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H3C MSR Series Routers

Layer 2 - WAN Configuration Guide(V5)

Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd.


http://www.h3c.com

Software version: MSR-CMW520-R2311


Document version: 20130320-C-1.10
Copyright © 2006-2013, Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. and its licensors

All rights reserved

No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior
written consent of Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd.
Trademarks

H3C, , H3CS, H3CIE, H3CNE, Aolynk, , H3Care, , IRF, NetPilot, Netflow,


SecEngine, SecPath, SecCenter, SecBlade, Comware, ITCMM and HUASAN are trademarks of
Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks that may be mentioned in this manual are the property of their respective owners
Notice

The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and
recommendations in this document do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied.
Preface

The H3C MSR documentation set includes 17 configuration guides, which describe the software features
for the H3C MSR Series Routers and guide you through the software configuration procedures. These
configuration guides also provide configuration examples to help you apply software features to different
network scenarios.
The Layer 2 - WAN Configuration Guide(V5) describes fundamentals and configuration of ATM, PPP,
frame relay, HDLC, L2TP, and so on.
This preface includes:
• Audience
• Conventions
• About the H3C MSR documentation set
• Obtaining documentation
• Technical support
• Documentation feedback
These configuration guides apply to the following models of the H3C MSR series routers:

• MSR 900
MSR 900
• MSR 920
• MSR 930
• MSR 930-GU
MSR 930 • MSR 930-GT
• MSR 930-DG
• MSR 930-SA
• MSR 20-10
• MSR 20-10E
MSR 20-1X • MSR 20-11
• MSR 20-12
• MSR 20-15

• MSR 20-20
MSR 20 • MSR 20-21
• MSR 20-40
• MSR 30-10
• MSR 30-11
• MSR 30-11E
• MSR 30-11F
MSR 30
• MSR 30-16
• MSR 30-20
• MSR 30-40
• MSR 30-60
Model
• MSR 50-40
MSR 50
• MSR 50-60

Audience
This documentation is intended for:
• Network planners
• Field technical support and servicing engineers
• Network administrators working with the routers

Conventions
This section describes the conventions used in this documentation set.

Command conventions

Convention Description
Boldface Bold text represents commands and keywords that you enter literally as shown.

Italic Italic text represents arguments that you replace with actual values.

[] Square brackets enclose syntax choices (keywords or arguments) that are optional.

Braces enclose a set of required syntax choices separated by vertical bars, from which
{ x | y | ... }
you select one.

Square brackets enclose a set of optional syntax choices separated by vertical bars, from
[ x | y | ... ]
which you select one or none.

Asterisk marked braces enclose a set of required syntax choices separated by vertical
{ x | y | ... } *
bars, from which you select at least one.

Asterisk marked square brackets enclose optional syntax choices separated by vertical
[ x | y | ... ] *
bars, from which you select one choice, multiple choices, or none.

The argument or keyword and argument combination before the ampersand (&) sign can
&<1-n>
be entered 1 to n times.

# A line that starts with a pound (#) sign is comments.

GUI conventions

Convention Description
Window names, button names, field names, and menu items are in Boldface. For
Boldface
example, the New User window appears; click OK.

> Multi-level menus are separated by angle brackets. For example, File > Create > Folder.

Symbols

Convention Description

WARNING An alert that calls attention to important information that if not understood or followed can
Convention Description
result in personal injury.

An alert that calls attention to important information that if not understood or followed can
CAUTION result in data loss, data corruption, or damage to hardware or software.

IMPORTANT An alert that calls attention to essential information.

NOTE An alert that contains additional or supplementary information.

TIP An alert that provides helpful information.

Network topology icons

Represents a generic network device, such as a router, switch, or firewall.

Represents a routing-capable device, such as a router or Layer 3 switch.

Represents a generic switch, such as a Layer 2 or Layer 3 switch, or a router that supports
Layer 2 forwarding and other Layer 2 features.

Port numbering in examples


The port numbers in this document are for illustration only and might be unavailable on your device.

About the H3C MSR documentation set


The H3C MSR documentation set includes:
Category Documents Purposes
Marketing brochures Describe product specifications and benefits.

Provide an in-depth description of software features


Product description and Technology white papers
and technologies.
specifications
Describe card specifications, features, and
Card datasheets
standards.

Compliance and safety Provides regulatory information and the safety


manual instructions that must be followed during installation.
Hardware
Provides a complete guide to hardware installation
specifications and Installation guide
and hardware specifications.
installation
MSR Series Routers Interface
Provide the hardware specifications of cards.
Module Manual
Category Documents Purposes
MSR Series Routers Describe software features and configuration
Configuration guides procedures.

MSR Series Routers Provide a quick reference to all available


Software configuration
Command references commands.

MSR Series Routers Web Describe Web software features and configuration
Configuration guides procedures.

Provide information about the product release,


H3C MSR Basic Routers
including the version history, hardware and software
Operations and
compatibility matrix, version upgrade information,
maintenance
technical support information, and software
H3C MSR Standard Routers
upgrading.

Obtaining documentation
You can access the most up-to-date H3C product documentation on the World Wide Web
at http://www.h3c.com.
Click the links on the top navigation bar to obtain different categories of product documentation:
[Technical Support & Documents > Technical Documents] – Provides hardware installation, software
upgrading, and software feature configuration and maintenance documentation.
[Products & Solutions] – Provides information about products and technologies, as well as solutions.
[Technical Support & Documents > Software Download] – Provides the documentation released with the
software version.

Technical support
service@h3c.com
http://www.h3c.com

Documentation feedback
You can e-mail your comments about product documentation to info@h3c.com.
We appreciate your comments.
Contents

Configuring SLIP ··························································································································································· 1 


Feature and hardware compatibility ·······························································································································1 
Configuration guidelines ·················································································································································· 1 
Configuration procedure ·················································································································································· 1 
SLIP encapsulation on synchronous/asynchronous interfaces configuration example ·············································· 2 
Network requirements ·············································································································································· 2 
Configuration procedure ········································································································································· 2 

Configuring PPP and MP ············································································································································· 4 


Overview············································································································································································ 4 
PPP ············································································································································································· 4 
MP ·············································································································································································· 6 
Configuring PPP································································································································································· 6 
PPP configuration task list ········································································································································ 6 
Enabling PPP encapsulation on an interface ·········································································································6 
Configuring PPP authentication ·······························································································································7 
Configuring PPP negotiation ································································································································ 11 
Enabling PPP link quality control·························································································································· 17 
Enabling PPP traffic statistics collection ··············································································································· 17 
Configuring MP ······························································································································································ 18 
Configuration task list ··········································································································································· 18 
Configuring MP by using a VT interface············································································································· 19 
Configuring MP through an MP-group interface ································································································ 22 
Configuring short sequence number header format negotiation ····································································· 23 
Configuring the MP endpoint descriptor············································································································· 24 
Configuring PPP link efficiency mechanisms ··············································································································· 24 
Configuring IPHC ·················································································································································· 24 
Configuring Stac LZS compression ······················································································································ 25 
Configuring VJ TCP header compression ··········································································································· 25 
Configuring LFI······················································································································································· 26 
Displaying and maintaining PPP and MP ···················································································································· 27 
PPP and MP configuration examples ··························································································································· 28 
One-way PAP authentication configuration example ························································································ 28 
Two-way PAP authentication configuration example ························································································ 30 
One-way CHAP authentication configuration example ···················································································· 32 
PPP IP address negotiation configuration example ···························································································· 34 
MP configuration example ··································································································································· 35 
MP binding mode configuration examples········································································································· 38 
Troubleshooting PPP configuration ······························································································································· 45 

Configuring PPPoE ····················································································································································· 47 


Overview········································································································································································· 47 
PPPoE network structure ········································································································································ 47 
Protocols and standards ······································································································································· 48 
Configuring a PPPoE server ·········································································································································· 48 
Configuring a PPPoE client ············································································································································ 49 
Configuring a dialer interface ····························································································································· 49 
Configuring a PPPoE session ································································································································ 50 
Displaying and maintaining PPPoE ······························································································································ 51 
PPPoE configuration examples ······································································································································ 51 

i
PPPoE server configuration example ··················································································································· 51 
PPPoE client configuration example ···················································································································· 53 
Configuration example for connecting a LAN to the Internet using an ADSL modem ··································· 55 
Configuration example for using ADSL to provide backup connections ························································· 57 
Configuration example for accessing the Internet through an ADSL interface ··············································· 58 

Configuring ISDN ······················································································································································ 59 


Overview········································································································································································· 59 
Configuring ISDN BRI ···················································································································································· 60 
Configuring ISDN PRI ···················································································································································· 62 
Configuring the negotiation parameters of ISDN layer 3 protocol ·········································································· 63 
Configuring the ISDN Q.931 protocol version ·········································································································· 68 
Configuring the SPID of the ISDN NI protocol············································································································ 68 
Setting the called number or subaddress to be checked during a digital incoming call ······································· 69 
Configuring an interface to send calling number during an outgoing call ····························································· 70 
Setting the local management ISDN B channel ·········································································································· 70 
Configuring ISDN B channel selection mode·············································································································· 71 
Configuring the sliding window size on a BRI interface ···························································································· 71 
Configuring the sliding window size on a PRI interface ···························································································· 72 
Collecting statistics about ISDN message receiving and sending ············································································ 72 
Configuring an interface to check the calling number when an incoming call comes ··········································· 73 
Configuring progress-to-alerting conversion················································································································ 73 
Configuring ISDN to carry the Calling-Name field in outgoing packets ································································· 74 
Configuring ISDN to carry the Connected-Name field in outgoing packets ··························································· 74 
Configuring ISDN to carry the Channel-ID field for only once in the responses ····················································· 74 
Configuring the service type in the ISDN bearer compatibility signaling ······························································· 75 
Setting the progress indicator value in ISDN signaling messages ··········································································· 75 
Configuring the interface to send out Alerting messages that do not carry the Channel-ID field ················· 75 
Configuring TEI treatment on the BRI interface ··········································································································· 76 
Configuring an ISDN BRI leased line··························································································································· 76 
Configuring permanent link function at ISDN BRI link layer ····················································································· 76 
Configuring an ISDN BRI interface to be in permanent active state on physical layer ·········································· 77 
Configuring deactivation protection for an ISDN BRI interface ················································································ 78 
Enabling remote powering on an ISDN BRI interface································································································ 78 
Configuring ISDN call check ········································································································································ 79 
Enabling the trap function ············································································································································· 79 
Displaying and maintaining ISDN ······························································································································· 79 
ISDN configuration examples ······································································································································· 80 
Connecting routers through ISDN PRI lines ········································································································ 80 
Connecting routers through ISDN BRI lines running NI ···················································································· 81 
Using ISDN BRI leased lines to implement MP bundling ·················································································· 82 
Configuring ISDN 128K leased lines ················································································································· 83 
Interoperating with DMS100 switches ················································································································ 85 
Troubleshooting ······························································································································································ 86 

Configuring frame relay ············································································································································ 88 


Overview········································································································································································· 88 
Frame relay interface types ·································································································································· 88 
Virtual circuit ·························································································································································· 88 
Data link connection identifier ····························································································································· 89 
Frame relay address mapping ····························································································································· 89 
LMI protocol ··························································································································································· 89 
Typical application scenarios ······························································································································ 91 
Frame relay configuration task list ······························································································································· 91 
Configuring DTE side frame relay ································································································································ 92 

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Configuring basic DTE side frame relay ············································································································· 92 
Configuring frame relay address mappings······································································································· 92 
Configuring a frame relay local virtual circuit ··································································································· 93 
Configuring a frame relay subinterface ·············································································································· 94 
Configuring Annex G ··········································································································································· 95 
Marking the DE bit ················································································································································ 96 
Configuring frame relay fragmentation ·············································································································· 97 
Configuring DCE side frame relay ······························································································································· 98 
Configuring basic DCE side frame relay ············································································································ 98 
Configuring frame relay address mapping on the DCE side ··········································································· 98 
Configuring frame relay local virtual circuit on the DCE side ·········································································· 98 
Configuring frame relay subinterface on the DCE side····················································································· 98 
Configuring frame relay switching ······················································································································ 98 
Configuring frame relay over IP ·························································································································· 99 
Configuring Annex G ········································································································································· 101 
Marking the DE bit ·············································································································································· 101 
Configuring frame relay fragmentation ············································································································ 101 
Enabling the trap function ··········································································································································· 101 
Displaying and maintaining frame relay ··················································································································· 102 
Frame relay configuration examples ·························································································································· 103 
Connecting LANs through a frame relay network ··························································································· 103 
Connecting LANs with a dedicated line ··········································································································· 104 
Connecting LANs through an Annex G DLCI ··································································································· 105 
Troubleshooting frame relay ······································································································································· 107 

Configuring frame relay compression ··················································································································· 108 


Overview······································································································································································· 108 
FRF.9 ····································································································································································· 108 
FRF.20 ·································································································································································· 108 
Configuring FRF.9 compression ································································································································· 108 
Configuration restrictions and guidelines ········································································································· 108 
Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 109 
Configuring FRF.20 IP header compression·············································································································· 109 
Displaying and maintaining frame relay compression ···························································································· 110 
Frame relay compression configuration examples ··································································································· 110 
Frame relay FRF.9 stac compression configuration example ········································································· 110 
Frame relay FRF.20 IP header compression configuration example ····························································· 112 

Configuring multilink frame relay··························································································································· 115 


Overview······································································································································································· 115 
Configuring an MFR bundle········································································································································ 115 
Configuring an MFR bundle link ································································································································ 116 
Displaying and maintaining multilink frame relay ···································································································· 117 
Multilink frame relay configuration examples ··········································································································· 117 
MFR direct connection configuration example ································································································· 117 
MFR switched connection configuration example ··························································································· 118 

Configuring PPPoFR ················································································································································ 120 


Configuration procedure ············································································································································· 120 
Displaying and maintaining PPPoFR ·························································································································· 120 
PPPoFR configuration example ··································································································································· 121 
Network requirements ········································································································································· 121 
Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 121 

Configuring MPoFR ················································································································································· 122 


Configuration procedure ············································································································································· 122 

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MPoFR configuration example ···································································································································· 123 
Network requirements ········································································································································· 123 
Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 124 

Configuring DCC ···················································································································································· 126 


Overview······································································································································································· 126 
Approaches to DCC ············································································································································ 126 
DCC features ······················································································································································· 128 
Configuration prerequisites ································································································································ 129 
DCC configuration task list ········································································································································· 129 
Configuring basic settings for DCC ··························································································································· 130 
Setting the operating mode for physical interfaces ························································································· 130 
Configuring link layer/network/routing protocols on the dialup interface··················································· 130 
Associating a DCC dial ACL with the dialup interface ··················································································· 131 
Configuring C-DCC······················································································································································ 131 
Configuring an interface to place calls to a remote end ················································································ 132 
Configuring an interface to receive calls from a remote end ········································································· 133 
Configuring an interface to place calls to multiple remote ends ···································································· 134 
Configuring an interface to receive calls from multiple remote ends ···························································· 135 
Configuring multiple interfaces to place calls to one or multiple remote ends ············································· 136 
Configuring multiple interfaces to receive calls from one or multiple remote ends ······································ 137 
Configuring RS-DCC ···················································································································································· 138 
Enabling RS-DCC················································································································································· 139 
Configuring a dial string for the dialer interface ····························································································· 140 
Assigning physical interfaces to the dialer bundle ·························································································· 140 
Configuring dial authentication for RS-DCC····································································································· 140 
Configuring MP for DCC············································································································································· 141 
Implementing DCC with MP ······························································································································· 141 
Configuration guidelines ···································································································································· 142 
Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 142 
Configuring PPP callback ············································································································································ 142 
Configuration guidelines ···································································································································· 143 
Configuring PPP callback in the C-DCC implementation ················································································ 143 
Configuring PPP callback with RS-DCC ············································································································ 145 
Configuring ISDN caller identification callback ······································································································· 146 
ISDN caller identification callback features ····································································································· 146 
Configuring ISDN caller identification callback with C-DCC ········································································· 147 
Configuring ISDN caller identification callback with RS-DCC ······································································· 148 
Configuring advanced DCC functions ······················································································································· 149 
Configuring an ISDN leased line ······················································································································ 149 
Configuring auto-dial ·········································································································································· 149 
Configuring circular dial string backup ············································································································ 150 
Configuring DCC overlap receiving·················································································································· 150 
Configuring DCC timers and buffer queue length ···································································································· 151 
DCC timers and buffer queue length ················································································································· 151 
Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 151 
Configuring dynamic route backup achieved through DCC ··················································································· 152 
Introduction to dynamic route backup··············································································································· 152 
Creating a dynamic route backup group ········································································································· 153 
Enabling dynamic route backup on a backup interface ················································································· 153 
Configuring the delay for disconnecting a backup link ·················································································· 154 
Configuring the warm-up timer for dynamic route backup ············································································· 154 
Configuring the traffic statistics collecting interval ··································································································· 154 
Displaying and maintaining DCC ······························································································································ 155 
DCC configuration examples······································································································································ 155 

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C-DCC configuration example ··························································································································· 155 
RS-DCC configuration example ························································································································· 157 
Configuration example for DCC on ISDN ········································································································ 161 
Configuration example for RS-DCC with MP ··································································································· 165 
Configuration example for router-to-router PPP callback with DCC ······························································· 167 
Configuration example for router-to-router ISDN caller identification callback with DCC ·························· 170 
Configuration example for router-to-PC PPP callback with DCC ···································································· 171 
Configuration example for NT server-to-router callback with DCC ······························································· 173 
Configuration example for circular dial string backup and Internet access with DCC ······························· 176 
Dynamic route backup configuration example 1····························································································· 181 
Dynamic route backup configuration example 2····························································································· 183 
Dynamic route backup configuration example 3····························································································· 185 
Dynamic route backup configuration example 4····························································································· 187 
Troubleshooting ···························································································································································· 190 

Managing a modem ··············································································································································· 191 


Configuring modem management······························································································································ 191 
Setting the modem answer mode ······························································································································· 192 
Issuing an AT command to a modem ························································································································ 192 
Modem management configuration example ··········································································································· 193 
Troubleshooting ···························································································································································· 194 

Configuring ATM ···················································································································································· 195 


Overview······································································································································································· 195 
ATM connections and ATM switching ·············································································································· 195 
ATM architecture ················································································································································· 196 
IPoA, IPoEoA, PPPoA, and PPPoEoA ························································································································· 197 
IPoA ······································································································································································ 197 
IPoEoA ·································································································································································· 197 
PPPoA ··································································································································································· 197 
PPPoEoA ······························································································································································· 198 
ATM service types ························································································································································ 198 
CBR ······································································································································································· 198 
rt-VBR ···································································································································································· 198 
nrt-VBR ·································································································································································· 198 
UBR ······································································································································································· 198 
InARP ············································································································································································· 198 
ATM OAM ···································································································································································· 199 
OAM F5 loopback ·············································································································································· 199 
OAM continuity check ········································································································································ 199 
ATM configuration task list·········································································································································· 199 
Configuring an ATM interface ···································································································································· 200 
Configuring an ATM subinterface ······························································································································ 200 
Performing basic configurations for an ATM subinterface·············································································· 200 
Checking PVC status to determine the protocol state of an ATM P2P subinterface ····································· 201 
Configuring PVCs and the maximum number of PVCs allowed on an interface ·················································· 201 
Configuring PVC parameters ····························································································································· 201 
Setting the CLP bit for ATM cells ························································································································ 203 
Assigning a transmission priority to an ATM PVC ··························································································· 204 
Configuring PVC service mapping ···················································································································· 204 
Configuring the maximum number of PVCs allowed on an ATM interface ·················································· 204 
Configuring an ATM class ·········································································································································· 205 
Configuring VP policing ·············································································································································· 207 
Configuring applications carried by ATM ················································································································ 207 
Configuring Layer 3 VE interfaces ····················································································································· 208 

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Configuring IPoA ················································································································································· 208 
Configuring IPoEoA············································································································································· 209 
Configuring PPPoA ·············································································································································· 210 
Configuring PPPoEoA·········································································································································· 210 
Displaying and maintaining ATM ······························································································································ 211 
ATM configuration examples ······································································································································ 212 
IPoA configuration example ······························································································································· 212 
IPoEoA configuration example··························································································································· 214 
PPPoA configuration example ···························································································································· 215 
PPPoEoA server configuration example ············································································································ 216 
PPPoEoA client configuration example ············································································································· 218 
ATM PVC transmit priority configuration example ·························································································· 220 
Troubleshooting ATM··················································································································································· 221 
Link state error in IPoA application ··················································································································· 221 
Link report error in PPPoA application ·············································································································· 221 
Ping failure ··························································································································································· 221 
ATM interface state error ···································································································································· 222 
PVC state is down while ATM interface state is up ························································································· 222 
Ping failure after PPPoA configuration ·············································································································· 222 
Packet loss and CRC errors and changes of interface state ··········································································· 222 

Configuring HDLC ··················································································································································· 224 


Overview······································································································································································· 224 
HDLC frame format and frame type ··························································································································· 224 
Enabling HDLC encapsulation on an interface ········································································································· 224 
Configuring an IP address for an interface ··············································································································· 225 
Configuring the link status polling interval ················································································································ 225 
Configuring HDLC compression ································································································································· 226 
Displaying and maintaining HDLC ····························································································································· 226 
HDLC configuration examples ···································································································································· 226 
Basic HDLC configuration example ··················································································································· 226 
HDLC in conjunction with IP unnumbered interface configuration example ················································· 227 

Configuring DLSw ··················································································································································· 230 


Overview······································································································································································· 230 
Differences between DLSw v1.0 and DLSw v2.0 ···························································································· 230 
Protocols and standards ····································································································································· 232 
Configuring DLSw in an Ethernet environment ········································································································· 232 
Creating DLSw peers ·········································································································································· 233 
Mapping a bridge set to DLSw ·························································································································· 233 
Adding an Ethernet interface to a bridge set ··································································································· 234 
Setting DLSw timers ············································································································································· 234 
Configuring LLC2 parameters ···························································································································· 234 
Configuring the multicast function of DLSw v2.0 ····························································································· 235 
Configuring the maximum number of DLSw v2.0 explorer retries ································································· 236 
Applying an ACL in DLSw ·································································································································· 236 
Configuring DLSw Ethernet redundancy ··········································································································· 237 
Configuring DLSw in an SDLC environment ·············································································································· 237 
Configuring DLSw ··············································································································································· 237 
Enabling SDLC encapsulation on an interface ································································································· 238 
Enabling DLSw forwarding on an SDLC interface ··························································································· 239 
Configuring SDLC roles ······································································································································ 239 
Configuring an SDLC address for a secondary station ··················································································· 240 
Configuring an SDLC peer ································································································································· 240 
Configuring an SDLC XID ··································································································································· 241 

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Configuring an SDLC virtual MAC address ····································································································· 241 
Configuring the properties of a synchronous serial interface ········································································· 242 
Configuring optional SDLC parameters ············································································································ 242 
Configuring local reachable MAC or SAP addresses ····························································································· 244 
Configuring remote reachability information ············································································································ 244 
Configuring DLSw load balancing ····························································································································· 244 
Displaying and maintaining DLSw ····························································································································· 244 
DLSw configuration examples····································································································································· 246 
Configuring LAN-to-LAN DLSw ·························································································································· 246 
Configuring SDLC-to-SDLC DLSw ······················································································································· 247 
Configuring DLSw for SDLC-to-LAN remote media translation ······································································· 248 
Configuring DLSw with VLAN support ·············································································································· 249 
DLSw v2.0 configuration example ···················································································································· 251 
Ethernet redundancy configuration example for LAN-to-LAN DLSw ······························································ 252 
Ethernet redundancy configuration example for SDLC-to-LAN DLSw ···························································· 253 
Switch support for Ethernet redundancy configuration example for LAN-to-LAN DLSw ······························ 255 
Load balancing configuration example for LAN-to-LAN DLSw······································································· 257 
Load balancing configuration example for SDLC-to-LAN DLSw ····································································· 258 
SAP address-based filtering configuration example ························································································ 260 
Troubleshooting DLSw ················································································································································· 261 
Unable to establish a TCP connection··············································································································· 261 
Unable to establish a DLSw circuit ···················································································································· 262 

Configuring L2TP ····················································································································································· 263 


Overview······································································································································································· 263 
Typical L2TP networking application················································································································· 263 
L2TP message types and encapsulation architecture ······················································································· 264 
L2TP tunnel and session ······································································································································ 264 
L2TP tunneling modes and tunnel establishment process ················································································ 265 
L2TP features ························································································································································ 268 
L2TP-based EAD··················································································································································· 268 
Protocols and standards ····································································································································· 269 
L2TP configuration task list ·········································································································································· 269 
Configuring basic L2TP capability ····························································································································· 270 
Configuring an LAC ····················································································································································· 271 
Configuring an LAC to initiate tunneling requests for specified users ··························································· 271 
Configuring an LAC to transfer AVP data in hidden mode ············································································ 271 
Configuring AAA authentication for VPN users on LAC side ········································································· 271 
Configuring an LAC to establish an L2TP tunnel ······························································································ 272 
Configuring an LNS ····················································································································································· 274 
Creating a VT interface ······································································································································ 274 
Configuring the local address and the address pool for allocation ······························································ 274 
Configuring an LNS to grant certain L2TP tunneling requests ········································································ 275 
Configuring user authentication on an LNS ····································································································· 275 
Configuring AAA authentication for VPN users on an LNS ··········································································· 277 
Enabling L2TP for VPNs ······································································································································ 277 
Configuring L2TP connection parameters ·················································································································· 277 
Configuring L2TP tunnel authentication············································································································· 277 
Setting the hello interval ····································································································································· 278 
Enabling tunnel flow control ······························································································································· 278 
Disconnecting tunnels by force ·························································································································· 278 
Configuring L2TP-based EAD ······································································································································ 279 
Configuration prerequisites ································································································································ 279 
Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 279 
Displaying and maintaining L2TP ······························································································································· 279 

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L2TP configuration examples ······································································································································ 280 
Configuration example for NAS-initiated VPN ································································································ 280 
Configuration example for client-initiated VPN································································································ 282 
Configuration example for LAC-auto-initiated VPN ························································································· 283 
Configuration example for L2TP multi-domain application ············································································· 286 
Complicated network application ····················································································································· 289 
Troubleshooting L2TP ··················································································································································· 289 

Configuring L2TP-based EAD ································································································································· 291 


Overview······································································································································································· 291 
Configuration procedure ············································································································································· 291 
Displaying and maintaining L2TP-based EAD··········································································································· 292 
L2TP-based EAD configuration example ···················································································································· 292 

Configuring bridging ·············································································································································· 295 


Overview······································································································································································· 295 
Bridge functionality ······················································································································································ 295 
Obtaining the bridge table ································································································································ 295 
Forwarding and filtering ····································································································································· 297 
Bridging configuration task list ··································································································································· 299 
Configuring basic bridging functionalities ················································································································ 299 
Configuration restrictions and guidelines ········································································································· 299 
Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 300 
Configuring bridge table entries ································································································································ 300 
Configuring bridge routing ········································································································································· 301 
Enabling VLAN transparency ····································································································································· 302 
Configuration restrictions and guidelines ········································································································· 303 
Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 303 
Displaying and maintaining bridging configurations ······························································································ 303 
Transparent bridging configuration examples ·········································································································· 304 
Configuration example for transparent bridging over ATM ··········································································· 304 
Configuration example for transparent bridging over PPP ············································································· 305 
Configuration example for transparent bridging over MP·············································································· 306 
Configuration example for transparent bridging over FR ··············································································· 307 
Configuration example for transparent bridging over X.25 ··········································································· 308 
Configuration example for transparent bridging over HDLC ········································································· 308 
Configuration example for bridging with FR sub-interface support ······························································· 309 
Bridge routing configuration example ·············································································································· 311 
Configuration example for bridging over dialer interface·············································································· 312 
VLAN transparency configuration example ····································································································· 313 

Configuring EtoPPP and EtoFR ······························································································································· 315 


How EtoPPP and EtoFR work······································································································································· 315 
EtoPPP and EtoFR translation tables··················································································································· 315 
How EtoPPP and EtoFR handle IP packets ········································································································ 315 
Creating an EtoPPP translation mapping ··················································································································· 315 
Creating an EtoFR translation mapping ····················································································································· 316 
Displaying and maintaining EtoPPP and EtoFR ········································································································· 316 
EtoPPP and EtoFR configuration examples ················································································································ 317 
EtoPPP configuration example···························································································································· 317 
EtoFR configuration example ····························································································································· 318 

Configuring LAPB and X.25 ··································································································································· 320 


Overview······································································································································································· 320 
X.25 ······································································································································································ 320 
LAPB ······································································································································································ 321 

viii
Virtual circuit ························································································································································ 322 
X.25 switching ····················································································································································· 322 
Configuring LAPB ························································································································································· 322 
LAPB parameters·················································································································································· 322 
Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 323 
Configuring an X.25 interface ···································································································································· 324 
Configuring the basic parameters of an X.25 interface ················································································· 324 
Configuring X.25 interface supplementary parameters ·················································································· 328 
Configuring an X.25 subinterface ····················································································································· 331 
Configuring X.25 datagram transmission ················································································································· 332 
Configuring basic X.25 datagram transmission functionality ········································································ 332 
Configuring additional parameters for X.25 datagram transmission ···························································· 333 
Configuring X.25 switching ········································································································································ 338 
Configuring the basic X.25 switching functionality ························································································· 338 
Configuring flow control negotiation of X.25 switching ················································································· 340 
Configuring X.25 load sharing ·································································································································· 340 
Configuring X.25 closed user group·························································································································· 342 
Configuring X.25 PAD remote access service ·········································································································· 344 
PAD ······································································································································································· 344 
Configuring X.25 PAD ········································································································································ 345 
Configuring XOT ·························································································································································· 346 
XOT ······································································································································································· 346 
Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 347 
Configuring X.25 over FR ··········································································································································· 349 
X.25 over FR ························································································································································ 349 
Configuring an SVC application of X.25 over FR ··························································································· 350 
Configuring a PVC application of X.25 over FR······························································································ 350 
Configuring X2T ··························································································································································· 351 
Configuration guidelines ···································································································································· 352 
Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 352 
Displaying and maintaining LAPB and X.25············································································································· 353 
LAPB configuration example ······································································································································· 354 
X.25 configuration examples ······································································································································ 356 
Direct connection of two routers connecting through serial interfaces (one address mapping) ················· 356 
Direct connection of two routers connecting through serial interfaces (two address mappings) ················ 359 
Connecting the router to X.25 public packet network····················································································· 361 
Configuring virtual circuit range ························································································································ 363 
Transmitting IP datagrams through X.25 PVCs ································································································ 363 
X.25 subinterface configuration example ········································································································· 366 
SVC application of XOT ····································································································································· 368 
PVC application of XOT ····································································································································· 370 
SVC application of X.25 over FR ······················································································································ 371 
PVC application of X.25 over FR······················································································································· 373 
X.25 load sharing application ··························································································································· 375 
Implementing X.25 load sharing function for IP datagram transmission ······················································· 378 
TCP/IP header compression protocol application ··························································································· 380 
X.25 PAD configuration example ······················································································································ 381 
X2T SVC configuration example························································································································ 383 
X2T PVC configuration example ························································································································ 383 
Troubleshooting LAPB configuration ·························································································································· 384 
LAPB (or X.25) of two sides always being down····························································································· 384 
Failed to ping the other side with X.25 on both sides being up ···································································· 384 
Troubleshooting X.25 configuration ··························································································································· 385 
X.25 of two sides always being down with LAPB of two sides being up ····················································· 385 

ix
Failed to ping the other side with X.25 on both sides being up ···································································· 385 
Continuous resets and clears of the virtual circuit established ······································································· 385 
PVC setup request rejected ································································································································· 386 
Troubleshooting X.25 PAD ································································································································· 386 
Failed to ping XOT SVCs···································································································································· 386 
Failed to ping XOT PVCs ···································································································································· 387 

Index ········································································································································································ 388 

x
Configuring SLIP

The Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) is a link layer protocol transmitting network layer data packets over
serial lines. It is documented in RFC 1055. SLIP is easy to implement and supported only on asynchronous
interfaces.

Feature and hardware compatibility


Feature MSR 900 MSR 930 MSR 20-1X MSR 20 MSR 30 MSR 50
Configuring SLIP No No Yes Yes Yes Yes

Configuration guidelines
• You can enable SLIP encapsulation only on asynchronous interfaces. For a
synchronous/asynchronous interface, you can switch it to the asynchronous mode and then enable
SLIP encapsulation on it.
• Some asynchronous interfaces do not support the SLIP protocol, but you can still configure the
link-protocol slip command on it. When you do that, the system informs you that the operation of
SLIP encapsulation fails. By then, no encapsulation is enabled on the interface. You must use the
link-protocol ppp command to enable PPP encapsulation on the interface to make it available
again.

Configuration procedure
To configure SLIP:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

3. Configure the Optional.


synchronous/asynchronous You must configure this command for
physical-mode async
interface to operate in synchronous/asynchronous interfaces, but
asynchronous mode. not for asynchronous interfaces.
4. Configure the asynchronous
Optional.
interface to operate in async mode protocol
protocol mode. Protocol mode by default.

5. Enable SLIP encapsulation Optional.


link-protocol slip
on the interface. PPP by default.

1
SLIP encapsulation on synchronous/asynchronous
interfaces configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 1, Router A and Router B are connected by synchronous/asynchronous interface
Serial 2/0. The link layer protocol is SLIP.
Figure 1 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Configure interface Serial 2/0 to operate in asynchronous and protocol mode.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterA-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
# Enable SLIP encapsulation on interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol slip
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
2. Configure Router B:
# Configure interface Serial 2/0 to operate in asynchronous and protocol mode.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterB-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
# Enable SLIP encapsulation on interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol slip
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16
3. Verify the configuration:
Use the display interface command to view the information about interface Serial 2/0. The
physical layer status and link layer status of Serial 2/0 are both up, and Router A and Router B can
successfully ping each other.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] display interface serial 2/0
Serial2/0 current state: UP
Line protocol current state: UP
Description: Serial2/0 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500, Hold timer is 10(sec)

2
Internet Address is 200.1.1.2/16 Primary
Link layer protocol is SLIP
Output queue : (Urgent queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/100/0
Output queue : (Protocol queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
Physical layer is asynchronous, Baudrate is 9600 bps
Last clearing of counters: Never
Last 300 seconds input rate 0.00 bytes/sec, 0 bits/sec, 0.00 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0.00 bytes/sec, 0 bits/sec, 0.00 packets/sec
Input: 11753 packets, 147028 bytes
0 broadcasts, 0 multicasts
16 errors, 0 runts, 3 giants
1 CRC, 0 align errors, 0 overruns
0 dribbles, 0 aborts, 0 no buffers
12 frame errors
Output:11741 packets, 142014 bytes
0 errors, 0 underruns, 0 collisions
0 deferred
DCD=DOWN DTR=UP DSR=UP RTS=UP CTS=UP

[RouterB-Serial2/0] ping 200.1.1.1


PING 200.1.1.1: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=103 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=10 ms

--- 200.1.1.1 ping statistics ---


5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 1/23/103 ms

3
Configuring PPP and MP

The MSR 930 routers do not support MP.

Overview
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a link layer protocol carrying network layer packets over point-to-point links.
It gains popularity because it provides user authentication, supports synchronous/asynchronous
communication, and allows for easy extension.
PPP contains a set of protocols, including:
• Link control protocol (LCP)—Establishes, tears down, and monitors data links.
• Network control protocol (NCP)—Negotiates the packet format and type for data links.
• Authentication protocols—Provides network security, consisting of Password Authentication
Protocol (PAP), Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), Microsoft CHAP
(MS-CHAP), and Microsoft CHAP Version 2 (MS-CHAP-V2).

PPP link establishment process


Figure 2 shows the PPP link establishment process.
Figure 2 PPP link establishment process
Up Opened
Dead Establish Authenticate

Fail Fail Success


/None

Down Terminate Network


Closing

1. Initially, PPP is in Link Dead phase. After the physical layer goes up, PPP enters the Link
Establishment phase (Establish).
2. In the Link Establishment phase, the LCP negotiation is performed. The LCP configuration options
include Authentication-Protocol, Async-Control-Character-Map (ACCM),
Protocol-Field-Compression (PFC), Address-and-Control-Field-Compression (ACFC), and MP. If the
negotiation fails, LCP reports a Fail event, and PPP returns to the Dead phase. If the negotiation
succeeds, LCP enters the Opened state and reports an Up event, indicating that the underlying
layer link has been established. (At this time, the PPP link is not established for the network layer,
and network layer packets cannot be transmitted over the link.)
3. If authentication is configured, the PPP link enters the Authentication phase, where PAP, CHAP,
MS-CHAP, or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication is performed. If the supplicant fails to pass the
authentication, the link reports a Fail event and enters the Link Termination phase, where the link
is torn down and LCP goes down. If the supplicant passes the authentication, a Success event is
reported.

4
4. If a network layer protocol is configured, the PPP link enters the Network-Layer Protocol phase for
NCP negotiation, such as IPCP negotiation or IPv6CP negotiation. If the NCP negotiation succeeds,
the link goes up and becomes ready to carry negotiated network-layer protocol packets. If the
NCP negotiation fails, NCP reports a down event and enters the Link Termination phase.
5. If the interface is configured with an IP address, the IPCP negotiation is performed. IPCP
configuration options include IP addresses of the two ends, IP compression protocol, and DNS
server address. After the IPCP negotiation succeeds, the link can carry IP packets.
6. After the NCP negotiation is performed, the PPP link remains active until explicit LCP or NCP
frames close the link, or until some external events take place (for example, the intervention of a
user).
For more information about PPP, see RFC 1661.

PPP authentication
PPP provides authentication methods, which makes it viable to implement AAA on PPP links. Combining
PPP with AAA can perform authentication and accounting for supplicants and assign IP addresses to the
supplicants based on the authentication.
PPP supports the following authentication methods:
• PAP—PAP is a two-way handshake authentication protocol using the username and password.
PAP sends passwords in plain text over the network. If authentication packets are intercepted in
transit, network security might be threatened. For this reason, it is suitable only for low-security
environments.
• CHAP—CHAP is a three-way handshake authentication protocol using ciphertext passwords.
Two types of CHAP authentication exist: one-way CHAP authentication and two-way CHAP
authentication. In one-way CHAP authentication, the authenticator may or may not be configured
with a username. H3C recommends that you configure a username for the authenticator, which
makes it easier for the supplicant to verify the identity of the authenticator.
CHAP transmits usernames but not passwords over the network; or rather, it does not directly
transmit passwords and transmits the result calculated from the password and random packet ID
by using the MD5 algorithm. Therefore, it is more secure than PAP.
• MS-CHAP—MS-CHAP is a three-way handshake authentication.
MS-CHAP differs from CHAP as follows:
{ MS-CHAP is enabled by negotiating CHAP Algorithm 0x80 in LCP option 3, Authentication
Protocol.
{ MS-CHAP provides authentication retry. With this mechanism, if the supplicant fails
authentication, it is allowed to retransmit authentication information to the authenticator for
reauthentication. The authenticator allows a supplicant to retransmit three times.
• MS-CHAP-V2—MS-CHAP-V2 is a three-way handshake authentication protocol.
MS-CHAP differs from CHAP as follows:
{ MS-CHAP-V2 is enabled by negotiating CHAP Algorithm 0x81 in LCP option 3, Authentication
Protocol.
{ MS-CHAP-V2 provides two-way authentication by piggybacking a supplicant challenge on the
Response packet and an authenticator response on the Acknowledge packet.
{ MS-CHAP-V2 supports authentication retry. With this mechanism, if the supplicant fails
authentication, it is allowed to retransmit authentication information to the authenticator for
reauthentication. The authenticator allows a supplicant to retransmit three times.

5
{ MS-CHAP-V2 supports password changing. If the supplicant fails authentication because of an
expired password, it will send the new password entered by the user to the authenticator for
reauthentication.

MP
Multilink PPP (MP) enables you to bind multiple PPP links into one MP bundle for increasing bandwidth.
After receiving a packet that is larger than the minimum packet size for fragmentation, MP fragments the
packet and distributes the fragments across multiple PPP links to the peer end. After the peer end receives
these fragments, it reassembles them into one packet and passes the packet to the network layer.
In addition to increasing bandwidth, MP also provides link-layer load sharing, which can implement
backup. MP fragmentation can reduce transmission delay, especially on low-speed links.
To sum up, MP delivers the following benefits:
• Increased bandwidth
• Load sharing
• Backup
• Reduced delay through fragmentation
MP is available to all physical or virtual interfaces with PPP encapsulation enabled, including serial,
ISDN BRI/PRI, and PPPoX (PPPoE, PPPoA, or PPPoFR) interfaces. In MP configuration, however, it is
preferred that an MP bundle include only one type of interface.

Configuring PPP
PPP configuration task list
Task Remarks
Enabling PPP encapsulation on an interface Required.

Configuring PPP authentication Optional.

Configuring the polling interval Optional.

Configuring PPP negotiation Optional.

Enabling PPP link quality control Optional.

Enabling PPP traffic statistics collection Optional.

Enabling PPP encapsulation on an interface


Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

2. Enter interface view. interface interface-type


N/A
interface-number

6
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
3. Enable PPP encapsulation on By default, all interfaces except
the interface. link-protocol ppp Ethernet interfaces and VLAN
interfaces use PPP as the link layer
protocol.

Configuring PPP authentication


You can configure several authentication modes simultaneously. In LCP negotiation, the authenticator
negotiates with the supplicant in the sequence of configured authentication modes until the LCP
negotiation succeeds. If the response packet from the supplicant carries a recommended authentication
mode, the authenticator directly uses the authentication mode if it finds the mode configured.

Configuring PAP authentication


1. Configuring the authenticator

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the local device to
ppp authentication-mode pap By default, PPP authentication is
authenticate the supplicant by
[ [ call-in ] domain isp-name ] disabled.
using PAP.

For local AAA authentication, the


username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on
the authenticator.
The username and password
For remote AAA authentication,
4. Configure local or remote configured for the supplicant must
the username and password of the
AAA authentication. be the same as those configured on
supplicant must be configured on
the supplicant.
the remote AAA server.
For more information about AAA
authentication, see Security
Configuration Guide.

2. Configuring the supplicant

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the PAP username
By default, when being
and password sent from the
ppp pap local-user username authenticated by the supplicant
local device to the supplicant
password { cipher | simple } using PAP, the local device sends
when the local device is
password null username and password to the
authenticated by the
supplicant.
supplicant by using PAP.

7
Configuring CHAP authentication
According to whether the authenticator is configured with a username or not, the configuration of CHAP
authentication falls into the following two types:
1. Configuring CHAP authentication when the authenticator name is configured
To configure the authenticator:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the local device to
ppp authentication-mode chap By default, PPP authentication is
authenticate the supplicant by
[ [ call-in ] domain isp-name ] disabled.
using CHAP.

The username you assign to the


4. Assign a username to the authenticator must be the same as
ppp chap user username
CHAP authenticator. the local username you assign to
the authenticator on the supplicant.

For local AAA authentication, the


username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on
the authenticator. The username configured for the
supplicant must be the same as that
For remote AAA authentication, configured on the supplicant.
5. Configure local or remote
the username and password of the
AAA authentication. The passwords configured for the
supplicant must be configured on
the remote AAA server. authenticator and supplicant must
be the same.
For more information about AAA
authentication, see Security
Configuration Guide.

To configure the supplicant:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

The username you assign to the


supplicant here must be the same
3. Assign a username to the
ppp chap user username as the local username you assign
CHAP supplicant.
to the supplicant on the
authenticator.

8
Step Command Remarks
For local AAA authentication, the
username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on the
authenticator. The username configured for the
supplicant must be the same as
For remote AAA authentication, the that configured on the supplicant.
4. Configure local or remote
username and password of the
AAA authentication. The passwords configured for the
supplicant must be configured on the
remote AAA server. authenticator and supplicant must
be the same.
For more information about AAA
authentication, see Security
Configuration Guide.

2. Configuring CHAP authentication when no authenticator name is configured


To configure the authenticator:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the local device to
ppp authentication-mode chap By default, PPP
authenticate the supplicant by
[ [ call-in ] domain isp-name ] authentication is disabled.
using CHAP.

For local AAA authentication, the


username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on the The username configured for
authenticator. the supplicant must be the
For remote AAA authentication, the same as that configured on
4. Configure local or remote AAA
username and password of the the supplicant.
authentication.
supplicant must be configured on the The passwords configured
remote AAA server. for the authenticator and
For more information about AAA supplicant must be the same.
authentication, see Security
Configuration Guide.

To configure the supplicant:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

The username you assign to the


3. Assign a username to the supplicant must be the same as the
ppp chap user username
CHAP supplicant. local username you assign to the
supplicant on the authenticator.

The password you set for the


4. Set the CHAP ppp chap password { cipher | supplicant must be the same as the
authentication password. simple } password password you set for the
supplicant on the authenticator.

9
Configuring MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication
When you configure MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication, follow these guidelines:
• In MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication, an H3C device can only be an authenticator
• L2TP supports the MS-CHAP authentication but does not support the MS-CHAP-V2 authentication.
• MS-CHAP-V2 authentication supports password changing only when using RADIUS.
Depending on whether the authenticator is configured with a username, the configuration of MS-CHAP
or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication falls into the following two types:
1. Configuring MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication when the authenticator name is configured

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

2. Enter interface view. interface interface-type


N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the local router to
authenticate the supplicant by ppp authentication-mode
By default, PPP authentication is
using MS-CHAP or { ms-chap | ms-chap-v2 }
not performed.
MS-CHAP-V2. [ [ call-in ] domain isp-name ]

The username you assign to the


4. Assign a username to the authenticator here must be the
MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP-V2 ppp chap user username same as the local username you
authenticator. assign to the authenticator on the
supplicant.
For local AAA authentication, the
username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on
the authenticator.
The username and password
5. Configure local or remote For remote AAA authentication,
configured for the supplicant must
AAA authentication. the username and password of the
be the same as those configured on
supplicant must be configured on
the supplicant.
the remote AAA server.
For more information about AAA
authentication, see Security
Configuration Guide.

2. Configuring MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication when no authenticator name is configured

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter interface view. interface interface-type interface-number N/A
3. Configure the local
device to
ppp authentication-mode { ms-chap |
authenticate the By default, PPP authentication is
ms-chap-v2 } [ [ call-in ] domain
supplicant by using disabled.
isp-name ]
MS-CHAP or
MS-CHAP-V2.

10
Step Command Remarks
For local AAA, the username and
password of the supplicant must be
configured on the authenticator.
For remote AAA authentication, the The username and password
4. Configure local or
username and password of the supplicant configured for the supplicant must be
remote AAA
must be configured on the remote AAA the same as those configured on the
authentication.
server. supplicant.
For more information about AAA
authentication, see Security Configuration
Guide.

Configuring the polling interval


The polling interval specifies the interval at which an interface sends keepalive messages.
To disable sending of keepalive packets, set this interval to 0.
Do not set too small an interval for low-speed links. On a low-speed link, it might take a long time for
large packets to be delivered, which can delay sending and receiving of keepalive messages. If an
interface fails to receive keepalive messages from the peer within a specified number of polling intervals,
it considers the link faulty and closes the link.
To configure the polling interval:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter interface view. interface interface-type interface-number N/A
3. Configure the polling Optional.
interval. timer hold seconds
The default setting is 10 seconds.

Configuring PPP negotiation


PPP negotiation parameters that can be configured are as follows:
• Negotiation timeout time
• IP address negotiation
• DNS address negotiation
• ACCM negotiation
• ACFC negotiation
• PFC negotiation

Configuring the PPP negotiation timeout time


Negotiation timeout time determines the interval for sending request packets. During PPP negotiation, if
no response is received from the peer during a specific period after the local device sends a packet, the
device sends the packet again. The period is known as negotiation timeout time, which ranges from 1 to
10 seconds.
To configure the PPP negotiation timeout time:

11
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

3. Configure the negotiation Optional.


ppp timer negotiate seconds
timeout time. 3 seconds by default.

