosticul actual este de
personalitate dizarmonica, dar resimte dureros
tot ceea ce s-a intamplat, toata brutalitatea cu
care a fost tratat facand din el un client al
spitalelor de psihiatrie. A luat parte activa la
revolutie, iar pe 13 iunie 1990 a fost groaznic
batut de mineri. In prezent este pensionat
medical si se prezinta periodic la spitalul de
psihiatrie, din proprie initiativa.

41. A.T., medic neurolog, din Bucuresti,


nepoata unei mari personalitati politice din
trecut. Are nesansa de a locui langa Sala
Palatului. Tatal sau a fost chestor de politie si a
fost detinut politic timp de 15 ani. In 1976 face
un memoriu la C.C., cerand daune morale
pentru anii de detentie. Singurul raspuns la
memoriu a fost arestarea fiicei sale, A.T., si
internarea ei la Spitalul Balaceanca. I se da
drumul dupa doua zile, dar tatal va face un soc
si va ramane infirm toata viata.
394

In 1982 lui A.T. i se insceneaza un


proces pentru evacuarea locuintei, dar in 1984
castiga procesul. Pe 15 noiembrie 1984,
inaintea congresului partidului, este ridicata si
internata la Spitalul Cula. In 1985 un batran, in
mod neindemanatec si provovator, ii face
scandal pe strada, inscenare pusa la cale de
sectorist. La cateva zile, pe baza unui bilet scris
de mana de sectorist, este din nou internata la
Cula, de unde este externata la scurt timp.
A treia internare este facuta cu ocazia
vizitei lui Gorbaciov in Romania, in 1987, si este
dusa iarasi la Cula. Insotitorul ei a spus
doctorului: "in momentul in care Gorbaciov va
pune piciorul pe scara avionului, ea poate fi
eliberata". I s-a pus un diagnostic inchipuit de
catre un medic care ii fusese coleg de facultate.
Ulterior, acesta isi motiva fapta: "am facut-o
pentru a nu-mi pierde painea".
Si ea a fost declarata normala psihic.

42. S.M., mecanic de locomotiva, din


Rosiorii de Vede. La varsta de 15 ani asculta
muzica usoara si comentariile de la Europa
Libera. Entuziasmat, in 1969 scrie acestui post
de radio doua scrisori in care spunea ca
filozofia marxista este o minciuna, iar partidul
comunist ar fi identic cu cel nazist. La scurt
timp, este chemat sa dea o declaratie legata de
furtul unor carti. Era de fapt o proba grafologica.
Este anchetat la Securitate si torturat.
Recunoaste cu inocenta cele scrise, motiv
395

pentru care unul dintre securisti spune: "baiatul


acesta nu este sanatos la cap". Este trimis
imediat la psihiatrie si el nu se opune, nici nu
stia ce semnificatie are. La Spitalul Gh.
Marinescu i se face un examen sumar. Este
judecat pentru infractiunea de uneltire contra
securitatii statului, fiind catalogat ca pericol
social. Recursul ii este respins. Diagnosticul
stabilit de comisie este de schizofrenie
paranoida. Este imediat dus la Spitalul
Balaceanca, internat intr-un pavilion special, cu
o curte interioara, plasa de sarma ghimpata si
paznici. Locuieste cu bolnavi psihici periculosi,
mai ales epileptici.
Tot aici se afla si un grup de studenti
care demonstrasera contra regimului in 1968. I
se face fortat cura cu neurolepticre si ES.
Deoarece este reclamat ca si in spital asculta
Europa Libera, medicul E.C. ordona sa fie
mutat imediat la salonul de cronici, este legat
de pat si i se fac neuroleptice. In 1971 i se
suspenda masurile de siguranta si este externat
cu recomandarea de a fi obligat sa faca
tratament ambulatoiriu. Din cauza acestei
internari, B.M. nu a mai putut urma liceul de
muzica la care aspira. Face o scoala de
strungari si apoi devine mecanic de locomotiva.
Tot timpul este urmarit de securitate, iar cu
ocazia unor evenimente politice este trimis cu
locomotiva la distante foarte mari. Comisia
Diacicov il declara sanatos psihic.
396

43. M.V., lacatus, din Bucuresti.


Raspandeste manifeste anticomuniste in lunile
aprilie si mai 1989. Este prins si dus direct la
psihiatrie, expertizat la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu,
unde i se pune diagnosticul de schizofrenie
paranoida. In august 1989 este internat la
Spitalul Poiana Mare pe baza introducerii sale
in art. 114 c.p. Brusc. la cateva luni de la
revolutie, este eliberat fara nici o explicatie.
Este declarat sanatos mental.

