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7th BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

DOI: 10.7251/BMC170702181C




Mining institute, Belgrade, Srbija,,
Rudproekt, Skopje, Macedonia,


The analysis of hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of the wider area, specifies the
methods and objects that will be used to protect the mine from surface water and groundwater. The
most important mining and objects of drenage are drainage canals and artificial reservoirs. These
facilities will be used at all stages of exploitation, but also for reclamation.

Key words: Open pit mine, Surface and underground water, object for dewatering, Macedonija


When we talk about protection against water in surface mine, we can say that ground water
inflow is minimal and will not endanger mining operations during or after the end of surface
mine exploitation.
The current area is characterised with small quantities of rainfall, big evapotranspiration,
waterproof rocks, it is not expected significant rainfall inflow. To protect against rainfall for
the period of hundred years it will be applied floor channels accepting water i drain it out of
the surface mine.
In next chapters is given summarized description of hydrological, hydrographical and hydro-
geological characteristics of terrain to grasp hydrogeological factors ruling at current research
area and affecting drainage of the working area in the surface mine.


The hydrographical network is middle developed. All water flows in the research area and
wider environment belongs to the Aegean basin and the biggest river is Gabroška River
representing the main water flow in the research area.
Hydrographical density is conditioned by type of rock masses which build this terrain where
are permeable rock providing the most of rainfall deposit fast infiltration into underground
where it forms ground water flows.

7th BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

Drainage of this water is done through springs which appear at the contact of waterproof parts
of terrain so these environments are characterised by small coefficient of the surface drainage.


Hydro-meteorological data tells that this is the warmest territory in Republic Macedonia.
Average annual air temperature is 14,5оC and absolute maximum 43, 5- 44,3оC. The number
of days with air temperature of 5-10оC is more than 230 days with air temperature over 15оC
is more than 170 days. Annual sum of rainfall for this region is between 586 – 675 mm.


We divide lithological factors according to porosity as follows:

 Wall masses of inter-granular porosity
 Wall masses of karst-cracking porosity
 Wall masses of cracking porosity
 Conditionally anhydrous parts of terrain.
The intergranular porosity occurs mainly in the walls of quaternary age such as alluvial-
proluvial and diluvial sediments. Alluvial sediments spread over major rivers and their
tributaries, and were built of sand and gravel. Thickness of these layers is of several metres
and aquifer formed in it is in direct hydraulic connection with surface water flows.
Permeability measured at wells is 15-30 m2/day and abundance 0, 5-1 l/s.
Supply is through infiltration of atmospheric sediments and hydraulic connections with pits
and it drains through wells which are used by the local inhabitants.
Proluvial and diluvial sediments are present in the wide research area. Monitoring the work of
existing wells it was concluded that abundance of the same is within the limits between 0, 5 –
2 l/s and transmissibility of 15-50 m2 /day.
Karst-cracking porosity occurs in marble and gneisses and it is of limited spreading in depth
and plan. This abundance is conditioned by the grade of cracking of the wall mass.
Supply is done through infiltration of rainfalls and it is drained through contact springs which
measured abundance is over 1 l/s.
Cracking porosity occurs in andesites and granites and together with fragile and cracked
shales makes composite cracking aquifer. Exploration drilling through these sediments
provided conclusion on presence of ground water.
Supply of aquifer is directly from rainfall infiltration through cracking wall masses. Aquifer is
drained through spring which abundance is about 0, 5 l/s.
Conditionally anhydrous parts of the terrain belong to lower Palaeozoic complex of shales and
compact gneiss which makes them waterproof.
Interrelations of hydrogeological insulators and collectors are illustrated in the figure 1:

7th BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

G-gneiss complex; S sceo – shales; -Granit.

Figure 1, Hydrogeological profile

Based on the level of ground water (NPV) it was concluded that depth to ground water level is
15.30 m, and depth changes are over 50 m.
When we talk of ground water, knowing that are dominant compact waterproof walls it will
not occur disturbance of natural conditions of ground water flow. Rainfalls that drop to the
working area will fall gravitationally over floors to the lowest level where it will be through
floor channels directed out of the working area. Considering above mentioned conditions it
can be concluded that here we have low grade of water and such conditions do not request
construction of facilities for protection against ground water.


As it is already mentioned, current territory is characterised by small quantity of rainfall, high

air temperature, big evapotranspiration, small surface drainage, due to which reasons is not
expected significant supply of surface water that could endangered mining operations.
Facilities in the area of surface mine Kazandol are: Damage lake – 1, working lake – 2,
accumulation lake – 3, external landfill, surface mine – A, surface mine – B, ore landfill for
soak in lye.

