11 views

Uploaded by Irwandi Irwandi

article

article

© All Rights Reserved

- Modal Analysis of Cantilever Beam
- Nabava-zavodi(2011-2012)
- Airplane GVT
- Physics2.5 Wave and Motion 5-1 to 5-20
- 07 08 Simpson 3-8 Integration Method
- Ttrebuchet design optimisation
- Birth FEM Zienkiewicz
- Campbell PDF
- 1-s2.0-S0263823102001003-main.pdf
- Order Analysis of Engine
- 1DOCprueba(1).pdf
- IRJET-Comparison of Seismic Behavior of Building with Fixed Base, Base Isolator and Shear Wall
- Structural Analysis - The Fundamental Physics and the Relevant Mathematical Assumptions of the Models of Solids and Structure
- A Negative Derivative Feedback Design Algorithm
- ECE 2240 Outline Winter 2016
- Printerversion Modal Analysis Old
- Paper 11
- 2nd Lecture
- tf1684_fm
- Annular Membranes Analysis.pdf

You are on page 1of 13

multi-layered elastic crust—FORTRAN programs

EDGRN/EDCMP$

Rongjiang Wanga,*, Francisco Lorenzo Mart!ınb, Frank Rotha

a

GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany

b

Institute of Geology, Mineralogy and Geophysics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany

Received 18 March 2002; received in revised form 4 September 2002; accepted 5 September 2002

Abstract

This is the ﬁrst article in a series in which we introduce methods to determine the permanent and transient

deformation induced by earthquakes or similar sources. The point-like and extended foci can be located in a stratiﬁed

elastic half-space. The software includes a tool to combine the sources to one or more extended sources with arbitrary

strike and dip. The number of layers is essentially not limited. The output covers surface and subsurface displacements,

strain, tilt and stress. Several effective techniques have been used to solve the stability and convergence problems in

computation of the Green’s functions, so that the programs are small, fast and accurate. To control the accuracy of the

numerical results, the software provides an optional link to Okada’s analytical solutions in the special case of a

homogeneous half-space. This can also be used for creating zeroth order approaches, i.e. starting models.

r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Dislocation theory; Propagator algorithm; Hankel transform; Green’s function; Numerical stability

coupled diffusion and deformation in poro-elastic

As the number of stations and campaigns using the media.

global positioning system (GPS) increases and, at the In all situations, a horizontally layered medium is

same time, more Interferograms of Synthetic Aperture used, where the number of layers is effectively unlimited,

Radar (INSAR) data are generated, crustal deformation the layer thickness is arbitrary, and the material

has become visible with higher accuracy and in shorter parameters (in the present example they are the two

time intervals. This poses more stringent requirements to Lam!e constants) can be chosen independently from each

the software used to model the observed movements. other. This provides the possibility to incorporate

This paper, as one in a series, introduces methods that detailed information available on the Earth’s structure

serve this purpose with a common theoretical, transpar- provided e.g. by deep seismic sounding. The sources

ent basis and software that presents similar front-ends cover all those frequently encountered in geophysics as

for the users. This article covers (1) earthquakes’ static double-couples, single forces, inﬂations, etc. The soft-

deformation, and following ones will cover (2) determi- ware supports superposition of these point sources to

nistic simulation of seismic ground motion (synthetic model realistic earthquake’s fault planes with changes in

strike, dip and slip and even the determination of the

$

Code available from server at http://www.iamg.org/CGE- combined effect of several earthquakes separated in

ditor/index.htm. space and time. These reﬁned models are part of the

*Corresponding author. necessary response to the higher accuracy in deforma-

E-mail address: wang@gfz-potsdam.de (R. Wang). tion data.

0098-3004/02/$ - see front matter r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 0 9 8 - 3 0 0 4 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 1 1 1 - 5

196 R. Wang et al. / Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 195–207

For static elastic deformation in a layered half-space, inverse Hankel transform. In general, Green’s functions

there exists a number of published numerical techniques are calculated for three different types of point double-

and software. Most of them are based on the wave- couple dislocations so that any ﬁnite dislocation can be

number integration method. Table 1 provides an over- modelled via linear superposition. Theoretically, all

view. From the beginning it was clear that—in contrast calculations in the propagator algorithm are based on

to the homogeneous half-space—the wavenumber spec- analytical formulae. Only the inverse Hankel transform

tra or kernel functions obtained for the stratiﬁed case has to be carried out numerically. In practice, however,

could not be integrated analytically. Two directions were numerical problems appear in both procedures above.

followed to solve this: (i) numerical integration (cf. Sato, After the basic theory is outlined, this section will

1971; Sato and Matsu’ura, 1973) and (ii) approximation concentrate on the numerical techniques used in the

by a ﬁnite series of Lipshitz–Hankel integrals in a present software.

recursive algorithm suggested by Sneddon (1951) and

ﬁrst applied here by Ben-Menahem and Gillon (1970) 2.1. Description of the boundary-value problem

(see also Jovanovich et al., 1974a; Roth, 1983). At the

same time, it also became clear that the number of The partial differential equations governing the static

calculations for the kernel functions increase exponen- deformation in an elastic medium are given by the

tially with the number of layers if the analytical equilibrium conditions of linear momentum,

approach is used. This is due to the fact that—similar r C ¼ f; ð1Þ

to the propagation of seismic waves—the deformation is

reﬂected and converted (P- into S-type motions and vice where C is the stress tensor, and f is the body force. In

versa) at every layer boundary leading to a large number combination with the Hooke’s law

of ‘multiples’ the farther the motion travels. Therefore, C ¼ ðlr uÞI þ m½ru þ ðruÞT ; ð2Þ

the previous algorithms based on the analytical or semi-

analytical methods were essentially limited to no more the governing equations can be written in terms of

than four layers over the half-space (cf. Roth, 1992). displacements of the medium,

Another way for computing the kernel functions was to ðl þ 2mÞrðr uÞ mr

ðr

uÞ ¼ f; ð3Þ

adopt the propagator algorithm which was ﬁrst applied

by Thomson (1950) and Haskell (1953) to seismic wave where l and m are the two Lam!e constants, u is the

propagation in layered media. Though the formulation displacement vector, and I is the unit tensor.

