Cheese

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Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. Cheese is made by curdling milk using a combination of rennet (or rennet substitutes) and acidification. Bacteria acidify the milk and play a role in defining the texture and flavor of most cheeses. Some cheeses also feature molds, either on the outer rind or throughout.

The yellow to red coloring of many cheeses is a result of adding annatto.3 Methods  1. Rennet is an enzyme mixture traditionally obtained from the stomach lining of young cattle. but others have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family.1 Opiate  2.2 Washing  1. Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Types of cheese o 1.1 Curdling o 3. which turn milk sugars into lactic acid. or wood smoke. Cheeses are eaten both on their own and cooked as part of various dishes. are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria. Other factors include animal diet and the addition of flavoring agents such as herbs.3 Processed cheese 2 Health and nutrition o 2. but now also laboratory produced. Most cheeses. Whether the milk is pasteurized may also affect the flavor. For a few cheeses.1.3.1. followed by the addition of rennet to complete the curdling. most are produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei. employing particular species of bacteria and molds.3. spices.1. however.There are hundreds of types of cheese produced all over the world. Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available.2 Texture o 1.1 Use of mold  1.4 Pasteurization 3 Making cheese o 3. and varying the length of aging and other processing treatments.1 Controversy  2.3.2 Curd processing o 3.1. the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice.3 Obesity  2.2 Lactose  2.1 Fresh cheeses o 1. Different styles and flavors of cheese are the result of using milk from various mammals or with different butterfat contents. most cheeses melt when heated.3 Aging 4 Eating and cooking 5 History .

Romanian Caş. but is inaccurate: many types of cheese are made in softer or firmer variations. Such cheeses are soft and spreadable. goat's milk cheese. the softer.2 Ancient Greece and Rome 5. with little other processing.1 Origins 5. This classification is common in the US. with a mild taste. Methods of making: pressed or unpressed curd. Neufchâtel (the model for Americanstyle cream cheese). Fresh cheeses For these simplest cheeses.3 Post-classical Europe 5. mold growth. Some common systems used are: • • • • • Length of aging. milk is curdled and drained. and fresh goat's milk chèvre. . this is correlated to the moisture content: the more moist a cheese. Examples include cottage cheese.• • • • • • 5.) A cheese platter with many types of cheese.4 Modern era 6 World production and consumption 7 Cultural attitudes 8 Cheese in language 9 References 10 See also o o o o 11 External links Types of cheese Main article: List of cheeses No one categorization scheme can capture all the diversity of the world's cheeses. Fat content. etc. Kind of milk (cow's milk. Texture (hard or soft). heated or unheated curd. etc. Fresh cheeses without additional preservatives can spoil in a matter of days.

"semi-hard". They are generally packed into molds under more pressure and aged for a longer time. Fresh curds are stretched and kneaded in hot water to form a ball of Mozzarella. Italian Ricotta. Methods Use of mold Soft-ripened cheeses such as Brie and Camembert are made by allowing white Penicillium candida or P. Other firm fresh cheeses include paneer and queso fresco. and Romano — are quite firmly packed into large forms and aged for months or years. and many types of cheese are made in softer or firmer variations. Provencal Brousse. and is as such a major ingredient in Corsican cuisine. The lines between "soft".Whey cheeses are fresh cheeses made from the whey discarded while producing other cheeses. or gooey textures and more intense flavors of these aged cheeses. washing away some acidity and calcium. Brocciu is mostly eaten fresh. their curd is rinsed before it is pressed. Colby and Monterey Jack are similar but milder cheeses. which in southern Italy is usually eaten within a few hours of being made. but it can be aged too. Pecorino. and "hard" are arbitrary. The familiar cheddar is one of a family of semi-hard or hard cheeses (including Cheshire and Gloucester) whose curd is cut. Swiss-style cheeses like Emmental and Gruyère are generally quite firm. camemberti mold to grow on the outside of a soft cheese for a few days or weeks. "semi-soft". The mold forms a white crust and contributes to the smooth. The same bacteria that give Emmental its holes contribute to their aromatic and sharp flavors. Romanian Urda and Norwegian Geitost are examples. Traditional Mozzarella also falls into the fresh cheese category. Corsican Brocciu. gently heated. Goats' milk cheeses are . piled. runny. The hardest cheeses — "grating cheeses" such as Parmesan. A similar curd-washing takes place when making the Dutch cheeses Edam and Gouda. Harder cheeses have a lower moisture content than softer cheeses. and stirred before being pressed into forms. Texture A Gouda cheese market Categorizing cheeses by firmness is a common but inexact practice.

