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„Analysis of Alternative EGR

Systems on the
DEUTZ BF6M 2013C Diesel Engine‘‘

Dr. F. Schmitt

2000 GT-Suite Users Conference


October 30, 2000 - Frankfurt,2000
30.10.00
Germany
GT-Suite User Conference / Deutz AG

1) Deutz is an independent engine manufacturer. The engines are basically designed


for industrial engine applications like agricultural and construction machinery, power
generation as well as for transport applications in commercial vehicles like Volvo. One
of these commercial vehicle engine is the engine 2013. My talk is about “Analysis of
Alternative EGR Systems on this DEUTZ BF6M 2013C Diesel Engine‘‘.

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Contents

Introduction

- engine series 2013

- injection system

- egr concept

Modelling of egr and injection system

Simulation / Testing of egr

Summary

30.10.00 2000 GT-Suite User Conference / Deutz AG

2) I will start my talk about some basics about the engine 2013, I have
to model in GTPower. Further technologies to consider are the injection
systems and the egr concepts of this engine. For each of new the
technologies I will also give some information about the modelling in
Gtpower. Further I will compare testing and simulation. Finally I will give
a summary.

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Engine family DEUTZ 2013

Engine specification
compactness
low fuel consumption
4 -v a l v e, 4- a n d 6- c y l i n d e r

Engine Data Series Research


Injection system UPS, 6-hole C R , 7 und 8-hole
Combustion system DI, w/o egr with egr
Turbocharger ATL with WG VGT
Bore / Stroke d 98 mm / 126 mm
Displacement Vh 5,7 dm3
Connecting Rod length l 194 mm

Compression ratio ε 18,5 18,1


Max Power P eff 1 9 0 k W @ 2 5 0 0 m i n -1
M e a n e f f . p r e ss u r e 2 1 b a r @ 1 2 0 0 - 1 6 0 0 m i n -1
Emission standard EURO3 EURO4 (target)

30.10.00 2000 GT-Suite User Conference / Deutz AG

3) The engine family DEUTZ 2013 is very compact, has low fuel
c o n s u m p t i o n a n d i s a v a i l a b l e a s a 4 v a l v e, 4- a n d 6 - c y l i n d e r e n g i n e.
F u r t h e r E n g i n e D a t a i s g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e. T h e s e r i e s e n g i n e , that fulfills
t h e E U R O 3 E m i s s i o n s t a n d a r d , has a U n i t P u m p I n j e c t i o n s y s t e m
( U P S ) w i t h a 6- h o l e n o z z l e. T h e C o m b u s t i o n s y s t e m i s a DI s y s t e m
w i t h o u t e g r . A t u r b o c h a r g e r o f 3 K w i t h w a s t e g a t e i s u s e d. Bore of 98
m m and Stroke of 1 2 6 m m l e a d s t o a d i s p l a c e m e n t o f 5 , 7 liter. W i t h a
compression ratio of 18.5 a maximum power of 190 kW @ 2500 U/min
and a mean effective pressure of 21 bar in the range of 1200 to 1600
r o u n d p e r m i n u t e c a n b e r e a c h e d.

F o r t h e r e s e a r c h e n g i n e a C o m m o n R a i l I n j e c t i o n S y s t e m with egr is
u s e d. A t u r b o c h a r g e r w i t h v a r i a b l e t u r b i n e g e o m e t r y i s u s e d i n s t e a d o f
w a s t e- gate atl. T h e a i m o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w a s t o r e a c h o r t o get
close t o E U R O 4 emission standard without exhaust aftertreatment like
particle filter or S C R s y s t e m

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30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

4) T h i s p i c t u r e s h o w s t h e e n g i n e 2 0 1 3 . C h a r g e a i r m a n i f o l d a n d e x h a u s t
p i p e s a r e o n t h e s a m e s i d e. B e t w e e n c y l i n d e r 1 a n d 2 a n d c y l i n d e r 5
a n d 6, y o u c a n s e e t w o f l a n g e s f o r e g r v a l v e s .

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GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013
intake and exhaust manifold

C h a r g e air

manifold
Valve
cover

R o c k e r arm
housing

Sealing

Cylinder

head

Cylinderhead Exhaust
gasket pipe

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

5) A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o t t h e i n t a k e a n d e x h a u s t m a n i f o l d i s g i v en
h e r e. F o r t h e G T P o w e r M o d e l w e h a v e t o c o n s i d e r t h e s p e c i a l c h a r g e
a i r m a n i f o l d. Air l e a v e s t h e c h a r g e a i r p i p e a n d e n t e r s t h e r o c k e r a r m
housing. Then the airflow is separated into a main swirl pipe and a main
filling pipe. T h e s e p i p e s a r e s e p a r a t e d a g a i n i n t o t h e t w o n e i g h b o u r i n g
cylinders.

