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Nurun Nahla I.

Reyes
BIOCHEMISTRY Society at Stanford University and who sits on
an advisory committee on human cloning for
The Nature of Biochemistry the state of California “when will we clone
human”.



Biochemistry is the study of compounds,
chemical reactions, and molecular interactions
that are involved in the production,
maintenance and reproduction of living Broad/Scope Scientific Discipline
organisms. Biochemistry will serve as a
central component of all the health sciences,  Biochemistry is the study of the structure,
composition, and chemical reactions of
including microbiology , genetics, physiology,
nutrition, medicine, dentistry and nursing. substances in living systems.

 Biochemistry emerged as a separate


 Biochemistry – deals with the study of the discipline when scientists combined
biology with organic, inorganic, or physical
chemistry of living organism. It deals with the
application of the principles and method of chemistry and began to study such topics
chemistry to the field of biology and as how living things obtain energy from
physiology. food, the chemical basis of heredity, and
what fundamental changes occur in
 It is the language of biology basic to the disease.
understanding of the different phenomena both
in biological and medical sciences.  Biochemistry includes the sciences of

 It is concerned with the physico chemical


molecular biology;
neurochemistry; and
immunochemistry;
bioinorganic,
processes underlying digestion, absorption, bioorganic, and biophysical chemistry.
circulation, respiration, metabolism, growth and
reproduction.
 Range of Application

 Processes occurring under normal conditions


are physiological hence the term “Physiological
 Biochemistry is applied to medicine, dentistry, and
veterinary medicine. In food science, biochemists
Chemistry”. Those occurring under abnormal research ways to develop abundant and
conditions are “ Pathological “ they fall under inexpensive sources of nutritious foods, determine
Clinical Biochemistry” the chemical composition of foods, develop
methods to extract nutrients from waste products,

 Growing biochemistry knowledge will set the


or invent ways to prolong the shelf life food
products. In agriculture, biochemists study the
place in the search for the prevention and interaction of herbicides with plants. They examine
treatment of heart disease, cancer, genetic the structure-activity relationships of compounds,
disease, nutritional deficiencies, infectious determine their ability to inhibit growth, and
diseases, and other health disorders. Present evaluate the toxicological effects on surrounding
biochemistry knowledge has come up with life.
mechanisms on how oncogenes convert
normal cells into tumor cells, how enzymes

 Biochemistry
catalyze chemical reactions, how cholesterol
contributes to heat disease, how aspirin lowers spills over into pharmacology,
body temperature, and how AZT inhibits the physiology, microbiology, and clinical chemistry. In
growth of the AIDS virus. these areas, a biochemist may investigate the
mechanism of a drug action; engage in viral
research; conduct research pertaining to organ
 In summer, 2001, Associate Editor Gunjan
function; or use chemical concepts, procedures,
and techniques to study the diagnosis and therapy
Singha of Flash Forward magazine and co- of disease and the assessment of health.
director of a program in Genomics, Ethics and
Nurun Nahla I. Reyes
metabolism is call anabolism, while destructive

 metabolism is catabolism


Branches of Biochemistry
COMPLEXITY AND ORGANIZATION
- Complexity refers to elaborate structures

 Chemical Composition of Living Matter


needed to carry out laborious functions like
metabolism. Organization is putting the different
 The tissues are made up of about 70 % to 90%
body structure into order, so that the organism can
function effectively and efficiently.
and 10% to 30% solids. Of the solids !% is
organic and the rest are organic substances.

 WATER- component is found partly in the free  REGULATION


state, that is capable of passing from one cell - Or the ability to keep the functions under
to another, this passage is governed by the control through the use of substances like
physical laws Osmosis and Diffusion. The hormones and enzymes.
amount of fixed water in the tissues varies with
their function activities. Tissue with greater
physiological activity have greater amount of
 ALL LIVING ORGANISMS POSSESS A
CHARACTERISTIC SIZE AND SHAPE
water. - An ant can never become as big as
elephant.

 RESPONSIVENESS TO STIMULI OR

 The inorganic substances are up of sodium,


SENSITIVITY
- Which is the ability to respond favorably or
potassium etc. unfavorably to its environment.