often. making their surfaces amenable to a class of bacteria (the reddish-orange "smear bacteria") which impart pungent odors and distinctive flavors. Many other varieties exist. consistent. sometimes with white molds (Chèvre-Boîte) and sometimes with blue. a Kraft Foods brand sold in a spray can. Washing Washed-rind cheeses are periodically bathed in a saltwater brine as they age. for example. These cheeses have distinct blue veins and.often treated in a similar manner. or hard (Appenzeller). semi-hard (Munster). all of which are lumped together under the common monicker blue cheese. In reality. assertive flavors. Processed cheese Processed cheese is made from traditional cheese and emulsifying salts. The most familiar processed cheese may be pre-sliced mild yellow American Cheese or Velveeta. It is inexpensive. and melts smoothly. there are many different kinds. Health and nutrition . The mold grows within the cheese as it ages. considered by some to be as different from stilton and gorgonzola as parmesan is from romano or asiago. including Easy Cheese. Washed-rind cheeses can be soft (Limburger). is roquefort cheese. This is the most-consumed category of cheese in the United States. "Roka blue cheese". Blue-mold cheese is a category comprised of many specific cheeses. more salt. preservatives. often with the addition of milk. and food coloring. including Roquefort. and Stilton. They are generally produced by inoculating loosely pressed curds with Penicillium roqueforti or Penicillium glaucum molds. Gorgonzola. Their texture can be soft or firm.

Swiss and American can help to prevent tooth decay. Cheese increases saliva flow. cheese supplies a great deal of calcium. and phosphorus in cheese may act to protect tooth enamel. adding that the average American ate 30 pounds (13. protein.[4] Several mechanisms for this protection have been proposed: • • • The calcium. Cheese may have an antibacterial effect in the mouth. Switzerland. A 30-gram (about one ounce) serving of cheddar cheese contains about seven grams of protein and 200 milligrams of calcium. Some studies claim to show that cheeses including Cheddar. and phosphorus.Cheese selection on market stand in Basel. which lead the world in cheese eating (more than 14 ounces (400 grams) a week per person. cheese is essentially concentrated milk: it takes about 200 grams (seven ounces) of milk to provide that much protein.[1] Cheese shares milk's nutritional disadvantages as well. up from 11 pounds (5 kg) in 1970.[citation needed] . In general.6 kg) of cheese in the year 2000. washing away acids and sugars. Mozzarella. protein. and 150 grams to equal the calcium. the higher rates of consumption of red wine in these countries is often invoked as at least a partial explanation. Whether cheese's highly saturated fat actually leads to an increased risk of heart disease is called into question when considering France and Greece.[2] Their recommendation is to limit full-fat cheese consumption to two ounces (60 grams) a week. or over 45 pounds (20 kg) a year) yet have relatively low rates of heart disease. The Center for Science in the Public Interest describes cheese as America's number one source of saturated fat.[3] This seeming discrepancy is called the French Paradox. Nutritionally.

