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The Market for Gas Turbine

Electrical Power Generation

Product Code #F646

A Special Focused Market Segment Analysis by:

Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Analysis 1
The Market for Gas Turbine
Electrical Power Generation
Table of Contents
Executive Summary .................................................................................................................................................2
Format and Methodology........................................................................................................................................4
Trends and Competitive Environment ................................................................................................................6
Manufacturers Review.............................................................................................................................................7
Market Statistics .....................................................................................................................................................15
Figure 1 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Power Class Unit Comparison 2009 - 2018 (Bar Graph).........................................................16
Figure 2 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Power Class Unit Comparison 2009 - 2018 (Pie Chart) ..........................................................16
Figure 3 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Power Class Value Comparison 2009 - 2018 (Bar Graph) ......................................................17
Figure 4 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Power Class Value Comparison 2009 - 2018 (Pie Chart) ........................................................17
Table 1 - The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Unit Production by Headquarters/Company/Program 2009 - 2018 ................................................20
Table 2 - The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Value Statistics by Headquarters/Company/Program 2009 - 2018 .................................................27
Figure 5 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Unit Production 2009 - 2018 (Bar Graph) ...............................................................................34
Figure 6 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Value of Production 2009 - 2018 (Bar Graph).........................................................................34
Table 3 - The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Unit Production % Market Share by Headquarters/Company 2009 - 2018 ....................................35
Table 4 - The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Value Statistics % Market Share by Headquarters/Company 2009 - 2018 .....................................37
Figure 7 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Unit Production % Market Share by Headquarters 2009 - 2018 (Pie Chart) ...........................39
Figure 8 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Value Statistics % Market Share by Headquarters 2009 - 2018 (Pie Chart)............................39
Conclusion ...............................................................................................................................................................40
* * *

©2009 September 2009

Product Code F646 The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation

The following reports are included in this section: (Note: a single report may cover several programs.)
Heavy Gas Turbines (11,185 kW and Larger)
Alstom GT 8/11/13
Alstom GT24/GT26
GE LM1600
GE LM2500
GE LM6000
GE Model 5000
GE Model 6000
GE Model 7000
GE Model 9000
General Electric GE-10
Hitachi H-25
Kawasaki L20A
Mitsubishi MF-111
Pratt & Whitney Power Systems FT8
Rolls-Royce Industrial Avon
Rolls-Royce Industrial RB211
Rolls-Royce Industrial Spey
Rolls-Royce Industrial Trent
Siemens SGT-400
Siemens SGT-500
Siemens SGT-600/700
Siemens SGT-800
Siemens SGT5-2000/3000/4000
Siemens Westinghouse SGT6-3000/5000/6000
Solar Titan
Heavy Industrial & Marine (I&M) Gas Turbines: Design and Development

Light Gas Turbines (Up to 11,185 kW)

Daihatsu DT Series
Dresser-Rand KG2
General Electric GE-5
Kawasaki M1A/M1T Series
Kawasaki M7A
Kawasaki S1/S2 Series
MAN TURBO THM 1200/1300
Mitsui SB5
Optimal Radial Turbine OP16
Pratt & Whitney Power Systems ST6
Pratt & Whitney Power Systems ST18/ST40
Rolls-Royce 501-K
Siemens SGT-100

©2009 September 2009

Product Code F646 The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation

Siemens SGT-200
Siemens SGT-300
Solar Centaur/Taurus
Solar Mars
Solar Saturn
Turbomeca Makila TI
Vericor ASE8
Vericor TF/ASE 40/50
Light Industrial & Marine (I&M) Gas Turbines: Design and Development

©2009 September 2009

Product Code F646 The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation

One of the beauties of gas turbine machines is their "relocation" of harmful emissions, but we believe they
extreme flexibility. Schools, civic centers and shopping will be abundant from about 2014. Wind power, while
malls are good applications for 200-kilowatt units; commercially available, is not available everywhere; its
entire cities can be powered by 200-megawatt units. overall efficiency is about 50 percent, and it is
Heat recovery units add the ability to cooperate with expensive in the near term on a dollar-per-kilowatt-hour
industry and provide steam for power or processes, or basis. Nuclear power and hydroelectric plants are very
even supply a municipality with district heating/cooling. expensive and require a long period of hearings,
followed by attempts to obtain financing and approvals,
Many lobbies and special interests proclaim dubious
and finally, construction. Solar power is very appealing,
facts, incomplete pictures and questionable statistics in
but shares the drawbacks of wind power – it is not
an attempt to shape public policy. It is time to develop a
available everywhere, electrical power storage
comprehensive energy policy that strikes a balance,
technology is immature and cannot handle the capacity,
moving toward renewable and sustainable goals without
and it, too, is expensive on a dollar-per-kilowatt-hour
hobbling the horsepower of economic and technological
The viable alternatives are few. Above the level of
No solitary source will meet all of the world's power
microturbines, whose efficiencies range from
requirements, but gas turbines are increasingly being
20-28 percent, are what we consider to be true gas
adapted to many schemes to improve the efficiency and
turbine machines that range in power output from
reliability of power projects. Renewable fuels show
200-250 kW at the low end to the super-high-power
promise, as well as synthetic fuels from coal and
machines of 350+ MW. Today, gas turbine machines
biomass; careful consideration of the energy demand for
have simple-cycle efficiencies of at least 35 percent,
energy investment is required. It makes no sense to
with some approaching 45 percent, while some are
process materials through so many steps that it costs
advertised as already having a 60 percent efficiency in
more to make them than any value you will ever get out
combined-cycle mode.
of them. With the energy demand projected in the next
decade, there will be room for unprecedented What does past performance predict? While gas turbine
development in all sectors and regions. machines continued to be ordered and fabricated for
electrical generation for their usual end uses (continuous
When the need becomes critical, new electrical power
duty, standby duty, and peaking duty), the lower-
generation capacity can come from several sources:
powered gas turbine machines, those up to 3.5-4 MW,
fossil-fuel-burning machines such as gas turbines
have traditionally been employed in standby duty. As
(including microturbine machines of under 250 kW) and
we move up the power spectrum, the normal-use shift
the new wave of gas engines and diesels; hydroelectric,
toward continuous duty becomes more noticeable at the
nuclear, solar, and wind power; waste-to-energy plants
power level of 20-30 MW. At 120-125 MW and larger,
(which burn paper/wood, scrap, food waste, and
virtually all gas turbine machines have been/should be
bagasse); and exotic means such as geothermal energy,
ordered for use in continuous generation duty.
ocean currents, and fuel cells.
Given the current need for new baseload capacity, as
One source of electrical power, which many dismiss for
well as for power plant capacity additions, Forecast
initially appearing to be fiscally unproductive, is
International believes that the worldwide demand for
conservation. Though it may slow the demand for new
the latest technology gas turbine-based power plants
machine installations, there is a positive side to
will result in modest production of the super-large gas
concerted conservation efforts in established markets.
turbine machines, those of 180 MW and larger.
First, showing concern for overall efficiency, and not
Production of those machines could grow from 48
simply immediate profit, helps build credibility with the
machines in 2003 to 150-160 machines per year in the
customer. While many original equipment
period 2011-2014. Those machines can be expected to
manufacturers (OEMs) are entering into long-term
be procured by China, North Korea, Vietnam,
operations and maintenance contracts, they must be
Indonesia, Thailand, Brazil, and the Middle East.
realizing that steady, baseloaded machines and
unencumbered transmission and distribution lines are With combined-cycle installations touching the
favorable in terms of maintenance costs and overall 60 percent mark for net plant efficiency ratings, we do
financial performance. not believe that gas turbine machines will continue to
Fuel cells are still considered to be in the demonstration
stage despite their immense appeal stemming from their

Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast

GE Model 7000

Outlook Unit Production Forecast

 Production activity currently increasing, as power 100


installers are maintaining a cautious order pattern 80


 STAG-cogen packages are particularly attractive for U.S. 60

customers 50


 Model 7FB and 7H production to rise noticeably in the 30


decade 10


7FA projected to remain the most popular model in the 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Units 43 61 75 87 89 92 88 90 85 83
Frame 7 family, especially in the U.S.

Description. Single-shaft, axial-flow, heavy-duty, Price Range. The prices (in 2008 U.S. dollars) of
industrial-design 60-Hz gas turbine machine with a Frame 7 machines are as follows:
power output (in simple-cycle operation) in the range of
Simple-Cycle Combined-Cycle
85 to 172 MW, depending on model. Model Plant Price Plant Price
Sponsor. The Model 7000 was privately developed Model 7001EA $18 -$20 million $76-$78 million
by the prime manufacturer. Model 7001FA $30 -$32 million $131-$133 million
Model 7001FB $34 -$36 million $138-$140 million
Power Class. The approximate power outputs of the Model 7001H – $176-$178 million
current models in the Frame 7 series (for electrical
generation) are as follows: For electrical generation (simple-cycle), the genset price
covers a single-fuel skid-mounted gas turbine, electric
Simple- Cycle Combined-Cycle generator, air intake with basic filter and silencer,
Model Output Output
exhaust stack, basic starter and controls, and
Model 7001EA 85.4 MW 130.2 MW
Model 7001FA 171.7 MW 262.6 MW conventional combustion system.
Model 7001FB 184.4 MW 280.3 MW For mechanical drive, the prices cover a gas-fired gas
Model 7001H – 400.0 MW turbine (without driven equipment) with gearbox, skid,
enclosure, inlet and exhaust ducts and exhaust silencer;
For the Frame 7EA, GE Energy performance parameters
basic turbine controls; fire protection; starting systems;
list a mechanical drive model (see Technical Data
and conventional combustion system.
section, Performance subsection, for unit outputs for
electrical generation and mechanical drive). For combined-cycle plants, the prices cover a basic gas-
fired combined-cycle plant having a gas turbine (usually
Status. In production.
a DLN-equipped machine), unfired multi-pressure heat
Total Produced. At the start of 2008, about 1,450 recovery steam generator (HRSG) without bypass stack,
GE Energy Frame 7 machines of all current production multi-pressure condensing steam turbine, electric
models had been built by GE and its allied firms. generator, step-up transformer, water-cooled heat
rejection equipment, standard controls, starting system,
Application. Utility and industrial power generation and plant auxiliaries.
installations, including cogeneration and combined-
cycle plants and mechanical load drive duty. The Frame 7EA’s 2008 package price for mechanical
drive duty is estimated at $15.5-$16.5 million.

