1 views

Uploaded by Ricardo Diaz Moenen

sunniberg

sunniberg

© All Rights Reserved

- Courbons Theory in the Analysis of T Beam Bridges
- Steel Structures Design_ ASD_LRFD - Access Engineering from McGraw-Hill.pdf
- Design of Isolated Square and Rectangular Footings (ACI 318-02)
- Two Way Slabs
- SP6_2
- L section towers
- Twisted Timeshenko Beams
- SBDH+Vol+4+Behavior+of+Steel
- Exercise3 - PlasticAnalysis -Column Buckling - Usfos
- Tapered Twisted Timeshenko Beams
- 221347097-Analysis-Design-of-Multistorey-Building.pdf
- OlderCodes
- Analysis and Design of Multistoried Building
- Comb_Foot-Slab-MCN
- Prof. Salah CE591compcol_F13
- Rect Beam
- Unit6-MCN
- Mae 342 Lecture 10
- SADSt Beams
- The Ways How Stability is Maintained in the Structure

You are on page 1of 9

Luke J Drinkwater1

1

The University of Bath

Abstract: The Sunniberg Bridge in Switzerland, designed by Christian Menn, is a tall cable-stayed bridge with

low pylons. It is a an excellent example of the way that structural members, shaped in response to engineering

considerations can be both functional and have high aesthetically qualities. This paper examines the close link

between the aesthetics and the form of the structural elements; compares the loading used for the design with

loading from the British Standards; uses simplified structural elements to analyse the stresses in the bridge; and

examines the construction process.

1 Introduction clearly deemed that the exciting and innovative design,

which provided a bridge of elegance and grace that fitted

The Sunniberg Bridge is situated in the Lanquart

effortlessly into the sensitive landscape, justified the

valley below the international Swiss ski resort of Klosters.

increased cost. However, had the cost of the bridge been

It is on of the largest bridges in the Alps, and the most

more than 20% of the cost of the cheapest alternative, the

prominent part of the 6547m Klosters Bypass.

design would not have been considered viable and the

The Sunniberg Bridge is a harp arrangement cable-

concept would have been scrapped.

stayed bridge with 3 main spans (the longest measures

140m) and 2 side spans. The reinforced concrete deck is

526m long and follows a tight of curve of radius 503m at

an inclination of 3.2%. The deck is 12.37m wide in total,

9m wide curb to curb, and it carries 2 lanes. The

piers/pylons are also constructed from reinforced

concrete, the tallest of which rises a total of 75m above Figure 1a: 6 span composite truss bridge

the valley floor, 62m up to the roadway and 15m above it (Bänziger, Koeppel & Braendli, Chur)

(figure 2).

Initial proposals for a highway by-passing the town

of Klosters, and hence a bridge at Sunniberg, were made

in the mid-1970s. However, the canton of Graubűnden

Figure 1b: 6 span concrete cantilever bridge

felt that environmental concerns were not satisfied [1]. In

(H.Rigendinger & W. Maag, Chur)

1993, approval was given to a new by-pass scheme and

the canton invited 3 firms to compete for the design of the

Sunniberg Bridge. However, when the designs (figures

1a-d) were submitted, the eminent Swiss engineer

Christian Menn presented an alternative to the Highway

Figure 1c: 7 span triangular composite box bridge

Department Architectural Consultant. The Highway

(Branger & Conzett, Chur.; Grignoli & Muttoni, Lugano)

Department chose Menn’s design, but appointed one of

the three original firms (Bänziger Bacchetta Partner) to

complete the final calculations and drawings. 1

At 20million Swiss francs, the total construction cost

of the Sunniberg Bridge is approximately 14% more than Figure 1d: 9 span continuous concrete beam bridge

the construction cost of the most economical solution [1], (H.Rigendinger & W. Maag, Chur)

a traditional cantilever constructed girder. However, this

only added about 0.5% to the total cost of the Klosters

1

Undergraduate Student, University of Bath, Dept.

Architecture and Civil Engineering, Bath. E-mail:

ljd23@bath.ac.uk

Figure 2: Elevation, plan, cross-sections

expand and contract due to temperature variations without

2 Aesthetically Driven Concept producing large moments at the base.

The Lanquart Valley contains only one engineering

structure, the Sunniberg Bridge. As a result of its

prominent location, the citizens of Klosters requested that

the bridge be as thin and transparent as possible in order

to have the least visual impact on the idyllic alpine view.