which can trigger symptoms mimicking an allergic reaction: headaches. particularly histamine and tyramine.[citation needed] Pasteurization A number of food safety agencies around the world have warned of the risks of raw-milk cheeses. brucellosis.[11] Government-imposed pasteurization is. pointing out that pasteurization of the milk used to make cheese does not ensure its safety in any case.[12] This is supported by statistics showing that in Europe (where young raw-milk cheeses are still legal in some countries). Food and Drug Administration states that soft raw-milk cheeses can cause "serious infectious diseases including listeriosis. an opiate. and for French Roquefort.S. most cheese-related food poisoning incidents were traced to pasteurized cheeses.S. people whose diets included high intake of dairy foods have been shown to have higher rates of obesity than persons whose diets included only vegetable based fats. but ripened cheeses like Cheddar contain only about 5% of the lactose found in whole milk. though in recent years exceptions have been made for Swiss Gruyère. Australia has a wide ban on raw-milk cheeses as well. Some say these worries are overblown. especially with regards to autism.[10] It is U.[5] Cheese is (and. and aged cheeses contain almost none. law since 1944 that all raw-milk cheeses (including imports since 1951) must be aged at least 60 days. Some aged cheeses contain significant concentrations of these amines. for avoiding dairy as well as meat.[7] It is also one of the reasons cited by some vegans. into several chemicals including casomorphine. a substance that breaks down. The U. Obesity Under certain scientifically controlled dietery studies.[8] Lactose Cheese is often avoided by those who are lactose intolerant. controversial.Controversy Opiate Cheese is produced with casein.[9] Some people suffer reactions to amines found in cheese. and blood pressure elevations. itself. to a lesser extent. . rashes. when digested by humans. salmonellosis and tuberculosis". other dairy products are) therefore suspected by some to play a role in behavioral disorders among children.[6] Some even go so far as to promote casein-free diets for everyone. Emmental and Sbrinz.

Usually this is done by acidifying the milk and adding rennet. The acidification is accomplished directly by the addition of an acid like vinegar in a few cases (paneer. Some hard cheeses are then heated to temperatures in the range of 35°C–55°C (100°F– 130°F).[13] Making cheese Curdling The only strictly required step in making any sort of cheese is separating the milk into solid curds and liquid whey. longer-aged varieties. Some soft cheeses are now essentially complete: they are drained. or Streptococci families. These starter bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. the curd is cut into small cubes. At this point. affecting both the bacterial culture and the milk chemistry. larger. This forces more whey from the cut curd. It also changes the taste of the finished cheese. Lactobacilli. softer. due to the listeria risk to the unborn baby. Most cheeses are made with starter bacteria from the Lactococci.S.Pregnant women may face an additional risk from cheese. The same bacteria (and the enzymes they produce) also play a large role in the eventual flavor of aged cheeses. queso fresco). In general. Some fresh cheeses are curdled only by acidity. Cheeses that are . It also allows curdling at a lower acidity—important because flavor-making bacteria are inhibited in high-acidity environments. and packaged. the U. fresher cheeses are curdled with a greater proportion of acid to rennet than harder. Centers for Disease Control has warned pregnant women against eating soft-ripened cheeses and blue-veined cheeses. Swiss starter cultures also include Propionibacter shermani. smaller. Rennet sets the cheese into a strong and rubbery gel compared to the fragile curds produced by acidic coagulation alone. This allows water to drain from the individual pieces of curd. giving Swiss cheese or Emmental its holes. salted. the cheese has set into a very moist gel. the as-yet-undrained curd is broken up by rotating mixers. which produces carbon dioxide gas bubbles during aging. but usually starter bacteria are employed instead. For most of the rest. Curd processing During industrial production of Emmental cheese. but most cheeses also use rennet.

a French cheese with a white Penicillium mold rind. Most cheeses have the salt mixed directly into the curds. These qualities are sometimes enjoyed—cheese curds are eaten on their own— but usually cheeses are left to rest under carefully controlled conditions. from the French. Cheddaring: (Cheddar. Salt has a number of roles in cheese besides adding a salty flavor. other English cheeses) The cut curd is repeatedly piled up. and firms up a cheese’s texture in an interaction with its proteins. The curd is also mixed (or milled) for a long period of time. Gouda. microbes and enzymes transform its texture and intensify its flavor. Colby) The curd is washed in warm water. . and fatty acids. rubbery in texture. The pressure drives out moisture — the molds are designed to allow water to escape — and unifies the curds into a single solid body. This aging period (also called ripening.heated to the higher temperatures are usually made with thermophilic starter bacteria which survive this step—either lactobacilli or streptococci. It preserves cheese from spoiling. taking the sharp edges off the cut curd pieces and influencing the final product's texture. As a cheese ages. The harder the cheese. draws moisture from the curd. or. affinage) can last from a few days to several years. A number of other techniques can be employed to influence the cheese's final texture and flavor. amines. developing a stringy. Washing: (Edam. for harder varieties. lowering its acidity and making for a milder-tasting cheese. Vacherin du Haut-Doubs cheese. fibrous body. Provolone) The curd is stretched and kneaded in hot water. This transformation is largely a result of the breakdown of casein proteins and milkfat into a complex mix of amino acids. Aging A newborn cheese is usually salty yet bland in flavor and. Most cheeses achieve their final shape when the curds are pressed into a mold or form. Some cheeses are salted from the outside with dry salt or brine washes. pushing more moisture away. the more pressure is applied. Some examples: • • • Stretching: (Mozzarella.

