Britons (historical) The Britons (sometimes Brythons or British) were the Celtic people living in Great Britain from

the Iron Age through [1] the Early Middle Ages. They spoke the Insular Celtic language known as British or Brythonic. They lived throughout Britain south of about the Firth of Forth; after the 5th century Britons also migrated to continental Europe, where they [1] established the settlements of Brittany in France and the obscure Britonia in what is now Galicia, Spain. Their relationship to the Picts north of the Forth has been the subject of much discussion, though most scholars accept that [2] the Pictish language during this time was a Brythonic language related to, but perhaps distinct from, British. The earliest evidence for the Britons and their language in historical sources dates to the Iron Age. After the Roman conquest of 43 AD, a Romano-British culture began to emerge. With the advent of the Anglo-Saxon invasion in the 5th century, however, the culture and language of the Britons began to fragment. By the 11th century their descendants had split into distinct groups, and are generally discussed separately as theWelsh, Cornish, Bretons, and the people of the Hen Ogledd ("Old North"). The British language developed into the distinct branches ofWelsh, Cornish, Breton, and Cumbric.
[1]

Great Britain in the mid-late 400s CE Mainly Brythonic areas Mainly Gaelic areas Mainly Pictish areas

Etymology The earliest known reference to the inhabitants of Britain seems to come from records of the voyage ofPytheas, a Greek geographer who made a voyage of exploration around the British Isles between 330 and 320 BC. Although none of his own writings remain, writers during the time of the Roman Empire made much reference to them. Pytheas called the islands collectively as , which has been translated as theBrittanic Isles, and the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the , Priteni, Pritani or Pretani. The group included Ireland which was referred to as Ierne (Insula sacra, the sacred island, as the Greeks interpreted it) "inhabited by the race of Hiberni" (gens hiernorum), and Britain as insula Albionum, "island of the Albions".[3][4] The term Pritani may have reached Pytheas from the Gauls, who possibly used it as their term for the inhabitants of the islands.[4][5] The Latin name in the early Roman Empire period was Britanni or Brittanni, following the Roman conquest in AD 43.
[6]

In current usage, Briton also refers to the modern, mainly English-speaking, inhabitants of the United Kingd ± the om British people. As such it is a collective term for the English, Scottish, Welsh, and Cornish, as well as the Irish people from Northern Ireland. Welsh Brython was introduced into English usage by John Rhys in 1884 as a term unambiguously referring to the P-Celtic speakers of Great Britain, as complementing Goidel; hence the adjective [7] Brythonic referring to the group of languages. Brittonic is a more recent coinage (first attested 1923 according to the Oxford English Dictionary) intended to refer to the ancient Britons specifically. Language The Britons were speakers of the Brythonic (or Brittonic) languages. Brythonic languages are believed to have been [1][8] spoken throughout the island of Britain. According to early mediaeval historical tradition, such asThe Dream of