of the propagator algorithm was transparent and could At an interior material interface, displacement and

be applied to any unlimited number of layers, its stress satisfy the continuity conditions:

numerical results also showed the instability as known ujþ

¼ 0 ð4Þ

from dynamic solutions (see for instance Sato, 1971). To

overcome these, mathematical improvements in the en Cjþ

¼ 0; ð5Þ

algorithm were introduced, cf. Dunkin (1965), Jovano- where en is the unit normal vector of the interface, and

vich et al. (1974a), and Roth (1983). Their success was the symbol jþ denotes the increment of the respective

clearly visible but nevertheless limited. This did not quantity from one side to the other side of the interface.

change until Wang (1999b) approached the problem The free surface is expressed by

from a physical point of view, as summarised in the next

section. en C ¼ 0: ð6Þ

In the Green’s function approach, the function f

describes a point source. For convenience in numerical

2. The method calculations, the plane at the source depth will be

deﬁned as a pseudo-interface. Then, the point source can

The Green’s function approach is used to solve the be represented by a jump of the displacement and stress

present boundary-value problem. Using the Hankel components. In case that f ¼ f s dðz zs Þ; for example,

transform, the partial differential equations of motion the source is then represented by a stress jump through

are converted into a set of ordinary equations governing the horizontal plane at z ¼ zs ;

the deformation ﬁeld in the wavenumber domain. For

en Cjþ

¼ fs: ð7Þ

each homogeneous layer, all fundamental solutions of

the latter equation are given in closed analytical form.

The special solution satisfying the source and boundary 2.2. Application of the Hankel transform

conditions will be obtained by the Thomson–Haskell

propagator algorithm. When the wavenumber domain For a layered half-space model which consists of an

problem has been solved, the desired deformation ﬁeld arbitrary but ﬁnite number of horizontal layers with a

in the spatial domain is then obtained through the free surface on top and the deepest layer extending to

R. Wang et al. / Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 195–207 197

inﬁnite depth, it is convenient to use the cylindrical is the coefﬁcient matrix with

coordinate system x ¼ ðz; r; yÞ in which z is the symmetry x ¼ l þ 2m; ð17Þ

axis through the point source and positive downwards.

Consider the Hankel transforms (e.g. Aki and Richards, Z ¼ l þ m: ð18Þ

1980, p. 305):

The second system is a 2D toroidal mode corresponding

X Z N

uðz; r; yÞ ¼ ½Um ðz; kÞ Zm to the SH wave ﬁeld in seismology,

k ðr; yÞ

m 0 d

þ Vm ðz; kÞ Rm m xm ¼ Bxm ; ð19Þ

k ðr; yÞ þ Wm ðz; kÞ Tk ðr; yÞk dk; dz

ð8Þ where

X Z N xm ¼ ðWm ; Gm ÞT ð20Þ

ez Cðz; r; yÞ ¼ ½Em ðz; kÞ Zm

k ðr; yÞ

m 0 and

!

þ Fm ðz; kÞ Rm

k ðr; yÞ 0 1

m

m B¼ : ð21Þ

þ Gm ðz; kÞTk ðr; yÞk dk; ð9Þ mk2 0

where Um ; Vm ; y are the wavenumber spectra of the The interface conditions (4) and (5) are then expressed

stress and displacement ﬁeld, by the continuity conditions of the generalised displace-

!

cos my ment vectors ym and xm ;

Ykm ðr; yÞ ¼ Jm ðkrÞ ð10Þ ym jþ

sin my ¼ 0; ð22Þ

¼ 0; ð23Þ

harmonics, and

the free surface conditions Eq. (6) by

Zm m

k ðr; yÞ ¼ ez Yk ðr; yÞ; ð11Þ

ym ¼ ðUm ; 0; Vm ; 0ÞT ; ð24Þ

er @ ey @

Rm

k ðr; yÞ ¼ þ Y m ðr; yÞ; ð12Þ xm ¼ ðWm ; 0ÞT ð25Þ

k @r kr @y k

and the source conditions in general by

er @ ey @ ym jþ

Tm

k ðr; yÞ ¼ Y m ðr; yÞ ð13Þ ¼ Dym ðzs Þ; ð26Þ

kr @y k @r k

are the corresponding surface vector harmonics. For a xm jþ

¼ Dxm ðzs Þ; ð27Þ

point inﬂation, only the harmonics of degree m ¼ 0 are where Dym ðzs Þ and Dxm ðzs Þ are the poloidal and toroidal

needed; for a single force, m ¼ 0; 1; for a double couple source functions, respectively. For a single force and a

source, m ¼ 0; 1; 2; and so on. Application of the Hankel point dislocation, they are given in Appendix A.

transform to Eqs. (3) yields two systems of ordinary

differential equations which are decoupled from each 2.3. Thomson–Haskell propagator algorithm

other and govern the depth-dependent coefﬁcient sets

(Um ; Em ; Vm ; Fm ) and (Wm ; Gm ), respectively. Solutions of Eqs. (14) and (19) are known in the

The ﬁrst system is called the poloidal mode and closed analytical form. The poloidal displacement, for

corresponds to the P–SV wave ﬁeld in seismology. In the example, is expressed by

matrix notation it can be written as

yðzÞ ¼ LðzÞEðzÞc; ð28Þ

d

y ¼ Aym ; ð14Þ where c is a constant vector,

dz m

where c ¼ ðAþ ; A ; Bþ ; B ÞT ; ð29Þ

4Þ diagonal matrix

EðzÞ ¼ diaðekz ; e kz ; ekz ; e kz Þ ð30Þ

expresses a generalised 4D displacement vector in the

wavenumber domain, and and LðzÞ is the ð4

4Þ layer matrix given in Appendix B.

0 1 lk

1 Note that the displacement in the form of Eq. (28) shows

0 x x 0

B C again an analogy to seismology. The terms with

B 0 0 0 kC constants A7 and B7 correspond to amplitudes of the

B C

A¼B 1C ð16Þ

B k 0 0 mC

up- and down-going P and SV waves, respectively. Their

@ A

4k2 mZ depth dependence is characterised by the terms e7kz and

0 lk x x 0 ðkzÞe7kz ; respectively.