20 08 December 2008
Page 2 Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast

GE Model 7000

Competition. The 60-Hz GE Energy Frame 7 60-Hz Frame 7H in combined-cycle duty competes
machine faces competition from gas turbine machines against packages from Alstom, Mitsubishi and Siemens
built by Alstom, Mitsubishi, and Siemens Westing- Westinghouse W501F.
house. At the high end of the power spectrum, the

GE Energy, 4200 Wildwood Pkwy, Atlanta, GA 30339 United States,
Tel: + 1 (770) 859-6000, Fax: + 1 (678) 844-6690, Prime

Hitachi Ltd, 6-6 Marunouchi 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101-8280 Japan,
Tel: + 81 3 3258 1111, Fax: + 81 3 3258 2507, Licensee

Toshiba Corp, 1-1, Shibaura, 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8001 Japan,
Tel: + 81 3 3457 4511, Fax: + 81 3 34556 1631, Licensee

Howmet Castings, Corporate, 145 Price Rd, Winsted Industrial Park, Winsted, CT 06098 United
Machining States, Tel: + 1 (860) 379-3314, Fax: + 1 (860) 379-4239 (Blade, Stage 1)

Mee Industries Inc, 204 West Pomona Ave, Monrovia, CA 91016 United States,
Tel: + 1 (626) 359-4550, Fax: + 1 (626) 359-4660 (Gas Turbine Cooling Fog System)

Power Systems Manufacturing, 1440 W Indiantown Rd, Suite 200, Jupiter, FL 33458-7925
LLC United States, Tel: + 1 (561) 354-1100, Fax: + 1 (561) 354-1199 (Low Emission
Combustion Liner)

Powmat Ltd, Northway 10 Technical Bldg, Ballston Lake, NY 12019 United
States, Tel: + 1 (518) 877-8518, Fax: + 1 (518) 877-8523 (Soft Clutch)
Sermatech Power Solutions, 155 S Limerick Rd, Limerick, PA 19468-1699 United States,
Tel: + 1 (610) 948-5100, Fax: + 1 (610) 948-1712, Email: (TBC
Combustor Coating)

Vogt Power International Inc, 1000 W Ormsby Ave & 10th St, PO Box 1918, Louisville,
KY 40201-1918 United States, Tel: + 1 (502) 634-1511, Fax: + 1 (502) 637-7344 (HRSG
- Virginia Power/Chesterfield 7 & 8)

Comprehensive information on Contractors can be found in Forecast International’s “International Contractors” series. For a detailed description,
go to (see Products & Samples/Governments & Industries) or call + 1 (203) 426-0800.
Contractors are invited to submit updated information to Editor, International Contractors, Forecast International, 22 Commerce Road, Newtown,
CT 06470, USA;

Technical Data
Design Features iron. Blades and stator vanes are of 12 percent Cr steel
Intake. Air enters radially through an intake plenum and discs are of Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel. MS7001FA is an
and is turned 90 degrees to enter the compressor. 18-stage axial unit, with a 15.5:1 compression ratio and
exhaust flow of 432 kg/sec. Stages 2-17 are scaled up
Compressor. A 17-stage, axial-flow compressor
from the MS7001E. Stage 1 and a zero stage (borrowed
provides a pressure ratio of 12.5:1 (7EA) at an exhaust
from GE aero engine designs) have been redesigned for
flow of 298 kg/sec. Inlet guide vanes are provided
operation in transonic flow. The MS7001F has
forward of stage one, with no variable stages thereafter.
extraction provisions at Stage 13.
Stators are integral with the compressor casing, which is
horizontally split. Rotors are built up from forged discs, The MS7001EC compressor has 18 stages and a
which are fastened with through-bolts. Blades are of pressure ratio of 14.2:1. Airflow is 769 lb/sec (349 kg/
wide chord design. Rotor speed is 3,600 rpm. sec). High-strength, corrosion-resistant C450 stainless
Compressor casing is A46 cast iron or A395 ductile cast steel blading is used for inlet guide vanes (IGVs) and

December 2008
Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast Page 3

GE Model 7000

the first four stages. Stages 4-8 use AISI 403+Cb Udimet 500. Stage 1 vanes are FSX414 and discs and
stainless steel with GECC-1 coating; the remaining shafts are of Cr-Mo-V steel. All three vane stages of the
blading is of uncoated AISI 403+Cb alloy. Stator 17 MS7001F are air-cooled. Stages 2-3 have Z tip shrouds.
and EGV 1-2 are of cast IN718. Nozzles on Stages 2-3 are of GTD-222. All three
F blade stages are coated. Stage 1 blades have a
Combustor. Cannular, reverse-flow with
plasma-spray coating of CoCrAlY; Stage 2 components
10 combustors, fuel nozzles and two igniters. Fuel
are coated with CoCrY; Stage 3 airfoils have a high-Cr
nozzles are air atomizing for multi-fuel capability. All
coating applied using the pack cementation process.
chambers are interconnected by flame tubes. Liner and
transition ducts are of Hastelloy X, with 7F also using Stage 3 of the MS7001EC is uncooled. All turbine
HS-188 in the lower portion. T f is approximately buckets are investment cast GTD 111; Stage 1 is DS,
2,012°F (1,100°C). MS7001F has 14 cannular while Stages 2-3 are equiaxed.
reverse-flow combustors, each 25 inches (63.5mm)
Control System. Control and protection functions for
shorter than on the MS7001E. Each of the 14
automatic start, loading, shutdown, and other phases of
combustors is fitted with six fuel nozzles. The
operation are handled by the GE triple-redundant
combustion liners and new transition piece impingement
SpeedTronic™ Mark V control system. The
sleeves are coated with a ceramic thermal barrier for
microcomputer and microprocessor are contained in a
elevated temperatures. MS7001F T f is approximately
separate control console.
2,300°F (1,260°C).
Accessories. Accessory equipment is located forward
MS7001EC has five circumferentially arranged fuel
of the intake plenum and driven by an extension of the
forward compressor shaft. Starting: diesel engine with a
Turbine. A three-stage, axial-flow turbine with cooled torque converter electric motor; steam or expansion
Stage 1-2 blades and vanes drives the machine at its turbine. The 7E/F and 7F are modular in design.
design speed. Turbine casing is made of A395 ductile
Bearings. The machine is mounted on five bearings:
cast iron; Stage 1-2 blades are of GTD-111. Stage 1
one tilting and two elliptical pad journal bearings, and
blades of F are DS-cast and use the GE Evendale-
two tilting pad thrust bearings (active and inactive).
developed cooling technique. Stage 3 blades are of

Dimensions. The approximate dimensions and weights of the Frame 7EA (PG7121(EA)) and Frame 7FA
(PG7121(FA)) in a packaged power plant configuration (including inlet and exhaust losses and shaft-driven
equipment) are as follows:
Metric Units English Units
Frame 7EA (PG7121(EA))
Length 40.23 m 132 ft
Width 21.64 m 71 ft
Height, with exhaust 9.45 m 31 ft
Weight, dry, with accessories 485 tonnes 535 tons

Frame 7FA (PG7121(FA))

Length 54.86 m 180 ft
Width 22.86 m 75 ft
Height, with exhaust 9.45 m 31 ft
Weight, dry, with accessories 745 tonnes 821 tons

Performance. The performance parameters of the MS7001 models for electrical generation (generator drive) are
as follows (ISO, dry, natural gas fuel, standard inlet/exhaust pressure drops):
MS7001EA MS7001FA
Output 85.4 MW 171.7 MW
Heat Rate (LHV) 10,991 kJ/kWh 9,873 kJ/kWh
Pressure Ratio 12.6:1 16.0:1
Mass Flow 292 kg/sec 432 kg/sec
Exhaust Temperature 537°C 601°C
Model Designation PG7121EA PG7241FA

20 08 December 2008
Page 4 Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast

GE Model 7000


MS7001EA MS7001FA MS7001FB MS7001H
Output 130.2 MW 262.6 MW 280.3 MW 400.0 MW
Heat Rate (LHV) 7,175 kJ/kWh 6,424 kJ/kWh 6,276 kJ/kWh 6,000 kJ/kWh
Net Plant Efficiency 50.2% 56.0% 57.3% 60.0%
GT Number & Type 1x MS7001EA 1x MS7001FA 1x MS7001FB 1x MS7001H

The performance parameters of the MS7001EA model for mechanical load drive applications are as follows (ISO
conditions, natural gas fuel):
English Units Metric Units
Output 115,630 shp 86.2 MW
Heat Rate (LHV) 9,795 Btu/shp-hr 10,920 kJ/kWh
Pressure Ratio 11.9:1 11.9:1
Exhaust Flow 659 lb/sec 299 kg/sec
Exhaust Temperature 998°F 537°C
Model Designation M7121EA M7121EA

GE offers a range of gas turbines that can efficiently be integrated with IGCC plants. The power outputs of the
Frame 7 models for IGCC plant applications are as follows:
GT Model Syngas Power Rating IGCC Model Net Plant Output Power
7EA 90 MW (60 Hz) 107EA 130 MW (60 Hz)
7FA 197 MW (60 Hz) 107FA 280 MW (60 Hz)

Since the inception of the program, GE and its MS7001FA. The MS7001FA is a more powerful
associates/licensees have installed numerous MS7001 machine in the Model 7000 line; it has a simple-cycle
models, starting with the MS7001A rated at output rate of 171.7 MW and a simple-cycle-duty
approximately 48 MW. Major in-production or soon-to- efficiency rating of 36 percent.
be-available machine models include the following:
MS7001FB. The MS7001FB is one of the newer
MS7001EA. The MS7001EA is the lowest-power- machines in the Model 7000 line. While this model is
output production model in the Frame 7 series. It now available only for combined-cycle duty, we
currently has a generator drive output of 85.4 MW, and estimate that its simple-cycle output rate is 184.4 MW;
is listed at 115,630 shp (equivalent to 86.2 MW) for its output in combined-cycle operation is listed at
mechanical drive duty. 280.3 MW, with a net plant efficiency of 57.3 percent.
This model has a T f of 2,500°F (1,371ºC) and a mass
The 7EA for mechanical load drive duty is available as
flow of 441.3 kg/sec.
the MS7111EA at 109,370 shp at an efficiency rating of
32.7 percent, and as the MS7121EA at 115,630 shp at MS7001H. The 60-Hz MS7001H, introduced in 1995
an efficiency rating of 33.0 percent. The MS7111EA is along with the 50-Hz MS9001H, produces 400 MW in
priced at approximately $14.6 million, while the combined-cycle operation. Its net plant efficiency in
MS7121EA is priced at approximately $15.9 million that mode is 60 percent. This model has a maximum T f
(both in 2007 U.S. dollars). of 2,600°F (1,430°C).

Program Review
Background. The GE MS7001 first emerged on the arena. The MS7001 compressor is directly scaled from
drawing boards at GE’s Schenectady (New York) the MS5001 and features the same construction, with
facility in 1970. In designing the new MS7000, GE individual discs joined by through bolts and wide-chord
drew heavily on its experience with the earlier MS5001 stainless steel blades; the design makes use of a
and MS5002 single- and twin-shaft models. It designed precision-cast, long-shank air-cooled nozzle and Stage 1
the MS7001 to provide packaged power in the 60-Hz blades.

December 2008
Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast Page 5

GE Model 7000

The current Model 7000 machine design incorporates remained in production through 1977, when the current
improvements to the compressor, adds cooling to the design entered production.
Stage 2 turbine components, and utilizes new Stage 3
During the 1970s, the U.S. utility market was the target
turbine blades. GE has continued to refine the system
of the Model 7000 marketing effort. However, in 1973,
(at its division located in Evendale, Ohio), emphasizing
the first overseas sale by a manufacturing associate was
new high-temperature materials and using a modified
completed. Hitachi was the builder and, since that time,
combustion system that will increase life under
the Japanese affiliate of GE has sold at least 19 of the
water-injection conditions for NOx control.
heavy gas turbines. In addition, one of the newest
As is the case with all GE-designed power generating additions to the GE associate list, Marubeni Trading
systems, the Model 7000 is offered in single- or Corp, has sold six Frame 7 machines that were produced
multi-unit packaged power plants in both simple and by other members of the consortium.
combined cycle. The MS7001 forms the base of GE’s
Most of the Model 7000 sales have been for the PPP
combined-cycle plant designs, the S-107E (one gas
(Packaged Power Plant) series of prime movers. PPPs
turbine) and the S-207E (two machines). Also on offer
include the gas turbine-driven equipment, accessories,
is the S-107F, featuring one MS7001F machine. The
controls, enclosures, etc. They can be coupled into
combined-cycle plants are also referred to as STAG™
power blocks for increased flexibility and efficiency.
While the U.S. market has dominated the order book for
Frame 7 Update Program. GE is offering a Frame 7 this machine, recent projects in the Middle East, Asia,
update program to customers of the MS7001 machine. and South America have nudged the Model 7000 into
Under the program, pre-MS7001E models can be the export market.
updated to the MS7001E standard by re-engineering the
In 1982, GE and Toshiba began an association in the
machine’s hot path and incorporating new-technology
gas turbine field. In 1983, Toshiba USA bought five
parts from the 7E. The key component, as used in
MS7001Es for a combined-cycle plant, while Saudi
Chugach Electric’s Beluga #3 turbine-generator set, is
Consolidated Electric ordered two Packaged Power
the 7E Stage 1 turbine nozzle, which results in a
Plants for 1984 commercial startup. Finally, Trinidad
6 percent increase in the unit’s compressor pressure
and Tobago put two gensets into operation in 1985.
ratio and a 3 percent thermal efficiency improvement.
Three options are available in GE’s Frame 7 update MS7001 in Cogeneration. The big news recently
program. Option I utilizes new reduced camber high- has been in the cogeneration market. In 1983, the
flow inlet guide vanes and 7E Stage 1 buckets and U.S. Supreme Court upheld the 1978 PURPA
nozzles. Owing to increased efficiency, the actual regulations and, almost immediately, GE announced the
exhaust gas temperature (EGT) decreases under this formation of the Cogeneration Department and the huge
option. Chugach Electric decided on this option. partnership agreement with Big Three Industries. Big
Option II involves an increase in firing temperature to Three and GE own and operate the new cogeneration
keep EGTs at pre-update levels. This option is plant outside Houston, Texas. The multi-unit facility
attractive for units installed in heat-recovery generates power and steam for industry in the Houston
applications where EGT changes could affect area and sells excess power to Houston Power and
combined-cycle efficiency. Option III is intended to Light. Other major industrial plants in the area could
achieve maximum firing temperature (1,074°C) with the also use the GE power plants as industry seeks to
replacement of all hot gas path components with protect itself from the historical monopoly of the utility
Frame 7E parts. This option increases Frame 7 ratings industry.
to approximately 70-MW ISO conditions.
Among the more notable installations of the
In addition to uprating the Beluga #3 turbine, GE also GE MS7001 is the Taiwan Electric Power station,
increased the rating of the generator while upgrading the which has six GE gas turbines in two STAG 307E
generator field with Class F insulation and with systems. Together, they provide a thermal efficiency of
18 percent Mn and 18 percent Cr retaining rings. 45.3 percent on distillate and 44.8 percent on residual
Similar generator uprates are available for all Frame 7 fuel oil.
Uprated GE MS7001F Series. GE had long been
Early Sales of MS7001. In 1970, the first MS7001A working on a higher rated Model 7000. The new,
machine, rated at 48 MW, was installed at the Wading completely redesigned model, the MS7001F
River plant of the Long Island Lighting Co. The (Frame 7F), is ISO baseload rated at 150 MW, nearly
following year, 30 units were installed. Those first units 80 percent more powerful than the MS7001EA. The