Britons migrated westwards during the Anglo-Saxon invasion Main articles: British Iron Age. derived from Britannia). Bretagne. the post-Roman Celtic-speakers of Armorica were colonists from Britain. Fr. Roman Britain. Cornish and Breton survive today. and Breton in Gaul. the territory inhabited by the B ritons was composed of numerous ever-changing areas controlled by tribes. which spanned across what is now North England. In 43 the Roman Empire invaded Britain. although a portion of it was eventually absorbed into the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata. The Western and Southwestern developed intoCumbric. they were subjectto the Roman governors. the British language adopted some words from Latin. The first form of the Brythonic languages is believed to be British. The Roman Empire retained control of "Britannia" until its departure about AD 400. While Welsh. By the end of the 1st millennium. a language related to Welsh and identical to Cornish in the early period and still used today. There they set up their own small kingdoms and the Breton language developed there from Insular Celtic rather than Gaulish. They also retained control of Cornwall and Northwest England. and Sub-Roman Britain Throughout their existence. and the language and culture of the native Britons had largely been [9] extinguished . but by 84 the Romans had decisively conquered southern Britain and had pushed into what is now Scotland. as far north as the Clyde-Forth isthmus. hence it is sometimes termed Romano-British in this period. the Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons began an invasion of the Eastern coast of Britain. which ran between the Forth-Clyde isthmus. Thus the area today is called Brittany (Br. Ireland is generally believed to have been entirely Gaelic throughout this period. the Brythonic language in these areas was [citation needed] replaced by that of the Anglo-Saxons . but is generally believed to include the whole of the island of Great Britain. Welsh. some Britons established themselves in what is now called Brittany. Breizh. y [citation needed] Meanwhile. the Anglo-Saxons and Gaels had conquered most of the British territory in Britain. At the same time. but eventually it became Gaelic territor . The Isle of Man was originally inhabited by Britons also. Territory Throughout their existence. In 122 they fortified the northern border with Hadrian's Wall. Cornish. but they retreated back to Hadrian's Wall after only twenty years. The British tribes initially opposed the Roman legions. where Kingdoms such as Dumnonia and Rheged survived. Around the time of the Roman departure. Eventually. Cornwall. After the Roman conquest of Britain. Cumbric became extinct in the 12th century. where they established their own kingdoms. Although the native Britons mostly kept their land. parts of Cumbria and Eastern Galloway. resulting in the Breton language. The extent of their territory before and during the Roman period is unclear. In 142 Roman forces pushed north again and began construction of the Antonine Wall. remaining only in Wales.Macsen Wledig. after it was introduced to the British Isles from the continent. The Brythonic languages developed from Proto-Celtic. the territory inhabited by the B ritons was composed of numerous ever-changing areas controlled by tribes. The extent of their territory before . Some linguists have invented the terms Western and Southwestern Brythonic to classify subsequent developments of the British language. The territory north of this was largely inhabited by the Picts.

