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DOI: 10.7251/BMC170702123J

FLOTATION CONCENTRATE

Srđana MAGDALINOVIĆ3

1

Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor, Zelenibulevar 35, 19210 Bor, Serbia; e-mail: ivajo7@gmail.com

2

Mining Institute, Batajnički put 2, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade, Serbia; e-mail:jasmina.neskovic@ribeograd.ac.rs

3

Mining and Metall. Institute Bor, Zelenibulevar 35, 19210 Bor, Serbia; e-mail: sladjana.krstic@irmbor.co.rs

milenko.ljubojev@irmbor.co.rs, srdjana.magdalinovic@irmbor.co.rs

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the results of the development and validation of predictive model, based on

ANFIS hybrid system. The model predicts values of copper recovery in flotation concentrate from the

flotation plant "VelikiKrivelj". The copper content in the feed ore, collector consumption in the rough

flotation stage and consumption of frother, were selected as independent variables. Other technical and

technological parameters, relevant for the process of flotation concentration were considered constant.

The results of the model validation showed that the model provides moderate predictions of changes in

the copper recovery.

1. INTRODUCTION

Modeling of flotation processes is not a simple task, mainly thanks to the complexity of the

process.Namely, a large number of variablesthat exist in flotation system affect the final

outcome of mineral grains separation according to differences in theirsurfaceproperties.

In general, flotation models can be divided into two large groups. These are: (1) models based

on standard mathematical equations and (2) models based on soft computing methods [1].

Although attempts to model flotation processes with classical mathematical equations are

numerous – with significant variations in approaches – previous research in this field has not

given satisfactory results. The nature of the process, based on the interaction of solid, liquid

and gaseous phases, makes the application of classical equations very difficult. According to

some researchers, each individual model is limited to precisely defined process conditions.

Furthermore, the different degree of complexity of existing models affects that the accuracy

and precision of modeling results differ from one another, even when the models are formed

on the basis of the same experimental data.By introducing more parameters into the model,

the accuracy of the results increases, but the significance of each parameter decreases [2].

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7th BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

Bearing in mind the current situation regarding the classic modeling of the flotation processes,

it is necessary to consider the possibilities of innovative approaches in this field, which are

offered by the methods of soft computing.

One of soft computing methods, used in the modeling of various flotation phenomena is

hybrid adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The architecture of this system

integrate the principles of fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks [3].The elementary idea

of the ANFIS algorithm is to construct fuzzy inference system on the basis of known

input/output data sets, where the parameters of membership functions are adjusted using the

backpropagation algorithm only, or in combination with the least squares method (hybrid

algorithm).Adjustmentsenablethe fuzzy system to learn on the basis of input/output data

sets.Possibilities of ANFIS application in modeling and control of different flotation

subsystems are described by several researchers [4-7].

2. EXPERIMENTAL

Experimental studies were carried out in virtual conditions, using MATLAB programming

language. The validation of the proposed model was performed in Microsoft Excel. The

independent variables were: the copper content in the feed ore (FCU), collector consumption

in the rough flotation stage (PXR)and consumption of frother (FRT), while the dependent

variable was the recovery of copper in final concentrate (RCU). Model development and

testing wasbased on the real process data, collected from the flotation plant "VelikiKrivelj"

during the multi-annual monitoring.

The development of a given hybrid model is performed using the ANFIS Editor GUI,within

the framework of Fuzzy Logic Toolbox software module, which applies the methodology of

neural networks in order to generate, train and test Takagi-Sugenofuzzy inference system.

During the optimization of elementary conditions of process modeling, the following two

criteria were taken into consideration:(1) resulting surfacesshould describe the real process in

the best manner, and (2) the root mean square error of training should be minimal. In this

regard, expert analysis showed that the best results were achieved in the following conditions:

- Bell membership functions were proven to be optimal for fuzzificationof input variables

(other membership functions gave recoveries higher then 1, as, in this case, recovery is

expressed in parts of 1), while the linear functionsdescribedthe output better thenthe

constants.

- Backpropagation algorithm was chosen as learning algorithm. Number of epochs was

400.

For neural network training, every second series of values of variables FCU, PXR, FRT and

RCU (corresponds to the data of one shift) is chosen from the data base – "even cases".Figure

1 shows the training data entered in the ANFIS Editor and training error trend, while Figure 2

shows the basic structure of the generated fuzzy inference system, as well as the membership

function for FCU variable.

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7th BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

Figure 2. Structure of generated fuzzy inference system and membership function for FCU variable.