More often today. glaucum ) grow in the small fissures in the cheese. to 26–32°C (80–90°F).[15] Acid-set cheeses. Flavor and odor compounds are less easily liberated when cold. and its protein structure is stiff as well. prepared cultures are used. have a protein structure that remains intact at high temperatures. Cheeses may be smoked during aging to produce smoked cheeses. Rennet-curdled cheeses have a gel-like protein matrix that is broken down by heat. When enough protein bonds are broken. it is widely advised that cheeses be allowed to warm up to room temperature before eating.Some cheeses have additional bacteria or molds intentionally introduced to them before or during aging. the cheese itself turns from a solid to a viscous liquid. with wine providing the acidity. If the cheese is further warmed.[14] At higher temperatures. these microbes might be already present in the air of the aging room. Some cheeses are periodically washed in a saltwater brine during their ripening. the fat in a piece of cheese is as hard as unsoftened butter. whitecolored P. For improvements in flavor and texture. but the salty environment may nurture the growth of the Brevibacterium linens bacteria. When cooked. is a good example of . the fats will begin to to "sweat out" as they go beyond soft to fully liquid. This adds a smoky flavor and a brown or yellow color. giving more consistent results and putting fewer constraints on the environment where the cheese ages. including halloumi. they are simply allowed to settle and grow on the stored cheeses. For the blue cheeses (Roquefort. roqueforti or P. imparting a sharp flavor and aroma. During aging. Stilton. these cheeses just get firmer as water evaporates. candidum or P. melt smoothly. In traditional cheesemaking. high-moisture cheeses will melt at around 55°C (130°F). some whey cheeses and many varieties of fresh goat cheese. many tend to become stringy or suffer from a separation of their fats. like Camembert. Many of these can be coaxed into melting smoothly in the presence of acids or starch. camemberti. like raclette. Fondue. paneer. Eating and cooking At refrigerator temperatures. The same bacteria can also have some impact on cheeses that are simply ripened in humid conditions. while hard. Soft. which can impart a very pronounced odor (Limburger) and interesting flavor. Not only does the brine carry flavors into the cheese (it might be seasoned with spices or wine). The soft cheeses Brie and Camembert. most cheeses melt. among others. low-moisture cheeses such as Parmesan remain solid until they reach about 82°C (180°F). Gorgonzola). Large populations of these "smear bacteria" show up as a sticky orange-red layer on some brine-washed cheeses. get a surface growth of other Penicillium species. Some cheeses. The same molds are also grown on the surface of some aged goat cheeses. the blue molds (P. Penicillium mold is introduced to the curd before molding. The surface mold contributes to the interior texture and flavor of these small cheeses.

