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You are on page 1of 56

HEAT INTEGRATIONS

1

Learning Outcomes

After studying this topic, participants should be able to:

to compute the minimum usage of heating and cooling utilities

when exchanging heat between the hot and cold stream in a

process.

heat exchanger in a network, assuming overall heat-transfer

coefficients by applying the closest-approach temperature

difference (the Pinch in Part I) and the Composite Curve (Part II).

2

• This topic will cover:

– The “pinch”

– The design of HEN to meet Maximum Energy Recovery (MER)

targets

– The use of the Problem Table to systematically compute MER

targets

• Instructional Objectives:

Given data on hot and cold streams, you should be able to:

– Compute the pinch temperatures

– Compute MER targets

– Design a simple HEN to meet the MER targets

A Short Bibliography...

• Early pioneers:

– Rudd@Wisconsin (1968)

– Hohmann@USC (1971)

• Central figure:

– Linnhoff@ICI/UMIST (1978)

– Currently: President, Linnhoff-March

• Recommended texts:

– Seider, Seader and Lewin (1999): Process Design Principles,

Wiley and Sons, NY

– Linnhoff et al. (1982): A User Guide on Process Integration for the

Efficient Use of Energy, I. Chem. E., London

• Most up-to-date review:

– Gundersen, T. and Naess, L. (1988): “The Synthesis of Cost

Optimal Heat Exchanger Networks: An Industrial Review of the

State of the Art”, Comp. Chem. Eng., 12(6), 503-530

Introduction - Capital vs. Energy

• The design of HEN for heat integration deals with the following problem:

• Given:

• Number of hot streams (NH), with given heat capacity flowrate (C=mCp),

each having to be cooled from supply temperature THS to targets THT.

• Number of cold streams (NC), with given heat capacity flowrate (C),

each having to be heated from supply temperature TCS to targets TCT.

• Design:

An optimum network of heat exchangers, connecting between the hot and

cold streams and between the streams and cold/hot utilities (furnace, hot-oil,

steam, cooling water or refrigerant, depending on the required duty

temperature).

• What is optimal?

Implies a trade-off between CAPITAL COSTS (Cost of equipment) and

ENERGY COSTS (Cost of utilities).

A Distillation Train –

Design Without Process/Heat Integration

Inspect scope for energy saving

through heat recovery/integration...

A stream

that needs

cooling

KEY

NO. OF HEATERS = 3

NO. OF COOLERS = 2

A stream

that needs

heating

6

A Heat Recovery/Integration Problem

A “cold” stream (heat sink) A “hot” stream (heat source)

Tin

130°C 200°C 50°C

40°C

Consider heat exchange between the process streams to save hot utility

(steam) and cold utility (cooling water).

Some Definitions

T

T TT = Stream target temperature (oC)

H = Stream enthalpy (MW)

C = mCp (MW/ oC)

= Heat capacity flowrate (MW/ oC)

TS m = Stream flowrate

H Cp = specific heat capacity

H

H = mCpΔT = mCP (Tt - Ts)

How Much Heating Is Needed?

Heat Capacity Flowrate Enthalpy Change

mCP (MW/K) Q=ΔH (MW)

ΔH = mCpΔT

= mCP (Tt - Ts)

A Heater - Use Medium Pressure Steam = 2.0 (130°C - 40 °C)

= 180 MW

(release/given/donate heat)

Note: This example only involves heat, and Cp is constant

How Much Cooling Is Needed?

Heat Capacity Flowrate Enthalpy Change

mCP (MW/K) Q=ΔH (MW)

Q = mCpΔT

= mCP (Tt - Ts)

= 1.0 (50°C - 200 °C)

A Cooler - Use Cooling Water = -150 MW

(adsorbs/receive/require heat)

Heat Exchange Between Process Streams

Number Type ( °C ) ( °C ) (MW/K) (MW)

1 Cold 40 130 2.0 180

2 Hot 200 50 1.0 -150

heat exchanger

100% Saving On Cooling

Water

180 MW 30 MW

Distillation Train –

Design With Process/Heat Integration

KEY

NO. OF HEATERS = 1

NO. OF COOLERS = 0

CAPITAL AND ENERGY COST SAVINGS!

but, in the industry...

Many

Hot

Streams

Many

Cold

Streams

Heat Exchanger Network

14

Tout Tout Tout Steam

Cooling Without heat integration.

H H H Water

Tin C T

out Auxiliary network of

HEX for minimal

Tin

C Tout equipment cost ?