. i li ti. Still f t B it i t it t l S i ll i t .i t tt . coloni. coad f t [ l ar goed coed f t ]f t i l i tt tt fi t t t t l l i t i l i Aremorica f t t l .t t i l t i tl i i t ft t . .t i i t i t f i l li i i t :t A i t i fi .I t t t ] A i t t li i t lt it B it A i lti .t l ft t t t l t i t i ll P lA B it i .i t t A ft t t li i l B it i . .t t t i t t B itt . li [ ] i t f t i f t t i . t t f l l i t l f l. Aquitania. t l t ti f ll . i .‘ w „€ † †‚ wv †„… — „y ‡† €y ‚ ’‰ y €“ y x„€ ‡† †„”w„ƒ „€ ‰ y„ ‚ „ †wx‚d „€ ‚ …„ „y„… ‚€ƒ „ „ — w€ „€ †w y„™w y y †wyw„– ‚ „†‡wx w „” j vw ‚ wv ‚x …„ y€ ‚‡ y „€ ‚ y†‚ w…„–„… j € yy – … … „…  vv x j „xwy „€ ‘ w †„yy„ †„„ „™w€ ‘wx yy„v‚– †w „ƒ‚– †wx‚d ‚ „y–w ‚v „€ †‚’ e ˜ ‚ ‡† ‚ „€ …y†‚ „ „xwv„ ‘„€ ‚y † ‡ ‚ † ˆ†wx‚ —‚ w ˆ †w€ …„€ w €y  „ ‚ „†„––w€ †‚ w ‰–‚– „€ †‚ ‘ †„ “ d … … • †w „y‚–x ‚ …„‡w†wx €v €ƒ „ „ wxy „€ wv ‚x †„ y„ƒ † ˆy†‚’w y„pˆ yw –‰ …„…†„ „™w€ ‚ x„„y u wƒ†‚˜ w ™„ w x‰ w„ w‰ €  „ y… w „€ ‡w „€ w ˆy„ ‰hˆ y w y„™ „yx„€ …„‡w”vw–„ …† †‚ „ fi †‚† ‰ f ‚ y ws † w € † y†‚„ w–‚– y „ x‘„€ w€ …† „p „ w x „€ † ‘ †„ ‘ ‡ ‰ … ’ ƒ‚†” † ‚ †‚ w –‚– €y ”† …† y …‚ – †‚ ‡ … ‚ †‚ w„v ‚ †‰‚xw  w w ywƒ „„€ j † w  †wx‚d—‰y † yw wv ‚x † w€ y y„‡‡‰y ursspi ‡ †„l † ww …„ „y x‚ w „w †‚ „ v „ †w €y „ p †w €y †‚ w  ‚ y„‰ ‰v v „ „€ †„„ƒ „ y†‚ w „ „€ ‚ y†‚ y„‰ … ˜… ˜ † ˜ ‘†w  ‚ jy † wy „…†‰‚ j „€ ‡†‚xw †w „‰ ‚ …†w ‚f ‚ †‚yxw y † w „” y„…w„ € ƒ …„ w v‚yyw „w y †„x„ „y „ y„€“ uj†‚™„fji w„†‚†x‚f …†w uj wƒ†‚˜ji „ w‰‚†‚˜ wv ‚x ‚ y„v† ™‚– ‡† vw — v †w y‚x†„ y„ƒ „€ ‚ ‡† xw† „€ † „ „v†„y„–  „€ „ wx ‚† ‚ y„„‡‰ „ „€ „€ƒ y„ „y „y „€ y„ ‰ †„ v € —€ t „€ ‚ ‚ „– „ †„x‰v‚ ‘ ‚‚– „€ ‡† ‰ † w  … x‚ y†‚  € ƒ „ „y „ ‚ „xwv w ‰y† “ „v– †wv ‚x r„€ † j … … … … … j “ Q i i t ttl B itt t ttl tit tit i t A t ti . i tt li ffi i l . lti l f B itt t . i t t li l fi t t t j ti l f t .A i it l i .t t A i f t. t tt t .t l i S i i i S . i fl f ifti lf i tifi ti i t E l i ² B it i t i t f lt ti l t B itt i l i t i t i t t Atl ti / t [t ] . t i i t i tt t t f li l . Aft t ll t i ili i t t i t f ll i .A i t i i i i f i .i l i l t ti . t t l f arvor i t f t t t l argoad ar / t .t ll f t tt t . ti i t t l i A . t i i t ti t . B itt tt t ti t l ti ft i I i i t t Si l i li Pli l t li i B .i i t . t i i l [ ] t. t B t . ti ti . i lit . t B it liti l l l i A ti t lli Ki Attil t . ttl i f fA i .B i . . li l t i i f B it i i i A i t B it i t B it i f Pli i i . t B ii. tl l B iti . f t t ttl it l t . t t l i l .A i i. l i t tA i t t t P . f t i t t t .A l i t t E i i . El . i i f t li t t ti i t t i l . ll ti i i l [ ] t i . t l tS t B iti [ ti ll t . f f . ft . . l l l lit t i i t i i tl it t t ill f lti B t f f f i t f ti l B iti i l ti fK t l ti i t l t f i A i t ll lit i t i ll i i i . t ti i i ft . i i l i ti . t . [ ] t l f B it i A l i l it l t t ti it A i f t t S l t. l t [ ] . t ft i it