Configuring IP address negotiation


IP address negotiation can be implemented in the following two modes:
• The router operating as the client—This mode applies when a local interface uses PPP as its link
layer protocol but does not have an IP address, whereas the peer is configured with an IP address
and with an address pool. In this mode, the interface accepts an IP address allocated by its peer.
This mode is used for situations where the router accesses the Internet through an ISP.
• The router operating as the server—In this mode, you must configure a local IP address pool in
domain view or system view to specify the range of the IP addresses to be allocated, and then bind
the address pool to the interface in interface view.
1. Configuring the local end as the client

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Enable IP address
ip address ppp-negotiate N/A
negotiation.

2. Configuring the local end as the server


To configure the local end as the server (for cases where PPP authentication is not enabled):

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
• (Approach 1) Define a global
address pool and bind it to the
interface:
a. ip pool pool-number
low-ip-address
[ high-ip-address ]
Use either approach.
b. interface interface-type
2. Assign an IP address of a global interface-number As for the remote address pool
address pool to the peer or command, if the pool-number
c. remote address pool
specify the IP address to be argument is not provided, the
[ pool-number ]
allocated to the peer. global address pool numbered 0
• (Approach 2) Specify the IP
is used.
address to be allocated to the
peer:
d. interface interface-type
interface-number
e. remote address
ip-address

12
To configure the local end as the server (for cases where PPP authentication is enabled):

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter ISP domain view. domain domain-name N/A

You must define an address pool in


3. Define the domain address ip pool pool-number low-ip-address
a specified domain at the time of
pool. [ high-ip-address ]
PPP authentication.
4. Return to system view. quit N/A

interface interface-type
5. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

If you configure the remote address


pool command without providing
6. Specify the address pool for remote address pool the pool-number argument, all the
IP address allocation. [ pool-number ] address pools in the domain are
used in ascending order of pool
number for IP address allocation.

Optional.
By default, the peer end is allowed
7. Disable the peer end from to use the locally configured IP
using the locally configured IP ppp ipcp remote-address forced address. In this case, the local end
address. does not allocate an IP address to
the peer end if the latter already
has an IP address.

Configuring DNS server address negotiation


PPP address negotiation can also determine the DNS server address. You can configure a device to
allocate the DNS server address to the peer or receive the DNS server address from the peer. Normally,
for a PPP link between a host and a device, the DNS server address is allocated by the device so that the
host can access the Internet directly using domain names. For a PPP link established between a device
and the access server of a carrier, the DNS server address is usually allocated by the access server so
that the device can resolve domain names by using the allocated address.
Configure DNS server settings depending on the role of your device in PPP negotiation.
1. Configuring the local end as the client
To configure settings for DNS server address negotiation when the device is functioning as the
client in PPP negotiation:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

3. Enable the local end to By default, a device does not


request the peer for a DNS ppp ipcp dns request request its peer for a DNS server
server address. address.

13
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
4. Enable the local end to
accept the DNS server ppp ipcp dns admit-any By default, a device does not
address assigned by the peer. accept the DNS server address
assigned by the peer.

NOTE:
The server will specify a DNS server address for a client in PPP negotiation only after the client is
configured with the ppp ipcp dns request command. For some special devices to forcibly specify DNS
server addresses for clients that dot not initiate requests, you must configure the ppp ipcp dns admit-any
command on these devices.

2. Configuring the local end as the server


To configure settings for DNS server address negotiation when the device is functioning as the
server in PPP negotiation:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

By default, a device does not


assign a DNS server address to the
3. Enable the local end to assign
ppp ipcp dns primary-dns-address peer.
a DNS server address to the
[ secondary-dns-address ] The server specifies a DNS server
peer.
address for a client only after
receiving a request from the client.

Configuring ACCM negotiation


The escape mechanism is implemented to transparently transmit asynchronous control characters on
asynchronous links. This is to avoid payloads being treated as control characters when the payloads
contain the same characters as the control characters. The length of each asynchronous control character
is one byte. PPP uses the escape mechanism to map all one-byte asynchronous control characters into
two-byte characters. This increases the bandwidth consumed by asynchronous control characters and as
a result reduces effective payload bandwidth.
The ACCM configuration option provides a method to negotiate the use of control character
transparency on asynchronous links. The ACCM field contains 32 bits numbered 1 to 32 from left to right.
Each bit corresponds to an asynchronous control character numbered the same. If the value of a bit is 0,
the system does not escape the corresponding asynchronous control character. If the value of a bit is 1,
the system escapes the corresponding asynchronous control character by prefacing it with a backslash
(\). For example, if the value of the bit numbered 19 is 0, the asynchronous control character numbered
19 (DC3, Control-S) will be sent without being escaped.
ACCM negotiation is implemented at the LCP negotiation stage. After ACCM negotiation is completed,
the peer escapes asynchronous control characters according to the Async Control Character Mappings
when sending packets.
By default, the ACCM field takes the value of 0x000A0000. To reduce the bandwidth consumed by
asynchronous control characters and increase effective payload bandwidth on low-rate links, set the
ACCM field to 0x0 (the system does not escape asynchronous control characters).

14
To configure ACCM negotiation:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

Optional.
3. Configure the ACCM value. ppp accm hex-number By default, the ACCM value is
0x000A0000.

NOTE:
ACCM negotiation applies only on asynchronous links.

Configuring ACFC negotiation


By default, in a PPP packet, the address field is fixed to 0xFF, and the control field is fixed to 0x03. The
fixed values make it easy to compress these two fields.
ACFC negotiation notifies the peer that the local end can receive packets carrying compressed address
and control fields.
ACFC negotiation is implemented at the LCP negotiation stage. After the ACFC negotiation is completed,
the device compresses the address and control fields of non-LCP packets before sending them out, and
does not add address and control fields to them, thus increasing effective payload bandwidth on the link.
To ensure successful LCP negotiation, do not apply the compression to LCP packets.
H3C recommends using the ACFC configuration option on low-speed links.
1. Configuring the local end to send ACFC requests

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the local end to
By default, the local end does not
send ACFC requests, that is,
include the ACFC option in its
to include the ACFC option in ppp acfc local request
outbound LCP negotiation
its outbound LCP negotiation
requests.
requests.

2. Configuring how the local end handles the ACFC requests received from the peer

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

15
Step Command Remarks
• Configure the local end to
accept ACFC requests received
from the peer and to perform
ACFC on frames sent to the
peer:
ppp acfc remote apply
Optional.
• Configure the local end to
3. Configure how the local end By default, the local end accepts
accept ACFC requests received
handles the ACFC requests the ACFC requests from the remote
from the peer, but not to perform
received from the peer. peer, but does not perform ACFC
ACFC on frames sent to the
peer: on frames sent to the peer.
ppp acfc remote ignore
• Configure the local end to reject
ACFC requests sent from the
peer:
ppp acfc remote reject

Configuring PFC negotiation


By default, the length of the protocol field in a PPP packet is 2 bytes. Because data protocols are typically
assigned protocol field values less than 256, the PPP protocol field can be compressed from 2 bytes to 1
byte to indicate protocol types.
PFC negotiation notifies the peer that the local end can receive the packets with single-byte protocol
fields.
PFC negotiation is implemented at the LCP negotiation stage. After PFC negotiation is completed, the
device compresses the protocol fields of non-LCP packets before sending them out. If the first eight bits of
the protocol field are all zeros, the device does not add them, thus increasing effective payload
bandwidth on the link. To ensure successful LCP negotiation, the compression does not apply to LCP
packets.
H3C recommends using this configuration option on low-speed links.
1. Configuring the local end to send PFC requests

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the local end to
By default, the local end does not
send PFC requests, that is, to
include the PFC option in its
include the PFC option in its ppp pfc local request
outbound LCP negotiation
outbound LCP negotiation
requests.
requests.

2. Configuring how the local end handles the PFC requests received from the peer

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

16
Step Command Remarks
• Configure the local end to
accept PFC requests received
from the peer and to perform
PFC on frames sent to the peer:
ppp pfc remote apply Optional.
3. Configure how the local end • Configure the local end to By default, the device accepts PFC
handles the PFC requests accept PFC requests received requests received from the peer,
received from the peer. from the peer, but not to perform but does not perform PFC on
PFC on frames sent to the peer: frames sent to the peer.
ppp pfc remote ignore
• Configure the local end to reject
PFC requests sent from the peer:
ppp pfc remote reject

Enabling PPP link quality control


PPP link quality control (LQC) monitors the quality (packet loss ratio and packet error ratio) of PPP links
(including those in MP bundles) in real time.
If PPP LQC is not enabled, each end of a PPP link sends keepalive packets to its peer periodically. After
you enable PPP LQC, Link Quality Reports (LQRs) packets replace keepalive packets to monitor the link.
With PPP LQC enabled, the system monitors link quality by processing LQR packets received and shuts
down the link if the link quality drops below the PPP LQC close-percentage in two consecutive LQR packet
sending intervals. For a link shut down because the link quality drops below the PPP LQC
close-percentage, the system detects its link quality at an interval which is ten times the LQR packet
sending interval. When the link quality is higher than the PPP LQC resume-percentage in three such
consecutive intervals, the system brings up the link. A shut-down link must experience at least 30 LQR
packet sending intervals before it can go up again. If a long LQR packet sending interval is specified, it
takes a long time for the link to go up.
To enable PPP LQC:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter interface view. interface interface-type interface-number N/A

ppp lqc close-percentage By default, PPP LQC is


3. Enable PPP LQC.
[ resume-percentage ] disabled.

Enabling PPP traffic statistics collection


PPP can generate traffic-based accounting statistics on each PPP link. The statistics include the amount of
the inbound and outbound information (in terms of the number of bytes and the number of packets) on
a link. The information can be used by AAA application modules for accounting and control purposes.
For more information about AAA accounting, see Security Configuration Guide.
To enable PPP traffic statistics collection:

17
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Enable PPP traffic statistics ppp account-statistics enable [ acl
Disabled by default.
collection. { acl-number | name acl-name } ]

Configuring MP
Configuration task list
You can configure MP by using VT or MP-group interfaces.
1. VT interface
VT interfaces are used to configure VA interfaces. After bundling multiple PPP links into an MP link,
create a VA interface for the MP link to exchange data with the peers.
Configuring MP by using VT interfaces can involve an authentication process. The device locates
the specified VT interface according to the username provided by the peer, and creates a bundle
(called VT channel in the system) corresponding to an MP link based on the configuration of the
template.
Multiple bundles can be created on the same VT interface, each of which is an MP link. From the
perspective of the network layer, these links form a point-to-multipoint topology.
The system uses authentication usernames or terminal descriptors for MP bundling to distinguish
multiple MP links under one VT interface. The following binding modes are available:
{ authentication—Bundles links by using authentication usernames. Each authentication
username corresponds to one bundle. An authentication username refers to the username sent
by the supplicant to the authenticator for PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP, or MS-CHAP-V2
authentication.
{ descriptor—Bundles links by using peer descriptors. Each peer descriptor corresponds to one
bundle. A peer descriptor is received from the peer during LCP negotiation and uniquely
identifies a device.
{ both—Bundles links by using both the authentication username and peer descriptor.
2. MP-group interface
MP-group interfaces are intended only for MP. On an MP-group interface, only one bundle is
allowed, and links cannot be bundled according to the peer descriptor. Compared with VT
interfaces, the configuration of MP-group interfaces is more efficient and easy to configure and
understand.
To configure MP, complete the following tasks:

Task Remarks
Configuring MP by using a VT interface
Perform either task.
Configuring MP through an MP-group interface
Configuring short sequence number header format negotiation Optional.

Configuring the MP endpoint descriptor Optional.

18
Configuring MP by using a VT interface
When you configure MP by using a VT interface, you can do one of the following:
• Binding physical interfaces to the VT interface by using the ppp mp virtual-template command. In
this case, the configuration of authentication is optional. If the authentication is not configured, the
system binds links according to the descriptor of the peer end. If the authentication is configured,
the system binds links according to the username, the descriptor of the peer, or both.
• Associating a username to the virtual template. After a user passes the authentication, the system
searches for the VT interface associated to the username and bundles links according to the
username and the descriptor of the peer. To ensure a successful link negotiation, configure the ppp
mp command and two-way authentication (PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP, or MS-CHAP-V2) on the
bundled interfaces.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines


• The ppp mp command and the ppp mp virtual-template command are mutually exclusive on an
interface.
• You must configure the interfaces to be bundled in the same way.
• In actual use, you may configure one-way authentication, where one end associates physical
interfaces to a VT interface and the other end searches for the VT interface by username.
• A VT interface is intended to provide only one service, such as MP, L2TP, or PPPoE.

Configuration procedure
To configure MP by using a VT interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Create a VT interface and enter VT
interface virtual-template number N/A
interface view.

Optional.

3. Set the interface description. description text By default, the description of


a VT interface is interface
name Interface.

Optional.
4. Set the MTU size of the interface. mtu size
1500 bytes by default.

Optional.
1 by default.
5. Configure the MP sort buffer size
ppp mp sort-buffer-size size The MP sort buffer size = The
factor.
number of channels in the
current MP bundle × size.
6. Set the maximum number of links
that can be used for transmitting Optional.
broadcast-limit link number
multicast or broadcast packets 30 by default.
supported on the VT interface.
7. Set the intended bandwidth for the
bandwidth bandwidth-value Optional.
VT interface.

19
Step Command Remarks
8. Restore the default settings for the VT
default Optional.
interface.
9. Return to system view. quit N/A
• (Approach 1) Bind a physical
interface to the VT interface:
a. interface interface-type
interface-number
b. Specify the number of the
VT interface to which the
interface is to be bound,
and specify that the
interface operate in MP
mode:
ppp mp virtual-template
number
c. (Optional.) Configure
Use either approach.
software support for MP
binding: By default, a physical
ppp mp soft-binding interface is not bound to any
d. (Optional.) Configure PPP VT interface and operates in
authentication (see PPP mode.
"Configuring PPP PPP authentication has no
authentication"). effect on the setup of MP.
10. Associate a physical interface or a • (Approach 2) Associate a By default, an interface with
username to the VT interface. username to the VT interface: PPP encapsulation enabled
e. Associate a VT interface to operates in PPP mode.
MP users: By default, MP binding is
ppp mp user username supported in hardware.
bind virtual-template
number Software support for MP
binding can only be
f. interface interface-type
configured on CPOS
interface-number
interfaces.
g. (Optional.) Configure
software support for MP
binding:
ppp mp soft-binding
h. Configure the interface
with PPP encapsulation
enabled to operate in MP
mode:
ppp mp
i. Configure PPP
authentication (see
"Configuring PPP
authentication").

See "Configuring other optional


11. Configure other MP parameters. Optional.
parameters."

Configuring other optional parameters


When you configure other optional parameters, follow these guidelines:

20
• The ppp mp max-bind, ppp mp min-bind, and ppp mp min-fragment commands can take effect on
an MP bundle only after you re-enable all the physical interfaces in the MP bundle by executing the
shutdown command and then the undo shutdown command.
• The maximum number of links allowed in an MP bundle configured with the ppp mp max-bind
command must be greater than or at least equal to the minimum number of links required in the MP
bundle configured with the ppp mp min-bind command.
• After you configure the undo ppp mp fragment enable command on an interface, the settings
configured with the ppp mp lfi and ppp mp min-fragment commands become invalid on the
interface.
• When MP binding is based on descriptor only, users cannot be differentiated. To bind users to
different MP bundles, set the binding mode to both.
• When MP binding is based on authentication username only, peer devices cannot be differentiated.
If an MP bundle involves multiple devices, set the binding mode to both.
• For a VT interface, if a static route is used, specify the next hop rather than the outgoing interface.
If the outgoing interface must be specified, make sure that the physical interfaces bound to the VT
are active to ensure normal transport of packets.
• For more information about configuring MP parameters in Dialer interface view, see "Configuring
DCC."
To configure other optional parameters:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

The interface virtual-template


2. Create an MP VT interface or interface { dialer |
command also leads you to VT
enter dialer interface view. virtual-template } number
interface view.

Optional.
ppp mp binding-mode
3. Set the binding mode. { authentication | both | By default, MP binding is based on
descriptor } both the PPP authentication
username and the descriptor.

Optional.
16 by default.
This command is available in VT
interface view and dialer interface
4. Set the maximum number of view.
links allowed in an MP ppp mp max-bind max-bind-num
Inappropriate use of this command
bundle.
can cause PPP performance
degradation. Make sure you
understand the impact of this
command on your network before
you use it.

Optional.
This command is available only in
5. Set the minimum number of dialer interface view.
links required in an MP ppp mp min-bind min-bind-num By default, the minimum number of
bundle.
links in an MP bundle is 0, that is,
MP dialup depends on traffic
detection.

21
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
1 by default.
6. Configure the MP sort buffer
ppp mp sort-buffer-size size The MP sort buffer size = The
size factor.
number of channels in the current
MP bundle × size.

Optional.
7. Enable MP fragmentation. ppp mp fragment enable
Enabled by default.

8. Set the minimum size of MP Optional.


ppp mp min-fragment size
fragments. 128 bytes by default.

Configuring MP through an MP-group interface


When you configure MP through an MP-group interface, follow these guidelines:
• The ppp mp max-bind command and the ppp mp min-fragment command you configured can take
effect on an MP bundle only after you re-enable all the physical interfaces in the MP bundle by
executing the shutdown command and then the undo shutdown command.
• After you configure the undo ppp mp fragment enable command on an interface, the settings
configured with the ppp mp lfi and ppp mp min-fragment commands become invalid on the
interface.
To configure MP through an MP-group interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Create an MP-group interface
interface mp-group mp-number N/A
and enter its view.

3. Set the maximum number of Optional.


ppp mp max-bind max-bind-num
links in an MP bundle. The default setting is 16.

4. Configure the MP sort buffer Optional.


ppp mp sort-buffer-size size
size factor. The default setting is 1.

Optional.
5. Enable MP fragmentation. ppp mp fragment enable By default, MP fragmentation is
disabled.

6. Set the minimum size of MP Optional.


ppp mp min-fragment size
fragments. The default setting is 128 bytes.

Optional.

7. Set the interface description. description text By default, the description of an


MP-group interface is interface
name Interface.
8. Set the MTU size of the
mtu size 1500 bytes by default.
interface.
9. Set the intended bandwidth
bandwidth bandwidth-value Optional.
for the MP-group interface.

22
Step Command Remarks
10. Restore the default settings for
default Optional.
the MP-group interface.

Optional.
11. Bring up the interface. undo shutdown
By default, the interface is up.
12. Return to system view. quit N/A

interface interface-type
13. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

By default, MP binding is
supported in hardware.
14. Configure software support
ppp mp soft-binding Software support for MP binding
for MP binding.
can only be configured on CPOS
interfaces.
15. Add the interface to the
MP-group and configure it to ppp mp mp-group mp-number N/A
operate in MP mode.

Configuring short sequence number header format negotiation


By default, an MP bundle receives and transmits fragments with long sequence numbers.
• If the local end wants to receive fragments with short sequence numbers, it should request the peer
to transmit short sequence numbers during LCP negotiation. After the negotiation succeeds, the
peer transmits fragments with short sequence numbers.
• If the local end wants to transmit fragments with short sequence numbers, it should ask the peer to
send a request for receiving short sequence numbers during LCP negotiation. After the negotiation
succeeds, the local end transmits fragments with short sequence numbers.
The sequence number format (long or short) of an MP bundle depends on the configuration of the first
channel joining the MP bundle.
To negotiate the use of short sequence numbers on a dialer MP bundle, configure the command on the
dialer interfaces and the ISDN D channels; to do that on a common MP bundle, use the command on all
its channels. Note that the command will cause PPP re-negotiation.
To configure short sequence number header format negotiation for MP:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Trigger MP short sequence number
header negotiation, specifying that the By default, long sequence
interface receive fragments with short ppp mp short-sequence number header format
sequence numbers after the negotiation is performed.
negotiation succeeds.

23
Configuring the MP endpoint descriptor
This section applies only to the interfaces associated with a VT interface for MP bundling.
In the VT interface approach to MP, an MP endpoint bases its link bundling decisions on the remote
endpoint descriptors of links, and assigns the links that receives the same endpoint descriptor to the same
bundle. To avoid incorrect link bundling on a VT interface, make sure the link descriptors used by
different negotiating devices are unique. For example, you must re-configure an endpoint descriptor if the
default endpoint descriptor (device name) cannot uniquely identify the MP bundle at the remote end for
the device.
In the MP-group approach to MP, the negotiating endpoints do not base their bundling decisions on the
endpoint descriptor. The endpoint descriptors of the interfaces in an MP-group are always the same as
the MP-group interface name. The user-configured MP endpoint descriptors cannot take effect.
By default, if the interface is assigned to an MP group by using the ppp mp mp-group command, the
endpoint descriptor of the interface is the MP group interface name. If the interface is associated with a
VT interface, the endpoint descriptor of the interface is the device name (configured by the sysname
command). If the endpoint descriptor exceeds 20 bytes, the first 20 bytes are taken as the endpoint
descriptor.
To configure the MP endpoint descriptor of an interface for LCP negotiation:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the MP endpoint
ppp mp endpoint string char-string Optional.
descriptor.

Configuring PPP link efficiency mechanisms


Four mechanisms are available for improving transmission efficiency on PPP links:
• IP Header Compression (IPHC)
• Stac Lempel-Ziv Standard (Stac LZS) compression on PPP packets
• V. Jacobson Compressing TCP/IP Headers (VJ TCP/IP header compression)
• Link Fragmentation and Interleaving (LFI).

Configuring IPHC
IPHC is a host-to-host protocol used to carry real-time multimedia services such as voice and video over
IP networks. To decrease the bandwidth consumed by packet headers, you can enable IPHC on PPP links
to compress RTP (including IP, UDP, and RTP) headers or TCP headers. The following uses RTP header
compression to describe how compression operates.
RTP is a UDP protocol using fixed port number and format. An RTP packet comprises a 40-byte header
and a data section. The 40-byte header, which is composed of a 20-byte IP header, an 8-byte UDP
header, and a 12-byte RTP header, is large compared with the payload, which is usually 20 bytes to 160
bytes in size. To reduce bandwidth consumption, use IPHC to compress RTP packet headers. After

24
compression, the 40-byte header can be reduced to 2 to 5 bytes. If the payload is 40 bytes, the
compression ratio will be (40+40) / (40+5), about 1.78, which is very efficient.
To configure IPHC:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

ppp compression iphc By default, IP header compression


3. Enable IP header compression.
[ nonstandard ] is disabled.
4. Set the maximum number of
ppp compression iphc Optional.
connections allowed by TCP header
tcp-connections number The default setting is 16.
compression.
5. Set the maximum number of
ppp compression iphc Optional.
connections allowed by RTP header
rtp-connections number The default setting is 16.
compression.

Configuring Stac LZS compression


Stac LZS compression is a link layer data compression standard developed by Stac Electronics. Stac LZS
is a Lempel-Ziv-based algorithm compressing only packet payloads. It replaces a continuous data flow
with binary codes that can accommodate to the change of data. Though allowing for more flexibility, this
requires more CPU resources.
To configure Stac LZS compression:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

By default, Stac LZS compression is


disabled.
Stac LZS compression takes effect on a
link only after you enable Stac LZS
compression at both ends of the link.
3. Enable Stac LZS compression. ppp compression stac-lzs
Outbound expedite forwarding is not
supported on links with Stac-LZS
compression enabled. Disable outbound
expedite forwarding before performing
this configuration.

Configuring VJ TCP header compression


VJ TCP header compression was defined in RFC 1144 for use on low-speed links.
Each TCP/IP packet transmitted over a TCP connection contains a typical 40-byte TCP/IP header
containing an IP header and a TCP header that are 20-byte long each. The information in some fields of
these headers, however, remains the same through the lifetime of the connection and will be sent only

25
once. In addition, although the information in some other fields changes, the changes are predictable
and are within a definite range. Based on such situation, VJ TCP header compression may compress a
40-byte TCP/IP header to 3 to 5 bytes. It can significantly improve the transmission speed of some
applications, such as FTP, on a low-speed serial link like PPP.
To configure VJ TCP header compression:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

By default, VJ TCP header compression


3. Enable VJ TCP header compression. ip tcp vjcompress
is disabled.

Configuring LFI
CAUTION:
Disabling LFI also removes the user-configured settings of maximum LFI fragment delay and size.

On a low-speed serial link, packets of real-time interactive communications (such as Telnet and VoIP) may
be blocked or delayed if packets of other applications are also transmitted across the link. For example,
if a voice packet arrives when large packets are being scheduled and waiting to be transmitted, it must
wait until all the large packets have been transmitted. For the real-time applications, such as VoIP, delays
longer than 100 or 150 ms cause voice quality to drop dramatically and cannot be tolerated.
On a 56 kbps link, it costs approximately 215 ms to transmit a 1500-byte packet (the size of the MTU of
common links). To confine the delay of transmitting time-sensitive packets on low-speed links (such as 56
kbps frame relay channels or 64 kbps ISDN B channels) to an acceptable level, a method is required to
fragment larger packets and adding both the smaller packets and fragments of the large packet to an
output queue.
LFI reduces delays and jitters on low-speed links by fragmenting large packets into small fragments and
transmitting them along with small packets. The fragmented datagrams are reassembled at the
destination.
Figure 3 illustrates the process of LFI. When large packets and small voice packets arrive at an interface
that is enabled with WFQ at the same time, the large packets are fragmented into small fragments, which
are then added to the queues along with the voice packets.

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Figure 3 LFI
WFQ

Fragmentation

Large packet
Output queue

WFQ

Traffic
Voice packet classifying

To configure LFI:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
• interface
2. Enter VT interface view or MP-group virtual-template number
N/A
interface view. • interface mp-group
mp-number
3. Enable LFI. ip tcp vjcompress By default, LFI is disabled.

Use either command.

4. Set the maximum delay of • ppp mp lfi The default maximum delay of
transmitting an LFI fragment or the delay-per-frag time transmitting an LFI fragment is 10
maximum size (in bytes) of LFI ms, and the default maximum size
• ppp mp lfi size-per-frag
fragments. of LFI fragments depends on the
size
configuration of the ppp mp lfi
delay-per-frag command.

Displaying and maintaining PPP and MP


Task Command Remarks
display interface mp-group mp-number
[ brief ] [ | { begin | exclude | include }
Display information about one or regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
all existing MP-group interfaces. display interface [ mp-group ] [ brief
[ down ] ] [ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

display virtual-access [ va-number | dialer


Display information about a VA
dialer-number | peer peer-address | user
interface or all the VA interfaces on Available in any view.
user-name | vt vt-number ] * [ | { begin |
a VT interface.
exclude | include } regular-expression ]

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Task Command Remarks
display interface virtual-template number
[ brief ] [ | { begin | exclude | include }
Display information about an regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
existing VT interface. display interface [ virtual-template ] [ brief
[ down ] ] [ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

display ppp mp [ interface interface-type


Display information about an MP
interface-number ] [ | { begin | exclude | Available in any view.
interface.
include } regular-expression ]

display ppp compression iphc tcp


Display the statistics on TCP
[ interface-type interface-number ] [ | { begin Available in any view.
header compression.
| exclude | include } regular-expression ]

display ppp compression iphc rtp


Display statistics on RTP header
[ interface-type interface-number ] [ | { begin Available in any view.
compression.
| exclude | include } regular-expression ]

display ppp compression stac-lzs


Display statistics on Stac LZS
[ interface-type interface-number ] [ | { begin Available in any view.
compression.
| exclude | include } regular-expression ]

Clear all statistics on IP header reset ppp compression iphc [ interface-type


Available in user view.
compression. interface-number ]

Clear statistics on Stac LZS reset ppp compression stac-lzs


Available in user view.
compression. [ interface-type interface-number ]

reset counters interface [ mp-group


Clear statistics on a specified [ interface-number ] ]
Available in user view.
interface. reset counters interface [ virtual-template
[ interface-number ] ]

PPP and MP configuration examples


One-way PAP authentication configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 4, Router A and Router B are interconnected through their Serial 2/0 interfaces.
Configure Router A to authenticate Router B by using PAP, but Router B not to authenticate Router A.
Figure 4 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Create a user account for Router B.
<RouterA> system-view

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[RouterA] local-user userb
# Set a password for the user account.
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple passb
# Set the service type of the user account to PPP.
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
# Enable PPP encapsulation on Serial 2/0.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
# Set the authentication mode to PAP.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
# Assign an IP address to Serial 2/0.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
2. Configure Router B:
# Enable PPP encapsulation on Serial 2/0.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure the PAP username and password sent from Router B to Router A when Router B is
authenticated by Router A using PAP.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user userb password simple passb
# Assign an IP address to Serial 2/0 of Router B.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16
3. Verify the configuration:
Use the display interface serial command to display information about Serial 2/0 of Router B. The
physical layer status and link layer status of the interface are both up, and the states of LCP and
IPCP are both Opened, indicating PPP negotiation is successful. Router A and Router B can ping
each other.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] display interface serial 2/0
Serial2/0 current state: UP
Line protocol current state: UP
Description: Serial2/0 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500, Hold timer is 10(sec)
Internet Address is 200.1.1.2/16 Primary
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, IPCP opened
Output queue : (Urgent queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/100/0
Output queue : (Protocol queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
Interface is V35
206 packets input, 2496 bytes
206 packets output, 2492 bytes

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[RouterB-Serial2/0] ping 200.1.1.1
PING 200.1.1.1: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=103 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=10 ms

--- 200.1.1.1 ping statistics ---


5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 1/23/103 ms

Two-way PAP authentication configuration example


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 5, Router A and Router B are interconnected through their Serial 2/0 interfaces.
Configure Router A and Router B to authenticate each other.
Figure 5 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Create a user account for Router B.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user userb
# Set a password for the user account.
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple passb
# Set the service type of the user account to PPP.
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
# Enable PPP encapsulation on Serial 2/0.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
# Set the authentication mode to PAP.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
# Configure the PAP username and password sent from Router A to Router B when Router A is
authenticated by Router B using PAP.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple passa
# Assign an IP address to Serial 2/0 of Router A.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit

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# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
2. Configure Router B:
# Create a user account for Router A on Router B.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user usera
# Set a password for the user account.
[RouterB-luser-usera] password simple passa
# Set the service type of the user account to PPP.
[RouterB-luser-usera] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-usera] quit
# Enable PPP encapsulation on Serial 2/0.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
# Set the authentication mode to PAP.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
# Configure the PAP username and password sent from Router B to Router A when Router B is
authenticated by Router A using PAP.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user userb password simple passb
# Assign an IP address to Serial 2/0.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterB] domain system
[RouterB-isp-system] authentication ppp local
3. Verify the configuration:
Use the display interface serial command to display information about Serial 2/0 of Router B. The
physical layer status and link layer status of the interface are both up, and the states of LCP and
IPCP are both Opened, indicating PPP negotiation is successful. Router A and Router B can ping
each other.
[RouterB-isp-system] display interface serial 2/0
Serial2/0 current state: UP
Line protocol current state: UP
Description: Serial2/0 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500, Hold timer is 10(sec)
Internet Address is 200.1.1.2/16 Primary
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, IPCP opened
Output queue : (Urgent queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/100/0
Output queue : (Protocol queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
Interface is V35
206 packets input, 2496 bytes
206 packets output, 2492 bytes
[RouterB-isp-system] ping 200.1.1.1

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PING 200.1.1.1: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=103 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=10 ms

--- 200.1.1.1 ping statistics ---


5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 1/23/103 ms

One-way CHAP authentication configuration example


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 6, configure Router A to authenticate Router B by using CHAP.
Figure 6 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
(Approach 1) The authenticator configured with a username authenticates the supplicant by using
CHAP.
1. Configure Router A:
# Create a user account for Router B.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user userb
# Set a password for the user account.
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple hello
# Set the service type of the user account to PPP.
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
# Enable PPP encapsulation on Serial 2/0.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure the username for Router A when Router A authenticates Router B.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp chap user usera
# Set the authentication mode to CHAP.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
# Assign an IP address to Serial 2/0.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.

32
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
2. Configure Router B:
# Create a user account for Router A on Router B.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user usera
# Set a password for the user account.
[RouterB-luser-usera] password simple hello
# Set the service type of the user account to PPP.
[RouterB-luser-usera] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-usera] quit
# Enable PPP encapsulation on Serial 2/0.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure the username for Router B when Router B is authenticated.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp chap user userb
# Assign an IP address to Serial 2/0 of Router B.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16

(Approach 2) The authenticator with no username configured authenticates thesupplicant by using


CHAP.
3. Configure Router A:
# Create a user account for Router B.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user userb
# Set a password for the user account.
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple hello
# Set the service type of the user account to PPP.
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
# Set the authentication mode to CHAP.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
# Assign an IP address to Serial 2/0.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
4. Configure Router B:
# Configure the username of Router B when Router B is authenticated.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp chap user userb
# Set the default CHAP password.

33
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp chap password simple hello
# Assign an IP address to Serial 2/0.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16
5. Verify the configuration:
Use the display interface serial command to display information about Serial 2/0 of Router B. The
physical layer status and link layer status of the interface are both up, and the states of LCP and
IPCP are both Opened, indicating PPP negotiation is successful. Router A and Router B can ping
each other.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] display interface serial 2/0
Serial2/0 current state: UP
Line protocol current state: UP
Description: Serial2/0 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500, Hold timer is 10(sec)
Internet Address is 200.1.1.2/16 Primary
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, IPCP opened
Output queue : (Urgent queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/100/0
Output queue : (Protocol queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
Interface is V35
206 packets input, 2496 bytes
206 packets output, 2492 bytes
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ping 200.1.1.1
PING 200.1.1.1: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=103 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=10 ms

--- 200.1.1.1 ping statistics ---


5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 1/23/103 ms

PPP IP address negotiation configuration example


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 7, configure Router A to allocate an IP address for Serial 2/0 of Router B through PPP
negotiation.
Figure 7 Network diagram

34
Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Configure a local IP address pool.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] ip pool 1 200.1.1.10 200.1.1.20
# Configure the IP address of Serial 2/0.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
# Allocate an IP address to the remote port (Serial 2/0 of Router B) from the IP address pool.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] remote address pool 1
2. Configure Router B:
# Enable IP address negotiation on Serial 2/0.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address ppp-negotiate
3. Verify the configuration:
# After the configuration is complete, display summary information about Serial 2/0 on Router B.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] display interface serial 2/0 brief
The brief information of interface(s) under route mode:
Link: ADM - administratively down; Stby - standby
Protocol: (s) - spoofing
Interface Link Protocol Main IP Description
S2/0 UP UP 200.1.1.10
The output shows Serial 2/0 obtains IP address 200.1.1.10 through PPP negotiation.
# Ping Serial 2/0 of Router A from Router B.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ping 200.1.1.1
PING 200.1.1.1: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=4 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=4 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=10 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=4 ms

--- 200.1.1.1 ping statistics ---


5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 1/4/10 ms
The output shows Serial 2/0 of Router A can be pinged.

MP configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 8:

35
• On an E1 interface of Router A, four channels are created with the interface names Serial 2/0:1,
Serial 2/0:2, Serial 2/0:3, and Serial 2/0:4.
• On Router B, two channels are created with the interface names Serial 2/0:1 and Serial 2/0:2. It
is the same case with Router C.
Do the following:
• Bind two channels on Router A with the two channels on Router B and another two channels with
the two channels on Router C.
• Adopt binding authentication.
Figure 8 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Create user accounts for Router B and Router C and set the passwords.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user router-b
[RouterA-luser-router-b] password simple router-b
[RouterA-luser-router-b] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-router-b] quit
[RouterA] local-user router-c
[RouterA-luser-router-c] password simple router-c
[RouterA-luser-router-c] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-router-c] quit
# Create two VT interfaces for the two user accounts.
[RouterA] ppp mp user router-b bind virtual-template 1
[RouterA] ppp mp user router-c bind virtual-template 2
# Configure the VT interfaces.
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ip address 202.38.166.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] quit
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 2
[RouterA-Virtual-Template2] ip address 202.38.168.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Virtual-Template2] quit
# Add interfaces Serial 2/0:1, Serial 2/0:2, Serial 2/0:3, and Serial 2/0:4 to MP channels.
Take Serial 2/0:1 as an example.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0:1

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[RouterA-Serial2/0:1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0:1] ppp mp
[RouterA-Serial2/0:1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/0:1] ppp pap local-user router-a password simple router-a
[RouterA-Serial2/0:1] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
2. Configure Router B:
# Create a user account for Router A.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user router-a
[RouterB-luser-router-a] password simple router-a
[RouterB-luser-router-a] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-router-a] quit
# Create a VT interface for the user and specify to use the NCP information of this interface for PPP
negotiation.
[RouterB] ppp mp user router-a bind virtual-template 1
# Configure the VT interface.
[RouterB] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ip address 202.38.166.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Add interfaces Serial 2/0:1 and Serial 2/0/:2 to the MP channel. Take Serial 2/0:1 as an
example.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0:1
[RouterB-Serial2/0:1] ppp mp
[RouterB-Serial2/0:1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/0:1] ppp pap local-user router-b password simple router-b
[RouterB-Serial2/0:1] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterB] domain system
[RouterB-isp-system] authentication ppp local
3. Configure Router C:
# Create a user account for Router A.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] local-user router-a
[RouterC-luser-router-a] password simple router-a
[RouterC-luser-router-a] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-router-a] quit
# Create a VT interface for the user and specify to use the NCP information of the interface for PPP
negotiation.
[RouterC] ppp mp user router-a bind virtual-template 1
# Configure the VT interface.
[RouterC] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterC-Virtual-Template1] ip address 202.38.168.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Template1] quit

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# Add interfaces Serial 2/0:1 and Serial 2/0:2 to the MP channel. Take Serial 2/0:1 as an
example.
[RouterC] interface serial 2/0:1
[RouterC-Serial2/0:1] ppp mp
[RouterC-Serial2/0:1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterC-Serial2/0:1] ppp pap local-user router-c password simple router-c
[RouterC-Serial2/0:1] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system. .
[RouterC] domain system
[RouterC-isp-system] authentication ppp local

MP binding mode configuration examples


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 9, bind the links in the three MP binding modes.
Figure 9 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
(Approach 1) Directly bind the physical interfaces to a VT interface.
1. Configure Router A:
# Configure the username and password of Router B.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] password simple rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-rtb] quit
# Create a VT interface and assign an IP address to it.
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ip address 8.1.1.1 24
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ppp mp binding-mode authentication
# Configure Serial 2/1.
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] quit
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp mp virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/1] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/0.
[RouterA] interface serial2/0

38
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp mp virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Serial2/0] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/0] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterA-isp-system] quit
2. Configure Router B:
# Configure the username and password of Router A.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] password simple rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-rta] quit
# Create a VT interface and assign an IP address to it.
[RouterB] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ip address 8.1.1.2 24
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ppp mp binding-mode authentication
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/1.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp mp virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/1] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/0.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp mp virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Serial2/0] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/0] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterB] domain system
[RouterB-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterB-isp-system] quit
3. Verify the configuration on Router A:
[RouterA] display ppp mp

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Template is Virtual-Template1
Bundle rtb, 2 member, Master link is Virtual-Template1:0
0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned, 0 interleaved,
sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent
The bundled member channels are:
Serial2/1
Serial2/0
4. Display the status of the VA interfaces:
[RouterA] display virtual-access
Virtual-Template1:0 current state: UP
Line protocol current state: UP
Description: Virtual-Template0:0 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, MP opened, IPCP opened, OSICP opened
Physical is MP, baudrate: 64000 bps
Output queue : (Urgent queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/100/0
Output queue : (Protocol queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
Last 300 seconds input: 0 bytes/sec 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output: 0 bytes/sec 0 packets/sec
520 packets input, 44132 bytes, 0 drops
527 packets output, 44566 bytes, 4 drops
The output on Router B is similar.
5. Ping the IP address 8.1.1.1 on Router B:
[RouterB] ping 8.1.1.1
PING 8.1.1.1: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=29 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=29 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=30 ms

--- 8.1.1.1 ping statistics ---


5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 29/30/31 ms
Because PPP authentication is configured on the physical interface, the bundle field in the output
from the display ppp mp command is the peer username. If authentication is disabled, the bundle
field should be the peer descriptor.
In addition, you can check the state of MP virtual channels by checking the state of virtual access
interfaces by using the display virtual-access command.
(Approach 2) Associate the remote username with a VT interface.
6. Configure Router A:
# Configure the username and password of Router B.
<RouterA> system-view

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[RouterA] local-user rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] password simple rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-rtb] quit
# Specify a VT interface to user RTB.
[RouterA] ppp mp user rtb bind virtual-template 1
# Create the VT interface and configure its IP address.
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ip address 8.1.1.1 24
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ppp mp binding authentication
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/1.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp mp
[RouterA-Serial2/1] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/1] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/0.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp mp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/0] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterA-isp-system] quit
7. Configure Router B:
# Configure the username and password of Router A.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] password simple rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-rta] quit
# Specify a VT interface to user RTA.
[RouterB] ppp mp user rta bind virtual-template 1
# Create the VT interface and configure its IP address.
[RouterB] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ip address 8.1.1.2 24
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ppp mp binding authentication

41
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/1.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp mp
[RouterB-Serial2/1] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/1] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/0.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp mp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/0] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure the user in the domain to use the local authentication scheme.
[RouterB] domain system
[RouterB-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterB-isp-system] quit
8. Verify the configuration on Router A:
<RouterA> display ppp mp
Template is Virtual-Template1
Bundle rtb, 2 member, Master link is Virtual-Template1:0
0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned, 0 interleaved,
sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent
The bundled member channels are:
Serial2/1
Serial2/0
9. Verify the configuration on Router B:
[RouterB] display ppp mp
Template is Virtual-Template1
Bundle rta, 2 member, Master link is Virtual-Template1:0
0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned, 0 interleaved,
sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent
The bundled member channels are:
Serial2/1
Serial2/0
# Display the status of the VA interfaces.
[RouterB] display virtual-access
Virtual-Template1:0 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description : Virtual-Template1:0 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500

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Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, MP opened, IPCP opened, OSICP opened, MPLSCP opened
Physical is MP
Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
5 minutes input rate 0 bytes/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minutes output rate 0 bytes/sec, 0 packets/sec
21 packets input, 1386 bytes, 0 drops
21 packets output, 1386 bytes, 0 drops
# Ping the IP address 8.1.1.1 on Router B.
[RouterB] ping 8.1.1.1
PING 8.1.1.1: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=29 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=30 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 8.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=30 ms

--- 8.1.1.1 ping statistics ---


5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 29/30/31 ms
When you bind interfaces Serial 2/1 and Serial 2/0 to the same MP, if you configure one
interface as ppp mp and the other as ppp mp virtual-template 1, the system will bind the two
interfaces to different MPs.
(Approach 3) Configure an MP bundle on an MP-group interface.
In addition to VT interfaces, the system provides MP-group interfaces to implement MP bundle. This
implementation is similar to directly adding physical interfaces to a VT interface.
10. Configure Router A:
# Configure the username and password of Router B.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] password simple rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-rtb] quit
# Create an MP-group interface, and assign an IP address to it.
[RouterA] interface mp-group 1
[RouterA-Mp-group1] ip address 111.1.1.1 24
# Configure Serial 2/1.
[RouterA-Mp-group1] quit
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp mp mp-group 1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] shutdown

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[RouterA-Serial2/1] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/0.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rta
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp mp mp-group 1
[RouterA-Serial2/0] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/0] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterA-isp-system] quit
11. Configure Router B:
# Configure username and password for Router A
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] password simple rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-rta] quit
# Create an MP-group interface and assign an IP address to it.
[RouterB] interface mp-group 1
[RouterB-Mp-group1] ip address 111.1.1.2 24
[RouterB-Mp-group1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/1.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ppp mp mp-group 1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/1] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/0.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtb
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp mp mp-group 1
[RouterB-Serial2/0] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/0] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterB] domain system
[RouterB-isp-system] authentication ppp local

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[RouterB-isp-system] quit
12. Verify the configuration on Router A:
[RouterA] display ppp mp
Mp-group is Mp-group1
Bundle Multilink, 2 member, Master link is Mp-group1
0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned, 0 interleaved,
sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent
The bundled member channels are:
Serial2/1
Serial2/0
# Display the state of interface Mp-group 1.
[RouterA] display interface Mp-group 1
Mp-group1 current state : UP
Line protocol current state : UP
Description : Mp-group1 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500, Hold timer is 10(sec)
Internet Address is 111.1.1.1/24
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, MP opened, IPCP opened, MPLSCP opened
Physical is MP
Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
5 minutes input rate 0 bytes/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minutes output rate 0 bytes/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 packets input, 58 bytes, 0 drops
5 packets output, 54 bytes, 0 drops
# Ping the IP address 111.1.1.2 on Router A.
[RouterA] ping 111.1.1.2
PING 111.1.1.2: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=29 ms
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=29 ms
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=30 ms
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=30 ms
--- 111.1.1.2 ping statistics ---
5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 29/29/31 ms

In this approach, all the users are bound together to the MP-group interface and the concept of virtual
access is not involved.

Troubleshooting PPP configuration


Symptom 1
PPP authentication always fails, preventing the link from going up.

45
Solution
This problem may occur if the parameters for authentication are incorrect.
• Enable the debugging of PPP, and you can see the information describing that LCP went up upon a
successful LCP negotiation but went down after PAP or CHAP negotiation.
• Check the PPP authentication settings at the local and peer ends to make sure that they are
consistent. See "Configuring PAP authentication" and "Configuring CHAP authentication" for
reference.

Symptom 2
Physical link is always down.

Solution
Check the following:
• The interface has been brought up.
• The interface has not been administratively shut down.
• LCP negotiation has passed.
Execute the display interface serial command to check the state of the interface. The output can be as
follows:
• serial number is administratively down, line protocol is down—Indicates that the interface
is shut down by the administrator.
• serial number is down, line protocol is down—Indicates that the interface is not activated or
the physical layer has not gone up yet.
• serial number is up, line protocol is up—Indicates that LCP negotiation succeeded.

• serial number is up, line protocol is down—Indicates that the interface is active, but LCP
negotiation failed.

Symptom 3
Configure an IPv6 address on an interface with PPP encapsulation enabled when IPv6 is disabled. The
PPP link fails IPv6CP negotiation and cannot go up. After enabling IPv6, the interface still cannot go up.

Analysis
IPv6CP negotiation cannot succeed when IPv6 is disabled. As IPv6CP does not support renegotiation,
IPv6CP negotiation cannot succeed even if you enable IPv6 subsequently.

Solution
Do the following:
• Enable IPv6 before configuring an IPv6 address on a PPP link.
• If IPv6CP negotiation fails, re-enable the interface by executing the shutdown command and then
the undo shutdown command to re-enable IPv6CP negotiation.

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Configuring PPPoE

When the device serves as a PPPoE server, see "Configuring a PPPoE server" for the configuration
procedure.
When the device serves as a PPPoE client, see "Configuring a PPPoE client" for the configuration
procedure.

Overview
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) extends PPP by transporting PPP packets encapsulated in
Ethernet over point-to-point links.
PPPoE can provide access to the Internet for the hosts in an Ethernet through a remote access device and
implement access control and accounting on a per-host basis. Integrating the low cost of Ethernet and
scalability and management functions of PPP, PPPoE gained popularity in various application
environments, such as residential networks.