 The organic substances such as


carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.  LOCOMOTION
 Attributes of Life
- The ability to move on its initiative, under its
control.
 Some characteristics of Living Things that
 VARIATION AND CHANGE
ensure survival are:

 ADAPTATION - Which explain why no two organisms are


- Or the presence of body structure that exactly alike(variation) and no organism
make living things fit to live in its habit. remains unchanged forever. Adaptation and
 GROWTH AND REPAIR
evolution are mechanism of change.
- Growth is the ability to add new tissue,
while repair if the ability to replace damage
 STEREOSPECIFIC
parts. - The ability of certain molecules present in an
 REPRODUCTION organism to interact with nature in a left-or-
right-handed manner.
- Or the ability to beget offspring, ensure
propagation and continuance of the
species.  The Chemicals of Life

 All living organisms are predominantly


 METABOLISM
constructed from carbon, oxygen, and
hydrogen , together with some organic
- Or the biological and chemical activities or elements like nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
functions that provide energy. Constructive
Nurun Nahla I. Reyes

 WATER  General Properties


- all life forms, from the simplest bacteria to A. Water has a unique properties
the most complex multicellular plants and animals -has a boiling point
c contain water. Human cells are composed of - freezing point
about 70% to 90% water that makes it an ideal -heat of vaporization
medium for sustaining life. -specific heat
- heat of fusion

 Water and its ionization products H+ and OH-


- water tension( the forces of attraction
between
are important in determining the structure and molecules in liquid water is relatively
biological properties of macromolecules, high)
proteins, carbohydrates, lipds,nucleic acid,
enzymes and other cell components.
b. Water has exception solvent properties

 WATER -the polarity and hydrogen bonding


properties of water molecule makes it a potent

- Is more essential to life than is food. solvent for many ionic compounds and neutral
molecules.

- even
A person can live for several days or months,
without food but dies with in 5 to 10
c. Water properties altered by solutes
-4 properties of water (colligative properties)
days without water. (Dehydration). Water loss a. freezing point
will kill for quicker than starvation. Loss of b. boiling point
body water to an extent of 20% results to c. vapor pressure
death. d. osmotic pressure

- 60%-70% of the total body weight.


 Water Component

• Within the cells - Intracellular water


 Functions
• Outside the cell – Extracellular water

• It is a universal medium in which the various


chemical changes of the body take place.
• Within the blood vessels –
Intravascular water

• As a carrier it aids in digestion, absorption,


• Between vascular spaces and the cell –
Interstitial water
circulation and excretion.

• It helps in the maintenance of the body


• Smaller amounts are in CSF, Synovial fluid,
aqueous and vitreous humors.
temperature

• Acts as a transporting medium for nutrients


and all body substances.  Homeostasis

• It plays an important part in mechanical


functions, such as lubrication of joints and the - Balance water input an output
movement of the viscera in the abdominal
cavity. - Unbalance of water content will result to

• It aids I elimination of waste products.


edema or dehydration.

- Thirst is being control by HYPOTHALAMUS


Nurun Nahla I. Reyes

- THRIST – is a distinct physical sensation and
a conscious demand of water caused by •
Potassium (K+)
Calcium (Ca+)
extracellular dehydration. • Magnesium (Mg+)

- It is nature’s signal that liquid intake must


increase.
• NEGATIVE IONS ( ANIONS)
- Water output is being controlled by the • Chloride (Cl-)
hormone VASOPRESSIN- Pituitary Gland • Bicarbonate (HCO3 -)

- Release of this hormones decreases, water


• Phosphate (PO4-)
excretions by the kidney by increasing the • Sulfate (SO4 -)
rate of water reabsorption from the tubules. • Ions of inorganic salts such as
lactate pyruvate


• Water Intake - 150 mEq/L – average sum of concentration of
all the cations in serum. This is balanced by
• Fluids and beverages – 1,200 ml- 1,500 ml 150 milliequivalents of anions.

• Daily water intake - 2,100 ml – 2,800 ml


 Organic Compounds
• Daily output - 1,850 ml – 2,600 ml  1. Nucleic acid (DNA and RNA)

 2. proteins

• Organs  3. carbohydrates

• KIDNEY - one liter, 15 ml of water is required


 4. fats and lipids
to dissolved 1 gm of solute.  Inorganic Elements

• SKIN – 350 ml of water is lost daily through  1. Bulk elements (N,Na,Mg,P,S,Cl,K, and Ca)
the skin by diffusion. 450 ml – 700 ml of water required in relatively large amounts.
is lost through skin.

• LUNGS – lung water goes out of the body as


 2. Trace elements (Fe,Zn,I)
tiny droplets in the expired air ( 350 ml)  The Cellular Basis of Life

• FECES – 150 ml , small amount of water is


usually lost daily through intestinal
Human body develops from union of
SPERM + OVUM=FIRST CELL OF HUMAN BODY

elimination. Group of cells

 Electrolytes
Tissues
-Acid, base and salt under current process is
known as electrolytes in the process of ionization. Organs
• POSITIVE IONS ( CATIONS)
• Sodium (Na+) Systems
Nurun Nahla I. Reyes

 Structure of Cell • Cytoplasm


• Cell is a structural & functional unit of human
body, capable of carrying out functions of life - Is the material enclosed by the plasma
independently. membrane, excluding the nucleus.

