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AE 231, Thermodynamics, Fall 2014

Midterm II Solutions (December 14th, 2014)

Question 1:

a) Explain the Clausius Statement (5p.)

Answer: It is impossible for any system to operate in such a way that the sole result would be an energy
transfer by heat from a cooler to a hotter body. Without using an external work, heat cannot be
transferred from low temperature reservoir to high temperature reservoir.

b) Explain the Kelvin-Planck Statement (5p.)

Answer: It is impossible for any system to operate in a thermodynamic cycle and deliver a net amount of
energy by work to its surroundings while receiving energy by heat transfer from a single thermal
reservoir. We can not built 100% percent efficient heat engines. Heat engines cannot ne operated by
receiving heat from only single reservoir.

c) Explain the First Carnot principle (5p.)

Answer: The efficiency of an irreversible heat engine is always less than the efficiency of a reversible one
operating between the same two reservoirs.

d) Explain the Second Carnot Principle (5p.)

Answer: The efficiencies of all reversible heat engines operating between the same two reservoirs are
the same.
Question 2:
Turbine inlet
An insulated steam turbine operates on a steady-state condition. At the
turbine inlet, the pressure and temperature of water are 20MPa and
700oC, respectively. At the inlet, the mass flow rate of water is 200kg/s.
Between the inlet and exit (at the middle section), water leaves the turbine
with a mass flow rate of 50kg/s and at a pressure and temperature of
5MPa and 400 oC, respectively. At the exit of the turbine, water leaves the Middle section
turbine at 100kPa and 90% quality. By neglecting the heat transfer and
kinetic energy change, calculate the power produced by the turbine. (20p.)
Turbine exit
Answer 2:

ɺ i = 200kg/s,
At the inlet: Pi=20 MPa, Ti=700oC, m

The state of water at the inlet is superheated vapor. From Superheated Vapor Table (Table B.1.3):

vi=0.02113m3/kg, ui= 3386.46kJ/Kg, hi= 3809.09 kJ/kg

ɺ m = 50kg/s,
At the middle section: Pm=5 MPa, Tm=400oC, m

The state of water at the middle section is superheated vapor. From Superheated Vapor Table (Table
B.1.3):

vm=0.05781 m3/kg, um=2906.58 kJ/Kg, hm= 3195.64 kJ/Kg

At the exit : Pm=100 kPa, quality x= 0.9

The state of water at the exit is saturated liquid and vapor mixture. From Superheated Vapor Table
(Table B.1.3):

Te=99.62 oC,

vf= 0.001043 m3/kg, vfg= 1.69296 m3/kg, vg= 1.69400 m3/kg

uf= 417.33 kJ/Kg, ufg= 2088.72 kJ/Kg, ug= 2506.06 kJ/Kg

hf= 417.44 kJ/Kg, hfg= 2258.02 kJ/Kg, hg= 2675.46 kJ/Kg

ve= vf +x* vfg= 0.001043 +0.9*1.69296 = 1.524 m3/kg

ue= uf +x* ufg= 417.33 +0.9*2088.72 = 2297.178 kJ/Kg

he= hf +x* hfg= 417.44 +0.9*2258.02 = 2449.658 kJ/Kg

From the conservation of mass for open system:


mɺ e = mɺ i − mɺ m = 200 - 50 = 150kg/s

ɺ e = 150kg/s,
m

From the conservation of energy for open system

Wshaft = m
ɺ i hi − m
ɺ m hm − m
ɺ m hm = 200*3809.09 -50*3195.64 - 150*2449.658=234587.3kW =234.587MW
Question 3:

A spring loaded piston-cylinder set-up is connected through a valve to a high pressure air line carrying
air at pressure Pline=500kPa and temperature Tline=600K. The linear spring has a spring constant
k=100kN/m. The area of the piston is A=1m2. The external pressure is P0=100kPa. Initially, the cylinder is
empty, the cylinder volume is zero. At the initial condition the spring is uncompressed, hence, the
spring force is zero. Later, the valve is opened and air is allowed to flow slowly into the cylinder until the
pressure inside the cylinder becomes P2=400 kPa. During this process 250kJ of heat is transferred to the
surrounding. Assume that air is an ideal gas with constant properties (Cp= 1.004 kJ/kgK, R= 0.287 kJ/kgK)

a) Calculate the final volume of the cylinder. (5p.)

b) Calculate work done during this process. (5p.)

c) Calculate the final temperature inside the cylinder (10p.)

d) Calculate the final mass of air inside the cylinder (5p.)

Answer 3:

Pline = 500kPa, Tline = 600K, P0 = 100kPa.

m1= 0kg, P1= 0kPa, V1= 0 m3/kg,

P2 = 400 kPa

Qcv = -250kJ

a) P=kX/A +P0, dV=AdX

3
P2=400kPa → 400 = 100*X2 + 100 → X2 =3m→ V2 = A*X2 = 1*3 = 3m

V2 =3m3

b) Boundary work

2 X2 X2
1  1 
W12 = ∫ PdV = ∫ ( kX / A + P0 )Adx = ∫ ( kX + P0 A )dx =  kX 22 + P0 AX 2  −  kX 12 + P0 AX 1 
1 X1 X1 2  2 

Since X1=0

1
W12 = kX 22 + P0 AX 2
2

W12 = 0.5*100*32 +100*1*3 =450 +300 = 750kJ


W12 = 750kJ

c) In transient problems, the conservation of mass:

( m2 − m1 )CV + ∑ me −∑ mi = 0
e i

m1= 0kg, me= 0kg,

We have only one inlet and we don't have any exit.

mi = m2

In transient problems, the conservation of energy:

Vi 2 V2   V2   V2 
QCV + ∑ mi ( hi + + gzi ) = ∑ me ( he + e + gze ) +  m2  ( u2 + 2 + gz2 )  − m1  ( u1 + 1 + gz1 )   + WCV
i 2 e 2   2   2   CV
QCV + mi hi = m2 u2 + WCV

mi hi = m2 u2 + WCV − QCV

Since mi = m2

1
hi = u2 + (WCV − QCV )
m2

1
u2 = hi − (WCV − QCV )
m2

From the equation of state for ideal gas, PV = mRT → m =PV/RT → m2 =P2 V2 /RT2

RT2
Cv T2 = C p Ti − (WCV − QCV )
P2V2

 R 
T2 Cv + (WCV − QCV ) = C pTi
 P2V2 

C pTi
T2 =
R
Cv + (WCV − QCV )
P2V2

Q12=-250kJ
Cv=Cp -R = 1.004 - 0.287 = 0.717 kJ/kg

1.004 * 600
T2 = = 630 K
0.287
0.717 + ( 750 + 250 )
400 * 3

T2 = 630K

d) m2 =P2 V2 /RT2 = 400*3/(0.287*630)=6.637kg

m2 = 6.637kg
Question 4

Consider a Carnot-cycle heat pump having 1 kg of nitrogen gas in a cylinder/piston arrangement. This
heat pump operates between reservoirs at 300 K and 400 K. At the beginning of the low temperature
heat addition, the pressure is 1 MPa. During this process the volume triples. Assume that air is an ideal
gas with constant properties (Cp= 1.042 kJ/kgK, R= 0.2968 kJ/kgK)

a) Draw the cycle on a P-V diagram and explain each of the four processes in the cycle (5p.)

b) By using the temperature of reservoirs determine the coefficient of performance. (5p.)

c) Calculate the pressure, volume, and temperature at each point (10p.)

d) Calculate the work and heat transfer for each process. (10p.)

e) By using the work and heat transfer calculated from part d determine the coefficient of performance
and compare it with the value obtained (5p.)

Answer 4:

a)

1→2Heat addition in an isothermal expansion, temperature is constant, T=TL

2→3 Adiabatic compression, there is no heat transfer, Q=0

3→4 Hear rejection in an isothermal compression, temperature is constant, T=TH

4→1 Adiabatic expansion, there is no heat transfer, Q=0


b) In heat pumps,

QH QH 1 1 TH
COPHP = = = = =
W QH − QL QL TL TH − TL
1− 1−
QH TH

400
COPHP = =4
400 − 300

c) P1= 1MPa = 1000kPa, T1= 300K

From the equation of state for ideal gas PV=mRT → V=mRT/P = 1*0.2968*300/1000 = 0.089 m3

v= V/m=0.089/1 = 0.089 m3/kg

P1= 1MPa = 1000kPa, T1= 300K, v1= 0.089 m3/kg

V2 = 0.089*3 = 0.267 m3 , v2 = 0.267 m3/kg, T2=300K

P2=mRT2/V2 = 1*0.2968*300/0.267 = 333.48 kPa

P2= 333.48 kPa, T2= 300K, v2= = 0.267 m3/kg

P2V2k = P3V3k, PV=mRT → P=mRT/V → (mRT2 / V2 )V2k = (mRT3 / V3)V3k → T2V2k-1 = T3V3k-1

k= Cp/Cv = Cp/(Cp - R) = 1.042/(1.042 - 0.2968) = 1.398, Cv =1.042 - 0.2968 = 0.7452kJ/kg

300*(0.267)1.398-1 = 400*v31.398-1 → v30.398 =0.267*(300/400) 1/0.398 = 0.4434 → v3 = 0.129 m3/kg

P3 =mRT3/V3 =1*0.2968*400/0.129 = 920.31 kPa

P3 = 920.31 kPa, T3= 400K, v3= 0.129 m3/kg

T1V1k-1 = T4V4k-1 → 300*(0.089) 1.398-1 = 400*v41.398-1 → v40.398 =0.089*(300/400) 1/0.398 = 0.0432

v4 = 0.0432 m3/kg

P4 =mRT4 /V4 =1*0.2968*400/0.0432 = 2748.15 kPa

P4 = 2748.15 kPa, T4= 400K, v4= 0.0432 m3/kg

d) Q12 - W12 = U2 - U1, During the process 1 →2, temperature is constant, TL (isothermal)
In ideal gas, internal energy is only function of temperature .

U2 = U1

Q12 - W12 = 0 → Q12 = W12

W12 = ∫PdV , PV = mRT → P = mRT/V → W12 = ∫ mRTdV/V =mRTL∫ dV/V=mRTLln(V2/V1)

W12 = mRTLln(V2/V1) = 1*0.2968*300*ln(3) = 97.82kJ

W12 = Q12 = 97.82kJ

Similarly we can show that W34 = mRTHln(V4/V3) = 1*0.2968*400*ln(0.0432/0.129) = -130.427 kJ

W34 = Q34 = -130.427kJ

Q23 - W23 = U3 - U2, During the process 2 →3, there is no heat transfer (adiabatic) Q23 = 0

W23 = U2 - U3 = mCv(T2-T3) = 1*0.7452*(300-400) = -74.52 kJ

Q23 = 0, W23 = 74.52 kJ

Similarly we can show that

Q41= 0, W41 = U4 - U1 = mCv(T4-T1) = 1*0.7452*(400 - 300) = 74.52 kJ

Q41 = 0, W41 = 74.52 kJ

Wnet = W12 + W23 + W34 + W41 = 97.82 - 74.52 -130.427 + 74.52 = -32.607kJ

Qnet = 97.72 + 0 -130.427 + 0 = -32.607kJ

e) COPHP = QH/ Wnet = -130.427/(-32.607) = 4

COPHP = 4