PPPoE network structure


PPPoE uses the client/server model. The PPPoE client initiates a connection request to the PPPoE server.
After session negotiation between them is complete, the PPPoE server provides access control and
authentication to the PPPoE client.
The following network structures are available:
• As shown in Figure 10, the PPP session is established between devices (Router A and Router B). All
hosts share one PPP session for data transmission without being installed with PPPoE client dialup
software. This network structure is typically used by enterprises.
Figure 10 Network structure 1

Carrier device DSLAM PPPoE server


Internet
Router B

Modem
Client device

Router A PPPoE client

Host A Host B Host C

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• As shown in Figure 11, the PPP session is established between each host (PPPoE client) and the
carrier router (PPPoE server). The service provider assigns an account to each host for billing and
control. The host must be installed with PPPoE client dialup software. This network structure is
applicable to campus and residential environments.
Figure 11 Network structure 2

PPPoE client

Host A
PPPoE server

Internet
PPPoE client
Router

Host B

Protocols and standards


RFC 2516, A Method for Transmitting PPP Over Ethernet (PPPoE)

Configuring a PPPoE server


You can configure PPPoE servers on Ethernet ports or virtual Ethernet interfaces created on ADSL
interfaces. For more information about configuring PPPoE servers on virtual Ethernet interfaces, see
"Configuring ATM."
To configure a PPPoE server:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

This operation also leads you to


2. Create a VT interface. interface virtual-template number
virtual template view.
3. Set PPP parameters (including
authentication type, IP
address negotiation, and so
See "Configuring PPP
on); specify the IP address to Optional.
authentication."
be allocated to the peer or
define an IP address pool
(optional).

interface interface-type
4. Enter Ethernet interface view. N/A
interface-number
5. Enable PPPoE on the Ethernet
interface and bind this pppoe-server bind virtual-template
Disabled by default.
interface to a specified VT number
interface.
6. Return to system view. quit N/A
7. Set the maximum number of
pppoe-server max-sessions Optional.
PPPoE sessions allowed for a
remote-mac number 100 by default.
peer MAC address.

48
Step Command Remarks
8. Set the maximum number of
pppoe-server max-sessions Optional.
PPPoE sessions allowed for a
local-mac number 100 by default.
local MAC address.
9. Set the maximum number of
pppoe-server max-sessions total Optional.
PPPoE sessions allowed for a
number The default setting is 4096.
device.

Optional.
65535 by default.
10. Set the upper threshold for the pppoe-server
PPPoE abnormal offline event abnormal-offline-count threshold If the PPPoE abnormal offline event
count. number count in the last five minutes
exceeds this threshold, the system
outputs a trap message.

Optional.
100 by default.
11. Set the upper threshold for the pppoe-server
PPPoE abnormal offline event abnormal-offline-percent threshold If the PPPoE abnormal offline event
percentage. number percentage in the last five minutes
exceeds this threshold, the system
outputs a trap message.

Optional.
0 by default.
12. Set the lower threshold for the pppoe-server
PPPoE normal offline event normal-offline-percent threshold If the PPPoE normal offline event
percentage. number percentage in the last five minutes
is lower than this threshold, the
system outputs a trap message.
13. Configure authentication and
See Security Configuration Guide. Optional.
accounting on PPP users.

Optional.
14. Disable PPP log displaying. pppoe-server log-information off
Enabled by default.

When you configure a static route on a VT interface, specify the next hop instead of the outgoing
interface. If the outgoing interface is required, make sure the physical interface bound to the VT interface
is effective to ensure normal transport of packets.

Configuring a PPPoE client


PPPoE client configuration includes dialer interface configuration and PPPoE session configuration.

Configuring a dialer interface


Before establishing a PPPoE session, you must first create a dialer interface and configure a dialer bundle
on the interface. Each PPPoE session uniquely corresponds to a dialer bundle and each dialer bundle
uniquely corresponds to a dialer interface. A PPPoE session uniquely corresponds to a dialer interface.

Configuring a dialer interface for an IPv4 PPPoE client

49
Step Command
1. Enter system view. system-view

dialer-rule dialer-group { protocol-name { deny | permit }


2. Configure a dialer rule.
| acl acl-number }
3. Create a dialer interface and enter its view. interface dialer number
4. Create a dialer user. dialer user username
5. Assign an IP address to the interface. ip address { address mask | ppp-negotiate }
6. Associate the interface with a dialer bundle. dialer bundle bundle-number
7. Assign the interface to a dialer group. dialer-group group-number

Configuring a dialer interface for an IPv6 PPPoE client

Step Command
1. Enter system view. system-view
2. Enable IPv6 forwarding. ipv6
3. Create a dialer interface and enter its view. interface dialer number
4. Create a dialer user. dialer user username
5. Specify an IPv6 address for the interface. See Layer 3—IP Services Configuration Guide.
6. Associate the interface with a dialer bundle. dialer bundle bundle-number

You can also configure PPP authentication or set other parameters on the dialer interface as needed. For
more information about dialer interfaces, see "Configuring DCC."
For information about more IPv6-related commands, see Layer 3—IP Services Command Reference.

Configuring a PPPoE session


PPPoE sessions fall into these categories:
• Permanent PPPoE session—Established immediately when the line is physically up. It remains valid
till a user terminates it explicitly.
• Packet-triggered PPPoE session—Established when there is a demand for data transmitting. It is
terminated when idled for a specific period of time. That is, a packet-triggered PPPoE session may
not be established even if the line is physically up.
You can establish a PPPoE session on an Ethernet port or a VE interface created on an ADSL interface.
To enable a device to access the Internet through an ADSL interface, establish a PPPoE session on a
virtual Ethernet interface. To enable a device to access the Internet through an ADSL modem attached to
an Ethernet interface, you must establish the PPPoE session on the Ethernet interface.
For more information about creating a PPPoE session on a virtual Ethernet interface, see "Configuring
ATM."
You can establish multiple PPPoE sessions on an Ethernet interface. In other words, an Ethernet interface
can belong to multiple dialer bundles at the same time. However, a dialer bundle can only have one
Ethernet interface. A PPPoE session uniquely corresponds to a dialer bundle, and vice versa.
IPv6 PPPoE sessions cannot be packet-triggered PPPoE sessions.

50
To configure a PPPoE session:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter Ethernet interface view. interface interface-type interface-number N/A

pppoe-client dial-bundle-number number By default, no


3. Create a PPPoE session, and specify
[ no-hostuniq ] [ idle-timeout seconds PPPoE sessions are
a dialer bundle for the session.
[ queue-length packets ] ] created.

Displaying and maintaining PPPoE


Task Command Remarks
display pppoe-server session { all |
Display the statistics and state
packet } [ | { begin | exclude | include } Available in any view.
information about a PPPoE server.
regular-expression ]

display pppoe-client session { packet |


Display the statistics and state summary } [ dial-bundle-number
Available in any view.
information about a PPPoE client. number ] [ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

reset pppoe-server { all | interface


Clear PPP sessions on the PPPoE
interface-type interface-number | Available in user view.
server.
virtual-template number }

Reset PPP sessions on the PPPoE reset pppoe-server { all |


Available in user view.
client and reinitiate sessions. dial-bundle-number number }

PPPoE configuration examples


PPPoE server configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 12, Host A and Host B act as PPPoE clients and run PPPoE client dialup software. The
Router acts as the PPPoE server, performing local authentication and assigning IP addresses to the users.
The Router provides Internet access for Host A and Host B through Ethernet 1/1. It connects to the Internet
through Serial 2/0.

51
Figure 12 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure CHAP authentication:
# Add a PPPoE user.
<Router> system-view
[Router] local-user user1
[Router-luser-user1] password simple pass1
[Router-luser-user1] service-type ppp
[Router-luser-user1] quit
# Configure virtual-template 1 on the Router.
[Router] interface virtual-template 1
[Router-Virtual-Template1] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
[Router-Virtual-Template1] ppp chap user user1
[Router-Virtual-Template1] remote address pool 1
[Router-Virtual-Template1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
[Router-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Configure PPPoE server on the Router.
[Router] interface ethernet 1/1
[Router-Ethernet1/1] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 1
[Router-Ethernet1/1] quit
# Configure local authentication for the users in the default ISP domain system.
[Router] domain system
[Router-isp-system] authentication ppp local
# Add a local IP address pool that contains nine IP addresses.
[Router-isp-system] ip pool 1 1.1.1.2 1.1.1.10
2. Configure MS-CHAP authentication:
# Add a PPPoE user.
<Router> system-view
[Router] local-user user1
[Router-luser-user1] password simple pass1
[Router-luser-user1] service-type ppp
[Router-luser-user1] quit
# Configure virtual-template 1 on the Router.
[Router] interface virtual-template 1
[Router-Virtual-Template1] ppp authentication-mode ms-chap domain system

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[Router-Virtual-Template1] remote address pool 1
[Router-Virtual-Template1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
[Router-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Configure the PPPoE server on the Router.
[Router] interface ethernet 1/1
[Router-Ethernet1/1] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 1
[Router-Ethernet1/1] quit
# Configure local authentication for the users in the default ISP domain system.
[Router] domain system
[Router-isp-system] authentication ppp local
# Add a local IP address pool that contains nine IP addresses.
[Router-isp-system] ip pool 1 1.1.1.2 1.1.1.10

Verifying the configuration


After the configuration, Host A and Host B can access the Internet using the username user1 and
password pass1 through the Router if they have PPPoE client software installed.
If you specify the authentication scheme as radius-scheme or hwtacacs-scheme by using the
authentication ppp command, you must configure RADIUS/HWTACACS settings to enable AAA. For
more information, see Security Configuration Guide.

PPPoE client configuration example


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 13, configure the routers to make Router A authenticate Router B using PAP or CHAP.
Figure 13 Network diagram

Configuring PAP authentication


1. Configure Router A as the PPPoE server:
# Add a PPPoE user.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user user2
[RouterA-luser-user2] password simple hello
[RouterA-luser-user2] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-user2] quit
# Configure virtual template 1.
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] remote address 1.1.1.2
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Configure the PPPoE server.
[RouterA] interface ethernet 1/1

53
[RouterA-Ethernet1/1] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 1
2. Configure Router B as the PPPoE client:
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterB] interface dialer 1
[RouterB-Dialer1] dialer user user2
[RouterB-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
[RouterB-Dialer1] dialer bundle 1
[RouterB-Dialer1] ip address ppp-negotiate
[RouterB-Dialer1] ppp pap local-user user2 password simple hello
[RouterB-Dialer1] quit
# Configure the PPPoE session.
[RouterB] interface ethernet 1/1
[RouterB-Ethernet1/1] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 1

Configuring CHAP authentication


1. Configure Router A as the PPPoE server:
# Add a PPPoE user.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user user2
[RouterA-luser-user2] password simple hello
[RouterA-luser-user2] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-user2] quit
# Configure virtual template 1.
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ppp authentication-mode chap
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ppp chap user user1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] remote address 1.1.1.2
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Configure the PPPoE server.
[RouterA] interface ethernet 1/1
[RouterA-Ethernet1/1] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 1
2. Configure Router B as the PPPoE client:
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterB] interface dialer 1
[RouterB-Dialer1] dialer user user2
[RouterB-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
[RouterB-Dialer1] dialer bundle 1
[RouterB-Dialer1] ip address ppp-negotiate
[RouterB-Dialer1] ppp chap user user2
[RouterB-Dialer1] quit
[RouterB] local-user user1
[RouterB-luser-user1] password simple hello
[RouterB-luser-user1] quit
# Configure the PPPoE session.

54
[RouterB] interface ethernet 1/1
[RouterB-Ethernet1/1] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 1

Configuration example for connecting a LAN to the Internet


using an ADSL modem
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 14:
• Router A provides Internet access for Host A, Host B, and Host C. It connects to DSLAM through an
ADSL modem and a permanent PPPoE session.
• The username and password of the ADSL account are user1 and 123456.
• Router A operates as a PPPoE client, allowing the hosts in the LAN to access the Internet without
PPPoE client software.
• Router B operates as the PPPoE server. It is connected to the DSLAM through interface ATM 1/0 and
performs RADIUS authentication and accounting.
Figure 14 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A as a PPPoE client:
# Configure a dialer interface.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterA] interface dialer 1
[RouterA-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Dialer1] dialer bundle 1
[RouterA-Dialer1] ip address ppp-negotiate
[RouterA-Dialer1] ppp pap local-user user1 password cipher 123456
[RouterA-Dialer1] quit
# Configure a PPPoE session.
[RouterA] interface ethernet 1/1

55
[RouterA-Ethernet1/1] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 1
[RouterA-Ethernet1/1] quit
# Configure an Internet interface for the LAN and configure the default route.
[RouterA] interface ethernet 1/2
[RouterA-Ethernet1/2] ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Ethernet1/2] quit
[RouterA] ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0 dialer 1
If the IP addresses of the hosts in the LAN are private addresses, configure NAT on Router A. For
more information about NAT, see Layer 3—IP Services Configuration Guide.
2. Configure Router B as the PPPoE server:
# Add a PPPoE user.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user user1
[RouterB-luser-user1] password simple 123456
[RouterB-luser-user1] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-user1] quit
# Configure ATM 1/0 interface.
[RouterB] interface atm 1/0
[RouterB-Atm1/0] pvc 0/32
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32] quit
[RouterB-Atm1/0] quit
# Enable PPPoE server on the virtual Ethernet interface.
[RouterB] interface virtual-ethernet 1
[RouterB-Virtual-Ethernet1] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit
# Configure virtual template 1.
[RouterB] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] remote address pool 1
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Configure local authentication for the users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterB] domain system
[RouterB-isp-system] authentication ppp radius-scheme cams
# Add a local IP address pool that contains nine IP addresses.
[RouterB-isp-system] ip pool 1 1.1.1.2 1.1.1.10
[RouterB-isp-system] quit
# Configure RADIUS scheme.
[RouterB] radius scheme cams
[RouterB-radius-cams] primary authentication 10.110.91.146 1812
[RouterB-radius-cams] primary accounting 10.110.91.146 1813
[RouterB-radius-cams] key authentication expert
[RouterB-radius-cams] key accounting expert
[RouterB-radius-cams] server-type extended
[RouterB-radius-cams] user-name-format with-domain

56
[RouterB-radius-cams] quit
For more information about RADIUS, see Security Configuration Guide.

Configuration example for using ADSL to provide backup


connections
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 15, Router is connected to Network Center through a DDN dedicated line and an
ADSL connection, where the ADSL connection provides backup for the DDN dedicated line. When the
DDN dedicated line fails, the Router initiates a PPPoE call to establish an ADSL connection to the
Network Center on the demand of data transmitting. The ADSL connection is terminated when it idled for
two minutes.
Figure 15 Network diagram

Configuring the router


# Configure a dialer interface.
<Router> system-view
[Router] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[Router] interface dialer 1
[Router-Dialer1] dialer user user1
[Router-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
[Router-Dialer1] dialer bundle 1
[Router-Dialer1] ip address ppp-negotiate

# Configure a PPPoE session.


[Router-Dialer1] interface ethernet 1/1
[Router-Ethernet1/1] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 1 idle-timeout 120
[Router-Ethernet1/1] quit

# Configure the DDN interface Serial 2/0.


[Router] interface serial 2/0
[Router-Serial2/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[Router-Serial2/0] standby interface dialer 1
[Router-Serial2/0] quit

# Configure the static routes to the peer.


[Router] ip route 0.0.0.0 0 serial 2/0 preference 60
[Router] ip route 0.0.0.0 0 dialer 1 preference 70

57
Configuration example for accessing the Internet through an
ADSL interface
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 16, ATM 1/0 on Router is used as an ADSL interface, through which Router can
access the Internet directly without an ADSL modem.
Figure 16 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
# Configure a dialer interface.
<Router> system-view
[Router] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[Router] interface dialer 1
[Router-Dialer1] dialer user mypppoe
[Router-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
[Router-Dialer1] dialer bundle 1
[Router-Dialer1] ip address ppp-negotiate

# Configure interface VE 1.
[Router-Dialer1] interface virtual-ethernet 1
[Router-Virtual-Ethernet1] mac 0001-0002-0003
[Router-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit
[Router] interface atm 1/0.1
[Router-atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_a 0/60
[Router-atm-pvc-atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1
[Router-atm-pvc-atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] quit
[Router-atm1/0.1] quit

# Configure a PPPoE session.


[Router] interface virtual-ethernet 1
[Router-Virtual-Ethernet1] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 1 idle-timeout 120
[Router-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit

# Configure a default route.


[Router] ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 dialer 1

58
Configuring ISDN

The MSR 900 and MSR 930 routers do not support ISDN BRI interfaces.

Overview
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) evolved from IDN. It provides end-to-end digital connectivity
and supports an extensive range of services, covering both voice and non-voice services.
ISDN furnishes a finite set of standard multi-purpose UNIs. The ITU-T I.412 recommendation specifies two
types of UNIs: basic rate interface (BRI) with bandwidth of 2B + D and primary rate interface (PRI) with
Bandwidth of 30B + D or 23B + D. Where:
• B channel is a user channel, transmitting user information such as voice and data with a
transmission rate of 64 kbps.
• D channel is a control channel, transmitting the public channel signaling. These signals control the
calls on the B channel of the same interface. The rate of D channel is 16 kbps (BRI) or 64 kbps (PRI).
The ITU-T Q.921 is a data link layer protocol of D channel. It defines the rule for Layer 2 information
interchange via D channel from the user to a network interface and supports the access of a Layer-3
entity. The ITU-T Q.931 is a network layer protocol of D channel. It provides a measure for creating,
maintaining, and terminating network connections between communication application entities.
Call control (CC) is a further encapsulation of Q.931, which forwards the message from the network
side to CC for CC to perform information interchange with higher layer applications such as DCC.
Figure 17 ISDN D channel protocol stack

The ISDN protocol proposed by the ITU-T provides different services in different areas, forming the ISDN
protocols that are suitable for different regions, such as NTT in Japan, ETSI in Europe, NI, AT&T, and
ANSI in North America.
Besides the default DSS1 ISDN protocol, the router supports the basic calling function of NTT, ETSI, AT&T,
ANSI, NI, NI2, Q.SIG, and 5ESS protocols, but does not support the supplementary functions of these
protocols. Additionally, DSS1, Q.SIG, NI2, and 5ESS support network side operation.
NI protocol used in North America is only applied to BRI interfaces. The ISDN network uses service
profile identification (SPID) as the ID of different services, and the switch provides the service to the
terminal user according to the SPID. Each B channel corresponds to a SPID. The user can proceed with
normal calling and disconnection process only after having employed the SPID to perform the SPID
handshake interaction. After the Q.921 establishes link successfully and before the Q.931 calling
processing starts, the user needs to obtain SPID to interact with the switch to perform the Layer 3 (Q.931)
initialization, and then the user can start normal calling and disconnect process, otherwise, the calling
will fail.

59
By far, you can obtain the SPID on one BRI interface over the ISDN in North America in any of the
following ways:
• Manually enter the SPID consisting of 9 to 20 digits.
• 14-digit SPID (Generic SPID Format). The former 10 digits are entered by the user, and the latter four
digits can only be 0101.
• Allocate by Stored Program Control Switching System (SPCS) through automated SPID selection
regulation.
The former two ways to obtain SPID are regarded as static configuration methods, and the third one is
taken as dynamic negotiation method. If the user does not specify a SPID in static method, the system will
adopt dynamic method by default.

Configuring ISDN BRI


Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter ISDN BRI interface view. interface bri interface-number N/A

Optional.

3. Configure the BRI interface to By default, a BRI interface operates


operate in the point-to-point isdn link-mode p2p in point-to-multipoint mode, in
mode. which a BRI interface operating on
the network side can have multiple
end devices attached to it.

Optional.

4. Set the ISDN protocol type. isdn protocol-type protocol The ISDN protocol on the BRI
interface is DSS1 protocol by
default.

Optional.
By default, the ISDN protocol
5. Configure the ISDN protocol mode of an ISDN BRI interface is
isdn protocol-mode mode
mode. user.
Only the BSV cards can work at the
network side.
6. Set the intended bandwidth
bandwidth bandwidth-value Optional.
for the ISDN BRI interface.
7. Configure the negotiation See "Configuring the negotiation
parameters of ISDN Layer 3 parameters of ISDN layer 3 Optional.
protocol. protocol."
8. Configure the ISDN Q.931 See "Configuring the ISDN Q.931
Optional.
protocol version. protocol version."
9. Configure the SPID
See "Configuring the SPID of the
parameters about ISDN NI Optional.
ISDN NI protocol."
protocol.
10. Configure the called number
See "Setting the called number or
and subaddress to be
subaddress to be checked during a Optional.
checked during an incoming
digital incoming call."
call.

60
Step Command Remarks
11. Configure the interface to See "Configuring an interface to
send calling number during send calling number during an Optional.
an outgoing call. outgoing call."
12. Set the local management See "Setting the local management
Optional.
ISDN B channel. ISDN B channel
13. Configure ISDN B channel See "Configuring ISDN B channel
Optional.
selection mode. selection mode."
14. Configure ISDN BRI sliding See "Configuring the sliding
Optional.
window size. window size on a BRI interface."
15. Configure statistics about See "Collecting statistics about
ISDN message receiving and ISDN message receiving and Optional.
sending. sending."

See "Configuring an interface to


16. Configure the allowed
check the calling number when an Optional.
incoming calling number.
incoming call comes."
17. Configure Progress-to-Alerting See "Configuring
Optional.
conversion. progress-to-alerting conversion."
18. Configure ISDN to carry the See "Configuring ISDN to carry the
Calling-Name field in Calling-Name field in outgoing Optional.
outgoing packets. packets."
19. Configure ISDN to carry the See "Configuring ISDN to carry the
Connected-Name field in Connected-Name field in outgoing Optional.
outgoing packets. packets."
20. Configure ISDN to carry the See "Configuring ISDN to carry the
Channel-ID field for only once Channel-ID field for only once in Optional.
in the response. the responses."
21. Configure the service type in See "Configuring the service type
the ISDN bearer compatibility in the ISDN bearer compatibility Optional.
signaling. signaling."
22. Configure the progress See "Setting the progress indicator
indicator value in the ISDN value in ISDN signaling Optional.
signaling. messages."
23. Configure the interface to
See "Configuring the interface to
send out Alerting messages
send out Alerting messages that do Optional.
that do not carry the
not carry the Channel-ID field."
Channel-ID field.
24. Configure TEI treatment on the See "Configuring TEI treatment on
Optional.
BRI interface. the BRI interface."
25. Configure ISDN BRI leased See "Configuring an ISDN BRI
Optional.
line. leased line."
26. Configure permanent link
See "Configuring permanent link
function on ISDN BRI link Optional.
function at ISDN BRI link layer."
layer.
27. Specify an ISDN BRI interface See "Configuring an ISDN BRI
to be in permanent active interface to be in permanent active Optional.
state on physical layer state on physical layer."

61
Step Command Remarks
28. Configure deactivation See "Configuring deactivation
protection for the ISDN BRI protection for an ISDN BRI Optional.
interface. interface."
29. Enable remote powering on See "Enabling remote powering on
Optional.
an ISDN BRI interface an ISDN BRI interface."

Configuring ISDN PRI


Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

Optional.
2. Configure PRI interfaces to By default, a PRI interface actively
send ISDN RESTART isdn send-restart sends ISDN RESTART messages to
messages actively. the peer end before B channel
maintenance.

interface interface-type
3. Enter ISDN PRI interface view. N/A
interface-number

Optional.

4. Set the ISDN protocol type. isdn protocol-type protocol The ISDN protocol on the PRI
interface is DSS1 protocol by
default.

Optional.
5. Configure the ISDN protocol By default, the ISDN protocol
isdn protocol-mode mode
mode. mode of an ISDN PRI interface is
user.
6. Configure the negotiation See "Configuring the negotiation
parameters of ISDN Layer 3 parameters of ISDN layer 3 Optional.
protocol. protocol."
7. Configure the ISDN Q.931 See "Configuring the ISDN Q.931
Optional.
protocol version. protocol version."
8. Configure the called number
See "Setting the called number or
and subaddress to be
subaddress to be checked during a Optional.
checked during an incoming
digital incoming call."
call.
9. Configure the interface to See "Configuring an interface to
send calling number during send calling number during an Optional.
an outgoing call. outgoing call."
10. Set the local management See "Setting the local management
Optional.
ISDN B channel. ISDN B channel."
11. Configure ISDN B channel See "Configuring ISDN B channel
Optional.
selection mode. selection mode."
12. Configure ISDN PRI sliding See "Configuring the sliding
Optional.
window size. window size on a PRI interface."

62
Step Command Remarks
13. Configure statistics about See "Collecting statistics about
ISDN message receiving and ISDN message receiving and Optional.
sending. sending."

See "Configuring an interface to


14. Configure the allowed
check the calling number when an Optional.
incoming calling number.
incoming call comes."
15. Configure Progress-to-Alerting See "Configuring
Optional.
conversion. progress-to-alerting conversion."
16. Configure ISDN to carry the See "Configuring ISDN to carry the
Calling-Name field in Calling-Name field in outgoing Optional.
outgoing packets. packets."
17. Configure ISDN to carry the See "Configuring ISDN to carry the
Connected-Name field in Connected-Name field in outgoing Optional.
outgoing packets. packets."
18. Configure ISDN to carry the See "Configuring ISDN to carry the
Channel-ID field for only once Channel-ID field for only once in Optional.
in the response. the responses."
19. Configure the service type in See "Configuring the service type
the ISDN bearer compatibility in the ISDN bearer compatibility Optional.
signaling. signaling."
20. Configure the progress See "Setting the progress indicator
indicator value in the ISDN value in ISDN signaling Optional.
signaling. messages."

Configuring the negotiation parameters of ISDN


layer 3 protocol
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

Optional.
3. Set the length of the call The call reference length is two
reference adopted when the isdn crlength call-reference-length bytes for CE1 PRI and CT1 PRI
ISDN interface initiates a call. interfaces and one byte for BRI
interfaces by default.

63
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
By default, if the router is
communicating with an ISDN
switch:
• The ISDN protocol must wait for
the CONNECT ACK in
4. Configure how the ISDN response to the CONNECT
isdn ignore connect-ack [ incoming message before it can switch to
protocol handles CONNECT
| outgoing ] the ACTIVE state to start the
ACK messages.
data and voice service
communications.
• After the ISDN protocol
receives a CONNECT
message, it needs to respond to
the peer with a CONNECT
ACK message.

5. Disable ISDN from carrying Optional.


the HLC information element By default, HLC information
isdn ignore hlc
in SETUP messages when element is carried in SETUP
placing voice calls. messages when placing voice call.

6. Disable ISDN from carrying Optional.


the LLC information element in By default, LLC information element
isdn ignore llc
SETUP messages when is carried in SETUP messages when
placing voice calls. placing voice call.

Optional.
As for the data exchange
performed between a router and
an ISDN switch, the default is as
follows:
• For an incoming call, the router
checks the received Setup
messages for the Sending
7. Configure the ISDN protocol Complete Information Element
to ignore the processing on isdn ignore sending-complete to determine whether or not the
the Sending Complete [ incoming | outgoing ] number is received completely.
Information Element. If a Setup message does
contain the Sending Complete
Information Element, the
number is not received
completely.
• For outgoing calls, a Setup
message containing the
Sending Complete Information
Element indicates the number is
sent completely.

64
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
The default time-out value of an
ISDN L3 timer varies by ISDN
protocol type. By default, the DSS1
ISDN L3 timers are set in seconds
as follows:
• T301 defaults to 240.
• T302 defaults to 15.
8. Set the time-out value of an isdn l3-timer timer-name • T303 defaults to 4.
ISDN Layer 3 timer. time-interval • T304 defaults to 30.
• T305 defaults to 30.
• T308 defaults to 4.
• T309 defaults to 90.
• T310 defaults to 40.
• T313 defaults to 4.
• T316 defaults to 120.
• T322 defaults to 4.

Optional.
9. Set the type and code scheme
isdn number-property By default, the system selects ISDN
of calling or called numbers
number-property [ calling | called ] number type and code scheme
in incoming or outgoing
[ in | out ] depending on upper layer service.
ISDN calls.
For more information, see Table 1.
10. Set the called number of
ISDN interface to send in
Optional.
overlap mode (in this mode,
the digits of each called In full-sending mode, all the digits
isdn overlap-sending [digits ] of each called number will be
number will be sent
separately and the number of collected and sent at a time by
the digits sent each time can default.
be set by the user).

Table 1 ISDN number types and code schemes

Field (Bit) value


Protocol Type Code scheme Definition
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0 0 0 User-specified

0 1 0 National network identification

0 1 1 International network identification


ANSI 0 0 0 0 Unknown/user-specified

0 0 0 1 Carrier identification code

Data network identification code (ITU-T Recommendation


0 0 1 1
X.121)

0 0 0 Unknown
AT&T
0 0 1 International number

65
Field (Bit) value
Protocol Type Code scheme Definition
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0 1 0 National number

1 0 0 Subscriber number

0 0 0 0 Unknown

ISDN/telephony numbering loan (Recommendation


0 0 0 1
E.164/E.163)

1 0 0 1 Private numbering plan

0 0 0 Unknown

0 0 1 International number

0 1 0 National number

0 1 1 Network specific number

1 0 0 Subscriber number

1 1 0 Abbreviated number

1 1 1 Reserved for extension


DSS1 0 0 0 0 Unknown

ISDN/telephony numbering plan (Recommendation


0 0 0 1
E.164)

0 0 1 1 Data numbering plan (Recommendation X.121)

0 1 0 0 Telex numbering plan (Recommendation F.69)

1 0 0 0 National standard numbering plan

1 0 0 1 Private numbering plan

1 1 1 1 Reserved for extension

66
Field (Bit) value
Protocol Type Code scheme Definition
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0 0 0 Unknown

0 0 1 International number

0 1 0 National number

0 1 1 Network specific number

1 0 0 Subscriber number

1 1 0 Abbreviated number

1 1 1 Reserved for extension


ETSI 0 0 0 0 Unknown

ISDN/telephony numbering plan (Recommendation


0 0 0 1
E.164)

0 0 1 1 Data numbering plan (Recommendation X.121)

0 1 0 0 Telex numbering plan (Recommendation F.69)

1 0 0 0 National standard numbering plan

1 0 0 1 Private numbering plan

1 1 1 1 Reserved for extension

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Unknown number in Unknown numbering plan

International number in ISDN numbering plan


0 0 1 0 0 0 1
(Recommendation E.164)

National number in ISDN numbering plan


0 1 0 0 0 0 1
NI (Recommendation E.164)

0 1 1 1 0 0 1 Network specific number in private numbering plan

Local (directory) number in ISDN numbering plan


1 0 0 0 0 0 1
(Recommendation E.164)

1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Abbreviated number in private numbering plan

0 0 0 Unknown

0 1 0 National number

0 1 1 Network specific number

1 0 0 Subscriber number
NTT
0 0 0 0 Unknown

ISDN/telephony numbering plan (Recommendation


0 0 0 1
E.164)

1 0 0 1 Private numbering plan

67
Field (Bit) value
Protocol Type Code scheme Definition
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Unknown number in Unknown numbering plan

Unknown number in ISDN/Telephony numbering plan


0 0 0 0 0 0 1
(ITU-T Recommendation E.164/E.163)

International number in ISDN/Telephony numbering


0 0 1 0 0 0 1
plan (ITU-T Recommendation E.164/E.163)

National number in ISDN/Telephony numbering plan


0 1 0 0 0 0 1
(ITU-T Recommendation E.164/E.163)
QSIG Subscriber number in ISDN/Telephony numbering plan
0 1 1 0 0 0 1
(ITU-T Recommendation E.164/E.163)

0 0 0 1 0 0 1 Unknown number in private numbering plan

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 Level 2 regional number in private numbering plan

0 1 0 1 0 0 1 Level 1 regional number in private numbering plan

0 1 1 1 0 0 1 PISN specific number in private numbering plan

1 0 0 1 0 0 1 Level 0 regional number in private numbering plan

The undefined bits in all the protocols are reserved for other purposes.

Configuring the ISDN Q.931 protocol version


The ISDN Q.931 protocol has multiple versions. By default, Q.931 (1998) runs on your device. However,
some devices in the network may run Q.931 (1988). For interoperation with such a device, you can
configure the connecting interface to run Q.931 (1988).
To enable Q.931 (1988) on an interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter interface view. interface interface-type interface-number N/A
3. Enable Q.931 (1988) By default, an interface runs
isdn q931-traditional
on the interface. Q.931 (1998).

Configuring the SPID of the ISDN NI protocol


You may configure SPID on the BRI interfaces that are running the ISDN NI protocol.
To configure the SPID parameters of the ISDN NI protocol:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

68
Step Command Remarks
interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
• Static:
a. Set the SPID value of B1
on the BRI interface
running the NI protocol:
isdn spid1 spid [ ldn ]
Use one mode.
b. Set the SPID value of B2
on the BRI interface 1. By default:
running the NI protocol: • The SPID is obtained through
3. Set the SPID type on the BRI
isdn spid2 spid [ ldn ] dynamic negotiation.
interface running the NI
protocol to NIT, static, or • (Optional.) Dynamic: • A BRI interface does not initiate
dynamic. Enable the SPID negotiation on a SPID negotiation request
the BRI interface running the NI unless triggered by a call.
protocol:
• A BRI interface does not use the
isdn spid auto_trigger
NIT mode.
• NIT:
Set the SPID processing mode
to NIT on the BRI interface
running the NI protocol:
isdn spid nit
4. Set the service type supported isdn spid service [ audio | data | SPID needs to support speech and
by SPID. speech ] data services simultaneously.

5. Set the time-interval of timer 2. Optional.


TSPID on the BRI interface isdn spid timer seconds The time-interval of timer TSPID is
running the NI protocol. 30 seconds by default.
6. Set the number of times of
resending message on the BRI 3. Optional.
isdn spid resend times
interface running the NI Once by default.
protocol.

Setting the called number or subaddress to be


checked during a digital incoming call
If a called number or subaddress is specified, the system will deny an incoming digital call if the calling
party sends a wrong called number or subaddress or does not send at all.
To configure the called number or subaddress to be checked during a digital incoming call:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

69
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
No called number or subaddress is
3. Set the called number or isdn check-called-number configured by default. When you
subaddress to be checked check-index called-party-number [ : configure this command, the called
during a digital incoming call. subaddress ] number and subaddress are
separated with string "space:
space."

Configuring an interface to send calling number


during an outgoing call
Set this command to reduce cost in networks that charge the calling side by providing advantageous
accounting numbers for users.
To configure an interface to send the calling number during an outgoing call:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

3. Configure the interface to Optional.


send the calling number isdn calling calling-number Calling number is not sent by
during an outgoing call. default.

Setting the local management ISDN B channel


Configured with the isdn bch-local-manage command, the router operates in local B-channel
management mode to select available B channels for calls. Despite this, the connected exchange has
higher priority in B channel selection. If the B channel the router selected for a call is different from the
one indicated by the exchange, the one indicated by the exchange is used for communication.
Configured with the isdn bch-local-manage exclusive command, the router operates in exclusive local
B-channel management mode. In this mode, the B channel selected by the router must be adopted for
communication. In the Channel ID information element of the call Setup message sent for a call, the
router indicates that the B channel is mandatory and unchangeable. If the connected exchange indicates
a B channel different from the one selected by the router, call failure occurs.
To set the local management ISDN B channel:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

70
Step Command Remarks
Local ISDN B channel
management is not configured and
the remote end is responsible for B
channel management by default.
Exclusive local management mode
3. Set the local management for ISDN B channels is applied to
isdn bch-local-manage [ exclusive ] the network side for the device. If
ISDN B channel.
the device serves as the user side
connected with ISDN switch, and
the B channel indicated by the
exchange is inconsistent with the
one required by the local end, call
failure occurs.

Configuring ISDN B channel selection mode


Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter specified interface interface interface-type
N/A
interview. interface-number

Optional.
ISDN B channel ascending
selection mode is adopted by
3. Configure ISDN B channel default. When the switch manages
isdn bch-select-way { ascending | B channel, this command takes no
ascending or descending
descending } effect. For more information about
selection mode.
configuring local management
ISDN B channel, see "Setting the
local management ISDN B
channel."

Configuring the sliding window size on a BRI


interface
Frames in the Q.921 buffer are sent in sequence. Usually, a frame can be sent only when the last frame
is acknowledged. To improve transmission efficiency, the sliding window mechanism is introduced. It
allows the system to send multiple continuous frames without having to wait for the acknowledgement to
the last frame. The sliding window size determines the maximum number of unacknowledged frames.
When sending a frame, the system checks the number of unacknowledged frames. Suppose V(A) is the
sequence number of the last acknowledged frame, V(S) is the sequence number of the frame to be sent,
and K is the sliding window size. If V(A) + K = V(S), the system stops sending frames.
By default, the sliding window size of an ISDN BRI interface is 1. You can tune the size depending on the
link status to maximize the throughput.
To configure the size of the sliding window on a BRI interface:

71
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

Optional.
3. Configure the sliding window
isdn bri-slipwnd-size window-size The sliding window on the BRI
size on the BRI interface.
interface defaults to 1.

Configuring the sliding window size on a PRI


interface
Frames in the Q.921 buffer are sent in sequence. Usually, a frame can be sent only when the last frame
is acknowledged. To improve transmission efficiency, the sliding window mechanism is introduced. It
allows the system to send multiple continuous frames without having to wait for the acknowledgement to
the last frame. The sliding window size determines the maximum number of unacknowledged frames.
When sending a frame, the system checks the number of unacknowledged frames. Suppose V(A) is the
sequence number of the last acknowledged frame, V(S) is the sequence number of the frame to be sent,
and K is the sliding window size. If V(A) + K = V(S), the system stops sending frames.
By default, the sliding window size of an ISDN PRI interface is 7. You can tune the size depending on the
link status to maximize the throughput.
To configure the size of the sliding window on a PRI interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

Optional.
3. Configure the sliding window
isdn pri-slipwnd-size window-size The sliding window on the PRI
size on the PRI interface.
interface defaults to 7.

Collecting statistics about ISDN message receiving


and sending
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure ISDN to start
collecting the statistics about
isdn statistics start Optional.
message receiving and
sending.

72
Step Command Remarks
4. Set ISDN to stop collecting the
statistics about message isdn statistics stop Optional.
receiving and sending.
5. Display ISDN statistics. isdn statistics display [ flow ] Optional.
6. Set ISDN to continue the
statistics of information isdn statistics continue Optional.
received by ISDN.
7. Clear ISDN statistics. isdn statistics clear Optional.

Configuring an interface to check the calling


number when an incoming call comes
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the interface to
check the calling number Execute this command to configure
isdn caller-number caller-number
when an incoming call limited incoming calls.
comes.

Configuring progress-to-alerting conversion


When ISDN is processing voice calls, Alerting messages are used as ring indications as defined in the
standard protocol. However, some devices use Progress messages as ring indications. In this case,
convert the received Progress messages into Alerting messages. You can use the related command to
determine whether to perform the conversion. The conversion is needed when the current device is
connected to a device using Progress messages as ring indications. Otherwise, the conversion is
unnecessary. The conversion is enabled by default.
To configure Progress-to-Alerting conversion:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the ISDN interface
to convert received Progress isdn message-conversion Optional.
messages into Alerting progress-to-alerting enable Enabled by default.
messages.

73
Configuring ISDN to carry the Calling-Name field
in outgoing packets
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

Optional.
3. Configure ISDN to carry the
Calling-Name field in isdn carry calling-name By default, ISDN does not carry the
outgoing packets. Calling-Name field in outgoing
packets.

Configuring ISDN to carry the Connected-Name


field in outgoing packets
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

Optional.
3. Configure ISDN to carry the
Connected-Name field in isdn carry connected-name By default, ISDN does not carry the
outgoing packets. Connected-Name field in outgoing
packets.

Configuring ISDN to carry the Channel-ID field for


only once in the responses
Step Command Description
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

3. Configure ISDN to carry the Optional.


Channel-ID field for only once isdn carry channel-id once-only By default, ISDN carries the
in the responses. Channel-ID field in all responses.

74
Configuring the service type in the ISDN bearer
compatibility signaling
This feature is available only on voice interfaces such as BSV, VE1, and VT1 interfaces.
The bearer compatibility field in the ISDN signaling specifies the service type of the ISDN bearer. The
following service types are supported:
• Speech—Specifies the speech service.
• audio—Specifies the 3.1 kHz audio.
• data—Specifies the unrestricted digital information.
The default service type is speech. You can change the service type to audio or data as needed.
To configure the service type in the ISDN bearer compatibility signaling:

Step Command Description


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the service type in
isdn service [ audio | data | Optional.
the ISDN bearer compatibility
speech ] The default service type is speech.
signaling.

Setting the progress indicator value in ISDN


signaling messages
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter ISDN interface view. N/A
interface-number

3. Set the progress indicator Optional.


value in the ISDN signaling By default, the progress indicator
isdn progress-indicator indicator
messages sent by the value set by the upper-layer voice
interface. service applies.

Configuring the interface to send out Alerting messages that do


not carry the Channel-ID field
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

75
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
By default, all ISDN messages sent
3. Configure the interface to send carry the Channel-ID field. For
out Alerting messages that do isdn carry channel-id once-only compatibility with most PBX devices,
not carry the Channel-ID field. H3C recommends you use the
default configuration of this
command.

Configuring TEI treatment on the BRI interface


Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter BRI interface view. interface bri interface-number N/A

3. Request the switch for a new Optional.


TEI each time a B channel on isdn two-tei All B channels on the BRI interface
the BRI interface places a call. use the same TEI by default.

Configuring an ISDN BRI leased line


ISDN leased lines are implemented by establishing MP semi-permanent connections. This requires the
PBXs of your telecommunication service provider provide leased lines and are connected to the remote
devices.
Before configuring an ISDN BRI leased line, make sure that C-DCC is enabled. For more information
about C-DCC configuration, see "Configuring DCC."
To configure an ISDN BRI leased line:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter BRI interface view. interface bri interface-number N/A

No B channel on the ISDN BRI


3. Configure the B channel for dialer isdn-leased { number |
interface is configured for leased
ISDN leased line connection. 128k }
line connection by default.

Configuring permanent link function at ISDN BRI


link layer
With the isdn q921-permanent command, the BRI interface sets up a data link connection automatically
and maintain the connection even when no calls are received from the network layer. If the two-tei mode
is also configured on the interface, two such connections will be present.
You may need to configure permanent Q.921 link mode where the ISDN NI protocol is adopted to
ensure the success of every call attempt.

76
On PRI interfaces, Q.921 layer negotiates to enter multi-framing state immediately after the user side and
the network side are correctly connected. On BRI interfaces, however, the Q.921 layer transits to the
multi-framing state only after a call is placed and the Q.921 link that has been set up will be torn down
if no Layer 3 call is received before the T325 timer expires.
To configure Q.921 permanent link mode for an ISDN BRI interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter BRI interface view. interface bri interface-number N/A

The Q.921 links on BRI interfaces


3. Set the Q.921 link on the BRI
isdn q921-permanent are not in permanent state by
interface in permanent state.
default.

Configuring an ISDN BRI interface to be in


permanent active state on physical layer
The following matrix shows the feature and router compatibility:

Feature MSR 20-1X MSR 20 MSR 30 MSR 50


Yes with BSV
Yes with BSV Yes with BSV Yes with BSV
Configuring an ISDN BRI interfaces
interfaces interfaces interfaces
interface to be in permanent operating at
operating at the operating at the operating at the
active state on physical layer. the network
network side. network side. network side.
side.

On a BRI interface operating on the network side, the T325 timer is triggered when the link is torn down
on data link layer and deactivating requests are sent from data link layer to physical layer when the timer
expires. Deactivating request cause the BRI interface to turn to inactive mode on physical layer and helps
reduce power consumption. To make a BRI interface remain in the active state on physical layer even if
no link exists on the data link layer, you can perform the operations listed in the following table, through
which you can disable activating request sending.
This function is only applicable to BRI interfaces operating in the network side mode. (Only BSV board
can operate on network side.)
This function is different from the permanent link function. The former maintains the active state of BRI
interfaces on physical layer and is only applicable to BRI interfaces operating on the network side. It
cannot activate the BRI interfaces that are in inactive state on physical layer. The latter, however, enables
BRI interfaces to enter Q.921 multi-framing state immediately after the user side and the network side are
connected correctly. It is only applicable to BRI interfaces operating on the user side. If you enable the
permanent link function when no Q.921 link is established, the system attempts to establish Q.921 links.
To configure an ISDN BRI interface to be in permanent active state on physical layer:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter BRI interface view. interface bri interface-number N/A

77
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
3. Configure the BRI interface to
be in permanent active state permanent-active By default, a BRI interface is not in
on physical layer. permanent active state on physical
layer.

Configuring deactivation protection for an ISDN


BRI interface
With deactivation protection enabled on an ISDN BRI interface, the deactivation timer starts when you
deactivate the ISDN BRI interface, and the ISDN BRI interface is deactivated when the timer expires.
With deactivation protection disabled on an ISDN BRI interface, the ISDN BRI interface is deactivated as
soon as you deactivate the ISDN BRI interface, and the deactivation timer is not started.
When the ISDN BRI interface is required to be deactivated rapidly, you must disable deactivation
protection on the ISDN BRI interface.
To configure deactivation protection for an ISDN BRI interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter BRI interface view. interface bri interface-number N/A
3. Enable deactivation
Optional.
protection for the ISDN BRI deactive-protect
Interface. Enabled by default.

Enabling remote powering on an ISDN BRI


interface
The following matrix shows the feature and router compatibility:

Feature MSR 20-1X MSR 20 MSR 30 MSR 50


Yes with BSV
Yes with BSV Yes with BSV Yes with BSV
interfaces
Enabling remote powering on interfaces interfaces interfaces
operating at
an ISDN BRI interface. operating at the operating at the operating at the
the network
network side. network side. network side.
side.

This function is available to BSV interfaces operating in the network side mode. For example, you can
enable this function on a BSV interface operating in the network side mode to provide power supply to
the ISDN digital phone sets attached to the interface. (Only BSV board can operate in the network side
mode.)
To enable remote powering on an ISDN BRI interface:

78
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter BRI interface view. interface bri interface-number N/A

The remote powering function is


3. Enable remote powering on
power-source disabled on an ISDN BRI interface
the interface.
by default.

Configuring ISDN call check


ISDN call check examines the call control block synchronization status between the CC module and the
Q.931 module for ISDN calls every day at the specified time. If the call control blocks of the two modules
for an ISDN call are not synchronized, the system disconnects the ISDN call.
To configure ISDN call check:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Configure ISDN call check. isdn check-time date-time By default, the function is disabled.

Enabling the trap function


To learn about events that occur on the ISDN module, you can enable the trap function for ISDN. When
events occur on the ISDN module, traps will be sent to the information center. You can configure the
information center to output the trap information matches certain criteria to a desired destination (the
console for example) for analysis. For how to configure the information center, see Network
Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.
To enable the trap function:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

snmp-agent trap enable isdn Optional.


2. Enable the trap function for
[ call-clear | call-setup |
the ISDN module. Enabled by default.
lapd-status ]

For more information about the snmp-agent trap enable isdn command, see Network Management and
Monitoring Command Reference.

Displaying and maintaining ISDN


Task Command Remarks
display isdn active-channel
[ interface interface-type
Display the active calling
interface-number ] [ | { begin | Available in any view.
information on an ISDN interface.
exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

79
Task Command Remarks
display isdn call-info [ interface
Display the current status of an interface-type interface-number ]
Available in any view.
ISDN interface. [ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

display isdn call-record [ interface


Display the history record of an interface-type interface-number ]
Available in any view.
ISDN call. [ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

display isdn parameters { protocol


| interface interface-type
Display the system parameters of
interface-number ] [ | { begin |
ISDN protocol Layer 2 and Layer 3 Available in any view.
exclude | include }
running on the interface.
regular-expression ]
regular-expression ]

display isdn spid interface


Display the information of SPID on
interface-type interface-number ]
the BRI interface running the NI Available in any view.
[ | { begin | exclude | include }
protocol.
regular-expression ]

ISDN configuration examples


Connecting routers through ISDN PRI lines
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 18, Router A is connected to Router B through ISDN PRI lines.
Figure 18 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Create an ISDN PRI interface.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] controller e1 1/0
[RouterA-E1 1/0] pri-set

80
[RouterA-E1 1/0] quit
# Configure an ISDN PRI interface.
[RouterA] interface serial 1/0:15
[RouterA-Serial1/0:15] ip address 202.38.154.1 255.255.0.0
[RouterA-Serial1/0:15] isdn protocol-type dss1
[RouterA-Serial1/0:15] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Serial1/0:15] dialer route ip 202.38.154.2 8810154
[RouterA-Serial1/0:15] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Serial1/0:15] quit
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
2. Configure Router B:
Follow the same procedures to configure Router B.