7th BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

Figure 2: Surface mine with facilities

Surface mines (A and B) do not request special objects for protection against surface water
due to lack of formation of any deep floor in the surface mine, and the lowest floor altitude is
at the terrain altitude. Working floors are compatible, follows up with terrain topography so
water flows from the floor gravitationally toward the lowest floor and then out of the surface
Landfill of the material for lye – rainfall that directly drop or flow to the area of the landfill
for ore where soak in lye is done should not be removed, on the contrary, the water will
provide the process of natural flushing of the residual material after the end of the exploitation
of the surface mine.
External landfill – tailings masses are of compacts parts of walls which during the unload
make external landfill taking natural fall. In such way are formed stable slopes of landfill
which cannot be disturbed due to rainfall.
The landfill formed as such does not request facilities construction for protection against


Damage lake (1) – embankment of the lake is constructed of homogenous alluvial sandy
material. Upstream surface of the dam and whole accumulation surface is covered with geo-
membrane resistant to chemical processes which will occur in the lake.
The dam has overflow, intake part and foundation outlet through which is enabled to empty
accumulation in 12 hours. Accumulation space is of 35 000 m3 with normal level. Between
the altitudes 134 and 132 mnm is predicted retention space of 13 000 m3 in volume for
acceptance of flood wave for 100 years water.
Working lake (2) has function to collect water used for spraying the ore at landfill.
Embankment is built of filled material with overflow defined for 100 years water (5,61 m3/s).
Foundation outlet of the dam has dividing shaft where pipeline take water to the recipient.

7th BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017

Accumulation lake (3) has function to collect water of local water flow which is used to
supply missing quantities of water during dry season.
The dam of the accumulation lake is built of the ground material. Upstream surface of the
dam and entire accumulation surface are covered with geo-membrane in order to protect
against permeability and infiltration.
The dam has overflow, intake part and foundation outlet, and for evacuation of high water
(2.27 m3/s) is predicted side overflow.
Foundation outlet of the dam has dividing shaft where pipeline take water to the recipient.
Basic concept for protection of working and after re/cultivated surface mines A and B against
intake of surface and ground water is planned on the construction of floor channels to collect
water in the lower altitude and lead it in controlled way to the working lake.


Floor channels are of trapezoid cross section and will be built in the basic material with no
delay. They are dimensioned for maximal summer rainfall intensities = 30 mm/6h and value
of the ground water supply at the lowest altitude of the surface mine of 0.32 m3/min.
Hydraulic calculation of permeability of floor channels is done by Darcy law with application
of Damjanović methodology.
For the trapezoid cross-section:

87 R F (b  mho )ho
Qk = F  v  F c R  J ; c  ;R  
1  R U b  2ho 1  m2
Where are:
F – Surface of channel cross-section (m2)
v – Water speed in channel (m/s)
c – Coefficient by Bazin
J – Channel bottom slope
R – Hydraulic radius (m)
1 – Coefficient of harshness by Bazin (for uncovered bed 1.75)
U – Wet volume (m)
b – Channel bottom width (m)
ho – Channel depth (m)
m – Slope of the side edge of channel
Should be satisfied the conditionQk 1.2 x Qu.
Table 1. Object dimensions

J ho b R U C V F
(%) (m) (m) (m) (m) (-) (m/s) (m2)
EK-1 0.2 0.61 0.44 0.3 2.33 20.83 0.51 0.71
EK-2 0.2 0.49 0.36 0.25 1.88 19.18 0.42 0.46
EK-3 6.0 0.39 0.29 0.20 1.51 17.57 1.90 0.29

7th BALKANMINE CONGRESS – Proceedings, Prijedor 2017


Regarding the fact that here is in question specific chemical method of copper extraction and
in order to monitor environmental effects of the work of surface mine, it is crucial to establish
the environment monitoring system. This will provide possibility in the early phase to
discover possible unfavourable environmental effects with conditions for successful
In the framework of the environmental monitoring system is predicted to build piezometers
for water sampling for chemical analyses in order to monitor possible change of the water
quality in comparison with starting zero condition.
Water sampling piezometers are positioned in the landfill, in the damage lake (1), in the
working lake (2), in the lake for raffinate. There would also be used two shafts positioned in
the landfill of grinder ore to monitor effects of water-hold of waterproof foil at the bottom of
the landfill.
In the first year after completed re-cultivation sampling would be done four times per year,
and further dynamics of sampling depends on the results of the chemical analyses of the water


When we talk of the facilities for protection of the working space against surface and ground
water, we can say that it is the level of water in soil that requests minimal number of facilities
and only for controlled drainage of surface water. Wall masses building the observed area,
regarding hydrological aspect, are hydrogeological insulators in the frame of which aquifer is
formed inly in the cracks or surface smashed layer. Such aquifers are of small abundance (up
to 1 l/s). The facilities for protection against ground water are not necessary and entire
concept of protection of working area against water is embedded in the facilities for collecting
and drainage of surface water or to construction of floor channels. It is crucial to form
piezometers network for sampling the water in order to monitor possible bad environmental
effects of the copper exploitation.


(Original titles of bibliographic units)

[1] Projekat rekultivacije i ureĊenja predela posle trajne obustave rudarskih radova kompleksa za proizvodnju
katodnog bakra "Kazandol" Valandovo u Makedoniji, (2017), Rudproekt Skopje i Rudarski institut
Beograd, Skopje-Beograd,
[2] Osnoven tehnološki proekt rudarski kompleks za proizvodstvo na katoden bakar-Kazandol, (2015), JORD
[3] Glaven rudarski proekt za površinska eksploatacija na bakarna ruda od ležišteto Kazandol-Valandovo,
(2015), Univerzitet Goce Delĉev-Štip,