20 08 December 2008
Page 6 Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast

GE Model 7000

new machine has a thermal efficiency of 34.5 percent no significant variations. Combustor liner temperatures
and a firing temperature of over 1,260°C. In August were also within acceptable limits.
1988, GE announced that it had increased the ratings of
In June 1988, GE announced that Potomac Electric
the Frame 7F machine, basing the new ratings on the
Power Co had ordered four MS7001F gas turbine
unit’s prototype test series results. The output was
generators for its power-generating plant in Dickerson,
raised from 141 to 150 MW, and the heat rate was
Maryland. The four machines were installed at the plant
decreased from 10,545 kJ/kWh to 10,425 kJ/kWh.
as simple-cycle units, providing 560 MW of power to
Pressure ratio, turbine speed, and firing temperature
meet the utility’s near-term summer peaking needs. In
remained the same. The improvements were made
the late 1990s, heat recovery equipment and steam
without a size or weight change.
turbine-generators were added to the gas turbines to
Perhaps the most striking difference is that the 7F is a meet the utility’s intermediate load requirements. In
cold-end drive machine. The switch to the front-end addition, provisions were made for the future utilization
drive, where the generator is connected to the turbine of coal as a baseload fuel through the addition of coal
shaft aft of the compressor, is in line with accepted gasification equipment.
practice with machines whose power output is 100 MW
In 1990, five 7EAs and four 7Fs were ordered by
or greater. This design permits the use of an axial
customers in the state of Florida. Florida Power Corp
exhaust, making an in-line plant arrangement possible.
ordered four 7EAs for its Debary site, the city of
For combined-cycle applications, this eliminates loss-
Lakeland ordered one 7EA for its Larsen site, and
inducing elbow sections upstream of the boiler. The
Florida Power & Light ordered four 7Fs for its Martin
7F’s combustor is designed to be compatible with a
3-4 site.
variety of fuels, including natural gas, fuel oil, and
gasified coal. Accessories are designed for separate For the most current power outputs and performance
mounting in any conventional power plant location. parameters, see the Performance section, above.
In combined-cycle installations, the steam and gas Frame 7 and PROGEN. The basic power design of
(STAG) systems featuring MS7001F machines are the Frame 7F is compatible with a concept GE calls
available in increments of 225 MW (gas turbine power Progressive Generation, or PROGEN, the staged
output plus steam turbine power output). construction of a power plant over a period of years
with operation in three modes: simple cycle, combined
Around the late 1980s, the Virginia Electric and Power
cycle, and integrated coal gasification.
Co (VEPCO), Richmond, Virginia, placed a Letter of
Intent with GE for the first 7F unit. The power Low NOx Work. GE, an early developer of dry low
company installed one new machine to replace two NOx (DLN) combustion systems, announced in
retired coal-fired steam sets. The first unit went November 1991 the commercial availability of
commercial in June 1990, and during the summer peak single-digit DLN combustors for its heavy-duty gas
it provided 600,000 kWh of power to VEPCO’s grid, turbine machines. While the DLN combustors are
with 200 starts; it accumulated 4,000 hours of operation available for new-production machines, they will
at a reliability rate of 99 percent. The first field become available for retrofit packages for older units at
inspection of the unit, performed shortly before the a later date.
4,000-hour mark, showed some unexpected hardware
distress. This was minor in nature, however, and the DLN systems meeting current emissions standards are
causes were quickly determined and design changes being shipped on Frame 6 and Frame 7EA machines;
implemented. advanced systems achieving emission of 9 ppm are
being shipped on E and F technology machines.
Emissions testing began with an O 2 traverse of the
exhaust, which showed a uniform distribution. NOx GE Offers MS7001EA Uprate Packages
emissions were below the detectable limit, set at 0.5 to GE Energy offers an uprate package for its MS7001EA
0.25 ppm. Visible emissions were negligible, and gas turbine that uses state-of-the-art components to
particulates were less than the guaranteed value for the enable firing temperatures to be increased. According
site. Proper measurement of unburned hydrocarbon to General Electric Power Systems, the improvements
during gas firing was not attainable due to a leaking gas can increase power output by up to 6 percent. GE offers
purge valve. (Laboratory data for natural gas, however, four uprate packages to accommodate the wide range of
show UHCs to be negligible until the firing temperature Frame 7 unit configurations: IGV Upgrade to
goes below 1,700°F [926°C], after which point they rise GTD-450-IGV, Turbine Section Upgrade, Compressor
markedly.) Dynamic pressure readings during dry firing Upgrade to EA Compressor, and Exhaust Isotherm
and with water injection fell within a broad band with

December 2008
Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast Page 7

GE Model 7000

Temperature Upgrade to 1,100°F (593°C). Since the cooling system in the gas turbine, which permits higher
uprate options will increase the T f and output of the firing temperatures while retaining combustion
unit, emissions will increase. As such, an evaluation of temperatures at levels consistent with low emissions.
whether to include an emissions abatement system Unlike aircraft engines, which only have air for cooling,
upgrade or retrofit may be required. a combined-cycle system has a ready steam supply.”
That steam is captured and used for cooling in a
Also being uprated are two 7EA gas turbines at Cogen
closed-loop system.
Technologies’ plant in Linden, New Jersey, and an
additional eight 7E machines located at the Kern River General Electric estimates that for a typical 480-MW
and Sycamore Cogen facilities in California. 7H-equipped combined-cycle plant, the period for
recovering an initial investment could be shortened by
MS7001EA for Mechanical Load Drive. GE Energy
20 percent compared to more conventional installations.
Frame 7/7E/7EA gas turbine machines had been ordered
for mechanical load drive duty; those machines are The G models no longer appear in the most current GE
produced by GE in the U.S. and GE Oil & Gas in Italy. Energy documentation.
While most 7EAs date from 1998, five earlier machines
7H Orders. Orders for the 7H have come from Sithe
were designated MS7001 or MS7001E. In 1993, three
Energies Inc for two units for an 800-MW power plant
Frame 7 machines were engineered by (then) Nuovo
to be located in the upstate region of New York, near
Pignone into mechanical drive machines for duty at an
the town of Scriba. The Sithe plant project was put on
LNG facility in Malaysia.
hold in May 2002.
The 7EA for mechanical load drive duty is available in
A second order was placed by Hydro Quebec for the
two models: as the MS7111EA at 109,370 shp, with an
800-MW Suroit facility in Beauharnois, Quebec,
efficiency of 32.7 percent and a heat rate of
Canada. That facility was placed on hold in February
7,790 Btu/shp-hr; and as the MS7121EA at
115,630 shp, with an efficiency of 33.0 percent and a
heat rate of 7,720 Btu/shp-hr. In November 2004, Calpine Corp signed a Letter of
Intent with GE Energy for the joint construction of a
The 7/7E/7EA has been installed for mechanical load
power plant based on the H System™. The new facility
drive duty in Australia, Canada, Egypt, Indonesia,
will be based on two GE 107H combined-cycle systems
Malaysia, Nigeria, Oman, and Qatar.
that will provide a total plant output of more than
MS7001G/H. At the Power-Gen Europe 1995 775 MW.
Conference and Exhibition in Amsterdam, GE Power
In February 2005, Calpine and GE Energy selected
Systems introduced the G and H series gas turbines.
Calpine’s Inland Empire Energy Center in Southern
While the G machines were said to be able to reach
California for the North American launch of GE’s
58 percent net thermal efficiency in combined-cycle
H System. The Inland Empire Energy Center is located
operation, the advanced H technology platform would
in the unincorporated community of Romoland in
have at least 60 percent net thermal efficiency. The rise
Riverside County, California. It is scheduled to be
from 55 percent to 60 percent is considered dramatic,
on-line by the summer of 2008, at which point energy
since an increase of a single percentage point of
officials have predicted energy supplies might not be
efficiency can reduce operating costs by $15 million to
sufficient to meet demand. The plant is currently in the
$20 million over the life of a typical gas-fired,
construction phase.
combined-cycle plant in the 400-500 MW range.
The GE Energy Model MS7001FB, rated at 280+ MW
G technology gas turbines were said at the time to be
for combined-cycle and about 185 MW for simple-cycle
planned for use in both simple-cycle and combined-
operation, offers customers increased efficiency and
cycle operation, while H technology machines would be
output, especially for use in combined-cycle operation.
offered solely for use in combined-cycle operation.
The STAG 107FB has a combined thermal efficiency of
According to the manufacturer, the H technology is “a
57.3 percent, which is about 1.3 percent greater than
platform of combined-cycle technology that integrates
that of the STAG 107FA. A STAG 107FB combined-
the gas turbine, steam turbine, and generator into a
cycle system generates a total of 280.3 MW, at just over
seamless system in which each component is optimized
57.3 percent efficiency.
for the highest level of performance. The centerpiece of
this new technology is an advanced closed-loop steam 7FB Orders. As of late October 2008, the Frame 7FB
had been ordered by the following firms:

20 08 December 2008
Page 8 Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast

GE Model 7000

Firm # Ordered States Frame 7 Production Locations. In the U.S., the

Calpine Corp 5 CA, NY, WI Frame 7 machines are produced in Greenville, South
Customer not 4 CA Carolina. In France, the machine is produced by GE in
identified Belfort.
LG&E Energy Corp 6 TX
Reliant Energy 6 MS, PA
Sithe Energies 18 NJ, NY, PA

Related News
First Two F Technology Gas Turbines Begin Operation in Saudi Arabia – In April 2006, GE announced
that two GE Frame 7FA gas turbines had started operating at the Uthmaniyah Cogeneration Plant in Saudi Arabia,
becoming the first F technology machines to enter service in the Kingdom.
The two gas turbines are among six F technology units GE has supplied for three cogeneration plants being built by
the Tihama Power Generation Co of Saudi Arabia. The largest independent power producer in Saudi Arabia,
Tihama Power is a joint venture between International Power of the U.K. and Saudi Oger of Saudi Arabia, an
affiliate of the Saudi Arabia Oil Co (Saudi Aramco).
All of the plants are located in Saudi Arabia’s eastern region. Saudi Aramco is supplying the natural gas for the
projects and is using the power and steam generated for its processing plants.
The 7FA gas turbines were manufactured at GE’s facility in Greenville, South Carolina. Installation at the
Uthmaniyah site began in April 2005. The major contractor for the project was Hyundai Heavy Industries of Ulsan,
Korea. (GE, 4/06)
Market Intelligence Service Subscribers: For additional news, go to the online E-Market Alert page located in the Intelligence Center at and click on the links to the products you subscribe to.

