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7 t h BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

7 th BALKANMINE CONGRESS Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

DOI: 10.7251/BMC170701313K

STABILITY MONITORING OF THE EXISTING COLLECTOR UNDER THE FLOTATION TAILINGS DUMP VELIKI KRIVELJ (SERBIA)

Slađana KRSTIĆ 1 , Milenko LJUBOJEV 1 , Dušan TAŠIĆ 1 , Ivana JOVANOVIĆ 1 , Jasmina NEŠKOVIĆ 2 , Sanja PETROVIĆ 1

1 Mining and Metallurgy. Institute Bor, Serbia; sladjana.krstic@irmbor.co.r, milenko.ljubojev@irmbor.co.rs,. dusan.tasic@irmbor.co.rs, ivajo7@gmail.com, sanja.petrovic@irmbor.co.rs

2 Mining Institute,Zemun, Belgrade, Serbia;jasmina.neskovic@ribeograd.ac.rs

ABSTRACT

Flotation tailings dumps, in terms of environmental protection, represent a real risk on humans and the environment, regardless of whether they are in operating mode, or the process of disposal has been completed. In eastern Serbia, on the territory of Bor Municipality, there are two active flotation tailings dumps: Flotation tailings dump RTH and Flotation tailings dump Veliki Krivelj. Risk of environmental hazard can be high in one or more projected structures within the tailings dumps.

The aim of this paper is to answer the question whether the collector of the flotation tailings dump Velki Krivelj resistant to accident situations. Potential accidental situation can lead to extreme pollution of Borska reka, subsequently Timok and Kriveljska reka, and finaly Danube. Visual observation of entrance and exit portal of collector, show that the concrete structure is stable and safe in terms of functionality. Noticeably higher damages exist on spherical sections of metal coatings, and breakthrough of contaminated drainage water is present at 70th and 80th meter of the collector (chainage 0 + 200 m). The level of water is significantly increased at the exit portal of collector as well as blurring of Kriveljska Reka is observed.

Key words: monitoring of stability, existing collector under flotation tailings dump Veliki Krivelj, water of Borska Reka, Danube

1.

INTRODUCTION

Copper-sulphuric-pyrite ores are formed in veins, smaller ore bodies of irregular shape with stockwork-impregnation type of mineralization. The area around the massive-sulphide mineralization is filled with the stockwork-impregnation and wire type of mineralization [4]. The common minerals found are quartz, pyrite, chalcopyrite, galenite, enargite, and gold. These ores also contain a number of minor elements such as rhenium, cadmium, bismuth, gallium, thallium, germanium, indium, selenium, tellurium, gold, silver, ytterbium, and

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th BALKANMINE CONGRESS Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

yttrium. Considering the chemical compositions of flotation tailings, continual monitoring of dump structures is necessery.

High risk of environmental hazard is noticed for one or more projected structures of flotation tailings dump Veliki Krivelj. Oxidation of sulfate minerals leads to release of many toxic metals from the flotation tailings into solution (Fe, Cu, Cd, As, Mo, and others). The resulting solutions (acid mine drainage - AMD) is characterized by low pH (typically less than 5) and a high concentration of sulfate ions and metals [2]. Potential Health/Environmental Effects from base metals found in mine tailings and flotation tailings Veliki Krivelj are: (1) Copper (Cu) - Small amounts are considered non-toxic and necessary for human metabolism. However, large doses may induce vomiting or liver damage. Toxic to fish and aquatic life at low levels; (2) Cadmium (Cd) - Cadmium is concentrated in tissue and humans can be poisoned by contaminated food, especially fish. Cd may be linked to renal arterial hypertension and can cause violent nausea. Cd accumulates in liver and kidney tissue. It depresses growth of some crops and is accumulated in plant tissue; (3) Arsenic (As) - Highly poisonous and possibly carcinogenic in humans. Arsenic poisoning can range from chronic to severe and may be cumulative and lethal; (4) Chromium (Cr) - Cr 6+ is toxic to humans and can induce skin sensitisations. Human tolerance of Cr 3+ has not been determined; (5) Mercury (Hg) - Hg and its compounds are highly toxic, especially to the developing nervous system. The toxicity to humans and other organisms depends on the chemical form, the amount, the pathways of exposure and the vulnerability of the persons exposed; (6) Iron (Fe) - Essentially non-toxic but causes taste problems in water and (7) Zinc (Zn) - May affect water taste at high levels. Toxic to some plants and fish.

Both surface water and groundwater have the potential to be impacted by tailings disposal sites, either through surface water runoff to watercourses or leaching to groundwater. The nature and significance of such impacts will depend upon the characteristics of the waste material and the environmental setting. During the operational life of the dam the discharge of the effluent containing tailings will have been a key source of water based contamination.

2.