198

Table 1

Published solutions for 3D static deformation induced by earthquakes in a layered half-spacea

Publication Source type Source orientation Source size Deformation Number of Gravityc Remarks

type layersb included

(G)

Strike-slip Dip-slip Extens. Explosion Vertical Horizontal Inclined Point (P) Displacement

extended (E) (D) or strain (S)

Ben-Menahem X X X X X P D 2 (1)

and Singh

(1968)

Sato (1971) X X X X X E D 7

Singh (1971) X X X X P D — (2)

Wason and X X X X P D — (3)

Singh (1972)

Sato and X X X X X X E D 5 (4)

Matsu’ura

(1973)

Jovanovich et al. X X X X X X P D 4

(1974a)

Jovanovich et al. X X X X X X P S 5 (5)

(1974b)

R. Wang et al. / Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 195–207

Sato (1975)

Rundle (1980b) X X X P D — G (6)

Rundle (1981) X X X E D 2 G (6)

Rundle (1982) X X X X X X E D 2 G (7)d

Roth (1983) X X X X X X P D&S 4 (8)d

Ma and Kusznir X X X X X E D 4 (9)

(1992)

Roth (1993) X X P D 3 (8)

Fern!andez and X — — — P D 3 G (10)

Rundle (1994b)

d

Ma and Kusznir X X E D&S 4

(1994a)

d

Ma and Kusznir X X X X E D&S 4 G

(1995)

Fern!andez et al. X X X X E D 2 G (11)d

(1996b)

Yu et al. (1996b) X X X X E D 2 G (12)d

Fern!andez et al. X — — — P D&S 5 G (13)

(1997)

Wang (1999b) X X X X X X X P D B500 (14)

Fern!andez et al. X — — — P D 3 G (15)d

(2001)

This paper X X X X X X X E D&S B500 (16)

a

If not stated otherwise, sources are discontinuities (dislocations) in displacement, Lam!e’s constants can be chosen independently, medium is elastic, and ﬁelds are given at surface.

b

Layer number limit given in paper or maximum number of layers shown in an example. Half-space below layers is included in layer count. ‘—’ Indicates that only formulae are

given, but no examples.

c

Gravity effects are included in one of two usually used approximations. For more details see Rundle (1980b) or Piersanti et al. (1997) for some overview.

d

The modelling of inelastic behaviour is included, usually in some approximation. As this is beyond the scope of this paper see Roth (1994, table 4) for a more complete overview.

Notes: (1) Only the integrals are given for the displacements. (2) Here, sources are discontinuities in stress. Paper also treats dynamic case. (3) Medium is a layered sphere. Overview

on this approach is not in scope of this paper, see Israel et al. (1973), Israel and Ben-Menahem (1974), Pollitz (1992), Sun and Okubo (1993), Okubo (1993, 1994), Piersanti et al.

(1995), Pollitz (1996), Sun et al. (1996), Piersanti et al. (1997), Pollitz (1997), Sun and Okubo (1998), Wang (1999a), and Boschi et al. (2000) instead. (4) Rupture plane can extend

through several layers, but see Morelli et al. (1987) or Bonafede and Rivalta (1999) for a more physical treatment. (5) Formulae for all surface strains and tilts are given (in cylindrical

coordinates). (6) Displacements are given only integral form, solution of which can be found in Rundle (1980a). (7) Only vertical displacements are given integral form, the solution

can be found in Rundle (1980a). (8) Later subsurface deformations were added (see Roth, 1990). Examples for 4 layers see also in Roth (1992, 1994). (9) Includes subsurface

displacement and strain ﬁelds, elliptical source shapes, and variable slip distributions across the rupture plane; extended to visco-elastic gravitational media in Ma and Kusznir

(1994b). (10) Program code published in Fern!andez and Rundle (1994a). (11) Only horizontal displacements. Program code published in Fern!andez et al. (1996a). (12) Program code

published in Yu et al. (1996a). (13) Possibility to include a water layer at free surface. Besides strain also tilt can be computed. Includes program code. (14) Accuracy and performance

was considerably increased with this algorithm (see text). Number of layers is practically not limited. Dynamic case is also treated. (15) More than one inelastic layer. (16) See

footnote 14 for accuracy, performance and layer number.

R. Wang et al. / Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 195–207

199

200 R. Wang et al. / Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 195–207

For a homogeneous layer of thickness h; it is easy to wave, regardless what start values of them were chosen.

ﬁnd that the displacement at the lower boundary z ¼ h is Consequently, the fundamental displacement vector

related to its value at the upper boundary by bases computed this way will loss their independence

yðhÞ ¼ HðhÞyð0Þ; ð31Þ and the numerical instability arises when they are

superposed to satisfy the source conditions.

where From the physical point of view, the two decreasing

HðhÞ ¼ LðhÞEðhÞL 1 ð0Þ ð32Þ e kz and ðkzÞe kz waves describe the reﬂection from the

top of a layer. When the layer thickness, measured by

1

and L ðzÞ is the inverse of the layer matrix LðzÞ: The the wavelength 1=k; is large enough, the evanescent

matrix H is known as the Thomson–Haskell propagator reﬂection effect cannot be observed at the bottom of the

that relates the displacement vector from depth to depth, layer. Thus, the vanishing of the decreasing waves is of

so that the boundary-value problem is converted to an physical nature. In contrast, however, the vanishing of

algebraic problem. In fact, we can choose any two one increasing wave due to operations with the other

independent starting values for the displacement vector, increasing wave is purely of numerical nature because

both of which satisfy the surface conditions ðEm ¼ Fm ¼ both include independent and complementary informa-

0Þ; and propagate it downwards until the source plane. tion about the radiation characteristic of the source.

The same procedure can be done from the deepest Therefore, to solve the loss-of-precision problem, any

interface upwards to the source plane, the only direct numerical operations between the two increasing

difference is that the start values here should satisfy waves should be avoided. For this purpose, Wang

the conditions for inﬁnity, that is, Aþ ¼ Bþ ¼ 0: The (1999b) has proposed an orthonormalisation extension

displacement vectors determined this way are the to the propagator algorithm. As has been stated, there

fundamental bases of solutions of the present bound- are two fundamental displacement vector bases to be

ary-value problem. The desired displacement is a linear determined for the poloidal mode. In the improved

superposition of them. The weights will be determined propagator algorithm, the two vector bases are not

by the source conditions. computed separately but simultaneously. At each inter-

The situation for the toroidal mode is similar but face, they are linearly transformed, or orthonormalised

easier than the poloidal mode shown previously because in a wide sense, to the other two vector bases so that

the dimension is reduced from 4 to 2. The (2

2) each of them includes only one increasing wave for the

toroidal layer matrix is given in Appendix B. next homogeneous layer. Then, the new vector bases can

be propagated to the next interface without any

2.4. The improved propagator algorithm numerical operations between the two increasing waves

and the loss-of-precision problem is fully solved.