No U.S. government funding for the GE Frame 7 series of gas turbine machines has been identified.

Contracts/Orders & Options

Contractor ($ millions) Date/Description
Black & Veatch N/A Sep 2006 – Black & Veatch was awarded a contract to install two
150-MW Frame 7 turbines at Tampa Electric Co’s Polk Power Station to
provide power during times of peak customer electric demand.

The simple-cycle natural gas turbines will be Units 4 and 5 at the Polk
Power Station, about 40 miles east of Tampa, FL. The Polk power
station currently includes a 250-MW integrated coal gasification
combined-cycle (IGCC) plant, as well as two 150-MW gas peaking units.

Black & Veatch was to complete the installation of the two 150-MW gas
turbines in Feb 2007. The company previously was awarded contracts
for the disassembly and transport of the Polk Power Station’s gas
turbines, generators and associated equipment.

GE Oil & Gas N/A Jul 2006 – GE Oil & Gas won a contract to supply two Frame 7 gas
turbine-driven turbocompressor trains to Peru LNG SRL for a new gas
liquefaction plant in Pampa Melchorita, south of Lima, Peru. Each train
will have two centrifugal compressors.

December 2008
Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast Page 9

GE Model 7000

Contractor ($ millions) Date/Description
GE Energy N/A Jan 2005 – Nevada Power Co selected a GE gas turbine for the
expansion of the Harry Allen Generating Station, located 30 miles north
of Las Vegas. The GE Frame 7EA gas turbine, rated at 77 MW, entered
commercial service in May 2006.

The new GE gas turbine is used in peaking service, with natural gas as
the primary fuel. The machine utilizes GE’s latest DLN combustion
system, so NOx emissions are limited to 5 ppm. The air-cooled
generator for the project was manufactured in Austria.

GE Oil & Gas <$95 Oct 2004 – GE Oil & Gas was selected to supply major rotating
equipment for Train 5, the latest expansion of the RasGas (II) facility
owned by Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Co Ltd in Qatar. The
new LNG Train 5 was to be built adjacent to the existing LNG Train 3
that was completed in December 2003, and Train 4. GE Energy also
has supplied equipment for these two projects. The Train 5 project was
scheduled for completion by the end of 2006.

Under the contract, GE Energy’s oil and gas business was to provide
two Frame 7EA mechanical drive gas turbines, two Frame 6B gas
turbine generator packages, one Frame 5D residue gas compressor
package, and one Rotoflow Frame 60 turbo expander-compressor. All
the gas turbines were to be equipped with dry low NOx combustion
systems to meet the stringent NOx emissions levels now required in

The equipment was to be supplied through a joint venture including

Chiyoda Corp of Japan and Snamprogetti SpA of Italy, the latter of
which received the engineering, procurement and construction contract
for the plant.

Month Year Major Development
1967 Model 7000 granted design go-ahead
Aug 1969 First MS7001 prototype becomes operational
1970 First unit installed
1971 30 units installed
1973 First overseas sale of Frame 7 machine
Oct 1986 GE announces 7F model
1987 First 7EA installed
Aug 1988 GE announces the uprating of 7EA and 7F machines
Late 1988 First 7F shipped
Feb 1989 Duke Power agrees to take up to 16 7EAs
Jun 1991 GE announces 125-MW MS7001E/F machine
1993 MS7001E/F become available
Feb 1993 Hartwell Energy LP orders 7FA for simple-cycle peaking duty
2Q 1994 Hartwell Energy 7FA machines begin commercial operation
Late 1994 GEPS reports on MS7001EC machine
1994 MS7001EA uprate packages become available
1995 G and H models announced
Summer 1999 First 60-Hz version of H model combined-cycle machine sold
Nov 1999 MS7001FB introduced at Power-Gen
1Q 2000 First 7H pre-shipment test conducted
1Q-2Q 2000 First 7FB full load test conducted
2001 First shipment of 7FB
May 2002 Sithe Energies’ Scriba project canceled

20 08 December 2008
Page 10 Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast

GE Model 7000

Month Year Major Development

By end of 2003 Start of commercial operation of 7FB-equipped power plants
Jan 2004 Hydro Quebec orders two 7H GTs for 800-MW Suroit facility in Canada
Nov 2004 Suroit P/P program officially scrapped
Nov 2004 Calpine, GE announce plans to build 7H plant in U.S.
By end of 2004 Originally intended start of operation of 7H-equipped Sithe Energies power plant
Feb 2005 Calpine and GE Energy select Calpine’s Inland Empire Energy Center for North
American launch of GE’s H System.
Thru 2017 Continued production of MS7001 gas turbine machine series

Worldwide Distribution/Inventories
At the start of 2008, about 1,975 60-Hz Frame 7 (new series) gas turbine machines had been built and installed in 23
countries worldwide, with the largest number of installations being in the U.S. (1,518 machines). Other nations
having a large number of installations include Brazil (24), Japan (54), Korea (ROK) (30), Mexico (36), Saudi
Arabia (180) and Taiwan (35).
The total above includes 28 Frame 7E and 7EA machines (5 and 23, respectively) installed for mechanical load
drive duty in eight countries worldwide. Variants no longer in active production are not reflected in the table below.

Forecast Rationale
The 60-Hz GE Energy Frame 7 gas turbine machine An even more important marketplace emerging for the
continues to be widely used to meet the capacity needs Frame 7 (for all models, but especially the 7FB and 7H)
of utilities and IPPs in the current decade and beyond. is Central/South America. The orders from customers
Many of these machines are being used in a staged in Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela are just the tip of the
power plant construction concept whereby a facility can iceberg, with more orders expected to come. It would
evolve from simple cycle to combined cycle and not be inconceivable for GE Energy to seek a fully
perhaps on to combined-cycle cogeneration, or even to capable manufacturing site or manufacturing partner in
combined-cycle with integrated coal or waste-gas that region.
Despite the previous gloom in the electrical generation
It should be borne in mind that because the MS7001 is a marketplace, the Frame 7 family remains popular,
60-Hz machine, its sales opportunities outside the U.S. especially with a simple-cycle power offering of 85 to
are limited to Japan, Saudi Arabia, and a small number 172 MW in the increasingly popular medium- (peaking
of other nations worldwide, including selected countries duty) to high-power (baseload power) bands.
in Central/South America. In Japan, GE’s partner Production supporting the next major wave of utility
Toshiba is capable of building the 170-MW machine. re-equipping should rise noticeably in 2008 or 2009.
There is ongoing interest in the MS7001EA and 7FA for In our newly revised production forecast for the decade
use in simple-cycle operation, and in the 7FA (again), 2008-2017, GE Energy and its allied firms are projected
7FB, and 7H for use in combined-cycle operation, to build 793 Frame 7 machines of all variants and power
especially given the large number of utilities and outputs. Production by such firms as Bharat, Hitachi,
non-utility generators that have expressed interest in the and Toshiba is included in the GE Licensees/Affiliated
Frame 7 in all its variants, for every role from simple- Firms segment; their individual totals are a small part of
cycle generation to repowering. total production in the early part of the decade, but are
expected to increase during the second half.
Production of the Frame 7 series for the Southeast Asian
and Japanese markets is expected to eventually increase Of the 793-unit total, 245 units are projected to be 7FBs
when that part of the world regains momentum and and 7Hs, representing nominally 30 percent of the GE
begins to order gas turbine machines for its electrical production total. Production by GE Energy’s GE Oil &
power needs. Hitachi and Toshiba are well-positioned Gas in Italy is included in the GE Energy total.
to benefit in the upcoming decade, along with
GE Energy itself.

December 2008
Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast Page 11

GE Model 7000

The popular 7FA will continue to be the leading model duty. Production models of those two variants are
of the Frame 7 series, although from about the production-line Frame 7EA units that have been slightly
mid-point of the decade, the 7FB and 7H should see modified. We project that 54 7EAs will be built for that
greater increases than the 7FA. marketplace over the course of the decade.
At least 34 Frame 7EA gas turbine machines were With the announcement that GE and Calpine would
installed through 2008 for various mechanical load build North America’s most advanced combined-cycle
drive duties (mainly for compressor drive roles), and we power plant in Riverside County, California, it looks as
are now issuing a combined production forecast for the if the Frame 7H is finally moving to a production status
MS7111EA and MS7121EA for mechanical load drive after a few near-hits.

Ten-Year Outlook


Designation or Program High Confidence Good Confidence Speculative

Thru 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total

GE Energy
Model 7000 (Frame 7) (MS7001) E A <> MW 50.0 to <125.0 <> Industrial Power Generation
466 7 8 9 10 10 12 10 10 9 9 94

Model 7000 (Frame 7) (MS7001) E A <> SHP =>20,000 <> Mechanical Drive (Pumps & Compressors)
34 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 33

Model 7000 (Frame 7) (MS7001) F B <> MW =>180.0 <> Industrial Power Generation
7 5 8 12 15 15 15 14 14 14 14 126

Model 7000 (Frame 7) (MS7001) F/F A <> MW 125.0 to <180.0 <> Industrial Power Generation
930 18 24 30 36 36 36 36 36 35 35 322

Model 7000 (Frame 7) (MS7001) F/F A <> SHP =>20,000 <> Mechanical Drive (Pumps & Compressors)
5 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 45

Model 7000 (Frame 7) (MS7001) H <> MW =>180.0 <> Industrial Power Generation
3 3 6 10 12 14 14 14 16 16 14 119
Subtotal 1,445 40 55 70 82 83 85 82 84 80 78 739

MFR Varies
Model 7000 (Frame 7) (MS7001) E A <> MW 50.0 to <125.0 <> Industrial Power Generation
2 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 23

Model 7000 (Frame 7) (MS7001) E A <> SHP =>20,000 <> Mechanical Drive (Pumps & Compressors)
3 1 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 31
Subtotal 5 3 6 5 5 6 7 6 6 5 5 54

Total 1,450 43 61 75 87 89 92 88 90 85 83 793

20 08 December 2008
Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Rolls-Royce 501-K

Outlook Unit Production Forecast

 501-K series’ main competition is from GE Oil & Gas, 50
Solar, Siemens AG, and Kawasaki 48

 501-K line remains competitive for electrical generation 46

and mechanical load drive; it continues to be well 44

established due to company’s modernization efforts


 Centrax very active in generating orders for 501-K series 40

 Production funding still expected from the U.S. Navy; 38

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

RDT&E is waning Units 43 42 46 49 48 49 49 49 48 48

Description. Single-shaft/cold-end drive and $295-$345 per kilowatt for mechanical drive machines.
two-shaft/hot-end drive, axial-flow, aero-derivative Marine engines/sets are about 0.775-0.825 times that of
industrial gas generators and industrial and marine gas generation.
turbine machines in the 4-6-MW class.
For electrical generation (simple-cycle), the generator
Sponsor. The 501-K I&M series was privately set (genset) price covers a single-fuel skid-mounted gas
developed by (then) Allison Gas Turbine, a division of turbine, electric generator, air intake with basic filter
General Motors Corporation. and silencer, exhaust stack, basic starter and controls,
and a conventional combustion system.
Power Class. The power output of the Rolls-Royce
501-K series is 3.95-6.4 kWe and 5,500-7,400 bhp. For mechanical drive, the price covers a gas-fired gas
turbine (without driven equipment) with gearbox, skid,
Status. In production.
enclosure, inlet and exhaust ducts and exhaust silencer,
Total Produced. At the start of 2009, more than basic turbine controls, fire protection, starting systems,
2,137 501-K machines were supplied to 500 customers and conventional combustion system.
in over 40 countries and territories worldwide.
Competition. The 501-K series' main competition
Application. Electrical generation (including comes from GE Oil & Gas, Kawasaki, Siemens AG, and
combined-cycle and cogeneration); mechanical load Solar.
drives (compression and pumping); marine power.
Price Range. Approximate costs of the 501-K I&M
series are $360-$445 per kilowatt for generation and