44. I.M., muncitor, din Bucuresti. In 1969


iese din Piata Obor cu o pancarda pe care scria
"Jos Ceausescu". Este ridicat, dus la Militie si
de acolo direct la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu, unde
directorul spitalului scrie "caz special" si "va fi
mentinut in spital". Pe adresa Militiei se
specifica doar blocarea circulatiei. I se face
rapid expertiza si i se pune diagnosticul de
schizofrenie paranoida, fiind incadrat in art.114
c.p., apoi trimis la spitalul Poiana Mare. Dupa
revolutie si el este eliberat fara explicatii, iar
comisia il gaseste sanatos mental.

45. A.T., tamplar, din Bucuresti. In 1962,


in cadrul unei sedinte, isi exprima nemultumirea
fata de salarizare. Este chemat la partid,
anchetat de Securitate si declarat dusman al
poporului. I se insceneaza un proces pentru
propaganda anticomunista, antisovietica si
contra colectivizarii. Dupa o luna de anchete si
torturi, este internat la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu
397

cu diagnosticul de delir senzitiv de relatie. I se


aplica prevederile Decretului 12. Dupa
externare este mereu urmarit de Securitate si
ridicat in mod constant cu ocazia unor
evenimente politice. Dupa revolutie este
declarat sanatos.

46. G.T., tamplar, din Bucuresti. Cu


ocazia vizitei lui Brejnev, din 1976, este internat
cu forta la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu din Bucuresti
pentru ca intentiona sa iasa in fata conducerii
de partid si de stat pentreu a inmana o
scrisoare. Este eliberat dupa cateva zile fara
diagnostic sau bilet de externare.

47. F.F., plutonier de militie, din


Bucuresti. In 1985 adreseaza C.C. mai multe
scrisori prin care atrage atentia conducerii
superioare de partid si de stat asupra
nemultumirilor si neajunsurilor, precum si
asupra starii de spirit a populatiei (intreruperea
curentului electric, infometare, frig etc). In 1986
desi nu mai trimisese scrisori, este arestat 10
zile pe motivul fals ca nu si-a indeplinit sarcinile
de serviciu. Prin constrangere si intimidare, i se
ia o declaratie in arest, care de fapt ii este
dictata si in care recunoaste ca a adus grave
injurii conducerii de partid si de stat. Este supus
zilnic la interogatorii si este batut bestial.
Familia ii este filata si cercetata. Desi este
militar, el nu este lasat sa raporteze superiorilor
sai situatia in care se afla. Dupa 10 zile de arest
398

este internat fortat la Spitalul Militar Central,


sectia psihiatrie, dar la externare nu i se
inmaneaza nici un act. Pe 23 iulie 1986 este
trecut in rezerva printr-un raport fals si in
aceeasi zi este exclus din partid. Imediat i se
aduce la cunostinta ca este pensionat medical.
In urmatorii trei ani este mereu supus
expertizelor medicale, afla ca a fost
diagnosticat cu schizofrenie, dar este in
permanenta urmarit de Securitate.
Dupa 1989, desi este declarat sanatos
psihic, nu-si poate reglementa situatia si nu
poate fi reabilitat pe linie administrativa. I se
spune ca nu exista posturi vacante pregatirii
sale.

48. S.I., din Bucuresti, locuieste langa


Sala Palatului. Pe 8 februarie 1989 vede un
militian brutalizand un cetatean, nu se poate
abtine si arunca un borcan in strada. Dupa
cateva ore, se prezinta la el un militian care il
duce la Circa 3 militie. Dupa o cercetare de
cateva ore, in cursul noptii este dus direct la
Spitalul Cula. Aici este tinut o luna,
neuroleptizat masiv, nu mai stie ce este cu el,
este stupefiat. I se da drumul fara diagnostic si
fara bilet de externare.