In practice, it has been shown that results for the The orthonormalised propagator algorithm has been

toroidal mode are stable, but instable for the poloidal successfully applied to the computation of synthetic

mode especially when the product between the wave- seismograms (Wang, 1999b) and quasi-static deforma-

number and the layer thickness is large. At ﬁrst sight, the .

tions in poro-plastic media (Wang and Kumpel, 2002).

problem seems to be caused by operations between the The same computation strategy as demonstrated in the

large ekz terms and the small e kz terms, but the stable two papers is also adopted for the present purpose.

results for the toroidal mode exclude this possibility. In

reality, the problem is caused by operations between the 2.5. Convergence problems of the numerical Hankel

two increasing vectors. For example, when a displace- transform

ment vector is being propagated from the surface

downwards (in the positive z direction), the terms In the present software, the equidistant wavenumber

Aþ ekz and Bþ ðkzÞekz represent two increasing waves sampling is used in the numerical Hankel transform

and the terms A e kz and B ðkzÞe kz two decreasing (wavenumber integrations in Eqs. (8) and (9)). The

waves. It is obvious that through operations with the sampling interval Dk can be chosen between 1% and

Thomson–Haskell propagator the two increasing waves 10% of the Nyquist wavenumber 2p=rmax ; where rmax is

included in the displacement vector become more the maximum horizontal distance to the source. A

signiﬁcant than the two decreasing waves, in the practical problem here is the cut-off value of the

extreme, i.e., when khb1; the latter can even lose their wavenumber k; which depends upon how fast the

numerical presence. Additionally, also the less strongly integrands in Eqs. (8) and (9) converge to zero. In case

increasing Aþ ekz wave, should have lost its signiﬁcance that the observation points are located at a different

to a certain extent due to the operation with the more depth than the source, the integrands decrease with

strongly increasing Bþ ðkzÞekz wave. If such process is wavenumber k approximately by e kd or ke kd ; where d

repeated by a number of thick layers, all displacement is the depth difference between the observation points

vectors may ﬁnally be dominated by the single Bþ ðkzÞekz and the source. Then, the cut-off wavenumber can be

R. Wang et al. / Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 195–207 201

determined so that all integrands become insigniﬁcant, the physical point source. Presently, kN is determined

for example, several orders smaller than their maxima. through a rough sampling so that the integrands

However, if the source and the observation points are decrease by 3–4 orders for k > kN in comparison with

located at the same depth, the integrands at large their maxima, and ro is about 1% of the source–

wavenumbers either converge to non-zero constants or observation distance r:

linearly increase with the wavenumber. The difﬁculty is

caused by the idealized point source and can be solved

using a similar technique as the one used by Farrell

(1972) for calculating the deformation of a spherical 3. The computation procedures

earth induced by surface loading. Using this technique,

the asymptotic terms are expressed in the analytical The present software comprises two programs:

form and removed from the numerical wavenumber EDGRN prepares the Green’s functions and EDCMP

integrations. In addition, the d point source function is computes the desired deformation ﬁeld via linear super-

replaced by an extended disk source with a characteristic position. The ﬂowcharts of major subroutines of the two

radius ro which is much smaller than the distance to the programs are shown in Figs. 1 and 2, respectively.

observation points. For example, if an extended source For a general dislocation source, Green’s functions

with a normal distribution is used, the only difference to for three independent source types are needed, that is,

2 2

the point source is an additional factor e k ro to be the compensated linear vector dipole (abbreviated by

multiplied to the wavenumber integrands. In practice, CLVD), the dip-slip, and the strike-slip double couples.

this factor can effectively accelerate the convergence of There are 10 observables to be computed with the

the numerical integrations. The following example program EDGRN: 3 displacement components, 6 strain

demonstrates how the convergence problem is solved: components and the radial component of the surface tilt

Z N (its tangential component is given by the azimuthal

UðkÞJ2 ðkrÞk dk derivative of the vertical displacement). For a ﬁxed

0

Z N Z N uniform observation depth, the observables depend, in

¼ DUðkÞJ2 ðkrÞk dk þ UN J2 ðkrÞk dk general, not only on the source depth and the observa-

tion distance but also on the observation azimuth angle

Z0 N 0

2 y: Fortunately, the azimuth dependence is quite regular.

¼ DUðkÞJ2 ðkrÞk dk þ 2 UN

0 r Except for the axi-symmetric CLVD source, the

Z kN azimuthal dependence for the other two source types

2 2 2

E DUðkÞJ2 ðkrÞe k ro k dk þ 2 UN ; ð33Þ can be expressed by a simple azimuthal factor, that is,

0 r

(sin 2y; cos 2y) for the strike-slip source and (sin y; cos y)

where UN is the limit value of UðkÞ for k-N; DUðkÞ is for the dip-slip source. Whether the cosine factor or the

the difference UðkÞ UN ; kN is the cut-off wavenum- sine factor is used depends on which of the observables

ber, and ro 5r is the characteristic spatial extension of is considered. In case of the dip-slip source (Mxz a0), for

edgmain OUTPUT

main program Green’s functions

getdata edgkern

Read input file kernel functions

edgpsv edgsh

edglayer / edgsublay spheroidal mode toroidal mode

model stratification orthonorm. propagator

. .