t . ffi -i a S i P < Uti a. . Vi . [ ] w„ „ w™ „ † „ „ƒ‚ „€ € ƒ „„ƒ yw‚v v ††w  „€ ‚ y†‚ v„††‚v w †„† †‚˜ wv –‘ „€ „™„ƒ‚€ … y† ‘ w„ w™„ „x „€ yw „€ w ‚ † „‰† †‚v w€ † „€ ‚ „‡w y „€ „y ‘†w  †w wƒ†‚ ‚ †‚ v„††‚v … ˆv ‚ y € „–ˆ y € †„ ‚ „€ yw yw„ w … w wv ‚x € ”ƒ y†‚ v„††‚v ƒ‚€y w„l ‘‰ … ‡†„l w ‘˜ w ‚† †w ‡†  y y “ … … ‚ yw‚v € ‰‚y „€ ‡†‚ w y„ y wv ‡‚ ‚„w€v k j† w  ‚ ‚y w ‰ †‚ ‡„ y € ‚ w„w „‡w w „™‚ ‘ †‚ ‚† ‚ †‚v w€ € ‰w ‚ „ ‚€ƒ „€ † „ ‰ ‰ „ƒ‚– y‚x „€ yw y„†‚ yy„‰ „€ ‚ y‰vw v ™ y„ vy„ „€ †„€ƒ wy„w … ‚ ƒ j f … • ˜ ‘ †„™ ‡ y u‘† ‚ jy† w  j „€ „w ††w  „€ †w wv ‚x …†‰‚ w€ „ƒ w‰ ‰v …„ wv –x‚v „€ ‚ † € „x‚ „y† ‚–y„ † it †w tt † † w  ‚iy†‚ yw™† ‚ƒ … wy„w y‰ ‰h † w  † y wv‚ y w v „ ‘ „ ‚––‰y ‡† „ y „ … … ˜ ˜ … ywƒ wv ‚x † „ ‰ †wx‚d ‚ „v†w y y„ …„‰† †‚v ˜ rt † y‰yyw˜ y‰ ‰ ‚ †‡ w–xwv „€ „ w †„™„ „y‰wv„ „€ w y„—‡†‚ ywƒ ‘† ‘ „ –x †w y‰ ‰v y‰‚ ‚ ‘ „ vy„ † w  †w wv ‚x †„„ƒ „ „ w … y … … … f … … … … “ g ‰„y „€ †w y „†‚‰ y„†‚ „€ † w y„ „™y‚ ‚ „†„ … “ … d f ˜ y„yywv‚ …‚ y„yywv‰… ™wv …† y„ywv “ y w „€ u †wx‚†„˜ …†w y„v ™‚‰ „€ € ‚i v„ ‰ y„†‚†„ ‚ „€ …†w „v†„…†„–„…† ‚ „‰yw„x „x‚y ‡† ™w€ yw †w y‰v„ …†w … „e „€ „x‚d € ƒ y„ w„ ‡† ™w€ yw „€ y y ‘† w„y „€ ‘ y w€ †‚ ‡„ w — †‚ ‡„ †„ ‰†w †w ‰ „ „€ w„w „€ † ‡† ™ yw y„  v „ ˜ ‡† ƒ‚ ‚ wv €–w˜ … „‡ ‚…„–‘ w y„ vy„ w€ ‚ƒ w ‰ ˆ„xw† ‘ †‰‚vˆ w ‚† y wv ‚x„ yw wv ‡‚ †w v„‚v ‘ v„ „– ‡‚ … … … x € „ „ „ ‘ „ y y € „w w† „€ ‚ † ‡ ‚ „xw w• „€ „†‰‚vvwwv † ‡† ”ww€y „x†w v ut €q ‚ q…p …†„ ’„ ‘w…†‰‚g†„€ ‰‚y yˆwv ‚x y ‰ „ ‚ “ c a fd dc ba ‡† y ‚ † … ‚ € ywƒ ‚x y s r i h e i Natural istory . li S i t S f B it i i i i . . lli i iz . 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P < Perti a . ft P ili . i i t i i t f t i E t. t At i. . Pli li t t f ll i lti t i i t ti it . i li t t t t t . i i t f l i l. .V.

Middle Ages. z . and these regions came to be known as Normandy. characteri es the modern view. there. With western Armorica having already evolved into Brittany. the name Armorica fell out of use in the area. North Armorica is mentioned in the first sentence of James Joyce's novel Finnegans Wake. [edit] Armorica popularized in contemporary culture The home village of the fictional comic -book hero Asterix was located in Armorica during the Roman Republic. When Vikings or Northmen settled in the Cotentin peninsula and the lower Seine around Rouen in the ninth and early tenth centuries. which is supplementing traditional assertions of continuity from the Iron Age. 1993. Map of Briton settlements in the 6th-century. the east was recast from a Frankish viewpoint as the Breton March under a Frankish marquis. The unnamed village was reported as having been discovered by [9] archaeologists in a spoof article in the British The Independent newspaper on April Fool's Day. "indomitable Gauls" hold out against Rome.

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