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EGR Concept:High-Pressure E G R
p u l s e- E G R
T c h a r g e air

P charge air

Reed
valves

Charge
air c o o l e r
E G R -cooler
E G R -control
valve

ECU

electr. governor
m air VTG

6) N e x t p i c t u r e s h o w s a s c h e m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e n g i n e 2 0 1 3 w i t h
c o m p r e s s o r , c h a r g e a i r c o o l e r , c y l i n d e r s a n d t u r b i n e. T h e h i g h p r e s s u r e
e g r s y s t e m c o n s o s t s o f t h e e g r- c o n t r o l v a l v e s , t h e e g r -c o o l e r a n d t h e
reed valves.

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GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013
high pressure E G R

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

7) T h e G T P o w e r M o d e l l o o k s l i k e t h i s . Air e n t e r s t h r o u g h t h e
compressor and the charge air cooler into the cylinders. The intake
m a n i f o l d i s m o d e l e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x p l a n a t i o n a l r e a d y g i v e n. F u r t h e r
you can see the exhaust gas system till the outlet after turbine. The egr
s y s t e m c o n s i s t s o f t h e e g r-c o n t r o l v a l v e s , t h e e g r p i p e s , t h e e g r-c o o l e r
and the reed valves. The Modeling of the reed valves and the common
rail injection system is given in a more detailed way.

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EGR concept: reed valves

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

8) T h e r e e d v a l v e s l o o k l i k e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s . I n o u r
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w e u s e d t h e o n e o n t h e r i g h t s i d e, m a d e b y P i e r b u r g.

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EGR: charge air pressure und boost
pressure before Turbine

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

9) H e r e y o u c a n s e e t h e c h a r g e a i r p r e s s u r e a n d t h e b o o s t p r e s s u r e
b e f o r e t u r b i n e a s a f u n c t i o n o f c r a n k angle. E a c h t i m e p r e s s u r e b e f o r e
t u r b i n e i s h i g h e r t h a n c h a r g e a i r p r e s s u r e, e x h a u s t g a s f l o w s t h r o u g h
t h e o p e n r e e d v a l v e s i n t o t h e c h a r g e a i r p i p e. I n t h e o t h e r c a s e, t h e
reed valves are closed.

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GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013
reed valves

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

10) I n G T P o w e r t h e V a l v e R e e d R e f e r e n c e i s u s e d. W i t h t h e E x c e l
M a c r o C h k v a l 5 0 . xls the input w a s d e f i n e d . T o d e f i n e t h e p a r a m e t e r s f o r
t h e E x c e l -f i l e s o m e t e s t i n g s f o r t h e u s e d r e e d v a l v e h a v e b e e n d o n e t o
e s t i m a t e p r e s s u r e n e e d e d f o r o p e n i n g t h e v a l v e a n d t h e p r e s s u r e for
t h e c a s e, t h a t v a l v e i s f u l l o p e n .

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Injection system of the engine family 2013

Electric unit p u m p system ( U P S ) Common Rail System (CRS)

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -Suite User Conference / Deutz AG

11) F o r o u r s e r i e s e n g i n e a U P S i s u s e d. T h i s i n j e c t i o n s y s t e m h a s b e e n
r e p l a c e d b y a C R s y s t e m i n t h e r e s e a r c h e n g i n e. U s i n g a C R s y s t e m ,
we have the possibility for multiple injections. In our case the influence
of pre- a n d p o s t -i n j e c t i o n w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h e p i c t u r e s s h o w s t h e t w o
system.

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GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013
Injection system

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

12) I n t h e G T P o w e r M o d e l o f t h e e n g i n e 2 0 1 3 , f o r m o d e l l i n g a c o m m o n
r a i l s y s t e m , the injection profile of the needle lift is given as a f u n c t i o n o f
c r a n k angle. F o r U n i t p u m p s y s t e m, w e u s e d t h e i n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e.

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GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013
unit p u m p injection system ( U P S )

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

13) T h e p r o f i l e s o f i n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e, n e e d l e l i f t a n d c y l i n d e r p r e s s u r e
a r e g i v e n f o r a n e x a m p l e i n t h i s p i c t u r e.