Even a melted cheese eventually turns solid again. It is valuable for its portability. The substantial storage life of cheese lets a cheesemaker sell when prices are high or when money is needed. The saying "you can't melt cheese twice" (meaning "some things can only be done once") refers to the fact that oils leach out during the first melting and are gone.. sprinkling atop items before baking them). Cheesemakers can place themselves near the center of a dairy region and benefit from fresher milk. . Cheese has served as a hedge against famine and is a good travel food. As its temperature continues to rise. only to discover the milk had been separated into curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach. around the same time that they developed yogurt. Credit for the discovery most likely goes to nomadic Turkic tribes in Central Asia. in dishes including pizza and Welsh rabbit. distinct local cheesemaking techniques emerged. History Variety of cheeses in a supermarket Cheese is an ancient food whose origins predate recorded history. and phosphorus. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheesemaking originated. Central Asia or the the Middle East. Origins The exact origins of cheesemaking are debated or unknown. This diversity reached its peak in the early industrial age and has declined somewhat since then due to mechanization and economic factors. and has a longer shelf life than the milk from which it is made. Cheese is lighter. and high content of fat. long life. either in Europe. but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times and had become a sophisticated enterprise by the time the Roman Empire came into being. lower milk prices. and lower shipping costs. more compact.a smoothly-melted cheese dish. or to people in the Middle East. Browned. and estimates range from around 8000 BCE (when sheep were domesticated) to around 3000 BCE. calcium. protein. after enough moisture is cooked off.[citation needed] As Rome's influence receded.g.[citation needed] A common tale about the discovery of cheese tells of an Arab nomad carrying milk across the desert in a container made from an animal's stomach. leaving the non-meltable solids behind.[16] Elastic stringiness is a quality that is sometimes enjoyed. partially-burned cheese has a particular distinct flavor of its own and is frequently used in cooking (e. cheese will brown and eventually burn.

Pliny preferred those of Bithynia in Asia Minor.. where cooler climates meant less aggressive salting was needed for preservation. with rennet introduced later— perhaps when someone noticed that cheese made in an animal stomach produced more solid and better-textured curds. Post-classical Europe . all in due course. and aging.Folktales aside. ” By Roman times. When he had so done he sat down and milked his ewes and goats. 97) to describing the diversity of cheeses enjoyed by Romans of the early Empire. cheese likely began as a way of preserving soured and curdled milk through pressing and salting. From the Middle East. pressing of the curd. Of cheeses from overseas. The earliest archaeological evidence of cheesemaking has been found in Egyptian tomb murals. A Ligurian cheese was noted for being made mostly from sheep's milk. a crumbly. but he was out shepherding. With moderate salt and acidity. Homer's Odyssey (8th century BCE) describes the Cyclops making and storing sheep's and goats' milk cheese. salting. cheese was an everyday food and cheesemaking a mature art. Cheeses of the Alps and Apennines were as remarkable for their variety then as now. From Samuel Butler's translation: “ We soon reached his cave. similar in texture to rustic cottage cheese or feta. Goats' milk cheese was a recent taste in Rome. He curdled half the milk and set it aside in wicker strainers. basic cheesemaking found its way into Europe.[citation needed] The earliest cheeses would likely have been quite sour and salty. not very different from what it is today. so we went inside and took stock of all that we could see. His cheese-racks were loaded with cheeses. He stated that the best cheeses came from the villages near Nîmes. Pliny's Natural History (77 CE) devotes a chapter (XI. which are what give aged cheeses their pronounced and interesting flavors.. and then let each of them have her own young. and some cheeses produced nearby were stated to weigh as much as a thousand pounds each. Ancient Greece and Rome Ancient Greek mythology credited Aristaeus with the discovery of cheese. but did not keep long and had to be eaten fresh. improved over the "medicinal taste" of Gaul's similar cheeses by smoking. flavorful Greek cheese. Columella's De Re Rustica (circa 65 CE) details a cheesemaking process involving rennet coagulation. and he had more lambs and kids than his pens could hold. dating to about 2300 BCE. the cheese became a suitable environment for a variety of beneficial microbes and molds.

Parmesan in 1597. But with the spread. Although some people assumed that this was a serious belief in the era before space exploration. uninvented in the pre-Columbian Americas. France and Italy are the nations with the most diversity in locally made cheeses— today with approximately 400 each. cheese was nearly unheard of in oriental cultures. As Rome declined and long-distance trade collapsed. but to being new or unaged. John Heywood wrote in Proverbes that "the moon is made of a greene cheese. . Many of the cheeses we know best today were first recorded in the late Middle Ages or after— cheeses like cheddar around 1500 CE. cheese in Europe diversified further. (A French proverb holds there is a different French cheese for every day of the year. as many now think. and Camembert in 1791. it is more likely that Heywood was indulging in nonsense. mainly being widespread and popular only in Europe and areas influenced strongly by its cultures. and Charles de Gaulle once asked "how can you govern a country in which there are 246 kinds of cheese?"[17]) Still.[18] In 1546.)[19] Variations on this sentiment were long repeated. and introduced cheesemaking to areas without a previous history of it. cheese has gradually become known and increasingly popular worldwide. Modern era Until its modern spread along with European culture. and later of Euro-American culture and food. Gouda in 1697. first of European imperialism.Cheese. with various locales developing their own distinctive cheesemaking traditions and products. though still rarely considered a part of local ethnic cuisine." (Greene refers here not to the color. the advancement of the cheese art in Europe was slow during the centuries after Rome's fall. Tacuinum sanitatis Casanatensis (XIV century) Rome spread a uniform set of cheesemaking techniques throughout much of Europe. and of only limited use in sub-mediterranean Africa.