49. T.D., din Bucuresti. In 1971


infiinteaza Partidul Socialist Tehnocrat. Partidul
este dizolvat in 1975, cand el este arestat, iar o
parte dintre membrii partidului sunt internati la
399

psihiatrie. T.D. este acuzat ca, fiind barman,


vinde cu lipsa la gramaj. Este tinut un an la
sediul Securitatii, din str. Rahova, iar la doua
luni de la eliberare este rearestat, prezentat
unui tribunal, unde afla ca are diagnosticul de
paranoia. Seful inexistentei comisii de
expertiza, Dr.T., ii explica astfel diagnosticul:
"adica iti doresti postul de presedinte al
Romaniei". La doua zile de la proces este dus
la Spitalul Poiana Mare (pe al carui frontispiciu
scria Spital TBC), unde intalneste si alti
dizidenti politici. Spitalul era inconjurat cu
sarma ghimpata de trei metri inaltime, paznicii
aveau bastoane de lemn cu capetele in forma
de furculita. Unul dintre medici - dr. L – spunea:
"Ei, mai baieti, ce sa va fac daca v-a mancat
fundul si ati vrut sa schimbati lumea? Asa, cine
stie cand o sa iesiti de aici? Si de schimbat nu
se va schimba niciodata nimic". In 1978 este
eliberat, dar nu-si poate gasi loc de munca.
Ajunge totusi la ITB, unde reuseste sa
promoveze chiar intr-o munca de raspundere.
In 1984 scrie poezii contra regimului, pe care i
le gaseste Securitatea. Este dus iar la
psihiatrie, unde i se pune diagnosticul de
structura dizarmonica a personalitatii, de tipul
personalitatii paranoiace. Nu mai este trimis in
sistemul gulagului psihiatric, ci este condamnat
la 4 ani inchisoare, fiind tot timpul izolat intr-o
celula.
400

50. O.E., muncitor, din Bucuresti. In


1979, la 21 de ani, adera la S.L.O.M.R. - un
sindicat clandestin organizat de V. Paraschiv si
dr. Cana. Este imediat luat cu forta si internat
trei saptamani la Spitalul Cula. Aici i se fac
doze mari de neuroleptice cu efect sedativ si
dureros. Este externat fara diagnostic sau bilet
de externare. Este urmarit tot timpul de catre
Securitate. Dupa revolutie este declarat
sanatos.

51. M.M., din Bucuresti. Revine din


Franta, unde emigrase in 1980. Se increde in
promisiunile Ambasadei romane, care il asigura
ca va avea casa si loc de munca. Pe 15 august
se afla la C.C. cu un memoriu in care se
plangea ca promisiunile nu sunt respectate
Este arestat patru zile si internat la Spitalul
psihiatric Constanta fara diagnostic si fara
forme de externare.

52. R.I., inginer, din Cluj. In 1974 scrie o


scrisoare lui Ceausecu, in care il acuza de
guvernare dictatoriala a tarii. Este ridicat de la
locul de munca de catre organele de securitate
din Tg. Jiu si apoi internat la spitalul psihiatric
local. Este neuroleptizat masiv, i se fac ES si in
aceasta stare este dus la o expertiza in care
este declarat bolnav mintal periculos, fiind
internat intr-un spital de cronici, cu diagnosticul
de schizofrenie paranoida. Reuseste sa fuga si
difuzeaza in Craiova sute de manifeste
401

anticomuniste. Este prins, reexpertizat la


Bucuresti si internat la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu.
Este masiv neuroleptizat si i se fac ES si tot cu
forta i se face o insuflatie cu aer in creier,
manevra inutila, dar foarte dureroasa. Dupa
aceste analize i se stabileste diagnosticul de
paranoia si din acel moment va fi numai la
dispozitia Securitatii. Dupa 1989 incearca sa
faca recurs extraordinar pentru anularea
hotararilor judecatoresti, dar este respins peste
tot. In consecinta, se adreseaza numeroaselor
organizatii internationale.
Pe 24 martie 1992, Emanuel Valeriu
transmite o emisiune TV, in care el este
catalogat drept bolnav psihic, lucru pe care
ulterior il va citi si in ziarul Dimineata. Ramane
uluit si consternat. Mai mult, Emanuel Valeriu il
contacteaza personal si ii propune sa dea in
judecata o personalitate din conducerea
A.P.L.R., iar in schimb i se va procura un bun
loc de munca. "Ziaristul" care il insotea pe
Emanuel Valeriu a fost recunoscut de catre
pacient ca fiind de fapt dr. C. Gorgos, directorul
policlinicii Titan, acela care facea listele cu
pacientii care trebuiau internati cu forta la
psihiatrie cu ocazia evenimentelor politice. Cei
doi vor fi acuzati de el ca i-au adus mari
prejudicii prin presa si TV. Se considera un
stigmatizat si ar dori sa fie reabilitat, contactul
cu psihiatria distrugandu-i existenta. Evident
este declarat sanatos psihic.
402

53. I.A., avocat, din Brasov. A fost


internat in repetate randuri la Spitalul psihiatric
Brasov si la cel din Bucuresti, pentru ca scria
scrisori secretarului general ONU, in care
sustinea ca in Romania nu sunt respectate
drepturile omului. A trebuit sa renunte din cauza
unor repetate internari abuzive la psihiatrie
facute la comanda Securitatii.