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GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013
common rail injection system (CR)
Influence of P o s t Injection on Emissions and S F C: E S C -t e s t p o i n t 3 :
1 8 4 5 r p m, 9 . 7 b a r

cylinder pressure
C R S with
needle lift
post injection heat release rate

b e: 218.4 g/kWh
NOx: 263 p p m

BSZ: 0.11

CRS w/o

post injection

b e: 216.7 g/kWh
NOx: 278 p p m
BSZ: 0.25

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

14) C o n s i d e r i n g c o m m o n r a i l i n j e c t i o n w e h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e s of
c y l i n d e r p r e s s u r e, n e e d l e l i f t a n d h e a t r e l e a s e r a t e . I n t h i s c a s e E S C
T e s t (E u r o p e a n S t a t i o n a r y C y c l e T e s t ) point 3 w i t h 1 8 4 5 r p m a n d 9.7
b a r i s i n v e s t i g a t e d. T h e i n f l u e n c e o f p o s t i n j e c t i o n i s a l s o s h o w n .
Particle concentration decreases very much while fuel consumption and
N o x c o n c e n t r a t i o n s t a y a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e s a m e. C a l c u l a t i o n i s s h o w n
for E S C T e s t (E u r o p e a n S t a t i o n a r y C y c l e ).

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C o m p r e s s o r m a p E S C-T e s t w / o E G R

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

15) T h e E S C p o i n t s w i t h o u t e g r a r e s h o w n i n t h i s c o m p r e s s o r m a p . T h e
speeds of 1480, 1845 and 2200 with full load and several part load
cases are in this map.

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C o m p r e s s o r m a p E S C-T e s t with E G R

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

16) E g r l e a d s t o s m a l l e r m a s s f l o w r a t e s f o r t u r b i n e a n d c o m p r e s s o r s .
The E S C point lead according to a sum formula t o the ESC Test values.

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testing / calculation: Results for E S C- Test
high pressure / pulse egr

testing high pressure egr

0.12 simulation high pressure egr

0.10
UPS-injection system,
EURO3 CR-injectionsystem w/o
0.08
Particles [g/kWh]

preinjection,
ATL with WG
0.06

0.04 CR-injection system


with postinjection,
ATL with WG
0.02

EURO4 CR, VTG


0.00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

NOx [g/kWh]

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

17) I n t h i s m a p i n c l u d i n g t h e E U R O 3 a n d E U R O 4 e m i i s i o n s t a n d a r d s ,
t h e t r a d e - o f f s f o r p a r t i c l e s a n d N o x a r e s h o w n. T h e s e r i e s e n g i n e w i t h
U P S a n d w a s t e- g a t e t u r b o c h a r g e r, we fulfill the E U R O 3 e m i s s i o n
standard. The C R system without pre injection leads t o similar results.
The results with pre injection are show by the second trade off. Turbine
w i t h variable turbine geometry leads t o the third trade off. For this case
testing ( black) and simulation (red) are shown. With rather small egr
rates of about 1 0 p e r cent , a r e d u c t i o n o f N o x f r o m 6 t o 4 . 5 g / k W h c a n
b e r e a c h e d. A g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t e s t i n g a n d s i m u l a t i o n i s v e r y g o o d .
Fuel consumption stays constant . For higher erg rates the results are
rather poor regarding reduction potentials and agreement .

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testing / calculation: E S C-T e s t

220
200 gem. Motorleistung
180
160
ber. Motorleistung ohne AGR
Good Agreement between
engine power [KW]
measurement and calculation for:
140
120
100
80
60

engine power
40
20
0

max . cylinder pressure


200

180
max. cylinder pressure [bar]

160

140
charge air pressure
120

100

80
exp.erm. Zünddruck
60
mit GTPower ber. Zünddruck ohne AGR
40
5.0

4.5 gem. Ladedruck


ber. Ladedruck ohne AGR
charge air pressure [bar]

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Nr. [-]

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18) T h e r e s u l t s f o r e a c h t e s t p o i n t o f E S C t e s t w i t h o u t e g r a r e g i v e n
h e r e. T h e r e i s g o o d a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t e s t i n g a n d c a l c u l a t i o n f o r
e n g i n e p o w e r, c y l i n d e r p r e s s u r e a n d c h a r g e a i r p r e s s u r e f o r e x a m p l e.