Menn has stated that the design of the bridge and the

selection of its basic elements (the low pylons, the slender

piers, and the thin curved deck) came directly from this

consideration [2], and this has resulted in a number of

important technical and aesthetic consequences.

The curved plan of the bridge allowed the concrete

deck to be cast as a monolithic slab without expansion Figure 3: Lateral Stability

joints at the abutments or bearings at the piers. As a result,

the piers are restrained both laterally and longitudinally by 3 Aesthetics

the deck, rather than being cantilevered from their

foundations, thus enabling them to be slender and visually This section examines the aesthetic qualities of the

unobtrusive. Sunniberg Bridge according to Fritz Leonhardt’s ten rules

The piers/pylons are constructed from two legs for bridge aesthetics.

connected at several points to form a vertical Vierendeel

truss. In the transverse direction the piers vary in width 3.1 Functionality

with height, from 8.8m at the base to 13.3m at the

roadway, above which the pylons flare to 17.25m. This The simple structural form of the Sunniberg Bridge

creates a cupped form which cradles the road. bestows a delicacy and elegance that is rarely given to

The continuity of the road deck gives stability to the 20,000 tonnes of concrete. It has obvious load paths

piers, while the narrow base of the tapering piers enables which enable bridge users and onlookers to understand

them to tilt. Consequently, the roadway is allowed to how the bridge works.

3.2 Proportions

The pylon height for a typical cable-stayed bridge is

approximately ¼ the length of the main span, which gives

efficiency in terms of cable forces. For the Sunniberg

Bridge, this ratio would have required pylons which

projected 35m above the deck. Coupled with the tall piers

and relatively short spans, this would have produced a

design which was awkward and visually overpowering.

By reducing the height of the pylons to 9-10% of the main

span this aesthetic issue is resolved, however it generates

structural issues that require consideration. The low cable

angle considerably increases the cable forces. Under

unbalanced live loading this would produce large

deflections in typically flexible pylons, and hence large Figure: 5 Crossing of Cables

deck deflections. As a result, the pylon has been stiffened

against longitudinal bending, thereby creating the eye- 3.5 Refinement

catching distinctive flared pylons Fig…

The perceived thickness of the deck is reduced by

setting the edge beams back in the shadows and by the

3.4 Order feathered edge created by the stay cable connections. The

For the most part the Sunniberg Bridge has clean and edge beam also serves to hide the drainage pipes that are

elegant lines that allow the eye to move easily along its slung beneath the roadway so as to remain accessible. The

length. However, the stay cable connections at the edge of simple handrail sitting atop the pre-cast concrete crash

the deck protrude below the edge beam creating a broken barriers, which form a low parapet, serves to further still

soffit line. Nevertheless, their close, regular spacing reduce the perceived deck thickness, Fig. 6.

offsets any mental unrest and the protruding cable As the land rises toward the deck, the bridge spans

connections enable the viewer to read the structure, allow reduce near the abutments. Thus the aspect ratio of the

cables to be replaced easily, and also disguise the voids between the structural elements is maintained,

thickening of the edge beam near to the piers. , Fig 4. which is appealing to the eye.

Due to the curvature of the bridge, the cables appear 3.6 Integration into the environment

to cross each other when driving over the bridge or when

the bridge is viewed from oblique angles. However, the The slender piers, low pylons and transparently thin

harp arrangement of cable provides a regular and clear deck blend effortlessly into the magnificent alpine

pattern through which to observe the continually changing landscape. When viewed from the valley floor, the narrow

view when driving over the bridge (Fig 5). pier legs blend into the wooded environment, giving the

impression that bridge has been grown rather than

constructed. Additionally, because of the low pylons the

bridge is below eye level. This allows the bridge to be

obscured by vegetation and to appear unobtrusive when

viewed from most locations in Klosters Fig 7.

the regimented lines of the harp paterned stay cables are

widely regarded as a piece of structural art [2]; a structure

which is is based on engineering criteria, hence being

efficient and economic, but has a higher than average

quality of aesthetics [2].

3.9 Complexity

For the most part the Sunniberg bridge is as simple as

possible. Where complexity has been included it has been

for a combination of structural, aesthetic and

construction/maintenance reasons, for example the cable-

deck connection as mentioned above.

