You are on page 1of 6

# Differentiation - GATE Study Material in

PDF

## Differentiation is one the two important operations, along with Integration, in

Calculus. These Free Study Notes are important for GATE EC, GATE EE, GATE ME,
GATE CS, GATE CE as well as other exams like BARC, BSNL, IES, DRDO etc.

These GATE 2018 Study Material can be downloaded in PDF so that your exam
preparation is made easy and you ace your paper. Before you start, make sure you go
through the basics of Engineering Mechanics though.

Types of Matrices

Properties of Matrices

## Linear Algebra Revision Test 1

Laplace Transforms

## Mean Value Theorems

1|Page
If the value of f'(x) is finite on (a, b) then it is said to be derivable on (a, b). The
derivatives of various functions with examples are given below.

## The below example explains the method of derivative of implicit functions.

Example 1:

dy
Find , if y + sin y = cos x
dx

Solution:

dy dy
+ cos y ⋅ dx = − sin x
dx

dy
(1 + cos y) = − sin x
dx

dy − sin x
= 1+cos y , where y ≠ (2n + 1) π n = 0, 1, 2 …
dx

functions.

Example 2:

Solution:

dy
cos y dx = 1

2|Page
dy 1
= cos y
dx

## We know, sin2y + cos2y = 1

cos y = √1 − sin2 y

cos y = √1 − x 2

dy 1
= √1−x2
dx

Note:

d 1
(tan−1 x) =
dx 1+x2

Logarithmic Differentiation

## The below example explains the method of derivative of Logarithmic functions

Example 3:

(x−3)(x2 +4)
Differentiate, √ with respect to x.
3x2 +4x+5

Solution:

(x−3)(x2 +4)
let y = √ 3x2 +4x+5

1
log y = [log(x − 3) + log(x 2 + 4) − log(3x 2 + 4x + 5)]
2

1 dy 1 1 2x 6x+4
= 2 [x−3 + x2 +4 − 3x2 +4x+5]
y dx

3|Page
dy 1 (x−3)(x2 +4) 1 2x 6x+4
= 2√ [x−3 + x2 +4 − 3x2 +4x+5]
dx 3x2 +4x+5

## Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms

The below example explains the method of derivative functions in parametric form.

Example 4:

dy
Find, dx , if x = a(θ + sin θ), y = a(1 − cos θ)

Solution:

dx
= a(1 + cos θ)

dy
= a sin θ

dy
dy dθ a sin θ
= dx = a(1+cos θ)
dx

θ θ
dy 2 sin cos
2 2
= θ
dx 2 cos2
2

dy θ
= tan 2
dx

Example 5:
2 2 2
dy
Find the value of if x 3 + y 3 = a3
dx

Solution:

## Let x = a cos 3 θ and y = a sin3 θ which satisfies the above equation

4|Page
dx
= −3a cos 2 θ sin θ

dy
= 3a sin2 θ cos θ

dy
dy dθ 3 y
= dx = − tan θ = − √x
dx

## Second Order Derivative

So far we have seen only first order derivatives and second order derivative can be
obtained by again differentiating first order differential equation with respect to x.

dy
Let y = f(x)then dx = f′(x) − − − − − − (1)

## If f’(x) is differentiable, we may differentiate above equation w.r.t x.

d dy d2 y
i. e. dx (dx) is called the second order derivative of y w. r. t x and it is denoted by dx2

Note:

Let the function f(x) be continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on the open interval
(a, b), then
1. f(x) is strictly increasing in [a, b] if f’(x) > 0 for each x ∈ (a, b)
2. f(x) is strictly decreasing in [a, b] if f’(x) < 0 for each x ∈ (a, b)
3. f(x) is constant function in [a, b] if f’(x)= 0 for each x ∈ (a, b)

Example 6:

## f(x)= sin x + cos x : 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π

5|Page
is strictly increasing or strictly decreasing.

Solution:

## f'(x) = cos x – sin x

π 5π
Now, f′(x) = 0 gives sin x = cos x which gives that x = 4 , in 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π
4

π 5π
The point x = and x = divide the interval [0, 2π] into three disjoint intervals,
4 4

π π 5π 5π
Namely [0, 4 ) , (4 , ) and ( 4 , 2π]
4

π 5π
Note that f′(x) > 0 if x ∈ [0, 4 ) ∪ ( 4 , 2π] that means f is strictly increasing in this

interval

π 5π
Also, f′(x) < 0 if x ∈ ( 4 , ) that means f is strictly decreasing in this interval
4

## In the next article we will see about Partial Differentials.

Did you like this article on Differentiation? Let us know in the comments? You may
also like the following articles –

## Try out Calculus on Official GATE 2018 Virtual Calculator

Recommended Books for Engineering Mathematics
40+ PSUs Recruiting through GATE 2018
Partial Differentiation

6|Page