factory-made or not. Factory-made cheese overtook traditional cheesemaking in the World War II era. bacteria in cheesemaking had come from the environment or from recycling an earlier batch's whey. over 18 million metric tons of cheese were produced worldwide in 2004. who in 1851 started making cheese in an assembly-line fashion using the milk from neighboring farms. accounting for 30 percent of world production. cocoa beans and tobacco combined. cheese is a major agricultural product. The 1860s saw the beginnings of mass-produced rennet.000 Metric Tons)[21] United States Germany 4. and factories have been the source of most cheese in America and Europe ever since.St.[20] World production and consumption Worldwide. and by the turn of the century scientists were producing pure microbial cultures. Within decades hundreds of such dairy associations existed.929 . the pure cultures meant a more standardized cheese could be produced. New York.327 1. but it was in the United States where large-scale production first found real success. Before then. Today. Top Cheese Producers . The largest producer of cheese is the United States.2004 (1. followed by Germany and France. Americans buy more processed cheese than "real". Pat Goat's Milk Cheese The first factory for the industrial production of cheese opened in Switzerland in 1815. This is more than the yearly production of coffee beans. tea leaves. According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Credit usually goes to Jesse Williams. a dairy farmer from Rome.

441 2. Top Cheese Exporters (Whole Cow Milk only) . is France. only Ireland. by monetary value.973 2. as most of its production is for the domestic market.416.102 672 535 470 450 373 370 The biggest exporter of cheese. the biggest world producer of cheese. Among the top ten exporters.2004 (value in '000 US $)[23] France Germany Netherlands 2. is exported. and 65 percent of their cheese production is exported. 90 percent.658. The United States.France Italy Netherlands Poland Brazil Egypt Australia Argentina 1. is a marginal exporter.099. New Zealand. the second. 72 percent.353 .[22] Only 30 percent of French production. the Netherlands and Australia have a cheese production that is mainly export oriented: respectively 95 percent. Germany (although it is first by quantity). the world's largest exporter.827 1.

3 24 22.761 643.9 Switzerland 20.[24] Top Cheese Consumers .575 631.590 445.122.2003 (kilograms per person per year)[25] Greece France Italy 27.and third-largest importers.Italy 1.963 567.253.240 374.6 . UK and Italy are the second.156 Germany is the largest importer of cheese.580 Denmark Australia New Zealand Belgium Ireland United Kingdom 1.

In the U.3 kg eaten by the average Greek.9 Greece is the world's largest (per capita) consumer of cheese. Yunnan cheese is produced by several ethnic minority groups in the Yunnan province of China by mixing water buffalo milk and rice vinegar. with annual sales more than doubling from 1996 to 2003 (to a still small 30 million U.Germany Netherlands Austria Sweden 20. . Emmental (used mainly as a cooking ingredient) and Camembert are the most common cheeses in France[26] Italy is the third biggest consumer by person with 22. ema datsi. the consumption of cheese is quickly increasing and has nearly tripled between 1970 and 2003.9 kg.) France is the second biggest consumer of cheese. and cheese is used in India.9 19.2 19.S. (Feta accounts for three-quarters of this consumption. as dairy products in general are rare. Fior di latte (commonly known as mozzarella) is America's favorite cheese and accounts for nearly a third of its consumption.[28] Certain kinds of Chinese preserved bean curd are sometimes misleadingly referred to in English as "Chinese cheese".S. mainly due to it being one of the main ingredients of pizza.. the national dish of Bhutan. Cheese made from yaks' (chhurpi) or mares' milk is common on the Asian steppes. dollars a year). where paneer curries are popular. with 27. East Asian sentiment against cheese is not universal. in 2003. However. The consumption per person has reached.[27] Cultural attitudes A cheese seller in a French market Cheese is rarely found in East Asian dishes. 14. due to their texture and strong flavor.1 kg (31 pounds). is made from homemade cheese and hot peppers.5 17. Cheese consumption is increasing in China. with 24 kg by inhabitant.