Rolls-Royce Corp, PO Box 420, 2001 S Tibbs Ave, Indianapolis,
IN 46206-0420 United States, Tel: + 1 (317) 230-2000, Fax: + 1 (317) 230-4020, Prime

Samsung Techwin Co Ltd, KIPS Center, 647-9 Yoksam-Dong, Seoul, 135-080
Korea, South, Tel: + 82 2 3467 7114, Fax: + 82 2 3467 7080, Licensee

©2009 August 2009

Page 2 Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Rolls-Royce 501-K

Associated Spring, Group, 80 Scott Swamp Rd, Farmington, CT 06032 United
Headquarters States, Tel: + 1 (860) 678-0700, Fax: + 1 (860) 409-4611, Email:
(Gear Spring)

Cabot Corp, Two Seaport Lane, Boston, MA 46904-9013 United States,
Tel: + 1 (617) 345-0100, Fax: + 1 (617) 342-6103 (High Temperature Superalloy Mill
Product; Investment Casting)

Cincinnati Gear Co, 5657 Wooster Pike, Cincinnati, OH 45227-4120 United States,
Tel: + 1 (513) 271-7700, Fax: + 1 (513) 271-0049 (High Power Density Reduction Gearing)

Danville Metal Stamping Co Inc, 20 Oakwood Ave, Danville, IL 61832 United States,
Tel: + 1 (217) 446-0647, Fax: + 1 (217) 446-3751 (Anti-Icing Cowl Assembly; Baffle Collect

Dyna-Empire Inc, 1075 Stewart Ave, Garden City, NY 11530-4812 United
States, Tel: + 1 (516) 222-2700, Fax: + 1 (516) 222-1896 (Control Assembly)

Honeywell Aerospace, 1300 W Warner Rd, Tempe, AZ 85284 United

States, Tel: + 1 (480) 592-5000, Fax: + 1 (480) 496-7811 (Air Turbine Starter)

Honeywell Aerospace, 717 N Bendix Dr, South Bend, IN 46620 United
States, Tel: + 1 (574) 231-2000, Fax: + 1 (574) 231-3335 (Cable Assembly; Lever
Assembly; Body Assembly; Valve Assembly)
Precision Castparts Corp, 4650 SW Macadam Ave, Suite 440, Portland, OR 97239-4262
United States, Tel: + 1 (503) 417-4800, Fax: + 1 (503) 417-4817,
Email: (Structural Casting)

TurboCombustor Technology Inc, 3651 SE Commerce Ave, Stuart, FL 34997-4967 United States,
Tel: + 1 (561) 287-7770, Fax: + 1 (561) 287-0476 (Combustor; Transition Liner)

Woodward Governor Co, 5001 N Second St, PO Box 7001, Rockford, IL 61125-7001
United States, Tel: + 1 (815) 877-7441, Fax: + 1 (815) 639-6033 (Model 503 Digital
Control System)

Comprehensive information on Contractors can be found in Forecast International’s “International Contractors” series. For a detailed description,
go to (see Products & Samples/Governments & Industries) or call + 1 (203) 426-0800.
Contractors are invited to submit updated information to Editor, International Contractors, Forecast International, 22 Commerce Road, Newtown,
CT 06470, USA;

Technical Data
Design Features Gas Generator Turbine. Model 501-K engines are
Compressor. Fourteen-stage (15 in 501-KB7) manufactured in single- or two-shaft versions. In
axial-flow, with fixed stators and inlet guide vanes. single-shaft models, the four axial-flow stages are
Pressure ratio of 9.4 to 13.5. Mass flow is 15.4 to tie-bolted together: Two-shaft variants use the first two
21.1 kg/sec. Blades are 17-4PH; vanes are 410SS. stages to drive the gas producer and the second two
Stage 1 disc in AMS6260; Stage 2-13 discs of 410SS; stages to drive the power shaft. IN738 blades are held
Stage 14 of 17 4PH. Cases are of steel, inlet case of in place by fir-tree roots. All subsequent models now
aluminum. utilize hollow, air-cooled Stage 1 blades and vanes.
Combustor. Six can annular chambers of the Discs are made of Waspaloy, vanes of X40. Turbine
through-flow type are enclosed within an outer casing is of Hastelloy X. Blades and vanes are
combustor liner. Models can be equipped for aluminum diffusion-coated for sulfidation protection.
liquid-fuel, natural gas, or dual-fuel operation. Two DC Model 501-KC5 Stage 1 turbine blades are MAR-M246,
igniters supply ignition. Liners and duct are made of while vanes are MAR-M509.
Hastelloy X; casing is made of titanium. Extensive
Power Turbine. The last two stages of the 501-K
combustor optimization efforts have been undertaken
turbine section are separated to form a free power
recently by Rolls-Royce (see Program Review).
turbine. Design speed range is 6,000 to 14,600 rpm.

August 2009
Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines Page 3

Rolls-Royce 501-K

Stage 1 blades are made of IN738; Stage 2 blades of between 13,600 and 14,600 rpm down to synchronous
Waspaloy. Discs are also made of Waspaloy, while generator speeds. Starting is normally by means of an
vanes are of X40. The power turbine casing is of air turbine, but electric or hydraulic starting is available.
Hastelloy X, while the vane casing is of Hastelloy C.
Control System. Manual, semiautomatic, or fully
Two roller bearings and a single ball bearing support the
automatic operation is accomplished using a Woodward
turbine shaft, and carry thrust and axial loads.
Electronic Control/Governor System. The system
Bearings. Five pressure-lubricated, aircraft-type provides multiple monitoring features and protective
bearings: three roller journal bearings and two thrust shutdown in the event of excessive vibration or other
ball bearings. abnormal operation.
Accessories. Single-shaft versions use a
front-mounted gearbox to reduce output speeds from

Dimensions. The approximate dimensions and weights of the Rolls-Royce 501-K series-equipped gensets
(complete packaged units) are as follows:
Metric Units English Units Metric Units English Units
Model L x W x H (meters) L x W x H (feet) L x W x H (meters) L x W x H (feet)
501-KB5 9.0 x 2.7 x 3.0 30.0 x 8.7 x 10.0 – –
Weight 15,875 kg 35,000 lb – –
501-KB7 9.0 x 2.7 x 3.0 30.0 x 8.7 x 10.0 – –
Weight 16,328 kg 36,000 lb – –
501-KH5 (a) 9.0 x 2.7 x 3.0 30.0 x 8.7 x 10.0 – –
Weight 16,328 kg 36,000 lb – –

501-KC5 – – 6.4 x 2.4 x 3.0 21.0 x 8.0 x 10.0

Weight – – 11,400 kg 25,000 lb
501-KC7 – – 6.4 x 2.4 x 3.0 21.0 x 8.0 x 10.0
Weight – – 11,800 kg 26,000 lb

(a) Water injected.

The approximate dimensions and weights of the Rolls-Royce AG9140 and AG9140RF ship service generators for
marine duty are as follows:
Metric Units English Units Machine Machine
Model L x W x H (meters) L x W x H (feet) Dry Weight Dry Weight
AG9140/40RF 8.65 x 2.37 x 3.38 28.395 x 7.8 x 11.1 29,257 kg 64,500 lb

Performance. The approximate performance parameters of the Rolls-Royce 501-K series-equipped generator sets
(complete packaged units) are as follows (ISO, no losses; PT speed of 14,600 rpm):
Rating Heat Rate Compression Compression Exhaust Exhaust
Model ISO Base LHV Ratio Stages Temp Mass Flow
501-KB5 3,938 kW 12,266 kJ/kWh 9.4 14 560°C 15.4 kg/sec
501-KB7 5,300 kW 11,380 kJ/kWh 13.5 1 + 14 501°C 21.1 kg/sec
501-KH5 (a) 6,420 kW 9,037 kJ/kWh 9.4 14 530°C 18.3 kg/sec

(a) Water injected.

©2009 August 2009

Page 4 Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Rolls-Royce 501-K

The approximate performance parameters of the Rolls-Royce 501-K series-equipped mechanical load drive sets
(complete packaged units) are as follows (ISO, gaseous fuel, no losses; PT speed of 13,600 rpm):
Rating Heat Rate Compression Compression Stack Exhaust
Model ISO Base LHV Ratio Stages Temp Mass Flow
501-KC5 5,500 bhp 8,495 Btu/hph 9.4 14 571°C 31.2 lb/sec
4,100 kW 12,170 kJ/kWh 15.5 kg/sec
501-KC7 7,400 bhp 7,902 Btu/hph 13.5 1 + 14 520°C 46.2 lb/sec
5,500 kW 11,340 kJ/kWh 20.9 kg/sec

The approximate performance parameters of the Rolls-Royce AG9140 and AG9140RF gas turbine for marine duty
in a ship service generator are as follows (at 100°F, S/L, with 6″ inlet/10″ exhaust losses and using DF2 fuel):
With Bleed Without Bleed
Continuous Power Output (a) 2,500 kW 3,000 kW
Maximum Power Output (b) 4,500 kW 4,500 kW
Fuel Rate (a) 15,375 Btu/kW-hr 13,250 Btu/kW-hr
Turbine Speed 14,340 rpm 14,340 rpm
Generator Speed 1,800 rpm 1,800 rpm
Firing Temperature 2,142°F 2,142°F
Exhaust Gas Flow 29.0 lb/sec 31.1 lb/sec
Exhaust Gas Temperature 1,117°F 1,097°F
Engine Bleed Capacity 2.37 lb/sec 0.0

(a) Includes generator and gearbox losses.

(b) For emergency, use up to five minutes.

AG9130/AG9140. Rolls-Royce has evolved a the U.S. Navy with the latest generator set technology.
complete ship service gas turbine generator set under Allison began shipment to Bath Iron Works in 1994.
the designation AG9130. A derivative of the
Features of the AG9140 include the generation of
Model 501-K34/KB5, the AG9130 is rated at 2,500 kW
3,000 kW of 440 V, three-phase power, local or remote
continuous with air bleed, 3,000 kW continuous without
control, removable panels and doors, a built-in
air bleed, and 4,500 kW emergency service. The unit,
maintenance beam and hoist, and high corrosion-
entirely a Rolls-Royce/Allison product, was designed
resistance. It has been MIL-G22077 qualified and shock
for marine applications on board the U.S. Navy
tested per MIL-S-901C. Additional features of the
DDG-51 Arleigh Burke class vessels. The AG9130
AG9140RF include a built-in mechanical starter
meets U.S. Navy requirements for shipboard generation.
(250-KS4), dark ship start from batteries only,
It features an automatic dual-voltage regulation system,
redundant start capability, and Full Authority Digital
low-pressure air starting with silencing, and a generator
Control (FADC).
with the lowest airborne noise signature in the service. It
is completely self-contained to include all controls, sea The AG9140 is on board the ROK's three KDX-3
water systems, expansion joints, and a fire damper. destroyers (see Korea KDX-3 Class Destroyers below).
Allison began working under a contract awarded in ATS (Advanced Turbine System). The U.S.
March/April 1986, and shipped the first unit to Bath Department of Energy, the Chicago-based Gas Research
Iron Works, located in Bath, Maine, in 1987. The Institute, and Rolls-Royce Engine Company are in the
AG9130 is the replacement for the 501-KF package; process of developing what is described as a new
three such packages are used in each vessel. generation of gas turbines that utilize a natural
gas-fueled catalytic combustion system. The intent is to
The AG9140 incorporates significant maintainability
lower the emission levels to ultra-low ratings –
and reliability upgrades and technology enhancements,
reportedly a first in gas turbine technology. Component
based on lessons learned from the deployment of the
tests began in 1999, followed by a full-scale
early ships in the class. These upgrades have provided
demonstration and an 8,000-hour durability test in 2000.