54. V.N., poet, din Bucuresti. A criticat


Securitatea, motiv pentru care, in repetate
randuri, este internat abuziv la Spitalul Gh.
Marinescu. Aici i se fac neuroleptice si ES
masiv. In prezent este emigrat in SUA.

55. N.P., filolog, redactor la studioul


cinematografic. Pana in 1987 este silit sa
lucreze ca muncitor necalificat. In 1987 face
cerere de emigrare in SUA. Incearca sa intre in
ambasada, dar nu reuseste decat sa arunce o
scrisoare in gradina acesteia. Este arestat pe
loc si trimis la Spitalul de psihiatrie al Inchisorii
Jilava, unde i se pune diagnosticul de psihoza
paranoida. Dupa o luna, Judecatoria sectorului
1 dispune internarea lui obligatorie. Fapta
penala ar fi constituita din infractiune contra
bunelor moravuri si tulburarea ordinii publice.
Este dus la Spitalul de psihiatrie Poiana Mare in
noiembrie 1987. In spital a avut un regim
special, fiind bine cazat, i s-a permis sa aiba
carti. Medicii propun externarea lui, dar
Tribunalul din Bailesti respinge cererea. Nu
403

mai face cereri de externare, dar este condus


de la Poiana Mare la scara avionului, unde il
astepta pasaportul de emigrare in SUA si
intreaga familie.

56. D F.S., sofer, din Ramnicul Valcea.


Intr-o criza de furie, se cearta cu sefii ierarhici si
injura congresul partidului si chiar pe N.
Ceausescu. Este arestat si dus la spitalul de
psihiatrie teritorial, unde i se pune diagnosticul
de psihopatie polimorfa, cu manifestari
exploziv-impulsive, boala care in mod normal
nu impune lipsa discernamantului. I se aplica
prevederile art. 114 c.p. si este trimis la Spitalul
Poiana Mare. Evadeaza in timpul revolutiei,
impreuna cu alti cinci detinuti. Desi condamnat
de un tribunal, de atunci nimeni nu l-a mai
cautat si isi desfasoara activitatea normal.

57. V.M., din Bucuresti. In iulie 1989


striga in plina strada: "Eu nu mai fac parte din
epoca de aur! Jos Ceausescu!". Este dusa la
circa de militie, batuta bestial de cativa militieni
tineri, carora le putea fi bunica. Este dusa apoi
direct la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu, unde cinci
saptamani i se fac masiv neuroleptice. In urma
acestui tratament nu mai putea vorbi si in final a
decedat.

58. M.S., inginer mecanic, din Bucuresti.


In 1952 - 1954 infiinteaza organizatia "Vulturul
de Munte" cu scopul de a imprastia manifeste.
404

Este arestat, batut si ramane cu grave sechele.


In 1988 este ridicat de la locul de munca de
catre un ofiter de securitate, dus intr-o cladire
speciala si supus unui aparat, operatorul
purtand haine de protectie. Dupa acest
“tratament” a simtit un efect de oboseala
masiva si de "amestec al ideilor", nu se mai
putea concentra. Treptat s-a linistit si de atunci
nu a mai fost deranjat de Militie.

59. G.I., din Bucuresti. Raspandeste


manifeste in Piata Unirii. Facuse acest lucru de
mai multe ori fara sa fie descoperit. De aceasta
data este prins si dus la sediul Securitatii, iar
apoi la Penitenciarul Jilava. Fara nici o alta
formalitate este dus la Spitalul Poiana Mare.
Abia ulterior a realizat ca ar fi fost expertizat si i
s-ar fi pus diagnosticul de schizofrenie
paranoida si ca are discernamantul scazut. Mai
afla ca i s-au aplicat prevederile art. 114 c.p.
Este eliberat cu mare viteza dupa revolutie,
cand este declarat normal mintal.

