Influence Lines

Definition
An influence line is a graphical representation of a function that describes a force (axial, shear, moment) at a point due to a unit force anywhere on the member.

Example 1: Draw the influence lines for reaction at A, Shear at B and moment at B of the
following member.

When the unit load is at A the reaction will be equal to 1,0 and when it is at B the reaction will be equal to 0. The reduction in the reaction is linear with the distance away from A. When the unit load is to the left of B, the shear force at B is equal to the reaction at A minus the unit load, hence negative. When the unit load is to the right of B, the shear force is equal to the reaction at A. For the bending moment at B, when the unit load is at A the reaction at C is equal to 0 with the lever arm equal to 4 m. The bending moment at B is then equal to 0. As the load moves towards B the reaction at C increase linearly until the load is at B, then the reaction at C is equal to 0,3333 kN. Bending moment at B is 0,333 x 4 m = 1,333 kN.m. As the unit load moves past B, the bending moment is equal to the reaction at A times 2 m. Unit load at C, reaction at A = 0. Bending moment = 0.

Use of influence lines.
• • To obtain the maximum value of a function due to a single concentrated live load, the live load should be placed where the ordinate to the influence line is a maximum. The value of the function due to the action of a single live point load equals the product of the magnitude of the live load and the value of the ordinate at that point.

Influence Lines

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1/27/2006

7 with the shear at D equal to 0. The value of a function due to a uniformly distributed live load is equal to the product of the loading and the net area under the portion of the influence line covered by the load.• To obtain the maximum value of a function due to a uniformly distributed live load. b) Shear at D. Shear at D: When the unit load is at C the reaction at A is equal to 1.0 + 1. When the unit load is at A the reaction at A is equal to 1. • Example 2: For the following structure draw the influence lines for. c) Moment at A d) Moment at D Shear to the left of A: The shear stays constant at –1. As the load moves to the right of D the shear force at D is equal to the reaction at A = 0. Moment at A: When the load is at C. the moment at A is equal to –5.0 with no shear force between A and B.0 until the unit load reaches A.0 = -0. Moment at D: When the unit load is at C the reaction at B is –0. a) The shear to the left of A. The shear at D is then equal to –1.7 – 1.5. When the load is at A the moment is equal to 0.5 = +0. When the unit load is just to the left of D. the load should be placed over all those portions of the structure for which the ordinates to the influence line have the same sign.0. Thereafter there is no shear force in the section CA.5.7.5 and the moment at D is equal to Influence Lines Page 2 of 14 1/27/2006 . the reaction at A is equal to 0.3.

m. moment at B. which is obtained by removing the constraint corresponding to the that element from the structure and introducing in its place a corresponding deformation into the primary structure that remains. Influence Lines Page 3 of 14 1/27/2006 . reaction at C. When the load is at B the moment at D will be equal to 0. will be –1.1. shear to left of C and shear to right of C.7 x 10 = 7 kN Moment at A. load at C.5 x 10 = -35.m Moment at D. load at C. Alternative method of construction influence lines. shear = 0. When the load is at D the reaction at at B is 1*3/10 = 0.1 x 10 = 21 kN. shear at B. moment = -3. When the load is at A the reaction is 0 and the moment at D is then also 0.0 x 10 = -10 kN. In the case of indeterminate structures this method is restricted to structures the material of which is elastic and follows Hooke’s law.5. load at D moment = 2. Shear at D.3 x 7 = 2.-0. moment = -5 x 10 = -50 kN.5 x 7 = -3.3 and the moment at D is equal to 0. If a 10 kN load moves between C and B. e) f) g) h) The shear to the left of A. the following maximum values will occur. Load just to the right of D.00 kN. shear moment or reaction) of any structure are proportional to those of the deflection curve. Example 3: Use the Müller-Breslau method and determine the influence line for the reaction at A.m. Another way of constructing influence lines is to use the Müller-Breslau method: The ordinates of the influence line for any stress element (such as axial force.

