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Disaster Prevention and Management

Emerald Article: Institutional framework, key stakeholders and community

preparedness for earthquake induced disaster management in Balochistan
Syed Ainuddin, Jayant Kumar Routray

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To cite this document: Syed Ainuddin, Jayant Kumar Routray, (2012),"Institutional framework, key stakeholders and community
preparedness for earthquake induced disaster management in Balochistan", Disaster Prevention and Management, Vol. 21 Iss: 1 pp.
22 - 36
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Institutional framework, key
stakeholders and community
preparedness for earthquake
22 induced disaster management
in Balochistan
Syed Ainuddin
Regional and Rural Development Planning, Asian Institute of Technology,
Bangkok, Thailand, and
Jayant Kumar Routray
Regional and Rural Development Planning, and Disaster Preparedness,
Mitigation and Management (Interdisciplinary Academic Programme),
Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand
Purpose – Balochistan is one of the earthquake disaster prone areas in Pakistan. Earthquakes
adversely affect people and their economy, therefore disaster preparedness especially at the
community level is imperative to avoid future damages. The purpose of this paper is to examine the
issues associated with community preparedness in earthquake prone areas and recommend upgrading
the community preparedness, and improving coordination between provincial and national agencies
during disasters and seismic emergencies.
Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on field visits. Observations, key informant
interviews and group discussions were conducted to analyze the preparedness, both at community and
organizational levels.
Findings – Disaster impacts are still handled by provincial level organizations in Balochistan.
Disaster management authorities do not implement any activities related to preparedness at local
levels, and focus more on reactive and top-down approaches. On the other hand, community is
vulnerable to multiple hazards associated with earthquakes. The study reveals that the available
institutional framework does not meet community needs. Both the government institutes and
communities are not well prepared, therefore communities get affected from time to time due to
earthquake hazards in Balochistan.
Practical implications – Disaster management authorities should implement projects and activities
at the local levels to empower communities for disaster preparedness and for disaster risk reduction.
Originality/value – The paper concludes that for efficient preparedness the coordination should be
improved between the provincial and national level agencies and community preparedness needs to be
enhanced for upgrading people’s awareness and defensive mechanism for safeguarding their lives
with reference to seismic emergencies.
Keywords Pakistan, Earthquakes, Natural disasters, Disaster management, Community planning,
Community preparedness, Stakeholders, Balochistan
Paper type Research paper

Disaster management is becoming one of the focussed and in dispensary fields in the
Disaster Prevention and Management
Vol. 21 No. 1, 2012
development arena today since disasters are occurring at unprecedented scale. The
pp. 22-36 Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) disaster database
r Emerald Group Publishing Limited
EM-DAT shows that the number of reported natural disasters has increased from 1974
DOI 10.1108/09653561211202683 to 2003 and the number of people affected has followed more or less the same pattern of
increase. Based on scientific explanations and evidences, it is felt that the global Disaster
climate variability will increase the number of frequent natural disasters such as management in
floods, droughts and cyclones. Population growth and inability of the poor to escape
from poverty makes clear that there would be more people vulnerable to natural Balochistan
A natural hazard only becomes disaster when it affects a human population that’s
vulnerable (Uitto, 1998). They were regarded as punishments of the god in the past but 23
today they are considered as unsolved problems of development (Leon and Villagran,
2006). Asia is the region hardest hit by disaster and in the year 2007, 37 percent of
reported disasters occurred in Asia (Scheuren et al., 2007) and they will occur in the
future as well due to urbanization and poverty which force the people to live in hazard
prone areas (Hossain, 2002; Jackson, 2006). If steps are not taken now, disasters will
occur at unprecedented scale (Bilham and Hough, 2006).
The word vulnerability is regularly deployed in disasters. Several authors
distinguish between social vulnerability, which focusses on the susceptibility of
humans and conditions necessary for their survival and adaptation. Disaster
vulnerability is socially constructed (Morrow, 1999). In contrast the biophysical
vulnerability is developed from global environmental change research where the
concept is used to describe the extent to which a system is vulnerable to adverse affects
of climate change (WBGU, 2005 in Birkmann, 2006). Vulnerability is the characteristics
and circumstances of country, system or asset make it more fragile and susceptible to
the damaging and disastrous effects of hazard (United Nations International Strategy
for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), 2009) but the term vulnerability has become vague
and abused (Cannon, 2008). Several methodologies are being used by scholars for
assessing the earthquake vulnerability. Theses include the mapping, geo-informatics
and scenario modeling of risk and loss estimations for future earthquakes. For physical
vulnerability assessment scenario modelings of future earthquake are being used
(Tantala et al., 2008; Gupta et al., 2006). Ansal et al. (2009) used geo-informatics for
earthquake loss estimation, while for social vulnerability assessment, authors have
used risk perception, disaster planning and preparedness methods (Turner et al., 1981).
Pakistan’s exposure to earthquakes can be ranked between moderate to severe
(National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), 2007) and lies in high seismic
region (Halvorson and Hamilton, 2007; Bilham and Hough, 2006; Pakistan
Meteorological Department (PMD), 2007). Quetta city, which is the capital of the
Balochistan, lies in an active seismic region. In Pakistan, disaster management has still
top-down and reactive approaches that focusses more on post-disaster emergency and
relief activities. Urbanization has pushed the people to live in hazard prone areas
(NDMA, 2007). The study attempts to investigate the issues associated with the
community preparedness to cope with large-scale seismic emergencies in Balochistan.