• Basic unit of life.


– Nucleus


Cytoplasm
Cell Membrane
• Ribosomes

Functions of Cell - Synthesize protein accordingly. It also read


Production of Bio-Energy the code in mRNA.
- Storage


- Multiplication
- Specific function according to location Nucleolus

- It is a structure within the nucleus where the

 Functions of the Organelles


-
ribosomal subunits are produced.

This structure appears darker than the

• Plasma Membrane
nucleus.

- All cells are surrounded by plasma


membrane.

- It separates the contents of the cells and its


environment and regulates the passage of
• Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

molecules into and out of the cell. - This is a membranous network that extends
throughout the cell.

• Cell Wall
- It produce lipid compounds such as
phospholipids, steroids and fatty acids.
- The cell wall functions to support and protect

-
the cell.

Plants have cell walls composed of cellulose;


• Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

fungi have walls composed of chitin. - The rough appearance is due to the presence
of ribosomes on the membrane.

- This serves as the transport channel or


network of molecules such as protein and
hormones from the inside to outside of the

• Nucleus
cell.

- The nucleus contains DNA; it is the control


center of the cell because DNA contains
instructions needed to produce proteins that
• Golgi Complex/Golgi Body/Golgi Apparatus
control metabolism and other cell functions.
- It is a stack of 3 to 20 flattened, slightly
curved saccules which appear like a stack of
pancakes.
Nurun Nahla I. Reyes

-

The structure responsible for the movement of
cilia and flagella.
Lysosomes

- These are membrane-bound vesicles


- They also move the chromosomes during cell
division.
containing hydrolytic digestive enzymes
produced by the Golgi Complex.

- They fused with other vesicles formed around


the material the has entered the cell, allowing
• Cilia and Flagella

the digestion of the vesicle contents. - These are hair-like structures projecting from
the cell for cell movement.

• Peroxisomes
• Centrioles and Centrosome
- These are vesicles that contain enzymes
which oxidize (remove hydrogen) from a - They are involved in the formation of
variety of different compounds and pass the microtubules.
hydrogen to oxygen.

• Vacuoles
• Actin Filaments (Microfilaments)

- Actin filaments are important for muscle


- It is a membranous sac similar to but larger contraction.
than vesicles.

-

This structure stores water and dissolved
substances.
Tissues
Tissue is a cellular organizational level

• Chloroplasts
intermediate between cells and a complete
organism. A tissue is an ensemble of cells,
not necessarily identical, but from the same
- It is the site of photosynthesis in the plants. origin, that together carry out a specific
function. Organs are then formed by the


functional grouping together of multiple
tissues. The study of tissue is known as
Mitochondria
histology or, in connection with disease,
- It is the powerhouse of the cell where ATP,
histipathology.
the energy currency of the cell is produced.
 Classification of Tissues

• Cytoskeleton
- It is a network of protein molecules that provides


Connective Tissue
Muscular Tissue
the  Nervous Tissue


Epithelial Tissue
Microtubules
Nurun Nahla I. Reyes


solvents. The particle in a colloidal solution is
comparatively small.
Systems

• Muscular System 3. Tyndall phenomenon


-colloidal solution manifest the tyndall effect.
Skeletal System That is , the path of a powerful beam of light
through a colloidal solutions appears strongly
• Digestive System
luminous when viewed at right angle.
4. Brownian movement

• Respiratory System
- the suspended particles of colloidal
solutions are observed to be continuous, rapid

• Circulatory System
vibratory motion. This is attribute to the incessant
bombardment of the particles of the solute by the


movement of solvent.
Excretory System
5. Electrical charges
• Reproductive System (Male & Female)
- colloidal particles especially suspensoids
are electrically charged, the charge being

• Nervous System
distributed over the surface of the entire particle.
The migration of particles either to positive and

• Endocrine System
negative poles of an electrical-field is called
ELECTROPHORESIS.
6. Surface tension

 Physical Chemistry
-the total surface area presented by
colloidal particles is enormous compared to those
 Biochemistry dealing as it does with the
of suspension.
chemistry of living matter, requires the  Classification


knowledge of physical chemistry and possibly
all other branches of chemistry for he proper
understanding of the biochemical processes. Emulsoids
The important physicochemical phenomena is
essential and necessary.  Suspensoids

