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DE PA ZG 522

Advanced Composites
INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITES–LECTURE -1

“Books :

1. B.D. Agrawal L.J. Broutman and K. Chandrashekhara


“Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites”, John Wiley
and Sons Inc, 2006
2. R J Crawford, “Plastics Engineering”, Butterworth
1
Heinemann, Elsevier
WILP BITS PILANI , PUNE CENTER Prof Milind Ramgir
CLASSES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Metals and alloys Polymers Ceramics and glasses Composites


Iron and steels Polyethylene (PE) Alumina (AI2O3, Fibreglass (GFRP)
Aluminium and its Polymethylmethacrylate emery, sapphire) Carbon-fibre
alloys (Acrylic and PMMA) Magnesia (MgO) reinforced polymers
Copper and its Nylon, alias Polyamide Silica (SOz) glasses (CFRP)
alloys (PA) and silicates Filled polymers
Nickel and its Polystyrene (PS) Silicon carbide (Sic) Cermets
alloys Polyurethane (PU) Silicon nitride (Si3N4)
Titanium and its Polyvinylchloride (WC) Cement and concrete
alloys Polyethylene
tetraphthalate (PET)
Natural materials
Polyethylether Ketone
Wood
(PEEK)
Leather
Epoxies (EP)
Cotton/wool/silk
Elastomers, such as
Bone
natural rubber (NR)

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INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITES
Composites
The word "composite" means "consisting of two or more distinct
parts.” Thus a material having two or more distinct constituent materials
or phases may be considered a composite material.
Combine materials with the objective of getting a more desirable
combination of properties– Ex: get flexibility & weight of a polymer plus
the strength of a ceramic
Structure materials for aircraft engine : low densities, strong, stiff,
abrasion and impact resistant and corrosion resistant.
Principle of combined action– Mixture gives “averaged”
properties better property combinations are fashioned by the combination
of 2 or more distinct materials
Fibers or particles embedded in matrix of another material.
Laminates are composite material where different layers of materials give
them the specific character of a composite material having a specific
function to perform
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INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITES
Composites

The classification of certain materials as composites often is


based on cases where significant property changes occur as a result of the
combination of constituents, and these property changes generally will be
most obvious when one of the phases is in platelet or fibrous form, when
the volume fraction is greater than 10%, and when the property of one
constituent is much greater (≥5 times) than the other.
Reinforcing materials generally withstand maximum load and
serve the desirable properties. Though composite types are often
distinguishable from one another, no clear determination can be really
made , differentiation take place viz., microscopic or macroscopic.
In matrix-based structural composites, the matrix serves two
paramount purposes viz., binding the reinforcement phases in place and
deforming to distribute the stresses among the constituent reinforcement
materials under an applied force.
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CHARACTISTICS OF COMPOSITES
Composite material is a material composed of two or more distinct
phases (matrix phase and dispersed phase) and having bulk properties
significantly different form those of any of the constituents. The
discontinuous phase is usually harder and stronger than the continuous
phase and is called the reinforcement or reinforcing material whereas the
continuous phase is termed the matrix.

Matrix phase
The primary phase, having a continuous character, is called matrix. Matrix
is usually more ductile and less hard phase. It holds the dispersed phase
and shares a load with it.
Dispersed (reinforcing) phase
The second phase (or phases) is embedded in the matrix in a discontinuous
form. This secondary phase is called dispersed phase. Dispersed phase is
usually stronger than the matrix, therefore it is sometimes called
reinforcing phase.
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CHARACTISTICS OF COMPOSITES
Dispersed (reinforcing) phase

Many of common materials (metal alloys, doped Ceramics and Polymers


mixed with additives) also have a small amount of dispersed phases in
their structures, however they are not considered as composite materials
since their properties are similar to those of their base constituents
(physical properties of steel are similar to those of pure iron).