Calculate the coordinates of member DEF and FGH.One can also construct influence for more complex statically determinate structures. Draw in the member DEF so that it is supported at D and E on the deflected member EABC. One is aware that the maximum moment will occur in the region of the centre of the member. member FGH rests on member EABC at G an H. Member DEF rests on the support at D and on the deflected member EABC at E. As a self study construct the influence lines for the shear force to the left of A. In each case construct the influence line for the member EABC. Example 4: The unit load moves across DEFGH. Absolute Maximum Moment as a Result of Live Point Loads. The maximum moment for point loads will occur under one of the point loads. Consider a simply supported beam that carries a series of moving live loads. shear force at B and the bending moment at G. shear force to the right of A. Draw the member so that it is supported at G and H on the deflected shape. and the moment at B. In a similar fashion. Construct the influence lines for the reaction at A. Two questions must be answered: a) Under which load does absolute maximum live moment occur b) What is the position of this load when maximum moment occurs. Influence Lines Page 4 of 14 1/27/2006 .

x= 30 * 2 + 20 * 6 + 10 * 8 = 3. relative to the first 20 kN load. ie. dM B 2 Rx Rd =− + =0 dx L L whence x = d/2 The maximum moment directly beneath one of a series of concentrated live loads that are applied to a simply supported beam occurs when the centre of the span is halfway between that particular load and the resultant of all the loads on the span.L  R + x − d  2  R Rx Rd = + − R MY = 2 L L L Calculate the moment under the load B  L M B = R MY  − x  − A ⋅ a  2   R Rx Rd   L = + − ⋅ − x − A⋅ a L  2  2 L = RL Rd Rx 2 Rxd − − + − A⋅ a 4 2 L L For the maximum value of MB. can be calculated by taking moments about the first 20 kN force.625 m.25 m 20 + 30 + 20 + 10 Position the resultant so that the centre line of the beam falls between the resultant and the 30 kN load. Example 5: Determine the absolute maximum moment that will occur as a result of the four point loads that can move across the beam. x = d/2 with x = 0. Influence Lines Page 5 of 14 1/27/2006 . The left reaction can be calculated from taking moments about N. The position of the resultant force.

875 * 7. Influence lines for statically indeterminate structures The Müller-Breslau method may be used to draw the shape of the influence line. The right reaction is now equal to 33. Example 6: Draw influence lines for. The influence line gives a good indication of where live loads should be applied to obtain the maximum value for the forces in the structure. The maximum moment will thus occur when the 30 kN load is 0.125 kN and the moment under the 20 kN load = 199.625) = 0 Rleft = 80 * 7.625 m to the left of the centre line of the beam.m Move the loads so that the resultant load falls on the left hand side and that the centre line falls between the resultant and the second 20 kN load.375 m to the left of the centre line.875 kN 16 M under the 30 kN load = 36.375 – 20 * 2 = 231. reaction at A. Influence Lines Page 6 of 14 1/27/2006 . Shear to left of B and moment at B of the following continuous beam and show where pattern loading should be applied to obtain maximum values for each of the cases.453 kN. shear at E. Various methods may be used to determine the actual ordinates of the deflected shape.375 = 36. The resultant load should now be 1.953 kN.Rleft *16 − R * (8 − 0.m.

25EI + 0.16667θB + 0. RB. shear at E and to left of B of the following statically indeterminate beam. MA.3333EIθ C 6 2 EI (θ B + 2θ C ) = 0.6667 EIθ B + 0. 2 EI (2 ⋅ −1 + θ B ) = −0.25EIθ B 8 2 EI (− 1 + 2θ B ) = −0.5EIθ B M BA = 8 2 EI M BC = (2θ B + θ C ) = 0.5EI + 0.Example 7: Determine the equations for the influence lines for moment MAB and MBC.33333θC =+ 0.44104 EI Influence Lines Page 7 of 14 (2) 1/27/2006 . RC and RD Any number of methods may be used to determine the unknown forces.375EIθ C M CD = 8 ΣM B = 0 ∴ M BA + M BC = 0 M AB = 1. RA.04167θC = 0 θB = +0. etc. Moment at A: Unknown forces are. Use slope-deflection equations to solve MA.3333EIθ B + 0. The load moves from A to D.3333θB + 1.235848 θC = -0.25 ΣM C = 0 ∴ M CB + M CD = 0 (1) 0.07547 MAB = -0.66667 EIθ C M CB = 6 3EI (θ C ) = 0.