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Rolls-Royce 501-K

Work at Rolls-Royce on this effort is ongoing, although 30 percent to 40,000 hours. The 501-KB17 is the
at a somewhat reduced level of activity. onboard generating set for the U.S. Navy CG-47 class
Early tests showed that the ATS reduced NOx emissions
by 0.9 tons per year and CO 2 emissions by 5.8 tons 501-KB7. In June 1991, (then) Allison announced that
annually. Rolls-Royce estimated that the ATS could it was developing an increased power version of the
reduce the fuel costs of turbine operators by about 501-K single-shaft engine. The 501-KB7 is the most
$380,000 a year. powerful offering, providing 5,300 kWe continuous.
The design added a boost module to the front of the
The ATS is targeted for modular and distributed power
current 501-K. This module incorporates the functions
generation markets, both significant growth areas in the
of the current air inlet housing assembly, but adds a
power generation arena thanks to ongoing deregulation
compressor stage consisting of 29 compressor blades
in the U.S. and elsewhere. Funding for the program is
and 35 stator vanes. The KB7 utilizes the PTO shaft
provided by the U.S. DoE.
arrangement as produced for the 501-KB5/KH models.
Meanwhile, San Diego-based Solar Turbines is
For the 501-KB7, the rear turbine bearing support,
developing a recuperated-cycle industrial turbine under
which is also the turbine exhaust section, was
the same ATS program. Larger systems (400+ MW) for
redesigned to provide for increased airflow with the
utility-scale applications are being developed by GE and
addition of the boost module. The Stage 4 turbine blades
Siemens Westinghouse.
were also redesigned to reduce losses in the exhaust
501-KB. The Model 501-KB is a single-shaft generator system. Other changes or modifications from earlier
drive with a power output of 4,450 kW at base load, and models include the use of thermal barrier-coated vanes
5,420 kW at intermediate power on distillate or natural in the turbine section and effusion-cooled combustion.
gas fuels. The 501-KB3 and 501-KB4 were both
501-KF. The Model 501-KF is a two-shaft marine
introduced in 1994. The 501-KB3 offers a low mass
propulsion engine that powers the Boeing Jetfoil in
flow (28 lb/13 kg per second) with a relatively high
commercial and military service (designated 501-K20A
exhaust temperature (1,051°F/566°C). The 501-KB3 has
by Boeing). Production Model 501-KFs are rated at
a thermal efficiency of 26.5 percent. The 501-KB4 is a
4,330 horsepower (3,229 kW) at a gas generator speed
4-MW machine rated for standby duty, and features
of 13,885 rpm and power turbine speed of 13,820 rpm.
liquid fuel with natural gas and dual-fuel options. The
Maximum rated power (intermittent) is 5,420
501-KB4's thermal efficiency rating is 29.7 percent.
horsepower at 14,560 gas generator rpm and at
The 501-KB5 is available with high temperature 13,820-rpm power turbine output speed. Many 501-KF
capability (1,895°F TIT) Stage 1 turbine blades and units have been supplied to the U.S. Navy by Stewart &
vanes, either as the 3.94 MW 501-KB5 or as a retrofit Stevenson (for more details, see Program Review
enhancement kit; that capability increases blade life by below).

Program Review
Background. The current manufacturer is Licensees/Distributors – Generator Sets:
Rolls-Royce plc, Rolls-Royce Corp, located in
Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. This series of gas turbine  CEC-STR Distribuicao de Turbinas, Rio de Janeiro,
machines is produced in Indianapolis. RJ, Brazil
 Centrax Ltd, Newton Abbot, Devon, U.K
OEMs/EPSs – Compressors & Pumps:
 Detroit Engine & Turbine Co, Adelaide, SA,
Dresser-Rand Co, Turbo Products Division, based in
Olean, New York, USA, is the current Original
Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)/Engineered Product  Samsung Techwin, Seoul, Korea (ROK)
Supplier (EPS) for compressors and pumps.  Tominaga & Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan
OEMs – Marine Drive:  U.S. Turbine Corp, Maineville, Ohio (now a part of
Rolls-Royce Energy Systems Inc, Power
 Cincinnati Gear Company, Cincinnati, Ohio Generation)
 Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd, Kobe, Japan The Rolls-Royce I&M Model 501-K series of gas
generators and gas turbine machines are derivatives of

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Page 6 Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Rolls-Royce 501-K

the well-known and prolific military T56 turboprop configuration (501-KSS) to provide the flexibility of
engine, which has provided power to such aircraft as the variable-speed operation.
Lockheed P-3C, Lockheed C-130, and Grumman E-2C.
The S&S 501-KSS5 two-shaft gas turbine engine is an
Over 16,000 aero T56 engines were built through 2000
advanced version of the already proven 501-KF gas
(including the civil aero Model 501-D) by Allison and
turbine. S&S has enhanced the KF power turbine design
licensee IHI.
to provide increased torque capability, lower fuel
The I&M Model 501-K draws heavily upon the design consumption, and a wider range of operation. The
features of the T56, and has inherited the aviation 501-KSS5 is considered an excellent prime mover for
engine's high level of performance, durability, and marine propulsion and mechanical drive.
reliability. The I&M Model 501-K series machines are
Stewart & Stevenson Gas Turbine Products was
currently rated at 3.9 MW and 5.2 MW for generation
purchased by General Electric in 1998, ending that
entity's work with Allison on the 501-K.
The first industrial installation occurred in 1962, when
Centrax. This U.K.-based firm previously offered the
DeLaval of Houston, Texas, fabricated a compression
CX350, and currently offers the CX501 generator set
set using a 501-K as the prime mover. Since that time,
powered by the Model 501-KB3, -KB5, -KN, -KB7, and
the gas turbine has found wide use in the industrial and
-KH gas turbine machines. Its gensets supply electrical
marine markets, and is handled by many OEMs,
power in a variety of applications, and have been
distributors, and EPSs.
included in cogeneration installations.
Major Licensees, Distributors, Packagers,
In 1990, Centrax received an order for the first
OEMs, and EPSs. Rolls-Royce's Engineered Product
steam-injected 501-KH machine in Europe. The project
Suppliers combine responsibilities of the Rolls-Royce
was a combined heat and power (CHP) district heating
traditional distributors and Original Equipment
scheme at Osimo, Italy. The equipment incorporated
Manufacturer; EPSs supply the same product and
the Cheng Cycle method of reinjecting steam produced
service as the 501-K distributors, along with providing a
by the exhaust back into the machine's combustion
mechanical driver for compressors and pump
casing. The main contractor for the scheme was the
Austrian engineering firm SGP-VA Energie und
The following are the major firms currently working Umwelttechnik GmbH, which is the licensee for
with Rolls-Royce on the Model 501-K: Cheng Cycle in Europe; it supplied all support
equipment other than the Centrax equipment.
IHI. Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries is a
licensee of Rolls-Royce in Japan. The company builds Centrax has also provided a pair of CX501-KB5s for a
the aero T56 turboprop for the P-3C, also built under CHP plant at Par Harbor, Cornwall, England, owned by
license in Japan. It has been a producer of the industrial ECC International in partnership with BP Energy Ltd.
variant of the I&M Model 501-K, under the designation The plant successfully completed commissioning tests
IM400. IHI offered both stationary and mobile in the first half of 1992. The generator sets run on
configurations of the IM400. IHI is no longer an active natural gas at 12 bar pressure to provide 3.7 MW each.
licensee of the I&M Model 501-K.
US Turbine Corporation. US Turbine Corp (now a
Stewart & Stevenson. Stewart & Stevenson has long part of Rolls-Royce Energy Systems Inc, Power
been an innovative packager of gas turbines and Generation) has offered a full range of gas turbine and
driven-equipment products; it can act as a single-source engine generating sets in the 660-51,580 kWe range. It
for the prime mover, driven equipment, and, when has offered the 501-K in its generator sets under the
desired, for heat recovery and combined-cycle designations UST3400 (501-KB), UST3800 (501-KB5),
apparatus. S&S has packaged more Model 501-K gas UST4000 (501-KB5S), UST5000 (501-KB7),
turbines and accumulated more time on the 501-K for UST5600CC (501-KH), and UST6600CC (501-KH5),
industrial applications than any other supplier; more the latter two being fully steam-injected systems
than 150 units have been shipped to the U.S. Navy (Cheng Cycle system optimization).
U.S. Turbine and Standard Aero Ltd announced in 1995
Configured as a single-shaft machine for generator set that they had initiated a cooperative service organization
applications, the 501-K is a prime mover for hundreds to provide comprehensive site maintenance, parts
of installations worldwide. For compressor and marine support, and overhaul and repair services to users of the
drive, the 501-K is available in a two-shaft Model 501-K. Standard Aero and U.S. Turbine opened

August 2009
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Rolls-Royce 501-K

a jointly operated aftermarket support facility at San standard of 25 ppm for the San Francisco area and
Jose (California) Airport in support of the venture. 9 ppm for all of southern California, all without the use
of expensive selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
Tominaga. Tominaga & Company Ltd of Japan has
equipment normally specified by the state.
supplied 501-K series engines to Hitachi Zosen for
packaging, as well as performing total service on its In 1987, it was announced that Turbonetics Energy Inc
own. Tominaga Model 501-K generator sets are of Latham, New York, was developing a steam injection
designated TM501KB-301 (501-KB) and system for the 501-K. The firm, working with the
TM501KB5-351 (501-KB5). Base load ratings for support of the Gas Research Institute, ran a test program
these two gensets are 3,100 and 3,620 kW, respectively, of its system at the General Motors Corp Hydra-matic
at ISO conditions. Mechanical drive machines are Division facility in Warren, Michigan, in the U.S.
designated TM501KC-301 and TM501KC5-351;
Turbonetics' system is primarily targeted at the
continuous ratings are 5,250 horsepower and 5,750
replacement industrial boiler market. The system can
boost the power output of the turbine from 3 MW to
Turbomeca. In 1998, France's Turbomeca (a unit of 4 MW, and can increase the electric power generating
the Snecma Group's Propulsion Branch) indicated that it efficiency from 27 percent to 35 percent. In addition,
would take up the Allison 501-K gas turbines for supplementary gas firing can increase the boiler's steam
distribution in Europe, under the designations TM4000 delivery from a nominal 8,840 kg/hr to 15,875 kg/hr,
and TM5000. The machines give Turbomeca a high-end and raise overall system thermal efficiency from
power band. 60 percent to 85 percent.
Samsung Techwin. Among the newest suppliers and NOx Reduction Efforts. Rolls-Royce focused on
distributors is Samsung Techwin in the Republic of technologies that would reduce emissions and allow the
Korea. It is building the Rolls-Royce AG9140 gas burning of alternative fuels. For its gas turbine engines,
turbines under license for the three KDX-3 destroyers. work has been centered on the combustion system. The
The first vessel launched in May 2007, and the work bore fruit in the LE4 Dry Low Emission
remaining vessels should be launched in 2010 and 2012. Combustion Configuration for the 501. The LE4 utilizes
lean premix and fuel staging to reduce NOx formation
Industrial Applications
and enhance the operational range of the turbine, while
Dual-Fuel Cycle. The dual-fuel cycle was invented by
maintaining low levels of CO and providing combustion
Dr. Dah Yu Cheng. Rolls-Royce Model 501-KHs have
been tested and installed for commercial operation with
Cheng Cycle equipment. Heat recovery steam Rolls-Royce also worked on a direct coal-fueled turbine
generators (HRSGs) produce high-pressure and and conducted component development tests under a
high-temperature steam for reinjection into the gas U.S. DoE contract. A full-scale combustor
turbine combustion chamber. The Model 501-K, for (70 MMBtu/hr) has successfully been run on 100
example, can produce up to 7 MW of electric power percent coal water slurry (CWS) fuel. Separately, an
with the maximum use of injected steam, and provide engine with an external combustor configuration has
thermal efficiencies of up to 50 percent. successfully been run on distillate fuel; engine tests
using the CWS external combustor were completed at
The first installation of a Cheng Cycle gas turbine was
the end of 1990.
by Dr. Cheng's International Power Technology (IPT) at
California State University. The second Rolls-Royce To further explore combustor capabilities and minimize
Model 501-K Cheng Cycle installation is at Sunkist the fuel costs for future commercial applications, a
Growers in California, where two Model 501s are now production-standard 501-KB5 machine was successfully
in service producing up to 14 MW of power and tested in August 1991 during a four-hour test using the
variable amounts of process steam for Sunkist food ground coal and water mixture. Data from the test
processing. showed complete and stable fuel combustion and
turbine output performance to base load design
The Kalina Cycle is the second dual-fuel cycle that has
been explored. Kalina involves the use of ammonia/
water injection, which greatly increases effective power. In addition to work on emission technology,
Rolls-Royce has improved the durability of the
Both new cycles, while producing much higher outputs
combustion system. On the 501-K, Rolls-Royce has
and thermal efficiencies, also greatly reduce the air
developed an effusion-cooled combustion liner that uses
pollutant levels versus simple-cycle machines. Indeed,
laser-drilled holes in the walls of the liners to lower
IPT states that the Sunkist installation meets the NOx

