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CHAPTER 5

HEAT INTEGRATIONS

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Learning Outcomes
After studying this topic, participants should be able to:

• To determine Minimum Energy Requirement (MER) targets; i.e


to compute the minimum usage of heating and cooling utilities
when exchanging heat between the hot and cold stream in a
process.

• To design a network to meet the MER targets; i.e to position


heat exchanger in a network, assuming overall heat-transfer
coefficients by applying the closest-approach temperature
difference (the Pinch in Part I) and the Composite Curve (Part II).

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• This topic will cover:
– The “pinch”
– The design of HEN to meet Maximum Energy Recovery (MER)
targets
– The use of the Problem Table to systematically compute MER
targets

• Instructional Objectives:
Given data on hot and cold streams, you should be able to:
– Compute the pinch temperatures
– Compute MER targets
– Design a simple HEN to meet the MER targets
A Short Bibliography...

• Early pioneers:
– Rudd@Wisconsin (1968)
– Hohmann@USC (1971)
• Central figure:
– Linnhoff@ICI/UMIST (1978)
– Currently: President, Linnhoff-March
• Recommended texts:
– Seider, Seader and Lewin (1999): Process Design Principles,
Wiley and Sons, NY
– Linnhoff et al. (1982): A User Guide on Process Integration for the
Efficient Use of Energy, I. Chem. E., London
• Most up-to-date review:
– Gundersen, T. and Naess, L. (1988): “The Synthesis of Cost
Optimal Heat Exchanger Networks: An Industrial Review of the
State of the Art”, Comp. Chem. Eng., 12(6), 503-530
Introduction - Capital vs. Energy

• The design of HEN for heat integration deals with the following problem:
• Given:
• Number of hot streams (NH), with given heat capacity flowrate (C=mCp),
each having to be cooled from supply temperature THS to targets THT.
• Number of cold streams (NC), with given heat capacity flowrate (C),
each having to be heated from supply temperature TCS to targets TCT.
• Design:
An optimum network of heat exchangers, connecting between the hot and
cold streams and between the streams and cold/hot utilities (furnace, hot-oil,
steam, cooling water or refrigerant, depending on the required duty
temperature).
• What is optimal?
Implies a trade-off between CAPITAL COSTS (Cost of equipment) and
ENERGY COSTS (Cost of utilities).
A Distillation Train –
Design Without Process/Heat Integration
Inspect scope for energy saving
through heat recovery/integration...
A stream
that needs
cooling

KEY

NO. OF HEATERS = 3

NO. OF COOLERS = 2

A stream
that needs
heating

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A Heat Recovery/Integration Problem

Stream that needs heating - Stream that needs cooling -


A “cold” stream (heat sink) A “hot” stream (heat source)

Tout Tin Tout


Tin
130°C 200°C 50°C
40°C

Steam is used for heating Cooling water is used for cooling

Consider heat exchange between the process streams to save hot utility
(steam) and cold utility (cooling water).
Some Definitions
T

TT TS = Stream supply temperature (oC)


T TT = Stream target temperature (oC)
H = Stream enthalpy (MW)
C = mCp (MW/ oC)
= Heat capacity flowrate (MW/ oC)
TS m = Stream flowrate
H Cp = specific heat capacity
H
  H = mCpΔT = mCP (Tt - Ts)

Note: If mCp is constant, the line is linear.


How Much Heating Is Needed?

A Cold Stream (that needs heating)


Heat Capacity Flowrate Enthalpy Change
mCP (MW/K) Q=ΔH (MW)

Ts = 40°C Tt = 130°C 2.0 ?

ΔH = mCpΔT
= mCP (Tt - Ts)
A Heater - Use Medium Pressure Steam = 2.0 (130°C - 40 °C)
= 180 MW
(release/given/donate heat)
Note: This example only involves heat, and Cp is constant
How Much Cooling Is Needed?

A Hot Stream (that needs cooling)


Heat Capacity Flowrate Enthalpy Change
mCP (MW/K) Q=ΔH (MW)

Ts = 200°C Tt = 50°C 1.0 ?