60. D.T., sofer, din Bucuresti. Pentru


vizita lui Gorbaciov isi pregatise o pancarda pe
care scria: "Vrem glasnosti si perestroika". Nici
nu a apucat sa scoata pancarda in strada - o
ascunsese in masina - cand a fost arestat, fiind
“turnat” de un coleg. A fost dus direct la Spitalul
Cula si tinut acolo cat a durat vizita lui
Gorbaciov. Nu a primit nici diagnostic si nici
bilet de externare.
405

61. D.E., din Bucuresti. Merge la C.C.,


unde doreste sa intre in audienta, dar fiind
impiedecata se manifesta zgomotos. Este
arestata imediat, dusa la Policlinica Titan si de
aici, fara a fi examinata, i se pune diagnosticul
de epilepsie cu tulburari psihice. Pe motiv ca a
comis acte antisociale, comisia policlinicii ii
aplica decretul 12 si este internata cu forta la
Spitalul Balaceanca.

Cazuri de abuz sau


incercare de abuz dupa 1989

62. T.V.R., din Bucuresti. In septembrie


1990 face cateva zile greva foamei pentru a-si
cere drepturile. In gara Brasov este agresata de
un individ care ii smulge geanta. Spre
surprinderea ei, Politia apare, dar o aresteaza
pe ea si o transporta la Spitalul de psihiatrie din
Brasov. Aici este legata, i se fac doze mari de
neuroleptice si este tinuta opt zile. La
insistentele mamei sale i se face externarea cu
diagnosticul de schizofrenie paranoida. Medicul
de intreprindere, desi nu este specialist, trimite
pacienta pentru internare la Spitalul Gh.
Marinescu, care infirma diagnosticul pus la
Brasov.

63. P.I., face greva foamei in 1991 in fata


Procuraturii generale, unde este arestata si
trimisa direct la Spitalul Gh. Marinescu. Nu a
406

fost internata, medicul de garda refuzand acest


lucru.

Toate acestea dovedesc ca inca nu s-au


stins obiceiurile si reflexele pe care le-au
capatat de-a lungul epocii comuniste anumite
“organe”. Psihiatria este inca un mijloc de
represiune si un aliat al Politiei.
Este adevarat ca ultimele doua cazuri se
refera la evenimente petrecute in anii 1990 –
1991, dar la fel de adevarat este ca epoca
criptocomunista a existat oficial pana in 1996.
Si cine ne poate asigura ca ea a disparut cu
desavarsire?

Bibliografie

1. Adler N., G.O.W. Muller, M. Azat, Psychiatry


under tyranny - an assessement of the political
abuse of roumanian psychiatry during te
Ceausescu years, report of consultation
407

mission to on behalf of Geneva initiative of


psychiatry, June 7 to June 12, 1992;
2. Antim C., Psihiatria-cutia de rezonanta a
ideologiei oficiale, R.L. 627/9 aprilie 1992;
3. Antim C- Razboiul psihiatrilor, R.L.,628/10
aprilie 1992;
4. Arun G., Filip Florian - Calaii cu fata umana.
Cuvantul, 46/11-17 dec.1990;
5. Alexe J Ilie - Adevarul despre Cula, Romania
muncitoare., 20 martie 1990;
6. Anghelescu A. - Antideontologia, 22,8,109,
28 II - 5 III 1992;
7. Arun G., Domnii de la Dimineata umbla cu
fofarlica, Cuvantul, 7, 107, febr.1992;
8. Antohi C., Vorbe multe, calvarul continua,
R.L.,10 IV 1991;
9. APLR / Serialul minciunii, R.L., 22 ian.,1992;
10. Basca D., Romanii sunt morti de frica,
Cotidianul, 8 oct. 1992;
11. Baleanu A., De ce minti din nou, domnule
Valeriu?, R.L.,2 IV 1992;
12. Bloch S,P.Redaway, Soviet psychiatric
abuse, London, V. Gollanc Ltd, 1984;
13. Brown Ch.J., A.M. Lago, The politic of
psychiatry in the revolutionary Cuba, Freedom
House of human Right, Washinton, 1991;
14. Bacanu P.M., Comisia parlamentara refuza
dezvaluirile lui Mischie, R.L.,29, dec.1990;
15. Bacanu P.M., Cronica parlamentara, R.L.,
29 dec.1990;
16. Bacanu P.M., Destabilizam, destabilizam,
R.L.,11 iunie 1991;
408

