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- 2D Heat Transfer Tutorial 1
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Question 1:

Answer: It is impossible for any system to operate in such a way that the sole result would be an energy

transfer by heat from a cooler to a hotter body. Without using an external work, heat cannot be

transferred from low temperature reservoir to high temperature reservoir.

Answer: It is impossible for any system to operate in a thermodynamic cycle and deliver a net amount of

energy by work to its surroundings while receiving energy by heat transfer from a single thermal

reservoir. We can not built 100% percent efficient heat engines. Heat engines cannot ne operated by

receiving heat from only single reservoir.

Answer: The efficiency of an irreversible heat engine is always less than the efficiency of a reversible one

operating between the same two reservoirs.

Answer: The efficiencies of all reversible heat engines operating between the same two reservoirs are

the same.

Question 2:

Turbine inlet

An insulated steam turbine operates on a steady-state condition. At the

turbine inlet, the pressure and temperature of water are 20MPa and

700oC, respectively. At the inlet, the mass flow rate of water is 200kg/s.

Between the inlet and exit (at the middle section), water leaves the turbine

with a mass flow rate of 50kg/s and at a pressure and temperature of

5MPa and 400 oC, respectively. At the exit of the turbine, water leaves the Middle section

turbine at 100kPa and 90% quality. By neglecting the heat transfer and

kinetic energy change, calculate the power produced by the turbine. (20p.)

Turbine exit

Answer 2:

ɺ i = 200kg/s,

At the inlet: Pi=20 MPa, Ti=700oC, m

The state of water at the inlet is superheated vapor. From Superheated Vapor Table (Table B.1.3):

ɺ m = 50kg/s,

At the middle section: Pm=5 MPa, Tm=400oC, m

The state of water at the middle section is superheated vapor. From Superheated Vapor Table (Table

B.1.3):

The state of water at the exit is saturated liquid and vapor mixture. From Superheated Vapor Table

(Table B.1.3):

Te=99.62 oC,

mɺ e = mɺ i − mɺ m = 200 - 50 = 150kg/s

ɺ e = 150kg/s,

m

Wshaft = m

ɺ i hi − m

ɺ m hm − m

ɺ m hm = 200*3809.09 -50*3195.64 - 150*2449.658=234587.3kW =234.587MW

Question 3:

A spring loaded piston-cylinder set-up is connected through a valve to a high pressure air line carrying

air at pressure Pline=500kPa and temperature Tline=600K. The linear spring has a spring constant

k=100kN/m. The area of the piston is A=1m2. The external pressure is P0=100kPa. Initially, the cylinder is

empty, the cylinder volume is zero. At the initial condition the spring is uncompressed, hence, the

spring force is zero. Later, the valve is opened and air is allowed to flow slowly into the cylinder until the

pressure inside the cylinder becomes P2=400 kPa. During this process 250kJ of heat is transferred to the

surrounding. Assume that air is an ideal gas with constant properties (Cp= 1.004 kJ/kgK, R= 0.287 kJ/kgK)

Answer 3:

P2 = 400 kPa

Qcv = -250kJ

3

P2=400kPa → 400 = 100*X2 + 100 → X2 =3m→ V2 = A*X2 = 1*3 = 3m

V2 =3m3

b) Boundary work

2 X2 X2

1 1

W12 = ∫ PdV = ∫ ( kX / A + P0 )Adx = ∫ ( kX + P0 A )dx = kX 22 + P0 AX 2 − kX 12 + P0 AX 1

1 X1 X1 2 2

Since X1=0

1

W12 = kX 22 + P0 AX 2

2

W12 = 750kJ

( m2 − m1 )CV + ∑ me −∑ mi = 0

e i

mi = m2

Vi 2 V2 V2 V2

QCV + ∑ mi ( hi + + gzi ) = ∑ me ( he + e + gze ) + m2 ( u2 + 2 + gz2 ) − m1 ( u1 + 1 + gz1 ) + WCV

i 2 e 2 2 2 CV

QCV + mi hi = m2 u2 + WCV

mi hi = m2 u2 + WCV − QCV

Since mi = m2

1

hi = u2 + (WCV − QCV )

m2

1

u2 = hi − (WCV − QCV )

m2

From the equation of state for ideal gas, PV = mRT → m =PV/RT → m2 =P2 V2 /RT2

RT2

Cv T2 = C p Ti − (WCV − QCV )

P2V2

R

T2 Cv + (WCV − QCV ) = C pTi

P2V2

C pTi

T2 =

R

Cv + (WCV − QCV )

P2V2

Q12=-250kJ

Cv=Cp -R = 1.004 - 0.287 = 0.717 kJ/kg

1.004 * 600

T2 = = 630 K

0.287

0.717 + ( 750 + 250 )

400 * 3

T2 = 630K

m2 = 6.637kg

Question 4

Consider a Carnot-cycle heat pump having 1 kg of nitrogen gas in a cylinder/piston arrangement. This

heat pump operates between reservoirs at 300 K and 400 K. At the beginning of the low temperature

heat addition, the pressure is 1 MPa. During this process the volume triples. Assume that air is an ideal

gas with constant properties (Cp= 1.042 kJ/kgK, R= 0.2968 kJ/kgK)

a) Draw the cycle on a P-V diagram and explain each of the four processes in the cycle (5p.)

d) Calculate the work and heat transfer for each process. (10p.)

e) By using the work and heat transfer calculated from part d determine the coefficient of performance

and compare it with the value obtained (5p.)

Answer 4:

a)

b) In heat pumps,

QH QH 1 1 TH

COPHP = = = = =

W QH − QL QL TL TH − TL

1− 1−

QH TH

400

COPHP = =4

400 − 300

From the equation of state for ideal gas PV=mRT → V=mRT/P = 1*0.2968*300/1000 = 0.089 m3

P2V2k = P3V3k, PV=mRT → P=mRT/V → (mRT2 / V2 )V2k = (mRT3 / V3)V3k → T2V2k-1 = T3V3k-1

v4 = 0.0432 m3/kg

d) Q12 - W12 = U2 - U1, During the process 1 →2, temperature is constant, TL (isothermal)

In ideal gas, internal energy is only function of temperature .

U2 = U1

Q23 - W23 = U3 - U2, During the process 2 →3, there is no heat transfer (adiabatic) Q23 = 0

Wnet = W12 + W23 + W34 + W41 = 97.82 - 74.52 -130.427 + 74.52 = -32.607kJ

COPHP = 4

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