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Calculus. These Free Study Notes are important for GATE EC, GATE EE, GATE ME,

GATE CS, GATE CE as well as other exams like BARC, BSNL, IES, DRDO etc.

These GATE 2018 Study Material can be downloaded in PDF so that your exam

preparation is made easy and you ace your paper. Before you start, make sure you go

through the basics of Engineering Mechanics though.

Recommended Reading –

Types of Matrices

Properties of Matrices

Laplace Transforms

1|Page

If the value of f'(x) is finite on (a, b) then it is said to be derivable on (a, b). The

derivatives of various functions with examples are given below.

Example 1:

dy

Find , if y + sin y = cos x

dx

Solution:

dy dy

+ cos y ⋅ dx = − sin x

dx

dy

(1 + cos y) = − sin x

dx

dy − sin x

= 1+cos y , where y ≠ (2n + 1) π n = 0, 1, 2 …

dx

functions.

Example 2:

Solution:

dy

cos y dx = 1

2|Page

dy 1

= cos y

dx

cos y = √1 − sin2 y

cos y = √1 − x 2

dy 1

= √1−x2

dx

Note:

d 1

(tan−1 x) =

dx 1+x2

Logarithmic Differentiation

Example 3:

(x−3)(x2 +4)

Differentiate, √ with respect to x.

3x2 +4x+5

Solution:

(x−3)(x2 +4)

let y = √ 3x2 +4x+5

1

log y = [log(x − 3) + log(x 2 + 4) − log(3x 2 + 4x + 5)]

2

1 dy 1 1 2x 6x+4

= 2 [x−3 + x2 +4 − 3x2 +4x+5]

y dx

3|Page

dy 1 (x−3)(x2 +4) 1 2x 6x+4

= 2√ [x−3 + x2 +4 − 3x2 +4x+5]

dx 3x2 +4x+5

The below example explains the method of derivative functions in parametric form.

Example 4:

dy

Find, dx , if x = a(θ + sin θ), y = a(1 − cos θ)

Solution:

dx

= a(1 + cos θ)

dθ

dy

= a sin θ

dθ

dy

dy dθ a sin θ

= dx = a(1+cos θ)

dx

dθ

θ θ

dy 2 sin cos

2 2

= θ

dx 2 cos2

2

dy θ

= tan 2

dx

Example 5:

2 2 2

dy

Find the value of if x 3 + y 3 = a3

dx

Solution:

4|Page

dx

= −3a cos 2 θ sin θ

dθ

dy

= 3a sin2 θ cos θ

dθ

dy

dy dθ 3 y

= dx = − tan θ = − √x

dx

dθ

So far we have seen only first order derivatives and second order derivative can be

obtained by again differentiating first order differential equation with respect to x.

dy

Let y = f(x)then dx = f′(x) − − − − − − (1)

d dy d2 y

i. e. dx (dx) is called the second order derivative of y w. r. t x and it is denoted by dx2

Note:

Let the function f(x) be continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on the open interval

(a, b), then

1. f(x) is strictly increasing in [a, b] if f’(x) > 0 for each x ∈ (a, b)

2. f(x) is strictly decreasing in [a, b] if f’(x) < 0 for each x ∈ (a, b)

3. f(x) is constant function in [a, b] if f’(x)= 0 for each x ∈ (a, b)

Example 6:

5|Page

is strictly increasing or strictly decreasing.

Solution:

π 5π

Now, f′(x) = 0 gives sin x = cos x which gives that x = 4 , in 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π

4

π 5π

The point x = and x = divide the interval [0, 2π] into three disjoint intervals,

4 4

π π 5π 5π

Namely [0, 4 ) , (4 , ) and ( 4 , 2π]

4

π 5π

Note that f′(x) > 0 if x ∈ [0, 4 ) ∪ ( 4 , 2π] that means f is strictly increasing in this

interval

π 5π

Also, f′(x) < 0 if x ∈ ( 4 , ) that means f is strictly decreasing in this interval

4

Did you like this article on Differentiation? Let us know in the comments? You may

also like the following articles –

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6|Page

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