Haskell propagator

edgmatrix

edgbstab layer matrix

Bessel function tables edgmatinv

inverse layer matrix

edgmoment edghask

source functions propagator matrix

gemp

edgwvint superposition of

wavenumber integration fundamental solutions

202 R. Wang et al. / Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 195–207

edcmain OUTPUT tions.

main program deformation data

read input file

N Okada

The example as given in the provided two input ﬁles

layered model? demonstrates the computation of the elastic deformation

analytical approach

Y ﬁeld induced by the 1999 Izmit earthquake, Turkey. The

fault plane of the earthquake consists of 6 rectangular

edcgrn dc3d/dc3d0

numerical approach: Okada’s software segments which are adopted from Wright et al. (2001).

read Green’s functions The nearly E–W-trending fault has a total length of

(output from EDGRN), about 140 km: Its depth extends from the surface to

convolution integration

20 km: The Green’s functions are computed by the

program EDGRN for 43 source depths (every 0:5 km

edcdisc

discretise rectangular from 0 to 21 km) and for 401 distances (every 0:5 km

plane sources from 0 to 200 km), that is, 43

401 ¼ 17; 243 source–

observation combinations. The CPU time on a SUN

Ultra-60 Workstation is 72–77 s; depending on whether

Fig. 2. Flowchart of major subroutines of program EDCMP.

a homogeneous or a 4-layers model is used.

Once the Green’s functions have been prepared, the

stress and displacement components can be computed

example, both the vertical and radial displacements are by the program EDCMP either for a 2D observation

proportional to cos y; but the tangential displacement is array, for a 1D observation proﬁle, or for a number of

proportional to sin y: The Green’s functions are thus irregular observation positions. In case of a layered

stored without the azimuthal factor. The stepping of earth model, the program ﬁrst discretises the 6 ﬁnite

source depths and observation distances should be dense dislocation rectangles to 10,880 point sources for a grid

enough so that a linear interpolation can be applied later size 0:5 km

0:5 km; and then computes the deforma-

to any individual source–observation conﬁgurations. In tion ﬁeld via linear superposition. The CPU time for this

practice, the step should be comparable with the part of the computations on the same SUN workstation

discretisation size to be applied later to the ﬁnite source is 447 s for a 2D array with 6161 stations (Fig. 3) or 16 s

plane. Output data ﬁles include several header lines with for a 1D proﬁle with 201 stations (Fig. 4). That is about

information about the source type, the source depths, the 80 ms each station. If a homogeneous half-space model

observation distances, the observables and their unit, etc. is considered, however, the problem can be optionally

In the next step, the user can approximate the solved using the Okada’s analytical approach. In this

earthquake source by a few rectangular dislocation case, the Green’s functions as well as the discretisation

planes. Each is deﬁned by 9 parameters: the slip, the of the ﬁnite dislocation rectangles are not needed and

Cartesian coordinates ðx; y; zÞ of the reference point, the the results can be obtained immediately.

length, the width, and the strike, dip and rake angles. Fig. 3 shows the computed surface displacements for a

The program EDCMP automatically discretises the homogeneous half-space and a 4-layers half-space. The

rectangles to a number of point sources, and then elasticity parameters of the 4-layers model are given in

calculates up to 17 different physical observables for the Table 2 (note that the input parameters for the model

given observation positions via linear superposition. In are the density r and the two seismic velocities Vp and

addition, the program EDCMP provides an optional link Vs instead of the two Lam!e constants l and m). The

to the subroutines of Okada (1992) giving the analytical homogeneous model takes the same elasticity para-

results in case of the homogeneous half-space model. meters as the uppermost layer of the stratiﬁed model.

The program codes are written in the FORTRAN77 This kind of modelling is useful for interpreting the GPS

language with some extensions which are accepted by and INSAR data. To control the numerical accuracy,

most present FORTRAN compilers. A short the results for the homogeneous half-space are com-

READ.ME ﬁle gives all necessary information for the pared with the Okada’s analytical solutions (Fig. 4). A

installation and a brief introduction to the theoretical few visible deviations are only found near the surface

background. Both programs EDGRN and EDCMP fault traces and are mainly caused by the ﬁnite grid size

read the input parameters from input ﬁles. The examples used for the source plane discretisation.

edgrn.inp and edcmp.inp for the two input ﬁles, The example shown above is a hard test for the

respectively, are supplied with the codes. They include software. In fact, the extremely dense spatial sampling is

sufﬁcient explanations for all input parameters. Users only necessary when the near-ﬁeld deformation of

R. Wang et al. / Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 195–207 203

Fig. 3. Surface displacements (m) induced by August 17, 1999, Izmit earthquake, Turkey, computed with present software using

numerical Green’s function method. Earthquake has an E–W-trending fault and consists of 6 segments whose parameters are adopted

from Wright et al. (2001). Four-layer half-space model is given in Table 2. Homogeneous half-space model takes same elasticity

parameters as uppermost layer of stratiﬁed model. Note that seismological convention for displacement components is used, that is, x

is positive northwards, y is positive eastwards, and z is positive downwards.

shallow sources like the Izmit earthquake is considered. but the CPU time on the same SUN Workstation

For far-ﬁeld deformation or deeper earthquakes, the increased from 72 to 158 s:

computation effort will be considerably smaller.

To check the ability of the method to handle models

with a large number of layers, we added 100 pseudo- 5. Conclusions

interfaces into the same homogeneous half-space model

used above. The Green’s functions computed by the In the present software, the numerical Green’s

program EDGRN did not change signiﬁcantly ðo0:1%Þ; function approach is used to calculate earthquake’s

204 R. Wang et al. / Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 195–207

40

20

N-S distance [km]

Ux Uz Uy

0

Uy Uz Ux

-20

Numerical solutions

-40 Analytical solutions

-2 -1 0 1 2

Displacement [m]

Fig. 4. Comparison of numerical results for homogeneous half-space with Okada’s analytical solutions along a N–S proﬁle across

Izmit epicentre.

Table 2

Four-layers half-space model used in application example

Depth (km) r ð103 kg=m3 Þ Vp ðkm=sÞ Vs ðkm=sÞ l ð1010 PaÞ m ð1010 PaÞ

1–13 2.7 5.6 3.3 2.59 2.94

13–30 2.9 6.2 3.7 3.21 3.97

30–N 3.3 7.9 4.6 6.64 6.98

elastic deformations based on a layered half-space earth Hankel transform. Test examples have shown that the

model. In general, the computation task is fulﬁlled by software can provide a quick and quasi-analyti-

two separate programs. The ﬁrst program EDGRN cal solution of the elastic deformation induced by

prepares all fundamental Green’s functions of the given earthquake’s dislocations in a multi-layered earth

multi-layered half-space, and the second program crust.