Connecting routers through ISDN BRI lines running NI


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 19, Router A is connected to Router B through NI protocol of ISDN BRI lines.
Figure 19 Network diagram

Router A

BRI2/0
202.38.154.1/16
8810152

ISDN network

BRI2/0
202.38.154.2/16
8810154

Router B

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Configure the dialing parameters on ISDN BRI interface.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface bri 2/0
[RouterA-Bri2/0] ip address 202.38.154.1 255.255.0.0
[RouterA-Bri2/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Bri2/0] dialer route ip 202.38.154.2 8810154
[RouterA-Bri2/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Bri2/0] quit
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Configure ISDN NI protocol parameters to make the B channel of BRI interface support static
SPID value, and set the negotiation message to be resent twice when no reply exists.
[RouterA] interface bri 2/0
[RouterA-Bri2/0] isdn protocol-type ni
[RouterA-Bri2/0] isdn spid1 12345

81
[RouterA-Bri2/0] isdn spid2 23456
[RouterA-Bri2/0] isdn spid resend 2
2. Configure Router B:
Follow the same procedures to configure Router B.

Using ISDN BRI leased lines to implement MP bundling


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 20, Router A is connected to Router B through two BRI leased lines, which are used
for MP bundling.
Figure 20 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface bri 2/0
[RouterA-Bri2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Bri2/0] ppp mp virtual-template 5
[RouterA-Bri2/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Bri2/0] dialer isdn-leased 0
[RouterA-Bri2/0] dialer isdn-leased 1
[RouterA-Bri2/0] quit
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 5
[RouterA-Virtual-Template5] ip address 202.38.154.1 255.255.0.0
2. Configure Router B:
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface bri2/0
[RouterB-Bri2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Bri2/0] ppp mp virtual-template 5
[RouterB-Bri2/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterB-Bri2/0] dialer isdn-leased 0
[RouterB-Bri2/0] dialer isdn-leased 1
[RouterB-Bri2/0] quit
[RouterB] interface virtual-template 5
[RouterB-Virtual-Template5] ip address 202.38.154.2 255.255.0.0

82
Only virtual-templates can be used as the MP binding templates for ISDN leased lines.
As leased lines do not require dialing, you do not need to configure dial numbers.
The system accepts MP bundles formed by 64-kbps, 128-kbps ISDN leased lines or a mix of both. For
more information, see the three ways to configure MP bundles discussed in "Configuring PPP and MP."

Configuring ISDN 128K leased lines


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 21, Router A and Router B are connected by connecting their ISDN BRI interfaces
through a 128K leased line.
Figure 21 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterA] interface bri 2/0
[RouterA-Bri2/0] ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Bri2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Bri2/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Bri2/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Bri2/0] dialer isdn-leased 128k
2. Configure Router B:
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterB] interface bri 2/0
[RouterB-Bri2/0] ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Bri2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Bri2/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterB-Bri2/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterB-Bri2/0] dialer isdn-leased 128k

NOTE:
You do not need to configure a dial number because setup of leased line connection does not involve
dialing process.

After you configure a leased line successfully, you can dial through. To view the interface states,
execute the following commands:
<RouterA> display interface bri 2/0
Bri2/0 current state :UP
Line protocol current state :UP (spoofing)
Description : Bri2/0 Interface

83
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500, Hold timer is 10(sec)
baudrate is 128000 bit/s, Timeslot(s) Used: 1, 2
Internet Address is 100.1.1.1/24
Encapsulation is ISDN

Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/50/0


Output queue : (Protocol queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
Last 300 seconds input rate 0.00 bytes/sec, 0.00 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0.00 bytes/sec, 0.00 packets/sec
Input: 0 packets, 0 bytes
0 broadcasts, 0 multicasts
2 errors, 0 runts, 0 giants,
2 CRC, 0 align errors, 0 overruns,
0 dribbles, 0 aborts, 0 no buffers
0 frame errors
Output:0 packets, 0 bytes
0 errors, 0 underruns, 0 collisions
0 deferred

<RouterA> display interface bri 2/0:1


Bri2/0:1 current state :UP
Line protocol current state :UP (spoofing)
Description : Bri2/0:1 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
baudrate is 128000 bit/s, Timeslot(s) Used: 1, 2
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, IPCP opened, OSICP opened
Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/50/0
Output queue : (Protocol queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
Last 300 seconds input rate 2.44 bytes/sec, 0.20 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 2.54 bytes/sec, 0.20 packets/sec
Input: 17782 packets, 220973 bytes
0 broadcasts, 0 multicasts
2 errors, 0 runts, 0 giants,
2 CRC, 0 align errors, 0 overruns,
0 dribbles, 0 aborts, 0 no buffers
0 frame errors
Output:17085 packets, 208615 bytes
0 errors, 0 underruns, 0 collisions
0 deferred

<RouterA> display interface bri 2/0:2


Bri2/0:2 current state :DOWN
Line protocol current state :UP (spoofing)
Description : Bri2/0:2 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500

84
baudrate is 64000 bit/s, Timeslot(s) Used: NULL
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP initial
Output queue : (Urgent queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/50/0
Output queue : (Protocol queue : Size/Length/Discards) 0/500/0
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards) 0/75/0
Last 300 seconds input rate 0.16 bytes/sec, 0.01 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate 0.16 bytes/sec, 0.01 packets/sec
Input: 17494 packets, 216768 bytes
0 broadcasts, 0 multicasts
2 errors, 0 runts, 0 giants,
2 CRC, 0 align errors, 0 overruns,
0 dribbles, 0 aborts, 0 no buffers
0 frame errors
Output:16634 packets, 201465 bytes
0 errors, 0 underruns, 0 collisions
0 deferred
As you can see, the state of interface Bri 2/0:1 is up, its speed is 128 kbps, and channels
(timeslots used) B1 and B2 are in use; the state of Bri 2/0:2 is down, and the field of timeslots used
is NULL.

Interoperating with DMS100 switches


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 22, Router D is connected to a DMS100 switch of the carrier, using the access number
of 8810148. The ISDN lines on interface BRI 1/0 are assigned the following two SPIDs and LDNs:
• SPID1 = 31427583620101, LDN1 = 1234567
• SPID2 = 31427583870101, LDN2 = 7654321
In addition, the username and password for dialing are user and hello, respectively.
Router D needs to place an MP call on interface BRI 2/0 to obtain an address from the carrier for
accessing the Internet.
Figure 22 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
# Enable IP packet-triggered dial.
<Router> system-view
[Router] dialer-rule 1 ip permit

# Encapsulate interface BRI 2/0 with MP.


[Router] interface bri 2/0
[Router-Bri2/0] link-protocol ppp

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[Router-Bri2/0] ppp mp

# Enable C-DCC.
[Router-Bri2/0] dialer enable-circular
[Router-Bri2/0] dialer-group 1
[Router-Bri2/0] dialer circular-group 1

# Configure ISDN parameters.


[Router-Bri2/0] isdn protocol-type ni
[Router-Bri2/0] isdn two-tei
[Router-Bri2/0] isdn number-property 0
[Router-Bri2/0] isdn spid1 31427583620101 1234567
[Router-Bri2/0] isdn spid2 31427583870101 7654321
[Router-Bri2/0] isdn spid service data
[Router-Bri2/0] isdn spid service speech
[Router-Bri2/0] quit

# Configure a dialer interface.


[Router] interface dialer 1
[Router-Dialer1] link-protocol ppp
[Router-Dialer1] ppp pap local-user user password simple hello
[Router-Dialer1] dialer threshold 0 in-out
[Router-Dialer1] ppp mp
[Router-Dialer1] ip address ppp-negotiate
[Router-Dialer1] dialer enable-circular
[Router-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
[Router-Dialer1] dialer number 8810148
[Router-Dialer1] quit

# Configure the static route to segment 65.0.0.0 where the network access server is located.
[Router] ip route-static 65.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 Dialer 1 preference 60

To interoperate with the DMS 100, configure two commands: isdn two-tei and isdn number-property 0.
The isdn two-tei command allows each call on the BRI interface to use a unique TEI. The isdn
number-property 0 command sets the numbering plan and numbering type in the called-party
information element in ISDN Q.931 SETUP messages to unknown.
In addition, if the carrier allocates an LDN, you must configure it.
The dialer threshold 0 in-out command configured on interface dialer 1 allows the system to bring up
another B channel automatically after bringing up a BRI link. This can be done without a flow control
mechanism and the links that have been brought up will not be disconnected automatically.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Two routers are interconnected through an ISDN PRI or BRI line and they cannot ping each other.

Analysis
The causes may be:
• The interface is not configured or activated.
• The dial-up configuration is wrong.

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• The line is not well connected.

Solution
• Execute the display isdn call-info command. If no prompt appears in the system, it indicates no
ISDN PRI interface exists. It is necessary to configure interfaces. For a specified configuration
method, see the contents about configuration of CE1/PRI interface and CT1/PRI interface in
Interface module. If ISDN is not in multi-frame operation status on a PRI interface, or if ISDN is not
in TEI_ASSIGNED status on a BRI interface, it may not be physically connected well.
• If Q.921 debugging has been enabled, and ISDN on PRI is in multi-frame creation mode and that
on BRI is in TEI configured mode, check whether dial-up configuration is correct. If the maintaining
information "Q921 send data fail (L1 return failure)." is output, it indicates that the physical layer
has not been activated. In this case, execute the shutdown or undo shutdown command to disable
or re-enable interfaces.
• Check whether the dial-up configuration is correct. If dial-up is correctly configured and the
maintaining information "Q921 send data fail (L1 return failure)." is not output, the ISDN line may
be not connected well.

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Configuring frame relay

Overview
Frame relay is essentially simplified X.25 WAN technology. It uses statistical multiplexing technology and
can establish multiple virtual circuits over a single physical cable to make full use of network bandwidth.
Frame relay uses data link connection identifiers (DLCIs) to identify virtual circuits and maintain the status
of each virtual circuit with the Local Management Interface (LMI) protocol.

Frame relay interface types


As shown in Figure 23, frame relay enables communication between user devices such as routers and
hosts. The user devices are also called "data terminal equipment (DTE)." They are connected to a frame
relay network through the DTE interface. The devices that provide access to the frame relay network for
DTEs are called "data communications equipment (DCE)." A DCE is connected to a DTE with a DCE
interface on the user network interface (UNI) side and to a frame relay switch in the frame relay network
with a network-to-network interface (NNI) on the NNI side. The switches in the frame relay cloud are
interconnected with the NNI.
In actual applications, a DTE interface can connect to only a DCE interface, and an NNI interface can
connect to only an NNI interface. On a frame relay switch, the frame relay interface should be an NNI
or DCE interface.
As shown in Figure 23, Router B and Router C form a simple frame relay network, to which DTE devices
Router A and Router D are attached. The DTE and DCE are identified on only the UNI interface; a virtual
circuit between two DTE devices can be assigned different DLCIs on different segments.
Figure 23 Example frame relay network

Virtual circuit
Virtual circuits are logical paths established between two devices. Depending on how they are set up,
virtual circuits fall into the following types:

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• Permanent virtual circuits (PVCs)—Preconfigured by network administrators and maintain until
being manually removed.
• Switched virtual circuits (SVCs)—Analogous to dialup connections. They are dynamically set up or
cleared on an as-needed basis through protocol negotiation.
PVCs are used far more than SVCs.

Data link connection identifier


A DLCI is a unique number assigned to a virtual circuit endpoint in a frame relay network for the
addressing purpose.
A DLCI uniquely identifies a particular virtual circuit on a physical link and has local significance only to
that link. A DLCI can be used on different physical ports to address different virtual circuits and a virtual
circuit between two DTE devices may be addressed with different DLCIs at the two ends, as shown
in Figure 23.
As the virtual circuits in a frame relay network are connection oriented, each DLCI on a physical port is
destined for a distinct remote device. DLCIs can be regarded the frame relay addresses of remote
devices.
The maximum number of PVCs that can be created on a frame relay interface is 1024. The user
configurable DLCIs for the PVCs are in the range 16 to 1007. Other DLCIs are reserved for special
purposes. For example, DLCI 0 and DLCI 1023 are reserved for the LMI protocol to transfer control
messages.

Frame relay address mapping


Frame relay address mapping associates the protocol address of a remote device with its frame relay
address (local DLCI) so the upper layer protocol, IP for example, can locate the remote device.
Take delivering an IP packet across a frame relay network for example. After a DTE device receives an IP
packet, it looks up the IP routing table for the outgoing interface and next hop address. If the outgoing
interface is enabled with frame relay, the device must look up the frame relay address mapping table
based on the next hop IP address for the DLCI.
The address mappings can be static ones administratively created or dynamic ones created with the
InARP.
The following describes how frame relay uses InARP to create an address mapping:
Once a new virtual circuit is created, InARP sends an inverse ARP request over the circuit to request the
peer end for its protocol address. This request also conveys the local protocol address. When the peer
device receives the request, it creates an address mapping based on the protocol address in the request
and responds with its protocol address. When the local end receives the response, it creates the address
mapping for the peer.
For virtual circuits with static address mappings, InARP will not be performed regardless of whether the
mappings are correct or not. In addition, the inverse ARP request recipient does not create a mapping
based on the protocol address in the request if a static entry is already available for the address.

LMI protocol
Frame relay uses the LMI protocol to set up virtual circuits and maintain their status between DTE and
DCE.

89
The system supports the following LMI standards:
• ITU-T Q.933 Annex A
• ANSI T1.617 Annex D
• Nonstandard LMI (compatible with other vendors)
To communicate properly, the DTE and the DCE must use the same type of LMI.
LMI uses the status inquiry message and the status messages to maintain the link status and PVC status,
for example, to advertise new PVCs, detect deleted PVCs, monitor PVC status changes, and verify link
integrity. For these purposes, the DTE sends status inquiry messages regularly to the DCE to request for
the availability of individual PVCs. On receiving a status inquiry, the DCE responds with a status
message that describes the status of each virtual circuit on the physical link.
For a DTE, the status of a PVC is determined by the DCE; as for DCE, by the frame relay network.
Table 2 lists the major parameters ITU-T Q.933 Annex A uses for message exchange. You can configure
these parameters to optimize device performance.
Table 2 Parameter description for frame relay protocol

Device Value Default


Timer/counter Description
role range value
Sets the frequency with which status inquires
expect a full status report.
Full status polling Suppose the N391 is set to 5. Every fifth status
1 to 255 6
counter (N391) inquiry sent by the DTE will ask for a full status
report. The intermediate inquiries ask for a
keepalive exchange only.

Sets the number of errors required for LMI to


Error threshold
1 to 10 3 declare a link dead, within the event count
counter (N392)
DTE specified by N393.

Sets the monitored event count. If the number of


Monitored events errors within the N393 status inquiries reaches
1 to 10 4
counter (N393) N392, the DTE considers that the error
threshold is reached.

Keepalive (link 0 to 32767 Sets the interval (in seconds) at which the DTE
integrity verification 0 means sends a status inquiry message. An error is
10
polling) timer LMI recorded if no reply is received before the timer
(T391) disabled. expires.

Sets the number of errors required for LMI to


Error threshold
1 to 10 3 declare a link dead, within the event count
counter (N392)
specified by N393.

Monitored events
1 to 10 4 Sets the monitoring interval for error counts.
DCE count (N393)

Sets the interval (in seconds) for receiving a


Keepalive (polling
status inquiry message. If no status inquiry
verification) timer 5 to 30 15
message is received before the timer expires,
(T392)
an error is recorded.

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Typical application scenarios
As shown in Figure 24, you can use frame relay to construct a public or private network, and even direct
connections between data equipment, as shown in Figure 25.
Figure 24 Interconnecting LANs through a frame relay cloud

Figure 25 Interconnecting LANs through a dedicated line

Frame relay configuration task list


Task Remarks
Configuring basic DTE side frame relay Required

Configuring frame relay address mappings Required

Configuring a frame relay local virtual circuit Required


Configuring
DTE side frame Configuring a frame relay subinterface Optional
relay
Configuring Annex G Optional

Marking the DE bit Optional

Configuring frame relay fragmentation Optional

Configuring basic DCE side frame relay Required

Configuring frame relay address mapping Required

Configuring frame relay local virtual circuit Required


Configuring Configuring frame relay subinterface Optional
DCE side frame
relay Configuring frame relay switching Optional

Configuring frame relay over IP Optional

Configuring Annex G Optional

Marking the DE bit Optional

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Task Remarks
Configuring frame relay fragmentation Optional

Enabling the trap function Optional

You can configure an NNI interface in the same way as configuring a DCE interface. For the
configuration procedure, see "Configuring DCE side frame relay."
If one endpoint of a link is an NNI interface, the peer endpoint must also be an NNI interface.

Configuring DTE side frame relay


Configuring basic DTE side frame relay
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter the view of the interface
interface interface-type
connecting to the Frame Relay N/A
interface-number
network.
3. Enable frame relay on the link-protocol fr [ ietf | The default link layer protocol of a
interface. nonstandard ] WAN interface is PPP.

4. Set the frame relay interface Optional.


fr interface-type dte
type to DTE. The default setting is DTE.

Optional.
The default setting is q933a.
5. Configure frame relay LMI fr lmi type { ansi | nonstandard |
protocol type. q933a | bi-direction } Support for the bi-direction
keyword varies with device
models.

Optional.
6. Configure DTE side N391. fr lmi n391dte n391-value
The default setting is 6.

Optional.
7. Configure DTE side N392. fr lmi n392dte n392-value
The default setting is 3.

Optional.
8. Configure DTE side N393. fr lmi n393dte n393-value
The default setting is 4.

Optional.
9. Configure DTE side T391. timer hold seconds
The default setting is 10 seconds.

Configuring frame relay address mappings


Configure frame relay address mappings in one of the following ways:
• Manually create static mappings between remote IP addresses and local DLCIs. Use this approach
when the network topology is relatively stable and no new users are expected in a certain period
of time. Because static mappings do not change, the network connections are stable, and attacks
from unknown users are avoided.

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• Use InARP to dynamically create mappings between peer IP addresses and local DLCIs. Use this
approach in complicated networks and make sure that the peer device also supports InARP.

Configuration guidelines
• Do not configure DLCIs for PVCs if static address mappings are configured.
• Do not configure static address mapping on a P2P subinterface. A P2P subinterface carries only
one PVC.

Configuring static frame relay address mappings

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

fr map ip { ip-address [ mask ] |


default } dlci-number [ broadcast |
3. Create a static frame relay By default, no static frame relay
[ ietf | nonstandard ] ] *
address mapping. address mappings are configured.
[ compression { frf9 | iphc
connections number } ]

Configuring dynamic frame relay address mapping

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

Optional.
3. Enable frame relay InARP for By default, frame relay InARP is
fr inarp [ ip [ dlci-number ] ]
dynamic address mapping. enabled for dynamic address
mapping.

Configuring a frame relay local virtual circuit


On a DCE or NNI frame relay main interface or subinterface, you must manually create virtual circuits.
On a DTE main interface, you do not necessarily create virtual circuits manually because the device can
automatically create virtual circuits according to the settings received from the DCE side. On a DTE
subinterface, the virtual circuit must be manually created. When manually creating virtual circuits on a
DTE interface, make sure that their DLCIs are identical to those used on the DCE.
A virtual circuit number is unique on a physical interface.
If the DLCI of a PVC is changed on the DCE interface, you can reset both the DCE and DTE interfaces or
execute the reset inarp command on both ends to enable the DTE to relearn the correct address
mappings as soon as possible. Before doing that, make sure that no services will be interrupted.
To configure a frame relay local virtual circuit:

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Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure a virtual circuit on By default, no virtual circuits are
fr dlci dlci-number
the interface. created on interfaces.

Configuring a frame relay subinterface


Frame relay offers two types of interfaces: main interface and subinterface. The subinterface is of logical
structure, which can be configured with protocol address and virtual circuit. One physical interface can
include multiple subinterfaces, which do not exist physically. However, for the network layer, the
subinterface and main interface make no difference and both can be configured with virtual circuits to
connect to remote devices.
The subinterface of frame relay falls into the following types: point-to-point (P2P) subinterface and
point-to-multipoint (P2MP) subinterface. A P2P subinterface connects a single remote device and a P2MP
subinterface connects multiple remote devices. A P2MP subinterface can be configured with multiple
virtual circuits, each of which sets up an address map with its connected remote network address to
distinguish different connections. Address maps can be manually set up, or dynamically set up by InARP.
The methods to configure a virtual circuit and address map for P2P subinterfaces and P2MP
subinterfaces are different, as follows:
• P2P subinterface—Because only one peer address exists for a P2P subinterface, the peer address
is determined when a virtual circuit is configured for the subinterface. You do not need to configure
dynamic or static address mapping for P2P subinterface.
• P2MP subinterface—For a P2MP subinterface, a peer address can be mapped to the local DLCI
through static address mapping or InARP. The InARP configuration only needs to be configured on
the main interface. If static address mapping is required, it is necessary to set up static address map
for each virtual circuit.
To configure a frame relay subinterface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Create a
By default, a frame relay
subinterface and interface interface-type
subinterface operates in p2mp
enter subinterface interface-number.subnumber [ p2mp | p2p ]
mode.
view.

On a frame relay subinterface,


3. Configure a virtual
See "Configuring a frame relay local virtual virtual circuits must be created
circuit on the frame
circuit." manually and be identical to those
relay subinterface.
created at the DCE end.

Optional for a P2P subinterface.


4. Configure address See "Configuring frame relay address
mappings. mappings." Required for a P2MP
subinterface.

94
Configuring Annex G
ANSI T1.617 Annex G (Annex G, for short) defines the way to transmit X.25 packets through frame relay
virtual circuits. In an Annex G implementation, the acknowledgement/retransmission and flow-control
mechanism used in X.25 are invoked to provide reliable transmission. Annex G can also connect X.25
networks through FR networks. It helps you to migrate from X.25 network to FR network and protects the
investment on X.25 effectively.

Configuring an Annex G interface


When you configure an Annex G interface, follow these guidelines:
• Because Annex G is not compliant with Inverse-ARP, configure a static FR mapping for the
destination IP address.
• For the two Annex G interfaces of a virtual circuit, configure one as the DTE and the other as the
DCE.
To configure an Annex G interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter interface view. interface interface-type interface-number N/A
3. Enable frame relay
encapsulation on the link-protocol fr [ ietf | nonstandard ] The default setting is PPP.
interface.

This operation also leads you to


interface DLCI view.
4. Create a virtual circuit. fr dlci dlci-number
By default, no virtual circuit is
created on an interface.
5. Configure the VC
interface as an Annex annexg { dce | dte } N/A
G interface.

Configuring X.25 parameters for an Annex G interface


To configure X.25 parameters for an Annex G interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Create an X.25
template and enter its x25 template name N/A
view.
3. Configure X.25
See "Configuring LAPB and X.25." Optional.
parameters.
4. Configure LAPB
See "Configuring LAPB and X.25." Optional.
parameters.
5. Return to system view. quit N/A
6. Enter interface view. interface interface-type interface-number N/A

95
Step Command Remarks
7. Create a virtual
By default, no virtual circuit is
circuit and enter its fr dlci dlci-number
created on an interface.
view.
8. Apply the X.25
x25-template name N/A
template to the DLCI.

With FR address mapping configured in FR interface view, packets destined for the destination are
transmitted through specific DLCI. With X.25 address mapping configured in X.25 template view, a call
to the specific X.25 address is launched before a packet is sent to the destination IP address. IP packets
can be transmitted correctly only when both types of address mappings are configured.
The configuration performed in X.25 template view is similar to that performed in X.25 interface view. To
establish an X.25 link successfully, the configurations on the devices of both sides must be consistent with
each other.

Marking the DE bit


The discard eligibility (DE) bit in an FR frame determines the drop precedence of the frame at times of
congestion: if the DE bit is 1, the frame is dropped preferentially.
You can set the DE bit for an FR traffic class to redefine its drop precedence.
To set the DE bit for an FR class:

Step Command Remarks


9. Enter system view. system-view N/A
a. Create a traffic class and enter class view:
traffic classifier tcl-name [ operator { and |
or } ]
10. Configure a traffic class. b. Configure the match criteria: N/A
if-match [ not ] match-criteria
c. Exit class view:
quit
a. Create a behavior and enter behavior
view:
11. Configure a behavior with traffic behavior behavior-name
the action of marking the b. Configure the DE bit marking action: N/A
DE bit. remark fr-de fr-de-value
c. Exit behavior view:
quit
a. Create a policy and enter the policy view:
qos policy policy-name
b. Associate the class with the traffic
behavior in the QoS policy:
12. Configure a policy. N/A
classifier tcl-name behavior
behavior-name
c. Exit policy view:
quit

96
Step Command Remarks
a. Enter FR class view:
fr class class-name
13. Apply the QoS policy to b. Apply the QoS policy to the FR class:
N/A
an FR class. apply policy policy-name outbound
c. Exit FR class view:
quit

(Approach 1) a. Enter FR interface view:


Associate the interface interface-type interface-number
14. Associate FR class with b. Associate the FR class with the FR
an FR interface: Use either approach
the FR
interface fr-class class-name or all.
class with
an FR c. Enter FR interface view: By default, no FR class
interface interface interface-type interface-number is associated with any
(Approach 2)
or FR FR interfaces or FR
Associate the d. Enter FR PVC view:
PVC. PVCs.
FR class with fr dlci dlci
an FR PVC e. Associate the FR class with the FR PVC:
fr-class class-name

For how to configure traffic classes, traffic behaviors, and QoS policies, see ACL and QoS Configuration
Guide.
For how to configure FR classes, see ACL and QoS Configuration Guide.

Configuring frame relay fragmentation


The device supports the end-to-end FRF.12 fragmentation function.
Over a low-speed frame relay links, long data frames may increase the transmission delay. The FRF.12
fragmentation function fragments long data frames into small fragments, and guarantees that the data
frames are transmitted with a lower delay over a lower-speed link.
When data frames and voice frames are transmitted at the same time, long data frame transmission
occupies bandwidth for a long time, and may delay the voice frames or even cause the voice frames to
be dropped, affecting the voice quality. The FRF.12 fragmentation function decreases the delay of voice
frames, and improves the voice quality. With the FRF.12 fragmentation function enabled, long data
frames are fragmented into small fragments, and interleaved with voice frames, so that voice frames are
transmitted promptly and evenly and the transmission delay is reduced.
The FRF.12 fragmentation function is mutually exclusive with FRTS configured by using the fr
traffic-shaping command. For more information about FRTS, see ACL and QoS Configuration Guide.
To configure frame relay fragmentation:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Enable FRF.12 fragmentation fr fragment [ fragment-size ] By default, FRF.12 fragmentation is
on the interface. end-to-end disabled.

97
NOTE:
The FRF.12 fragmentation function is not available on MFR interfaces.

Configuring DCE side frame relay


Configuring basic DCE side frame relay
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

The default link layer protocol on a


WAN interface is PPP. If frame
3. Enable frame relay on the link-protocol fr [ ietf |
relay is enabled with no operating
interface. nonstandard ]
mode specified, the IETF standard
applies.
4. Configure the frame relay
fr interface-type { dce | nni } The default setting is DTE.
interface type as DCE or NNI.

5. Configure the frame relay LMI fr lmi type { ansi | nonstandard | Optional.
protocol type. q933a } The default setting is q933a.

6. Configure network side Optional.


fr lmi n392dce n392-value
N392. The default setting is 3.

7. Configure network side Optional.


fr lmi n393dce n393-value
N393. The default setting is 4.

Optional.
8. Configure network side T392. fr lmi t392dce t392-value
The default setting is 15 seconds.

Configuring frame relay address mapping on the DCE side


See "Configuring frame relay address mappings."

Configuring frame relay local virtual circuit on the DCE side


See "Configuring a frame relay local virtual circuit."

Configuring frame relay subinterface on the DCE side


See "Configuring a frame relay subinterface."

Configuring frame relay switching


A device with frame relay switching enabled can operate as a frame relay switch.

98
To configure frame relay switching, configure static routes in interface view, or configure PVCs in system
view.
The interfaces used for frame relay switching must be NNI or DCE.
To configure frame relay switching:

Step Command Remarks


9. Enter system view. system-view N/A
10. Enable frame relay switching. fr switching N/A

interface interface-type
11. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

The default frame relay


12. Set the type of an interface for
interface type is DTE, which
frame relay switching to NNI or fr interface-type { dce | nni }
does not support frame relay
DCE.
switching.

By default, no static routes


are configured for frame
relay switching.
The static routes are
(Approach 1) unidirectional. To ensure
Configure static fr dlci-switch in-dlci interface normal communication, you
routes for frame interface-type interface-number dlci must create a route for
relay switching in out-dlci returning traffic on the
interface view. outgoing interface specified
in this command.
The DLCIs used in this
command must have been
13. Configure
configured on the interfaces.
frame
relay a. quit N/A
switching.
b. fr switch name interface
interface-type
A PVC created in this
interface-number dlci dlci1
approach is bidirectional.
(Approach 2) interface interface-type
Configure a PVC for interface-number dlci dlci2
frame relay Optional.
switching in system
c. fr switch name Enter frame relay switching
view.
PVC view.

Optional.
d. undo shutdown Enable the current switching
PVC.

Configuring frame relay over IP


To interconnect two frame relay networks across an IP network, Frame Relay over IP was developed. The
idea is to create a GRE tunnel between frame relay networks to tunnel frame relay packets across the IP
network, as shown in Figure 26.

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Figure 26 Typical implementation of frame relay over IP

Frame Relay Frame Relay


network network

IP network
GRE tunnel

GRE tunneled frame relay packets fall into the following categories:
• FR packets that carry IP data
• InARP packets
• LMI packets used for negotiating virtual circuit status in the GRE tunnel
You can configure static routes in interface view or configure PVCs in system view for frame relay
switching.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines


• The interfaces used for frame relay switching must be NNI or DCE.
• Before configuring frame relay over IP network, it is necessary to create and configure a tunnel
interface. After the GRE tunnel interface is set up, you can specify it for transmitting frame relay
packets over IP network.
• You must configure a static route for frame relay switching in frame relay interface view or multilink
frame relay (MFR) interface view at both ends of the GRE tunnel, or configure a PVC for frame relay
switching in system view. After that, the system adds two route entries to the frame relay routing table.
In one route entry, the incoming interface is the tunnel interface and the outgoing interface is the
frame relay interface. In the other route entry, the incoming interface is the frame relay interface and
the outgoing interface is the tunnel interface. On the tunnel interface, a virtual circuit identified by
out-dlci is also generated. The status of this virtual circuit determines the status of the two routes.
• The virtual circuit must be assigned the same DLCI (out-dlci) on the tunnel interfaces at both ends of
the GRE tunnel.

Configuration procedure
To configure frame relay over IP:

Step Command Remarks


14. Enter system view. system-view N/A
15. Create a tunnel interface
For how to create and configure a tunnel
in system view and
interface, see Layer 3—IP Services N/A
configure the tunnel
Configuration Guide.
interface.
16. Return to system view. quit N/A
17. Enable frame relay
fr switching N/A
switching.
18. Enter interface view. interface interface-type interface-number N/A

100
Step Command Remarks
19. Set the type of an interface The default frame relay interface
for frame relay switching fr interface-type { dce | nni } type is DTE, which does not
to NNI or DCE. support frame relay switching.

(Approach 1)
Configure By default, no static routes are
static routes configured for frame relay
for frame fr dlci-switch in-dlci interface tunnel switching.
relay interface-number dlci out-dlci You do not need to configure a
switching in static route on the tunnel
interface interface.
20. Configure view.
frame a. quit N/A
relay
switching b. fr switch name interface
either. (Approach 2) interface-type interface-number By default, no PVC for frame
Configure a dlci dlci1 interface tunnel relay switching exists.
PVC for interface-number dlci dlci2
frame relay
c. fr switch name Optional.
switching in
system view. Optional.
d. undo shutdown By default, after a PVC is
created, its status is up.

Configuring Annex G
See "Configuring Annex G."

Marking the DE bit


See "Marking the DE bit" in the section for configuring DTE side frame relay.

Configuring frame relay fragmentation


See "Configuring frame relay fragmentation."

Enabling the trap function


The trap function enables the frame relay module to report critical events to the information center. You
can configure the information center to output interesting trap messages to a destination (for example,
the console) for analysis. For more information about how to configure the information center, see
Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.
To enable the trap function for the frame relay module:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

101
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
2. Enable trap for frame
snmp-agent trap enable fr By default, trap is enabled
relay.
for frame relay.

For more information about the snmp-agent trap enable fr command, see Network Management and
Monitoring Command Reference.

Displaying and maintaining frame relay


Task Command Remarks
display interface mfr { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber } [ brief ] [ |
{ begin | exclude | include }
Display frame relay protocol regular-expression ] Available in any view.
status on an interface.
display interface [ mfr ] [ brief [ down ] ]
[ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

display fr map-info [ interface


Display the mapping table of interface-type { interface-number |
protocol address and frame interface-number.subnumber } ] [ | Available in any view.
relay address. { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

display fr lmi-info [ interface


Display receiving/sending
interface-type interface-number ] [ |
statistics of frame relay LMI type Available in any view.
{ begin | exclude | include }
messages.
regular-expression ]

display fr statistics [ interface


Display incoming and outgoing interface-type interface-number ] [ |
Available in any view.
frame relay data statistics. { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

display fr pvc-info [ interface


interface-type { interface-number |
Display frame relay permanent
interface-number.subnumber } ] Available in any view.
virtual circuit table.
[ dlci-number ] [ | { begin | exclude |
include } regular-expression ]

display fr inarp-info [ interface


Display statistics of frame relay interface-type interface-number ] [ |
Available in any view.
InARP messages. { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

display fr dlci-switch [ interface


Display the information of
interface-type interface-number ] [ |
configured frame relay Available in any view.
{ begin | exclude | include }
switching.
regular-expression ]

Display the configuration of an display x25 template [ name ] [ | { begin


Available in any view.
X.25 template. | exclude | include } regular-expression ]

102
Task Command Remarks
Clear all the automatically
established frame relay address reset fr inarp Available in user view.
mappings.

Clear the statistics for an FR reset fr pvc interface serial


Available in user view.
PVC. interface-number [ dlci dlci-number ]

Frame relay configuration examples


Connecting LANs through a frame relay network
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 27, connect LANs through a public frame relay network. The routers can only operate
as DTE.
Figure 27 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 202.38.163.251 255.255.255.0
# Enable frame relay on the interface.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte
# If the opposite router supports InARP, configure dynamic address mapping.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr inarp
# Otherwise, configure static address mappings.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.252 50
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.253 60
2. Configure Router B:
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0.

103
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 202.38.163.252 255.255.255.0
# Enable frame relay on the interface.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte
# If the opposite router supports InARP, configure dynamic address mapping.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr inarp
# Otherwise, configure a static address mapping.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.251 70
3. Configure Router C:
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] interface serial 2/0
[RouterC-Serial2/0] ip address 202.38.163.253 255.255.255.0
# Enable frame relay on the interface.
[RouterC-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterC-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte
# If the opposite router supports InARP, configure dynamic address mapping.
[RouterC-Serial2/0] fr inarp
# Otherwise, configure a static address mapping.
[RouterC-Serial2/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.251 80

Connecting LANs with a dedicated line


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 28, two routers are directly connected with serial interfaces. Router A operates in
DCE mode, and Router B operates in DTE mode.
Figure 28 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
Approach 1: On main interfaces
1. Configure Router A:
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 202.38.163.251 255.255.255.0
# Enable frame relay on the interface and configure the interface to operate in DCE mode.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dce
# Configure a local virtual circuit.

104
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr dlci 100
2. Configure Router B:
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 202.38.163.252 255.255.255.0
# Enable frame relay on the interface and configure the interface to operate in DTE mode.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte

Approach 2: On subinterfaces
3. Configure Router A:
# Enable frame relay on interface Serial 2/0 and configure the interface to operate in DCE mode.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dce
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure the IP address and DLCI of the subinterface Serial 2/0.1.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0.1 p2p
[RouterA-Serial2/0.1] ip address 202.38.163.251 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Serial2/0.1] fr dlci 100
4. Configure Router B:
# Enable frame relay on interface Serial 2/0 and configure the interface to operate in DTE mode.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure IP address of the subinterface and local virtual circuit.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0.1 p2p
[RouterB-Serial2/0.1] ip address 202.38.163.252 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Serial2/0.1] fr dlci 100

Connecting LANs through an Annex G DLCI


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 29, Router A and Router B are connected with serial interfaces. It is desirable to use
frame relay PVCs to transmit X.25 packets. Router A operates as the DCE and Router B operates as the
DTE.
Figure 29 Network diagram

105
Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Create an X.25 template.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] x25 template vofr
# Configure the local X.25 address.
[RouterA-x25-vofr] x25 x121-address 10094
# Configure the X.25 address mapping to the destination IP address.
[RouterA-x25-vofr] x25 map ip 202.38.163.252 x121-address 20094
[RouterA-x25-vofr] quit
# Assign an IP address to the local interface.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA–Serial2/0] ip address 202.38.163.251 255.255.255.0
# Enable frame relay on the interface and configure the interface to operate in DCE mode.
[RouterA–Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterA–Serial2/0] fr interface-type dce
# Create a PVC.
[RouterA–Serial2/0] fr dlci 100
# Configure the PVC to operate in Annex G DCE mode.
[RouterA-fr-dlci-Serial2/0-100] annexg dce
# Apply the X.25 template to the PVC.
[RouterA-fr-dlci-Serial2/0-100] x25-template vofr
[RouterA-fr-dlci-Serial2/0-100] quit
# Configure the FR address mapping to the destination IP address.
[RouterA–Serial2/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.252 100
2. Configure Router B:
# Create an X.25 template.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] x25 template vofr
# Configure the local X.25 address.
[RouterB-x25-vofr] x25 x121-address 20094
# Configure the X.25 address mapping to the destination IP address.
[RouterB-x25-vofr] x25 map ip 202.38.163.251 x121-address 10094
[RouterB-x25-vofr] quit
# Assign an IP address to the local interface.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB–Serial2/0] ip address 202.38.163.252 255.255.255.0
# Enable frame relay on the interface and configure the interface to operate in DTE mode.
[RouterB–Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterB–Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte
# Create a frame relay PVC.
[RouterB–Serial2/0] fr dlci 100
# Configure the PVC to operate in Annex G DTE mode.
[RouterB-fr-dlci-Serial2/0-100] annexg dte

106
# Apply the X.25 Template to the PVC.
[RouterB-fr-dlci-Serial2/0-100] x25-template vofr
[RouterB-fr-dlci-Serial2/0-100] quit
# Configure the FR address mapping to the destination IP address.
[RouterB–Serial2/0] fr map ip 202.38.163.251 100

Troubleshooting frame relay


Symptom 1
The physical layer is in down status.

Solution
Check the following items:
• Check the physical line.
• Check that the remote device is working correctly.

Symptom 2
The physical layer is already up, but the link layer protocol is down.

Solution
Check the following items:
• Frame relay is enabled on the peer devices.
• If the two devices are directly connected, make sure that one end is in DTE mode and the other end
is in DCE mode.
• Both ends are using the same LMI protocol.
• If the problem persists, execute the debugging lmi command to determine whether one Status
Response message is received for each Status Request message. If not, check the physical layer.

Symptom 3
The link layer protocol is up, but the remote party cannot be pinged.

Solution
Check the following items:
• The devices at both ends have configured (or created) correct address mapping for the peer.
• A route to the peer exists if the devices are not in the same subnet segment.

107
Configuring frame relay compression

Overview
Frame relay compression technique compresses frame relay packets to save network bandwidth, reduces
network load, and improves the data transfer efficiency on the frame relay network.
The device supports FRF.9 stac compression (called FRF.9) and FRF.20 IPHC (called FRF.20).

FRF.9
FRF.9 classifies packets into two types: control packets and data packets. Control packets are used for
status negotiation between the two ends of DLCI where the compression protocol has been configured.
FRF.9 data packets cannot be switched before the negotiation succeeds. If FRF.9 fails to negotiate the
state after ten FRF.9 control packets are sent, the negotiating parties stop negotiation and the
compression configuration does not take effect.
FRF.9 compresses only data packets and InARP packets; it does not compress LMI packets.
FRF.9 stac compression is suitable for low-speed links.

FRF.20
FRF.20 compresses the IP header (including the RTP/TCP header) of packets transmitted over frame relay.
For example, you may use it to compress voice packets (RTP packets) to save bandwidth, decrease load,
and improve transmission efficiency on a frame relay network.
FRF.20 classifies packets into control packets and data packets. Control packets are sent between
FRF.20-enabled interfaces to negotiate status information. The interfaces cannot exchange FRF.20 data
packets before the negotiation succeeds. If FRF.20 fails to negotiate the state after ten control packets are
sent, the interfaces stop negotiation and their compression settings do not take effect.
FRF.20 compresses only RTP packets and TCP ACK packets.

Configuring FRF.9 compression


Frame relay main interface is a P2MP interface, and frame relay subinterface includes the following
types: P2P and P2MP. The configuration of frame relay FRF.9 compression varies by different interface
types. For a P2P subinterface, use the fr compression frf9 command to enable FRF.9 compression in
subinterface view. For a P2MP frame relay interface or subinterface, the frame relay compression is
configured when creating static address mapping.

Configuration restrictions and guidelines


• To make FRF.9 compression take effect, enable it on both ends.
• The fr compression frf9 command is applicable to only P2P subinterfaces with IETF frame relay
enabled. Before configuring the fr compression frf9 command on a subinterface, configure a DLCI
on it first.

108
• After enabling or disabling FRF.9 compression on a subinterface, re-enable the subinterface using
the shutdown command and then the undo shutdown command to make the configuration take
effect.
• FRF.9 compression requires a synchronization procedure. If packets are out of order when being
compressed, the compression is prone to failure.

Configuration procedure
To configure FRF.9 compression:

Step Command Remarks


3. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
interface-number
4. Enter frame relay interface or subinterface
or N/A
view.
interface serial
interface-number.subnumber

5. Configure Optional.
FRF.9 For P2P subinterface, enable By default, FRF.9
fr compression frf9
compressio FRF.9 compression. compression is
n (use either disabled.
one
For a P2MP interface, enable fr map ip { ip-address [ mask ] |
according
FRF.9 compression when default } dlci-number [ broadcast |
to interface Optional.
creating static address [ ietf | nonstandard ] ] *
type).
mapping. compression frf9

Configuring FRF.20 IP header compression


The frame relay function provides IP header compression including RTP/TCP header compression. You
can enable IP header compression on interfaces or when you configure static address mapping.
To configure FRF.20 IP header compression:

Step Command Remarks


6. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
7. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

(Approach 1) Enable Optional.


8. Configure
FRF.20 IP header By default,
FRF.20 IP
compression on an FRF.20 IP header
header fr compression iphc
interface and provide compression is
compression
FRF.20 IP header disabled on
.
compression option. interface.

109
Step Command Remarks
Optional.

fr iphc { nonstandard | rtp-connections By default,


number1 | tcp-connections number2 | FRF.20 IP header
tcp-include } compression
option is not
provided.

(Approach 2) Enable Optional.


fr map ip { ip-address [ mask ] |
FRF.20 IP header By default, no
default } dlci-number [ broadcast |
compression when static address
[ ietf | nonstandard ] ] * compression
creating a static address mapping is
iphc connections number
mapping. configured.

Displaying and maintaining frame relay


compression
Task Command Remarks
display fr compress [ interface
Display statistics about FRF.9 interface-type interface-number ]
Available in any view.
compression. [ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

display fr iphc [ interface


Display statistics about FRF.20 IP interface-type interface-number ]
Available in any view.
header compression. [ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

Frame relay compression configuration examples


Frame relay FRF.9 stac compression configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 30, Router A and Router B are connected through a frame relay network. Enable
frame relay compression function (FRF.9) between them.
Figure 30 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Enable frame relay on interface Serial 2/0.
<RouterA> system-view

110
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
# Configure an IP address for interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 10.110.40.1 255.255.255.0
# Configure interface Serial 2/0 to operate in DTE mode.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte
# Create an IP address map entry and enable FRF.9 compression on interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr map ip 10.110.40.2 100 compression frf9
2. Configure Router B:
# Enable frame relay on interface Serial 2/0.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
# Configure an IP address for interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 10.110.40.2 255.255.255.0
# Configure interface Serial 2/0 to operate in DTE mode.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte
# Create an IP address map entry and enable FRF.9 compression on interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr map ip 10.110.40.1 100 compression frf9
3. Verify the configurations:
# Ping Router B from Router A.
<RouterA> ping 10.110.40.2
PING 10.110.40.2: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 10.110.40.2: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=13 ms
Reply from 10.110.40.2: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=12 ms
Reply from 10.110.40.2: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=12 ms
Reply from 10.110.40.2: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=12 ms
Reply from 10.110.40.2: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=12 ms

--- 10.110.40.2 ping statistics ---


5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 12/12/13 ms
# Display statistics about packet compression on Router A.
<RouterA> display fr compress
Serial2/0
-DLCI:100
enable frame-relay compression
uncompressed bytes send/receive : 595/595
compressed bytes send/receive : 159/157
1 min avg ratio send/receive : 0.000/0.000
5 min avg ratio send/receive : 0.267/0.264

111
Frame relay FRF.20 IP header compression configuration
example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 31, Router A and Router B are interconnected with a frame relay link. Enable FRF.20
IP compression on the two routers.
Figure 31 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Enable frame relay on interface Serial 2/0.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
# Configure an IP address for interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 10.1.1.1 24
# Configure interface Serial 2/0 to operate in DTE mode.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure a static route, setting the destination IP address to 12.1.1.2/24 and next hop IP
address to 10.1.1.2.
[RouterA] ip route-static 12.1.1.2 24 10.1.1.2
2. Configure Router B:
# Enable frame relay on interface Serial 2/0.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
# Configure an IP address for interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 10.1.1.2 24
# Configure interface Serial2/0 to operate in DCE mode.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dce
# Configure a frame relay DLCI for interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr dlci 100
[RouterB-fr-dlci-Serial2/0-100] quit
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Enable frame relay on interface Serial 2/1.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] link-protocol fr
# Configure an IP address for interface Serial 2/1.
[RouterB-Serial2/1] ip address 12.1.1.1 24

112
# Configure interface Serial 2/1 to operate in DCE mode.
[RouterB-Serial2/1] fr interface-type dce
# Configure a frame relay DLCI for interface Serial 2/1.
[RouterB-Serial2/1] fr dlci 100
[RouterB-fr-dlci-Serial2/1-100] quit
# Enable FRF.20 compression on interface Serial 2/1, and configure interface Serial 2/1 to
include TCP header compression when performing RTP compression.
[RouterB-Serial2/1] fr compression iphc
[RouterB-Serial2/1] fr iphc tcp-include
3. Configure Router C:
# Enable frame relay on interface Serial 2/0.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] interface serial 2/0
[RouterC-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
# Configure an IP address for interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterC-Serial2/0] ip address 12.1.1.2 24
# Configure interface Serial 2/0 to operate in DTE mode.
[RouterC-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte
# Enable FRF.20 compression on interface Serial 2/0, and configure interface Serial 2/0 to
include TCP header compression when performing RTP compression.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr compression iphc
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr iphc tcp-include
[RouterC-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure a static route, setting the destination IP address to 10.1.1.1/24 and next hop IP
address to 12.1.1.1.
[RouterC] ip route-static 10.1.1.1 24 12.1.1.1
4. Verify the configurations:
# Telnet to Router C from Router A.
<RouterA> telnet 12.1.1.2
Trying 12.1.1.2 ...
Press CTRL+K to abort
Connected to 12.1.1.2 ...
******************************************************************************
* Copyright (c) 2004-2009 Hangzhou H3C Tech. Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. *
* Without the owner's prior written consent, *
* no decompiling or reverse-engineering shall be allowed. *
******************************************************************************
# Display FRF.20 compression statistics on Router B.
<RouterB> display fr iphc
Serial2/1 -DLCI:100
RTP header compression information:
Compression:
Total packets: 0 , Packets compressed: 0
Link searches: 0 , Search missed : 0
Bytes saved : 0 , Bytes sent : 0
Decompression:

113
Total packets: 0 , Packets compressed: 0
Errors : 0
Compression-connections: 16 , Decompression-connections: 16

Information of TCP header compression:


Compression:
Total packets: 31 , Packets compressed: 28
Link searches: 0 , Search Missed : 2
Bytes saved : 976 , Bytes sent : 314
Decompression:
Total packets: 0 , Packets compressed: 0
Errors : 0
Compression-connections: 16 , Decompression-connections: 16

114
Configuring multilink frame relay

Overview
Multilink frame relay (MFR) is a cost effective bandwidth solution. It is based on the FRF.16 protocol of the
frame relay forum and implemented on DTE/DCE interfaces.
MFR provides MFR interfaces, a type of logical interface. An MFR interface is formed by a bundle of
frame relay physical links to provide high transmission speed and bandwidth beyond the capabilities of
a single link. For the purpose of this document, an MFR interface is called a "bundle" and the physical
links within it are called "bundle links." A bundle manages its bundle links as shown in Figure 32.
Figure 32 An MFR bundle
Bundle

Bundle Link

Bundle Link

Bundle Link

The bundle links works in the physical layer, and the bundle works in the data link layer.
Configuring a bundle and its bundle links is to configure an MFR interface and its member physical
interfaces.
The functionality and configuration of the MFR interface is the same as that of the FR interface. Similar to
the FR interface, the MFR interface supports DTE and DCE modes, as well as QoS queuing. After physical
interfaces are bundled into an MFR interface, their original network layer and frame relay link layer
parameters are replaced with the parameter settings of the MFR interface.
To reduce overheads and maximize the bandwidth of an MFR interface, assign physical links of the rate
rather than different rates to it.
On an MFR interface you can configure subinterfaces.