Fig 7: Sunniberg Bridge viewed from Klosters Menn’s concept design, Fig.2 shows a road deck

0.40m thick with edge girders 0.80m deep based on an

3.7 Surface texture, colour and shadow approximately 10m transverse span between cables. Due

to considerations of cable size, deck stability (regarding

The white concrete structure is clean and eye- buckling from axial forces), and the pylons [3], cable

catching in its simplicity and creates a pleasing interplay anchorages are spaced 6m apart.

between sunlit and shaded areas. The white concrete has

also been used as a ‘canvas’ by a contemporary artist, Fig.

art. 4.1.1 Bridge Loading

Menn’s concept design calculations for the Sunniberg

Bridge were based on the following loading [3]:

surface)

Constant load, ∆g = 20kN/m

Live UDL, q = 36 kN/m (4kN/m2 over 9m wide

roadway)

Live concentrated, Qc = 300 kN

Had the bridge been constructed to British Standards

Figure 8: Contemporary art [4] it would have been subject to considerably higher

The reflective stay cables are highlighted or lost to loading (as shown by the following calculation for live

the background depending on the angle of the sun creating loading). Type HA loading consists of a combination of a

interest and intrigue. uniformly distributed load (UDL) and a knife-edge load

The pier/pylon has a T-shaped cross section (to give (KEL), both uniformly distributed over the full width of

transverse stiffness, discussed later) creating vertical the lane.

shadows which accentuate the curved shape and enhance For bridges between 50m and 1600m the nominal

the slenderness of the piers, Fig.9 . UDL, expressed in kN per metre length of notional lane,

is given by:

0.1

1

W = 36 (1),

L

which for the Sunniberg Bridge, at 526m in length, gives

0.1

1

W = 36

526

= 19.2 kN/m for each notional lane.

partial factors γfl and γf3 of 1.50 and 1.15 respectively, and

dividing by the width of the roadway gives a UDL live

Figure 9: Shaping of pier

loading, q, of:

q = (2)

The Sunniberg Bridge can deffinately be said to have Width of Roadway

character. The tapuring and flaring piers, combined with

q =

3 × 19.2 kN m × 1.50 × 1.15 = 11 kN m 2

9m

carriageway, and is positioned onerously.

Designed to BS5400 the bridge would be considered

to have 3 notional lanes because the distance between the

raised kerbs is 9m. However, it is worth noting that the Figure 10: Component forces of cable tension

width of the carriageway in the tunnel immediately

adjacent to the bridge is only 7m and would therefore only Hence from the cable geometry shown in Figure 10 the

be able to accommodate 2 lanes of traffic. resultant tensile force in the cable T is:

To assess the structural dimensions, the following Q 970

section examines the effect of the critical loads (as T= v = = 5,257 kN (4),

sin θ sin 11.3°

specified by Menn [3]) on pier P2 with

Assuming an allowable cable stress of σc = 0.5 fsy, where

cantilevered/suspended deck spans on each side.

the maximum allowable stress fsy=1.6kN/mm, gives: σc

=0.8kN/mm.The minimum cable area, Amin is hence given

4.1.3 Temperature Effects by:

The location of the Sunniberg Bridge, high in the T 4950 kN 2

A = = = 6571mm (5)

Swiss Alps, means that it is subject to large temperature min σ c 0.8kN/mm2

variations throughout the year. The plan curvature of the

deck means that the bridge can respond to temperature

In the final design the cable area used was between

changes by expanding and contracting radially. The

4810mm and 6157mm [3]. This suggest that the loads and

combination of horizontal arch action and the flexibility

load factors used for the initial design were slightly

of the piers allowed the use of a monolithic deck slab,

conservative, especially since final member sizing

without the need for expansion joints at the abutments or

complies with Swiss maintenance provisions which

along the span. This allows temperature induced

permit any single cable to be removed while the bridge

deflections without large internal forces being generated

remains open [5].

[1].

4.1.4 Wind

Each cable contributes a component of horizontal

The altitude and topography of the bridge location

force, hence the stress in the girder can be ascertained

could result in high wind speeds and funnelling effects.

from the cable forces calculated above. The critical

However, the monolithic deck, which is restrained at the

section of the road deck, where the axial force is largest,

abutments, acts to restrain the piers laterally, Fig. 3.

occurs between the first cable and the pier connection.

Additionally, the slim deck, the circular section stay-

The compressive force in the girder, N, at this point is

cables, and the parapet rail present a small surface area

given by:

and hence minimise wind loads on the structure.