Structure ofgenerated neural network is [3-9-27-1] (see Figure 3(left)). Number of nodes in

the first hidden layer corresponds to the number of membership functions belonging to each

input variable (total of 9), while the number of nodes in the second hidden layer corresponds

to the number of fuzzy rules (total of 27), where the consequence of each rule is a linear

function with different coefficients.

Figure 3 (right) shows one of the resulting surfaces generated by ANFIS.

Figure 3. Structure of neural network and dependence of the copper recovery in final concentrate on the collector

consumption and copper content in feed ore

125

7th BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

As it can be seen from the Figure 3, presented surface does not describe real dependences in

flotation process in the best way. In the observed range of values, with an increase of the

amount of collector, copper recovery in concentrate should be constantly increased. In this

case, resulting surface has a "wavy" shape.

Evaluation of the model was performed in the software package MATLAB– by entering the

real values of the process input variables from industrial flotation plant "VelikiKrivelj" and

generating corresponding outputs predicted by model. The evaluation of model was made by

forming a matrix of three independent variables and generating the column matrix for output

variable, using the module Fuzzy Logic Toolbox.

With the aim of determining the possibility of the model to reliably predict the recovery of

copper in final concentrate on the basis of the given input parameters, regression analysis is

performed in Microsoft Excel. By the regression analysis, the correlation between the actual

process values of copper recoveryand the values predictedby model is established.

Table 1, 2 and 3 show the results of the regression analysis for the formedmodel, while the

Figure 4 shows the error of predicting the copper recovery in final concentrate. Prediction

error (ε), which served as one of the criteria for assessment the predictive properties of the

model, is calculated according to formula (1):

Where:

, – predicted and real value of copper recovery, respectively

Coefficient of determination R2 0,99217

Adjusted R2 0,99164

Root mean square error 0,079921

Observations 1910

df SS MS F SF

Regression 1 1544,76 1544,76 241848,19 0

Residual 1909 12,19 0,00639

Total 1910 1556,95

C SE t p L95 U95

1,06415 0,00216 491,78 0 1,05991 1,06840

126

7th BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

After considering the results of the regression analysis shown in Table 1, it can be concluded

that the valuesof coefficients are high, which refers to the strong link between the actual and

predicted values of the copper recovery in the final concentrate. In other words, model

wellfollows changes in real values of the observed parameter related to their rise or fall over

time.

However, by visual analysis (see Figure 5), it can be concluded that the recovery values

obtained by the model are generally higher than the real ones.This is also confirmed by the

prediction error, which is mainly positive (Figure 4).

Figure 5. Prediction of the copper recovery in comparison to the training and test data

4. CONCLUSION

The results of modeling the process of flotation concentration using the hybrid system ANFIS

indicate that given model has a medium to goodpossibilities to predict the copper recovery in

the final concentrate from the plant "VelikiKrivelj". Namely, high correlation coefficient

means that the model well follows changes in the actual values of the observed parameters,

but, in the same time, predicted values do not always meet the required criteria in terms of

precision.

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This investigation was conducted under Project TR 33007 "Implementation of the modern

technical, technological and ecological design solutions in the existing production systems of

the Copper Mine Bor and Copper Mine Majdanpek", funded by the Ministry of Education,

Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.

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7th BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

REFERENCES

[1] Jovanović, I., Miljanović, I., Jovanović, T., 2015. Soft computing-based modeling of flotation processes – A

review. Minerals Engineering 84, pp. 34–63

[2] Zhang, J.G., 1989. Factors affecting the kinetics of froth flotation. PhD thesis, Department of Mining and

Mineral Engineering, University of Leeds, Great Britain, 41 p.

[3] Tahmasebi, P., Hezarkhani, A., 2012. A hybrid neural networks-fuzzy logic-genetic algorithm for grade

estimation. Computers & Geosciences 42, pp. 18–27

[4] Shahbazi, B., Rezai, B., ChehrehChelgani, S., JavadKoleini, S.M., Noaparast, M., 2013. Estimation of

diameter and surface area flux of bubbles based on operational gas dispersion parameters by using

regression and ANFIS. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology 23 (3), pp. 343–348

[5] Li, H., Chai, T., Fu, J., Wang, H., 2013. Adaptive Decoupling Control of Pulp Levels in Flotation Cells.

Asian Journal of Control 15 (5), pp. 1434–1447

[6] Wang, J.-S., Zhang, Y., 2006. Application of the soft sensing model based on the adaptive network-based

fuzzy inference system(ANFIS) to the flotation process. Journal of Hefei University of Technology 29 (11),

pp. 1365–1369

[7] Sheng, C., Wen, J., 2013. ANFIS-Based Level Control System for Flotation Column. In: Proceedings of

30th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 2013, 15-18 September, Beijing, China, pp. 4017–

4023.

128

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