17. Bart A., Corespondenta din Suedia, R.L., 11


nov. 1990;
19. Balaceanu Stolnici C., Cultura politica, etica
si psihiatria, 22, 22, 15 iunie 1990;
20. Buzura A., Dosarele adevarului, Tribuna, 5,
1 febr. 1991;
21. Claus-Einar Langen, Against the abuse of
psychiatry, Francfurter Algemeine Zeitung, nov.
12, 1992;
22. Cretulescu M., Adevarurile despre abuzuri
trebuiesc facute cunoscut, interviu cu Andre
Koppers, Cotidianul, 10 nov. 1992;
23. Costian T., Cata etica si cata psihiatrie,
Timpul, 41, 20 oct. 1992;
24. Cucu I., Galina Raduleanu, Culisele
abuzului psihiatric, Cotidianul, 30 oct. 1992;
25. Cucu I., Psihiatria sociala partea I (1982),
partea II (1983), ed. Litera, Bucuresti;
26. Cucu I., Psihiatria nu trebuie sa fie o
cenusareasa, iar aceasta nu-i priveste numai
pe psihiatri, ci pe noi toti, Interviu in Flacara, 19,
1248, 10 mai 1979;
27. Diacicov S., Nebunii nu erau "nebuni",
Universul, 141, martie 1991;
28. Duica C., Psihiatria politica sau dezlantuirea
urii? Dimineata, 34 si 35 din 20-21 febr.1991;
29. Dohotaru A., Nebunii se temeau de salvare,
Flacara, 1 febr. 1990;
30. Frank N., Psihiatria implicata in scopuri
politice in URSS si Romania, 90, 7 apr. 1990.
31. Filip S., Abuzurile - o amintire cu gust amar.
Magazin, 55, 23 mai 1992;
409

32. Filip Florian, Arestat abuziv pentru linistea


noastra, Cuvantul, 5 - 11 febr. 1991;
33. Flonta M., Continentul minciunii, Cotidianul,
30 oct. 1992;
34. Fugariu C., Magnetoencefalograful in slujba
securitatii, 1-6 august 1990;
35. Fahi S., Intre neuropsihiatrie si
neuropuscarie, Tinerama, 60, 28 II - 5 III 1992;
36. Gavriliu L., Adio APLR, Timpul, 15 ian.
1993;
37. Gabriel F., Exista inca abuzuri in psihiatria
romana, R.L., 1 martie 1991;
38. Galatea M., Clinici de psihiatrie represiva,
spitalul Voila, Flacara, 15, 15-21 aprilie 1992;
39. Geica M., Psihiatria nu trebuie sa cedeze in
fata politicului, Cotidianul, 115, 280, 16 apr.
1992;
40. Geica M., Psihiatria sub tiranie, Cotidianul,
125, 1 VII 1992 si 132 din 2 VII 1992;
41. Geica M., Despre victimele psihiatriei
totalitare, Cotidianul, 132, 9 VII 1992;
42. Gerardi F., Psihiatrii contra psihiatrilor,
Tineretul Liber, 169/12 VII 1990, 170/13 VII
1990, 174/18 VII 1990, 168/11 VII 1990;
43. Geller J., Glimps of roumanian psychiatry,
Documents, 59, oct-nov,1992;
44. Grosan I., Activistul etern, Ziua.1064/16
decembrie 1997;
45. Hartuny K., We are the gosts, Die Zeit, 45,
oct. 30, 1992;
410

46. Ilie I., In spitalul de nebuni, bolnavii sunt


actionari la infern, Expres, 8, 159, 23 II-1 III
1993;
47. Itu I., Psihiatria in scopuri politice,
Tinerama, 72, 10 - 16 IV 1992;
48. Ierunca V., Fenomenul Pitesti, Humanitas.,
Buc., 1991;
49. Koppers A., A Biographical Dictionary on
The Political Abuse of Psychiatry in the URSS,
International Association on the Political Use of
Psychiatry, Amsterdam, 1990;
50. Lazarescu M., Destinele psihiatriei
romanesti, Viata medicala, 6, 8, 12 II 1990;
51. Modorgea G., Mistificarea unei istorii,
Romania, 4, 23, 3 - 9 II 1992;
52. Modorgea G., Dl. Emanoil Valeriu continua
campania de mistificare a psihiatriei, Romania,
14, 11 - 17, 1992;
53. Okada T., Securitatea e activa, Romanul
liber, 78, iulie-august 1990;
54. Oloieru G., Memorialul durerii, 22, 8, 160,
25 II - 5 III 1992;
55. Press A. N., Incercare de asasinat la
Craiova, R.L., 615, 24 III 1992;
56. Palade R., Anatomia unui abuz politic, 22,
8, 28 II - 5 III 1992;
57. Piru Al., Nu cred ca e bagat, aici, Iliescu,
Expres Magazin, 6, 80, 12 - 19 II 1992;
58. Paraschiv V., Inside Romanian: a
psychiatric Prison Hospitale, Document, 7 nov.
1991;
411