H

(6),

Where the horizontal component of the cable force, QH, is

The critical loading for the determination of the cable given by:

cross-section is given by combining full dead loading,

Q 1030kN

Q = v =

UDL live loading, and 60% of concentrated live loading

tan θ tan11.3° = 5,155kN

(7),

(assuming the two neighbouring cables take 40% of the H

load). The concentrated live loading also has +80%

impact factor and +80% eccentricity factor (representing a Hence:

concentrated (lorry) load, Q, in the lane closest to the

cable being designed). Given that the cable anchorage N = 5,155kN × 20 = 103,100 kN

spacing, ya, equals 6m, the vertical load applied to a cable,

Qv, is given by: Note that the axial force carried by the girder at this

point is due to the cumulative axial forces from 20 cables,

Q =

g + ∆g + q y + Qc (1.8)(1.8)(0.6 ) (3), 10 along each side of the roadway.

a 2

v 2

For the majority of the bridge, the girder consists of a

0.4m thick slab spanning two 0.8m deep edge beams.

However, the area of the section between the first cable

=

(190 + 20 + 36)kN/m 6m + 300kN/m (1.8)(1.8)(0.6 ) and the pier connection has been increased to

approximately 9m2 [3]. The axial stress in this section of

2 2

the girder, σG,N, is given by:

= 1,030 kN

103,100 × 103 N connection and is calculated by combining σG,N and σG,M.

σ G,N = = 11.5 N mm 2 (8) Hence:

9 × 106 mm2

σ G,MAX = 11.5 N mm2 + 7.6 N mm2 = 19.1 N mm2

lower than the average concrete strength of 64N/mm2

given by the contractor [6].

Note that the critical axial girder force for buckling would

need to be checked to ascertain if the proposed section

was suitable.

The shape of the pylons is a direct consequence of

Figure 11: Moments their need to be able to resist axial stress as well as

longitudinal bending stresses (due to unbalanced live

Furthermore, it is assumed [3] that the concentrated load loading) and transverse bending stresses (due to the

on the 6m span closest to the pier connection is taken by curvature of the bridge). This has resulted in Menn’s T-

bending of the girder. Assuming a typical beam, fixed at shaped arrangement (Fig. 12), where the cross-section

one end and simply supported at the other (as shown in dimension were estimated from assumptions that the

Fig. 11), the hogging moment at the fixed end and the longitudinal bending was taken by the flanges, the

sagging moment under the concentrated load are given by:

transverse bending is taken by the web, and the axial

forces are taken by both the web and flanges [3].

3 × Qc × y a

M = (9)

pier 16

=

3 × 600kN × 6m

M = 675kNm

pier 16

5 × Q × y

M = c a

(10)

mid 32

=

5 × 6 00 kN × 6m

M = 563kNm

mid 32

The maximum moment occurs at the pier, hence the

Figure 12: pylon x-section[3]

maximum stress induced by the point load, σG,M, is given

by:

The worst load case for transverse bending and for axial

M pier force will occur when the roadway is loaded on both sides

σ G,M = (11) of the pylon. The worst load case for longitudinal bending

Z

is when only the main span is loaded.

where the section modulus, Z, of the girder at the pier, is The transverse bending moment, Mt, at the pylon

approximated to: base can be calculated using the sum of the cable end

loads and their lateral distance from the pylon base. Using

bd 2 average eccentricities ei= 0.21m and eo= 2.54m [3],

Z= (12)

6 where i and o denote inside and outside cables

respectively, the transverse bending moment at the pylon

Assuming an average girder thickness of 0.73m (from Fig. base is given by:

2), for a metre width of deck girder the section modulus

is: M t = M t,o + M t,i (13)

1m × (0.73m )2

Z= = 0.0888m 3

6 where:

hence: M t,i = e × number of cables × Q (14a)

i v

675 × 106 Nmm

σ G,M = = 7.6 N mm2 M t,o = e × number of cables × Q (14b)

0.0888 × 109 mm3 o v

hence:

The maximum compressive stress in the girder, σG,

MAX, is found in the bottom fibres at the pier/pylon M t = (0.21m + 2.54m) × 20 × 970kN

= 53,350 kNm

Longitudinal bending moments are induced in the

pier when the bridge is subject to unbalanced live loading

and they reach a maximum when the main span alone is

fully loaded. The ridged deck-pier connection causes

moments to decrease linearly to zero at approximately

one-third height, increasing towards to half the maximum Figure 14: Pier/Pylon P2: (a) longitudinal cross-section;

value at the ground. Assuming that the flanges take the (b) horizontal cross-section; (c) transverse cross-section

longitudinal moments, the spacing between the flanges [3]

then follows the variation of bending moments down the

piers (Figure…pier). The dead load of the structure should

be sufficient to compensate for the stress in the tensile

flange, however, if it is not then pre-stressing of the piers

may be required.

