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This Code provides minimum requirements for design and construction of

structural concrete members of any structure erected under requirements of the
legally adopted general building code of which this Code forms a part. In areas
without a legally adopted building code, this Code defines minimum acceptable
standards for materials, design, and construction practice. This Code also covers
the strength evaluation of existing concrete structures.


This Code supplements the general building code and shall govern in all
matters pertaining to design and construction of structural concrete, except
wherever this Code is in conflict with requirements in the legally adopted general
building code.

For cast-in-place footings, foundation walls, and slabs-on-ground for one- and two-family
dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) and their accessory
structures, design and construction in accordance with ACI 332 shall be permitted.

Before starting construction, the contractor shall develop a procedure and

schedule for removal of shores and installation of reshores and for calculating the
loads transferred to the structure duringthe process.

No construction loads exceeding the combination of superimposed dead

load plus specified live load shall be supported on any unshored portion of the
structure under construction, unless analysis indicates adequate strength tosupport
such additional loads.

Form supports for prestressed concrete members shall not be removed until
sufficient prestressing has been applied to enable prestressedmembers to carry
their dead load and anticipated construction loads.


Embedments of any material not harmful to concrete and within limitations

of 6.3 shall be permitted in concrete with approval of the licensed design
professional, provided they are not considered to replace structurally the displaced
concrete, except as provided in 6.3.6.

Reinforcement, including tendons, and posttensioning ducts shall be
accurately placed and adequately supported before concrete is placed, and shall be
secured against displacement within tolerances permitted in 7.5.2.

Welded wire reinforcement (with wire size not greater than W5 or D5) used
in slabs not exceeding 10 ft in span shall be permitted to be curved from a point
near the top of slab over the support to a point near the bottom of slab at midspan,
provided such reinforcement is either continuous over, or securely anchored at

Lateral reinforcement for compression members shall conform to the
provisions of 7.10.4 and 7.10.5 and, where shear or torsion reinforcement is
required, shall also conform to provisions of Chapter 11.

It shall be permitted to waive the lateral reinforcement requirements of 7.10,

10.13, and 18.11 where tests and structural analysis show adequate strength and
feasibility of construction.

Spiral reinforcement shall be spliced, if

Needed, by any one of the following methods:

(a) Lap splices not less than the larger of 12 in. and the length indicated in
one of (1) through (5) below:

(1) Deformed uncoated bar or wire .............. 48db

(2) Plain uncoated bar or wire ...................... 72db

(3) epoxy-coated deformed bar or wire........ 72db

(4) Plain uncoated bar or wire with a standard stirrup or tie hook in
accordance with 7.1.3 at ends of lapped spiral reinforcement.

The hooks shall be embedded within the core confined by the spiral

Reinforcement.......................................... 48db

(5) epoxy-coated deformed bar or wire with a standard stirrup or tie hook in
accordance with 7.1.3 at ends of lapped spiral reinforcement. The hooks shall be
embedded within the core confined by the spiral
reinforcement................................ 48db

(b) Full mechanical or welded splices in accordance with 12.14.3.

Ties shall be arranged such that every corner and alternate longitudinal bar
shall have lateral support provided by the corner of a tie with an included angle of
not more than 135 degrees and no bar shall be farther than 6 in. clear on each side
along the tie from such a laterally supported bar. Where longitudinal bars are
located around the perimeter of a circle, a complete circular tie shall be permitted.


Compression reinforcement in beams shall be enclosed by ties or stirrups

satisfying the size and spacing limitations in 7.10.5 or by welded wire
reinforcement of equivalent area. Such ties or stirrups shall be provided
throughout the distance where compression reinforcement is required.


Reinforcement for shrinkage and temperature stresses normal to flexural

reinforcement shall be provided in structural slabs where the flexural
reinforcement extends in one direction only.


Footings shall be proportioned to resist the factored loads and induced

reactions, in accordance with the appropriate design requirements of this Code
and as provided in Chapter 15.

Base area of footing or number and arrangement of piles shall be
determined from unfactored forces and moments transmitted by footing to soil or
piles and permissible soil pressure or permissible pile capacity determined
through principles of soil mechanics.

For footings on piles, computations for moments and shears shall be
permitted to be based on the assumption that the reaction from any pile is
concentrated at pile center.

External moment on any section of a footing shall be determined by passing

a vertical plane through the footing, and computing the moment of the forces
acting over entire area of footing on one side ofthat vertical plane.


Maximum factored moment, Mu, for an isolated footing shall be computed

as prescribed in 15.4.1 at critical sections located as follows:

(a) At face of column, pedestal, or wall, for footings supporting a concrete

column, pedestal, or wall;

(b) Halfway between middle and edge of wall, for footings supporting a
masonry wall;

(c) Halfway between face of column and edge of steel base plate, for
footings supporting a column with steel base plate.