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testing / calculation: E S C-T e s t with egr

220
gem. Motorleistung
200

E G R : R e g u l a t i o n of c h a r g e a i r
ber. Motorleistung ohne AGR
180 ber. Motorleistung mitAGR
160
Motorleistung [KW]
pressure by V G T controler
140
120
100
80
60
40

i n n e r a i r-f u l e r a t i o λ V c a l c u l a t e d f r o m
20
0
200

fresh air flow and air ( o x y g e n ) in


180

160
Zünddruck [bar]

boost:
140

120

100

80
gem. Zünddruck
60 ber. Zünddruck ohne AGR
ber. Zünddruck mit AGR
40
5.0 5

4.5 gem. Ladedruck ber. λ V ohne AGR


ber. λ V mit HD-AGR

"inneres" Verbrennungsluft-
ber. Ladedruck ohne AGR 4

Kraftstoff-Verhältnis λV [ - ]
4.0 ber. Ladedruck mit AGR
Ladedruck [bar]

3.5 3
3.0

2
2.5

2.0
1
1.5

1.0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Nr. [-] Nr. [-]

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19) W i t h e g r t h e r e s u l t s a r e still v e r y g o o d. F o r e g r c a l c u l a t i o n a n d
t e s t i n g, t h e c h a r g e a i r p r e s s u r e i s c o n t r o l e d b y V G T c o n t r o l l e r . T o h a v e
s a m e e m i s s i o n l e v e l s , t h e i n n e r a i r -f u e l r a t i o, c a l c u l a e d f r o m f r e s h a i r
and oxygen i n boost, is similarly constant .

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E G R C o n c e p t : L o w -P r e s s u r e E G R

T charge air
C h a r g e air

Charge

air c o o l e r

mair
ECU
E l e c t r.

governor
VGT

Egr control valve


E g r- c o o l e r Diesel particle filter

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

20) T h e s e c o n d s y s t e m , t h a t h a s b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d i s t h e l o w p r e s s u r e e g r. A part of
t h e e x h a u s t g a s h a s t o b e c l e a n e d i n a particle filter, a n d f l o w s t h e n t h r o u g h a n e g r-
c o o l e r a n d a n e g r -c o n t r o l v a l v e.

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GTPower Simulation Modell of Engine 2013
low pressure EGR

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

21) T h e G T P o w e r m o d e l l o o k s l i k e f o l l o w s. T h e m o d e l i s s i m i l a r t o t h e h i g h p r e s s u r e
egr model.

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testing / calculation: Results for E S C- Test
low pressure egr

testing low pressure egr

0.12 simulation low pressure egr

0.10

UPS-injection system,
EURO3 CR-injectionsystem w/o
0.08
Particles [g/kWh]

preinjection,
ATL with WG
0.06

0.04 CR-injection system


with postinjection,
ATL with WG
0.02

EURO4 CR, VTG


0.00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

NOx [g/kWh]

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

22) T h e r e s u l t s a r e a l s o s h o w n i n the particles - n o x m a p . T h e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t i s d i f f e r e n t


t o t h e r e s u l t s f o r h i g h p r e s s u r e e g r. F o r e g r r a t e s o f a b o u t 1 1 p e r cent , a r e d u c t i o n f o r
n o x i s o b t a i n e d f r o m 9 to 6.5 g/kWh. B u t t h e p a r t i c l e s i n c r e a s e s v e r y m u c h i n t h i s c a s e.
T h e r e s u l t s a r e e v e n w o r s e r t h a n m o v i n g o n t h e t r a d e o f f w i t h o u t egr.

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Summary

I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f different e g r s y s t e m s

Detailed Modelling of
- E G R -s y s t e m
- C R injection system
- implementation of V T G

Good agreement between testing and simulation results

Fulfilling of E U R O 4 : f u r t h e r o p t i m i z a t i o n s (i n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e,
c h a r g e a i r p r e s s u r e, E G R )
E T C : a f t e r t r e a t m e n t D i e s e l particle filter or S C R

30.10.00 2 0 0 0 G T -S u i t e U s e r C o n f e r e n c e / D e u t z A G

23) L e t m e s u m m a r i z e t h e r e s u l t s. W e i n v e s t i g a t e d H I G H P R E S S U R E a n d L O W
P R E S S U R E egr systems for the D E U T Z diesel engine 2013. The detailed modeling of
egr and injection system has been discussed. The results shows good agreement
b e t w e e n t e s t i n g a n d s i m u l a t i o n. For fulfilling E U R 4 e m i s s i o n s t a n d a r d i n s t a t i o n a r y t e s t ,
further optimizations have t o be investigated. For transient test E T C exhaust gas
aftertreatment like particle filter or S C R are needed.

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... k n o w i n g i t ‘ s D E U T Z

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