The cross beams in the piers act to stabilise the long

slender pier legs against buckling. Additionally the top

cross beam also transfers transverse bending moments at

the pylon base into axial forces in the piers through

bending, and must therefore be able to resist the full

transverse moment calculated above (Fig Bending to

Axial)

As before, pre-stressing of the pier web may be Figure 15: Conversion from bending moments to axial

required if the dead loads are not sufficient to overcome forces

tensile axial forces.

6 Serviceability

The allowable vertical deformation due to loading

was set at 1/400 of the span distance. Employing a

serviceability live loading, consisting of a 2kN/m UDL

and a concentrated load of 360kN in the most onerous

location, the main 140m span was calculated to deflect

downwards by 235mm (amounting to 1/600 of the span),

while the neighbouring spans experienced upward

deflections of 60mm. 40% of the deformation was

attributed to the distortion of the pylon, while the other

60% to cable deformation [6].

7 Construction

Starting in June 1996, the construction of the

Sunniberg Bridge took less than the scheduled two and a

half years. The piers/pylons were constructed sequentially

starting with pier P1, the pier closest to the existing

Landquart to Klosters road. Once the pylons were

completed and the initial section between the pier/pylon

had been cast, the edge beams and deck were erected

using suspended cantilever construction.

The contractor had their own on-site concrete

production plant which enabled flexibility and maximum

efficiency. Micro silicate was added to the structural

concrete (pier/pylon and deck girder) to enhance

workability and to accelerate the development of strength

(43 N/mm² after 3 days and 64 N/mm² after 28 days), thus

allowing rapid construction.

7.1 Foundations

The geological profile (Fig. 17) shows that the site is

characterised by alluvial deposits, landslide material, base

moraine, and the stable Casanna rock mass overlaid by

river sediments. The foundation solution consists of earth-

filled concrete structures for the abutments, two small

concrete shafts for pier P1, and 6 bored pile foundations

1.5m in diameter and between 16m and 14m deep for

piers P2, P3 and P4 respectively. Note that because the

inner leg of the pier carries much greater load than the

outer, the 3m thick concrete pile caps are located

eccentrically towards the inside of the curve (Fig. 2)

The casting of the piers/pylons, with their complex Figure 16: Pylon and deck formwork

cross-section (changing with height) and elegant curves,

which are so integral to the structural performance and

aesthetics of the bridge, needed a clever solution from the 7.3 Girder/Deck Construction

contractor. The answer was to construct the piers/pylons

using rectangular frame elements with timber formwork The initial 13m section of bridge girder (1m between

inserts to create the required cross-section. As a result, the the pier/pylon and 6m either side) was constructed by

inserts could be manufactured off-site under factory supporting the formwork on the horizontal pier crossbeam

conditions, to ensure a high level of accuracy. The below the roadway. The construction of the girder from

rectangular frame system was jacked up or craned up the this point onwards is shown below (Fig.18):

pier/pylon in 4m intervals and attached to holding points

cast in the concrete.

Landslip Deposits Washed Moraine Moraine Alluvial Deposits River Sediments Casanna Rock Mass

10 Possible future changes which the bridge might

have to undergo

for the addition of any lanes in the future. However, lanes

are extremely unlikely to be added as the bridge is located

on the Klosters bypass, adjoining the 4200m long

Gotschna tunnel, and amid a long section of single

carriageway mountain road.

The stay cable construction would allow for the

weight capacity of the bridge to be increased if necessary

by increasing the tensile capacity of the cables. However,

the capacity of the piers/pylons and deck would need to

be assessed and may need to be increased. On the other

hand, in doing so, there would be a serious risk of

spoiling the aesthetics of the bridge.