Q = mCpΔT
= mCP (Tt - Ts)
= 1.0 (50°C - 200 °C)
A Cooler - Use Cooling Water = -150 MW
(adsorbs/receive/require heat)
Heat Exchange Between Process Streams

Stream Stream Ts Tt mCP 


Number Type ( °C ) ( °C ) (MW/K) (MW)
1 Cold 40 130 2.0 180
2 Hot 200 50 1.0 -150

Before Integration After Integration A process to process


heat exchanger

150MW 83% Saving On Steam


100% Saving On Cooling
Water
180 MW 30 MW
Distillation Train –
Design With Process/Heat Integration

KEY

NO. OF HEATERS = 1

NO. OF COOLERS = 0

PROCESS INTEGRATION RESULTS IN


CAPITAL AND ENERGY COST SAVINGS!
but, in the industry...

Many
Hot
Streams

Many
Cold
Streams
Heat Exchanger Network
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Tout Tout Tout Steam
Cooling Without heat integration.
H H H Water
Tin C T
out Auxiliary network of
HEX for minimal
Tin
C Tout equipment cost ?
Tin C Tout
Tin Tin Tin
Tout Tout Tout Steam
Cooling
Water
Tin Tout
With heat integration. Tin
Tout
Interior network of
Tin Tout
HEX for minimal
energy cost ? Tin Tin Tin
Numerical Example
150o 150o 150 o Steam (400oF)
Cooling Design I:
Water (90-110oF)
o
100 100 100
Area= 20.4
CP = 1.0 300 100 200o
300o
CP = 1.0 100 200o

300o
CP = 1.0 100 200o
150o 150o 150o
0 0 0
50 50 50
CP = 1.0 CP = 1.0 CP = 1.0
o
CP = 1.0 300 100 200o
300o
CP = 1.0 100 200o

300o
CP = 1.0 100 200o

Design II: 500 500 500


CP = 1.0 CP = 1.0 CP = 1.0
Area= 13.3
To achieve maximum energy recovery (MER)
through heat integration requires a systematic
approach in designing complex HEN, so we need
to apply:

Pinch Technology!!
Pinch Technology

HEN Design;

Traditionally, design “As We Go”


• HEAT RECOVERY PROBLEM
Now, design with targets
• DESIGN HEN only
• HEAT RECOVERY PROBLEM
• SET TARGETS (Energy and Capital)
• DESIGN HEN (based on these targets)
Pinch Design Targets

Targets Set Ahead of Design…..


(Use 1st Law of Thermodynamics)

What are the:


• Minimum Heating Requirement (Usually Steam Rate)
• Minimum Cooling Requirement (Usually Cooling Water Rate)
• Minimum Number of Units/Equipments?
Pinch Application - Fine Chemical
Front End Design
A traditional design (Without MER targets),

REACTOR Stream Mixing


RECYCLE
4

1
steam = 1722 MW
cooling = 654 MW
water
FLASH

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6 number of unit = 6

FEED 3 2
PRODUCT
Pinch design (with MER targets),

REACTOR Targets
RECYCLE achieved

4 steam = 1068 MW
cooling
FLASH
1 = 0 MW
water
number of unit = 4
2

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FEED PRODUCT

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Consider the following streams
C1
120oF 235oF

C2
180oF 240oF

H1
160oF 260oF

H2
130oF 250oF

Lets say we know mCp for each stream, so;


No heat integration. Heat required by each streams,

Stream Ts(oF) Tt(oF) mCp Q(104Btu/hr)

104 Btu/hr.oF
C1 120 235 2 230
C2 180 240 4 240
H1 260 160 3 300
H2 250 130 1.5 180

Note: for C1, mCp=2x104 Btu/hr.oF


Q=230x104 Btu/hr
This example only involves sensible heat with
constant Cp and ΔTmin = 10oF
1st Law of Thermodynamics (conservation of energy),
Q=ΣQH-ΣQC=[(300+180)-(230+240)]x104Btu/hr=10x104Btu/hr

So, after heat integration and provided no violation of


2nd Law of Thermodynamics, we still need 10x104Btu/hr
to cool the hot streams.

However, this this value is usually not the minimum


energy required.
One Possible HEN with heat integration

6 HEX
(3 interior HEX and
3 auxiliary HEX)
Qsteam = 30+27.5
= 57.5x104Btu/hr
QCW = 67.5x104Btu/hr

Note,
Q = Qsteam-QCW
=10x104Btu/hr
So, does not violate 1st Law.
Questions:

How do these QH and QC compare with MER targets?