 COLLOIDAL STATE OF MATTER  Emulsoids


The old method of grouping substances into
colloids and crystalloids was base upon the ability  Are lyophillic, having affinity for the solvent.
of the substances to pass through parchment
membrane. Those that diffuse readily through such  Forming gel and swell when contact with large
membrane were called CRYSTALLOIDS, while amount of water. (imbibition) plays an
those which do not were termed COLLOIDS. important role in the normal state of the
protoplasm. Increased imbibition leads to
increased retention of fluid in the tissues
 General Properties producing edema. One gram of plasma


albumin can hold 18 cc of water. When plasma
Filtrability proteins are lost as in hemorrhage.
-The particles of colloids solution can pass
through ordinary filter paper but not through  Influence by he temperature and hydrogen
parchment membrane. concentration

2. Negligible osmotic pressure


- colloidal solution have negligible osmotic
pressure. They possess the same vapor pressure,
boiling and freezing points as those of pure
Nurun Nahla I. Reyes

 Gels are made up of fibrillar structures


surrounded by dispersion medium. The larger
- the greater the surface of the adsorbing
agent the greater is the adsorption. It is increased
by a rise of pressure and diminished by a rise in
aggregates of colloidal particles formed in the temperature.
process of gel formation are called -the process of adsorption brings
“MISCELLES”. Gels are freely permeable to substances nearer each other, thus promoting
non-colloidal ions and molecules. chemical reactions.

 Peptization- dispersal of a solid into colloidal


state. (peptizing agent- water).
 Chromatography
Is a technique used to separate and identify the
components of a mixture of substances.
Methods:

 The gel however subsequently retracts giving


 Adsorption chromatography
off the imbibe water, a process termed,
SYNERESIS. The retraction of blood coagulum - this depends upon the use of solid
with the liberation of a straw colored fluid adsorbents which have specific affinities for the
(serum) is a good example. adsorbed substances.

 Thixotropy- transformation of gel when


allowed to stand, after vigorously shaking 2. Ion exchange chromatography
transformed to a sol. - this is widely used for the separation of
 amino acids. The synthetic resin used is either
anionic or cationic.
Suspensoids 3. Countercurrent distribution method
 Are lyophobic ( no affinity for the solvent).
- this is done by repeated distribution of a
solute between two miscible solution.
 Exhibit Imbibition and Syneresis. 4. Partition Chromatography
-this method makes use of the principle of
 The colloidal state of suspensoids is rendered countercurrent distibution.
more stable by the addition of emulsoids. The
latter produces a coating upon the surface of 5. Paper Chromatography
the lyophobic particles preventing them from - one of the most ingenious methods of
coming contact with the electrolytes. utilizing partition chromatography is the


employment of paper as supporting medium.
6. Thin Layer Chromatography
Comparison of True Solutions, Colloidal 7. Gel Filtration Chromatography
Solutions and Suspension 8. Gas Liquid Chrmatography

 Emulsions
 Surface Tension
A dispersion of small drops of one liquid in
another liquid.
- the force by which the surface molecules Types :
are held is called Surface tension.
- the stronger the attraction between 1.Emulsions in which oil is dispersed in water
molecules, the greater is the surface tension. known as the oil water type.
- surface tension may be measured by the
use of a stalagmometer. This is a pipette of a 2. Emulsion in which water is dispersed in oil
special design with a capillary tube ending , known as the water oil type.
permitting a measured amount of liquid to flow out
drop by drop.

b. Adsorption
 Viscosity
Liquid tends to flow due to its fluidity. The
-accumulation of substances of the surface resistance which a liquid offers to flowing is
of solid or liquid. viscosity. This varies greatly with different liquids.
Nurun Nahla I. Reyes
The rate flow of a protein solution through capillary
tube by gravity or under pressure is measured and
compared with that of the solvent alone.
Factors:

 Temperature

 Chemical nature

 Colloids

4. Suspended particles cause and increase in its


viscosity.
Clinical correlations:
The viscosity of the blood is due to proteins,
emulsoids and corpuscles suspended in the
plasma.

 Osmosis

 Whenever two solutions of unequal


concentration are separated by a semi-
permeable membrane, the fluid tends to flow
from the side of low osmotic pressure to that a
higher osmotic pressure until an osmotic
equilibrium is reached.

 Diffusion

 Is the interpenetration of molecules between


two substances.t this occurs whenever the
solutes distributes itself in uniformly into the
solvent.

 Dialysis

 When two different solution are separated by a


membrane which allows the passage of the
crystalloids but not colloids, dialysis occurs. If a
mixture of crystalloids and colloids is placed in
a dializing bag and immersed in distilled water
the cyrtalloids pass out while the colloids are
left behind. This is utilized in the purification of
colloids from crytalloids impurities and vice
versa.