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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES

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8 WILP BITS PILANI , PUNE CENTER Prof Milind Ramgir
CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES
There are two classification systems of composite materials. One of them
is based on the matrix material (metal, ceramic, polymer) and the second is
based on the material structure:
Classification of composites I (based on matrix material)
a) Metal Matrix Composites (MMC)
Metal Matrix Composites are composed of a metallic matrix (aluminum,
magnesium, iron, cobalt, copper) and a dispersed ceramic (oxides,
carbides) or metallic (lead, tungsten, molybdenum) phase.
b) Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC)
Ceramic Matrix Composites are composed of a ceramic matrix and
embedded fibers of other ceramic material (dispersed phase).
c) Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC)
Polymer Matrix Composites are composed of a matrix from thermoset
(Unsaturated Polyester (UP), Epoxiy (EP)) or thermoplastic
(Polycarbonate (PC), Polyvinylchloride, Nylon, Polysterene) and
embedded glass, carbon, steel or Kevlar fibers (dispersed phase).
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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES
Classification of composite materials II (based on reinforcing material
structure)
The reinforcing filler usually takes the form of fibres but particles
(spherical, cubic, tetragonal, a platelet, or of other regular or irregular
shape, but it is approximately equiaxed.) are also used.
A wide range of amorphous and crystalline materials can be used
as reinforcing fibres. These include glass, carbon, boron, and silica,
synthetic polymers-for example, Kevlar fibres (from aromatic polyamides)
and PET fibres.
The fibres are produced by drawing off continuous strands of
glass from an orifice in the base of an electrically heated platinum crucible
which contains the molten glass. During production the fibres are treated
with a fluid which performs several functions.
(a) it facilitates the production of strands from individual fibres
(b) it reduces damage to fibres during mechanical handling and
(c) it acts as a process aid during moulding.
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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES
Classification of composite materials II (based on reinforcing material
structure)
A) Particulate Composites
Particulate Composites consist of a matrix reinforced by a dispersed phase
in form of particles. Have one or more material particles suspended in a
binding matrix. A particle by definition is not “long” vis‐à‐vis its own
dimensions

1.Composites with random orientation of particles. Orientation of


particle is randomly distributed in all directions (ex: concrete)

2.Composites with preferred orientation of particles. Particle


orientation is aligned to specific directions (ex: extruded plastics with
reinforcement particles)
Dispersed phase of these materials consists of two-dimensional flat
platelets (flakes), laid parallel to each other.
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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES
Classification of composite materials II (based on reinforcing material
structure)
B) Fibrous Composites
• have fibers of reinforcing material(s) suspended in binding matrix. Unlike
particles, a fiber has high length‐to diameter ratio, and further its diameter
may be close to its crystal size.

•In general, materials tend to have much better thermo-mechanical


properties at small scale than at macro‐scale.

Material Fiber Tensile Strength (GPa) Bulk Tensile strength( GPa)


Glass 3.5 to 4.6 0.7 ‐ 2.1
Tungsten 4.2 1.1 ‐ 4.1
Beryllium 1.3 0.7
Graphite 2.1 to 2.2.5 Very low

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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES
Classification of composite materials II (based on reinforcing material
structure)
B) Fibrous Composites
At macro‐scale, imperfections in material have an accumulated
effect of degrading bulk mechanical properties of materials significantly.
This is one reason why fibrous composites have been developed to harness
micro‐scale
‐ properties of materials at larger scales. an‐made
‐ fibers, have
almost no flaws in directions perpendicular to their length. Hence they are
able to bear large loads per unit area compared to bulk materials.
Single‐‐layer: These are actually made of several layers of fibers, all
oriented in the same direction. Hence they are considered as “single‐layer”
composites.
These can be further categorized as:
• Continuous and long fibers: Examples include filament wound shells.
These may be further classified as:
– Unidirectional reinforcement and – Bidirectional reinforcement
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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES
Classification of composite materials II (based on reinforcing material
structure)

B) Fibrous Composites
1 Short-fiber reinforced composites. Short-fiber reinforced composites
consist of a matrix reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of
discontinuous fibers (length < 100*diameter).
1a) Composites with random orientation of fibers.
1b) Composites with preferred orientation of fibers.

2 Long-fiber reinforced composites. Long-fiber reinforced composites


consist of a matrix reinforced by a dispersed phase in form of continuous
fibers.
2a) Unidirectional orientation of fibers.
2b) Bidirectional orientation of fibers (woven).

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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES
Classification of
composite materials II

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CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES
Classification of composite
materials II
Laminate Composites
When a fiber reinforced composite
consists of several layers with
different fiber orientations, it is
called multilayer (angle-ply)
composite.
Here, reinforcement is
provided, layer by layer in different
directions.
• Laminate: Here, the constituent
material in all layers is the same.
• Hybrid laminates: These have
more than one constituent materials
in the composite structure.
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STRUCTURE OF COMPOSITES
Structure of a composite material determines its properties to a significant
extent. Structure factors affecting properties of composites are as follows:

1. Bonding strength on the interface between the dispersed phase and


matrix;
2. Shape of the dispersed phase inclusions (particles, flakes, fibers,
laminates);
3. Orientation of the dispersed phase inclusions (random or preferred).

1) Interfacial bonding

Good bonding (adhesion) between matrix phase and dispersed


phase provides transfer of load, applied to the material to the dispersed
phase via the interface. Adhesion is necessary for achieving high level of
mechanical properties of the composite.

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STRUCTURE OF COMPOSITES
There are three forms of interface between the two phases:

1a) Direct bonding with no intermediate layer. In this case


adhesion (”wetting”) is provided by either covalent bonding or van der
Waals force.
1b) Intermediate layer in form of solid solution of the matrix and
dispersed phases constituents.
1c) Intermediate layer (interphase) in form of a third bonding
phase (adhesive).

2. Shape and orientation of dispersed phase


Importance of these structure parameters is confirmed by the fact,
that one of the systems of Classification of composites is based on them.
a)Particulate Composites
b)Fibrous Composites
c) Laminate Composites
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STRUCTURE OF COMPOSITES
2 a) Particulate Composites
• Particulate Composites consist of a matrix reinforced with a dispersed
phase in form of particles.
•Effect of the dispersed particles on the composite properties depends on
the particles dimensions.
•Very small particles (less than 0.25 micron in diameter) finely distributed
in the matrix impede movement of dislocations and deformation of the
material. Such strengthening effect is similar to the precipitation hardening.
In contrast to the precipitation hardening, which disappears at elevated
temperatures when the precipitated particles dissolve in the matrix,
dispersed phase of particulate composites (ceramic particles) is usually
stable at high temperatures, so the strengthening effect is retained. Many of
composite materials are designed to work in high temperature applications.
•Large dispersed phase particles have low strengthening effect but they are
capable to share load applied to the material, resulting in increase of
stiffness and decrease of ductility.
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STRUCTURE OF COMPOSITES
2b) Fibrous Composites
Dispersed phase in form of fibers (Fibrous Composites) improves
strength, stiffness and Fracture Toughness of the material, impeding crack
growth in the directions normal to the fiber.
Effect of the strength increase becomes much more significant when the
fibers are arranged in a particular direction (preferred orientation) and a
stress is applied along the same direction.
The strengthening effect is higher in long-fiber (continuous-fiber)
reinforced composites than in short-fiber (discontinuous-fiber) reinforced
composites.
Short-fiber reinforced composites, consisting of a matrix reinforced with
a dispersed phase in form discontinuous fibers (length < 100*diameter),
has a limited ability to share load.
Load, applied to a long-fiber reinforced composite, is carried mostly by
the dispersed phase - fibers. Matrix in such materials serves only as a
binder of the fibers keeping them in a desired shape and protecting them
from mechanical
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or chemical damages.
WILP BITS PILANI , PUNE CENTER Prof Milind Ramgir

to top
STRUCTURE OF COMPOSITES
2c) Laminate Composites
Laminate composites consist of layers with different anisotropic
orientations or of a matrix reinforced with a dispersed phase in form of
sheets.
When a fiber reinforced composite consists of several layers with
different fiber orientations, it is called multilayer (angle-ply) composite.
Laminate composites provide increased mechanical strength in two
directions and only in one direction, perpendicular to the preferred
orientations of the fibers or sheet, mechanical properties of the material are
low.
Composite materials may be either isotropic or anisotropic, which is
determined by the Structure of composites.
Isotropic material is a material, properties of which do not depend on a
direction of measuring.
Anisotropic material is a material, properties of which along a particular
axis or parallel to a particular plane are different from the properties
measured along other directions.
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ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITES
Composites are engineered materials. We can engineer them specifically to
meet our needs on a case‐to‐case basis. In general, following properties
can be improved by using composite materials.

– Strength Electrical conductivity

– Modulus Thermal conductivity

– Weight Behavior at extreme temps.

– Fatigue Acoustical insulation

– Vibration damping Aesthetics

– Resistance to wear Resistance to corrosion


22 WILP BITS PILANI , PUNE CENTER Prof Milind Ramgir
ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITES
•High resistance to fatigue and corrosion degradation.
• High ‘strength or stiffness to weight’ ratio. As enumerated above, weight
savings are significant ranging from 25-45% of the weight of conventional
metallic designs.
• Due to greater reliability, there are fewer inspections and structural
repairs.
• Directional tailoring capabilities to meet the design requirements. The
fibre pattern can be laid in a manner that will tailor the structure to
efficiently sustain the applied loads.
• Fibre to fibre redundant load path.
• Improved dent resistance is normally achieved. Composite panels do not
sustain damage as easily as thin gage sheet metals.
•It is easier to achieve smooth aerodynamic profiles for drag reduction.
Complex double-curvature parts with a smooth surface finish can be made
in one manufacturing operation.
.
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ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITES
• Composites offer improved torsional stiffness. This implies high
whirling speeds, reduced number of intermediate bearings and supporting
structural elements. The overall part count and manufacturing & assembly
costs are thus reduced.
• High resistance to impact damage.
•Thermoplastics have rapid process cycles, making them attractive for
high volume commercial applications that traditionally have been the
domain of sheet metals. Moreover, thermoplastics can also be reformed
Like metals, thermoplastics have indefinite shelf life.
• Composites are dimensionally stable i.e. they have low thermal
conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion. Composite
materials can be tailored to comply with a broad range of thermal
expansion design requirements and to minimise thermal stresses.
• Manufacture and assembly are simplified because of part integration
(joint/fastener reduction) thereby reducing cost.
.
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ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITES
•The improved weatherability of composites in a marine environment as
well as their corrosion resistance and durability reduce the down time for
maintenance.
• Close tolerances can be achieved without machining.
• Material is reduced because composite parts and structures are frequently
built to shape rather than machined to the required configuration, as is
common with metals.
• Excellent heat sink properties of composites, especially Carbon-Carbon,
combined with their lightweight have extended their use for aircraft
brakes.
• Improved friction and wear properties.
• The ability to tailor the basic material properties of a Laminate has
allowed new approaches to the design of aeroelastic flight structures.

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LIMITATION OF COMPOSITES
• Like all things in nature, composites materials have their limitations as
well. Some of the important ones are:

– Anisotropy: A large number of composites have direction dependent


material properties. This makes them more difficult to understand, analyze
and engineer, vis‐à‐vis isotropic materials.

– Non‐‐homogenous: Further, these materials by definition are not


homogenous. Hence their material properties vary from point‐to‐point.
‐ ‐
This factor as well makes them difficult to model, and analyze.

Costly: Composite materials are in general expensive. Thus, they are used
only in applications where their benefits outweigh their costs.

– Difficult to fabricate: Further, fabricating structures from such materials


is difficult, time taking, and expensive.
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LIMITATION OF COMPOSITES

- Sensitivity to temperature: Laminated composites are particularly


sensitive to temperature changes. They come in with residual thermal
stresses, because they get fabricated at high temperatures, and then cooled.
Such a process locks in thermal stresses into the structure.

– Moisture effects: Laminated composites are also sensitive to moisture,


and their performance varies significantly when exposed to moisture for
long periods of time.

27 WILP BITS PILANI , PUNE CENTER Prof Milind Ramgir


REINFORCEMENTS
•A strong, inert woven and nonwoven fibrous material incorporated into
the matrix to improve its metal glass and physical properties.

•Typical reinforcements are asbestos, boron, carbon, metal glass and


ceramic fibers, flock, graphite, jute, sisal and whiskers, as well as chopped
paper, macerated fabrics, and synthetic fibers.

•The primary difference between reinforcement and filler is the


reinforcement markedly improves tensile and flexural strength, whereas
filler usually does not. Also to be effective, reinforcement must form a
strong adhesive bond with the resin.