Process Energy Targets
Process energy targets or maximum energy recovery MER
(hot (steam) and cold (cooling water) utilities requirements)
can be obtained from,

1. Problem Table Algorithm or Temperature-Interval Method


• process heat surpluses and deficits within
some specified temperature intervals
2. Graphical Method (Composite Curve Method)
• cumulative process heat availability (surplus)
• cumulative process heat requirement (deficit)
3. Using formulation/solution of linear programming

Here, we will cover methods 1 and 2.


Let’s revisit
our previous example and
apply method 1

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Method 1 : In total with 9 steps to be discussed . . . .
Step 1: Arbitrarily adjust Ts and Tt using Δtmin. This is to
avoid temperature violation of Δtmin in the subsequent
calculations. Here adjustment is by reducing only the hot
streams temperature by Δtmin=10oF

Stream Ts(oF) Ts(oF) Tt(oF) Tt(oF)

adjusted adjusted
C1 120 120 235 235
C2 180 180 240 240
H1 260 250 160 150
H2 250 240 130 120
Stream Ts(oF) Ts(oF) Tt(oF) Tt(oF)
adjusted adjusted
C1 120 120 235 235
C2 180 180 240 240
H1 260 250 160 150
H2 250 240 130 120

Step 2: Rank all the adjusted temperatures and eliminate


duplicates, and create intervals,

250=T0
240=T1 Interval 1=T0-T1=250-240
240
235=T2 Interval 2=T1-T2=240-235
180=T3 Interval 3=T2-T3=235-180
150=T4 Interval 4=T3-T4=180-150
120=T5 Interval 5=T4-T5=150-120
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Step 3: Identify streams within each interval.
Streams in this interval
250oF
Interval 1=T0-T1=250-240 Only H1
240
Interval 2=T1-T2=240-235 H1, H2,C2
235

Interval 3=T2-T3=235-180 H1,H2,C2,C1

180

C2 Interval 4=T3-T4=180-150 H1,H2,C2,C1


150
Interval 5=T4-T5=150-120 H2,C1
120 H1
C1 H2
Step 4: Calculate enthalpy difference between heat removed
from hot streams and heat absorbed by the cold streams
across each interval using,

ΔH=ΣΔHh -ΣΔHc =(ΣCh-ΣCc)ΔT

Interval,i ΔT (ΣCh-ΣCc) ΔH

104Btu/hr.oF 104Btu/hr

1 (250-240) 10 3 30

2 (240-235) 5 3+1.5-4=0.5 2.5

3 (235-180) 55 3+1.5-4-2=-1.5 -82.5

4 (180-150) 30 3+1.5-2=2.5 75

5 (150-120) 30 1.5-2=-0.5 -15


Step 5: Create a cascade of temperature
intervals within which
the enthalpy differences (ΔHi) are
calculated. This is to show energy flow
between intervals.

For interval 1, no energy from hot


utilities is assumed
to enter this interval initially, so
Qsteam=0 for the initial pass.

Calculate a residual (R) using,


Ri=ΔHi+(Energy entering the interval).

e.g. R1=ΔH1+Qsteam
R2=ΔH2+R1
Step 6:
Set Qsteam equal the
largest negative residual
i.e. add energy at T>250oF using
low pressure steam

This is to satisfy 2nd Law, all the


negative residuals must be removed
i.e. heat can’t flow from low to high T.

Recalculate residuals for each interval.


Step 7: Det. the pinch T and MER targets

Notice now that no energy flow between


interval 3 and 4 i.e. R3=0.

This is referred to as the pinch.


The pinch temperature is
180oF (cold stream) and 190oF (Hot stream)

So to maintain minimum utilities, no


energy is allowed to flow across the pinch.

Also cold utility duty is QCW is


60x104 Btu/hr
Note: Qsteam –QCW=-10x104 Btu/hr

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So, MER targets:

Qsteam =50x104 Btu/hr

QCW = 60x104 Btu/hr

Compare with the previous HEN,

Qsteam = 57.5x104Btu/hr
QCW = 67.5x104Btu/hr

Heat Exchanger Network


To maintain MER targets (i.e. min. utilities),
2 separate HENs must be designed. One on
the hot side and one on the cold side of the pinch.
Hot side Cold side
Summary of cooling & heating loads for each
interval at MERs
Cooling (Hot Stream) Heating (Cold Stream)
Temperature *mCp *Q Temperature *mCp *Q
Interval i Range (oF) Btu/hr.o Btu/hr Range (oF) Btu/hr.o Btu/hr
F F

1 250-260 3 30 240-250 0 0
2 245-250 3+1.5 22.5 235-240 4 20
3 190-245 3+1.5 247.5 180-235 4+2 330

4 160-190 3+1.5 135 150-180 2 60


5 130-160 1.5 45 120-150 2 60
Cum. Q 480 Cum. Q 470
*Multiply by 104
Design HENs for maximum energy recovery

Now that we know the pinch temperatures and the minimum


hot & cold utilities requirement, let’s design HENs to achieve
these targets.