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Page 8 Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Rolls-Royce 501-K

temperatures by 300°F to 400°F. The new liners were mid-2006, 25 vessels of this type were in service with
initially field-tested in 1991 and are now available on the U.S. Navy.
the 501-KB7.
Arleigh Burke Class Guided Missile Destroyer. The
In May 1993, Catalytica Inc (Mountain View, Navy developed a new 8,422-9,035-ton class of
California) and Allison announced that they had signed destroyer, incorporating a somewhat less capable
a Letter of Intent for a joint program to develop an AEGIS system; ostensibly, the vessels are to work in
ultra-low emissions catalytic combustion system for the conjunction with the CG-47 units. The Navy selected
501-K industrial engine. The intent of the program is to the LM2500 package and the 501-K34 genset
provide an engine with NOx emissions that meet the arrangement. The use of the genset enhances logistic
most stringent emission requirements worldwide. and maintenance capabilities and facilitates exchanges
of spare parts between ships. The initial ship of the
Marine Applications. Model 501-K gas turbines are
Arleigh Burke class, the DDG-51, was commissioned
in use as propulsion drive systems and shipboard
on July 4, 1991.
generation sets for both military and civil applications.
As of mid-2006, 28 Arleigh Burke (Flight I and II) class
Spruance Class Destroyers. In the early 1970s, the
guided missile vessels were in U.S. Navy service. In
U.S. Navy ordered 31 8,040-ton DD-963 Spruance class
addition, 28 Arleigh Burke (Flight IIA) class vessels
destroyers. Powered by four GE LM2500 gas turbines
had been laid down, out of a total of 34 vessels planned;
in a COGAG (combined gas and gas) mode and using
all Flight IIA vessels are in U.S. Navy service.
three 501-K17-based shipboard generation systems,
these were the first all-gas turbine units in operation Note: The Japanese MSDF has four Kongou class
with the Navy. The 501-K17s were the first gas turbines destroyers/frigates in its inventory. The vessels are an
to pass the U.S. Navy's 3,000-hour salt injection enlarged and improved version of the Arleigh Burke
endurance test in May 1971. class vessels, with a lightweight version of the AEGIS
system. While the vessels are powered by four
The Rolls-Royce/Allison units provide 2 MW of net
GE LM2500 gas turbines as in the Arleigh Burke class,
generator output power on a 100°F (38°C) day with
it is considered unlikely that the MSDF vessels also
2.37 lb/sec (1.07 kg/sec) of compressor bleed loss. In
employ 501-K gas turbines, utilizing Japanese-design
addition to the 31 units built, four similar designs were
machines instead. The Kongou class vessels were laid
ordered by Iran, featuring different weapons systems
down in the period from 1990-May 1995.
and onboard facilities. However, those were canceled
following the Iranian revolution. All used the 501-K17 Pegasus Hydrofoil. Saudi Arabia has one Pegasus
generation systems packaged by Stewart & Stevenson. class 115-ton hydrofoil vessel, the Al Aziziah. The
vessel was ordered in 1984 from Lockheed and
The Spruance class vessels were laid down in the period
subcontractor Boeing; it was delivered in 1985. The
from November 1972-April 1978. As of mid-2006, only
vessel has two 501-KF20A gas turbines and two Detroit
three vessels remained in the Navy's inventory.
Diesel 8V92 diesel engines.
Ticonderoga Class Guided Missile Cruiser.
Korea KDX-3 Class Destroyers. The Republic of
Building on the proven hull and machinery of the
Korea's KDX-3 vessels are a further development of the
DD-963s, the Navy developed the 9,407-9,590-ton
KDX-2 destroyers, but optimized for anti-air warfare.
Ticonderoga class Guided Missile Cruiser (AEGIS
cruiser), intended for the highly sophisticated AEGIS Each vessel has a displacement of 7,000 tons, and each
weapons system. The lead ship, the USS Ticonderoga is 166 meters (544.6 ft) in length. The first vessel
(CG-47), was launched in 1981. By July 1994, all 27 launched in May 2007, and the remaining vessels
vessels had been commissioned. should be launched in 2010 and 2012.
Three 501-K17 generation sets have been installed, Rolls-Royce AG9140 gas turbines are currently being
although each has increased capacity to accommodate built under license by Samsung Techwin for the three
the power demands of the AEGIS system. The ships KDX-3 destroyers.
operate in high-density, high-threat areas with carrier
In early 2006, information had been issued regarding
battle groups, as well as separately with associated
the choice of GE LM2500 gas turbine propulsion
escorts. Aboard the AEGIS cruisers, the 501-K17s have
machinery of the KDX-3. Korea's KDX-2 and KDX-1
a rating of 2.5 MW.
destroyers are also GE LM2500-powered.
The Ticonderoga class vessels were laid down in the
Boeing Jetfoil. The Jetfoil was begun as a private
period from January 1980-October 1991. As of
venture by Boeing Marine Systems Division, Seattle,

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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines Page 9

Rolls-Royce 501-K

for the commercial passenger ferry sector. The initial (NSWCCD) Gas Turbine Emerging Technologies
service date was April 1975. Two 501-Ks power the Code 9334 was tasked by NSWCCD Shipboard Energy
craft at speeds up to 45 knots when foil-borne, and Office Code 859 to research and evaluate fouling
current production variants include hydrodynamic and resistant compressor coatings for Rolls Royce Allison
foil improvements. The ships are designated Model 501-K Series gas turbines. The objective of these tests
929-100T and 929-115, with the latter launched in 1978. was to investigate the feasibility of reducing the rate of
compressor fouling degradation and associated rate of
An estimated 25 Allison-powered Jetfoils and similar
specific fuel consumption (SFC) increase through the
surface craft operate worldwide.
application of anti-fouling coatings Tests, which were
Westermoen Ferry. Two 501-K engines provide conducted at the Philadelphia Land Based Engineering
power for Westermoen's W-100T catamaran ferry in Site (LBES).
service in Norway. The 100-ton vessel has capacity for
Testing was first performed on the existing
up to 250 passengers and provides high-density
LBES 501-K17 gas turbine, which had an uncoated
transportation at speeds up to 45 knots (83.3 km/h),
compressor. The compressor was then replaced by a
depending upon the sea conditions. With reserve fuel,
coated compressor, and the test was repeated. The test
the W-100T has a range of 418 nautical miles (774 km).
plan consisted of injecting a known amount of salt
Configuration as an offshore platform workboat has
solution into the gas turbine inlet while gathering
been explored.
compressor performance degradation and fuel economy
Halter Marine Company. A single 501-K powers the data for 0-, 500-, 1,000-, and 1,250-KW generator load
American Enterprise, a 32-meter, 80-ton workboat in levels. This method facilitated a direct comparison of
service in the Gulf of Mexico. Designed by Halter compressor degradation trends for the coated and
Marine of Louisiana, the boat has capacity for up to 82 uncoated compressors operating with the same turbine
passengers with reduced cargo, or 20 metric tons of section, thereby reducing the number of variables
cargo without passengers. Cruise speed is provided by involved. The collected data for turbine inlet,
two Detroit Diesel reciprocating compression-ignition temperature, compressor efficiency, and fuel
engines; both the GT and diesels drive Rocketdyne consumption were plotted as a percentage of the
waterjet pumps. baseline conditions for each compressor. The results of
each plot show a decrease in the rates of compressor
Magnum Marine. U.S. boat designer/builder Magnum degradation and SFC increase for the coated compressor
Marine unveiled a 63-foot (19.2-m) 18-ton Super Yacht compared with the uncoated compressor. Overall test
Magnum 63 at the 1985 Miami International Boat results show that it is feasible to utilize antifouling
Show. The craft is powered by an Allison/Stewart & compressor coatings to reduce the rate of specific fuel
Stevenson Model 501-KF gas turbine providing consumption increase associated with compressor
4,500 shp and speeds in excess of 60 knots (111 km/h). performance degradation.
Antifouling Compressor Coatings Evaluation. The
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division

U.S. Navy Ship Propulsion/Power Procurement. The U.S. Navy continues to request funding for the
procurement of the marine 501-K gas turbine. In the FY09 Department of Defense Budget submission (May 2009),
the Navy sought funds under the category "Other Procurement, Navy, BA 1: Ship Support Equipment, P-1 Item
Nomenclature = Allison 501-K Gas Turbine (81GF) (0120)."
Note: The U.S. Navy continues to refer to the manufacturer of the 501-K engine/machine as Allison.
U.S. Navy documentation contains the following information pertaining to the Allison (more accurately,
Rolls-Royce) 501-K gas turbine:
The 501-K Series Gas Turbines are used to drive electrical generators in Ship Service Gas Turbine Generators (SSGTG).
The 501-K17 is used on the CG-47 Class ships. The501-K34 is an upgraded version used on the DDG-51 Class ships and is
not interchangeable with the 501-K17.

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Page 10 Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Rolls-Royce 501-K

501-K34 Stock Rotating Spares (GF001)

The Stock Rotating Spares Program provides an engine as a single assembly for the replacement of an engine requiring depot
repair. The current 501-K17 engine is being replaced by the upgraded (more powerful) 501-K34 engine commencing with the
DDG-51 Class. The 501-K34 upgraded engine can only be replaced with another 501-K34 upgraded engine. The 501-K34
inventory objective is 22 units. All 22 units have been procured through FY 2007. In addition, the RRC-250-KS4 gas turbine
engine has been introduced into the DDG-51 Class Destroyers, as part of the starting system for the 501-K34, commencing
with DDG-78. A spare pool of 10 KS4 engines is required to ensure adequate sparing. Ten units have been procured through
Modification Program (GF007)
Allison 501-K Gas Turbines are identified as the number one fleet issue by the Top Management Attention/ Top Management
Issues (TMA/TMI) Program, the Combatant Technical Issues Conference (CTIC), and the DDG-51 Top Tech Issue Program.
Procurement of improved hardware for installation in the 501-K gas turbine is essential to increase engine reliability, Mean
Time Between Removal (MTBR), and maintainability. Analysis of 501-K engineering performance data, TMA/TMI, Metrics,
the DDG-51 Top Tech Issues, CTIC, and the component improvement program has identified necessary improvements to
correct 501-K deficiencies. The modifications will reduce failure rates of system components, improving 501-K and SSGTG
readiness, and address the Fleet's top maintenance and reliability issues. The additional requirement in FY 2007 and out will
be used to resolve additional issues identified by the TMA/TMI, Metrics, the PESC, and the DDG-51 Top Tech Issues
Programs. The specific additional issues addressed are intake systems, with a new type air filtration system that will reduce
maintenance and increase engine life.
Special Support Equipment (SSE) (GF009)
Procurement of Gas Turbine SSE is required to provide increased SIMA and depot repair capability to support the CG-47 and
DDG-51 class ships. SIMA capability is enhanced by providing them the SSE necessary to reduce engine change-outs and is
required to incorporate new modifications that will eliminate deficiencies identified through the TMA/TMI, Metrics, and the
DDG-51 Top Tech Issues Programs, and enhance MTBR reliability and maintainability. Procured SSE supports the depot by
increasing repair capability and allowing installation of new modifications that will eliminate deficiencies identified through
the TMA/TMI, Metrics, and the DDG-51 top Tech Issues Programs, and enhance MTBR reliability and maintainability.
Full Authority Digital Control (FADC) (GF015)
Funding will be used to procure and install the replacement for the Local Operating Panel with the FADC that will upgrade
reliability and maintainability of the control system. Those units will be installed on both the DDG-51 and CG-47 class ships.
Three FADCs are required on each ship. Procurements will complete in FY08.
Production Engineering (GF830)
The review and approval of any production contract technical documentation or the separate development of this
documentation to include: technical manuals, signal flow diagrams, PMS, production drawings, Provisioning Technical
Documentation (PTD), and Allowance Parts Lists (APLs) and engineering in support of final design reviews.
Electric Starter (GF016)
Gas turbines are started with pneumatic (air) starters: these are maintenance-intensive and complex. In FY06, we will start to
backfit the fleet with electric starters.
Optical Flash Detector (GF017)
This sensor will detect and record an irregular start in the engine, then notify the operator that maintenance is required. This
new technology will increase the life of the engine.
Hot Section Replacement (GF018)
The current hot section (blades and blade track) will benefit greatly by utilizing different coatings and a metal, versus a
ceramic blade track. We have evaluated several types, and will begin to procure the best replacement in FY08.
Funding for Cost Codes GF001, GF007, GF009, GF010, GF830, GF016, and GF017 is identified below, as
contained in the U.S. Navy's FY10 budget submission of May 2009.


