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EE 179, Lecture 8, Handout #11

Channel Impairments (Review)


◮ Linear distortion caused by impulse response.
y(t) = h(t) ∗ x(t) ⇔ Y (f ) = H(f )X(f )
H(f ) attenuates (|H(f )|) and phase shifts (∠H(f )) the input signal.
◮ Nonlinear distortion (e.g., clipping)

 xp
 x(t) > xp
y(t) = x(t) −xp < x(t) < xp or y(t) = tanh(x(t)/xp )

−xp x(t) < −xp

◮ Random noise (independent or signal dependent)


◮ Interference from other transmitters
◮ Self interference (reflections or multipath)
y(t) = x(t − td ) + αx(t − td − ∆t)

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Channel Equalization
Linear distortion can be compensated for by equalization.
1
Heq (f ) = ⇒ X̂(f ) = Heq (f )Y (f ) = X(f )
H(f )

The equalization filter accentuates frequencies that are attenuated by the


channel.
However, if y(t) includes noise or interference,

y(t) = x(t) + z(t)

then
Z(f )
Heq (f )Y (f ) = X(f ) +
H(f )
Equalization may accentuate noise!

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Baseband Communication
The baseband is the frequency band of the original signal.
◮ Telephones: 300–3700 Hz
◮ High-fidelity audio: 0–20 KHz
◮ Television (NTSC) video: 0–4.3 MHz
◮ Ethernet (10 Mbs): 0–20 MHz

Baseband communication usually requires wire (single, twisted pair, coax).


Multiple baseband signals cannot share a channel without time division
multiplexing (TDM).

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Carrier Communication
Carrier communication uses modulation to shift spectrum of signal.
◮ Wireless communication requires frequencies higher than baseband
◮ Multiple signals can be sent at same time using different frequencies:
frequency division multiplexing (FDM)

In carrier communication, the signal modulates a sinusoidal carrier.


The signal modifies the amplitude, frequency, or phase of carrier.

s(t) = A(t) cos ωc (t)t + φ(t)

◮ amplitude modulation: A(t) is proportional to m(t)


◮ frequency modulation: ωc (t) is proportional to m(t)
◮ phase modulation: φ(t) is proportional to m(t)
Frequency and phase modulation are called angle modulation.

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Double-Sideband Amplitude Modulation
The simplest modulation method is multiplication by sinusoid:
x(t) = m(t) cos(ωc t + φ) = m(t) cos(2πfc t + φ)
We usually set phase φ to 0 to simplify mathematical discussion.
The Fourier transform of the modulated signal is
X(f ) = 12 (M (f + fc ) + M (f − fc ))

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Double-Sideband Amplitude Modulation (cont.)
This scheme is called double-sideband, suppressed-carrier (DSB-SC).

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Signal Bandwidth vs. Carrier Frequency
Transmitters can radiate only a narrow band without distortion. Thus we
choose the carrier frequency such that
fc
≫1
B
Examples:
◮ AM radio: B = 5 KHz, 550 ≤ fc ≤ 1600 KHz

⇒ 100 < fc /B < 320


◮ FM: B = 200 KHz, 87.7 ≤ fc ≤ 108.0 MHz
⇒ 43 < fc /B < 54
◮ US television: B = 6 MHz, 54 ≤ fc ≤ 862 MHz
⇒ 9 ≤ fc /B ≤ 142
Digital TV uses the same frequency bands as analog TV.
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Demodulation of DSB-SC Signals
Demodulation uses a multiplier and a low-pass filter.
e(t) = x(t) cos(2πfc t) = m(t) cos2 (2πfc t) = 12 m(t) + 1
2 cos(4πfc t)

The low pass filter does not have to be very sharp. But it should be flat
over the signal baseband.

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DSB-SC Example
Modulating a sinusoid is an important way to test the system. Let
m(t) = cos ωm t = cos 2πfm t
Then
M (f ) = 21 δ(f + fc ) + 12 δ(f − fc ) = πδ(ω + ωc ) + πδ(ω − ωc )
and
ϕDSB-SC (t) = m(t) cos ωc t = cos ωm t cos ωc t
1

= 2 cos(ωc + ωm )t + cos(ωc − ωm )t
The transform of the modulated signal contains two impulse pairs separated
by 2fc .

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DSB-SC Example: Frequency Domain
Modulation and demodulation of cosine.

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DSB-SC Example: Time Domain
x(t) = m(t) * cos(2*pi*fc*t)
1

0.5

−0.5

−1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

e(t) = x(t) * cos(2*pi*fc*t)


1

0.5

−0.5

−1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

e(t) low−pass filtered

0.5

−0.5

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

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Types of Modulators
◮ Multiplier modulators using variable gain amplifiers.
◮ Nonlinear modulator. Suppose the input-output characteristic is
y(t) = ax(t) + bx2 (t)
Let x1 (t) = cos ωc t + m(t) , x2 (t) = cos ωc t − m(t). Then
y1 (t) − y2 (t) = a(cos ωc t + m(t)) + b(cos ωc t + m(t))2
− a(cos ωc t − m(t)) − b(cos ωc t − m(t))2
= 2a m(t) + 4b m(t) cos ωc t
The unwanted baseband component is blocked by bandpass filter.

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Types of Modulators (cont.)
◮ Switching modulator: multiply message by a simple periodic function.
Suppose w(t) is periodic with frequency fc :

X
w(t) = Cn cos(2πfc t + θn )
n=0
This weighted sum of phase shifted cosines has a spectrum that has
impulses at all multiples of fc . Then

X
m(t)w(t) = Cn m(t) cos(2πfc t + θn )
n=0

By the convolution theorem, the spectrum of m(t)w(t) consists of M (f )


shifted to ±fc, ±2fc , ±3fc , . . . and multiplied by e±jθn .
Suppose w(t) is a square wave centered at t = 0. Then
1 2
cos 2πfc t + 31 cos 6πfc t + 15 cos 10πfc t + · · ·

w(t) = +
2 π

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Switching Modulator

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Ring Modulator

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Frequency Converter
Multiplying a modulated signal by a sinusoidal moves the frequency band to
sum and difference frequencies.

Super-heterodyning: ωmix = ωc + ωI .
Sub-heterodyning: ωmix = ωc − ωI .
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Demodulation of DSB-SC Signals
Both modulator and demodulator use a multiplier by carrier signal.
◮ Modulator uses bandpass filter
◮ Demodulator uses lowpass filter
The carrier used by the demodulator must be in phase with the transmitter
carrier (taking into account transmission delay).
Such a receiver is called synchronous, coherent, homodyne.
e2(t) = x(t) * sin(2*pi*fc*t)
0.5

−0.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

e2(t) low−pass filtered


0.1

0.05

−0.05

−0.1
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

“modem” = modulator-demodulator is a transmitter-receiver


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Demodulation of DSB-SC Signals (cont.)
The phase of the carrier in the received signal must be extracted.
Suppose that the signal is not ideal (frequency is shifted):

r(t) = Ac m(t − t0 ) cos (ωc + ∆ω)(t − t0 )

= Ac m(t − t0 ) cos (ωc + ∆ω)t − θd
where θd = (ωc + ∆ω)t0 .
The receiver has a local oscillator that must be adjusted to stay in phase
with the received signal.
A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) that is controlled by a phase-locked
loop (PLL) is commonly used.
If the goal is cheap receivers, then we can eliminate the PLL by
transmitting the carrier signal along with the modulated message.
ϕAM (t) = A cos ωc t + m(t) cos ωc t = (A + m(t)) cos ωc t
The tone A cos ωc t contains the desired carrier in correct phase.
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