Natural hazards in Pakistan

Pakistan is situated in hazard prone region of the world. The natural hazards include
cyclones, earthquakes, floods, glacier outbursts, droughts, landslides, tsunami and
epidemics. The frequency of natural disasters in Pakistan from 1954 to 2004 indicate,
that flood is the most likely happening disaster followed by earthquakes and wind
storms, respectively (NDMA, 2007). Table I shows the number and effects of major
geophysical and hydro-meteorological hazards in Pakistan for the last two decades.
The Indian plate is moving northwards and sub-ducting under the Eurasian plate,
thus triggering earthquakes. Pakistan has experienced many disastrous earthquakes
DPM Damage in
21,1 No. of Persons Affected million
Hazard type Year events killed People Villages rupees

Earthquakes 1990 (magnitude 6.1) 1 15 na na na

2000 (magnitude 6) 1 20 456 na na
24 2005 (magnitude 7.6) 1 86,000 108,000 þ na na
2008 (magnitude 6.4) 1 166 68,200 na na
Drought 1999-2001 1 143 2,200,000 na na
Flood 1992 1 1,008 na 13,208 69,580
1995 1 591 na 6,852 8,698
2001 1 219 na 50 450
2003 1 484 na 4,376 5,175
2004 1 85 na 47 15
2005 1 59 na 1,931 na
2006 1 541 na 2,477 na
2007 1 586 na 6,498 na
Storms 1999 2 258 657,566 na na
2001 1 4 500 na na
2003 1 51 2,557 na na
Table I. 2005 1 57 na na na
Major geophysical and
hydro-meteorological Note: na, data not available
hazards in Pakistan Sources: Federal Flood Commission (2007), Provincial Disaster Management Plan Balochistan (2009),
(last 20 years) Haider (2006), CRED (2010), Ahmad et al. (2004)

through out historical times. The recent Kashmir earthquake in 2005 has enhanced the
consciousness about the increasing vulnerability. According to the latest study on
earthquake seismic hazard analysis, it reveals that the following areas in the country are
highly vulnerable to future earthquakes. These include northern part, Chitral, Kashmir,
Muzaffarabad, Quetta, Chman, Sibi, Zhob and Makran coast as shown in Figure 1.
According to PMD, 58 damaging earthquakes occurred through out the history of
Pakistan (PMD, 2007). Five major disastrous earthquakes have been occurred in the
country from 1905 to 2008, which had damaged both the properties and human lives.
Among theses five major earthquakes, the first one was in 1905 that hit the
northwestern Himalayas with magnitude of 8.0. More than 20,000 people were killed,
and 10,000 buildings were destroyed. The second one occurred in Quetta in 1935 with
magnitude of 7.7, which killed 35,000 people and destroyed the whole city. The third
catastrophic earthquake occurred near Makran coast with magnitude of 8.0. This also
killed 4,000 people. The fourth and the most damaging earthquake occurred in 2005
with magnitude of 7.6. The earthquake hit the northeastern part of the country and
killed 86,000 people and more than 3.5 million people got affected (PMD, 2007).