FY08 FY08 FY09 FY09 FY10 FY10
GF001 501-K34 1 1.35 - - - -
GF007 Modific. Prog. - 6.34 - 3.48 - 6.41
GF009 Spec. Support Equip. - 0.26 - 0.26 - 0.26
GF015 FADC 15 5.85 10 4.00 10 4.00
GF830 Production Engrg. - 0.16 - 0.15 - 0.15

August 2009
Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines Page 11

Rolls-Royce 501-K

FY08 FY08 FY09 FY09 FY10 FY10

GF016 Electric Starter 2 0.56 2 0.58 2 0.58
GT017 Optical Flash Det. Sys. - - - - - -
GF018 Hot Section Replacement - - 10 2.0 10 2.0
All dollar amounts are in millions of FY09 U.S. dollars.
Beyond FY08, the total planned funding request is as follows (as of March 2009): FY09, $9.44 million; FY10, $9.4 million; and FY11,
$9.2 million.

U.S. Navy RDT&E. Funding for the Rolls-Royce Marine 501-K machine has been provided/sought under several
U.S. Navy program elements, as follows:
In 1970, PE#63508N, Ship Propulsion System (Advanced) was initiated to develop advanced gas turbine propulsion
and auxiliary power systems for U.S. naval combatants. It was the progenitor of the GE LM2500, Rolls-Royce
501-KF, AlliedSignal Garrett IE 831 (now Vericor ASE 8), Pratt & Whitney FT9, and Solar Turbines Rankine
Cycle Energy Recovery System. Recent emphasis has been on improvements to the LM2500 propulsion systems
and 501-KF generating systems, the since-canceled RACER project, and the LM3000 Intercooled, Recuperated (or
Regenerative) Cycle (ICR) gas turbine.
Allison 501-K funding has been awarded under PE#0603508N and PE#0603573N. No 501-K funding has been
awarded in PE#0603508N since FY99. Non-501-K-related funding can be found in PE#0603573N.
In the FY07 Department of Defense Budget submission (February 2006), the Navy sought funds under RDT&E
Budget Activity 7, PE#0708011N, Industrial Preparedness, Project R1050, Manufacturing Technology. Work on
the 501-K machine is contained in the first of five subefforts, "Metals Processing and Fabrication" (excluding the
FY05-FY06 congressional plus-ups).
Work identified in that PE's "Accomplishments" and "Plans," in the subeffort "Metals Processing and Fabrication,"
includes the following:
A. FY06 Accomplishments
Completed Hot Section Corrosion Protection for 501-K34 Gas Turbine effort.
B. FY07 Plans
Complete Turbine Inspection Techniques effort.
C. FY08 Plans
(No tasks specifically identifying the 501-K engine/machine).
D. FY09 Plans
(No tasks specifically identifying the 501-K engine/machine).
The following top-line funding is for all activities within Project R1050; Industrial Preparedness: Metal Processing
line is funding solely for the sub-effort Metals Processing and Fabrication.
FY08 FY08 FY09 FY09 FY10 FY10
R1050 Manuf. Technology - 59.45 - 57.32 - 56.68
(Metals Processing) - 19.72 - 12.9 - -
All dollar amounts are in millions of FY08 U.S. dollars.
Beyond FY09, the total planned RDT&E request for PE#0708011N, Project R1050, is as follows (as of May 2009): FY10, $58.92
million and FY11, $59.83 million.

©2009 August 2009

Page 12 Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Rolls-Royce 501-K

Contracts/Orders & Options

Contractor ($ millions) Date/Description
Centrax Ltd N/A Aug 2006 – Centrax has won an order from Portugal to supply a generator set to the
Continental Tyres plant in Lousado, near Porto. The CX 501-KB7 DLE package has
been sold to Enerlousado, a special-purpose Joint Venture CEM company between
Finerge and TP (Sociedade Termica Portuguese SA). The 5.2-MWe Centrax
package, powered by the Rolls-Royce 501-KB7 gas turbine, is coupled to an
oversized 15-kV generator. The size of the generator will help to counter any
instability of supply from the Portuguese electricity grid.
Centrax Ltd N/A Jun 2006 – Centrax has been awarded a contract to supply a CX501-KB7 gas
turbine-powered generator set to the Tunisian paper mill, Sotipapier. The new
5.2-MWe package is the first generator set sold by Centrax into Tunisia. The Centrax
unit is natural gas-fueled and will be used for cogeneration at the Sotipapier paper
mill in the town of Belli, which is approximately 35 kilometers southeast of Tunis.
Centrax Ltd N/A May 2006 – Centrax was awarded an order from Elyo, part of Suez Energie Services,
to supply two CX501-KB5 generator sets. The sets will be used to provide power for
Goodyear's two Goodyear Dunlop tire plants in Amiens. The Centrax packages will
be operated in a cogeneration capacity.
Centrax Ltd N/A Jan 2006 – Centrax was awarded an order for a 3.5-MWe CX501-KB5 generator set
for the INA Molve gas processing facility in Croatia. The package will be supplied
through KONCAR – Power Plant and Electric Traction Engineering Inc, which is the
project's main contractor on behalf of INA-Naftaplin, the Croatia national oil and gas
Nov 2005 – Centrax was awarded an order for a 5.2-MWe CX501-KB7 generator set
for installation at the Tunisian paper mill, Sotipapier. The gas turbine package will
supply electricity and heat, the latter to be used to generate steam for use in the
production of paper.
Centrax Ltd N/A Sep 2005 – Centrax was awarded a follow-on order for a 5.2-MWe CX501-KB7
generator set for installation at Spanish ceramics giant Taulell SA's plant near
Castellon, Spain.

Month Year Major Development
1952 Start of development of Model 501/T56 aviation turboprop engine
1956 First aero-engine application acquired
1962 First industrial 501-K installed
1971 First marine application garnered on DD-963 class
Mid- 1987 Initial AG9130s sent to Bath Iron Works
Aug 1990 First sea trial of AG9130-equipped Arleigh Burke class destroyer
Late 1990 Testing of CWS external combustor completed
Jun 1991 Allison announces work on Model 501-KB7
Late 1991 Effusion-cooled combustion liners made available
Late 1991 Pilotless dual-fuel nozzles become available
1992 Model 501-KB7 becomes available
May 1993 Catalytica and Allison announce LoI for joint program on ultra-low emission catalytic
combustion system
1994 Model 501-KB3 and Model 501-KB4 become available
1998 Model 601-K machines shipped
1998 ATS low-emissions project with DoE, Gas Research Institute begins
1998 Turbomeca becomes supplier of 501-K gensets
1999 ATS component tests begun

August 2009
Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines Page 13

Rolls-Royce 501-K

Month Year Major Development

Nov 2005 Centrax gets first order from Tunisia
2006 Launch of first ROK AG9140-equipped KDX-3 destroyer
Thru 2018 Continued production/availability of 501-K I&M series

Worldwide Distribution/Inventories
At the start of 2009, more than 2,137 Rolls-Royce 501-K series gas turbine engines had been built and installed in
43 nations and territories worldwide. Major customer nations are China (32 machines, including Hong Kong),
Canada (35), Egypt (56), France (72), India (91), Iran (65), Japan (51), Mexico (56), U.K. (59), U.S. (944), and
Venezuela (60).

Forecast Rationale
The Rolls-Royce 501-K machine series continues to Rolls-Royce's product line) secures Rolls-Royce as the
garner orders despite brisk competition from machines service and maintenance provider in multiyear
from Solar, Kawasaki, GE Oil & Gas, and Siemens AG contracts, ensuring continuity and reducing costs over
(the latter referring to the former Alstom line of the long term.
machines whose power output is less than 50 MW).
Overall, Rolls Royce is projected to produce 471 of the
Rolls-Royce has been working actively in emissions 501-K series gas turbines in the 10-year period
reduction, focusing on lean premix and catalytic 2009-2018, largely for generation/cogeneration duty. A
combustion systems (Rolls and Solar have even worked total of 114 501-K units are forecast for duty as
together on assessing the durability of various catalysts). mechanical drivers, including the 501-KC7.
The ongoing effort has made the 501 K very viable and
Our forecast contains many 501-KH5 steam-injected
competitive from an emissions perspective. In addition,
models. We feel that the time is ripe for those models.
Rolls-Royce continues to update the gas turbine with the
most current technology, including adopting aeroengine Our forecast does not break out the mechanical drive
technology. 501-KC7 from that of the 501-KC5. We have not seen
sufficient orders for that 5,500-bhp machine (as of the
The 501-K continues to be sold for electrical generation
date of this report) to warrant a separate line item in the
duty, in particular by Centrax, the U.K.-based firm that
Ten-Year Outlook chart, below.
remains in the forefront for booking the greatest number
of orders for the engine model. Even with Centrax Our forecast does not include regular series production
active, a few machines have been installed recently in of the 501-K for marine propulsion. Orders for the gas
Japan by IHI. We have not yet heard of any orders turbine for that application will most likely be twos and
booked by Turbomeca. threes at infrequent intervals in the decade.
In the mechanical drive arena, the 501-K should The AG9140s for the ROK's 7,000-ton KDX-3 class
continue to sell well, taking advantage of the large base destroyers are contained in the chart, below, under
of installed Allison/Rolls-Royce machines worldwide. "Industrial Power Generation."
With the use of Rolls-Royce's long-term service
agreements, the customer of 501-Ks (and of all of

©2009 August 2009

Page 14 Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast – Gas & Steam Turbines

Rolls-Royce 501-K

Ten-Year Outlook


Designation or Program High Confidence Good Confidence Speculative

Thru 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Total

Rolls-Royce Energy
501 (RR) -K B5 <> MW 3.0 to <10.0 <> Industrial Power Generation
1,316 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 10 10 103

501 (RR) -K B7 <> MW 3.0 to <10.0 <> Industrial Power Generation

236 20 20 20 22 22 22 20 20 20 20 206

501 (RR) -K C5 <> MW 3.0 to <10.0 <> Industrial Power Generation

31 3 0 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 48

501 (RR) -K C5 <> SHP 3,000 to <10,000 <> Mechanical Drive (Pumps & Compressors)
554 10 12 12 12 10 10 12 12 12 12 114
Subtotal 2,137 43 42 46 49 48 49 49 49 48 48 471

Total 2,137 43 42 46 49 48 49 49 49 48 48 471

August 2009
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