Configuring an MFR bundle


Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

By default, no MFR interface or


2. Create an MFR interface interface mfr { interface-number | subinterface exists.
and enter MFR interface interface-number.subnumber Before creating an MFR subinterface,
view. [ p2mp | p2p ] } make sure that the specific main MFR
interface already exists.

115
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
The default bundle identifier is MFR +
3. Set the MFR bundle frame relay bundle number, for
mfr bundle-name [ name ]
identifier. example, MFR4.
You cannot set a bundle identifier in the
MFR number format.

Optional.
4. Enable MFR
mfr fragment By default, MRF fragmentation is
fragmentation.
disabled.

Optional.
5. Configure the size of the By default, the size of the MFR sliding
mfr window-size number
MFR sliding window. window is equal to the number of
physical interfaces bundled by MFR.
6. Configure maximum
Optional.
fragment size for bundle mfr fragment-size bytes
link. The default setting is 300 bytes.

7. Set the intended


bandwidth for the MFR bandwidth bandwidth-value Optional.
interface.

Optional.
8. Configure other
parameters of the MFR See "Configuring frame relay." The fr interface-type command and the
interface. fr inarp command are applicable to only
main MFR interfaces.

Configuring an MFR bundle link


Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter frame relay interface interface interface-type
N/A
view. interface-number
3. Assign the current interface link-protocol fr mfr By default, an interface is not assigned to
to an MFR interface. interface-number any MFR interface.

Optional.
4. Configure the MFR bundle
mfr link-name [ name ] By default, the name of the current
link identifier.
interface is used.
5. Configure the hello message
Optional.
sending interval for the MFR mfr timer hello seconds
bundle link. The default setting is 10 seconds.

6. Configure the waiting time


Optional.
before the MFR bundle link mfr timer ack seconds
resends hello messages. The default setting is 4 seconds.

7. Configure the maximum


times that the MFR bundle Optional.
mfr retry number
link can resend hello The default setting is 2.
messages.

116
Displaying and maintaining multilink frame relay
Task Command Remarks
display interface mfr [ interface-number |
Display configuration and
interface-number.subnumber] [ | { begin | Available in any view.
status of an MFR interface.
exclude | include } regular-expression ]

Display configuration and display mfr [ interface interface-type


statistics of an MFR bundle interface-number | verbose ] [ | { begin | Available in any view.
and bundle links. exclude | include } regular-expression ]

reset counters interface [ mfr


Clear statistics of MFR
[ interface-number | Available in user view.
interfaces.
interface-number.subnumber ] ]

Multilink frame relay configuration examples


MFR direct connection configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 33, Router A and Router B are directly connected through Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1.
The frame relay protocol bundles the two serial ports to provide broader bandwidth.
Figure 33 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Create and configure MFR interface 4 (MFR4).
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface mfr 4
[RouterA-MFR4] ip address 10.140.10.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-MFR4] fr interface-type dte
[RouterA-MFR4] fr map ip 10.140.10.2 100
[RouterA-MFR4] quit
# Bundle Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1 to MFR4.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr mfr 4
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] link-protocol fr mfr 4
2. Configure Router B:

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# Create and configure MFR interface 4 (MFR4).
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface mfr 4
[RouterB-MFR4] ip address 10.140.10.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-MFR4] fr interface-type dce
[RouterB-MFR4] fr dlci 100
[RouterB-fr-dlci-MFR4-100] quit
[RouterB-MFR4] fr map ip 10.140.10.1 100
[RouterB-MFR4] quit
# Bundle Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1 to MFR4.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr mfr 4
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterB] interface serial 2/1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] link-protocol fr mfr 4

MFR switched connection configuration example


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 34, Router A and Router C are connected through MFR to Router B where MFR
switching is enabled.
Figure 34 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Configure interface MFR1.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface mfr 1
[RouterA-MFR1] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
[RouterA-MFR1] quit
# Add Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1 to interface MFR1.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr mfr 1
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] link-protocol fr mfr 1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] quit
2. Configure Router B:
# Enable frame relay switching.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] fr switching

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# Configure interface MFR1.
[RouterB] interface mfr 1
[RouterB-MFR1] fr interface-type dce
[RouterB-MFR1] fr dlci 100
[RouterB-fr-dlci-MFR1-100] quit
[RouterB-MFR1] quit
# Configure interface MFR2.
[RouterB] interface mfr 2
[RouterB-MFR2] fr interface-type dce
[RouterB-MFR2] fr dlci 200
[RouterB-fr-dlci-MFR2-200] quit
[RouterB-MFR2] quit
# Add Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1 to interface MFR1.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr mfr 1
[RouterB] quit
[RouterB] interface serial 2/1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] link-protocol fr mfr 1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] quit
# Add Serial 2/2 and Serial 2/3 to interface MFR2.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/2
[RouterB-Serial2/2] link-protocol fr mfr 2
[RouterB-Serial 2/2] li quit
[RouterB] interface serial 2/3
[RouterB-Serial2/3] link-protocol fr mfr 2
[RouterB-Serial2/3] quit
# Configure static route for frame relay switching.
[RouterB] fr switch pvc1 interface mfr 1 dlci 100 interface mfr 2 dlci 200
3. Configure Router C:
# Configure interface MFR2.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] interface mfr 2
[RouterC-MFR2] ip address 1.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
[RouterC-MFR2] quit
# Add Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1 to interface MFR2.
[RouterC] interface serial 2/0
[RouterC-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr mfr 2
[RouterC-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterC] interface serial 2/1
[RouterC-Serial2/1] link-protocol fr mfr 2

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Configuring PPPoFR

PPP over frame relay (PPPoFR) enables routers to establish end-to-end PPP sessions on a frame relay
network, allowing frame relay stations to use PPP features such as LCP, NCP, authentication, and MP
fragmentation.

Configuration procedure
To configure PPPoFR:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Create a virtual template
interface virtual-template
interface and the virtual N/A
interface-number
template interface view.

ip address ip-address { mask-length


3. Assign IP address. N/A
| mask }
4. Return to system view. quit N/A
5. Enter the frame relay interface interface interface-type
N/A
view. interface-number
6. Enable frame relay on the link-protocol fr [ ietf |
N/A
interface. nonstandard ]
7. Configure a frame relay DLCI. fr dlci dlci-number Optional for DTE side.
8. Return to frame relay interface
quit N/A
view.

fr map ppp dlci-number interface


9. Map frame relay DLCI to PPP. N/A
virtual-template interface-number

When you configure a static route on a virtual-template interface, specify only the next hop. If you want
to specify the outbound interface as well, make sure the physical interface bound to the virtual-template
interface works properly.

Displaying and maintaining PPPoFR


Task Command Remarks
display fr map-info pppofr
[ interface interface-type
Display PPPoFR MAP and status. interface-number ] [ | { begin | Available in any view.
exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

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PPPoFR configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 35, Router A and Router B connect through the frame relay network. Enable PPPoFR
between them.
Figure 35 Network diagram
VT1 VT1
10.1.1.2/8 10.1.1.1/8
FR
S2/0 S2/0
Router A Router B

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Create and configure virtual template interface Virtual-Template 1.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ip address 10.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/0.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
# Create PPP mapping on Serial 2/0.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr map ppp 16 interface virtual-template 1
2. Configure Router B:
# Create and configure virtual template interface Virtual-Template 1.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/0.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dce
# Create DLCI 16.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr dlci 16
[RouterB-fr-dlci-Serial2/0-16] quit
# Create PPP map on Serial 2/0.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr map ppp 16 interface virtual-template 1

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Configuring MPoFR

Multilink PPP over Frame Relay (MPoFR) enables Frame Relay stations to transmit MP fragments between
them.
To configure MPoFR:
• Configure at least two virtual templates for PPPoFR, without assigning IP addresses to them.
• Create a virtual template for MP and bind the PPPoFR virtual templates with this MP virtual template.
To ensure transmission quality over virtual template interfaces, configure queue-independent QoS
features on the virtual interfaces and queue-dependent QoS features on the FR interface. For more
information, see ACL and QoS Configuration Guide.
When you configure a static route for a virtual-template interface, specify only the next hop. If you want
to specify the outbound interface as well, make sure the physical interface bound to the virtual template
interface is up.
For more information about MP configuration, see "Configuring PPP and MP."

Configuration procedure
To configure MPoFR:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Create a virtual
interface virtual-template
template interface for N/A
interface-number-mp
implementing MP.

Optional.
3. Configure the maximum
bandwidth for the qos max-bandwidth bandwidth The default maximum bandwidth of
interface. a virtual template interface is 64
kbps.
4. Assign an IP address to ip address ip-address { mask-length |
N/A
the interface. mask }
5. Return to system view. quit N/A
6. Create a virtual interface virtual-template
N/A
template for PPPoFR. interface-number
7. Bind the PPPoFR virtual
ppp mp virtual-template
template to the MP N/A
interface-number-mp
virtual template.
8. Return to system view. quit N/A
9. Enter frame relay
interface interface-type interface-number N/A
interface view.
10. Enable frame relay on
link-protocol fr [ ietf | nonstandard ] N/A
the interface.

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Step Command Remarks
11. Create a frame relay
fr dlci dlci-number Optional on the DTE side.
DLCI.
12. Return to frame relay
quit N/A
interface view.
13. Map the frame relay
fr map ppp dlci-number interface
DLCI to the PPPoFR N/A
virtual-template interface-number
virtual template.

In system view, repeat steps 6 to 13


14. Return to system view. quit to configure multiple PPPoFR virtual
templates.

MPoFR configuration example


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 36, the ATM backbone network uses FR network as the access network to support
transmitting traffic of multiple services. A single virtual circuit of an FR link can transport multiple kinds of
service data.
The bandwidth of Router A Serial2/0 is 64 kbps. Host A sends data traffic stream 1 to Host C, Host B
sends data traffic stream 2 to Host D, and a voice service stream exists between Router A and Telephone
A.
The bandwidth of Router B Serial2/0 is 64 kbps. Host C sends data traffic stream 3 to Host A, Host D
sends data traffic stream 4 to Host B, and a voice service stream exists between Router B and Telephone
B.
To ensure voice quality, fragment the data packets to reduce voice jitter caused by transmission delay.
MPoFR is used here, and MP is used to fragment data packets.

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Figure 36 Network diagram

ATM

FR FR

Telephone A Telephone B
Router A S 2/0 S2/0 Router B
1.1.6.1/ 24 1.1.6.2/ 24

Eth1/2 Eth1/1 Eth1/2 Eth1/1


1.1.1.2/ 24 10.1.1.2/ 24 1.1.4.2/ 24 10.1.4.2/ 24

Host A Host B Host C Host D


1.1.1.1/ 24 10.1.1.1/ 24 1.1.4.1/24 10.1.4.1/24

Configuration procedure
This example only covers MPoFR configuration. Routing and other features are beyond the scope of this
example.
1. Configure Router A:
# Create Virtual-Template 1 for PPPoFR and bind it to the MP template Virtual-Template 3.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] ppp mp virtual-template 3
[RouterA-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Create Virtual-Template 2 for PPPoFR and bind it to the MP template Virtual-Template 3.
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 2
[RouterA-Virtual-Template2] ppp mp virtual-template 3
[RouterA-Virtual-Template2] quit
# Create and configure Virtual-Template 3.
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 3
[RouterA-Virtual-Template3] ppp mp lfi
[RouterA-Virtual-Template3] qos max-bandwidth 64
[RouterA-Virtual-Template3] ip address 1.1.6.1 255.255.255.0
# Map DLCI 100 to Virtual-Template 1 and DLCI 200 to Virtual-Template 2 for PPPoFR on the frame
relay interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr dlci 100
[RouterA-fr-dlci-Serial2/0-100] quit
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr map ppp 100 interface virtual-template 1
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr dlci 200
[RouterA-fr-dlci-Serial2/0-200] quit

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[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr map ppp 200 interface virtual-template 2
2. Configure Router B:
# Create Virtual-Template 1 for PPPoFR and bind it to the MP template Virtual-Template 3.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface Virtual-Template 1
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] ppp mp virtual-template 3
[RouterB-Virtual-Template1] quit
# Create Virtual-Template 2 for PPPoFR and bind it to the MP template Virtual-Template 3.
[RouterB] interface Virtual-Template 2
[RouterB-Virtual-Template2] ppp mp virtual-template 3
[RouterB-Virtual-Template2] quit
# Create and configure Virtual-Template 3.
[RouterB] interface Virtual-Template 3
[RouterB-Virtual-Template3] ppp mp lfi
[RouterB-Virtual-Template3] qos max-bandwidth 64
[RouterB-Virtual-Template3] ip address 1.1.6.2 255.255.255.0
# Map DLCI 100 to Virtual-Template 1 and DLCI 200 to Virtual-Template 2 for PPPoFR on the frame
relay interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr dlci 100
[RouterB-fr-dlci-Serial2/0-100] quit
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr map ppp 100 interface virtual-template 1
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr dlci 200
[RouterB-fr-dlci-Serial2/0-200] quit
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr map ppp 200 interface virtual-template 2

125
Configuring DCC

Overview
Dial Control Center (DCC) is a routing technology used when routers interconnect through a public
switched network, such as a PSTN or an ISDN. It can provide the dial-on-demand service where any two
routers dial to set up a connection when data needs transferring instead of setting up a connection before
that. When the link becomes idle, DCC automatically disconnects it.
Under certain circumstances, connections between routers are instantly established whenever there is
data to be transferred, so data transfer is time-independent, bursty, and small sized. DCC is a flexible,
economical, and efficient solution for such applications. In DCC, backup mechanisms are available to
guarantee communications. In case a primary line fails, DCC switches traffic over to a secondary line to
ensure ongoing services.

Approaches to DCC
Two approaches are available to DCC: circular DCC (C-DCC) and resource-shared DCC (RS-DCC). They
are suitable for different applications. In practice, the two parties in a call do not necessarily adopt the
same approach.
Terms used in DCC configuration are as follows:
• Physical interface—An interface that physically exists. Examples are serial, BRI, and asynchronous
interfaces.
• Dialer interface—A logical interface created for configuring DCC parameters. A physical interface
can inherit the DCC configurations after it is assigned to a dialer interface.
• Dialup interface—Any interface used for dialup connection. It can be a dialer interface, a physical
interface assigned to a dialer interface, or a physical interface directly configured with DCC
parameters.

C-DCC
1. Features of C-DCC.
C-DCC delivers the following features:
{ A logical dial (dialer) interface can contain multiple physical interfaces, but a physical
interface can be assigned to only one dialer interface. A physical interface can provide only
one type of dial service.
{ You may assign a physical interface to a dialer interface to inherit DCC parameters by
assigning it to a dialer circular group, or directly configure DCC parameters on the physical
interface.
{ All the physical interfaces in a dialer circular group inherit the attributes of the same dialer
interface.
{ You may associate a dialer interface with multiple call destination addresses by configuring the
dialer route command or with a single call destination address by configuring the dialer
number command.
C-DCC is powerful and has broad applications. However, it lacks flexibility and extensibility.

126
For example, on an ISDN BRI interface, all the B channels inherit its configuration in the C-DCC
approach. The static binding between call destination address settings and physical interface
configurations will restrict using C-DCC, because dialer routes are becoming increasingly
complicated as a result of network growth and support to more protocols.
2. Association of physical interfaces and dialer interfaces in C-DCC.
Figure 37 Association between physical interfaces and dialer interfaces

In Figure 37, a physical interface can be assigned to only one dialer interface, but each dialer interface
can contain multiple physical interfaces and be mapped to multiple destination addresses. In addition,
a physical interface does not necessarily belong to any dialer interface. You may directly map it to one
or multiple destination addresses.
In the figure, physical interfaces Serial 2/1, BRI 1/1, and Serial 2/2 are assigned to Dialer2, where
mappings between dial strings and destination addresses are configured.

RS-DCC
1. Features of RS-DCC.
RS-DCC is different from C-DCC and separates logical configuration from physical configuration,
so it is simpler and more flexible. RS-DCC delivers the following features:
{ Physical interface configuration and logical configuration for calls are separate. They are
associated dynamically when triggered by calls. This allows a physical interface to provide
services for different dial applications.
{ Associations between dialer interfaces and call destination addresses are one-to-one. You may
configure them with the dialer number command.
{ Each dialer interface can contain multiple physical interfaces, and each physical interface can
be assigned to multiple dialer interfaces.
{ Dial attributes, such as dialer interface, dialer bundle, and physical interface, are described by
an RS-DCC set. All the calls destined to the same network use the same RS-DCC set.
{ RS-DCC parameters cannot be directly configured on physical interfaces. A physical interface
can participate in RS-DCC only after it is assigned to a dialer interface.
2. Association of physical interfaces, dialer bundles, and dialer interfaces in RS-DCC.

127
Figure 38 Association of physical interfaces, dialer bundles, and dialer interfaces

In Figure 38, a physical interface can be assigned to multiple dialer bundles and serve multiple dialer
interfaces, but each dialer interface can use only one dialer bundle and configured with one dial string.
The physical interfaces in a dialer bundle can be assigned different priorities.
In the figure, interface Dialer2 uses dialer bundle 2, which contains physical interfaces BRI 1/0, BRI 1/1,
and Serial 2/1. Suppose BRI 1/0 is assigned the priority of 100, BRI 1/1 the priority of 50, and Serial
2/1 the priority of 75. Because BRI 1/0 has a higher priority over BRI 1/1 and Serial 2/1, it will be
preferred when Dialer2 places a call.

DCC features
Basic DCC features
Basic DCC offers the following features:
• Supporting a wide range of dialup interfaces, such as synchronous/asynchronous serial interface,
AUX port, ISDN BRI or PRI interface, and AM interface to accommodate to different networking
requirements.
• Supporting link layer protocol PPP.
• Supporting IP on dialup interfaces.
• Supporting dynamic routing protocols, such as RIP and OSPF, on dialup interfaces.
• Providing flexible dialup interface backup.
• Allowing you to manage different modems on the user interface.

Callback through DCC


In callback, the called party originates a return call to the calling party. The calling party is the client and
the called party is the server. The callback client originates a call first, and the callback server decides
whether to originate a return call. If a callback is needed, the server will immediately disconnect and
originate a return call.
DCC callback offers the following benefits:

128
• Enhanced security—When placing a return call, the server dials the calling number configured at
the local end. This prevents the insecurity resulting from username and password compromise.
• Payer change—This is useful for saving cost in the case that the call rates in two directions are
different.
• Consolidated call charge bills—Facilitating settlement.
PPP callback and ISDN caller identification callback features are available. The PPP callback conforms
to RFC1570 specifications and can be used where both client and server own fixed network addresses,
or the client accepts dynamic network address assignment.

Configuration prerequisites
Before you configure DCC, complete the following configurations:
• Identifying the topology of DCC application
• Making preparatory configuration
• Configuring DCC parameters

Identifying the topology of DCC application


Identify the following:
• Which routers will provide DCC and how they are related to each other.
• Which interfaces on the routers will provide DCC, and which roles they will play.
• Which transmission medium will be used, PSTN or ISDN.

Making preparatory configuration


Before you configure DCC on an interface:
• Identify the interface type (synchronous/asynchronous serial, ISDN BRI or PRI, or AUX) and
configure physical interface parameters.
• On the dialup interface, enable link layer protocol encapsulation, such as PPP.
• Configure the routing protocol, such as RIP or OSPF, for example.
• Configure the network protocol, such as IP.
• Select a DCC approach, C-DCC or RS-DCC.

Configuring DCC parameters


Configure DCC parameters depending on the DCC approach you selected for basic DCC dial functions.
Based on that, you may configure advanced functions such as MP, PPP callback, ISDN caller
identification callback, ISDN leased line, auto-dial, and circular dialer string backup. You can also tune
the attribute values of DCC dialup interfaces depending on link conditions.

DCC configuration task list


Task Remarks
Configuring basic settings for DCC Required.

Configuring C-DCC Required.


Configure either C-DCC or RS-DCC as
Configuring RS-DCC
required.

129
Task Remarks
Configuring MP for DCC Optional.

Configuring PPP callback Optional.

Configuring ISDN caller identification callback Optional.

Configuring an ISDN leased line

Configuring advanced Configuring auto-dial


Optional.
DCC functions Configuring circular dial string backup

Configuring DCC overlap receiving

Configuring DCC timers and buffer queue length Optional.

Configuring dynamic route backup achieved through DCC Optional.

Configuring the traffic statistics collecting interval Optional.

Configuring basic settings for DCC


Regardless of which DCC approach is used, C-DCC or RS-DCC, follow the tasks described in this section.
Complete these tasks to configure basic parameters for DCC:

Task Remarks
Optional.
Setting the operating mode for physical interfaces Skip this task when you configure on ISDN BRI or PRI
interfaces.

Configuring link layer/network/routing protocols on


Required.
the dialup interface

Associating a DCC dial ACL with the dialup interface Required.

Setting the operating mode for physical interfaces


For a synchronous/asynchronous serial interface, set its operating mode depending on the connected
modem. If the connected modem is asynchronous, set the interface to operate in asynchronous mode and
then enable modem dial on the corresponding user interface. If the connected modem is synchronous, set
the interface to operate in synchronous mode.
By default, a synchronous/asynchronous serial interface operates in synchronous mode, and an
asynchronous serial interface operates in asynchronous mode.
For more information, see Interface Configuration Guide and "Managing a modem."

Configuring link layer/network/routing protocols on the dialup


interface
In dialup interface (physical or dialer interface) view, configure the link layer protocol (which can only be
PPP for a dialer interface) using the link-protocol command and assign the dialup interface an IP address
using the ip address command.

130
In system view, perform other configurations.
When PPP encapsulation is configured, you can also configure PAP or CHAP authentication. Moreover,
consider the following when you configure PPP-related commands:
• In the C-DCC approach, make the configuration on dialer interfaces.
• In the RS-DCC approach, make the configuration on dialer interfaces and preferably the same
configuration on physical dialup interfaces on the calling side to guarantee the reliability of PPP link
parameters negotiation; on the called side, make the configuration on physical dialup interfaces.
For more information, see Layer 2—WAN Configuration Guide, Layer 3—IP Services Configuration
Guide, and Layer 3—IP Routing Configuration Guide.

Associating a DCC dial ACL with the dialup interface


You may configure a dial ACL to filter traffic traversing a dialup interface. Packets fall into the following
categories, depending on whether they comply with the permit or deny statements in the dial ACL:
• Packets matching a permit statement or that do not match any deny statements. When receiving
such a packet, DCC either sends it out if a link is present and resets the idle-timeout timer or
originates a new call to set up a link if no link is present.
• Packets not matching any permit statements or that match a deny statement. When receiving such
a packet, DCC either sends it out without resetting the idle-timeout timer if a link is present, or drops
it without originating calls for link setup if no link is present.
For DCC to send packets normally, configure a dial ACL and associate it with the concerned dialup
interface (physical or dialer interface) by using the dialer-group command. You may either configure a
dial ACL directly using the dialer-rule command or reference an existing ACL.
To associate a dial ACL with the dialup interface:

Step Command
1. Enter system view. system-view
2. Configure a dial ACL for a dialer access group, dialer-rule group-number { protocol-name { deny |
specifying the conditions triggering DCC calls. permit } | acl { acl-number | name acl-name } }
3. Enter dialup interface (physical or dialer
interface interface-type interface-number
interface) view.
4. Associate the dialup interface with the dial ACL
by associating the interface with the dialer-group group-number
corresponding dialer access group.

Make sure that the group-number arguments in the dialer-rule and dialer-group commands take the
same value.

Configuring C-DCC
In the C-DCC approach, you can configure DCC parameters for a physical interface using one of the
following methods:
• Directly configure DCC parameters on the physical interface. This is applicable only to one-to-one
calls or one-to-many calls.
• Bind the interface to a dialer interface by assigning it to the dialer circular group associated with
the dialer interface. The interface can inherit the DCC parameters configured on the dialer interface.

131
This is applicable to many-to-one and many-to-many calls, in addition to one-to-many and
one-to-one calls.
A dialer circular group associates a dialer interface with a group of physical interfaces. All physical
interfaces in the group inherit the DCC configurations on the dialer interface. If the dialer interface is
associated with multiple destinations, any physical interface in the group can call any of these
destinations.
Depending on your network topology and dial needs, for example, to allow one or multiple interfaces to
both place and receive calls, you may use any combinations of the following C-DCC configuration
approaches:
• Configuring an interface to place calls to a remote end
• Configuring an interface to receive calls from a remote end
• Configuring an interface to place calls to multiple remote ends
• Configuring an interface to receive calls from multiple remote ends
• Configuring multiple interfaces to place calls to one or multiple remote ends
• Configuring multiple interfaces to receive calls from one or multiple remote ends
In the C-DCC implementation of DCC, the two dial parties can configure the PAP or CHAP authentication.
H3C recommends configuring authentication to ensure security of dialing IDs. For more information
about configuring authentication, see "Configuring PPP and MP." When you do that, follow these
guidelines:
• If one party has configured authentication, the other party must do that as well.
• At the sending side, if DCC is enabled on physical interfaces, directly configure PAP or CHAP
authentication on the physical interfaces. If DCC is enabled on a dialer circular group, configure
PAP or CHAP authentication on the dialer interface corresponding to the dialer circular group.
• At the receiving end, make the configuration on both physical and dialer interfaces, because after
a physical interface receives a call, it negotiates PPP and authenticates the dialer prior to handing
over the call to the upper layer DCC module.

Configuring an interface to place calls to a remote end


In Figure 39, an interface at the local end places calls to a single remote end (the components in inverse
color represent the routers irrelevant to the networking).
Figure 39 Network diagram

132
In this scenario, for interface if0 to place DCC calls to a single remote interface if1, you may configure
a dial string with the dialer number or dialer route command. As calls are to be placed from a single
interface, you can configure DCC by configuring a dialer circular group. In addition, you may configure
PAP or CHAP authentication.
To configure an interface to place calls to a remote end:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialup interface
interface interface-type
(physical or dialer interface) N/A
interface-number
view.
3. Enable C-DCC. dialer enable-circular By default, C-DCC is disabled.
• dialer number dial-number
• dialer route protocol
next-hop-address [ mask
4. Configure a dial string for network-mask-length ] [ user
Use either command.
calling a remote end. hostname | broadcast ] *
dial-number [ autodial |
interface interface-type
interface-number ] *

Configuring an interface to receive calls from a remote end


In Figure 40, an interface at the local end receives calls from a single remote end (the components in
inverse color represent the routers irrelevant to the networking).
Figure 40 Network diagram

In this scenario, for interface if0 at the local end to receive DCC calls from a remote interface if1, you can
configure DCC by configuring a dialer circular group. In addition, you may configure authentication,
PAP or CHAP.
To configure an interface to receive calls from a single remote end:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialup interface
interface interface-type
(physical or dialer interface) N/A
interface-number
view.

133
Step Command Remarks
3. Enable C-DCC. dialer enable-circular By default, C-DCC is disabled.

Optional.
If the dialer route ip
dialer route protocol next-hop-address user hostname
4. Configure the interface to
next-hop-address [ mask command is configured at the
receive calls from a remote
network-mask-length ] [ user called end, the called party will use
end.
hostname | broadcast ] * the specified next hop address and
hostname to authenticate the
calling party.

Configuring an interface to place calls to multiple remote ends


In Figure 41, an interface at the local end places calls to multiple remote ends (the components in inverse
color represent the routers irrelevant to the networking).
Figure 41 Network diagram

In this scenario, a single local interface if0 places DCC calls to multiple remote interfaces including if1,
if2, and if3. Because multiple remote ends are involved, use the dialer route command to configure the
dialer strings and destination addresses. As only one originating interface is involved, you may configure
DCC parameters for the interface by configuring a dialer circular group. In addition, you may configure
PAP or CHAP authentication.
To configure an interface to place calls to multiple remote ends:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialup interface
interface interface-type
(physical or dialer interface) N/A
interface-number
view.
3. Enable C-DCC. dialer enable-circular By default, C-DCC is disabled.

dialer route protocol


4. Repeat this step to configure
next-hop-address [ mask
the dial strings and
network-mask-length ] [ user
destination addresses for the N/A
hostname | broadcast ] *
interface to place calls to
dial-number [ autodial | interface
multiple remote ends.
interface-type interface-number ] *

134
Configuring an interface to receive calls from multiple remote
ends
In Figure 42, an interface at the local end receives calls from multiple remote ends (the components in
inverse color represent the routers irrelevant to the networking).
Figure 42 Network diagram

In this scenario, a single local interface if0 receives DCC calls from multiple remote interfaces including
if1, if2, if3, and if4. Because only one interface is involved at the local end, you may configure DCC
parameters for the interface by configuring a dialer circular group. In addition, you may configure PAP
or CHAP authentication.
To configure an interface to receive calls from multiple remote ends:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialup interface
interface interface-type
(physical or dialer interface) N/A
interface-number
view.
3. Enable C-DCC. dialer enable-circular By default, C-DCC is disabled.

Optional.
If the dialer route ip
next-hop-address user hostname
dialer route protocol command is configured at a called
4. Configure the interface to
next-hop-address [ mask end, the called party will use the
receive calls from a remote
network-mask-length ] [ user specified next hop address and
end.
hostname | broadcast ] * hostname to authenticate the
calling party.
Repeat this step if multiple remote
ends are involved.

135
Configuring multiple interfaces to place calls to one or multiple
remote ends
In Figure 43, multiple interfaces at the local end place calls to one or multiple remote ends (the
components in inverse color represent the routers irrelevant to the networking).
Figure 43 Multiple interfaces place calls to one or multiple remote ends

In this scenario, interfaces if0, if1, and if2 at the local end place DCC calls to interfaces if1, if2, and if3
at the remote ends. If only one remote end is involved, use the dialer number command to configure a
dial string. If multiple remote ends are involved, you can use the dialer route command to configure the
dial strings and destination addresses. As multiple interfaces are involved at the local end, configure
DCC parameters for them by configuring dialer circular groups. In addition, you may configure PAP or
CHAP authentication.
When placing calls, the physical interfaces in a dialer circular group use the IP address of the associated
dialer interface instead of its own. An ISDN BRI or PRI interface itself can be regarded as a dialer circular
group for its B channels. At the same time, it can be assigned to other dialer circular groups.
To configure multiple interfaces to place calls to one or multiple remote ends:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Create a dialer interface and
interface dialer number N/A
enter dialer interface view.
3. Enable C-DCC. dialer enable-circular By default, C-DCC is disabled.

dialer route protocol If only one remote end is involved,


next-hop-address [ mask you may use the dialer number
4. Configure the dial string and
network-mask-length ] [ user dial-number command instead.
destination address for calling
hostname | broadcast ] *
a remote end. Repeat this step if multiple remote
dial-number [ autodial | interface
interface-type interface-number ] * ends are involved.

5. Exit to system view. quit N/A

interface interface-type
6. Enter physical interface view. N/A
interface-number

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Step Command Remarks
The number argument in this
7. Assign the physical interface
command must take the same
to the dialer circular group
dialer circular-group number value assigned to the number
corresponding to the dialer
argument in the interface dialer
interface.
number command.
8. Assign a priority to the
Optional.
physical interface in the dialer dialer priority priority
circular group. The default priority is 1.

Configuring multiple interfaces to receive calls from one or


multiple remote ends
In Figure 44, multiple interfaces at the local end receive calls from one or multiple remote ends (the
components in inverse color represent the routers irrelevant to the networking).
Figure 44 Multiple interfaces receive calls from one or multiple remote ends

In this scenario, interfaces if0, if1, and if2 at the local end receive DCC calls from multiple remote
interfaces including if1, if2, if3, and if4. Because multiple interfaces are involved at the local end,
configure DCC parameters for them by configuring a dialer circular group. In addition, you may
configure PAP or CHAP authentication.
To configure multiple interfaces to receive calls to one or multiple remote ends:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Create a dialer interface and
interface dialer number N/A
enter dialer interface view.
3. Enable C-DCC. dialer enable-circular By default, C-DCC is disabled.

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Step Command Remarks
Optional.
If the dialer route ip
next-hop-address user hostname
dialer route protocol command is configured at a called
4. Configure the interface to
next-hop-address [ mask end, the called party will use the
receive calls from a remote
network-mask-length ] [ user specified next hop address and
end.
hostname | broadcast ] * hostname to authenticate the
calling party.
Repeat this step if multiple remote
ends are involved.
5. Exit to system view. quit N/A

interface interface-type
6. Enter physical interface view. N/A
interface-number

The number argument in this


7. Assign the physical interface
command must take the same
to the dialer circular group
dialer circular-group number value assigned to the number
corresponding to the dialer
argument in the interface dialer
interface.
number command.
8. Assign a priority to the
Optional.
physical interface in the dialer dialer priority priority
circular group. The default priority is 1.

Configuring RS-DCC
In the RS-DCC approach, physical interface configuration is separated from logical configuration for
calls and they can be combined dynamically for each call.
When you configure RS-DCC for on-demand dial, configure RS-DCC sets. Each RS-DCC set is an
attribute collection containing a dialer interface, dialer interface attributes, and a dialer bundle.
• For each dialer interface, you can define only one dial string. As this dial string has its own dial
attribute set, all calls placed using this dial string use the same DCC attribute parameters (such as
dial rate).
• Each dialer interface can use only one dialer bundle. Each dialer bundle may contain multiple
physical interfaces with different priorities, but each of these interfaces can belong to multiple dialer
bundles. For an ISDN BRI or PRI interface, you can set the number of B channels to be used by
configuring the dialer bundle command.
• All calls destined to the same network segment use the same RS-DCC set.
Due to the separation between physical configuration and logical configuration, RS-DCC can
accommodate more network topologies and DCC dial demands. For example, it allows multiple
interface groups to call multiple remote ends.

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Figure 45 Multiple interfaces call multiple remote ends in RS-DCC approach

In this scenario, a dialer interface is configured only for calling one remote end. On-demand dial, in this
case, is implemented by assigning a physical interface to dialer bundles associated with different dialer
interfaces.
If RS-DCC sets are used to configure RS-DCC parameters, you only need to configure link layer
encapsulation and dialer bundle numbers on physical interfaces.
Before you configure RS-DCC, follow these guidelines:
• In RS-DCC, an R-DCC set is unable to apply the attribute information in it, PPP authentication for
example, to the physical interfaces in a dialer bundle. The physical interfaces do not inherit the
authentication attribute in the RS-DCC set. Therefore, authentication information must be configured
on call-receiving physical interfaces.
• Authentication is mandatory in RS-DCC. You must configure authentication (dialer user and PPP
authentication) on both dialer interfaces and their physical interfaces. This is because RS-DCC must
conduct PPP negotiation on the physical interface and sends the agreed-upon remote username to
DCC. Based on this remote username, DCC decides which dialer interface address is used and
then informs PPP. PPP then uses the configuration of the dialer interface to start IPCP negotiation.
Complete these tasks to configure RS-DCC for on-demand calling:

Task Remarks
Enabling RS-DCC Required.

Configuring a dial string for the dialer interface Required.

Assigning physical interfaces to the dialer bundle Required.

Configuring dial authentication for RS-DCC Required.

Enabling RS-DCC
Step Command
1. Enter system view. system-view
2. Create a dialer interface and enter dialer
interface dialer number
interface view.
3. Set the remote username. dialer user username

139
Step Command
4. Enable RS-DCC by creating a dialer bundle for
dialer bundle number
the dialer interface.

Configuring a dial string for the dialer interface


In the RS-DCC approach to on-demand dial, the attributes of physical interfaces vary by dial string.
Therefore, DCC parameters must be configured on dialer interfaces and dial strings can be configured
only with the dialer number command. For each dialer interface, you can configure only one dial string.
To configure a dial string for the dialer interface:

Step Command
1. Enter system view. system-view
2. Enter dialer interface view. interface dialer number
3. Configure a dial string for calling a remote end. dialer number dial-number

Assigning physical interfaces to the dialer bundle


A dialer bundle is a collection of physical interfaces with different priorities. When placing a call, DCC
selects a physical interface from the bundle in priority order.
To assign physical interfaces to the dialer bundle:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter physical interface view. N/A
interface-number

Physical interfaces do not belong


to any dialer bundle by default.
3. Assign the interface to the dialer bundle-member number After a physical interface is
dialer bundle. [ priority priority ] assigned without priority to a
dialer bundle, it takes the default
priority of 1.

Configuring dial authentication for RS-DCC


In RS-DCC, associations between physical interfaces and dialer interfaces are rather flexible. To allow a
called party to identify calling parties, configure authentication, either PAP or CHAP.
When you configure dial authentication for RS-DCC, follow these guidelines:
• H3C recommends configuring either PAP or CHAP authentication on both physical and dialer
interfaces at both sending and receiving ends.
• When PPP encapsulation is enabled on a dialer interface, configure a remote username with the
dialer user command for the dialer interface. When DCC decides which dialer interface is used for
receiving a call, it compares the remote username gained through PPP negotiation against those
assigned to dialer interfaces for a match.

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To configure dial authentication for RS-DCC:

Step Command
1. Enter system view. system-view
2. Enter dialer interface view. interface dialer number
3. Configure the remote username. dialer user username
4. Configure PPP encapsulation and PPP
See "Configuring PPP and MP."
authentication (PAP or CHAP).

Configuring MP for DCC


Implementing DCC with MP
In DCC applications, you may configure load thresholds for links.
If you set a link load threshold in the range of 1 to 99, MP tunes allocated bandwidth according to actual
traffic percentage following these guidelines:
• When the percentage of traffic on a link to bandwidth exceeds the defined traffic threshold, the
system automatically brings up the second link and assigns them to an MP bundle. When the
percentage of traffic on these two links to bandwidth exceeds the defined traffic threshold, the
system brings up a third link, and assigns it to the MP bundle, and so on and so forth. This ensures
appropriate traffic distribution on DCC links.
• On the contrary, when the percentage of the traffic on N (which is an integer greater than 2) links
to the bandwidth of N – 1 links decreases below the defined traffic threshold, the system
automatically shuts down a link, and so on and so forth. This ensures the efficient use of DCC links.
If you set the link load threshold to zero, DCC brings up all available links when triggered by auto-dial
or packets instead of looking at the traffic size before doing that. In addition, it does not tear down links
that have been established due to timeout.
To implement MP with DCC, use dialer interfaces. The following shows how MP operates after you
configure the ppp mp and dialer threshold commands on a dialer interface:
• When the ratio of traffic to bandwidth on a physical interface assigned to the dialer interface
exceeds the configured load threshold, DCC brings up another physical interface in the dialer
interface, and assigns these links to an MP bundle. If the physical interfaces are ISDN BRI or PRI
interfaces, DCC uses idle B channels on them to form an MP bundle.
• When the number of bundled links reaches the upper threshold specified by the max-bind-num
argument, DCC stops to bring up new links.
Some dial applications require multiple links carry services. To do so, configure the ppp mp min-bind
command to enable DCC to bring up multiple links when triggered to ensure minimum bandwidth. MP
operates in the following workflow:
1. DCC brings up the first link.
2. When the first link comes up, DCC checks whether the number of links in the MP bundle reaches
the lower limit specified by the min-bind-num argument. If not, the router brings up the second link.
This process continues until the number of links in the MP bundle reaches the lower limit.

141
When MP is used with DCC, the dialer threshold, ppp mp max-bind, and ppp mp min-bind commands
must be configured in dialer interface view. When you configure other PPP commands, perform the
following configurations:
• In the C-DCC approach, configure PPP-related commands in dialer interface view.
• In the RS-DCC approach, configure PPP-related commands in dialer interface view at the calling
end and in physical dialup interface view at the called end. At the calling end, however, configure
the same PPP parameters on physical dialup interfaces as well to ensure reliable PPP link
negotiation.

Configuration guidelines
• Configure PPP commands on both dialer and physical interfaces to ensure reliable PPP link
negotiation.
• The dialer threshold 0 command voids the dialer timer idle command. DCC will bring up all
available links when triggered.
• Similar to the dialer threshold 0 command, the ppp mp min-bind command voids the dialer timer
idle command. When it is configured, DCC does not look at traffic size to bring up links for MP
bundling; however, links that are already up will be brought down due to timeout.
• Configure the dialer threshold command only at the calling end.

Configuration procedure
To configure MP for DCC:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialer interface view. interface dialer number N/A
3. Enable PPP on the dialer
link-protocol ppp N/A
interface.
4. Enable MP. ppp mp By default, MP is disabled.

If the traffic-percentage argument is


dialer threshold traffic-percentage
5. Set link load thresholds. set to 0, DCC will bring up all
[ in-out | in | out ]
available links when triggered.

6. Set the upper limit of links in Optional.


ppp mp max-bind max-bind-num
an MP bundle. The default setting is 16.

Optional.
7. Set the lower limit of links in By default, the lower limit is 0, and
ppp mp min-bind min-bind-num
an MP bundle. DCC brings up links depending on
traffic size.

Configuring PPP callback


PPP callback adopts the client/server model where the calling party is the callback client and the called
party is the callback server. The client first originates a call, and the server decides whether to originate
a return call. If a return call is needed, the callback server disconnects and then originates a return call
according to the information such as username or callback number.

142
The following approaches are available to configure PPP callback with DCC:
• Configure a PPP callback client in the C-DCC implementation
• Configuring PPP callback with RS-DCC

Configuration guidelines
• Configure PPP callback after completing the basic configuration of C-DCC or RS-DCC.
• PPP callback implementation requires authentication. H3C recommends that you configure PAP or
CHAP authentication on both physical and dialer interfaces on both callback client and server.
• With dynamic route backup configured on an interface, only the dynamic route backup groups are
used for dial. The interface does not accept incoming calls or outgoing calls. Therefore, do not
configure dynamic route backup groups for interfaces with callback configured.

Configuring PPP callback in the C-DCC implementation


You can configure the router as a PPP callback client or server with C-DCC.

Configuration guidelines
• If the network address used by a callback client is dynamically assigned, the server cannot use the
dialer route command to associate the callback dial string with the network address for the client.
Use the authorization-attribute callback-number command instead to associate the dial string with
the client username for callback.
• To leave enough time for a server to call back, set the interval for DCC to make the next call attempt
on the client at least 10 seconds longer than that of the server. H3C recommends setting the interval
on the server to 5 seconds (the default) and that on the client to 15 seconds.

Configure a PPP callback client in the C-DCC implementation


As a callback client, your router can place calls to the remote end (which can be a router or Windows
NT server with the PPP callback server function), and receive return calls from the remote end.
To configure PPP callback client in the C-DCC implementation:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialer interface
interface interface-type
(physical or dialer interface) N/A
interface-number
view.
3. Enable PPP encapsulation. link-protocol ppp N/A
4. Configure authentication
See "Configuring PPP and MP." N/A
parameters.

By default, PPP callback client is


5. Enable PPP callback client. ppp callback client
disabled.

143
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
By default, no dial string is
configured for a Windows NT
6. Configure the dial string for a
Server to call back.
Windows NT Server to call ppp callback ntstring dial-number
back. Configure this command if a
Windows NT Server requires PPP
callback clients to send callback
numbers.

7. Set the interval for DCC to Optional.


dialer timer enable seconds
make the next call attempt. 15 seconds is recommended.

Configure a PPP callback server in the C-DCC implementation


As a callback server, your router can place return calls according to network addresses configured with
the dialer route command (PPP authentication must be configured in this case), or according to the PPP
callback numbers. You must select either approach with the dialer callback-center command.
Configure callback client usernames with the dialer route command, so the callback server can
authenticate whether a callback client is valid when receiving a call from it.
To configure a PPP callback server in the C-DCC implementation:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialer interface (physical or
interface interface-type interface-number N/A
dialer interface) view.

By default, PP callback
3. Enable PPP callback server. ppp callback server
server is disabled.
4. Configure the PPP callback dialer callback-center [ user |
N/A
reference. dial-number ] *

dialer route protocol next-hop-address


[ mask network-mask-length ] user
5. Configure a callback client
hostname [ broadcast ] [ dial-number N/A
username.
[ autodial | interface interface-type
interface-number ] * ]
6. Exit to system view. quit N/A

144
Step Command Remarks
• If the dial-number keyword is
configured, create a local user and
enter local user view to configure a
callback user and the dial string for
callback:
a. local-user user-name
7. Configure either command b. service-type ppp
depending on the keyword c. authorization-attribute
Use either approach.
configured with the dialer callback-number callback-number
callback-center command.
• If the user keyword is configured,
configure a dial string for callback:
dialer route protocol next-hop-address
[ mask network-mask-length ] user
hostname [ broadcast ] dial-number
[ autodial | interface interface-type
interface-number ] *

Configuring PPP callback with RS-DCC


You can configure the router as a PPP callback client or server with RS-DCC.
To leave enough time for a server to call back, set the interval for DCC to make the next call attempt on
the client at least 10 seconds longer than that of the server. H3C recommends that you set the interval on
the server to 5 seconds (the default) and that on the client to 15 seconds.

Configuring a PPP callback client with RS-DCC


As a callback client, your router can place calls to the remote end (which can be a router or Windows
NT server with the PPP callback server function), and receive return calls from the remote end.
Configuring a PPP callback client in RS-DCC is the same as that in C-DCC except that the dial string is
configured with the dialer number command in RS-DCC.
To configure a PPP callback client with RS-DCC:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialer interface view. interface dialer number N/A
3. Enable PPP encapsulation. link-protocol ppp N/A
4. Configure authentication
See "Configuring PPP and MP." N/A
parameters.