EDCMP carries out the convolution integrations. The

advantage of this construction is the following: Once the

Green’s functions have been computed, they can be used Acknowledgements

repeatedly for different earthquakes as long as the earth

model remains unchanged. In addition, when a homo- The authors are grateful to Prof. Okada for the

geneous half-space model is used and the optional kind permission to use his codes that provide the

link provided by EDCMP to Okada’s analytical reference results in a special case. The work was

subroutines is selected, the procedure for the Green’s supported by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam,

functions is not needed. In the program EDGRN, the Ruhr-Univ. Bochum and the Deutsche Forschungsge-

stable and accurate results are guaranteed by the meinschaft under grant SFB 526 (Collaborative

orthonormalised propagator algorithm, and the compu- Research Centre ‘Rheology of the Earth—from the

tation efﬁciency is achieved using the conver- Upper Crust to the Subduction Zone’, subproject

gence accelerator technique applied to the numerical B2).

R. Wang et al. / Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 195–207 205

of the Royal Astronomical Society 39, 210, 1974).

Ykm Jm ðkrÞ cos my Jm ðkrÞ sin my

Bonafede, M., Rivalta, E., 1999. The tensile dislocation

m 0 1 2 1 2 problem in a layered elastic medium. Geophysical Journal

DUs Mzz

2pðlþ2mÞ 0 0 0 0 International 136 (2), 341–356.

Boschi, L., Piersanti, A., Spada, G., 2000. Global postseismic

DVm 0 M xz 0 M

yz

2pm 0

2pm deformation: deep earthquakes. Journal of Geophysical

DEm fz 0 0 0 0

2p

Research 105 (B1), 631–652.

DFm ð3lþ2mÞMzz

k fx Mxx Myy

k

fy Mxy

k Dunkin, J.W., 1965. Computation of modal solutions in layered

2pðlþ2mÞ 2p 4p 2p 2p

Myz elastic media at high frequencies. Bulletin of the Seismolo-

DWm 0 0 M xz

2pm

0

2pm gical Society of America 55, 335–358.

DGm 0 f Mxy fx Mxx Myy

2py 2p k 2p 4p k Farrell, W.E., 1972. Deformation of the earth by surface loads.

Review of Geophysics and Space Physics 10 (3), 761–797.

Fern!andez, J., Rundle, J.B., 1994a. Fortran program to

compute displacement, potential, and gravity changes

Appendix A. Hankel transformed source functions resulting from a magma intrusion in a multilayered Earth

model. Computers & Geosciences 20 (4), 461–510.

Fern!andez, J., Rundle, J.B., 1994b. Gravity changes and

Table 3 shows the Hankel transformed source

deformation due to a magmatic intrusion in a two-layered

functions in the cases of a point single force ðfx ; fy ; fz Þ crustal model. Journal of Geophysical Research 99 (B2),

and a point dislocation with the moment tensor 2737–2746.

components ðMxx ; Mxy ¼ Myx ; Mxz ¼ Mzx ; Myy ; Myz ¼ Fern!andez, J., Rundle, J.B., Granell, R.D.R., Yu, T.-T., 1997.

Mzy ; Mzz Þ with Mxx þ Myy þ Mzz ¼ 0: Programs to compute deformation due to a magma

intrusion in elastic-gravitational layered earth models.

Computers & Geosciences 23 (3), 231–249.

Appendix B. Layer matrices Fern!andez, J., Yu, T.-T., Rundle, J.B., 1996a. Deformation

produced by a rectangular dipping fault in a viscoelastic-

gravitational layered Earth model—Part I: thrust fault

The ð4

4Þ poloidal layer matrix, whose 4 columns FLTGRV and FLTGRH FORTRAN programs. Compu-

consist of the 4 eigenvectors of the coefﬁcient matrix A ters & Geosciences 22 (7), 735–750 (corrections in:

given in Eq. (16), is Computers & Geosciences 25 (3), 301–307, 1999).

LðzÞ Fern!andez, J., Yu, T.-T., Rundle, J.B., 1996b. Horizontal

0 1 viscoelastic-gravitational displacement due to a rectangular

1 1 1 þ lþm

m ð1 kzÞ 1 þ lþm

m ð1 þ kzÞ dipping thrust fault in a layered Earth model. Journal of

B C

B 2mk 2mk 2ðl þ mÞð1 kzÞk 2ðl þ mÞð1 þ kzÞk C Geophysical Research 101, 13,581–13,594 (correction in

B C

¼B C: Journal of Geophysical Research 103 (B12), 30283–30286,

B 1 1 1 lþm 1 lþm C

@ m kz m kz A 1998).

2mk 2mk 2ðl þ mÞk2 z 2

2ðl þ mÞk z Fern!andez, J., Tiampo, K.F., Rundle, J.B., 2001. Viscoelastic

ðB:1Þ displacement and gravity changes due to point magmatic

intrusions in a gravitational layered solid earth. Geophysical

The ð2

2Þ toroidal layer matrix, whose 2 columns Journal International 146 (1), 155–170.

consist of the 2 eigenvectors of the coefﬁcient matrix B Haskell, N.A., 1953. The dispersion of surface waves on

given in Eq. (21), is multilayered media. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of

! America 43, 17–34.

1 1 Israel, M., Ben-Menahem, A., 1974. Displacements and strains

LðzÞ ¼ : ðB:2Þ

mk mk in real earth models. Physics of the Earth and Planetary

Interiors 8, 23–45.

Israel, M., Ben-Menahem, A., Singh, S.J., 1973. Residual

deformation of real Earth models with application to the

References Chandler wobble. Geophysical Journal of the Royal

Astronomical Society 32, 219–247.

Aki, K., Richards, P.G., 1980. Quantitative Seismology, Vol. 1. Jovanovich, D.B., Husseini, M.I., Chinnery, M.A., 1974a.

W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, 558pp. Elastic dislocations in a layered half-space—I. Basic theory

Ben-Menahem, A., Gillon, A., 1970. Crustal deformations by and numerical methods. Geophysical Journal of the Royal

earthquakes and explosions. Bulletin of the Seismological Astronomical Society 39, 205–217 (for remark on misprints

Society of America 60, 193–215 (for remark on misprints see: Roth, Geophysical Journal International 103 (1), 155,

see: Jovanovich, Husseini and Chinnery, Geophysical 1990).

Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 39, 210, 1974). Jovanovich, D.B., Husseini, M.I., Chinnery, M.A., 1974b.

Ben-Menahem, A., Singh, S.J., 1968. Multipolar elastic ﬁelds in Elastic dislocations in a layered half-space—II. The point

a layered half-space. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of source. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical

America 58, 1519–1572 (for remark on misprints see: Society 39, 219–239.

206 R. Wang et al. / Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 195–207

Ma, X.-Q., Kusznir, N.J., 1992. 3-D subsurface displacement Berichte Reihe A, 35, Institut fuer Geophysik, Ruhr-Univ.

and strain ﬁelds for faults and fault arrays in a layered Bochum, Germany, 196p.

elastic half-space. Geophysical Journal International 111, Roth, F., 1993. Deformations in a layered crust due to a system

542–558. of cracks: modelling the effect of dike injections or

Ma, X.-Q., Kusznir, N.J., 1994a. Coseismic and postseismic dilatancy. Journal of Geophysical Research 98, 4543–4551.

subsurface displacements and strains for a vertical strike- Roth, F., 1994. New methods using dislocation theory.

slip fault in a three-layer elastic medium. Pure and Applied Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on

Physics 142, 687–709. Recent Crustal Movements (CRCM ’93) of IUGG and

Ma, X.-Q., Kusznir, N.J., 1994b. Effects of rigidity layering, IAG, The Local Organizing Committee for the CRCM ’93,

gravity and stress relaxation on 3-D subsurface fault Kobe, December 6–11, 1993, Journal of the Geodetic

displacement ﬁelds. Geophysical Journal International Society of Japan (special issue), pp. 265–274.

118, 201–220. Rundle, J.B., 1980a. Numerical evaluation of a static elastic-

Ma, X.-Q., Kusznir, N.J., 1995. Coseismic and postseismic gravitational deformation of a layered half-space by point

subsurface displacements and strains for a dip-slip normal couple-sources. Report, Sandia National Laboratory, Al-

fault in a three-layer elastic-gravitational medium. Journal buquerque, NM, SAND 80-2048.

of Geophysical Research 100, 12813–12830. Rundle, J.B., 1980b. Static elastic-gravitational deformation of

Matsu’ura, M., Sato, R., 1975. Static deformations due to the a layered half space by point couple sources. Journal of

fault spreading over several layers in a multilayered Geophysical Research 85, 5355–5363.

medium. Part II. Strain and tilt. Journal of Physics of the Rundle, J.B., 1981. Vertical displacements from a rectangular

Earth 23, 1–29. fault in layered elastic-gravitational media. Journal of

Morelli, A., Bonafede, M., Dragoni, M., 1987. Two-dimen- Physics of the Earth 29, 173–186.

sional crack model of faulting in a layered elastic half-space. Rundle, J.B., 1982. Viscoelastic-gravitational deformation by a

Annales Geophysicae 5B, 281–288. rectangular thrust fault in a layered Earth. Journal of

Okada, Y., 1992. Internal deformation due to shear and tensile Geophysical Research 87, 7787–7796.

faults in a half-space. Bulletin of the Seismological Society Sato, R., 1971. Crustal deformation due to a dislocation in a

of America 82, 1018–1040. multi-layered medium. Journal of Physics of the Earth 19,

Okubo, S., 1993. Reciprocity theorem to compute the static 31–46.

deformation due to a point dislocation buried in a Sato, R., Matsu’ura, M., 1973. Static deformation due to the

spherically symmetric earth. Geophysical Journal Interna- fault spreading over several layers in a multi-layered

tional 115, 921–928. medium. Part I: displacement. Journal of Physics of the

Okubo, S., 1994. Coseismic crustal movement in a spherically Earth 21, 227–249.

symmetric earth. Proceedings of the Eighth Inter- Singh, S.J., 1971. Deformation of a multilayered half-space by

national Symposium on Recent Crustal Movements stress dislocations and concentrated forces. Bulletin of the

(CRCM ’93) of IUGG and IAG, December 6–11, 1993, Seismological Society of America 61, 1625–1637.

The Local Organizing Committee for the CRCM ’93, Kobe, Sneddon, I.N., 1951. Fourier Transforms. McGraw-Hill, New

pp. 275–278. York, 542pp.

Piersanti, A., Spada, G., Sabadini, R., 1997. Global postseismic Sun, W., Okubo, S., 1993. Surface potential and gravity

rebound of a viscoelastic Earth: theory for ﬁnite faults and changes due to internal dislocations in a spherical earth—

application to the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Journal of I. Theory for a point dislocation. Geophysical Journal

Geophysical Research 102, 477–492. International 114, 569–592.

Piersanti, A., Spada, G., Sabadini, R., Bonafede, M., 1995. Sun, W., Okubo, S., 1998. Surface potential and gravity

Global post-seismic deformation. Geophysical Journal changes due to internal dislocations in a spherical earth—

International 120, 544–566. II. Application to a ﬁnite fault. Geophysical Journal

Pollitz, F.F., 1992. Postseismic relaxation theory on the International 132 (1), 79–88.

spherical earth. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of Sun, W., Okubo, S., Van!ıc$ ek, P., 1996. Global displace-

America 82, 422–453. ments caused by point dislocations in a realistic

Pollitz, F.F., 1996. Coseismic deformation from earthquake Earth model. Journal of Geophysical Research 101,

faulting on a layered spherical earth. Geophysical Journal 8561–8578.

International 125, 1–14. Thomson, W.T., 1950. Transmission of elastic waves through a

Pollitz, F.F., 1997. Gravitational viscoelastic postseismic stratiﬁed medium. Journal of Applied Physics 21, 89–93.

relaxation on a layered spherical Earth. Journal of Wang, H., 1999a. Surface vertical displacements, potential

Geophysical Research 102 (B8), 17,921–17,941. perturbations and gravity changes of a viscoelastic earth

Roth, F., 1983. Oberﬂ.achendeformationen und Krustenspan- model induced by internal point dislocations. Geophysical

nungen in Erdbebengebieten: Ein Modell zur Beschreibung Journal International 137 (2), 429–440.