•Reinforcements for the composites can be fibers, fabrics particles or


whiskers. Fibers are essentially characterized by one very long axis with
other two axes either often circular or near circular. Particles have no
preferred orientation and so does their shape. Whiskers have a preferred
shape but are small both in diameter and length as compared to fibers.
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INTRODUCTION TO REINFORCEMENTS

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FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES/FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER
(FRP) COMPOSITES
 Fibers are the important class of reinforcements, as they satisfy the desired
conditions and transfer strength to the matrix constituent influencing and
enhancing their properties as desired.
 Glass fibers are the earliest known fibers used to reinforce materials.
 Ceramic and metal fibers were subsequently found out and put to extensive
use, to render composites stiffer more resistant to heat.
 The performance of a fiber composite is judged by its length, shape,
orientation, and composition of the fibers and the mechanical properties of
the matrix.
 The orientation of the fiber in the matrix is an indication of the strength of
the composite and the strength is greatest along the longitudinal directional
of fiber
 The slightest shift in the angle of loading may drastically reduce the strength
of the composite.
 Unidirectional loading is found in few structures and hence it is prudent to
give a mix of orientations for fibers in composites particularly where the
load is expected to be the heaviest.
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31 WILP BITS PILANI , PUNE CENTER Prof Milind Ramgir
APPLICATIONS OF FRP S
In aircraft application, advanced fibre reinforced composites are
now being used in many structural applications, viz. floor beams, engine
cowlings, flight control surfaces, landing gear doors, wing-to-body
fairings, etc., and also major load carrying structures including the vertical
and horizontal stabiliser main torque boxes.
Composites are also being considered for use in improvements to
civil infrastructures, viz., earthquake proof highway supports, power
generating wind mills, long span bridges, etc.
Automobile Application.

32 WILP BITS PILANI , PUNE CENTER Prof Milind Ramgir


POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Introduction : Plastics offer advantages such as lightness, resilience,
resistance to corrosion, colour fastness, transparency, ease of processing.
Although they have their limitations, their exploitation is limited only by
the ingenuity of the designer.

Polymers are different from metals in the sense that their structure consists
of very long chain-like molecules. Natural materials such as silk, shellac,
bitumen, rubber and cellulose have this type of structure

Synthetic polymeric material based on cellulose called Purkesine led to


the development of Celluloid as a good replacement for natural materials
e.g.ivory for billiard balls Synthetic large molecules are made by joining
together thousands of small molecular units known as monomers. The
process of joining the molecules is called polymerisation and the
number of these units in the long molecule is known as the degree of
polymerisation.
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POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Introduction :
The names of many polymers consist of the name of the
monomer with the suffix poly-. For example, the polymers polypropylene
and polystryene are produced from propylene and styrene respectively.
The words polymers and plastics are often taken as
synonymous but in fact there is a distinction Pure polymers are seldom
used it is when additives are added that the term plastic is applied

Main Additives-
Antistatic Agents. Most polymers, because they are poor conductors of
current, build up a charge of static electricity. Antistatic agents attract
moisture from the air to the plastic surface, improving its surface
conductivity and reducing the likelihood of a spark or a discharge.
Coupling Agents. Coupling agents are added to improve the bonding of
the plastic to inorganic filler materials, such as glass fibres. A variety of
silanes and titanates are used for this purpose
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POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Fillers. Some fillers, such as short fibres or flakes of inorganic materials,
improve the mechanical properties of a plastic. Others, called extenders,
permit a large volume of a plastic to be produced with relatively little
actual resin. Calcium carbonate, silica and clay are frequently used
extenders.
Flame Retardants. Most polymers, because they are organic materials,
are flammable. Additives that contain chlorine, bromine, phosphorous or
metallic salts reduce the likelihood that combustion will occur or spread.
Lubricants. Lubricants such as wax or calcium stearate reduce the
viscosity of the molten plastic and improve forming characteristics.
Pigments. Pigments are used to produce colours in plastics.
Plasticisers. Plasticisers are low molecular weight materials which alter
the properties and forming characteristics of the plastic. An important
example is the production of flexible grades of polyvinyl chloride by the
use of plasticisers.

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POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Reinforcement. The strength and stiffness of polymers are improved by
adding fibres of glass, carbon, etc.
Stabilisers. Stabilisers prevent deterioration of the polymer due to
environmental factors. Antioxidants are added to ABS, polyethylene and
polystyrene. Heat stabilisers are required in processing polyvinyl
chloride. Stabilisers also prevent deterioration due to ultra-violet
radiation.