Here we will only use method of stream matching


at the pinch by Linnhoff and Hindmarsh.

This method starts with the understanding of basic energy


balance between the hot stream and the cold stream
within a HEX.
Consider HEX on the hot side of
the pinch where ΔT1= ΔTmin Hot side

(i.e. at the pinch) so,

To ensure ΔT2 ≥ ΔTmin,


(Cc-Ch) ≥ 0 or Cc≥ Ch
Otherwise the ΔT2 <ΔTmin
Consider HEX on the cold side of
Cold side
the pinch where ΔT2= ΔTmin
(i.e. at the pinch) so,

To ensure ΔT1 ≥ΔTmin,


(Cc-Ch) ≤ 0 or Ch≥ Cc
otherwise the ΔT1 <ΔTmin

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Revisit our previous example
Let’s start designing the HEN on Hot side Cold side
the hot side starting at pinch (Cc≥ Ch )
and working outwards.

Matching H1:
Since CH1=3, the only choice of cold
stream is C2 where CC2 = 4.

ΔH for H1: 3(260-190)=210


ΔH for C2: 4(240-180)=240

So the heat duty of 210 from C2 will


provide enough cooling requirement for H1.
With resulting To = 232.5oF for C2.
i.e. 4(To-180)=210
Note: Cc≥ Ch Hot side Cold side

Matching H2:
Since CH2=1.5, we could use
stream C1 where CC1 = 2.

ΔH for H2: 1.5(250-190)=90


ΔH for C1: 2(235-180)=110

So the heat duty of 90 from C1 will


provide enough cooling requirement for H2,
with resulting To = 225oF for C1.
Add hot utilities: Hot side
Hot side Cold side

To bring C1 and C2 to its target T


we use utility heaters with heat
duty of 20 and 30 respectively.

Note: 2(235-225)=20

The total Qh=50 matches the MER


heating target.

Link the streams with vertical line


and number the HEX.
Now for HEN on
the cold side starting at pinch (Ch≥ Cc )
Hot side Cold side and working outwards.

Matching C1:
Since CC1=2, the only choice of hot
stream is H1 where CH1 = 3.

ΔH for C1: 2(180-120)=120


ΔH for H1: 3(190-160)=90

So the heat duty of 90 from C1 will


provide enough cooling requirement for H1.
With resulting Ti = 135oF for C1.
i.e. 2(180-Ti)=90
Hot side Cold side
Now the extra duty (30) on C1 can be
Used to cool H2:

With resulting To = 170oF for H2.


i.e. 1.5(190-To)=30

Note the pairing rule (i.e. Ch≥ Cc ) only


apply at the pinch.
Cold side Add cold utilities:

To bring H2 to its target


T=130oF we use a utility
cooler with heat duty of 60.

Note: 1.5(170-130)=60

The Qc=60 matches the MER


cooling target.

Link the streams with vertical


line and number the HEX.

Stream matching is
complete!
Complete stream matching at MER
Cold side
HEN after stream matching at MER

Min. duties with 7 HEXs……


Compare…….

Extra duties with only 6 HEXs….


Compare…….

THANK YOU

Extra duties with only 6 HEXs….

Heat Exchanger Network


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What next?
Need to investigate the trade-off between capital
and operating costs……….

Also see example 10.7

Note:
For system involving phase change and variable
heat capacity see example 10.5.

See section 10.4 on how to minimize number of HEXs


(eliminate small HEXs with slight increase in utilities)

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Tutorial/Assignment
The following figure is proposed for HEN between four
streams. Determine if the network has the minimum utility
requirements. If not, design a network with the minimum
utility requirements. Use ΔTmin=20 for all HEX.
H2(C=8KW/oC) H1 (C=2.5KW/oC)
90oC 150oC
25oC 70oC 100oC
C2 1 2
(C=3KW/oC)
135KW 90KW
73.125oC 114C

20oC 74oC 125oC


5 C1 3 4
(C=2.5KW/oC) 135KW 127.5KW
CW 105KW
Steam
60oC 60oC

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THANK YOU

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