Incentive Theory All creatures are motivated by gaining incentives. INCENTIVES: environmental factors, such as external stimuli, reinforcers, or rewards, that motivate or behavior

“You can be the smallest, you can be the weakest, you can be the worst player on the field, but when people tell you you’re no good, and say you should give it up, you know what you do? You just keep on swinging.” Everyone’s Hero, 2006

Incentives pull us to obtain them, drives push us to reduce needs. This push-pull difference between drives and incentives explains some otherwise perplexing and seemingly unexplainable behaviors. Cognitive theory Human beings are motivated intrinsically and extrinsically. Extrinsic Motivation results from external rewards Engaging in certain activities or behaviors that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain incentives or external rewards Intrinsic Motivation comes from within the person Engaging in certain activities or behaviors because the behaviors themselves are personally rewarding or because engaging in these activities fulfils our beliefs or expectations Biological and Social Needs

Motivation is the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met. When you are motivated, you usually show three characteristics: 1. You are energized to engage in some activity 2. You direct your energies toward a specific goal 3. You have differing intensities of feelings about reaching that goal THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Instinct Theory Human beings are born with specific innate knowledge about how to survive. These innate tendencies are preprogrammed at birth. INSTINCTS: innate tendencies or biological forces that determine behavior Does not explain WHY the person engages in a particular behavior Biologists who study animal behavior later redefined instincts as fixed action patterns FIXED ACTION PATTERN: innate biological force that predisposes an organism to behave in a fixed way in the presence of a specific environmental condition Drive-reduction Theory Human beings act according to their needs and drives. NEED: biological state in which the organism lacks something essential for survival, such as food, water or oxygen DRIVE: state of tension that motivates the organism to act to reduce that tension HOMEOSTASIS: tendency of the body to return to, and remain in, a more balanced state A need results in a drive, which is a state of tension that motivates the organism to act to reduce the tension and return the body to homeostasis Drive motivates us to engage in a variety of behaviors to satisfy biological needs. Over a period of time, the strength of the drive would continually increase as long as it is not satisfied.

Biological needs are physiological requirements that are critical to our survival and physical well-being. (food, water, oxygen, sleep, etc) Social needs are needs that are acquired through learning and experience (need to excel, for social bonds, to nourish and protect others, for independence, for fun and relaxation, etc) Humanistic Theory Human beings seek to satisfy successively 'higher needs' that occupy a set hierarchy. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper, A Theory of Human Motivation. The Hierarchy of Needs was conceptualized by Maslow’s observation of monkeys. If monkeys were given a choice between play and food, they would most likely choose food. If monkeys were given a choice between food and water, they would most likely choose water.

First four components were considered as ‘deficit’ needs, while the last component (self-actualization) was considered as ‘being’ need.

Physiological Needs Consist of needs for oxygen, food, water, and a relatively constant body temperature The strongest needs that must be satisfied. Once the physiological needs are met in sufficient detail, people move on to address these more complex needs. Safety Needs Consist of needs for safe family environment (children) or economic stability (adults) Psychological in nature Adults have little awareness of their security needs except in times of emergency or periods of disorganization in the social structure Children often display the signs of insecurity and the need to be safe Belongingness and Love Needs Consist of need to belong on a social level, includes desire for a romantic partner and close friends For example: Children: approval from parents; Teens: acceptance in peer groups; Adults: desire to build relationships Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation This involves both giving and receiving love, affection and the sense of belonging Esteem Needs These involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others Humans have a need for a stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect, and respect from others When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-confident and valuable as a person in the world When these needs are frustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless. Self-actualization Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's need to be and do that which the person was "born to do” Getting to know oneself, while being okay and unconditionally accepting of whatever it is that he or she discovers People who are self-actualizers are focused on what matters most in defining who they are “A musician must make music, an artist must paint, and a poet must write." FACTORS AFFECTING MOTIVATION Rotter’s Locus of Control People develop preconceived expectations about what will happen to them in the future. INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL: believing that they can influence what will happen to them EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL: believing that what happens to them is a result of outside influences or events Locus of control has a DYNAMIC nature and can shift. It can range from STRONGLY internal to STRONGLY external.

Bandura’s Self-efficacy Self-efficacy is belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments Belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments Level of self-efficacy is influenced by the person’s: Successful Performance The difficulty of the task can be increased as the simpler tasks are mastered Vicarious Experiences Modelling This may be provided by the instructor, a skilled classmate or a video of a skilled performer Verbal Persuasion Form of encouragement from the parents or peers Emotional arousal Human beings must be emotionally ready and optimally aroused in order to be attentive Perceived self-efficacy is a strong and consistent predictor of individual performance. Individuals with  self-efficacy work harder, persist in tasks longer and achieve at a higher level. Self-esteem Self-esteem describes how individuals feel about themselves. Social Support Involves interaction between at least two people which can enhance well-being. Shows people that they are loved, cared about, and valued.

EVERYONE’S HERO (2006, IDT Entertainment, Inc) Yankee: If I don’t swing, how are you gonna know I can hit? ** Stanley: Here are guys who make a living playing baseball. They play every day, and even on the day after they lose a game, they’re still standing at that plate swinging that bat. And you know how they got to be so good? Yankee: They just keep swinging? ** Yankee: My dad says you should never give up something you love. ** Yankee: I should have just quit. Screwie: That’s it? You’re laying down your bat? You know, when I landed in that sandlot, I thought, “That’s it. There’s nothing left to do but rot.”… But then you came along. You made a believer out of me. ** Babe: It’s not really the bat. It’s the batter. ** Louie: There’s always another game tomorrow. Jack: And the Babe, the Babe always bounces back. Andy: Oh come on, son. Babe’s got a big old heart. He won’t let us down. Look, when Babe was a kid, he had nothing. Then he picks up a bat, he starts swinging, look where it got him. Jack: If Babe can do it, so can we.


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful