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Differentiation - GATE Study Material in

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Differentiation is one the two important operations, along with Integration, in


Calculus. These Free Study Notes are important for GATE EC, GATE EE, GATE ME,
GATE CS, GATE CE as well as other exams like BARC, BSNL, IES, DRDO etc.

These GATE 2018 Study Material can be downloaded in PDF so that your exam
preparation is made easy and you ace your paper. Before you start, make sure you go
through the basics of Engineering Mechanics though.

Recommended Reading –

Types of Matrices

Properties of Matrices

Rank of a Matrix & Its Properties

Solution of a System of Linear Equations

Eigen Values & Eigen Vectors

Linear Algebra Revision Test 1

Laplace Transforms

Limits, Continuity & Differentiabilitsy

Mean Value Theorems

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If the value of f'(x) is finite on (a, b) then it is said to be derivable on (a, b). The
derivatives of various functions with examples are given below.

Derivatives of Implicit Functions

The below example explains the method of derivative of implicit functions.

Example 1:

dy
Find , if y + sin y = cos x
dx

Solution:

dy dy
+ cos y ⋅ dx = − sin x
dx

dy
(1 + cos y) = − sin x
dx

dy − sin x
= 1+cos y , where y ≠ (2n + 1) π n = 0, 1, 2 …
dx

Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions

The below example explains the method of derivative of Inverse Trigonometric


functions.

Example 2:

Find the value of f’(x) where f(x) = sin-1 x

Solution:

Let y = sin-1 x ⇒ sin y = x

dy
cos y dx = 1

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dy 1
= cos y
dx

We know, sin2y + cos2y = 1

cos y = √1 − sin2 y

cos y = √1 − x 2

dy 1
= √1−x2
dx

Note:

d 1
(tan−1 x) =
dx 1+x2

Logarithmic Differentiation

The below example explains the method of derivative of Logarithmic functions

Example 3:

(x−3)(x2 +4)
Differentiate, √ with respect to x.
3x2 +4x+5

Solution:

(x−3)(x2 +4)
let y = √ 3x2 +4x+5

1
log y = [log(x − 3) + log(x 2 + 4) − log(3x 2 + 4x + 5)]
2

1 dy 1 1 2x 6x+4
= 2 [x−3 + x2 +4 − 3x2 +4x+5]
y dx

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dy 1 (x−3)(x2 +4) 1 2x 6x+4
= 2√ [x−3 + x2 +4 − 3x2 +4x+5]
dx 3x2 +4x+5

Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms

The below example explains the method of derivative functions in parametric form.

Example 4:

dy
Find, dx , if x = a(θ + sin θ), y = a(1 − cos θ)

Solution:

dx
= a(1 + cos θ)

dy
= a sin θ

dy
dy dθ a sin θ
= dx = a(1+cos θ)
dx

θ θ
dy 2 sin cos
2 2
= θ
dx 2 cos2
2

dy θ
= tan 2
dx

Example 5:
2 2 2
dy
Find the value of if x 3 + y 3 = a3
dx

Solution:

Let x = a cos 3 θ and y = a sin3 θ which satisfies the above equation

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dx
= −3a cos 2 θ sin θ

dy
= 3a sin2 θ cos θ

dy
dy dθ 3 y
= dx = − tan θ = − √x
dx

Second Order Derivative

So far we have seen only first order derivatives and second order derivative can be
obtained by again differentiating first order differential equation with respect to x.

dy
Let y = f(x)then dx = f′(x) − − − − − − (1)

If f’(x) is differentiable, we may differentiate above equation w.r.t x.

d dy d2 y
i. e. dx (dx) is called the second order derivative of y w. r. t x and it is denoted by dx2

Note:

Let the function f(x) be continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on the open interval
(a, b), then
1. f(x) is strictly increasing in [a, b] if f’(x) > 0 for each x ∈ (a, b)
2. f(x) is strictly decreasing in [a, b] if f’(x) < 0 for each x ∈ (a, b)
3. f(x) is constant function in [a, b] if f’(x)= 0 for each x ∈ (a, b)

Example 6:

Find the intervals in which the function f is given by

f(x)= sin x + cos x : 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π

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is strictly increasing or strictly decreasing.

Solution:

We have, f(x) = sin x + cos x

f'(x) = cos x – sin x

π 5π
Now, f′(x) = 0 gives sin x = cos x which gives that x = 4 , in 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π
4

π 5π
The point x = and x = divide the interval [0, 2π] into three disjoint intervals,
4 4

π π 5π 5π
Namely [0, 4 ) , (4 , ) and ( 4 , 2π]
4

π 5π
Note that f′(x) > 0 if x ∈ [0, 4 ) ∪ ( 4 , 2π] that means f is strictly increasing in this

interval

π 5π
Also, f′(x) < 0 if x ∈ ( 4 , ) that means f is strictly decreasing in this interval
4

In the next article we will see about Partial Differentials.

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