and do not consider it to ever violate kosher law. unpalatable. Portuguese queijo. Similar words are shared by other West Germanic languages — Frisian tsiis. This whole group of words is probably derived from the proto-Indo-European root *kwat-. Vegans and other dairy-avoiding vegetarians do not eat real cheese at all. but some vegetable-based substitute cheeses (usually soy-and almond-based) are available. Many less-orthodox Jews also believe that rennet undergoes enough processing to change its nature entirely. cheap. Old High German chāsi — all of which probably come from the reconstructed West-Germanic root *kasjus. Both faiths allow cheese made with vegetable-based rennet or with rennet made from animals that were processed in a kosher or halal manner. or "molded cheese". German Käse. McGee notes "An aversion to the odor of decay has the obvious biological value of steering us away from possible food poisoning. When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries' supplies. a new word started to be used: formaticum. One can also be "cheesed off"— unhappy or annoyed. so it's no wonder that an animal food that gives off whiffs of shoes and soil and the stable takes some getting used to. The Latin word caseus — from which are derived the Spanish queso. In modern English slang. Head cheese uses the word in this sense. Food-science writer Harold McGee proposes that cheese is such an acquired taste because it is produced through a process of controlled spoilage and many of the odor and flavor molecules in an aged cheese are the same found in rotten foods. Even in cultures with long cheese traditions. Italian formaggio. Dutch kaas. something "cheesy" is kitsch. or of poor quality. which in turn is an early borrowing from Latin. It is from this word that we get the French fromage. the word cheese has been chese (in Middle English) and cīese or cēse (in Old English).) As cheese is a dairy food under kosher rules it cannot be eaten in the same meal with any meat. which means "to ferment. from caseus formatus. Cheese itself is occasionally employed in a sense that means "molded" or "formed". Such negative connotations might derive from a ripe cheese's sometimes-unpleasant odor. Most widely available vegetarian cheeses are made using rennet produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei. Almost . inauthentic. Malay/Indonesian Language keju (a borrowing from the Portuguese word queijo). or disgusting. Many vegetarians avoid any cheese made from animal-based rennet. become sour". it is not unusual to find people who perceive cheese — especially pungent-smelling or mold-bearing varieties such as Limburger or Roquefort — as unappetizing.Strict followers of the dietary laws of Judaism and Islam must avoid cheeses made with rennet from animals not slaughtered in a manner adhering to kosher or halal[29] laws. (See Cheese and kashrut. Catalan formatge. Breton fourmaj and Provençal furmo."[30] Cheese in language Throughout the history of the English language. Romanian caş and Italian cacio — and the Celtic root which gives the Irish cáis and the Welsh caws are also related.

. have been called cheeseheads. A more upbeat slang use is seen in "the big cheese". the "big shot" or "head honcho". This use of the word probably derived not from the word cheese. a long vowel which requires the lips to be stretched in the appearance of a smile. meaning a thing. and the term "cheesy feet" to mean feet which smell.[32] People from Wisconsin and the Netherlands. Subjects of photographs are often encouraged to "say cheese!".[31] A more whimsical bit of American and Canadian slang refers to school buses as "cheese wagons". but from the Persian or Hindi word chiz. an expression referring to the most important person in a group. a reference to school bus yellow.certainly the odor explains the use of "cutting the cheese" as a euphemism for flatulence. both centers of cheese production. This nickname has been embraced by Wisconsin sports fans — especially fans of the Green Bay Packers or Wisconsin Badgers — who are now seen in the stands sporting plastic or foam hats in the shape of giant cheese wedges. as the word "cheese" contains the phoneme /i/.

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