.

ihrer zeitlichen Anderungen. Dissertation, Institut. fuer. Wang, R., 1999b. A simple orthonormalization method for

Geophys., C.-A.-Univ. Kiel, Germany, 184p. the stable and efﬁcient computation of Green’s functions.

Roth, F., 1990. Subsurface deformations in a layered elastic Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 89,

half-space. Geophysical Journal International 103 (2), 733–741.

147–155. .

Wang, R., Kumpel, H.-J., 2002. Poroelasticity: axisymmetric

Roth, F., 1992. Modellierung von Vorg.angen an Verwerfungen solutions for the uniform and the layered half-space.

mit Hilfe der Dislokationstheorie. Habilitationsschrift, Geophysics, in press.

R. Wang et al. / Computers & Geosciences 29 (2003) 195–207 207

Wason, H.R., Singh, S.J., 1972. Static deformation of multi- slip fault STRGRV and STRGRH FORTRAN pro-

layered sphere by internal sources. Geophysical Journal of grams. Computers & Geosciences 22 (7), 751–764 (corri-

the Royal Astronomical Society 27, 1–14. gendum in Computers & Geosciences 28 (1), 89–91,

Wright, T., Fielding, E., Parsons, B., 2001. Triggered slip: 2002).

observations of the 17 August 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earth- Yu, T.-T., Rundle, J.B., Fern!andez, J., 1996b. Surface

quake using radar interferometry. Geophysical Research deformation due to a strike-slip fault in an elastic

Letters 28 (6), 1079–1082. gravitational layer overlying a viscoelastic gravitational

Yu, T.-T., Rundle, J.B., Fern!andez, J., 1996a. Deformation half-space. Journal of Geophysical Research 101, 3199–3214

produced by a rectangular dipping fault in a visco- (correction: Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (B7),

elastic-gravitational layered Earth model—Part II: strike 15313–15315, 1999).

- Modal Analysis of Cantilever BeamUploaded byAbhishek Ghosh
- Nabava-zavodi(2011-2012)Uploaded byAhmed Salem
- Airplane GVTUploaded byOlli1974
- Physics2.5 Wave and Motion 5-1 to 5-20Uploaded bySADDAM
- 07 08 Simpson 3-8 Integration MethodUploaded byJohn Bofarull Guix
- Ttrebuchet design optimisationUploaded byMelissa Stoic
- Birth FEM ZienkiewiczUploaded byJavier Vázquez
- Campbell PDFUploaded byAnonymous d23gWCRQ
- 1-s2.0-S0263823102001003-main.pdfUploaded byrs0004
- Order Analysis of EngineUploaded byatpeplow
- 1DOCprueba(1).pdfUploaded byrouss_rj_30
- IRJET-Comparison of Seismic Behavior of Building with Fixed Base, Base Isolator and Shear WallUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Structural Analysis - The Fundamental Physics and the Relevant Mathematical Assumptions of the Models of Solids and StructureUploaded byCindhy Ade Hapsari
- A Negative Derivative Feedback Design AlgorithmUploaded byoscar201140
- ECE 2240 Outline Winter 2016Uploaded byRodrigo Samico
- Printerversion Modal Analysis OldUploaded bySalvador Silveyra
- Paper 11Uploaded bycemnuy
- 2nd LectureUploaded byAli Wakaa
- tf1684_fmUploaded byelsaorduna
- Annular Membranes Analysis.pdfUploaded byFrancisco Leon Ascencio
- 1-s2.0-S0093641312001437-mainUploaded byMohan Kumar
- DocumentUploaded byVenkadesh Kannan
- A Stabilized Finite Element Method to Pseudop Flow Governed by the Sisko RelationUploaded byJuliano Deividy B. Santos
- GN3611721176.pdfUploaded byFredy Picauly
- math2140_Chp4Uploaded byshahadatme
- InTech-Non Linearity in Structural Dynamics and Experimental Modal AnalysisUploaded byClayton Roberson
- EulerError.pdfUploaded byPriyank Dhyani
- fp420_01Uploaded byDomingo Ben
- 14 Interpolation I.pdfUploaded byTharun Raj Rockzz
- AEIE Final Upto 4th Year SyllabusUploaded bysupernovadx

- Assembly LineUploaded byAnshik Yadav
- the effect of DNS on TOR'S anonymityUploaded bykllado
- 151885884273530916174DNITPdg.FireAlarmsystemEDishaKendarGanaur.pdfUploaded bypmcmbharat264
- UML Solution Second Internal ExamUploaded bynvpatel2671988
- 2 RDBMergeUploaded byNishant Chugh
- Trees AmpUploaded byAnthony9596
- Using Sim KitUploaded byradian_anmb
- CMMIUploaded byDilip Patel
- mdcache_whitepaperUploaded bySimon
- CSC Final Exam Study SheetUploaded byThess Dimalibot Bengua
- MDMR Technical Interface Spec v3.3 20110707 CLEANUploaded byRonnie277
- SECURITY USING FIREWALLSUploaded byapi-19799369
- Alteva Mitel 5312 QuikRefGuideUploaded byWalter Mejia
- AIT ARINC664 Shortform DownloadUploaded bycaport
- Markdown to InDesignUploaded byalbinxh
- Experion HS Software Installation Users GuideUploaded byinnoc3ntd3vil
- CST EM STUDIO - Workflow and Solver Overview.pdfUploaded byDebidas Kundu
- 61_Yearly Qsns & AnsUploaded bySurya Sekhar Samanta
- kupdf.net_she-used-to-be-mine-waitress-the-musical-sheet-music.pdfUploaded byemily
- vBuilder-Manual.pdfUploaded byJoshua Riesenweber
- Intro. to Computing Course Ouline (New)Uploaded byMuhammad muhlas
- Oracle+Database +Urgent +ORACLE+Initialization+or+Shutdown+in+ProgressUploaded byNaveen Mani
- VaultLog.txtUploaded byKai Bernardo
- Fortran 1Uploaded byMarian Grigore
- DailyTech - Inside the Mega-Hack of Bitcoin_ the Full Story.pdfUploaded byDucon
- Smartphone GNSS.pdfUploaded byMocanu Dragos
- 167-25-PBUploaded byHamilton Cezar
- Core LapUploaded byJahan Zaib
- DADpad_orignalManualUploaded byPrometheusUV
- 005. HUB Structure.pdfUploaded byismailttl