Tin C Tout

Tin Tin Tin

Tout Tout Tout Steam

Cooling

Water

Tin Tout

With heat integration. Tin

Tout

Interior network of

Tin Tout

HEX for minimal

energy cost ? Tin Tin Tin

Numerical Example

150o 150o 150 o Steam (400oF)

Cooling Design I:

Water (90-110oF)

o

100 100 100

Area= 20.4

CP = 1.0 300 100 200o

300o

CP = 1.0 100 200o

300o

CP = 1.0 100 200o

150o 150o 150o

0 0 0

50 50 50

CP = 1.0 CP = 1.0 CP = 1.0

o

CP = 1.0 300 100 200o

300o

CP = 1.0 100 200o

300o

CP = 1.0 100 200o

CP = 1.0 CP = 1.0 CP = 1.0

Area= 13.3

To achieve maximum energy recovery (MER)

through heat integration requires a systematic

approach in designing complex HEN, so we need

to apply:

Pinch Technology!!

Pinch Technology

HEN Design;

• HEAT RECOVERY PROBLEM

Now, design with targets

• DESIGN HEN only

• HEAT RECOVERY PROBLEM

• SET TARGETS (Energy and Capital)

• DESIGN HEN (based on these targets)

Pinch Design Targets

(Use 1st Law of Thermodynamics)

• Minimum Heating Requirement (Usually Steam Rate)

• Minimum Cooling Requirement (Usually Cooling Water Rate)

• Minimum Number of Units/Equipments?

Pinch Application - Fine Chemical

Front End Design

A traditional design (Without MER targets),

RECYCLE

4

1

steam = 1722 MW

cooling = 654 MW

water

FLASH

5

6 number of unit = 6

FEED 3 2

PRODUCT

Pinch design (with MER targets),

REACTOR Targets

RECYCLE achieved

4 steam = 1068 MW

cooling

FLASH

1 = 0 MW

water

number of unit = 4

2

3

FEED PRODUCT

21

Consider the following streams

C1

120oF 235oF

C2

180oF 240oF

H1

160oF 260oF

H2

130oF 250oF

No heat integration. Heat required by each streams,

104 Btu/hr.oF

C1 120 235 2 230

C2 180 240 4 240

H1 260 160 3 300

H2 250 130 1.5 180

Q=230x104 Btu/hr

This example only involves sensible heat with

constant Cp and ΔTmin = 10oF

1st Law of Thermodynamics (conservation of energy),

Q=ΣQH-ΣQC=[(300+180)-(230+240)]x104Btu/hr=10x104Btu/hr

2nd Law of Thermodynamics, we still need 10x104Btu/hr

to cool the hot streams.

energy required.

One Possible HEN with heat integration

6 HEX

(3 interior HEX and

3 auxiliary HEX)

Qsteam = 30+27.5

= 57.5x104Btu/hr

QCW = 67.5x104Btu/hr

Note,

Q = Qsteam-QCW

=10x104Btu/hr

So, does not violate 1st Law.

Questions:

Process Energy Targets

Process energy targets or maximum energy recovery MER

(hot (steam) and cold (cooling water) utilities requirements)

can be obtained from,

• process heat surpluses and deficits within

some specified temperature intervals

2. Graphical Method (Composite Curve Method)

• cumulative process heat availability (surplus)

• cumulative process heat requirement (deficit)

3. Using formulation/solution of linear programming

Let’s revisit

our previous example and

apply method 1

29

Method 1 : In total with 9 steps to be discussed . . . .

Step 1: Arbitrarily adjust Ts and Tt using Δtmin. This is to

avoid temperature violation of Δtmin in the subsequent

calculations. Here adjustment is by reducing only the hot

streams temperature by Δtmin=10oF

adjusted adjusted

C1 120 120 235 235

C2 180 180 240 240

H1 260 250 160 150

H2 250 240 130 120

Stream Ts(oF) Ts(oF) Tt(oF) Tt(oF)

adjusted adjusted

C1 120 120 235 235

C2 180 180 240 240

H1 260 250 160 150

H2 250 240 130 120

duplicates, and create intervals,

250=T0

240=T1 Interval 1=T0-T1=250-240

240

235=T2 Interval 2=T1-T2=240-235

180=T3 Interval 3=T2-T3=235-180

150=T4 Interval 4=T3-T4=180-150

120=T5 Interval 5=T4-T5=150-120

120

Step 3: Identify streams within each interval.

Streams in this interval

250oF

Interval 1=T0-T1=250-240 Only H1

240

Interval 2=T1-T2=240-235 H1, H2,C2

235

180

150

Interval 5=T4-T5=150-120 H2,C1

120 H1

C1 H2

Step 4: Calculate enthalpy difference between heat removed

from hot streams and heat absorbed by the cold streams

across each interval using,

Interval,i ΔT (ΣCh-ΣCc) ΔH

104Btu/hr.oF 104Btu/hr

1 (250-240) 10 3 30

4 (180-150) 30 3+1.5-2=2.5 75

Step 5: Create a cascade of temperature

intervals within which

the enthalpy differences (ΔHi) are

calculated. This is to show energy flow

between intervals.

utilities is assumed

to enter this interval initially, so

Qsteam=0 for the initial pass.