Institutional framework of disaster management in Pakistan

National Disaster Management Commission was established immediately after 2005
Kashmir earthquake. The commission is the highest policy and decision-making body
for disaster risk management in the country. Since disaster risk is multi-sectoral
that requires timely response, hence NDMA was established to serve as focal point
and coordinating body to facilitate the implementation of disaster strategies. The
provincial government has the authority to form the Provincial Disaster Management
Seismic zones of Pakistan Disaster
management in


Figure 1.
Seismic zonation of
Source: Center Quetta, Meterological Department of Pakistan Geophysical

Commission, which is chaired by the Chief Minister. Provincial Disaster

Management Authority (PDMA) is headed by the Provincial Director General.
District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) is established by the Provincial
government in the hazard prone areas on a priority basis. This authority will be headed
by Nazim (district chief)[1] of the district. Authority at the town or tehsil level is the
frontline organization of disaster risk reduction and response. This is the lowest level
of administration. Tehsil and town Nazims[2] lead the risk and response operations
with the help of tehsils and town officers in consultation with DDMA. Union councils
are the lowest tire in the governance system.
Theses bodies have important roles in allocation of resources for local development
works. Union councils can play important role in advocating demands of communities to
the district councils and disaster management authorities. In order to promote
community level disaster risk management activities, the capacity of existing
community organization can be improved by the district and town authorities (Figure 2).
Research methodology
The study is basically exploratory in nature based on both secondary and primary
sources of data and information. Both data sets were used in order to understand the
disaster management institutional framework, and investigate the issues associated
with the community preparedness for earthquake hazards both at the community and
organizational levels. Secondary data are important for the understanding of overall
situation and assessing the earthquake preparedness and emergency management
issues. The data were collected from various institutions responsible for disaster
management specifically on earthquakes. The other sources include journal articles,
books, training manuals and other government reports, documents from national to
district levels such as seismic maps, statistical records, etc. Primary data were collected
in the field from the community and key informants by conducting face-to-face
interviews. The key informants were the persons representing union and districts
Nazim offices and selected community leaders and members. The focus of such
discussions was to identify the problems associated with earthquake, understand
DPM National Disaster
Management Commission
National Disaster Provincial Disaster
Management Authority Management Commission
Donors, UN,
NGOs, Media
26 Federal ministries,
Provincial Disaster banks,
Management Authority insurance,
technical agencies

Technical and District Disaster

research institutions Management Authority
of the Federal
Tehsil structures

Figure 2. Community based

organizations, citizen
Institutional framework community boards Union Council
of disaster management
in Pakistan
Source: National Disaster Management Authority 2007

about preparedness and emergency management. The research is mostly qualitative

and descriptive in nature with statements and discussion outputs.
Selection of key informants and group participants
The key informants were selected from the government and other organizations, who
were directly involved in the disaster management process at the provincial, district
and union councils. In addition to that other key informants were also selected among
the community members representing three age groups from (15-25, 25-50 and more
then 50) in consultation with the union chief (Union Nazim).
Multi-level key stakeholders in the disaster management
Disaster risk management is a multi-disciplinary and timely response undertaking.
NDMA has been established to serve as the focal point and coordinating body to
facilitate implementation. This necessitates NDMA to directly communicate with all
stakeholders. All stakeholders have their responsibilities and functions with relation to
disaster risk reduction, preparedness, response and recovery after disasters. Not each
stakeholder has a role in each phase of disaster risk reduction while others are more
related to disaster preparedness and response. It is expected that each stakeholder
would develop their own organizational strategies and plans for disaster risk
reduction, response and recovery. These plans would include the detailed information
about risk, vulnerabilities and resources allocated by sectors. Each stakeholder is
expected to submit the organizational plans to NDMA to ensure the coordination. The
respective disaster management authority would provide technical guidance to
stakeholders in carrying out their functions. Stakeholders must develop technical
capacities in order to perform their functions. A key stakeholder analysis is presented
focussing earthquake emergency management in Pakistan. The key stakeholders
include the communities, local, national, international NGOs, agencies and government
organizations. Their respective roles and responsibilities in emergencies and
operational systems, activities with strength and weakness are synthesized in the
Table II below from multi-national level to national and finally to the community levels.
Operational Remarks
Stakeholder Level of operation Role/responsibility with major activities approaches Strength Weakness