Location of critical section for shear in accordance with Chapter 11 shall be

measured from face of column, pedestal, or wall, for footings supporting a
column, pedestal, or wall. For footings supporting a column or pedestal with steel
base plates, the critical section shall be measured from location defined in


Where the distance between the axis of any pile to the axis of the column is
more than two times the distance between the top of the pile cap and the top of the
pile, the pile cap shall satisfy 11.11 and 15.5.4. Other pile caps shall satisfy either
Appendix A,or both 11.11 and 15.5.4. If Appendix A is used, the effective
concrete compression strength of the struts, fce, shall be determined using

Anchorage Device:

In post-tensioning, the hardware used for transferring a post-tensioning

force from the prestressing steel to the concrete.
Anchorage Zone:

In post-tensioned members, the portion of the member through which the

concentrated prestressing force is transferred to the concrete and distributed more
uniformly across the section. Its extent is equal to the largest dimension of the
cross section. For anchorage devices located away from the end of a member, the
anchorage zone includes the disturbed regions ahead of and behind the anchorage

Base of structure:

Level at which the horizontal earthquake ground motions are assumed to be

imparted to a building. This level does not necessarily coincide with the ground
level. See Chapter 21.

Basic monostrand anchorage device:

Anchorage device used with any single strand or a single 5/8 in. or smaller
diameter bar that satisfies 18.21.1 and the anchorage device requirements of ACI

Basic multistrand anchorage device:

Anchorage device used with multiple strands, bars, or wires, or with single
bars larger than 5/8 in. diameter, that satisfies 18.21.1 and the bearing stress and
minimum plate stiffness requirements of AASHTO Bridge Specifications,
Division I, Articles through
Boundary element:

Portion along structural wall and structural diaphragm edge strengthened by

longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. Boundary elements do not necessarily
require an increase in the thickness of the wall or diaphragm. Edges of openings
within walls and diaphragms shall be provided with boundary elements as
required by 21.9.6 or See Chapter 21.

Cover, specified concrete:

The distance between the outermost surface of embedded reinforcement

and the closest outer surface of the concrete indicated on design drawings or in
project specifications.

A continuous reinforcing bar having a seismic hook at one end and a hook
not less than 90 degrees with at least a six-diameter extension at the other end.
The hooks shall engage peripheral longitudinal bars. The 90-degree hooks of two
successive crossties engaging the same longitudinal bars shall be alternated end
for end. See Chapters 7, 21.

Headed deformed bars:

Deformed reinforcing bars with heads attached at one or both ends. Heads
are attached to the bar end by means such as welding or forging onto the bar,
internal threads on the head mating to threads on the bar end, or a separate
threaded nut to secure the head of the bar The net bearing area of headed
deformed bar equals the gross area of the head minus the larger of the area of the
bar and the area of any obstruction.
Headed shear stud reinforcement:

Reinforcement consisting of individual headed studs, or groups of studs,

with anchorage provided by a head at each end or by a common base rail
consisting of a steel plate or shape.


A closed tie or continuously wound tie. A closed tie can be made up of

several reinforcement elements each having seismic hooks at both ends. A
continuously wound tie shall have a seismic hook at both ends. See Chapter 21.

Isolation joint:

A separation between adjoining parts of a concrete structure, usually a

vertical plane, at a designed location such as to interfere least with performance of
the structure, yet such as to allow relativemovement in three directions and avoid
formationof cracks elsewhere in the concrete and through which all or part of the
bonded reinforcement is interrupted.


Reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion stresses in a structural

member; typically bars, wires, or welded wire reinforcement either single leg or
bent into L, U, o rectangular shapes and located perpendicular to or at an angle to
longitudinal reinforcement. (The term “stirrups” is usually applied to lateral
reinforcement in flexural members and the term “ties” to those in compression
members.) See also Tie.

Structural diaphragm:
Structural member, such as a floor or roof slab, that transmits forces acting
in the plane of the member to the vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting
system. See Chapter 21 for requirements in the earthquake-resisting structures.

A steel element such as a wire, cable, bar, rod, or strand used to impart
prestress to concrete when the element is tensioned.

Development length:
When you have a reinforcement bar, that is no longer required to carry the
tensile forces, that is the tension is zero at that section, then you will have to
develop the bar further so that the grip between the steel and concrete makes it a
continuous structure.
Question # 3 :-

What Is The ACI Shear Requirement For Deep Beams?

Codes 11.7 is for Deep beams

 11.7.1 — The provisions of 11.7 shall apply to members with ln not exceeding
four times the overall member depth or regions of beams with concentrated loads
within twice the member depth from the support that are loaded on one face and
supported on the opposite face so that compression struts can develop between the
loads and supports.

 11Deep beams shall be designed using either nonlinear analysis as permitted in


 11.7.3 Vn for deep beams shall not exceed 10( fc’ )0.5 bwd.

 11.7.4 The area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to the flexural tension

reinforcement, Av, shall not be less than 0.0025bws, and s shall not exceed the
smaller of d/5 and 12 in.

 11.7.5 — The area of shear reinforcement parallel to the flexural tension

reinforcement, Avh, shall not be less than 0.0015bws2, and s2 shall not exceed the
smaller of d/5 and 12 in.

 11.7.6 It shall be permitted to provide reinforcement satisfying A.3.3 instead of

the minimum horizontal and vertical reinforcement specified in 11.7.4 and 11.7.5.
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and
Commentary an ACI Standard.
Reported by ACI Committee 318