By default, PPP callback is


5. Enable PPP callback client. ppp callback client
disabled.

145
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
When a router operating as the
6. Configure the dial string for a PPP callback client calls a
Windows NT Server to place ppp callback ntstring dial-number Windows NT Server operating as
return calls. the PPP callback server, if the
Windows NT Server needs the
router to send the callback number,
configure this command.

7. Set the interval for DCC to Optional.


dialer timer enable seconds
make the next call attempt. 15 seconds is recommended.

Configuring a PPP callback server with RS-DCC


Configuring a PPP callback server in RS-DCC is the same as that in C-DCC, except the callback reference
can only be dial-number in RS-DCC and dial strings for callback must be configured with the
authorization-attribute callback-number command.
To configure a PPP callback server with RS-DCC:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialer interface view. interface dialer number N/A

By default, PPP callback is


3. Enable PPP callback server. ppp callback server
disabled.
4. Configure the PPP callback
dialer callback-center dial-number N/A
reference.
5. Exit to system view. quit N/A
6. Create a local user and enter
local-user user-name N/A
local user view.

When placing a return call, DCC


service-type ppp identifies which dial string to be
7. Configure a dial string for
authorization-attribute used according to the remote
callback.
callback-number callback-number username obtained through PPP
negotiation.

Configuring ISDN caller identification callback


In an ISDN environment, implementing DCC callback through the ISDN caller identification function
does not require authentication configuration.

ISDN caller identification callback features


ISDN caller identification callback delivers the following features:
1. In the ISDN caller identification callback applications, the callback server can process an
incoming call in one of the following ways, depending on the result of matching the dial-in number
against numbers configured in dialer call-in commands at the local end:

146
{ Deny the incoming call—If one or multiple dialer call-in commands exist, but no match is
found.
{ Accept the incoming call—If the dial-in number matches a dialer call-in command without the
callback keyword or if no dialer call-in command exists.
{ Call back—If the dial-in number matches a dialer call-in command with the callback keyword.
2. Dial-in numbers are matched against numbers configured in dialer call-in commands starting with
the right-most character. In addition, asterisks (*) are used as wildcards to match any character. If
a dial-in number matches multiple dialer call-in commands, the best match is selected in the
following order:
{ The one with the fewest asterisks (*).
{ The one that is found first.
3. At the server end, identify the dialer call-in commands matching incoming calls.
{ In C-DCC, upon receipt of an incoming call, the server compares the incoming number against
the dialer call-in commands configured on the physical dialup interface or its corresponding
dialer interface for a match.
{ In RS-DCC, upon receipt of an incoming call, the server compares the incoming number
against the dialer call-in commands configured on the involved dialer interface for a match.

Configuring ISDN caller identification callback with C-DCC


You can configure the router as the client or server of ISDN caller identification callback with C-DCC.

Configuration guidelines
• To make a successful callback for an incoming number, make sure that the dial string configured in
the dialer route or dialer number command on the dialup interface at the server end is exactly the
same as the incoming number.
• To leave enough time for a server to call back, set the interval for DCC to make the next call attempt
on the client at least 10 seconds longer than that of the server. H3C recommend that you set interval
on the server to 5 seconds (the default) and that on the client to 15 seconds.

Configuring the client of ISDN caller identification callback

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialup interface
(physical or dialer interface) interface interface-type interface-number N/A
view.

dialer route protocol next-hop-address


3. Configure one or multiple [ mask network-mask-length ] [ user
destination addresses and hostname | broadcast ] * dial-number N/A
dial strings. [ autodial | interface interface-type
interface-number ] *

Optional.
4. Set the interval for DCC to
dialer timer enable seconds 15 seconds is
make the next call attempt.
recommended.

147
Configuring the server of ISDN caller identification callback

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialup interface
(physical or dialer interface) interface interface-type interface-number N/A
view.
3. Configure the local end to
place ISDN return calls for the
dialer call-in remote-number [ callback ] N/A
specified ISDN calling
number.

dialer route protocol next-hop-address


4. Configure one or multiple [ mask network-mask-length ] [ user
destination addresses and hostname | broadcast ] * dial-number N/A
dial strings. [ autodial | interface interface-type
interface-number ] *

Optional.

5. Configure a dial number for Use this command instead


placing calls to a single dialer number dial-number of the dialer route
remote end. command if only one
remote destination address
is involved.

Configuring ISDN caller identification callback with RS-DCC


You can configure the router as the client or server of ISDN caller identification callback with RS-DCC.

Configuration guidelines
• The number configured in the dialer number command on the dialer interface is not required to be
the same as the incoming number.
• To leave enough time for a server to call back, set the interval for DCC to make the next call attempt
on the client at least 10 seconds longer than that of the server. H3C recommends setting the interval
on the server to 5 seconds (the default) and that on the client to 15 seconds.

Configuring the client of ISDN caller identification callback

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialer interface view. interface dialer interface-number N/A
3. Configure a dial string for
dialer number dial-number N/A
calling a remote end.

4. Set the interval for DCC to Optional.


dialer timer enable seconds
make the next call attempt. 15 seconds is recommended.

Configuring the server of ISDN caller identification callback

148
Step Command
1. Enter system view. system-view
2. Enter dialer interface view. interface dialer interface-number
3. Configure the local end to place ISDN return calls
dialer call-in remote-number [ callback ]
for the specified ISDN calling number.
4. Configure a dial string for calling a remote end. dialer number dial-number

Configuring advanced DCC functions


Configuring an ISDN leased line
An ISDN leased line can be configured with C-DCC but not RS-DCC. This function is fulfilled through
establishing semi-permanent ISDN MP connections. Such an application requires a leased line to be
established on the PBX of your telecom service provider and has been connected to the remote device.
To configure an ISDN leased line:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter physical interface view. N/A
interface-number

By default, no B channel is
3. Specify a B channel for ISDN
dialer isdn-leased number configured for ISDN leased line
leased line connection.
connection.

ISDN BRI interfaces support both 64 kbps and 128 kbps leased lines. For more information, see
"Configuring ISDN."

Configuring auto-dial
Auto-dial can be used with C-DCC but not RS-DCC. With auto-dial enabled, DCC automatically dials the
remote end of connection upon each device startup without requiring a triggering packet. If the
connection cannot be established, it will retry at certain intervals. The established connection does not
disconnect due to timeout of the idle-timeout timer as it would in the traffic-triggered dial approach. Its
configuration thus voids the dialer timer idle command.
To configure auto-dial:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialup interface
(physical or dialer interface) interface interface-type interface-number N/A
view.

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Step Command Remarks
dialer route protocol next-hop-address
3. Configure one or multiple
[ mask network-mask-length ] [ user
destination addresses and By default, auto-dial is
hostname | broadcast ] * dial-number
dial strings that can be disabled.
autodial [ interface interface-type
auto-dialed.
interface-number ]

Optional.
4. Set the auto-dial interval. dialer timer autodial seconds The default setting is 300
seconds.

Configuring circular dial string backup


In C-DCC, configure multiple dialer route commands for the dial strings used to call a destination
address. These dial strings are backups to each other. If DCC fails to call the remote end with a dial string,
it will select the dialer route command with the next dial string for another try.
To configure circular dial string backup:

Step Command
1. Enter system view. system-view
2. Enter dialup interface (physical or dialer
interface interface-type interface-number
interface) view.

dialer route protocol next-hop-address [ mask


3. Repeat this step to associate multiple dial network-mask-length ] [ user hostname | broadcast ] *
strings with the same next-hop-address. dial-number [ autodial | interface interface-type
interface-number ] *

Configuring DCC overlap receiving


By default, DCC operates in non-overlap receiving mode. A DCC called party starts establishing a DCC
connection as soon as the first digit of the called number is received, instead of waiting for the complete
called number to be gathered. With overlap receiving enabled, a DCC called party will not start
establishing a DCC connection until the complete called number is received.
Configure the overlap receiving mode only when DCC is configured on the current ISDN physical
interface.
Generally, you dot not need to configure this feature. In the North American market, however, you may
need to configure this feature for interoperability purposes.
To configure DCC overlap receiving:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialup interface (ISDN interface interface-type
N/A
physical interface) view. interface-number
3. Configure DCC to operate in By default, DCC operates in
dialer overlap-receiving
overlap receiving mode. non-overlap receiving mode.

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Configuring DCC timers and buffer queue length
C-DCC and RS-DCC are available with some optional parameters. Configure them appropriately to
improve on-demand dial efficiency.

DCC timers and buffer queue length


You can configure the following parameters on a dialup interface:
• Link idle-timeout timer—A link idle-timeout timer starts upon setup of a link. When the timer expires,
DCC disconnects the link.
• Holddown timer—A holddown timer starts upon disconnection of a link. The call attempt to bring
up this link can be made only after the timer expires, preventing a remote PBX from being
overloaded.
• Compete-idle timer—If all the channels are unavailable when DCC originates a new call,
contention occurs.
Normally, an idle-timeout timer starts upon setup of a link. If a call to another destination address
is placed at the same time, contention occurs. DCC starts a compete-idle timer to replace the
idle-timeout timer for the link. When the idle time of the link reaches the setting of this compete-idle
timer, the link disconnects.
• Wait-carrier timer—Sometimes, the time DCC waits for a connection to be established may vary
call by call. To handle this situation, use a wait-carrier timer. A wait-carrier timer starts when a call
is placed. If the connection is not established upon expiration of the timer, DCC terminates the call.
• Buffer queue length—If no connection is available when a dialup interface without a buffer queue
receives a packet, it will drop the packet. Configured with a buffer queue, the dialup interface will
buffer the packet until a connection is available for packet sending.

Configuration procedure
To configure DCC timers and buffer queue length on a dialup interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter dialup interface
interface interface-type
(physical or dialer interface) N/A
interface-number
view.

Optional.
3. Set the link idle-timeout timer. dialer timer idle seconds
The default setting is 120 seconds.

Optional.
4. Set the holddown timer. dialer timer enable seconds
The default setting is 5 seconds.

Optional.
5. Set the compete-idle timer. dialer timer compete seconds
The default setting is 20 seconds.

Optional.
6. Set the wait-carrier timer. dialer timer wait-carrier seconds
The default setting is 60 seconds.

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Step Command Remarks
Optional.
7. Set the buffer queue length. dialer queue-length packets By default, packets are not
buffered.
8. Set the intended bandwidth. bandwidth bandwidth-value Optional.

Configuring dynamic route backup achieved


through DCC
The dynamic route backup function is available to the following dialup interfaces: dialer interfaces, PRI
interfaces, BRI interfaces, serial interfaces operating in the asynchronous mode, AM interfaces, AUX
interfaces, and Async interfaces.

Introduction to dynamic route backup


The dynamic route backup function employs DCC to dynamically maintain dialup links. It can provide
backup for dialup links based on routes.
The dynamic route backup function combines the backup function and the routing function. It provides
reliable connections and standard dial-on-demand services.
1. Dynamic route backup features
The dynamic route backup function is mainly used to back up dynamic routes. Moreover, it can
also back up static routes and directly connected routes.
The dynamic route backup function is suitable for scenarios with multiple interfaces and multiple
routers. It is not dedicated to a specific interface or link.
With dynamic route backup enabled, the backup link will be activated automatically when the
primary link fails. The primary-backup switchover does not incur dialup delay (the route
convergence time is not counted in).
The dynamic route backup function is routing protocol-independent. It can collaborate with the
RIPv1, RIPv2, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP. However, some routing protocols (such as BGP) use the
optimal routes by default. Therefore, with BGP employed, when the backup link is activated due to
a failure of the primary link to the monitored network segment, the device will learn routes to the
monitored network segment through BGP. When the primary link recovers, the device will learn
routes to the monitored network segment through BGP too. However, the routes that the primary
link learns may be less optimal than what the backup link learns. As a result, the routes backup link
learns remain activated, dynamic route monitoring fails, and the backup link-to-primary link
switchover fails.
To address this problem, do the following:
{ Make sure the IP address assigned to the backup link is greater than that assigned to the
primary link.
{ Make sure the same route can be learned by multiple links (which can be achieved through
load balancing configuration).
2. How dynamic route backup works

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The dynamic route backup function is implemented using dynamic route backup groups. In a
dynamic route backup group, the backup link is activated when the primary link leading to the
monitored network segment fails.
Dynamic route backup operates in the following steps:
{ The system monitors whether the routes to the monitored network segment are updated and
checks whether at least one route to the monitored network segment exists.
{ If at least one route to the monitored network segment exists, and the route is originated from
an interface with dynamic route backup disabled, the primary link is considered operating
properly.
{ If no route exists, the primary link is considered to be shut down and unavailable, and the
backup link will be activated.
{ After the backup link is activated successfully, the data is transferred across it. During this
process, the system periodically checks the primary link status.
{ When the primary link recovers, the backup link can be brought down either immediately or
when the timer expires, depending on the related configuration.

Creating a dynamic route backup group


You can create a dynamic route backup group using one of the following methods:
• Creating multiple dynamic route backup groups, each of which monitors a network segment.
The backup link will be activated when the route to a network segment being monitored becomes
invalid. Each dynamic route backup group can establish or tear down a link through a dialup
interface.
• Creating a dynamic route backup group to monitor multiple network segments.
The backup link will be activated when the routes to all the network segments being monitored
becomes invalid. When establishing the backup link, the dynamic route backup group checks for
dialup interfaces configured with the dialer route command and tries to establish the backup link
on the first such interface. Only one backup link is established.
To create a dynamic route backup group:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

By default, no dynamic route


2. Create a dynamic route backup group is created.
standby routing-rule
backup group and add a The IP address specified in the
group-number ip ip-address { mask
network segment to be standby routing-rule command
| mask-length }
monitored to the group. must be the same as that specified
in the dialer route command.

Enabling dynamic route backup on a backup interface


Before enabling dynamic route backup on a backup interface, make sure that DCC is enabled on the
interface.
To enable dynamic route backup on a backup interface:

153
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Enable dynamic route standby routing-group By default, dynamic route backup
backup. group-number is disabled.

Configuring the delay for disconnecting a backup link


Normally, when the primary link recovers, the backup link will be torn down. To prevent route instability,
specify that the backup link remains valid for a specific period after the primary link recovers by
configuring the delay for disconnecting a backup link.
To configure the delay for disconnecting a backup link:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

3. Configure the delay for standby timer routing-disable Optional.


disconnecting a backup link. seconds The default setting is 20 seconds.

Configuring the warm-up timer for dynamic route backup


Usually, after a system reboot, configuration recovery is performed, during which the primary interface
in a dynamic route backup group is down making the routes on the primary interface unavailable. As a
result, the backup link is dialed when configuration recovery is being performed. After the configuration
recovers, the primary interface goes up and the routes on it become available. The backup link, if dialed
up successfully, will be brought down shortly after it went up.
To avoid the problem, set the warm-up timer for dynamic route backup to disable the system from dialing
a backup link within a period of time after a reboot.
To configure the warm-up timer for dynamic route backup:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

Optional.
2. Configure the warm-up time The default setting is 30 seconds.
dialer timer warmup seconds
for dynamic route backup.
H3C recommends that you use the
default setting.

Configuring the traffic statistics collecting interval

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Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

2. Set the traffic statistics Optional.


dialer flow-interval interval
collecting interval for DCC. The default setting is 20 seconds.

Displaying and maintaining DCC


Task Command Remarks
display dialer [ interface
Display information about a interface-type interface-number ]
Available in any view.
specified or all dialup interfaces. [ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

display interface dialer number


[ brief ] [ | { begin | exclude |
Display information about a dialer include } regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
interface. display interface [ dialer ] [ brief
[ down ] ] [ | { begin | exclude |
include } regular-expression ]

dialer disconnect [ interface


Tear down a dialup link. Available in any view.
interface-type interface-number ]

Clear the statistics on a dialer reset counters interface [ dialer


Available in user view.
interface. [ number ] ]

DCC configuration examples


C-DCC configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 46, on a network segment are located three routers: Router A with the IP address of
100.1.1.1/24, Router B with the IP address of 100.1.1.2/24, and Router C with the IP address of
100.1.1.3/24.
Configure C-DCC to allow Router A to call Router B and Router C from multiple interfaces, but disable
Router B and Router C from calling each other.

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Figure 46 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Assign an IP address to interface Dialer0, associate dialer access group 1 with the interface,
enable C-DCC, and configure dial strings for calling Router B and Router C.
[RouterA] interface dialer 0
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Dialer0] ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.2 8810052
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.3 8810063
[RouterA-Dialer0] quit
# Set interface Serial 2/0 to operate in asynchronous protocol mode and assign it to dialer
circular group 0.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterA-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer circular-group 0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure interface Serial 2/1 to operate in asynchronous protocol mode and assign it to dialer
circular group 0.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] physical-mode async
[RouterA-Serial2/1] async mode protocol
[RouterA-Serial2/1] dialer circular-group 0
[RouterA-Serial2/1] quit
# Enable modem dial-in and dial-out on user interfaces to be used.
[RouterA] user-interface tty1
[RouterA-ui-tty1] modem both
[RouterA-ui-tty1] quit

156
[RouterA] user-interface tty2
[RouterA-ui-tty2] modem both
2. Configure Router B:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Configure interface Serial 2/0 to operate in asynchronous protocol mode.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterB-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0, associate dialer access group 1 with the interface,
enable C-DCC, and configure two dial strings for calling Router A.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.1 8810048
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.1 8810049
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Enable modem dial-in and dial-out on the user interface to be used.
[RouterB] user-interface tty1
[RouterB-ui-tty1] modem both
3. Configure Router C:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Configure interface Serial 2/0 to operate in asynchronous protocol mode.
[RouterC] interface serial 2/0
[RouterC-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterC-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0, associate dialer access group 1 with the interface,
enable C-DCC, and configure two dial strings for calling Router A.
[RouterC-Serial2/0] ip address 100.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Serial2/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterC-Serial2/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterC-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.1 8810048
[RouterC-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.1 8810049
[RouterC-Serial2/0] quit
# Enable modem dial-in and dial-out on the user interface to be used.
[RouterC] user-interface tty1
[RouterC-ui-tty1] modem both

RS-DCC configuration example


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 47:

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• On Router A, interface Dialer0 is assigned an IP address 100.1.1.1/24 and Dialer1 an IP address
122.1.1.1/24.
• On Router B, interface Dialer0 is assigned an IP address 100.1.1.2/24.
• On Router C, interface Dialer0 is assigned an IP address 122.1.1.2/24.
• The Dialer0 interfaces on Router A and Router B are located on the same network segment, so are
the Dialer1 interface on Router A and the Dialer0 interface on Router C.
Configure RS-DCC to allow Router A to call Router B and Router C from multiple interfaces but disable
Router B and Router C from calling each other.
Figure 47 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1. Create local user accounts userb
and userc for Router B and Router C, and configure PPP authentication for them.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterA] local-user userb
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple userb
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
[RouterA] local-user userc
[RouterA-luser-userc] password simple userc
[RouterA-luser-userc] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userc] quit
# Assign an IP address to interface Dialer0, enable RS-DCC, and configure the remote username
allowed to call in.
[RouterA] interface dialer 0
[RouterA-Dialer0] ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer user userb
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer bundle 1
# Configure information for PPP authentication and the dial strings on interface Dialer0. (Assume
PAP is used at the local end.)

158
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer number 8810052
[RouterA-Dialer0] quit
# Assign an IP address to interface Dialer1, enable RS-DCC, and configure the remote username
allowed to call in.
[RouterA] interface dialer 1
[RouterA-Dialer1] ip address 122.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Dialer1] dialer user userc
[RouterA-Dialer1] dialer bundle 2
# Configure information for PPP authentication and the dial strings on interface Dialer 1. (Assume
PAP is used at the local end.)
[RouterA-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Dialer1] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Dialer1] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
[RouterA-Dialer1] dialer number 8810063
[RouterA-Dialer1] quit
# Set interface Serial 2/0 to operate in asynchronous protocol mode, configure information for
PPP authentication, and assign the interface to dialer bundle 1 and dialer bundle 2.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterA-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer bundle-member 1
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer bundle-member 2
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Set interface Serial 2/1 to operate in asynchronous protocol mode, configure information for
PPP authentication, and assign the interface to dialer bundle 1 and dialer bundle 2.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] physical-mode async
[RouterA-Serial2/1] async mode protocol
[RouterA-Serial2/1] dialer bundle-member 1
[RouterA-Serial2/1] dialer bundle-member 2
[RouterA-Serial2/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Serial2/1] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
[RouterA-Serial2/1] quit
# Configure user interfaces to be used and enable modem dial-in and dial-out on them.
[RouterA] user-interface tty1
[RouterA-ui-tty1] modem both
[RouterA-ui-tty1] quit
[RouterA] user-interface tty2
[RouterA-ui-tty2] modem both
2. Configure Router B:

159
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 2. Create a local user account usera
for Router A, and configure PPP authentication for it.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 2 ip permit
[RouterB] local-user usera
[RouterB-luser-usera] password simple usera
[RouterB-luser-usera] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-usera] quit
# Assign an IP address to interface Dialer0, enable RS-DCC, and configure the remote username
allowed to call in and the dial string for placing calls.
[RouterB] interface dialer 0
[RouterB-Dialer0] ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer user usera
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer bundle 1
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer number 8810048
# Configure information for PPP authentication. (Assume PAP is used at the local end.)
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer-group 2
[RouterB-Dialer0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterB-Dialer0] ppp pap local-user userb password simple userb
[RouterB-Dialer0] quit
# Set interface Serial 2/0 to operate in asynchronous protocol mode, configure information for
PPP authentication, and assign the interface to dialer bundle 1.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterB-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer bundle-member 1
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user userb password simple userb
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure the user-interface to be used and enable modem dial-in and dial-out on it.
[RouterB] user-interface tty1
[RouterB-ui-tty1] modem both
3. Configure Router C:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1. Create a local user account usera,
and configure PPP authentication for it.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterC] local-user usera
[RouterC-luser-usera] password simple usera
[RouterC-luser-usera] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-usera] quit
# Assign an IP address to interface Dialer0, enable RS-DCC, and configure the remote username
allowed to call in and the dial string for placing calls.
[RouterC] interface dialer 0
[RouterC-Dialer0] ip address 122.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Dialer0] dialer user usera

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[RouterC-Dialer0] dialer bundle 1
[RouterC-Dialer0] dialer number 8810049
# Configure information for PPP authentication. (Assume PAP is used at the local end.)
[RouterC-Dialer0] dialer-group 1
[RouterC-Dialer0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterC-Dialer0] ppp pap local-user userc password simple userc
[RouterC-Dialer0] quit
# Set interface Serial 2/0 to operate in asynchronous protocol mode, configure information for
PPP authentication, and assign the interface to dialer bundle 1.
[RouterC] interface serial 2/0
[RouterC-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterC-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
[RouterC-Serial2/0] dialer bundle-member 1
[RouterC-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterC-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterC-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user userc password simple userc
[RouterC-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure the user interface to be used and enable modem dial-in and dial-out on it.
[RouterC] user-interface tty1
[RouterC-ui-tty1] modem both

Configuration example for DCC on ISDN


Network requirements
Figure 48 presents a scenario for C-DCC implementation, where:
• On Router A, interface BRI 1/0 is assigned an IP address 100.1.1.1/24.
• On Router B, interface BRI 1/0 is assigned an IP address 100.1.1.2/24.
• On Router C, interface BRI 1/0 is assigned an IP address 100.1.1.3/24.
• The BRI 1/0 interfaces on these three routers are located on the same network segment.
Figure 49 presents a scenario for RS-DCC implementation, where:
• On Router A, interface Dialer 0 is assigned an IP address 100.1.1.1/24 and Dialer 1 an IP address
122.1.1.1/24.
• On Router B, interface Dialer 0 is assigned an IP address 100.1.1.2/24.
• On Router C, interface Dialer 0 is assigned an IP address 122.1.1.2/24.
• The Dialer 0 interfaces on Router A and Router B are located on the same network segment, so are
the Dialer 1 interface on Router A and the Dialer 0 interface on Router C.
Allow Router A to call Router B and Router C from multiple interfaces, but disable Router B and Router C
from calling each other in both C-DCC and RS-DCC approaches.

161
Figure 48 Network diagram for C-DCC application on ISDN

Figure 49 Network diagram for RS-DCC application on ISDN

Configuration procedure
• Approach 1: Use C-DCC to set up a connection through ISDN BRI or PRI and configure DCC
parameters on physical interfaces.
a. Configure Router A:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Assign an IP address to interface BRI 1/0, enable C-DCC, and configure the dial strings for
calling Router B and Router C.
[RouterA] interface bri 1/0
[RouterA-Bri1/0] ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Bri1/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Bri1/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Bri1/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.2 8810052
[RouterA-Bri1/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.3 8810063
b. Configure Router B:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 2.

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<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 2 ip permit
# Assign an IP address to interface BRI 1/0, enable C-DCC, and configure the dial string for
calling Router A.
[RouterB] interface bri 1/0
[RouterB-Bri1/0] ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Bri1/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterB-Bri1/0] dialer-group 2
[RouterB-Bri1/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.1 8810048
c. Configure Router C:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Assign an IP address to interface BRI 1/0, enable C-DCC, and configure the dial string for
calling Router A.
[RouterC] interface bri 1/0
[RouterC-Bri1/0] ip address 100.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Bri1/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterC-Bri1/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterC-Bri1/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.1 8810048
• Approach 2: Use RS-DCC to set up a connection through ISDN BRI or PRI and configure DCC
parameters on dialer interfaces.
d. Configure Router A:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1. Create local user accounts
userb and userc for Router B and Router C, and configure PPP authentication for them.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterA] local-user userb
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple userb
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
[RouterA] local-user userc
[RouterA-luser-userc] password simple userc
[RouterA-luser-userc] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userc] quit
# Assign an IP address to interface Dialer0, enable RS-DCC, and configure the remote
username allowed to call in.
[RouterA] interface dialer 0
[RouterA-Dialer0] ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer user userb
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer bundle 1
# Configure information for PPP authentication and the dial strings on interface Dialer0.
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer number 8810052
[RouterA-Dialer0] quit

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# Assign an IP address to interface Dialer1, enable RS-DCC, and configure the remote
username allowed to call in.
[RouterA] interface dialer 1
[RouterA-Dialer1] ip address 122.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Dialer1] dialer user userc
[RouterA-Dialer1] dialer bundle 2
# Configure information for PPP authentication and the dial strings on interface Dialer1.
[RouterA-Dialer1] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Dialer1] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Dialer1] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
[RouterA-Dialer1] dialer number 8810063
[RouterA-Dialer1] quit
# Configure information for PPP authentication on interface BRI 1/0 and assign the interface to
dialer bundle 1 and dialer bundle 2.
[RouterA] interface bri 1/0
[RouterA-Bri1/0] dialer bundle-member 1
[RouterA-Bri1/0] dialer bundle-member 2
[RouterA-Bri1/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Bri1/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Bri1/0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
e. Configure Router B:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 2. Create a local user account
usera for Router A, and configure PPP authentication for it.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 2 ip permit
[RouterB] local-user usera
[RouterB-luser-usera] password simple usera
[RouterB-luser-usera] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-usera] quit
# Assign an IP address to interface Dialer0, enable RS-DCC, and configure the remote
username allowed to call in.
[RouterB] interface dialer 0
[RouterB-Dialer0] ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer user usera
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer bundle 1
# Configure information for PPP authentication and the dial string on interface Dialer0.
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer-group 2
[RouterB-Dialer0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer number 8810048
[RouterB-Dialer0] ppp pap local-user userb password simple userb
[RouterB-Dialer0] quit
# Configure PPP authentication on interface BRI 1/0 and assign it to dialer bundle 1.
[RouterB] interface bri 1/0
[RouterB-Bri1/0] dialer bundle-member 1
[RouterB-Bri1/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Bri1/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterB-Bri1/0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera

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f. Configure Router C:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 2. Create a local user account
usera for Router A and configure PPP authentication for it.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterC] local-user usera
[RouterC-luser-usera] password simple usera
[RouterC-luser-usera] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-usera] quit
# Assign an IP address to interface Dialer0, enable RS-DCC, and configure the remote
username allowed to call in.
[RouterC] interface dialer 0
[RouterC-Dialer0] ip address 122.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Dialer0] dialer user usera
[RouterC-Dialer0] dialer bundle 1
# Configure information for PPP authentication and the dial strings on interface Dialer0.
[RouterC-Dialer0] dialer-group 1
[RouterC-Dialer0] dialer number 8810048
[RouterC-Dialer0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterC-Dialer0] ppp pap local-user userc password simple userc
[RouterC-Dialer0] quit
# Configure information for PPP authentication on interface BRI 1/0 and assign the interface to
dialer bundle 1.
[RouterC] interface bri 1/0
[RouterC-Bri1/0] dialer bundle-member 1
[RouterC-Bri1/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterC-Bri1/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterC-Bri1/0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera

Configuration example for RS-DCC with MP


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 50:
• Two ISDN BRI interfaces on Router A and an ISDN PRI interface on Router B are connected across
ISDN.
• Interface Dialer0 on Router A is assigned an IP address 100.1.1.1/24, and interface Dialer0 on
Router B is assigned an IP address 100.1.1.2/24.
Use RS-DCC on Router A to call Router B and C-DCC on Router B to call Router A. In addition, implement
traffic distribution for the two interfaces on Router A by setting traffic thresholds and maximum
bandwidth.

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Figure 50 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1. Create a local user account userb
for Router B and configure PPP authentication for it, and set the traffic statistics collecting interval
to three seconds for DCC.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterA] local-user userb
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple userb
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
[RouterA] dialer flow-interval 3
# Assign an IP address to interface Dialer0, enable RS-DCC, and configure MP.
[RouterA] interface dialer 0
[RouterA-Dialer0] ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer bundle 1
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp mp
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer threshold 50
# Configure information for PPP authentication, the remote user allowed to call in, and the dial
strings on interface Dialer0.
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer user userb
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer number 8810052
[RouterA-Dialer0] quit
# Configure PPP authentication on BRI 1/1 and assign it to dialer bundle 1.
[RouterA] interface bri 1/1
[RouterA-Bri1/1] dialer bundle-member 1
[RouterA-Bri1/1] ppp mp
[RouterA-Bri1/1] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Bri1/1] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Bri1/1] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera

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# Configure PPP authentication on BRI 1/0 and assign it to dialer bundle 1.
[RouterA-Bri1/0] interface bri 1/0
[RouterA-Bri1/0] dialer bundle-member 1
[RouterA-Bri1/0] ppp mp
[RouterA-Bri1/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Bri1/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Bri1/0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
2. Configure Router B:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 2. Create a local user account usera
for Router A and configure PPP authentication for it, and set the traffic statistics collecting interval
to three seconds for DCC.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 2 ip permit
[RouterB] local-user usera
[RouterB-luser-usera] password simple usera
[RouterB-luser-usera] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-usera] quit
[RouterB] dialer flow-interval 3
# Assign an IP address to interface Dialer0, enable C-DCC, and configure the dial strings, MP,
and information for PPP authentication.
[RouterB] interface dialer 0
[RouterB-Dialer0] ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer-group 2
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.1 8810048
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.1 8810049
[RouterB-Dialer0] ppp mp
[RouterB-Dialer0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterB-Dialer0] ppp pap local-user userb password simple userb
[RouterB-Dialer0] quit
# Bundle timeslots on CE1/PRI interface E1 2/0 into a PRI group.
[RouterB] controller e1 2/0
[RouterB-E1 2/0] pri-set
[RouterB-E1-2/0] quit
# Enable C-DCC on interface Serial 2/0:15 created on interface E1 2/0 and assign the serial
interface to interface Dialer 0.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0:15
[RouterB-Serial2/0:15] dialer enable-circular
[RouterB-Serial2/0:15] dialer circular-group 0

Configuration example for router-to-router PPP callback with


DCC
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 51:
• Router A and Router B are interconnected through serial interfaces across PSTN.

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• Interface Serial 2/0 on Router A is assigned the IP address of 100.1.1.1/24 and interface Serial 2/0
on Router B is assigned the IP address of 100.1.1.2/24.
Implement PPP callback between Router A and Router B, specifying Router A as the callback client and
Router B as the callback server.
Figure 51 Network diagram
Router A Modem Modem Router B
S2/0 S2/0
100.1.1.1/24 8810048 8810052 100.1.1.2/24
PSTN

Call back Callback


client server

Configuration procedure
• Approach 1: Use C-DCC to implement PPP callback, allowing the callback server to make callback
decisions based on usernames configured in the dialer route commands.
a. Configure Router A:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0, configure its physical layer and C-DCC
parameters.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterA-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.2 8810052
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
# Specify interface Serial 2/0 as the callback client.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp callback client
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer timer enable 15
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure the user interface to be used and enable modem dial-in and dial-out on it.
[RouterA] user-interface tty1
[RouterA-ui-tty1] modem both
b. Configure Router B:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 2. Create a local user account
usera for Router A, and configure PPP authentication for it.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 2 ip permit
[RouterB] local-user usera
[RouterB-luser-usera] password simple usera
[RouterB-luser-usera] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-usera] quit

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# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0 and configure its physical layer and C-DCC
parameters.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterB-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer-group 2
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
# Specify the local end as the callback server, and set the callback reference to user. DCC
identifies the dial string for callback according to the username configured in the dialer route
command.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer callback-center user
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.1 user usera 8810048
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp callback server
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure the user interface to be used and enable modem dial-in and dial-out on it.
[RouterB] user-interface tty2
[RouterB-ui-tty2] modem both
• Approach 2: Use C-DCC to implement PPP callback, allowing the callback server to identify the dial
string for callback by comparing the remote username received in PPP authentication against the
local user database for a match.
c. Configure Router A:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0 and configure its physical layer and C-DCC
parameters.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterA-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.2 8810052
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
# Specify interface Serial 2/0 as the callback client.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp callback client
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer timer enable 15
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure the user interface to be used and enable modem dial-in and dial-out on it.
[RouterA] user-interface tty1
[RouterA-ui-tty1] modem both
d. Configure Router B:

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# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 2. Create a local user account
usera for Router A and configure PPP authentication for it, and configure the dial string for
callback.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 2 ip permit
[RouterB] local-user usera
[RouterB-luser-usera] password simple usera
[RouterB-luser-usera] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-usera] authorization-attribute callback-number 8810048
[RouterB-luser-usera] quit
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0 and configure physical and C-DCC parameters.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterB-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer-group 2
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.1 user usera 8810048
# Specify the local end as the callback server, and set the callback reference to dial number.
DCC identifies the dial string for callback by comparing the remote username obtained
through PPP authentication against the local user database for a match.
[RouterB-Serial2/0] dialer callback-center dial-number
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ppp callback server
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure the user interface to be used and enable modem dial-in and dial-out on it.
[RouterB] user-interface tty2
[RouterB-ui-tty2] modem both

Configuration example for router-to-router ISDN caller


identification callback with DCC
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 52:
• Router A and Router B are interconnected through ISDN BRI interfaces across an ISDN network.
• Interface BRI 1/0 on Router A is assigned the IP address of 100.1.1.1/24 and interface BRI 1/0 on
Router B is assigned the IP address of 100.1.1.2/24.
Configure ISDN caller identification callback with C-DCC between Router A and Router B, specifying
Router A as the callback client and Router B as the callback server.

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Figure 52 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Assign an IP address to interface BRI 1/0, and configure C-DCC parameters and the dial string
for placing calls to Router B.
[RouterA] interface bri 1/0
[RouterA-Bri1/0] ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Bri1/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Bri1/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Bri1/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.2 8810052
[RouterA-Bri1/0] dialer timer enable 15
2. Configure Router B:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 2.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 2 ip permit
# Assign an IP address to interface BRI 1/0, and configure C-DCC parameters and the dial string
for placing calls to Router A.
[RouterB] interface bri 1/0
[RouterB-Bri1/0] ip address 100.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Bri1/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterB-Bri1/0] dialer-group 2
[RouterB-Bri1/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.1 8810048
# Enable the local end to place return calls for ISDN calling number 8810048.
[RouterB-Bri1/0] dialer call-in 8810048 callback

Configuration example for router-to-PC PPP callback with DCC


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 53:
• PC and Router are interconnected through modems across a PSTN network.
• Interface Serial 2/0 on Router is assigned the IP address of 100.1.1.1/24.
• PC accepts the address assigned by Router.
Configure PPP callback with C-DCC between Router and PC, specifying PC as the callback client and
Router as the callback server to make return calls according to dialer routes.

171
Figure 53 Network diagram

Configuring the PC (installed with Windows XP for example)


To create a dialup connection with callback capability enabled:
1. Place the modem connected to PC in auto answer mode.
2. Select Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > Network and Dial-up Connections.
The Network and Dial-up Connections window appears.
3. Right-click the Make New Connection icon, and select New Connection… from the shortcut menu.
The Network Connection Wizard window appears.
4. Click Next.
The Network Connection Type dialog box appears.
5. Select the Dial-up to the Internet option, and click Next.
The Internet Connection Wizard dialog appears.
6. Select I want to set up my Internet connection manually, or I want to connect through a local area
network. Click Next.
The Setting up your Internet connection dialog box appears.
7. Select the I connect through a phone line and a modem option. Click Next.
8. Enter the phone number for dialing to the callback server. Click Next.
9. Enter the username and password that you want to use for PPP authentication when connecting to
the server. Click Next.
10. Assign a name to your new connection and follow the instruction to complete the connection setup.
11. Open the Network and Dial-up Connections window, right-click the connection just created, and
select the Properties option in the popup menu.
The properties setting dialog box appears.
12. Select the Networking tab. In the Type of dial-up server I am calling list, select PPP: Windows
95/98/NT4/2000, Internet. Click Settings to do the following:
a. Select the Enable LCP extensions box.
b. Clear the Enable software compression box.
c. Clear the Negotiate multi-link for single link connections box.
d. Click OK.
13. Turn to the Network and Dial-up Connections window. Click the connection icon you just created.
Then, from the menu bar, select Advanced > Dial-up Preferences. In the Dial-up Preferences dialog
box, select the Callback tab and do one of the following:
{ Select the No callback option.
After the PPP authentication is passed in a call, this option prevents the callback server from
disconnecting the current connection and calling back. Instead, the server will maintain the
current connection and allow the client to access the LAN or the Internet.

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{ Select the Ask me during dialing when the server offers option.
The callback server will use the callback number you input to place return calls.
{ Select the Always call me back at the number(s) below option.
The callback server will place return calls always at the number or numbers already set.

Configuring Router
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1. Create a local user account userpc for
PC and configure PPP authentication for the account.
<Router> system-view
[Router] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[Router] local-user userpc
[Router-luser-userc] password simple userpc
[Router-luser-userc] service-type ppp
[Router-luser-userc] quit

# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/0 and configure physical layer parameters.
[Router] interface serial 2/0
[Router-Serial2/0] ip address 100.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
[Router-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[Router-Serial2/0] async mode protocol

# Configure PPP encapsulation and other PPP parameters on the interface.


[Router-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[Router-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[Router-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user Router password simple Router

# Configure the interface to assign an IP address to the remote end.


[Router-Serial2/0] remote address 100.1.1.2

# Specify interface Serial 2/0 as the PPP callback server, and set the callback reference to user mode.
DCC uses the dial string corresponding to the username configured in the dialer route command to place
return calls.
[Router-Serial2/0] ppp callback server
[Router-Serial2/0] dialer callback-center user

# Enable C-DCC on interface Serial 2/0 and configure C-DCC parameters.


[Router-Serial2/0] dialer enable-circular
[Router-Serial2/0] dialer-group 1
[Router-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.2 user userpc 8810048
[Router-Serial2/0] quit

# Configure the user interface to be used and enable modem dial-in and dial-out on it.
[Router] user-interface tty1
[Router-ui-tty1] modem both

Configuration example for NT server-to-router callback with


DCC
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 54:
• Router and NT Server are interconnected through modems across a PSTN network.

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• NT Server is assigned the IP address of 100.1.1.254/24.
• Router accepts the address assigned by NT Server.
Configure PPP callback with C-DCC between Router and PC, specifying Router as the callback client and
NT Server as the callback server to make return calls according to dialer routes.
Figure 54 Network diagram

Configuring Router
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1. Create a local user account usernt for
NT Server and configure PPP authentication for the account.
<Router> system-view
[Router] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[Router] local-user usernt
[Router-luser-userc] password simple usernt
[Router-luser-userc] service-type ppp
[Router-luser-userc] quit

# Configure physical layer parameters for interface Serial 2/0.


[Router] interface serial 2/0
[Router-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[Router-Serial2/0] async mode protocol

# Configure PPP encapsulation and other PPP parameters.


[Router-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[Router-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[Router-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user Router password simple Router

# Configure the interface to obtain an IP address through PPP negotiation.


[Router-Serial2/0] ip address ppp-negotiate

# Configure the interface as the PPP callback client.


[Router-Serial2/0] ppp callback client
[Router-Serial2/0] dialer timer enable 15

# Enable C-DCC and configure C-DCC parameters on the interface.


[Router-Serial2/0] dialer enable-circular
[Router-Serial2/0] dialer-group 1
[Router-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.254 8810052
[Router-Serial2/0] quit

# Configure the user interface to be used and enable modem dial-in and dial-out on it.
[Router] user-interface tty1
[Router-ui-tty1] modem both

174
Configuring NT Server
For Microsoft Windows users, the server must be Windows 2000 and a later version such as Windows
XP. For the purposes of this example, Windows XP is used.
To create a dialup connection with callback capability enabled:
1. Right-click the My Network Places icon, and select the Properties option from the popup menu.
The Network and Dial-up Connections window appears.
2. Right-click the Make New Connection icon, and select the New Connection…option from the
popup menu.
The Network Connection Wizard window appears.
3. Click Next.
The Network Connection Type dialog box appears.
4. Select Set up an advanced connection. Click Next.
5. Select the Accept incoming connections option, and click Next to set the devices for incoming
connections. Click Next.
The Incoming Virtual Private Network (VPN) Connection window appears.
6. Select the Allow virtual private connections option if the server is connected to the Internet to
provide Internet access requests for the client. Otherwise, select the Do not allow virtual private
connections. Then click Next.
The User Permissions window appears, where you can set the usernames and passwords for the
clients allowed to call back.
7. Click Add. In the popup New User dialog box, add the username and password for the PPP
callback client and click OK.
An icon for the new user account appears in the box in the User Permissions window.
8. Select the new user and click Properties.
The properties setting dialog appears.
9. On the Callback tab, do one of the following:
{ Select the Do not allow callback option.
After the PPP authentication is passed in a call, this option prevents the callback server from
disconnecting the current connection and calling back. Instead, the server will maintain the
current connection and allow the client to access the LAN or the Internet.
{ Select the Allow the caller to set the callback number option.
After the PPP authentication is passed in a call, the server will disconnect and then call back the
client at the number configured in the ppp callback ntstring dial-number command. This option
is almost the same as the last option except that the charges are paid by the server end instead
of the client end.
{ Select the Always use the following callback number option to set a callback number.
10. Click Next.
The Networking Software window appears.
11. Set the networking components, and use the default settings for the network protocols. Click Next.
12. Assign a name to your connection.
13. Click Finish to complete the creation.

175
Configuration example for circular dial string backup and
Internet access with DCC
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 55:
• Router A and Router B are connected across a PSTN network.
• Router B operates as an access server and is configured with an IP address of 100.1.1.254/24. It
uses the address range of 100.1.1.1/24 to 100.1.1.16/24 for address assignment. The PSTN dial
strings available on it are 8810048 through 8810055, allowing the router to provide services to 16
online users.
• Router A accepts the IP address assigned by Router B.
Configure Router A on the dialup side to implement cyclic dial string backup with dialer routes. Configure
Router B on the access side to use asynchronous serial interfaces to provide DCC dialup access and
adopt PAP to authenticate the dialup side.
As shown in Figure 56, Router C and Router D are connected across an ISDN network. The
configurations of Router C and Router D are the same as those of Router A and Router B, except that
Router D uses an ISDN dial string 8810048, rather than PSTN dial strings, to provide services.
Configure Router C and Router D to implement DCC with one dial string and use CHAP for
authentication.
Figure 55 Network diagram for dial string backup/access service with DCC (PSTN)

176
Figure 56 Network diagram for dial string backup/access service with DCC (ISDN)

Configuration procedure for approach 1


On Router A on the dialup side, configure circular dial string backup. On Router B, configure C-DCC to
allow the router to set up connections on eight asynchronous serial interfaces, and configure C-DCC
parameters on a dialer interface.
1. Configure Router A:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1. Create a local user account userb
for Router B and configure PPP authentication for the account.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterA] local-user userb
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple userb
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
# Configure physical layer parameters for interface Serial 2/0 and enable PPP address
negotiation.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[RouterA-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address ppp-negotiate
# Configure PPP encapsulation and authentication on the interface.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ppp pap local-user user1 password simple user1
# On the interface, enable C-DCC, and configure C-DCC parameters and the dial strings for
reaching Router B.
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.254 8810048
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.254 8810049
...
[RouterA-Serial2/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.254 8810055
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure the user interface to be used and enable modem dial-in and dial-out on it.

177
[RouterA] user-interface tty1
[RouterA-ui-tty1] modem both
2. Configure Router B:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 2. Create local user accounts user1
through user16 and configure PPP authentication for the accounts.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 2 ip permit
[RouterB] local-user user1
[RouterB-luser-user1] password simple user1
[RouterB-luser-user1] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-user1] quit
[RouterB] local-user user2
[RouterB-luser-user2] password simple user2
[RouterB-luser-user2] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-user2] quit
...
[RouterB] local-user user16
[RouterB-luser-user16] password simple user16
[RouterB-luser-user16] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-user16] quit
# Assign an IP address to interface Dialer0 and configure it to assign IP addresses for PPP users.
[RouterB] interface dialer 0
[RouterB-Dialer0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Dialer0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterB-Dialer0] ppp pap local-user userb password simple userb
[RouterB-Dialer0] ip address 100.1.1.254 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Dialer0] remote address pool 1
# Enable C-DCC and configure C-DCC parameters on the interface.
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer-group 2
[RouterB-Dialer0] quit
# Configure physical and link layer parameters for interface Async 1/0.
[RouterB] interface async 1/0
[RouterB-Async1/0] async mode protocol
[RouterB-Async1/0] dialer circular-group 0
[RouterB-Async1/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Async1/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterB-Async1/0] ppp pap local-user userb password simple userb
[RouterB-Async1/0] quit
Repeat this step to configure physical and link layer parameters for interfaces Async 1/1 through
Async 1/7.
# Configure user interfaces TTY 1 through TTY 7 for interfaces Async 1/0 through Async 1/7 and
enable modem dial-in and dial-out on them.
[RouterB] user-interface tty1
[RouterB-ui-tty1] modem both
[RouterB-ui-tty1] quit
[RouterB] user-interface tty2

178
[RouterB-ui-tty2] modem both
...
[RouterB-ui-tty8] quit
# Configure the address for address assignment.
[RouterB] domain system
[RouterB-isp-system] ip pool 1 100.1.1.1 100.1.1.16
[RouterB-isp-system] quit
3. Configure the user PC:
a. Place the modem connected to PC in auto answer mode.
b. Right-click the My Network Places icon and select the Properties option from the popup menu.
The Network and Dial-up Connections window appears.
c. Right-click the Make New Connection icon and select the New Connection…option from the
popup menu.
The Network Connection Wizard window appears.
d. Click Next.
The Network Connection Type dialog box appears.
e. Select the Dial-up to the Internet option, and click Next.
The Internet Connection Wizard dialog appears.
f. Select I want to set up my Internet connection manually, or I want to connect through a local
area network. Click Next.
The Setting up your Internet connection dialog box appears.
g. Select the I connect through a phone line and a modem option. Click Next.
h. Enter the phone number for dialing to the callback server. Click Next.
i. Enter the username user16 and password user16 that you want to use for PPP authentication
when connecting to the server. Click Next.
j. Assign a name to your new connection and follow the instruction to complete the connection
setup.
k. Open the Network and Dial-up Connections window, right-click the connection just created,
and select the Properties option in the popup menu.
The properties setting dialog box appears.
l. Select the Networking tab. In the Type of dial-up server I am calling list, select PPP: Windows
95/98/NT4/2000, Internet. Click Settings, select the Enable LCP extensions box, clear the
Enable software compression box, clear the Negotiate multi-link for single link connections
box, and click OK.
m. Turn to the Network and Dial-up Connections window. Click the connection icon you just
created. Then, from the menu bar, select Advanced > Dial-up Preferences. In the Dial-up
Preferences dialog box, select the Callback tab and select the No callback option.
n. Double-click the created connection to dial.