59. Petrisor M., Fortul 13, ed. Meridiane, Buc.,


1991;
60. Palade R., Discernamantul in camasa de
forta, 22, 22/l5 IV 1990;
61. Pat G., Iadul se numeste Poiana Mare, Zig-
Zag, 7-13 august 1990;
62. Popescu E., Interviu cu Nicolae Radu, NU,
21,15 - 22 VIII 1990;
63. Palade R., Bolnavii se acopera cu pamant
si medicii cu hartii, 22, 22, 15 VI 1990;
64. Retezeanu A., Din raportul comisiei de
cercetare a abuzurilor psihiatriei totalitare,
Cotidianul, 30 oct., 1992;
65. Romila A., Dimensiunea sociala a unei
specialitati, 22, 22, 15 VI 1990
66. Romila A., Relatia dintre psihiatrie si
morala, Cotidianul, 30 oct. 1992;
67. Radulescu M., Tunelul spre lumina,
Adevarul literar si artistic, 108, 15 III 1992;
68. Ruha R., S., BBC denunta abuzurile
psihiatrice din Romania, Tinerama, 53, 15 - 21
1991;
69. Rosoga I., Mi s-a promis loc de munca
daca il dau in judecata pe doctorul Romila, NU,
72 – 7 - 13 III 1992;
70. Stanca Dan, Cum va proceda TV, Tineretul
liber, 617, 18 III 1992;
71. Stanca Dan, Psihiatria este o componenta a
civilizatiei, Tineretul liber, 676, 11 VI 1992;
72. Stanca Dan, Psihiatria si politica, Tineretul
liber, 610, 7 III 1992;
412

73. Stanescu C, "Nebunii" sunt iarasi printre


noi, Adevarul, 6024, 4 III 1992;
74. Sandulescu S., Adevaratele fete ale lui
Doru Viorel Ursu, Dreptatea, 21 XII 1990;
75. Stanca M., -interviu- psihiatria si
evenimentele,R.L., 1 III 1991;
76. Tane L., Misterul din strada Ernest
Brosteanu, R.L., 13 XI 1992;
77. Tiron D., Dosarele abuzurilor psihiatrice,
Tineretul liber, ? 37, 25 II 1992;
78. Toma F., L.Vasilescu, Cred ca as putea sa
mai spun, Cotidianul, 53 - 18 III 1992;
79. Tuculescu, Excerpt from a letter to dr.
Weinberger, Documents, 62, aprilie, 1993;
80. Tuculescu V., Bolnavii sub gratii, Alianta
civica, 6 - 9 VII 1991;
81. Tuculescu V., Un psihiatru cere protectia
politiei, Tineretul liber, 664, 26 mai 1992;
82. Tuculescu V., Tentativa de aservire politica
a psihiatriei, R.L., 347, 1 II 1991;
83. Tuculescu V., Psihiatria romaneasca, o
privire critica, Cotidianul, 30 oct. 1992;
84. Toculescu V., Psychiatry - a servant of
politics, Documents, 56, june 1992;
85. Tuculescu V., F.Galdau, Sanatatea mintala
in lumea contemporana, Ed. Medicala, Buc.,
1986;
86. Toculescu V., Competenta morala, 22, 15
VI 1990;
87. Vianu I., Practici psihiatrice abuzive,
Flacara, 11 - 14 III 1990;
413

88. Vianu I., Recunoasterea abuzurilor politice


din psihiatrie, Cotidianul, 18 II 1992;
89. Vianu I., Psihiatria si negarea evidentei, 22,
34 - 7 sept. 1990;
90. Vianu I., Concluziile grupului de lucru
asupra psihiatriei si abuzului psihiatric, Opinia
Medicala, 9 - 28 XI 1990;
91. Vianu I., Drepturile omului ca mijloc
terapeutic, Opinia Medicala, 9-28 XI 1990;
92. Vianu I., Cele 5 reforme ale psihiatriei
reomanesti, Viata medicala, 46,15 XI 1991;
93. Van Voren R., Koryagin, A man struggling
for a human Dignity, Second World Press,
Amsterdam, 1987;
94. Valeriu A., De ce tac psihiatri, Viata
medicala, 8 - 21 II 1990;
95. Zamfirescu V., Identificarea agresorului,
Cotidianul, 30 oct.1992;