Ri=ΔHi+(Energy entering the interval).

e.g. R1=ΔH1+Qsteam

R2=ΔH2+R1

Step 6:

Set Qsteam equal the

largest negative residual

i.e. add energy at T>250oF using

low pressure steam

negative residuals must be removed

i.e. heat can’t flow from low to high T.

Step 7: Det. the pinch T and MER targets

interval 3 and 4 i.e. R3=0.

The pinch temperature is

180oF (cold stream) and 190oF (Hot stream)

energy is allowed to flow across the pinch.

60x104 Btu/hr

Note: Qsteam –QCW=-10x104 Btu/hr

36

So, MER targets:

Qsteam = 57.5x104Btu/hr

QCW = 67.5x104Btu/hr

To maintain MER targets (i.e. min. utilities),

2 separate HENs must be designed. One on

the hot side and one on the cold side of the pinch.

Hot side Cold side

Summary of cooling & heating loads for each

interval at MERs

Cooling (Hot Stream) Heating (Cold Stream)

Temperature *mCp *Q Temperature *mCp *Q

Interval i Range (oF) Btu/hr.o Btu/hr Range (oF) Btu/hr.o Btu/hr

F F

1 250-260 3 30 240-250 0 0

2 245-250 3+1.5 22.5 235-240 4 20

3 190-245 3+1.5 247.5 180-235 4+2 330

5 130-160 1.5 45 120-150 2 60

Cum. Q 480 Cum. Q 470

*Multiply by 104

Design HENs for maximum energy recovery

hot & cold utilities requirement, let’s design HENs to achieve

these targets.

at the pinch by Linnhoff and Hindmarsh.

balance between the hot stream and the cold stream

within a HEX.

Consider HEX on the hot side of

the pinch where ΔT1= ΔTmin Hot side

(Cc-Ch) ≥ 0 or Cc≥ Ch

Otherwise the ΔT2 <ΔTmin

Consider HEX on the cold side of

Cold side

the pinch where ΔT2= ΔTmin

(i.e. at the pinch) so,

(Cc-Ch) ≤ 0 or Ch≥ Cc

otherwise the ΔT1 <ΔTmin

43

Revisit our previous example

Let’s start designing the HEN on Hot side Cold side

the hot side starting at pinch (Cc≥ Ch )

and working outwards.

Matching H1:

Since CH1=3, the only choice of cold

stream is C2 where CC2 = 4.

ΔH for C2: 4(240-180)=240

provide enough cooling requirement for H1.

With resulting To = 232.5oF for C2.

i.e. 4(To-180)=210

Note: Cc≥ Ch Hot side Cold side

Matching H2:

Since CH2=1.5, we could use

stream C1 where CC1 = 2.

ΔH for C1: 2(235-180)=110

provide enough cooling requirement for H2,

with resulting To = 225oF for C1.

Add hot utilities: Hot side

Hot side Cold side

we use utility heaters with heat

duty of 20 and 30 respectively.

Note: 2(235-225)=20

heating target.

and number the HEX.

Now for HEN on

the cold side starting at pinch (Ch≥ Cc )

Hot side Cold side and working outwards.

Matching C1:

Since CC1=2, the only choice of hot

stream is H1 where CH1 = 3.

ΔH for H1: 3(190-160)=90

provide enough cooling requirement for H1.

With resulting Ti = 135oF for C1.

i.e. 2(180-Ti)=90

Hot side Cold side

Now the extra duty (30) on C1 can be

Used to cool H2:

i.e. 1.5(190-To)=30

apply at the pinch.

Cold side Add cold utilities:

T=130oF we use a utility

cooler with heat duty of 60.

Note: 1.5(170-130)=60

cooling target.

line and number the HEX.

Stream matching is

complete!

Complete stream matching at MER

Cold side

HEN after stream matching at MER

Compare…….

Compare…….

THANK YOU

53

What next?

Need to investigate the trade-off between capital

and operating costs……….

Note:

For system involving phase change and variable

heat capacity see example 10.5.

(eliminate small HEXs with slight increase in utilities)

54

Tutorial/Assignment

The following figure is proposed for HEN between four

streams. Determine if the network has the minimum utility

requirements. If not, design a network with the minimum

utility requirements. Use ΔTmin=20 for all HEX.

H2(C=8KW/oC) H1 (C=2.5KW/oC)

90oC 150oC

25oC 70oC 100oC

C2 1 2

(C=3KW/oC)

135KW 90KW

73.125oC 114C

5 C1 3 4

(C=2.5KW/oC) 135KW 127.5KW

CW 105KW

Steam

60oC 60oC

55

THANK YOU

56

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