Emergency relief cell National and Develops polices and arrangement for Partnership with Red Sufficient relief items Centralized stockpiling and
provincial levels relief Items Cross, Civil Defence, for emergencies poor distribution networks
Receives international assistance Departments and and methods
Procures relief items Agencies of Pakistan
Stockpiling/storage of relief items
Crisis management National and Manages the (round the clock) National and Exists at national and Does not exist at the district
cell provincial levels operational control room and gather provincial levels provincial levels and and community levels for
information of all emergencies contributes for crisis which the local institutions
Provides information about emergencies management are isolated, while managing
emergency and crisis
Fire services National, provincial Maintains fighting machineries National, provincial Not known Limited number of units and
and district levels Deploys fighting teams and district levels inadequate personnel
Fire brigades and fighting teams
Pakistan Red Cross National and Develops disaster management plans at Partnership with Work at the Need to strengthen the
provincial, district district level PDMA and other grassroots levels and coordination with other
and community levels Response organizations efficient in response similar organizations
Deploys teams of volunteers in engaged in this activity
Defence National, provincial Equips military response teams to Independent Efficient and quick Poor coordination with,
and district levels perform several tasks during emergency operation response government, NGOs and other
Response teams for search and rescue local level organizations
Deploy armed forces in disaster response
upon receipt of instruction from NDMA
Balochistan rural National, provincial, Helps PDMA and UNDP in response to Partnership with Efficient in relief Not known
support program district and the disaster impacts in the province PDMA and other distribution
community levels Relief and supply of food items organizations

emergency management

Key stakeholder in

Table II.
management in

Table II.
Operational Remarks
Stakeholder Level of operation Role/responsibility with major activities approaches Strength Weakness

Office for coordination National and Organizes emergency response in wake At cluster level Motivate NDMA and Not known
of humanitarian provincial levels of major disasters other organizations
agency, Islamabad Launches appeals to mobilize resources for response
Emergency Response
Assists NDMA and PDMA
UNICEF Islamabad Provincial, national, Training and service provider to enhance Partnership with Efficient in reaching Not known
district levels delivery of public services to address the PDMA and health out the needy and
needs of vulnerable communities departments vulnerable ones
Food aid security in emergencies and
reaching to the most vulnerable ones
World Health National, provincial Provides medical assistance in case of Partnership with Provision of sufficient Not known
Organization and district levels disasters PDMA and health medical staffs
Islamabad Teams of doctors in disaster emergencies care organizations
National level
Federal relief National level Coordination with government National level Information Poor coordination with
commission ministries, local and international dissemination national NGOs and local
organizations government
Relief and rescue
Space and upper National level Provides services in weather and disaster Individual basis Advanced Need to expand at the
atmospheric research forecasting, using GIS and remote technological system provincial and district levels
commission sensing technologies and use of latest tools for mapping of disaster prone
Provides images of disaster hit areas and techniques areas
Telecommunication National level Provides safety communication in Individual basis with Supports and Operational capacity is low
and information disaster hit areas coordination of provides technical and need be expanded
technology Facilitates telecommunication during PDMA and Ministry assistance
disaster of Information &
Provincial level
Provincial relief Provincial Provides funds for relief items Partnership with local Institutional Poor coordination with NGOs
department Supervision of relief goods NGOs and CBOs mechanism exists
from provincial to
local level
Operational Remarks
Stakeholder Level of operation Role/responsibility with major activities approaches Strength Weakness

Emergency operation Provincial Provides coordination and Partnership with Exists at provincial Poor coordination with GOs
center communication during emergencies other agencies level only and NGOs during emergency
Local, community level
Community-based Local Helps communities in search and rescue In groups with Focusses on needy No coordination with NGOs
organizations Provide s relief items collective approach and vulnerable groups and PDMA
communities with
strong social ties
Community members Local Helps each other in any disaster search, With in the Openness to help each Lack of community
rescue and relief neighborhoods other awareness and preparedness
Source: Primary Field Survey Data, 2009