11 Conclusion

1. The steel reinforcement is placed and the concrete is From the above discussion it is clear that from

poured for both edge beams and the central slab area of careful consideration of structural form during the

the previous stage. concept design stage seriously aid the creation of a bridge

2. The longitudinal pre-stressing bars in the edge beams that is both aesthetically outstanding, structurally and

are tightened. economically sound.

3. The stay cables are attached and tightened to between

2100 to 4000 kN References

4. The cantilever construction carriage is moved forward

by 6 m to the next construction stage [1] Figi, H., Menn, C., Bänziger, D.J., and Bacchetta, A.,

1997. Sunniberg Bridge, Klosters, Switzerland,

The rapid development of concrete strength enabled the Structural Engineering International, Vol. 7, No. 1,

construction of the suspended cantilevers to progress at pp. 6-8.

regular one week intervals (6m per week) [6].

It should be noted that the weight of the construction [2] Gottemoeller, F., 2005. The true goals of bridge

carriage was considerable (in the region of 35 tonnes), aesthetics [online]. American Institute of Steel

which could have been a crucial factor when specifying Construction, Inc. Available from:

cable and concrete capacities. http://www.steelbridges.org/pdfs/.%5CGottemoe.pdf

[Accessed 18 April 2007].

Conceptual design for the Sunniberg Bridge, Journal

Concrete creep, the plastic deformation of an element of Bridge Engineering, American Society of Civil

subjected to long term loading, is an unavoidable factor in Engineers, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 122-130.

concrete construction and could result in a rippled or

bowed road deck. However, because 95% of concrete [4] BS 5400-2: 2006. Steel, concrete and composite

creep occurs during the first year after construction, the bridges. Specification for loads. BSI

effects of creep can be designed out by initially building [5] Wells, M., 2002. 30 Bridges, New York : Watson-

in a slight camber to compensate. This would have been Guptill.

an especially viable option for the Sunniberg Bridge since

it was only used by site traffic for the construction of the [6] Umfahrung Klosters [online], 2007. Tiefbauamt

adjacent tunnel for approximately the first seven years Graubünden. Available from:

after opening. http://www.tiefbauamt.gr.ch/projekte/index.htm

[Accessed 18 April 2007].

8 Durability

As with any suspension structures, cable corrosion is

a major concern. The cables used on the Sunniberg Bridge

consist of parallel galvanised steel strands that are 7mm in

diameter and sheathed with robust polyethylene that

contains rust inhibiting material. The rust inhibiting

material can be flushed and replaced if necessary, and

cables can also be replaced if corrosion occurs (see

above).

- Courbons Theory in the Analysis of T Beam BridgesUploaded byyyanan1118
- Steel Structures Design_ ASD_LRFD - Access Engineering from McGraw-Hill.pdfUploaded bySuresh Devarajan
- Design of Isolated Square and Rectangular Footings (ACI 318-02)Uploaded byLuis Keçi
- Two Way SlabsUploaded byJose C. Marquez
- SP6_2Uploaded byAshok Karanam
- Twisted Timeshenko BeamsUploaded byPavan Kishore
- SBDH+Vol+4+Behavior+of+SteelUploaded byAJINKYA
- 221347097-Analysis-Design-of-Multistorey-Building.pdfUploaded bynap_carino
- L section towersUploaded byEmil Veg
- Exercise3 - PlasticAnalysis -Column Buckling - UsfosUploaded byNirbhay Tiwary
- OlderCodesUploaded byAmoula Ahmed
- Prof. Salah CE591compcol_F13Uploaded bymagdyamdb
- Tapered Twisted Timeshenko BeamsUploaded byPavan Kishore
- Analysis and Design of Multistoried BuildingUploaded byJagadeesh Gaddam
- Rect BeamUploaded byWaqas Anjum
- Unit6-MCNUploaded byAnonymous nwByj9L
- Comb_Foot-Slab-MCNUploaded byolomu
- Mae 342 Lecture 10Uploaded byAvinash K. Saurav
- SADSt BeamsUploaded byFrank John
- The Ways How Stability is Maintained in the StructureUploaded byAsitha Rathnayake
- ME2112-(part 1)-Shear Stress in Beams.pdfUploaded byShang Ping
- Bang r5 Dtd Gen via Rep 00071 r2Uploaded byAnonymous GoJpm9Wb
- 1201 Mm FootingUploaded byArabinda Dhar
- Aerator Pipliya NarayanUploaded byankkeshmundra1
- Concrete Flats Lab 00 ChamUploaded byOctavian Andonii
- Column Design to as 3600(2)Uploaded byChan Nov
- M.sc-rC-6 Direct Design Method 1Uploaded bySaulat Jillani
- OTC-15179-MSUploaded byHafiz Asyraf
- 2- Design of Steel Beams (Part 1). وليد أبو الوفا Ain ShamsUploaded byamin alzuraiki
- Beam Model TutorialUploaded byOlmo Correcher Gonzalo