Configuration procedure for approach 2


On Router C on the dialup side, configure a single dial string. On Router D on the access side, use the
C-DCC approach to set up a connection with Router C through an ISDN PRI interface, and configure
DCC parameters on a dialer interface.
1. Configure Router C:

179
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 1. Create a local user account userd
for Router D and configure PPP authentication for the account.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterC] local-user userd
[RouterC-luser-userd] password simple user1
[RouterC-luser-userd] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-userd] quit
# Configure physical layer parameters for interface BRI 1/0 and enable PPP address negotiation.
[RouterC] interface bri 1/0
[RouterC-Bri1/0] ip address ppp-negotiate
# Configure PPP encapsulation and PPP CHAP authentication on the interface.
[RouterC-Bri1/0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterC-Bri1/0] ppp authentication-mode chap
[RouterC-Bri1/0] ppp chap user user1
# On the interface enable C-DCC and configure C-DCC parameters and the dial string for
reaching Router D.
[RouterC-Bri1/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterC-Bri1/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterC-Bri1/0] dialer route ip 100.1.1.254 8810048
2. Configure Router D:
# Configure a dial access control rule for dialer access group 2. Create local user accounts user1
through user16 and configure PPP CHAP authentication for these accounts.
<RouterD> system-view
[RouterD] dialer-rule 2 ip permit
[RouterD] local-user user1
[RouterD-luser-user1] password simple user1
[RouterD-luser-user1] service-type ppp
[RouterD-luser-user1] quit
[RouterD] local-user user2
[RouterD-luser-user2] password simple user2
[RouterD-luser-user2] service-type ppp
[RouterD-luser-user2] quit
...
[RouterD] local-user user16
[RouterD-luser-user16] password simple user16
[RouterD-luser-user16] service-type ppp
[RouterD-luser-user16] quit
# Bundle timeslots on CE1/PRI interface E1 2/0 into a PRI group.
[RouterD] controller e1 2/0
[RouterD-E1 2/0] pri-set
[RouterD-E1 2/0] quit
# Enable C-DCC on interface Serial 2/0:15. (This interface is automatically created on CE1/PRI
interface E1 2/0.)
[RouterD-E1 2/0] interface serial 2/0:15
[RouterD-Serial2/0:15] dialer enable-circular
[RouterD-Serial2/0:15] dialer-group 2

180
# Assign an IP address to the serial interface.
[RouterD-Serial2/0:15] ip address 100.1.1.254 255.255.255.0
# Configure PPP encapsulation and other PPP parameters on the serial interface.
[RouterD-Serial2/0:15] link-protocol ppp
[RouterD-Serial2/0:15] ppp authentication-mode chap
[RouterD-Serial2/0:15] ppp chap user userd
[RouterD-Serial2/0:15] remote address pool 1
[RouterD-Serial2/0:15] quit
# Configure an IP address pool for assigning addresses to PPP users.
[RouterD] domain system
[RouterD-isp-system] ip pool 1 100.1.1.1 100.1.1.16
[RouterD-isp-system] quit

Dynamic route backup configuration example 1


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 57:
• Router B is connected to Router A and Router C through serial interfaces connecting to two X.25
networks.
• Router A and Router C are connected to the same ISDN switched network through their ISDN BRI
interfaces. Router A and Router C can call each other. The telephone number of Router C is
8810052.
• The serial interfaces are in network segment 10.0.0.0/8 and the BRI interfaces are in network
segment 20.0.0.0/8.
Use Router A as the master device of a dynamic route backup group to monitor network segment
30.0.0.0/8, which is connected to Router C.
Figure 57 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Create a dialer access group rule.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Configure dialup parameters for interface BRI 3/0.
[RouterA] interface bri 3/0

181
[RouterA-Bri3/0] ip address 20.0.0.1 8
[RouterA-Bri3/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Bri3/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Bri3/0] dialer route ip 30.0.0.1 8810052
[RouterA-Bri3/0] quit
# Configure interface Serial 2/0 and enable X.25 encapsulation on the interface.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
[RouterA-Serial2/0] x25 x121-address 10
[RouterA-Serial2/0] x25 map ip 10.0.0.2 x121-address 15 broadcast
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 10.0.0.1 8
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure RIP.
[RouterA] rip
[RouterA-rip-1] network 10.0.0.0
[RouterA-rip-1] network 20.0.0.0
[RouterA-rip-1] import-route direct
[RouterA-rip-1] quit
# Create a dynamic route backup group.
[RouterA] standby routing-rule 1 ip 30.0.0.1 32
# Configure the routes used by the serial interface to adopt higher priorities over those used by the
dialup interface.
[RouterA] interface bri 3/0
[RouterA-Bri3/0] rip metricin 2
# Enable dynamic route backup.
[RouterA-Bri3/0] standby routing-group 1
2. Configure Router B:
# Enable X.25 switching on Router B.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] x25 switching
# Configure Serial 2/0 and Serial 2/1 as X.25 interfaces.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol x25 dce ietf
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
[RouterB] interface serial 2/1
[RouterB-Serial2/1] link-protocol x25 dce ietf
[RouterB-Serial2/1] quit
# Configure switching information for X.25.
[RouterB] x25 switch svc 10 interface serial 2/0
[RouterB] x25 switch svc 15 interface serial 2/1
3. Configure Router C:
# Create a dialer access group rule.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Configure dialup parameters for interface BRI 3/0.
[RouterC] interface bri 3/0

182
[RouterC-Bri3/0] ip address 20.0.0.2 8
[RouterC-Bri3/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterC-Bri3/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterC-Bri3/0] quit
# Configure interface Serial 2/1 and enable X.25 encapsulation on the interface.
[RouterC] interface serial 2/1
[RouterC-Serial2/1] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
[RouterC-Serial2/1] x25 x121-address 15
[RouterC-Serial2/1] x25 map ip 10.0.0.1 x121-address 10 broadcast
[RouterC-Serial2/1] ip address 10.0.0.2 8
[RouterC-Serial2/1] quit
# Configure interface Loopback 1.
[RouterC] interface loopback 1
[RouterC-Loopback1] ip address 30.0.0.1 32
[RouterC-Loopback1] quit
# Configure RIP.
[RouterC] rip
[RouterC-rip-1] network 10.0.0.0
[RouterC-rip-1] network 20.0.0.0
[RouterC-rip-1] network 30.0.0.0
[RouterC-rip-1] import-route direct

Dynamic route backup configuration example 2


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 58:
• Router A and Router B are directly connected through their serial interfaces. They are also
connected to the same ISDN switched network through their ISDN BRI interfaces, allowing them to
call each other. The telephone number of Router B is 8810052.
• The serial interfaces of the two routers are in network segment 10.0.0.0/8, and their BRI interfaces
are in network segment 20.0.0.0/8.
Use Router A as the master device of a dynamic route backup group to monitor network segment
40.0.0.0/8, which is connected to Router B.
Figure 58 Network diagram

183
Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Create a dialer access group rule.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Configure dialup parameters for interface BRI 3/0.
[RouterA] interface bri 3/0
[RouterA-Bri3/0] ip address 20.0.0.1 8
[RouterA-Bri3/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Bri3/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Bri3/0] dialer route ip 40.0.0.1 8810052
[RouterA-Bri3/0] quit
# Configure interface Serial 2/0.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 10.0.0.1 8
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure OSPF.
[RouterA] ospf
[RouterA-ospf-1] area 0
[RouterA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
[RouterA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 20.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
[RouterA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] import-route direct
[RouterA-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] quit
[RouterA-ospf-1] quit
# Create a dynamic route backup group.
[RouterA] standby routing-rule 1 ip 40.0.0.1 32
# Configure the routes used by the serial interface to adopt higher priorities than those used by the
dialup interface.
[RouterA] interface bri3/0
[RouterA-Bri3/0] ospf cost 2000
[RouterA-Bri3/0] ospf network-type broadcast
# Enable the dynamic route backup function.
[RouterA-Bri3/0] standby routing-group 1
2. Configure Router B:
# Create a dialer access group rule.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Configure dialup parameters for interface BRI 3/0.
[RouterB] interface bri 3/0
[RouterB-Bri3/0] ip address 20.0.0.2 8
[RouterB-Bri3/0] dialer enable-circular
[RouterB-Bri3/0] dialer-group 1
[RouterB-Bri3/0] quit
# Configure Serial 2/0.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0

184
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 10.0.0.2 8
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure interface Loopback 1.
[RouterB] interface loopback 1
[RouterB-Loopback1] ip address 40.0.0.1 32
[RouterB-Loopback1] quit
# Configure OSPF.
[RouterB] ospf
[RouterB-ospf-1] area 0
[RouterB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
[RouterB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 20.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
[RouterB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] network 40.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
[RouterB-ospf-1-area-0.0.0.0] import-route direct

Dynamic route backup configuration example 3


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 59:
• Router A and Router B are connected through an X.25 network.
• Router A and Router B are connected to the same ISDN switched network through their ISDN BRI
interfaces, each of which has two B channels bound in it. Router A and Router B can call each other
through a resource-shared DCC (RS-DCC). The telephone number of Router A is 8810010, and that
of Router B is 8810052.
Use Router A as the master device of a dynamic route backup group to monitor network segment
30.0.0.0/8, which is connected to Router B.
Normally, the X.25 link functions as the primary link between Router A and Router B. When the route to
network segment 30.0.0.0/8 becomes invalid (for example, when the X.25 network fails), Router A
automatically establishes an ISDN BRI link to router B.
Figure 59 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Create a dialer access group rule and a local user database.
<RouterA> system-view

185
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterA] local-user userb
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple userb
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
# Create a dynamic route backup group.
[RouterA] standby routing-rule 1 ip 30.0.0.1 32
# Configure an RS-DCC on Dialer0.
[RouterA] interface dialer 0
[RouterA-Dialer0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Dialer0] ip address 20.0.0.1 24
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer user userb
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer-group 1
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer bundle 1
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer number 8810052
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
[RouterA-Dialer0] standby routing-group 1
[RouterA-Dialer0] quit
# Bind BRI 3/0 to Dialer 0.
[RouterA] interface bri 3/0
[RouterA-Bri3/0] dialer bundle-member 1
[RouterA-Bri3/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterA-Bri3/0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple usera
[RouterA-Bri3/0] quit
# Configure interface Serial 2/0 and enable X.25 encapsulation on the interface.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
[RouterA-Serial2/0] x25 x121-address 10
[RouterA-Serial2/0] x25 map ip 10.0.0.2 x121-address 20 broadcast
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 10.0.0.1 8
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure RIP.
[RouterA] rip
[RouterA-rip-1] network 10.0.0.0
[RouterA-rip-1] network 20.0.0.0
[RouterA-rip-1] import-route direct
[RouterA-rip-1] quit
# Configure the routes used by the serial interface to adopt higher priorities than those used by the
dialup interface.
[RouterA] interface bri 3/0
[RouterA-Bri3/0] rip metricin 2
2. Configure Router B:
# Create a dialer access group rule and configure a local user database.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
[RouterB] local-user usera

186
[RouterB-luser-usera] password simple usera
[RouterB-luser-usera] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-usera] quit
# Configure an R-DCC on Dialer 0.
[RouterB] interface dialer 0
[RouterB-Dialer0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Dialer0] ip address 20.0.0.2 24
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer user usera
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer-group 1
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer bundle 1
[RouterB-Dialer0] dialer number 8810010
[RouterB-Dialer0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterB-Dialer0] ppp pap local-user userb password simple userb
[RouterB-Dialer0] quit
# Configure dialup parameters for interface BRI 3/0.
[RouterB] interface bri 3/0
[RouterB-Bri3/0] dialer bundle-member 1
[RouterB-Bri3/0] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterB-Bri3/0] ppp pap local-user userb password simple userb
[RouterB-Bri3/0] quit
# Configure interface Serial 2/1 and enable X.25 encapsulation on the interface.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol x25 dte ietf
[RouterB-Serial2/0] x25 x121-address 20
[RouterB-Serial2/0] x25 map ip 10.0.0.1 x121-address 10 broadcast
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 10.0.0.2 8
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure interface Loopback 1.
[RouterB] interface loopback 1
[RouterB-Loopback1] ip address 30.0.0.1 32
[RouterB-Loopback1] quit
# Configure RIP.
[RouterB] rip
[RouterB-rip-1] network 10.0.0.0
[RouterB-rip-1] network 20.0.0.0
[RouterB-rip-1] network 30.0.0.0
[RouterB-rip-1] import-route direct

Dynamic route backup configuration example 4


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 60, Router A and Router B are connected through an FR network. They are also
connected through an ISDN switched network, enabling them to call each other. The telephone number
of Router A is 660330, and that of Router B is 660220.
Use Router A as the master device of a dynamic route backup group to monitor three network segments
10.0.0.1/8, 11.0.0.1/8, and 12.0.0.1/8, which are all connected to Router B.

187
Normally, the FR link functions as the primary link between Router A and Router B. When the routes to
all the three network segments become invalid, Router A automatically establishes an ISDN BRI link to
Router B.
Figure 60 Network diagram

This network diagram only illustrates a simple application where a dynamic route backup group is used
to monitor multiple subnets. In actual use, the monitored network segments can be connected to multiple
devices.

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Create a dialer access group rule.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Create a dynamic route backup group to monitor three network segments.
[RouterA] standby routing-rule 1 ip 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0
[RouterA] standby routing-rule 1 ip 11.0.0.0 255.0.0.0
[RouterA] standby routing-rule 1 ip 12.0.0.0 255.0.0.0
# Bundle timeslots on the CE1 interface into a PRI group.
[RouterA] controller e1 2/1
[RouterA-E1 2/1] pri-set
[RouterA-E1 2/1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/0 as an FR interface.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] ip address 1.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[RouterA-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr inarp
[RouterA-Serial2/0] fr map ip 1.0.0.2 100
[RouterA-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure C-DCC on the PRI interface.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1:15
[RouterA-Serial2/1:15] ip address 2.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[RouterA-Serial2/1:15] dialer enable-circular
[RouterA-Serial2/1:15] dialer-group 1

188
[RouterA-Serial2/1:15] dialer route ip 10.0.0.0 mask 8 660220
[RouterA-Serial2/1:15] standby routing-group 1
[RouterA-Serial2/1:15] quit
# Configure RIP.
[RouterA] rip
[RouterA-rip-1] network 1.0.0.0
[RouterA-rip-1] network 2.0.0.0
[RouterA-rip-1] import-route direct
# Configure the routes used by the serial interface to adopt higher priorities than those used by the
dialup interface.
[RouterA] interface serial 2/1:15
[RouterA-Serial2/1:15] rip metricin 2
2. Configure Router B:
# Create a dialer access group rule for dialup.
[RouterB] system
[RouterB] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Bundle timeslots on the CE1 interface into a PRI group.
[RouterB] controller e1 2/1
[RouterB-E1 2/1] pri-set
[RouterB-E1 2/1] quit
# Configure Serial 2/0 as an FR interface.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] ip address 1.0.0.2 255.0.0.0
[RouterB-Serial2/0] link-protocol fr
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr interface-type dte
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr inarp
[RouterB-Serial2/0] fr map ip 1.0.0.1 200
[RouterB-Serial2/0] quit
# Configure C-DCC on PRI interface Serial 2/1:15.
[RouterB] interface serial 2/1:15
[RouterB-Serial2/1:15] ip address 2.0.0.2 255.0.0.0
[RouterB-Serial2/1:15] dialer enable-circular
[RouterB-Serial2/1:15] dialer-group 1
[RouterB-Serial2/1:15] dialer route ip 2.0.0.1 mask 8 660330
[RouterB-Serial2/1:15] quit
# Configure the Ethernet interfaces with the network segments attached.
[RouterB] interface ethernet 1/0
[RouterB-Ethernet1/0] ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[RouterB-Ethernet1/0] quit
[RouterB] interface ethernet 1/1
[RouterB-Ethernet1/1] ip address 11.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[RouterB-Ethernet1/1] quit
[RouterB] interface ethernet 1/2
[RouterB-Ethernet1/2] ip address 12.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
[RouterB-Ethernet1/2] quit
# Configure RIP.

189
[RouterB] rip
[RouterB-rip-1] network 1.0.0.0
[RouterB-rip-1] network 2.0.0.0
[RouterB-rip-1] network 10.0.0.0
[RouterB-rip-1] network 11.0.0.0
[RouterB-rip-1] network 12.0.0.0
[RouterB-rip-1] import-route direct

Troubleshooting
Symptom 1
DCC dialup connection cannot be set up because the modem does not dial when the router forwards
data.

Solution
Check that:
• The modem and phone cable connections are correct, and the modem initialization process is
correct.
• The dialup interface, if it is synchronous/asynchronous, is set to operate in asynchronous protocol
mode.
• DCC is enabled on the dialup interface.
• A dialer route or dialer number command is available for the packets.

Symptom 2
The remote end cannot be pinged after the modem is connected.

Solution
Check that:
• The same link layer encapsulation is used at the two ends, and correct PPP parameters are
configured for authentication. Use the debugging ppp all command to verify that.
• A correct IP address is assigned to the dialup interface (physical or dialer interface).
• DCC is enabled on the dialup interface.
• The correct dialer-group and dialer-rule commands are configured and associated to make sure
that the packets can pass.
• Use the debugging dialer event and debugging dialer packet commands to locate the problem.

190
Managing a modem

A modem is a widely used network device. It is important for a device to properly manage and control
the use of modems in a network. Many modem manufacturers and various modem models exist. Even
though all of them support the AT command set and are compliant with the industry standard, each type
of modem differs somewhat on the implementations and command details.
The device provides the following functions for managing a modem:
1. Intercommunicating with the equipment from other vendors. The asynchronous serial interfaces of
the participating parties are operating in flow mode interconnected through modems.
2. Providing rich debugging information for modem maintenance and monitoring.
3. Enabling the modem to obtain the caller number of the terminal.

Configuring modem management


Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

user-interface { first-num1
2. Enter user interface view. [ last-num1 ] | { aux | console | tty N/A
| vty } first-num2 [ last-num2 ] }

3. Configure the call-in/call-out Modem call-in and call-out are


modem { both | call-in | call-out }
rights for the modem. denied by default.

4. Set the maximum interval


allowed between picking up
Optional.
the handset and dialing when modem timer answer time
a user tries to establish a 60 seconds by default.
connection.

Optional.
By default, the modem does not
5. Enable the modem to obtain obtain the caller number when
modem caller-number resolve
the caller number of the accepting a call from the terminal.
[ ata-waiting-time time ]
terminal.
This feature applies to only the POS
terminal connected to an analog
modem (AM) interface.

Optional.
See "Setting the modem answer
6. Set modem answer mode. H3C does not recommend that you
mode."
configure this step.
7. Return to system view. quit N/A
8. Configure modem through AT See "Issuing an AT command to a
Optional.
commands. modem."

191
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
9. Enable modem callback. service modem-callback
Disabled by default.

Setting the modem answer mode


Set the modem answer mode according to the actual answer mode of the modem:
• If the modem is in auto-answer mode (a modem is in auto-answer mode if its AA LED lights are on),
use the modem auto-answer command to prevent the device from issuing answer instructions.
• If the modem is in non-auto answer mode, use the undo modem auto-answer command to enable
the device to issue answer instructions when incoming calls reach.
Make sure that you set the same answer mode as on the modem. If a different answer mode is set, the
modem might operate improperly. Do not perform the operation unless absolutely needed.
To set modem answer mode:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

user-interface { first-num1
2. Enter user interface view. [ last-num1 ] | { aux | console | tty N/A
| vty } first-num2 [ last-num2 ] }

3. Set the modem to operate in Optional.


modem auto-answer
auto-answer mode. Non-auto answer mode by default.

Issuing an AT command to a modem


Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

This command is applicable to


asynchronous serial interfaces
(including
3. Configure the modem by
sendat at-string synchronous/asynchronous
issuing an AT command to it.
interfaces operating in
asynchronous mode), AUX
interfaces, and AM interfaces.

192
Modem management configuration example
Network requirements
A device is connected to a Cisco router through its Serial 2/0 interface and two modems. A connection
between the two devices is established through DCC dialup when data is to be transmitted between them.
For more information about DCC dialup, see "Configuring DCC."
Figure 61 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router:
# Create dialer access group 1 and configure it to permit all IP packets.
<Router> system-view
[Router] dialer-rule 1 ip permit
# Configure interface Serial 2/0 to operate in asynchronous mode and then configure it to
operate in protocol mode.
[Router] interface serial 2/0
[Router-Serial2/0] physical-mode async
[Router-Serial2/0] async mode protocol
# Configure the link layer protocol of interface Serial 2/0 as PPP.
[Router-Serial2/0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure an IP address for interface Serial 2/0.
[Router-Serial2/0] ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.0.0
# Enable C-DCC on interface Serial 2/0.
[Router-Serial2/0] dialer enable-circular
# Assign interface Serial 2/0 to dialer access group 1.
[Router-Serial2/0] dialer-group 1
# Set the link holddown timer to 5 seconds.
[Router-Serial2/0] dialer timer enable 5
# Configure the dial number for placing calls to a single remote end as 666666.
[Router-Serial2/0] dialer number 666666
[Router-Serial2/0] quit
# Enables both modem call-in and modem call-out on user-interface TTY 1.
[Router] user-interface tty 1
[Router-ui-tty1] modem both
For information about DCC commands, see Layer 2—WAN Command Reference.
2. Configure the Cisco router:
For more information, see Cisco documentation.

193
Troubleshooting
Symptom
Modem is in abnormal status (for example, the dial tone or busy tone keeps humming).

Solution
• Use the shutdown command and undo shutdown command on the device physical interface
connected to the modem to check whether the modem has been restored to normal status.
• If the modem is still in abnormal status, repower the modem.

194
Configuring ATM

The MSR 900 and MSR 930 routers do not support ATM interfaces.

Overview
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a technology based on packet transmission mode while
incorporating the high-speed of circuit transmission mode. ATM was adopted as the transmission and
switching mode for broadband ISDN by the ITU-T in June 1992. Due to its flexibility and support for
multimedia services, ATM is regarded as core broadband technology.
As defined by the ITU-T, data is encapsulated in cells in ATM. Each ATM cell is 53 bytes in length, of
which the first five bytes contain cell header information and the last 48 bytes contain payload. The
major function of the cell header is to identify virtual connection. In addition, it can be used to carry
limited flow control, congestion control, and error control information.

ATM connections and ATM switching


ATM is connection-oriented, and ATM connections are logical connections, or virtual circuits. In an ATM
network, you can create logical connections called virtual paths (VPs) and virtual circuits (VCs) on
physical links. As shown in Figure 62, you can create multiple VPs on a physical link, and each VP can
be demultiplexed into multiple VCs. Cells from different users are transmitted over different VPs and VCs,
which are identified by virtual path identifier (VPI) and virtual channel identifier (VCI).
Figure 62 Physical link, VP, and VC

ATM uses VPI/VCI pairs to identify a logical connection. When a connection is released, all the involved
VPI/VCI pairs are reclaimed for new connections.
As shown in Figure 63, an ATM switch forwards ATM cells by looking up the switching entries and
changing the VPIs/VCIs. The ATM switching by changing VPIs only is VP switching, and the connection
established through VP switching is Virtual Path Connection (VPC). The ATM switching by changing VCIs
only or changing both VCIs and VPIs is VC switching, and the connection established through VC
switching is Virtual Circuit Connection (VCC).

195
Figure 63 ATM switching

ATM interfaces support only manually created permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) and permanent virtual
paths (PVPs), not switched virtual circuits (SVCs) created through the exchange of signals.

ATM architecture
ATM has a three-dimensional architecture. It consists of three planes: user plane, control plane, and
management plane. Both the user plane and the control plane are divided into four layers: physical layer,
ATM layer, ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL), and upper layer, each of which are further divided into the
following sub-layers:
• The control plane establishes and tears down connections with signaling protocols.
• The management plane consists of layer management and plane management. The former
manages the layers in each plane and has a layered structure corresponding to other planes. The
latter manages the system and the communications between different planes.
Figure 64 illustrates the relationships between layers and planes in ATM.
Figure 64 ATM architecture

The functions of the four ATM layers are as follows:


• Physical layer—Provides transmission channels for ATM cells. At this layer, cells received from the
ATM layer are transferred into a continuous bit stream after transmission overheads are added to

196
them. Meanwhile, continuous bit streams received from physical media are restored to cells, which
are then passed to the ATM layer.
• ATM layer—Resides over the physical layer, and implements cell-based communication with its
peer layer by invoking the services provided by the physical layer. It is independent of physical
media, implementation of the physical layer, and types of services being carried. Data passed to
this layer takes the form of 48-byte payloads, which are segmentation and reassembly protocol
data units (SAR-PDUs); and data passed from this layer to the physical layer is 53-byte cells, with the
48-byte payload being encapsulated in a five-byte header. Other functions of the ATM layer
include VPI/VCI transmission, cell multiplexing/demultiplexing, and generic flow control.
• ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)—Provides interfaces between high-level protocols and the ATM Layer.
It forwards information between the ATM layer and upper layer protocols. Four types of AAL are
available: AAL1, AAL2, AAL3/4, and AAL5, each of which supports specific services provided in
an ATM network. Most ATM equipment vendors adopt AAL5 for data communication services.
• ATM upper layer protocols—Responsible for WAN interconnection, voice interconnection, Layer 3
interconnection, encapsulation, LAN emulation, multiprotocol over ATM, and traditional IP.

IPoA, IPoEoA, PPPoA, and PPPoEoA


An ATM interface may implement IPoA, IPoEoA, PPPoA, and PPPoEoA to carry data encapsulated in IP,
PPP, or Ethernet across an ATM network.

IPoA
IP over ATM (IPoA) enables ATM to carry IP packets. In an IPoA implementation, ATM serves as the data
link layer protocol for the IP hosts on the same network. To enable these hosts to communicate across an
ATM network, IP packets must be encapsulated in ATM cells.
By making full use of the advantages of ATM, IPoA delivers excellent network performance and
ubiquitous mature QoS assurance.

IPoEoA
IP over Ethernet over ATM (IPoEoA) adopts a three-layer architecture, with IP encapsulation at the top
layer, IP over Ethernet (IPoE) in the middle, and IPoEoA at the bottom.
IPoEoA is suitable where Ethernet packets are to be forwarded through ATM interfaces. In IPoEoA
applications, you can associate multiple PVCs with one Layer 3 virtual Ethernet (VE) interface and PVCs
associated with the same VE interface are interconnected at Layer 2.

PPPoA
PPP over ATM (PPPoA) enables ATM to carry PPP protocol packets. With PPPoA, PPP packets, in which IP
packets or other protocols' packets are encapsulated, are encapsulated in ATM cells. In this approach,
ATM is the carrier of PPP packets and the communication process of PPPoA is managed by PPP, which
allows for flexibility and rich applications. To transmit PPP packets across ATM, a virtual-template (VT)
interface is required.

197
PPPoEoA
PPPoE over ATM (PPPoEoA) enables ATM to carry PPPoE protocol packets. With PPPoEoA, Ethernet
packets are encapsulated in ATM cells, through which you can use a PVC to implement the functionality
of Ethernet. To carry Ethernet frames over ATM, the virtual Ethernet (VE) interface was introduced. The VE
interface has Ethernet characteristics and can be dynamically created. The following is the protocol stack
adopted by the VE interface:
• ATM PVC (the bottom layer)
• Ethernet (the link layer)
• Network layer and other upper layers (the same as those for common Ethernet interfaces)

ATM service types


ATM supports four service types: constant bit rate (CBR), unspecified bit rate (UBR), Real-Time Variable
Bit Rate (rt-VBR) and Non-Real-Time Variable Bit Rate (nrt-VBR). They are used for the QoS purpose.

CBR
CBR provides ensured, constant bandwidth. The bandwidth assigned to the CBR service is decided by
the Peak Cell Rate (PCR). With CBR service, a source station can send ATM cells at PCR constantly with
assured QoS.
Usually, CBR is suitable for jitter-sensitive, real-time applications, such as audio and video.

rt-VBR
The rt-VBR service is provided for applications that have strict restrictions on delay and jitter, such as
audio and video.
An rt-VBR connection is described by the PCR, sustainable cell rate (SCR) and maximum burst size (MBS).
A station using the rt-VBR service is allowed to send burst traffic at PCR with the maximum traffic size
being MBS without packet loss and the average cell rate being SCR.

nrt-VBR
The nrt-VBR service supports non-real-time applications with burst traffic. An nrt-VBR connection is
described by PCR, SCR, and MBS. The nrt-VBR service is suitable for applications sensitive to cell loss but
not to delay.

UBR
The UBR service does not make any service quality commitment, guaranteeing neither cell loss ratio (CLR)
nor cell delay. When traffic congestion occurs, cells of the UBR service are always dropped first. The UBR
service is suitable for applications with low requirements for delay and bandwidth.

InARP
On an ATM PVC connection, you can use the Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (InARP) to obtain the
IP address of the remote end connected to the PVC. In this way, you do not need to manually configure
the IP address of the remote end. Figure 65 shows how InARP works.

198
Figure 65 Inverse address resolution procedure of InARP

ATM OAM
OAM in the ITU-T I.610 recommendation (02/99) and Operation Administration and Maintenance in
LUCENT APC User Manual (03/99).
Whichever expansion is adopted, OAM provides a way of detecting faults, isolating faults, and
monitoring network performance without interrupting ongoing services. By inserting OAM cells, which
are constructed in the standard ATM cell format, in cell streams, you can obtain specific information
about the network.

OAM F5 loopback
The OAM F5 loopback function of ATM operates in the following workflow on a PVC:
Each side of the PVC sends OAM cells to its peer periodically. On receiving an OAM cell from the sender,
the receiver returns the OAM cell to the sender. If the sender receives the cell within the specified period
(which is the interval frequency of sending OAM cells), the PVC is normal. If the sender fails to receive
an OAM cell sent by itself, the PVC may be faulty. Then the sender continues to send OAM cells for
detection (the sending interval is retry-frequency). If the sender still does not receive an OAM cell, the
PVC is actually faulty.
Two approaches are available for implementing the OAM F5 Loopback function: manual (OAMPing)
and auto (OAM Frequency). In the OAMPing approach, send OAM cells manually; this approach is
usually used for diagnosis. In the OAM Frequency approach, you must configure an ATM interface to
send OAM cells regularly at a certain interval; this approach is usually used for automatic link status
checking.

OAM continuity check


When enabled, the OAM Continuity Check (CC) function periodically sends OAM cells to check
whether a connection is idle or has failed.
OAM CC works on a PVC, where one side of the PVC sends OAM cells to its peer. The peer checks the
connection status based on these OAM cells.

ATM configuration task list

199
Task Remarks
Configuring an ATM interface Required.

Configuring Performing basic configurations for an ATM subinterface


an ATM Optional.
subinterface Checking PVC status to determine the protocol state of an ATM P2P subinterface

Configuring Configuring PVC parameters Required.


PVCs and
Setting the CLP bit for ATM cells
the Optional.
maximum Assigning a transmission priority to an ATM PVC
number of
PVCs Configuring PVC service mapping Optional.
allowed on
Configuring the maximum number of PVCs allowed on an ATM interface Optional.
an interface

Configuring an ATM class Optional.

Configuring VP policing Optional.

Configuring Layer 3 VE interfaces Required.

Configuring Configuring IPoA


Required.
applications
Configuring IPoEoA
carried by Use one of
ATM Configuring PPPoA the
approaches.
Configuring PPPoEoA

Configuring an ATM interface


Depending on the actual networking environment and system requirements, you may be required to
modify certain parameters of an ATM interface.
Except the mtu command, which can be configured on a subinterface, the ATM settings in this section
must be modified in ATM main interface view, although they apply to both the main ATM interface and
its subinterfaces.
For more information about ATM interface configuration, see Interface Configuration Guide.

Configuring an ATM subinterface


Performing basic configurations for an ATM subinterface
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

200
Step Command Remarks
By default, the connection type of a
subinterface is point-to-multipoint
(p2mp).
The keywords p2mp and p2p are
interface atm available with the interface atm
2. Create an ATM subinterface
interface-number.subnumber interface-number.subnumber
and enter its view.
[ p2mp | p2p ] command only when you are
creating an ATM subinterface. If
you are entering an existing ATM
subinterface, the two keywords are
not available.

3. Set the MTU for the ATM Optional.


mtu mtu-number
subinterface. 1500 bytes by default.

Optional.
4. Shut down the ATM
shutdown By default, an ATM subinterface is
subinterface.
up.

Checking PVC status to determine the protocol state of an ATM


P2P subinterface
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Create an ATM P2P By default, the subinterface is
interface atm
subinterface and enter its configured as point-to-multipoint
interface-number.subnumber p2p
view. (p2mp).
3. Check PVC status in addition
By default, the protocol state of an
to physical interface status
ATM P2P subinterface is consistent
when determining the atm-link check
with the status of the physical
protocol state of the ATM P2P
interface.
subinterface.

Configuring PVCs and the maximum number of


PVCs allowed on an interface
Configuring PVC parameters
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter ATM interface view or ATM interface atm { interface-number
N/A
subinterface view. | interface-number.subnumber }

201
Step Command Remarks
3. Create a PVC and enter PVC pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
By default, no PVC is created.
view. vpi/vci }

Optional.
4. Set the AAL5 encapsulation
encapsulation aal5-encap By default, aal5snap
protocol type for the PVC.
encapsulation is adopted.

Optional.
By default, OAM F5 Loopback cell
5. Start transmission and
oam frequency frequency [ up transmission is disabled. However,
retransmission detection of
up-count down down-count if an OAM F5 Loopback cell is
operations, administration, and
retry-frequency received, a response will be sent.
maintenance (OAM) F5
retry-frequency ] By default, up-count is 3,
Loopback cells.
down-count is 5, and
retry-frequency is 1 second.

Optional.
This command enables AIS/RDI
alarm cell detection, and specifies
the following:
• The PVC goes down when the
number of successive AIS/RDI
alarm cells received reaches
6. Set the parameters for alarm
down-count.
indication signal (AIS)/ remote oam ais-rdi up up-seconds
defect indication (RDI) alarm cell down down-count • The PVC goes up if no AIS/RDI
detection. alarm cells are received in a
period specified by up-seconds
(in seconds).
By default, a PVC goes down when
one AIS/RDI alarm cell is received
and goes up if no AIS/RDI alarm
cells are received in the last three
seconds.
• Set the PVC's service type to
constant bit rate (CBR):
service cbr output-pcr [ cdvt
cdvt-value ]
• Set the PVC's service type to Optional.
unspecified bit rate (UBR),
By default, the service type of a
and set the rate-related
PVC is UBR.
parameters:
service ubr output-pcr The CDVT is 500μs by default.
7. Set the PVC service type and the
rate-related parameters. • Set the PVC's service type to You can use these four commands
nrt-VBR, and set the to set the service type and the
rate-related parameters: parameters concerning
service vbr-nrt output-pcr transmission rate. A newly
output-scr output-mbs configured service type overwrites
• Set the PVC's service type to the existing one.
rt-VBR, and set the
rate-related parameters:
service vbr-rt output-pcr
output-scr output-mbs

202
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
8. Set the maximum number of BDs The value range for the value
tx-bd-limit value
allowed. argument varies with interface
card models.

Setting the CLP bit for ATM cells


By setting the Cell Loss Priority (CLP) bit in ATM cells, you can redefine the drop probability of ATM cells
when the network becomes congested.
To set the CLP bit for ATM cells:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Create a class and enter class traffic classifier tcl-name [ operator
N/A
view. { and | or } ]
3. Configure the match criteria. if-match [ not ] match-criteria N/A
4. Return to system view. quit N/A
5. Create a traffic behavior and
traffic behavior behavior-name N/A
enter traffic behavior view.

Optional.
By default, the CLP bit is not
marked for ATM cells.
6. Mark the CLP bit for ATM
remark atm-clp atm-clp-value The CLP bit of ATM cells is 0 or 1.
cells.
When congestion occurs, ATM
cells with CLP bit 1 are dropped
preferentially.
7. Return to system view. quit N/A
8. Create a policy and enter
qos policy policy-name N/A
policy view.
9. Associate the class with the classifier tcl-name behavior
N/A
traffic behavior in the policy. behavior-name
10. Return to system view. quit N/A
11. Enter ATM interface or interface atm { interface-number |
N/A
subinterface view. interface-number.subnumber }
12. Create a PVC and enter PVC pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
By default, no PVC is created.
view. vpi/vci }
13. Apply the QoS policy on the qos apply policy policy-name
N/A
PVC. { inbound | outbound }

For more information about classes, traffic behaviors, and policies, see ACL and QoS Configuration
Guide.

203
Assigning a transmission priority to an ATM PVC
You can assign transmission priorities to ATM PVCs associated with the UBR, rt-VBR, or nrt-VBR service.
At the time of bandwidth allocation, the PVC with higher priority has priority over other PVCs.
To assign a transmission priority to an ATM PVC:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface atm { interface-number |


2. Enter ATM subinterface view. N/A
interface-number.subnumber }
3. Create a PVC and enter PVC pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
N/A
view. vpi/vci }

Optional.
4. Assign a transmission priority By default, the priority value is 0
transmit-priority value
to the ATM PVC. for the UBR service, 5 for the
nrt-VBR service and 8 for the rt-VBR.

Configuring PVC service mapping


PVC service mapping allows different PVCs from the same PVC-Group to carry IP packets of different
priorities.
A primary PVC refers to the one based on which a PVC-group is created on an ATM interface. A
secondary PVC refers to a PVC created in a PVC-group.
To configure PVC service mapping:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface atm { interface-number |


2. Enter ATM subinterface view. N/A
interface-number.subnumber }
3. Create PVC, and enter its pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
N/A
view. vpi/vci }
4. Return to ATM interface view. quit N/A

Make sure that the PVC specified


5. Create a PVC group and enter pvc-group { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
by the pvc-name or vpi/vci
PVC group view. vpi/vci }
argument already exists.

pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |


6. Add a PVC to the PVC-Group. Optional.
vpi/vci }

ip-precedence { pvc-name
7. Set the precedence of IP
[ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci } { min [ max ] Optional.
packets carried on a PVC.
| default }

Configuring the maximum number of PVCs allowed on an ATM


interface
204
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter ATM interface view. interface atm interface-number N/A

Optional.
The maximum number of PVCs
allowed on an ATM interface
3. Configure the maximum depends on the interface type.
number of PVCs allowed pvc max-number max-number This command applies to both a
on the ATM interface.
main ATM interface and its
subinterfaces. However, you can
configure this command only in
main ATM interface view.

Configuring an ATM class


An ATM class facilitates ATM configuration. Configurations of PVC MAP, encapsulation type, OAM
loopback, and service category can be implemented via an ATM-Class. First, create an ATM class and
set the parameters needed, and then call the ATM class in PVC view or ATM interface view.
When you configure a PVC, follow these guidelines:
• The priorities of the same configurations performed to a PVC descend in the following order: the
configuration directly performed to the PVC, the configuration performed to the ATM class applied
to the PVC, and the configuration performed to the ATM class applied to the ATM interface.
• For different configurations that conflict with each other, their priorities descend in the following
order: the configuration directly performed to the PVC, the configuration performed to the ATM
class applied to the PVC, and the configuration performed to the ATM class applied to the ATM
interface.
• All the configurations directly performed to the PVC, performed to the ATM class applied to the PVC,
and performed to the ATM class applied to the ATM interface take effect if they do not conflict.
• For different configurations performed to a PVC, the ATM class applied to the PVC, and the ATM
class applied to the ATM interface, if the configurations conflict with each other, those applied first
take effect, and the conflict prompt appears when the rest are performed.
• When an ATM class is applied to a PVC, no message is prompted no matter whether or not the
ATM class is successfully applied.
• Error messages appear when configurations performed to a PVC are invalid.
To configure an ATM class:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Create an ATM class and
atm class atm-class-name N/A
enter ATM class view.

3. Specify ATM AAL5 Optional.


encapsulation type for the encapsulation aal5-encap By default, aal5snap
PVC. encapsulation is adopted.

205
Step Command Remarks
Optional.
By default, OAM F5 Loopback cell
4. Start transmission of OAM F5 transmission is disabled. However,
oam frequency frequency [ up
Loopback cells or if an OAM F5 Loopback cell is
up-count down down-count
retransmission check of OAM received, it should be responded.
retry-frequency retry-frequency ]
F5 Loopback.
By default, up-count is 3,
down-count is 5 and
retry-frequency is 1 second.

• Set the PVC's service type to


constant bit rate (CBR):
service cbr output-pcr
• Set the PVC's service type to
unspecified bit rate (UBR), and Optional.
set the rate-related parameters: By default, the service type of a
service ubr output-pcr PVC is UBR.
5. Set the PVC's service type and • Set the PVC's service type to You can use these four commands
rate-related parameters. nrt-VBR, and set the to set the service type and the
rate-related parameters: parameters concerning
service vbr-nrt output-pcr transmission rate. A newly
output-scr output-mbs configured service type overwrites
• Set the PVC's service type to the existing one.
rt-VBR, and set the rate-related
parameters:
service vbr-rt output-pcr
output-scr output-mbs

• Configure IPoA and enable Optional.


inverse address resolution By default, mapping is not
(InARP) for the PVC: configured. When a mapping is
map ip inarp [ minutes ] configured, pseudo-broadcast is
[ broadcast ] not supported by default.
6. Configure the service type (use • Establish PPPoA mapping for Before configuring InARP, make
different commands the PVC:
sure the aal5snap encapsulation is
according to service types). map ppp virtual-template
used. Though InARP is also
vt-number
supported when using aal5mux or
• Establish IPoEoA or PPPoEoA aal5nlpid encapsulation, the
mapping for the PVC: system will prompt a message
map bridge virtual-ethernet indicating a failure when this ATM
interface-number is configured and used on PVC.

7. Return to system view quit N/A

206
Step Command Remarks
• Enter ATM interface view:
interface atm
{ interface-number |
8. Enter ATM interface view or
interface-number.subnumber } N/A
PVC view
• Enter PVC view:
pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
vpi/vci }
9. Enable the ATM class on the
atm-class atm-class-name N/A
interface or PVC

Configuring VP policing
VP policing is used to set the sustainable rate of a virtual path identifier (VPI). When applying VP policing,
the parameters of PVC are still valid. Only when the parameters of PVC and VP policing are satisfied, will
the packets be transmitted or received. In calculating the traffic, the LLC/SNAP, MUX and NLPID headers
are included, but the ATM cell header is not included.
To set the parameters of VP policing:

Step Command
1. Enter system view. system-view
2. Enter ATM interface view. interface atm interface-number
3. Set the parameters of VP policing. pvp limit vpi output-scr

Configuring applications carried by ATM


In Table 3, although ATM can carry multiple protocols, a specific encapsulation type may not support
ATM applications (such as IPoA, IPoEoA, PPPoA, and PPPoEoA).
Table 3 Support for ATM applications

ATM application aal5snap aal5mux aal5nlpid


IPoA Supported Supported Supported

IPoEoA Supported Supported Not supported

PPPoA Supported Supported Not supported

PPPoEoA Supported Supported Not supported

High MBS settings may result in the failure of the service vbr-rt and vbr-nrt commands because of
hardware limitations. To avoid the situation, set MBS to a smaller value.
With aal5snap adopted, two or more protocols are supported. But for aal5nlpid, you cannot enable
InARP on a PVC for an IPoA application.

207
Configuring Layer 3 VE interfaces
To configure a PVC to carry PPPoEoA, IPoEoA, and EoA, you must first specify a VE interface for the
channel. If not, the permanent virtual channel cannot be created.
To configure a Layer 3 VE interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

If a specified Layer 3 VE interface does not


2. Create a Layer 3 VE exist, use this command to first create one
interface virtual-ethernet and then enter its view.
interface and enter
interface-number
its view. You can create up to 1024 Layer 3 VE
interfaces.

Optional.
3. Set the interface By default, the description for a VE interface
description text
description. is interface name Interface, for example,
Virtual-Ethernet0 Interface.

4. Configure the MAC


address for the mac-address mac-address Optional.
interface.
5. Set the intended
bandwidth for the bandwidth bandwidth-value Optional.
interface.
6. Restore the default
settings for the default Optional.
interface.

7. Shut down the Optional.


shutdown
interface. Up by default.

Configuring IPoA
When you configure IPoA, follow these guidelines:
• If you execute the map ip command with the broadcast keyword, which specifies pseudo broadcast,
any broadcast packets received by the port on which the PVC is created will be duplicated to the
PVC. Therefore, to propagate broadcast or multicast packets on an ATM PVC with a broadcast or
multicast protocol enabled, specify the broadcast keyword.
• Configure the map ip default broadcast command on PVCs created on P2P ATM subinterfaces.
• You can configure PVC mapping in PVC view. For more information, see MPLS Configuration
Guide.
To configure IPoA:

208
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface atm { interface-number |


2. Enter ATM interface view. N/A
interface-number.subnumber }
3. Create a PVC, and enter PVC pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
N/A
view. vpi/vci }

By default, no mapping is
configured. If a mapping is
configured, pseudo-broadcast is
4. Configure an IPoA mapping map ip { ip-address [ ip-mask ] | not supported by default.
for the PVC, and enable the default | inarp [ minutes ] } Before configuring InARP, make
PVC to carry IP packets. [ broadcast ] sure that aal5snap encapsulation
is used. InARP is not supported
when aal5mux or aal5nlpid
encapsulations is adopted.

Configuring IPoEoA
When you configure IPoEoA, follow these guidelines:
• When multiple Layer 3 VE interfaces are connected through PVCs to a DHCP server that assigns IP
addresses to the interfaces through static address binding, configure different MAC addresses for
the interfaces by using the mac-address command.
• In an IPoEoA application, Class Based Queuing (CBQ) should be configured on PVCs.
• You can configure PVC mapping in PVC view. For information about the configuration, see MPLS
Configuration Guide.
To configure IPoEoA on a PVC:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

Configure the IP address on a VE


2. Create a virtual Ethernet (VE) interface virtual-ethernet interface. It is invalid to configure
interface. interface-number the IP address on the ATM
interface.
3. Return to system view. quit N/A

interface atm { interface-number |


4. Enter ATM interface view. N/A
interface-number.subnumber }
5. Enable packet padding on the
eoapad enable Optional.
ATM interface.
6. Create a PVC and enter its pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
N/A
view. vpi/vci }
7. Configure an IPoEoA map bridge virtual-ethernet
N/A
mapping on the PVC. interface-number

209
Configuring PPPoA
When two routers are connected using DSL interfaces through a dial-up connection, configure them as
PPPoA server and client, respectively. The two are different in that: with the PPPoA server, configure an
address pool to allocate an IP address for the remote node; with the PPPoA client, configure address
negotiation to accept the IP address allocated by the server end. For more information, see "Configuring
PPP and MP."
When you configure a static route for a virtual-template interface, specify the next hop rather than the
outgoing interface. If you want to specify the outgoing interface, make sure the physical interface bound
to the virtual-template is valid to ensure correct transmission.
The following configurations enable the PVC to carry PPP and configure a PPP mapping for the PVC.
To configure PPPoA:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

Configure PPP authentication and


interface virtual-template IP address on the VT interface (the
2. Create a VT interface.
vt-number IP address is invalid if configured
on the ATM interface).
3. Set the PPP authentication
mode and IP address; with the
PPPoE server, an address pool
should be configured to
allocate an IP address for the
See "Configuring PPP and MP." N/A
remote end; with the PPPoE
client, address negotiation
should be configured to
accept the IP address
allocated by the server end.
4. Return to system view. quit N/A

interface atm { interface-number |


5. Enter ATM interface view. N/A
interface-number.subnumber }
6. Create a PVC and enter the pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
N/A
PVC view. vpi/vci }
7. Configure a PPPoA mapping map ppp virtual-template
N/A
for the PVC. vt-number

Configuring PPPoEoA
PPPoE adopts the Client/Server model. It encapsulates PPP packets into Ethernet frames and provides
point-to-point connection on Ethernet. The following configurations enable the PVC to carry PPPoE and
configure a PPPoE mapping for the PVC.
When you configure PPPoEoA, follow these guidelines:
• When you configure a static route for a virtual-template interface, specify the next hop rather than
the outgoing interface. If you want to specify the outgoing interface, make sure the physical
interface bound to the virtual-template is valid to ensure correct transmission.