Table II.
management in
DPM Roles in building community preparedness and coping strategies
21,1 Pakistan is among those countries, which is vulnerable and prone to disasters,
particularly natural disasters. Therefore the government of Pakistan has formulated
various policies and legislative measures from time to time to respond effectively
during disasters. Disaster policy starts from the National Disaster Management
Commission which goes down to provincial, district and finally to the union council
30 levels. Apart from that government agencies and departments, the international NGOs
and agencies are also involved in the whole spectrum of disaster management in
formulating the disaster risk strategies. The role of institutions in disaster
management is crucial and can play a vital role in reducing the vulnerabilities,
particularly in the area of community preparedness, which is an essential process to
address the disaster risk strategies at the grassroots levels and take initiatives for
disaster risk reduction as they are always the first responders to disasters. Institutions
in Pakistan have neither learnt any lesson nor can provide experts and professional
services in the field of disaster management, even after passing through a number of
catastrophic disasters over last four to five decades. To achieve disaster management
goals and objectives, in October 2006, the NDMA was established, which envisaged an
organizational structure on provincial as well as on district levels. But after two years
of its establishment, the priorities have been given to develop the framework, which is
still confined within the authority. Though, the framework is a well-written and
articulated document that exists at federal level, but failed to percolate down below
(district and union council), as the responsibility of implementation of such policies lies
on the shoulders of local district administration. Majority of the district officials are not
well aware about the existence of such a document. The NDMA should clearly define
the role and responsibilities of various departments and authorities at the district level
with better institutional coordination. In building community preparedness and coping
strategies it is the responsibility of national government and institutes of disaster
management to streamline the disaster preparedness activities, information sharing in
order to raise the level of community awareness through programs focussed on
disaster preparedness. This needs a well-coordinated mechanism between national,
international and provincial agencies with active participation of the community. A
synthesis of key informants’ interviews is presented in the Table III, which shows the
role, perception, strengths and weakness of different institutions, NGOs and
community in disaster preparedness and copping strategies to reduce the
community vulnerability from the impact of earthquake disaster in Balochistan.

Community preparedness issues and challenges

The primary data reveals that the community is located at the foothill slope of Murdar
Mountain in the eastern side of the district. Due to its location the community is not
only vulnerable to earthquake but also to secondary hazards associated with
earthquakes. Its vulnerability is increasing due to population growth, uncontrolled
development of the city, poverty as well as poor implementation of building
regulations. The community is confronted with the following issues in terms of
earthquake disaster preparedness:
. No coordination between the provincial and district agencies involved in disaster
preparedness activities on community level.
. Community is located in the earthquake hazard prone area.
. Non-availability of CBOs which can work for community during disasters.
Name of the
organization Position Perception/understanding Weakness Recommendation

Provincial Disaster Deputy Director Disaster management is still in No implementation of DM Need to implement DM authorities
Management Authority the initial stage authorities at district and community levels
No projects deals with risk Poor preparedness Need to review the Risk &
assessment Risk assessments Preparedness Plans regularly
District Government Nazim To update the master plan of Poor implementation of To implement and adjust the
the district building regulation building codes
Implement building regulations Enforcement of strict building To improve coordination with the
codes provincial as well as with the
Union Council (UC) Union Council Nazim The district and provincial No activities of preparedness Need to implement disaster
Governments don’t involve UC exist at union council level management strategies at union
in decision making regarding council level
disasters Need to start awareness activities
Civil Defence Chief Director Replacement of civil defence by Poor human and technical Need to streamline civil defense
many agencies resources To take active part in disaster
DMA has been failed Poor involvement in DM management
Balochistan Rural Manger of Social Sector DM authority has been failed as Only focus on relief operation To improve coordination with other
Support Program & Relief Operation per its mandate No programs on preparedness agencies
BRSP is leading in relief Need to focus disaster
operation preparedness activities
Muslim Aid Adman Executive Focus on relief and Poor coordination with other Need to focus on preparedness
rehabilitation agencies To improve coordination
Work on individual basis No awareness activities on


Key and group informant

Table III.
management in

Table III.
Name of the
organization Position Perception/understanding Weakness Recommendation

Pakistan Red Crescent Acting Head of Sub- Focus on response Poor coordination with other To improve coordination
Societies Delegation Quetta rehabilitation organizations To focus on preparedness activities
Mainly works in man made
disasters but do
response activities in natural
Focus group at the Category 1 (15-25) Category 1. They were not Vulnerable to multiple hazards Need to facilitate for creating
community level aware of earthquake Low income exacerbates Community-Based Organizations
preparedness community vulnerability (CBOs)
Category 2 (25-50) Category 2. They knew that Poor implementation of Community should initiate
they were living in hazard area building regulation by the awareness activities
but did not know about government Should take interest in disaster
preparedness measures High population growth management programs and
Category 3 (above 50) Category 3. They blamed the Poor preparedness and activities
government for not awareness activities
implementing the regulatory Lack of CBOs (community-
measures of buildings and based organizations) on
developed areas disaster management
Source: Primary Field Survey Data, 2009
. The community has no emergency resources, poor and narrow road network for Disaster
emergency evacuation. management in
. The community is unaware about community-based disaster preparedness Balochistan
activities and mitigation measures for earthquake impacts.
. No programs or projects are initiated at the community level for community
awareness and disaster risk reduction measures. 33
. Lack of seismic hazard knowledge in the community and poor construction
. No disaster management authority exists at the district or community levels.