• a)Crystalline b) Amorphous
THERMOPLASTICS

• TWO STAGE CHEMICAL REACTION


• STAGE I- FORMATION OF LONG CHAIN
THERMOSETTING
PLASTICS
• STAGE II- CROSS LINKING OF CHAIN

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POLYMERIC MATERIALS AVAILABLE TO THE DESIGNER
1. Engineering Plastics service temperatures in excess of 200°C and
fibre-filled grades can be used above 300°C.
(i) Polyarylethers and Polyarylthioethers
polyarylethersulphones (PES)
polyphenylene sulphide (PPS)
polyethernitrile (PEN)
polyetherketones (PEK and PEEK)
(ii) Polyimides and Polybenzimidazole
polyetherimide (PEI)
thermoplastic polyimide (PI)
polyamideimide (PAI)
(iii) Fluoropolymers
fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP)
perfluoroalkoxy (PFA)

2 Thermosets- polyamides, polycarbonates, PPO, PET, PBT or acetal


37 WILP BITS PILANI , PUNE CENTER Prof Milind Ramgir
POLYMERIC MATERIALS AVAILABLE TO THE DESIGNER
3 Composites -the possibility of property enhancement through fibre
reinforcement. aerospace and automobile industries
DMC -short glass fibres(15-20%) and fillers (up to 40%) in a polyester
resin.
SMC consists of a polyester resin impregnated with glass fibres (20-
30%).
4 Structural Foam- the introduction of a blowing agent, cellular rigid
foam core with a solid tough skin. Polycarbonate, polypropylene and
modified PPO
5 Elastomers-the molecules are anchored together by a curing
(vulcanisation) process. resilience, resistance to oils, greases and ozone,
flexibility at low temperatures and resistance to many acids and bases.
require careful (slow) processing and they consume considerable
amounts of energy to facilitate moulding and vulcanisation.
thermoplastic rubber (TPR).

38 WILP BITS PILANI , PUNE CENTER Prof Milind Ramgir


POLYMERIC MATERIALS AVAILABLE TO THE DESIGNER
6 Polymer Alloys-The principle of alloying plastics is similar to that of
alloying metals, impact strength may be improved by using
polycarbonate, ABS and polyurethanes. Heat resistance is improved by
using polyphenylene oxide, polysulphone, PVC, polyester (PET and
PBT) and acrylic. Barrier properties are improved by using plastics such
as ethylene vinyl alchol(EVA)

7 Liquid Crystal Polymers-outstanding dimensional stability, high


strength, stiffness, toughness and chemical resistance all combined with
ease of processing. LCPs are based on thermoplastic aromatic polyesters
and they have a highly ordered structure even in the molten state.

39 WILP BITS PILANI , PUNE CENTER Prof Milind Ramgir


POLYMERIC MATERIALS SELECTION
The purpose and function of the proposed product and to identify
the service Environment, assess the suitability of a range of candidate
materials,

Required characteristics of the materials

(1) Mechanical properties - strength, stiffness, specific strength and


stiffness, fatigue and toughness, and the influence of high or low
temperatures on these properties;
(2) corrosion susceptibility and degradation
(3) wear resistance and frictional properties;
(4) special properties, for example, thermal, electrical, optical and
magnetic
(5) moulding and/or other methods of fabrication.
(6) total costs attributable to the selected material and manufacturing route.

40 WILP BITS PILANI , PUNE CENTER Prof Milind Ramgir


POLYMERIC MATERIALS SELECTION
Material Selection for Strength - maximum stress, σ , in the beam
σ =Mmax(d/2) / I = Mmax(d/2) / bd2/12
Material Selection for Stiffness – deflection = δ = α 1 ( WL 3 / EI )
Ductility. -high modulus and high strength, with ductility, is the desired
combination of attributes
Creep and Recovery Behaviour. - Typical Creep and recovery behaviour
of a plastic curve
Stress Relaxation. the viscoelastic nature of plastics is that if they are
subjected to a particular strain and this strain is held constant it is found
that as time progresses, the stress necessary to maintain this strain
decreases. This is termed stress relaxation and is of vital importance in the
design of gaskets, seals, springs and snap-fit assemblies.
Creep Rupture- When a plastic is subjected to a constant tensile stress its
strain increases until a point is reached where the material fractures.
Fatigue-Plastics are susceptible to brittle crack growth fractures as a
result of cyclic stresses, in much the same way as metals are.
Toughness-By toughness we mean the resistance to fracture.
41 WILP BITS PILANI , PUNE CENTER Prof Milind Ramgir