CUPRINS
1.Cuvant
inainte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
. . .pag.4
2. Vladimir Bukovski "Si revine vantul"-
fragmente . . . . . . . 6
3.
Introducere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .........8
CAPITOLUL I
414

Fundamentarea ideologica a abuzului


politic psihiatric . . . . 12
1. Abuzul psihiatric:premize teoretice . .
. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .13
2."Noua Morala" si relatiile de drept
socialiste . . . . . . . . . . . 14
a.Ingineria sociala
comunista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
b.Institutionalizarea minciunii si a vietii cu
dublu
standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .17
c.Psihiatria-servitoarea ideologiei si a
sistemului
totalitar comunist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 19
CAPITOLUL II
Modelele ideologice ale abuzului politic
in psihiatrie . . . . . . . .22
a.Modelul biologic sau medical . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 22
b.Modelul carceral al institutiei de
tratament. . . . . . . 26
Necesitatea psihiatriei sociale . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Relatia psihiatrie-morala . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
CAPITOLUL III
Rezistenta si dizidenta psihiatrilor romani
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
1.Continuitate si limite ale dizidentei
psihiatrilor
415

romani . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . .
. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2. Evolutia dizidentei in
psihiatrie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
a.Etapa proletcultista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .40
b.Etapa ideologizarii si sovietizarii in
profunzime;
Conceptualizarea "stiintifica" a psihiatriei
abuzive42
c.Etapa dizidentei si opozitiei deschise . .
..... 44
-Dizidenta neorganizata . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .. . . 46
-Dizidenta lui
I.Vianu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
-Defectiunea functionarilor din ministerul
sanatatii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 47
-Dizidenta
organizata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
-Liga anticomunista a
psihiatrilor . . . . . . . .49
d.Etapa criptocomunista . . . . . . . . . . … .
. .. . . . . . . . . 51
3.Dificila confruntare cu
trecutul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..51
4.Perspectivele psihiatriei romanesti
postcomuniste.. . . . ..53
-Lupta acerba pentru putere a fostei
nomenclaturi.. . . .53
416

-Sprijinul oficialitatilor,mai ales a


Ministerului Sanatatii
pentru fosta nomenklatura . . . . . . . . . . .
. .54
-Formarea Asociatiei Psihiatrilor Liberi . .
. . . . . 55
CAPITOLUL IV
Problemele psihiatriei romanesti
posttotalitare . . . . . . . . . .57
1.Abuzul politic-avalansa de desvaluiri
postrevolutionare.. 60
a.Un caz
tragic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
b.Un caz al duplicitatii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.... 65
. 2.Abuzul de psihiatrie-desvaluirile
privind situatia
psihiatriei romanesti din epoca totalitara .
. . . . . . . 69
a.Situatia spitalelor de
psihiatrie;desvaluiri
postrevolutionare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .70
b.Atacul comando-ului securisto-
psihiatric . . . 72
c.Reactiile opiniei publice,ale presei . . . .
. . . . . . 75
3.Reforma in psihiatrie nu inseamna
antipsihiatrie . . . 78
CAPITOLUL V
Abuzurile psihiatriei politice din Romania
Studiul concret
417

Vulnerabilitatea psihiatriei
romanesti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
1.Practica abuzului politic in
psihiatrie . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
a.Scurt istoric al abuzului psihiatric in US
si la noi
b.Rolul psihiatrului in
abuz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
c.Amploarea si formele abuzului . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 86
2.Prelucrarea materialului
studiat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
a.Internarea abuziva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..... 87
b.Evenimentele care au determinat
internarea . .88
c.Lungimea internarii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
... 89
d.Locul si conditiile de dtentie (internare).
. . . 90
e.Diagnosticul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. ... 91
f.Abuzul de terapie
electroconvulsivaNta . . . . 93
g.Abuzul de neuroleptice . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 93
3.Incalcarea drepturilor
pacientilor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.Abuzul ca forma de tortura . . . . . . . . . .
. . .. . . . . . . . 96
ANEXA I
418

Prezentarea cazuisticii . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .97
BIBLIOGRAFIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .111
CUPRINS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114