Disaster Preparedness Plan exists at the provincial level but its implementation is not
made possible so far. It is revealed through key informant interviews that no programs
and projects regarding preparedness and mitigation of earthquake have been initiated
in the district. At the same time Disaster Preparedness Plans at the district and union
council levels are not prepared yet. According to the authority it is still in the pipeline
and their implementation may be possible within one to two yeas from now. The
Decentralization of Local Administration Act of 2001 provides the scope of addressing
a number of issues and problems at the union council and community levels, which has
been appreciated in the country. However, the institutional mechanism for disaster
management is almost non-existent at the local levels (Union Council and community).
Earthquake preparedness is quite different from flood and droughts that people
know how to cope with them but in case of earthquakes different kind of preparedness
is required. At the community-level earthquake preparedness activities were not
observed because they were not implemented at the Union Council level. On the other
hand community itself did not take any initiatives to mange the seismic emergencies
even most of the community members did not know that what should be done during
earthquake. Apart from that there is a lack of awareness in the communities about the
potential threats and consequential effects of earthquake. Disaster preparedness
especially earthquake preparedness is low in Balochistan because of the weak
institutional mechanism, where no regular efforts are made ever by the disaster
mangers at the local levels to create opportunities for preparedness and community-
based defensive mitigation measures. In a comparative perspective both the developed
and developing countries are addressing low preparedness at the community level. For
example in Bangladesh the national-level framework has a volunteer-based cyclone
preparedness program, which is functional and active at the field level (Khan, 2008).
While in Philippines community-based disaster preparedness is used to alleviate
vulnerability in the context of climate change (Allen, 2006). Similarly in the USA “the
Department of Homeland Security released applications guidance in 2008 for 14 federal
grant programmes totaling over $3 billion in which 10 grants were for community
preparedness” (Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 2008, p. 2). Above
all Philippines, Indonesia, western Coast of America have centers for preparedness and
tsunami information system, respectively. That is why it extremely important to take
initiatives regarding preparedness from the national down to the community level in
Pakistan, which is the best option for risk reduction measures at the local levels[3].
It is clearly evident that disaster preparedness is the only way to reduce the impacts
on people and settlements and the development models must have in-built components
of disaster reduction, mitigation and preparedness (Sharma, 2001; Rana et al., 2008).
DPM Salvano Briceno, Director of UNISDR, said that “An effective early warning system
21,1 with good community preparedness could have also saved many lives in Myanmar if it
has been implemented before the cyclone Nargis” (2009, p. 1).

Disasters are still handled at the provincial level in Balochistan and the authorities
34 follow reactive measures. Top-down approach only works in immediate emergencies.
The policy and practice do not go together. The study reveals that no projects exist on
earthquake preparedness. The community is vulnerable to multiple hazards associated
with earthquakes. On the other hand the community itself did not take any initiative to
mange the seismic emergencies. It can be concluded that communities are not prepared
that is why they have been affected by a number of impacts of earthquakes in the past.
To avoid the future seismic catastrophes it is recommended that there should be
coordination between the national and provincial agencies before and during disasters
with proper sharing of information system, building capacity and support from
the upper level institutions. Institutionalization of disaster management should be
made possible on the local levels. On the other hand community should also mobilize
the people and their resources and take interest in disaster preparedness activities.
Capacity development is mandatory for the community as well as organizations
involved in disasters so that the risk reduction should be made possible at grassroots
level from individual to community and provincial and national levels.

1. Executive District officers (EDO).
2. Nazim is the administrative head of the district, tehsil and union council in Pakistan in 2001
3. PMAP is a political organization in Balochistan.

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Further reading
Shaheen, M.A. (2008), “Earthquake effects on educational institutions and libraries of Azad
Kashmir”, Disaster prevention and Management, Vol. 57 No. 6, pp. 449-56.
DPM About the authors
Syed Ainuddin has Master’s degrees in Geography, and Regional and Rural Development
21,1 Planning. Currently he is a doctoral student in Regional and Rural Development Planning,
Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok. He is a Lecturer in the Department of Geography,
University of Balochistan, Pakistan. His research interests are disaster management and regional
planning. Syed Ainuddin is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: Syed.Ain-ud-
Jayant Kumar Routray has academic degrees in Geography and Regional Planning. His
research interests are in rural-regional development planning, disaster management, GIS
applications, climate change related to adaptation and livelihood issues, etc. He has about 30
years of teaching and research experience and currently is serving as a Professor at the Asian
Institute of Technology, Bangkok.

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