210
• When multiple Layer 3 virtual Ethernet interfaces are connected through PVCs to a DHCP server
that assigns IP addresses to the interfaces through static address binding, you must configure
different MAC addresses for the interfaces with the mac-address command.
To configure PPPoEoA:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

Configure PPP authentication and


interface virtual-template an IP address on the VT interface
2. Create a VT interface.
vt-number (the IP address is invalid if
configured on the ATM interface).
3. Set the PPP authentication
mode and IP address; with the
PPPoE server, an address pool
should be configured to
allocate IP address for the
See "Configuring PPP and MP." N/A
peer end; with the PPPoE
client, address negotiation
should be configured to
accept the IP address
allocated by the server end..
4. Return to system view. quit N/A

interface virtual-ethernet
5. Create a VE interface. N/A
interface-number
6. Configure PPPoE parameters
on VE interface (the
configuration differs when See "Configuring PPPoE." N/A
with a PPPoE server and when
with a PPPoE client).
7. Return to system view. quit N/A

interface atm { interface-number |


8. Enter ATM interface view. N/A
interface-number.subnumber }
9. Enable packet padding on the
eoapad enable Optional.
ATM interface.
10. Create a PVC, and enter the pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
N/A
PVC view. vpi/vci }

The interface-number argument


11. Create a PPPoEoA mapping map bridge virtual-ethernet
refers to the VE interface created in
for the PVC. interface-number
the steps.

Displaying and maintaining ATM


Task Command Remarks
Display the configuration and display atm interface [ atm interface-number ]
status information of an ATM [ | { begin | exclude | include } Available in any view.
interface. regular-expression ]

211
Task Command Remarks
display atm pvc-info [ interface interface-type
interface-number [ pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
Display information about PVCs. Available in any view.
vpi/vci } ] ] [ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

display atm map-info [ interface


Display information about PVC interface-type interface-number [ pvc
Available in any view.
mappings. { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci } ] ] [ | { begin
| exclude | include } regular-expression ]

display atm pvc-group [ interface


interface-type interface-number [ pvc
Display PVC-group information. Available in any view.
{ pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci } ] ] [ | { begin
| exclude | include } regular-expression ]

Display information about an ATM display atm class [ atm-class-name ] [ | { begin


Available in any view.
class. | exclude | include } regular-expression ]

Send OAM cells on the specified


PVC on the interface to test
oamping interface atm interface-number pvc Available in ATM
connectivity of the link depending
{ pvc-name | vpi /vci } [ number timeout ] interface view.
on whether response is returned
before the specified timeout time.

display interface [ virtual-ethernet ] [ brief


Display information about Layer 3
[ down ] ] [ | { begin | exclude | include } Available in any view.
VE interfaces.
regular-expression ]

Clear the statistics for a Layer 3 VE reset counters interface [ virtual-ethernet


Available in user view.
interface. interface-number ]

ATM configuration examples


This section provides ATM configuration examples.

IPoA configuration example


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 66, Router A, B, and C are connected to the ATM network for intercommunication.
The IP addresses of their ATM interfaces of the three routers are 202.38.160.1/24, 202.38.160.2/24,
and 202.38.160.3/24, respectively.
In the ATM network, the VPI/VCI of Router A is 0/40 and 0/41, connecting to Router B and Router C,
respectively. The VPI/VCI of Router B is 0/50 and 0/51, connecting to Router A and C, respectively. The
VPI/VCI of Router C is 0/60 and 0/61, connected with Router A and B, respectively.
All the PVCs on ATM interfaces of the three routers operate in IPoA application mode.

212
Figure 66 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Enter the view of the ATM 1/0 interface and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface atm 1/0
[RouterA-Atm1/0] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
# Establish a PVC and enable it to carry IP.
[RouterA-Atm1/0] pvc to_b 0/40
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/40-to_b] map ip 202.38.160.2
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/40-to_b] quit
[RouterA-Atm1/0] pvc to_c 0/41
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/41-to_c] map ip 202.38.160.3
2. Configure Router B:
# Enter the view of the ATM 1/0 interface and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface atm 1/0
[RouterB-Atm1/0] ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0
# Establish a PVC and enable it to carry IP.
[RouterB-Atm1/0] pvc to_a 0/50
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/50-to_a] map ip 202.38.160.1
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/50-to_a] quit
[RouterB-Atm1/0] pvc to_c 0/51
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/51-to_c] map ip 202.38.160.3
3. Configure Router C:
# Enter the view of the ATM 1/0 interface and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] interface atm 1/0
[RouterC-Atm1/0] ip address 202.38.160.3 255.255.255.0
# Establish a PVC and enable it to carry IP.
[RouterC-Atm1/0] pvc to_a 0/60

213
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/60-to_a] map ip 202.38.160.1
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/60-to_a] quit
[RouterC-Atm1/0] pvc to_b 0/61
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/61-to_b] map ip 202.38.160.2

IPoEoA configuration example


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 67, each of the hosts in the two Ethernets is respectively connected to the ATM
network through an ADSL Router, and they communicate with Router C through DSLAM.
The IP address of the VE interface of Router C is 202.38.160.1.
The VPI/VCI value of two PVCs connecting Router C and DSLAM are 0/60 and 0/61, pointing to Router
A and Router B respectively.
Both the WAN port of Router C and the DSL interfaces of the ADSL Routers adopt IPoEoA.
Figure 67 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
Configure Router C:
# Create a VE interface and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] interface virtual-ethernet 1
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet1] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit

# Create a PVC and enable IPoEoA on it.


[RouterC] interface atm 1/0.1
[RouterC-Atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_a 0/60
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] quit
[RouterC-Atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_b 0/61
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/61-to_adsl_b] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1

214
PPPoA configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 68, two hosts dial into the ATM network each through an ADSL Router, and
communicate with Router C through DSLAM. The requirements are as follows:
• To create VT for multiuser on Router C, and configure PPP mapping on VT.
The VPI/VCI value of two PVCs connecting Router C and DSLAM are 0/60 and 0/61, pointing to
ADSL Router A and ADSL Router B, respectively.
• Both the WAN port of Router C and the DSL interfaces of the two ADSL routers adopt PPPoA. The
authentication mode of ADSL Router is PAP. The IP addresses of the two ADSL Routers are assigned
by Router C.
Figure 68 Network diagram

Configuration procedure

CAUTION:
If the client cancels the IP address it has received through address negotiation, or the client is configured
with a fixed IP address, the communication between the server and the client will fail. You must shut down
the ATM interface first by using the shutdown command, and delete the IP address pool on the server.

1. Configure Router C (PPPoA Server):


# Create users for PPP authentication, and establish a local IP address pool.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] local-user user1
[RouterC-luser-user1] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-user1] password simple pwd1
[RouterC-luser-user1] quit
[RouterC] local-user user2
[RouterC-luser-user2] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-user2] password simple pwd2
[RouterC-luser-user2] quit
[RouterC] domain system
[RouterC-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterC-isp-system] ip pool 1 202.38.162.1 202.38.162.100
[RouterC-isp-system] quit

215
# Create a VT interface, configure PAP authentication and an IP address, and allocate an IP
address for the remote end from the IP address pool.
[RouterC] interface virtual-template 10
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] remote address pool 1
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] quit
[RouterC] interface virtual-template 11
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] ip address 202.38.161.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] remote address pool 1
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] quit
# Create a PVC, and specify it to carry PPP.
[RouterC] interface atm 1/0.1
[RouterC-Atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_a 0/60
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] map ppp virtual-template 10
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] quit
[RouterC-Atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_b 0/61
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/61-to_adsl_b] map ppp virtual-template 11
2. Configure ADSL Router A (PPPoA Client):
# Create a VT interface, and configure PAP authentication and IP address negotiation.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface virtual-template 0
[RouterA-Virtual-Template0] ppp pap local-user user1 password simple pwd1
[RouterA-Virtual-Template0] ip address ppp-negotiate
[RouterA-Virtual-Template0] quit
# Create a PVC, and specify it to run PPP.
[RouterA] interface atm 1/0
[RouterA-Atm1/0] pvc pppoa 0/37
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/37-pppoa] map ppp virtual-template 0
The configuration of ADSL Router B is similar to that of Router A.

PPPoEoA server configuration example


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 69, each host inside Ethernet dials into ATM network through an ADSL router, and
communicates with the router through DSLAM.
The IP addresses of the VT interface of Router C are 202.38.160.1 and 202.38.161.1.
The VPI/VCI addresses of two PVCs connecting Router C with DSLAM are 0/60 and 0/61, pointing to
ADSL Router A and ADSL Router B, respectively.
Both the WAN port of Router C and the DSL interface of ADSL Router adopt PPPoEoA. Each host within
the two Ethernets uses pre-installed PPPoE Client program to make interactive PAP authentication with
routers, and obtains an IP address from the router.

216
Figure 69 Network diagram

ADSL Router

Ethernet
Host A

ATM1/0.1
Router A VPI/VCI:
To Router A:0/60
Host B To Router B:0/61
Router C
VT10
DSLAM
Router B 202.38.160.1/24
VT11
Ethernet

Host C 202.38.161.1/24

ADSL Router
Host D

Configuration procedure
Configure Router C:
# Configure the users in the domain to use the PPP authentication scheme, and create a local IP address
pool.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] local-user user1
[RouterC-luser-user1] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-user1] password simple pwd1
[RouterC-luser-user1] quit
[RouterC] local-user user2
[RouterC-luser-user2] service-type ppp
[RouterC-luser-user2] password simple pwd2
[RouterC-luser-user2] quit
[RouterC]domain system
[RouterC-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterC-isp-system] ip pool 1 202.38.162.1 202.38.162.100
[RouterC-isp-system] quit

# Create the VT interface to encapsulate the PPP protocol, and configure PAP authentication parameters.
[RouterC] interface virtual-template 10
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterC-Virtual-Template10] quit
[RouterC] interface virtual-template 11
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] ip address 202.38.161.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] ppp authentication-mode pap
[RouterC-Virtual-Template11] quit

# Create the VE interface to encapsulate the PPP protocol.


[RouterC] interface virtual-ethernet 1
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet1] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 10
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit
[RouterC] interface virtual-ethernet 2

217
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet2] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 11
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet2] quit

# Establish a PVC and specify it to carry PPPoE.


[RouterC] interface atm 1/0.1
[RouterC-Atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_a 0/60
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/60-to_adsl_a] quit
[RouterC-Atm1/0.1] pvc to_adsl_b 0/61
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm1/0.1-0/61-to_adsl_b] map bridge virtual-ethernet 2

For more information about configuring a RADIUS scheme, see Security Configuration Guide.

PPPoEoA client configuration example


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 70, the Ethernet interface IP address of Router A serves as the gateway of all PCs in
LAN. Router A is directly connected to the ADSL accessing end of public network through the ADSL card
to serve as the client of PPPoEoA (ATM1/0 is the port number of the ADSL card). The Server, PPPoEoA
authentication server of public network, is used to authenticate user information through CHAP.
Figure 70 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
# Configure user name and password.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user Sysname
[RouterA-luser-Sysname] password simple hello
[RouterA-luser-Sysname] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-Sysname] quit
# Configure dialing access control list.
[RouterA] dialer-rule 10 ip permit
# Create dialer port and configure the dial-up and PPP authentication.
[RouterA] interface dialer0
[RouterA-Dialer0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp chap password hello
[RouterA-Dialer0] ppp chap user user1
[RouterA-Dialer0] ip address ppp-negotiate

218
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer user ABC
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer-group 10
[RouterA-Dialer0] dialer bundle 12
[RouterA-Dialer0] quit
# Create a VE interface.
[RouterA] interface virtual-ethernet 2
[RouterA-Virtual-Ethernet2] quit
# Configure the ATM interface of ADSL card.
[RouterA] interface atm1/0
[RouterA-Atm1/0] pvc 0/32
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32] map bridge virtual-ethernet 2
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32] quit
# Configure a VE interface.
[RouterA] interface virtual-ethernet 2
[RouterA-Virtual-Ethernet2] pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 12
# Configure the default route.
[RouterA] ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 Dialer 0
2. If the PPPoEoA Server is of the same type of router, its PPPoEoA can be configured as follow:
# Configure user features.
<Sysname> system-view
[Sysname] local-user user1
[Sysname-luser-user1] password simple hello
[Sysname-luser-user1] service-type ppp
# Create a virtual-template, set the authentication mode to CHAP, and configure the IP address.
[Sysname] interface virtual-template 0
[Sysname-Virtual-Template0] ppp authentication-mode chap
[Sysname-Virtual-Template0] ppp chap user Sysname
[Sysname-Virtual-Template0] ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.0.0
[Sysname-Virtual-Template0] remote address pool 80
[Sysname-Virtual-Template0] quit
# Configure the users in the domain to use the local authentication scheme, and create a local IP
address pool.
[Sysname] domain system
[Sysname-isp-system] scheme local
[Sysname-isp-system] ip pool 80 10.1.1.2 10.1.1.100
# Configure a VE interface.
[Sysname] interface virtual-ethernet 1
# Enable PPPoE Server on the VT specified on the virtual Ethernet interface.
[Sysname-Virtual-Ethernet1] pppoe-server bind virtual-template 0
[Sysname-Virtual-Ethernet1] mac-address 0022-0022-00C1
[Sysname-Virtual-Ethernet1] quit
# Configure ATM interface 1/0.
[Sysname] interface atm1/0
[Sysname-Atm1/0] pvc 0/32
[Sysname-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32] map bridge virtual-ethernet 1

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After the configuration, the link layer is capable of working normally, and the PCs can communicate with
the server through the ATM upper layer protocols.

ATM PVC transmit priority configuration example


Network requirements
As shown in Figure 71, create PVC 1 and PVC 2 on the same ATM 155 Mbps interface, each assigned
100 Mbps of bandwidth and associated with the UBR service. Set the transmission priority of PVC 1 to
1 and that of PVC 2 to 3.
Configure Router A to distribute equal amount of traffic to Router B and Router C on two PVCs and
observe the statistics about received/sent/dropped packets.
Figure 71 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
Configure Router A
# Configure the ATM interface.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface atm 1/0
[RouterA-Atm1/0] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0

# Create two PVCs and assign them different transmission priority values.
[RouterA-Atm1/0] pvc 1 0/33
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/33-1] map ip 202.38.160.2
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/33-1] service ubr 100000
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/33-1] transmit-priority 1
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/33-1] quit
[RouterA-Atm1/0] pvc 2 0/32
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32-2] map ip 202.38.160.3
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/32-2] service ubr 100000
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm1/0-0/33-1] transmit-priority 3

After two equal traffic flows exceeding the ATM bandwidth are sent to Router B and Router C, you can
use the display atm pvc-info interface atm 1/0/0 pvc command on Router B and Router C to view
statistics for each PVC (you can make several tests and observe the average statistics). You can see that
the PVC with higher priority receives more packets than that with lower priority. The PVC with the higher
priority takes preference in getting bandwidth and other PVCs (if there are many and with different
priority values), regardless of their priority values, are treated equally in terms of bandwidth allocation.

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Troubleshooting ATM
Link state error in IPoA application
Symptom
When IPoA is used, the link state is down.

Solution
Make sure that the optical fiber is plugged in correctly.
Make sure that the local IP address has been configured.
Make sure that the PVC is successfully created and communication between cards is normal.

Link report error in PPPoA application


Symptom
When PPPoA is used, the link does not report UP.

Solution
See "Link state error in IPoA application."

Ping failure
Symptom
The physical layer of the interfaces and the line protocol are both UP, but when tested with the ping
command, the two ends are mutually unreachable.

Solution
• If IPOA is used, make sure that the IP protocol address mapping is configured correctly. If the
interfaces of two routers are connected back-to-back, the local PVC mapped to the remote IP must
have the same VPI/VCI value as the remote PVC mapped to the local IP. In addition, the IP
addresses of the two ends must also be in the same network segment.
• If two routers are connected back-to-back, make sure that at least one of interfaces uses internal
transmission clock (master). Or, if the routers are connected to the ATM network, the transmission
clock should be set to line clock.
• Check the ATM interfaces of the two sides to make sure that they are of the same type, for example,
both are multimode fiber interfaces or both are single-mode fiber ports, or both are multi-mode fiber
interfaces but connected using single mode. If a multimode fiber interface and a single-mode fiber
interface are directly connected, they can communicate in most cases, but sometimes with frequent
packet dropping and CRC errors.
• If the two ends are PPPoA, make sure that their IP addresses (should be in the same network segment)
and authentication parameters are correctly configured.
• If, according to the ping command, small packets can pass but big packets cannot, make sure that
the mtu configurations of the two router interfaces are the same.

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ATM interface state error
Symptom
The interface state of ATM is DOWN.

Solution
Make sure that the optical fibers are correctly connected to ATM interface. There should be two optical
fibers, one for receiving information and one for sending information. The two are not exchangeable. If
they are wrongly connected, the interface state of ATM cannot be UP.
If two routers are connected back-to-back, check if neither of the two ATM interfaces enables internal
transmission clock. By default, routers use line clock. If two routers are connected back-to-back, one of
them should be configured as internal transmission clock with the clock master command.

PVC state is down while ATM interface state is up


Symptom
The interface state of ATM is UP, but the PVC state is DOWN.

Solution
Determine if this fault results from enabling OAM F5 Loopback cell transmission and retransmission
detection or OAM continuity check. When two ATM devices are connected, the VPI/VCI value of the
PVCs on the two devices must be the same. If OAM F5 cell transmission and retransmission detection or
OAM continuity check is enabled, and the VPI/VCI value of the remote node (connected directly with the
local node) is not the same as the local node, the local PVC state cannot change into UP.

Ping failure after PPPoA configuration


Symptom
The PVC state is UP, but after applications like IPoA are configured, the remote node cannot be
successfully pinged.

Solution
Make sure that the remote node supports the same application as configured on the local node. For
example, if the local node uses PPPoA, the remote node should also use PPPoA.
If the remote node supports the same application configured on the local node, make sure that the two
sides use the same type of AAL5 encapsulation protocol. For example, if one side uses SNAP whereas
the other uses MUX, they cannot communicate. You can enable the packet debugging function of ATM
to get some clues.

Packet loss and CRC errors and changes of interface state


Symptom
Two routers are connected back-to-back, and a ping between them is successful, but sometimes there are
large amount of packets lost and frequent CRC errors, or the interface state alternates between UP and
DOWN.

222
Solution
Check the ATM interfaces of the two nodes to see if their types are the same (both are multimode fiber
interface or both are single-mode fiber interface). If their types are different, you should change one of
them. In most cases, when a multimode fiber interface and a single-mode fiber interface are directly
connected, they can communicate, but sometimes with the mentioned faults.

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Configuring HDLC

The MSR 900 and MSR 930 routers do not support HDLC.

Overview
High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented link layer protocol. Its most prominent feature is that
it can transmit any type of bit stream transparently.
• HDLC supports point-to-point link only and does not support point-to-multipoint link.
• HDLC supports neither IP address negotiation nor authentication. It uses keepalive messages to
check link status.
• HDLC works only on synchronous interfaces or synchronous/asynchronous interfaces in
synchronous mode. This protocol applies to serial interfaces operating in synchronous mode and
POS interfaces.

HDLC frame format and frame type


HDLC frames fall into the following types:
• Information frame (I frame)—Responsible for transmitting useful data or information.
• Supervision frame (S frame)—Responsible for error control and flow control.
• Unnumbered frame (U frame)—Responsible for the link establishment, teardown, and so on.
An HDLC frame is composed of the following fields:
• Flag—The flag field, 01111110, marks the beginning and end of an HDLC frame. Each frame begins
with a 7E and ends with a 7E. The 7E between two neighboring frames functions both as the end
of the frame in the front and as the beginning of the following frame.
• Address—The address field is eight bits; it identifies the source or destination where the frame is
sent or received.
• Control—The control field is eight bits and identifies the control type and defines the frame type
(control or data).
• Information—The information field can be an arbitrary binary bit set. The minimum length can be
zero and the maximum length is decided by the FCS field or the buffer size of the communicating
node. The maximum length is between 1000 and 2000 bits.
• Checksum—The checksum field can use a 16-bit CRC to check the content of a frame.

Enabling HDLC encapsulation on an interface


Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

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Step Command Remarks
3. Enable HDLC encapsulation
link-protocol hdlc PPP is encapsulated by default.
on the interface.

Configuring an IP address for an interface


Make sure that an IP unnumbered HDLC interface has a route to the remote end. When you configure the
route, follow these guidelines:
• If you use a routing protocol, make sure the learned route has a mask longer than the borrowed IP
address, because route lookup is based on the longest match.
• If you configure a static route and the borrowed IP network mask is 32 bits long, the static route must
use a mask shorter than the borrowed IP address.
• If you configure a static route, and the mask of the borrowed IP address is shorter than 32 bits, the
static route must use a mask longer than the borrowed IP address.
To configure an IP address for an interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enter interface view. interface interface-type interface-number N/A

• Assign an IP address to the interface:


Use either approach.
ip address ip-address { mask |
mask-length } [ sub ] By default, no IP
3. Configure an IP address for the address is assigned to
• Configure the interface as an IP
interface. an interface, and an
unnumbered interface to borrow the IP
interface does not
address of the specified interface:
borrow the IP address
ip address unnumbered interface
of any other interface.
interface-type interface-number

For more information about interface IP address configuration, see Layer 3—IP Services Configuration
Guide.

Configuring the link status polling interval


HDLC can regularly check link status. The link status polling interval is user configurable. It is a good
practice to set the same interval for the two ends of a link. Setting the link status polling interval to 0
disables link status check. If the network has a long delay or is experiencing congestion, you can
increase the polling interval to avoid network flappings.
To configure the link status polling interval:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

225
Step Command Remarks
3. Configure the link status Optional.
timer hold seconds
polling interval. 10 seconds by default.

Configuring HDLC compression


The STAC-LZ compression compresses the payload of packets on an HDLC link. Because it does not rely
on history packet information, it can achieve a smaller compression ratio. The STAC-LZ compression
increases data transmission efficiency on low-speed links, saves network bandwidth, and reduces
network load.
To configure HDLC compression:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Enable HDLC encapsulation
link-protocol hdlc PPP by default.
on the interface.

By default, HDLC links do not


4. Enable HDLC compression. hdlc compression stac
support compression.

Displaying and maintaining HDLC


Task Command Remarks
display hdlc compression stac
[ interface interface-type
Display the HDLC compression
interface-number ] [ | { begin | Available in any view.
statistics.
exclude | include }
regular-expression ]

reset hdlc compression stac


Clear the HDLC compression
[ interface interface-type Available in user view.
statistics.
interface-number ]

Use the display interface command to display the configuration result.


Use the reset counters interface command to clear the traffic statistics of an HDLC interface and restart
traffic statistics collecting on the HDLC interface.

HDLC configuration examples


Basic HDLC configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 72, Router A and Router B are connected by POS interfaces.

226
Run HDLC on the link between them.
Figure 72 Network diagram
POS5/0 POS5/0
12.1.1.1/24 12.1.1.2/24

Router A Router B

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface pos 5/0
[RouterA-Pos5/0] clock master
[RouterA-Pos5/0] link-protocol hdlc
[RouterA-Pos5/0] ip address 12.1.1.1 24
[RouterA-Pos5/0] quit
2. Configure Router B:
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface pos 5/0
[RouterB-Pos5/0] link-protocol hdlc
[RouterB-Pos5/0] ip address 12.1.1.2 24
After the configuration, Router A and Router B should be able to ping each other. Take the output
on Router A as an example.
[RouterA] ping 12.1.1.2
PING 12.1.1.2: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 12.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=126 ms
Reply from 12.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 12.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 12.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 12.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=10 ms
--- 12.1.1.2 ping statistics ---
5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 1/27/126 ms

HDLC in conjunction with IP unnumbered interface


configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 73, Router A and Router B are connected through their POS ports with HDLC enabled.
Configure POS 5/0 of Router A to borrow the IP address of the local loopback interface, whose IP
address has a 32-bit mask.
Configure Router A to learn the routing information of Router B through static routes, so that Router A can
reach the network segment 12.1.2.0/24.

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Figure 73 Network diagram

Configuration procedure
1. Configure Router A:
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface loopback 1
[RouterA-LoopBack1] ip address 12.1.1.2 32
[RouterA-LoopBack1] quit
[RouterA] interface pos 5/0
[RouterA-Pos5/0] clock master
[RouterA-Pos5/0] link-protocol hdlc
[RouterA-Pos5/0] ip address unnumbered interface loopback 1
[RouterA-Pos5/0] quit
2. Configure Router B:
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface pos 5/0
[RouterB-Pos5/0] link-protocol hdlc
[RouterB-Pos5/0] ip address 12.1.1.1 24
3. Configure a static route on Router A:
[RouterA] ip route-static 12.1.1.0 24 pos 5/0
[RouterA] ip route-static 12.1.2.0 24 12.1.1.1
4. Verify that Router A can ping network segment 12.1.2.0/24:
[RouterA] ping 12.1.2.1
PING 12.1.2.1: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 12.1.2.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=35 ms
Reply from 12.1.2.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 12.1.2.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=10 ms
Reply from 12.1.2.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 12.1.2.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=1 ms

--- 12.1.2.1 ping statistics ---


5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 1/9/35 ms
# Execute the display ip routing-table command on Router A to see that the routing table
information is correct.
[RouterA] display ip routing-table
Routing Tables: Public
Destinations : 5 Routes : 5

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Destination/Mask Proto Pre Cost NextHop Interface

12.1.1.0/24 Static 60 0 12.1.1.2 POS5/0


12.1.1.2/32 Direct 0 0 127.0.0.1 InLoop0
12.1.2.0/24 Static 60 0 12.1.1.1 POS5/0
127.0.0.0/8 Direct 0 0 127.0.0.1 InLoop0
127.0.0.1/32 Direct 0 0 127.0.0.1 InLoop0

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Configuring DLSw

Overview
The APPN AIW developed Data Link Switching (DLSw) for tunneling unroutable, non-IP based protocol
such as IBM SNA over a TCP/IP network.
Figure 74 shows the DLSw mechanism.
Figure 74 DLSw mechanism

1. The local DLSw router converts the LLC2 frames from the local SNA device into SSP frames that can
be encapsulated in TCP packets.
2. The local DLSw router forwards the SSP frames across the WAN over a TCP connection to the
remote router.
3. The remote router converts the SSP frames back into LLC2 frames and sends them to the peer SNA
device.
DLSw enables the SNA devices to communicate with each other as if they were on the same network.
Different from transparent bridging, DLSw does not forward LLC2 frames transparently to the peer.
Instead, it converts LLC2 frames into SSP frames for data encapsulation in TCP packets. The local
termination mechanism of DLSw eliminates the requirement for link layer acknowledgments and
keepalive messages to flow across a WAN. It also solves the data link control timeout problem.
DLSw also enables transmission of SDLC traffic across a TCP/IP WAN by first converting SDLC frames to
LLC2 frames, and then transporting them to the remote end through DLSw. DLSw can interconnect LAN
and SDLC media.
The following DLSw versions are available: version 1.0 and version 2.0. DLSw v1.0 is implemented based
on RFC 1795, and DLSw v2.0 is implemented based on RFC 2166 and is intended to improve product
maintainability and to reduce network cost. In addition, DLSw v2.0 provides enhancements by means of
UDP explorer frames sent in multicast and unicast modes. When the peer is also running DLSw v2.0, the
two ends can use UDP packets to explore reachability, and a TCP connection is established only when
data transmission is required.
SDLC is an IBM data link layer protocol, for use in IBM SNA networks.
For more information on LLC, see the IEEE 802.2 standard.

Differences between DLSw v1.0 and DLSw v2.0


DLSw v1.0 problems
DLSw v1.0 has problems in the following aspects:
• TCP connection—In DLSw v1.0, immediately after a pair of peers is configured, the local peer
attempts to establish a TCP connection with the remote peer (by first establishing two TCP

230
connections and then bringing down one of them after capabilities exchange), regardless of
whether a connection is needed. All packets, including explorer frames, circuit setup requests and
data packets, are transmitted over the TCP connection. This wastes network resources.
• Excessive broadcasts—Although a local acknowledgement mechanism is provided in DLSw v1.0,
explorer frames may flood the WAN over the established TCP connections if the reachability table
of DLSw contains a small number of entries or no entries.
• Low maintainability—When a circuit is disconnected, DLSw v1.0 uses two types of messages to
notify the peer but cannot tell the disconnection cause. This adds to difficulty in locating the reason
for an abnormal circuit disconnection.

Enhancements in DLSw v2.0


DLSw v2.0 provides enhancements to address the above-mentioned problems and it remains compatible
with DLSw v1.0.
The components on a DLSw network are shown in Figure 75.
Figure 75 DLSw v2.0 network

In Figure 75, the origin station is the end station that originates communication, the target station is the
end station that accepts communication, the origin DLSw router is a DLSw-enabled router connected to
the origin station, and the target DLSw router is a DLSw-enabled router connected to the target station. In
this document, an origin DLSw v2.0 router is a DLSw v2.0–capable router.
DLSw v2.0 provides the following enhancements over DLSw v1.0:
• Using UDP packets to explore peer addresses.
To prevent unnecessary TCP connection setups, DLSw v2.0 sends explorer frames by using UDP
packets instead of over TCP connection, unless a TCP connection is present. These UDP packets
can be sent in two ways: multicast and unicast (depending on the specific situation). Using UDP
packets reduces, to some degree, the TCP connections required, and saves network resources.
• Setting up a single TCP connection when required.
A TCP connection is set up after the origin and target DLSw v2.0 routers get reachability
information using UDP packets and when both the origin and target stations want to set up a circuit
between them. A DLSw circuit establishment process is simplified into two stages: first,
establishment of a single TCP connection. Then, capabilities exchange. If capabilities negotiation
fails, the source-end DLSw v2.0 router sends a reject packet to the peer and then the TCP
connection is taken down.
In DLSw v2.0, as a TCP connection is established only when a circuit is required between two ends,
the overheads of establishing and maintaining TCP connections are reduced, resulting in better
system resource utilization.

231
In case the origin and target DLSw routers use different versions of DLSw, for backward
compatibility, the one uses DLSw v2.0 works as a DLSw v1.0 router and follows RFC 1795 when
setting up a TCP connection with its peer.
• Enhanced maintainability.
To enable a DLSw router to notify its peer about the reason for dropping a connection, DLSw v2.0
defines five generic circuit halt reason codes: unknown error, received DISC from end-station,
detected DLC error with end-station, circuit-level protocol error, and operator-initiated. The halt
reason codes are sent to the peer in SSP messages.

Protocols and standards


• RFC 1795, Data Link Switching: Switch-to-Switch Protocol AIW DLSw RIG: DLSw Closed Pages,
DLSw Standard Version 1.0
• RFC 2166, APPN Implementer's Workshop Closed Pages Document DLSw V2.0 Enhancements

Configuring DLSw in an Ethernet environment


Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Enable bridging. bridge enable N/A
3. Enable a bridge set. bridge bridge-set enable N/A

Optional.
4. Enable DLSw. dlsw enable
Enabled by default.
5. Create a local DLSw peer. See "Creating DLSw peers." N/A

See "Mapping a bridge set to


6. Map a bridge set to DLSw. N/A
DLSw."
7. Add an Ethernet interface to See "Adding an Ethernet interface
N/A
the bridge set. to a bridge set."
8. Set DLSw timers. See "Setting DLSw timers." Optional.

See "Configuring LLC2


9. Configure LLC2 parameters. Optional.
parameters."
10. Configure the multicast See "Configuring the multicast
Optional.
function of DLSw v2.0. function of DLSw v2.0."
11. Configure the maximal See "Configuring the maximum
attempts of sending an number of DLSw v2.0 explorer Optional.
explorer frame in DLSw v2.0. retries."
12. Apply an ACL in DLSw so
DLSw handles only Ethernet See "Applying an ACL in DLSw." Optional.
frames that match the ACL.
13. Configure DLSw Ethernet See "Configuring DLSw Ethernet
Optional.
redundancy. redundancy."
14. Configure local reachable See "Configuring local reachable
Optional.
MAC or SAP addresses. MAC or SAP addresses."

232
Step Command Remarks
15. Configure the remote
See "Configuring remote
reachability information for Optional.
reachability information."
the router.
16. Configure DLSw load See "Configuring DLSw load
Optional.
balancing. balancing."

For more information on bridging and bridge set configuration, see "Configuring bridging."

Creating DLSw peers


Establishing a TCP connection is the first step in establishing a DLSw circuit. To establish a TCP connection,
you must specify the IP addresses of both ends of the TCP connection.
Before the local router can initiate or accept a TCP connection request, you must create a local DLSw
peer and specify the IP address of the local end of the TCP connection. A router can only have one local
peer.
After creating a local peer is created, you must create a remote DLSw peer to establish a TCP connection.
The following command specifies the IP address of the remote router with which a TCP connection is to
be established. After the configuration, the router will keep attempting to establish a TCP connection with
the remote router. A router can have multiple remote peers. Create a local DLSw peer before creating a
remote DLSw peer for it.
To create DLSw peers:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

dlsw local ip-address [ init-window


init-window-size | keepalive
keepalive-interval | keepcount
The IP address specified with
keepcount-number | max-frame
2. Create a local DLSw peer. ip-address must be a reachable IP
max-frame-size | max-window
address of the local host.
max-window-size |
permit-dynamic | vendor-id
vendor-id ] *

dlsw remote ip-address [ backup


backup-address [ immediately ] |
circuit-weight circuit-weight |
keepalive keepalive-interval | The IP address specified with
3. Create a remote DLSw peer. linger seconds | lsap-output-acl ip-address must be a reachable IP
acl-number | max-frame address of the remote DLSw router.
max-frame-size | max-queue
max-queue-length | priority
priority ] *

Deleting a local DLSw peer will delete all its remote DLSw peers at the same time.

Mapping a bridge set to DLSw


DLSw was developed based on the bridging technology. Bridging between different Ethernet interfaces
is possible if these interfaces are configured in the same bridge set. To enable forwarding frames of a

233
bridge set to a remote end system over a TCP connection, use the dlsw bridge-set command to map the
bridge set to DLSw. You can map multiple bridge sets to DLSw.
To map a bridge set connected to DLSw:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

By default, no bridge set is


mapped to DLSw.
This command should be used in
2. Map a bridge set to DLSw. dlsw bridge-set bridge-set conjunction with the bridge
bridge-set enable command, with
the same bridge-set value in both
commands.

Adding an Ethernet interface to a bridge set


By adding an Ethernet interface to a bridge set and mapping the bridge set to DLSw, you can enable
transmission of LLC2 frames from the Ethernet interface to a remote end over a TCP connection.
For more information about bridge set configuration, see "Configuring bridging."

Setting DLSw timers


Configure the timers used in creating DLSw circuits based on your actual needs. The timer values should
be modified only when necessary.
To set DLSw timers:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

The following defaults apply:


• cache—120 seconds.
dlsw timer { cache | connected | • connected—300 seconds.
2. Configure DLSw timer explorer | explorer-wait |
parameters.
• explorer—30 seconds.
local-pending | remote-pending }
seconds • explorer-wait—30 seconds.
• local-pending—30 seconds.
• remote-pending—30 seconds.

Configuring LLC2 parameters


SNA was designed to transmit LLC2 frames over Ethernet. Modify some LLC2 parameters by using LLC2
related commands.
To configure LLC2 parameters:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

234
Step Command Remarks
interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the maximum
number of information frames
the router can receive before it llc2 max-ack length 3 by default.
must send an
acknowledgement.
4. Configure the maximum
number of consecutive
information frames the router Optional.
llc2 receive-window length
can send before receiving an 7 by default.
acknowledgement from the
peer.

5. Configure the LLC2 output Optional.


llc2 max-send-queue length
queue length. 50 by default.

6. Configure the modulus value Optional.


llc2 modulo { 8 | 128 }
of LLC2. 128 by default.

7. Configure the number of LLC2 Optional.


llc2 max-transmission retries
transmission retries. 3 by default.

8. Configure the maximum LLC2 Optional.


llc2 max-pdu length
PDU. 1493 bytes by default.

9. Configure the LLC2 local Optional.


llc2 timer ack-delay mseconds
acknowledgment delay time. 100 ms by default.
10. Configure LLC2
Optional.
acknowledgment waiting llc2 timer ack mseconds
time. 200 ms by default.

11. Configure the LLC2 Optional.


llc2 timer busy mseconds
busy-station polling interval. 300 ms by default.

12. Configure the LLC2 P/F Optional.


llc2 timer poll mseconds
waiting time. 5,000 ms by default.

13. Configure the LLC2 REJ status Optional.


llc2 timer reject mseconds
time. 500 ms by default.

14. Configure the LLC2 POLL Optional.


llc2 timer detect mseconds
timer. 30,000 ms by default.

Configuring the multicast function of DLSw v2.0


Before you configure the multicast function of DLSw v2.0, you must first configure the multicast function of
the device, and configure the local DLSw peer. After DLSw v2.0 multicast is enabled, the origin DLSw
v2.0 device can multicast SOCKET messages (with explorer frames encapsulated) to a specific multicast
address, so all target DLSw v2.0 routers listening to the multicast address can receive the SOCKET
messages and get the explorer frames.
When you configure the multicast function of DLSw v2.0, follow these guidelines:

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• By default, the DLSw multicast function is disabled on devices running DLSw v2.0. To enable this
function, use the dlsw multicast command.
• Before enabling the DLSw multicast function, configure the outbound multicast interface specified
with interface interface-type interface-number in the above-mentioned command on the same
interface as the local DLSw peer.
• To enable the DLSw multicast function, execute the related multicast command first.
To configure the multicast function of DLSw v2.0:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

dlsw multicast
2. Enable the multicast function
[ multicast-ip-address ] interface Disabled by default.
of DLSw v2.0.
interface-type interface-number

Configuring the maximum number of DLSw v2.0 explorer


retries
Each time the origin DLSw v2.0 router sends an explorer frame in a UDP multicast, it starts an explorer
timer. If no response is received before the explorer timer times out, the router sends another explorer
frame and resets the explorer timer. This process continues until a response is received or the maximum
number of explorer transmission retries is reached.
To configure the maximum number of explorer transmission retries:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

2. Set the maximum number of Optional.


dlsw max-transmission retries
explorer transmission retries. 5 by default.

Applying an ACL in DLSw


Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
• acl number acl-number
[ match-order { auto | config } ]
• rule [ rule-id ] { deny | permit }
2. Create a MAC-based Layer 2 [ fragment | logging | source No Layer 2 ACL is configured by
ACL. { sour-addr sour-wildcard | default.
any } | time-range time-name |
vpn-instance
vpn-instance-name ] *
3. Return to system view. quit N/A

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Step Command Remarks
• dlsw ethernet-frame-filter By default, no ACL is applied.
4. Apply a MAC-based ACL to
acl-number inbound ACLs for inbound and outbound
inbound traffic, outbound
traffic, or both. • dlsw ethernet-frame-filter traffic can be configured at the
acl-number outbound same time.

For more information about creating a Layer 2 ACL, see ACL and QoS Configuration Guide.

Configuring DLSw Ethernet redundancy


DLSw Ethernet redundancy implements backup and load sharing, and enables multiple DLSw routers to
connect to the same Ethernet.
To prevent two or more DLSw routers connected to the same Ethernet from establishing multiple circuits for
the same SNA session, DLSw Ethernet redundancy uniformly manages all DLSw routers connected to the
same Ethernet. DLSw Ethernet redundancy selects a primary router, which will uniformly manage the
circuits. The primary router can assign circuits to implement load sharing (try to establish the same
number of circuits on each DLSw router). Any circuit established on a DLSw router must be permitted by
the primary router. The circuit assignment policy improves the network resource usage when multiple
DLSw routers are running.
To configure DLSw Ethernet redundancy:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

dlsw ethernet-backup enable


3. Configure DLSw
multicast-mac-address [ priority Disabled by default.
Ethernet redundancy.
priority ]

dlsw ethernet-backup map local-mac


4. Enable switches’
local-mac-address remote-mac Optional.
support for DLSw
remote-mac-address [ neighbor Disabled by default.
Ethernet redundancy.
neighbor-mac-address ]

Optional.
5. Configure the Ethernet The timer (in milliseconds) ranges
dlsw ethernet-backup timer timer
redundancy timer. from 100 to 5000 and defaults to
500.

Configuring DLSw in an SDLC environment


Configuring DLSw
Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

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Step Command Remarks
Optional.
2. Enable DLSw. dlsw enable
Enabled by default.
3. Create a local DLSw peer. See "Creating DLSw peers." N/A

See "Enabling SDLC encapsulation


4. Configure an SDLC interface. N/A
on an interface."
5. Enable DLSw forwarding on See "Enabling DLSw forwarding
N/A
an SDLC interface. on an SDLC interface."
6. Configure SDLC roles. See "Configuring SDLC roles." N/A
7. Configure an SDLC address See "Configuring an SDLC address
N/A
for a secondary station. for a secondary station."
8. Configure an SDLC peer. See "Configuring an SDLC peer." N/A

Optional (required for PU2.0


9. Configure the XID of SDLC. See "Configuring an SDLC XID."
devices).
10. Configure an SDLC virtual See "Configuring an SDLC virtual
Optional.
MAC address. MAC address."
11. Configure the properties of a See "Configuring the properties of
Optional.
synchronous serial interface. a synchronous serial interface."
12. Configure optional SDLC See "Configuring optional SDLC
Optional.
parameters. parameters."
13. Configure the multicast See "Configuring the multicast
Optional.
function of DLSw v2.0. function of DLSw v2.0."
14. Configure the maximal See "Configuring the maximum
number of DLSw v2.0 explorer number of DLSw v2.0 explorer Optional.
retries. retries."
15. Configure local reachable See "Configuring local reachable
Optional.
MAC or SAP addresses. MAC or SAP addresses."
16. Configure the remote See "Configuring remote
Optional.
reachability information. reachability information."
17. Configure DLSw load See "Configuring DLSw load
Optional.
balancing. balancing."

Enabling SDLC encapsulation on an interface


The SDLC is a link layer protocol relative to the SNA. Its working principle is similar to HDLC. To make
DLSw work properly, enable SDLC encapsulation on the synchronous serial interface.
To enable SDLC encapsulation on an interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

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Step Command Remarks
3. Enable SDLC encapsulation
link-protocol sdlc PPP encapsulation by default.
on the interface.

The SDLC link layer protocol cannot underlie the IP protocol, so all the IP-related configurations on the
interface must be removed before you enable SDLC encapsulation on the interface. For example, you
must delete the IP address of the interface.

Enabling DLSw forwarding on an SDLC interface


With DLSw forwarding enabled on the SDLC interface, all local SNA devices connected to the interface
will be able to communicate with the remote device through DLSw.
To enable DLSw forwarding on an SDLC interface:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Enable DLSw forwarding on
sdlc enable dlsw Disabled by default.
the interface.

Configuring SDLC roles


In contrast with HDLC, SDLC is an "unbalanced" link layer protocol. The ends of a TCP connection are
not equal in the positions: one is primary and the other is secondary. The primary station, whose role is
primary, plays a dominant role and controls the whole connection process. The secondary station,
whose role is secondary, is controlled by the primary station. You must configure a role for an SDLC
interface.
The role of an interface should be determined by the role of the SDLC device to which this router is
connected:
• If the SDLC device connected with the local router has a role of primary, the local interface should
be configured to have a role of secondary.
• If the SDLC device connected with the local router has a role of secondary, the local interface
should be configured to have a role of primary.
An IBM mainframe has a role of primary, and a terminal device such as a UNIX host or an ATM has a
role of secondary.
To configure an SDLC role:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

By default, no SDLC role is


3. Configure an SDLC role. sdlc status { primary | secondary }
configured.

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Configuring an SDLC address for a secondary station
The SDLC protocol allows multiple virtual circuits to run on an SDLC physical link, with one end connected
to the primary station and the other end to a secondary station. To distinguish different virtual circuits,
specify an SDLC address for each virtual circuit. SDLC is an "unbalanced" protocol, a primary station
can be connected with multiple secondary devices through a multiuser system or an SDLC switch, and the
secondary devices cannot be connected with one another. The communication between the primary
station and each secondary station can be guaranteed as long as each secondary device is identified
with an SDLC address.
The following commands are used to specify an SDLC address for a virtual circuit, which is unique on a
physical interface. The configured SDLC address on a synchronous serial interface is actually the address
of the secondary SDLC station. On the serial interface of the DLSw router connected with the primary
SDLC station, configure the address of each secondary SDLC station that communicates with the primary
station. On the serial interface of the DLSw router connected with a secondary SDLC station, configure
the address of each secondary SDLC station connected with the serial interface.
An SDLC address ranges from 0x01 to 0xFE. The SDLC address of a router is valid on only one physical
interface. The SDLC addresses configured on different interfaces may be identical.
To configure an SDLC address:

Step Command Remarks


1. Enter system view. system-view N/A

interface interface-type
2. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number
3. Configure the address of a By default, no secondary SDLC
sdlc controller sdlc-address
secondary SDLC station. station address is configured.

Configuring an SDLC peer


You can specify the MAC address for the peer end of an SDLC virtual circuit, and the MAC address is
used as the destination MAC address of the LLC2 frames converted from SDLC frames. In DLSw
configuration, a peer should be configured for each SDLC address. The MAC address of the peer should
be the MAC address of the remote SNA device (physical address in the Ethernet or Token Ring format),
or the compound MAC address derived from the SDLC virtual MAC address of the peer end and the
SDLC address of the local end.
When specifying an SDLC peer MAC address for an SDLC virtual circuit, follow these guidelines:
• If the remote SNA device uses a token ring address, use its token ring address directly.
• If the remote SNA device uses an Ethernet address, convert the Ethernet address to a token ring
address, for example, convert 00e0.fc03.a548 to 0007.3fc0.5a12, by using the dlsw reverse
command.
• If the remote SNA device uses an SDLC link, specify a compound MAC address, where the first five
bytes are from the virtual MAC address configured in the sdlc mac-map local command on the
remote router, and the last byte is the SDLC address of the local router.
To configure an SDLC peer:

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Step Command Remarks
1. Enter system view. system-view N/A
2. Configure MAC address
conversion between Ethernet dlsw reverse mac-address Optional.
and token ring formats.

interface interface-type
3. Enter interface view. N/A
interface-number

sdlc mac-map remote mac-addr By default, no SDLC peer is


4. Configure an SDLC peer.
sdlc-addr configured.

Configuring an SDLC XID


An XID identifies a device in an SNA system. When you configure an SDLC connection, pay attention to
the types of the connected SNA devices. Devices in an SNA system fall into the following types: PU2.0
and PU2.1. An XID has been configured on PU2.1 devices, so they can announce their identity by
exchanging the XID. A PU2.0 device does not come with an XID. An XID is not required on a PU2.1
device, but re