- Earthship Vol.1 - How to Build Your OwnUploaded byDiogo Belo Freitas
- Perspectives Problems and ModelsUploaded byRicardo Diaz Moenen
- City- Rediscovering the Center - William WhyteUploaded byRosario Argomaniz
- 1996_LivingBridges_RoyalAcademyArts.pdfUploaded byRicardo Diaz Moenen
- Elemental DesignUploaded byJuan Eduardo Aravena
- The Landscape Urbanism Reader.pdfUploaded bySandra Costa
- allen_field-conditions.pdfUploaded byRicardo Diaz Moenen
- Urban Prosprity - UN habitat 2013Uploaded byFranklen
- Evolution of Working Environments in Office BuildingstUploaded byRicardo Diaz Moenen
- CHALANA Slumdogs vs Millionaires (2010)Uploaded byRicardo Diaz Moenen
- L9 Jabareen 2006 Sustainable Urban FormUploaded byRicardo Diaz Moenen
- art03.pdfUploaded byRicardo Diaz Moenen
- Diagnosis of Physical Quality of Existing Social Housing Without Thermal Considerations in ChileUploaded byRicardo Diaz Moenen
- 3.-Potential Solar en TopografiaUploaded byRicardo Diaz Moenen
- Beckers Rodriguez Antaluca Batoz 2010 About Solar Energy Simulation CompiegneUploaded byRicardo Diaz Moenen
- Models for Generating Place and Time Dependent Urban Energy Demand ProfilesUploaded byRicardo Diaz Moenen
- 2.-Radiacion Solar en Topografias Complejas ArcviewUploaded byRicardo Diaz Moenen

- Basis of Design 25000 ReservoirUploaded byAnonymous D1h2pK
- SBE MS4 SecureUploaded byMK V
- ARCPRESS Stairs - 2nd Edition - Section 8 - Concrete Stairs 9 of 15Uploaded bygimusi
- DECISION MAKING MODEL FOR SELECTION OF BULDING FORMWORKUploaded bylunar_vip
- Soil behavior and critical state soil mechanics by Wood.pdfUploaded bymmc
- Beamanal (Metric)Uploaded bytambok
- Job-Report AyrtonSennaHighway EnUploaded byproject list
- Pile Work Presentation at IITK Summer Camp 08Uploaded bypraxie
- Hydraulic BridgeUploaded byAkshit Khamesra
- Numerical DeterminationUploaded byenrique.riera7693
- assignment 2.docxUploaded byRohit Rahul
- 9781482266580_previewUploaded byBladimir Illanes
- Unit6-MCNUploaded byAnonymous nwByj9L
- List of Issues to Follow-up (PBE) 03.04.2018Uploaded byPoru Man
- St Wing Flight 4Uploaded byscrib
- Simulation of cantilever Cable Stayed Bridge.pdfUploaded byAmato Ryuga
- Geometric Design Report RRRUploaded byHassan Tahir
- Adbri%2bMasonry%2bReinforced%2bBlock%2bWallsUploaded byShahabShoaee
- Ebook & Notes - Structural Analysis II.pdfUploaded bywarriof45544
- 2003 NEHRP Seismic Regulation for New BuildingsUploaded byNazri Mokhdar
- Is 1343-Prestress-flexure and ShearUploaded bygrkvani10
- Chapter 16Uploaded byKushtrim Regjepaj
- Macalloy Corporate BrochureUploaded byaomareltayeb
- Application of AISC Design Provisions for Tapered MembersUploaded byCarlos López Vega
- Bridge's DictionaryUploaded bykcskc83
- General Connection in Steel StructuresUploaded byIrfan Vadtala
- Centrifugal Pump Test RigUploaded byVaidish Sumaria
- Building Technology 2- Types of FootingUploaded byCj Escalona
- Sprinkler Design InformationUploaded byAli Hydar Othman
- Structural Drawings.pptUploaded bynotonectal