13208 EI MCB = +0.07164 EI 8 M + M BA − AB = +0.02830 EI VAB = VBA = VBC = VCB = VCD = M AB + M BA = −0. use equation for deflected shape.0. EI EI d 2v dx 2 = − M AB + R A x + R B x − 8 + RC x − 14 2 x −8 dv x2 = − M AB x + R A + RB dx 2 2 + RC x − 14 2 2 + C1 EIv = − M AB 3 3 x −8 x − 14 x2 x3 + RA + RB + RC + C1 x + C 2 2 6 6 6 x = 0.0035375 EI 8 RA = VAB = . dv = −1.MBA = -0.07164 EI 8 M BC + M CB = +0.02830 EI MCD = -0.07164 EI RB = VBA + VBC = +0.0 dx therefore C1 = -1.0302675 EI For the influence line.0 EI 3 3 x −8 x − 14 x2 x3 − 0.13208 EI MBC = +0.0938 EI − 0.09837 EI RC = VCB + VCD = -0.02673EI 6 M + M CB − BC = −0.44104 EI Influence Lines Page 8 of 14 1/27/2006 .07164 EI + 0.03027 EI − EIx 2 6 6 6 EIv = +0. v = 0 therefore C2 = 0 x=0.02673EI 6 M CD = −0.

Influence line for moment at B: Use moment distribution to obtain the moments and the reactions.2 -0. Initial moments: 0 M BC = 0 M CB 2 EI (2θ B + θ C ) = 2 EI (2 ⋅ −1) = −0.2 0.7 -0.1 0.6667 6 D BA = D BC 0.2 -1.6667 = = 0.57144 1.1 -0.04167 0.3 -1.1 -1.9 -1.5 -0.6667 EI L 6 2 EI 2 EI (θ B + 2θ C ) = (− 1) = −0.04167 Influence Lines Page 9 of 14 1/27/2006 .42856 1.4 -0.640 1.0 -0.3 0. Apply the unit rotation and the beam will have the following deflected shape prior to moment distribution.8 -0.6 -0.6667 6 3EI = = 0.3 -0.4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Influence line for the moment at A.4 0.0.6667 = 0.375 8 DCB = DCD 0.5 = 0.360 1.5 8 4 EI = = 0.1667 0.1667 k BC Stiffness at C k CB = k CD 4 EI = 0.0 -1.375 = = 0.3333EI = L 6 Stiffness at B k BA = 4 EI = 0.

0018 -0.0565 EI VAB = VBA = VBC = VCB = VCD = M AB + M BA = +0.2858 -0.0196 -0.0023 +0. v = 0 therefore C2 = 0 x=0.1322 EI + 0.3809 +0.0011 +0.4286 +0.0007 MCD 0.0457 -0.0002 MBC 0.1905 +0.06051 2 6 6 6 Influence Lines Page 10 of 14 1/27/2006 . dv =0 dx therefore C1 = 0 3 3 x −8 x − 14 x2 x3 EIv = −0.1429 -0.0009 MBA 0.MAB +0.0914 -0.0002 -0.2642 EI -0.04955 EI 8 M + M BA − AB = −0.1030 EI RC = VCB + VCD = 0.0083 -0.049555 EI RB = VBA + VBC = -0.0261 +0.360 +0.640 -0.6667 +0.0130 +0.0041 -0.3333 +0.0047 +0.0565 EI +0.04955 EI − 0.0004 -0.06051 EI EI EI d 2v dx 2 = − M AB + R A x + R B x − 8 + RC x − 14 2 x −8 dv x2 = − M AB x + R A + RB dx 2 2 x −8 x2 x3 + RA + RB 2 6 6 − 1EI x − 8 3 0 + RC x − 14 2 3 2 + C1 + C1 x + C 2 EIv = − M AB − EI x − 8 + RC x − 14 6 x = 0.1322EI +0.5714 -0.1030 EI − EI x − 8 + 0.05345 EI 6 M CD = 0.00706 EI 8 RA = VAB = + 0.04955EI 8 M BC + M CB = −0.0098 -0.05345 EI 6 M + M CB − BC = +0.0004 +0.2642 EI MCB 0.0514 +0.