EXPERIMENTAL

Monitoring the state of stability of collector under the Flotation tailings dump in second half of the 2014, was carried out on the route of 0-200 metres. The picture shows the end chainage 0 + 200 m and the start of the repaired collector (Figure 1) work, that is narrowed in diameter of 1m. When you go inside that part of the collector, further continual monitoring, visit and review of panels is disabled due to the high pressure of water.

of panels is disabled due to the high pressure of water. a ) Figure 1 .
of panels is disabled due to the high pressure of water. a ) Figure 1 .

a) Figure 1. a) The start of the repaired collector; b) Exit portal of collector.

b)

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th BALKANMINE CONGRESS Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

Visual observation of concrete exit portal of collector (Figure 2 a, b), indicates that the concrete structure is stable and safe in terms of functionality [3]. Noticeably higher damages exist on spherical sections of metal coatings (Figure 3a, b), and breakthrough of contaminated drainage water is present at 70th and 80th meter of the collector (chainage 0 + 200 m) (Figure 4 a, b). The level of water is significantly increased at the exit portal of collector (Figure 5 a, b) as well as blurring of Kriveljska Reka is observed.

5 a, b) as well as blurring of Kriveljska Reka is observed. a) Figure 2 .
5 a, b) as well as blurring of Kriveljska Reka is observed. a) Figure 2 .

a) Figure 2. Visual observation of collectors.

b)

a) Figure 2 . Visual observation of collectors. b) a) Figure 3 . Collectors from 4th
a) Figure 2 . Visual observation of collectors. b) a) Figure 3 . Collectors from 4th

a) Figure 3. Collectors from 4th to 6th meter.

b)

b) a) Figure 3 . Collectors from 4th to 6th meter. b) a) Figure 4. Collectors
b) a) Figure 3 . Collectors from 4th to 6th meter. b) a) Figure 4. Collectors

a) Figure 4. Collectors from 70th to 80th meter.

b)

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The negative impact [1] on the environment caused by AMD is reflected in the long-term contamination of soils which come into contact with mine waters and accumulation of heavy metal ions in it; in mixing AMD with surface water; AMD mixing with the underground waters and their pollution, and so on. AMD represent one of the most serious threats to the aquatic world and the environment. Water from the dam "3A" of flotation tailings dump

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th BALKANMINE CONGRESS Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

Veliki Krivelj contents pollutant Cu 2+ ions 53 (mg/dm 3 ) and flows to the Kriveljska reka (Figure 5a, b). The water quality [4] of the Kriveljska reka is given for the period 2006-2017:

C u min. 0.376 (mg/dm 3 ) in 2006. max. 168.140 (mg/dm 3 ) in 2010;

Fe min. 0.200 (mg/dm 3 ) in 2007. max. 455.40 (mg/dm 3 ) in 2010;

Cd min. 0.000 (mg/dm 3 ) in 2006, 2007 and 2008. max. 0.035 (mg/dm 3 ) in 2011;

Zn min. 0.170 (mg /dm 3 ) in 2007. max. 13.040 (mg /dm 3 ) in 2010;

Ni min. 0.000 (mg /dm 3 ) in 2006 and 2008. max. 0.250 (mg /dm 3 ) in 2010;

pH min. 5.62 in 2009. max. 7.22 in 2012;

Suspended solids in 105 0 C min. 172.40 (mg /dm 3 ) in 2009. max. 460.90 (mg /dm 3 ) in

2012.

/dm 3 ) in 2009. max. 460.90 (mg /dm 3 ) in 2012. a) b) Figure

a)

/dm 3 ) in 2009. max. 460.90 (mg /dm 3 ) in 2012. a) b) Figure

b)

Figure 5. Exit portal of collector (high level of water, as well as blurring of Kriveljska reka).

4. CONCLUSION

The high degree of water pollution of Kriveljska reka at the exit portal of collector is established by visual observation. Breakthrough of contaminated drainage water (AMD) is noticed at 70th and 80th meter (chainage 0 +200 m). Is permanent monitoring of the collector of Kriveljska reka necessary in order to prevent environmental disasters? The answer is YES. Visual observation of concrete exit portal of collector show that the concrete structure is stable and safe in terms of functionality. Increasing number of damages on the cladding sheets of collector's calotte requires permanent monitoring of the collector of Kriveljska reka.

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This investigation was conducted under Project TR 330021 “Research and Monitoring the Changes of the Stress Strain State in the Rock Mass "In-Situ" around the Underground Rooms with Development of Models with Special Reference to the Tunnel of the Krivelj River and Pit Bor", funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.

REFERENCES

[1] Krstic S., Ljubojev M., Mikic M., Ljubojev V., (2011). Methods of geotechnical investigations for rehabilitation and remediation the flotation tailing dump Veliki Krivelj (Serbia), XIV Balkan mineral processing congress, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Vol. II, pp. 851-853. [2] Krstic S., Ljubojev M., Lekovski R., Ljubojev V., (2013). Geotechnical аctivites for Remediation and Reclamation the Flotation DAM1 and Flotation DAM2 Veliki Krivelj (Serbia), 13th SGEM GeoConference on Science and Technologies In Geology, Exploration and Mining, Bulgaria, Vol. 2, pp.

165-170.

[3] Krstic S., Ljubojev M., Ljubojev V., Jovanovic I., (2013). Geotechnical investigations in the DAM 2

flotation tailings Veliki Krivelj (Serbia), XV Balkan mineral processing congress, Macedonia, V 2, pp. 73-

78.

[4] Krstic S., Ljubojev M., Ljubojev V., (2015). Tunel and kolektor Krivelj River and the state of the

environment, Book of Apstract EnviroChem 2015, Serbia, pp. 283.