Use McCauley notation: EI EI d 2v dx 2 = − M AB + R A x + R B x − 8 + RC x − 14 2 x −8 dv x2 = − M AB x + R A + RB dx 2 2 + RC x − 14 2 2 + C1 3 3 x −8 x − 14 x2 x3 0 EIv = − M AB + RA + EI x − 4 + R B + RC + C1 x + C 2 2 6 6 6 x = 0. dv = 0 therefore C1 = 0 dx x = 8.0 EI = 0 x = 14.2 -0.3 0.333 RA +1.0 EI = 0 Take moments about RD -1 MA + 22 RA + 14 RB + 8 RC = 0 (1) (2) (3) (4) Influence Lines Page 11 of 14 1/27/2006 .6 -0.0.6667 RA + 457.3 -0.3333 RC + 1.2 0. v = 0 -98 MA + 457.333 RA + 36 RB +1.0 EI = 0 x = 22.4 0.4 -0.7 -0.1 -0. v = 0 -242 MA + 1774.333 RB + 85. v = 0 -32 MA + 85. v = 0 therefore C2 = 0 x=0.5 -0.8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Influence line for moment at B Influence line for the shear force at E.1 0 -0.

2 0.015146 EI = -0.02517 EI + 0. Remove the unknown reactions RB.1 -0. ∆ P = ∆ PS + Pδ PP + Qδ PQ + Rδ PR = 0 ∆ Q = ∆ QS + Pδ PQ + Qδ QQ + Rδ QR = 0 Influence Lines Page 12 of 14 1/27/2006 .02517 EI = 0.5 -0.2 -0.01135 EI 3 3 x −8 x − 14 x2 x3 0 + 0.071639 EI = 0.3 -0.MA RA RB RC = 0.6 0.015146 EI + EI x − 4 + −0.071639 EI 0.3 0.1 0 -0.4 -0.5 0.4 0.01135 EI 2 6 6 6 EIv = −0.6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Influence line for the shear force at E In this case use super-position to solve the unknown forces. RC and RD.

6667 P + 362.071641EI Function for the influence line: EI EI d 2v dx 2 = − M AB + R A x + R B x − 8 + RC x − 14 2 x −8 dv x2 = − M AB x + R A + RB dx 2 2 + RC x − 14 2 3 2 + C1 + RC x − 14 6 3 EIv = − M AB x −8 x2 x3 0 + RA + EI x − 8 + R B 2 6 6 + C1 x + C 2 x = 0.015146 EI + EI x − 8 − 0.0113502EI R = .015146EI MA = 0.071641EI Influence Lines Page 13 of 14 1/27/2006 .3333 3 3 h 8 δ PQ = ⋅ a1 (2a 2 + b2 ) = ⋅ 8 ⋅ (2 *14 + 6) = 362.6667 3 3 h 14 δ QQ = ⋅ a1a 2 = ⋅14 ⋅14 = 914.6667 6 6 h 14 δ QR = ⋅ a1 (2a 2 + b2 ) = ⋅14 ⋅ (2 * 22 + 8) = 1698.6667 6 6 1 + 170.0251695EI Q = 0.6667Q + 1698.6667 3 3 h 22 δ RR = ⋅ a1 a 2 = ⋅ 22 ⋅ 22 = 3549. v = 0 therefore C2 = 0 x=0.6667 R = 0 1 + 362.0.3333R = 0 δ PP = P = .6667 6 6 h 8 δ PR = ⋅ a1 (2a 2 + b2 ) = ⋅ 8 ⋅ (2 * 22 + 14 ) = 618.0013267EI RA = 0.6667Q + 3549.0.6667Q + 618.∆ R = ∆ RS + Pδ PR + Qδ QR + Rδ RR = 0 8 h ⋅ a1 a 2 = ⋅ 8 ⋅ 8 = 170.6667 P + 1698.6667 R = 0 1 + 618.6667 P + 914.0113502 2 6 6 6 EIv = −0. dv = 0 therefore C1 = 0 dx 3 3 x −8 x − 14 x2 x3 0 + 0.0251695 EI + 0.

7 -0.2 -0.9 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Influence line for the shear force to the left of B Influence Lines Page 14 of 14 1/27/2006 .4 -0.3 -0.5 -0.1 0 -0.6 -0.2 0.0.1 -0.8 -0.