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Channel Impairments

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◮ Linear distortion caused by impulse response.

y(t) = h(t) ∗ x(t) ⇔ Y (f ) = H(f )X(f )

H(f ) attenuates (|H(f )|) and phase shifts (∠H(f )) the input signal.

◮ Nonlinear distortion (e.g., clipping)

xp

x(t) > xp

y(t) = x(t) −xp < x(t) < xp or y(t) = tanh(x(t)/xp )

−xp x(t) < −xp

◮ Interference from other transmitters

◮ Self interference (reflections or multipath)

y(t) = x(t − td ) + αx(t − td − ∆t)

Channel Equalization

Linear distortion can be compensated for by equalization.

1

Heq (f ) = ⇒ X̂(f ) = Heq (f )Y (f ) = X(f )

H(f )

channel.

However, if y(t) includes noise or interference,

then

Z(f )

Heq (f )Y (f ) = X(f ) +

H(f )

Equalization may accentuate noise!

Baseband Communication

The baseband is the frequency band of the original signal.

◮ Telephones: 300–3700 Hz

◮ High-fidelity audio: 0–20 KHz

◮ Television (NTSC) video: 0–4.3 MHz

◮ Ethernet (10 Mbs): 0–20 MHz

Multiple baseband signals cannot share a channel without time division

multiplexing (TDM).

Carrier Communication

Carrier communication uses modulation to shift spectrum of signal.

◮ Wireless communication requires frequencies higher than baseband

◮ Multiple signals can be sent at same time using different frequencies:

frequency division multiplexing (FDM)

The signal modifies the amplitude, frequency, or phase of carrier.

s(t) = A(t) cos ωc (t)t + φ(t)

◮ frequency modulation: ωc (t) is proportional to m(t)

◮ phase modulation: φ(t) is proportional to m(t)

Frequency and phase modulation are called angle modulation.

Double-Sideband Amplitude Modulation

The simplest modulation method is multiplication by sinusoid:

x(t) = m(t) cos(ωc t + φ) = m(t) cos(2πfc t + φ)

We usually set phase φ to 0 to simplify mathematical discussion.

The Fourier transform of the modulated signal is

X(f ) = 12 (M (f + fc ) + M (f − fc ))

Double-Sideband Amplitude Modulation (cont.)

This scheme is called double-sideband, suppressed-carrier (DSB-SC).

Signal Bandwidth vs. Carrier Frequency

Transmitters can radiate only a narrow band without distortion. Thus we

choose the carrier frequency such that

fc

≫1

B

Examples:

◮ AM radio: B = 5 KHz, 550 ≤ fc ≤ 1600 KHz

◮ FM: B = 200 KHz, 87.7 ≤ fc ≤ 108.0 MHz

⇒ 43 < fc /B < 54

◮ US television: B = 6 MHz, 54 ≤ fc ≤ 862 MHz

⇒ 9 ≤ fc /B ≤ 142

Digital TV uses the same frequency bands as analog TV.

EE 179, April 16, 2014 Lecture 8, Page 7

Demodulation of DSB-SC Signals

Demodulation uses a multiplier and a low-pass filter.

e(t) = x(t) cos(2πfc t) = m(t) cos2 (2πfc t) = 12 m(t) + 1

2 cos(4πfc t)

The low pass filter does not have to be very sharp. But it should be flat

over the signal baseband.

DSB-SC Example

Modulating a sinusoid is an important way to test the system. Let

m(t) = cos ωm t = cos 2πfm t

Then

M (f ) = 21 δ(f + fc ) + 12 δ(f − fc ) = πδ(ω + ωc ) + πδ(ω − ωc )

and

ϕDSB-SC (t) = m(t) cos ωc t = cos ωm t cos ωc t

1

= 2 cos(ωc + ωm )t + cos(ωc − ωm )t

The transform of the modulated signal contains two impulse pairs separated

by 2fc .

DSB-SC Example: Frequency Domain

Modulation and demodulation of cosine.

DSB-SC Example: Time Domain

x(t) = m(t) * cos(2*pi*fc*t)

1

0.5

−0.5

−1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

1

0.5

−0.5

−1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

0.5

−0.5

Types of Modulators

◮ Multiplier modulators using variable gain amplifiers.

◮ Nonlinear modulator. Suppose the input-output characteristic is

y(t) = ax(t) + bx2 (t)

Let x1 (t) = cos ωc t + m(t) , x2 (t) = cos ωc t − m(t). Then

y1 (t) − y2 (t) = a(cos ωc t + m(t)) + b(cos ωc t + m(t))2

− a(cos ωc t − m(t)) − b(cos ωc t − m(t))2

= 2a m(t) + 4b m(t) cos ωc t

The unwanted baseband component is blocked by bandpass filter.

Types of Modulators (cont.)

◮ Switching modulator: multiply message by a simple periodic function.

Suppose w(t) is periodic with frequency fc :

∞

X

w(t) = Cn cos(2πfc t + θn )

n=0

This weighted sum of phase shifted cosines has a spectrum that has

impulses at all multiples of fc . Then

∞

X

m(t)w(t) = Cn m(t) cos(2πfc t + θn )

n=0

shifted to ±fc, ±2fc , ±3fc , . . . and multiplied by e±jθn .

Suppose w(t) is a square wave centered at t = 0. Then

1 2

cos 2πfc t + 31 cos 6πfc t + 15 cos 10πfc t + · · ·

w(t) = +

2 π

Switching Modulator

Ring Modulator

Frequency Converter

Multiplying a modulated signal by a sinusoidal moves the frequency band to

sum and difference frequencies.

Super-heterodyning: ωmix = ωc + ωI .

Sub-heterodyning: ωmix = ωc − ωI .

EE 179, April 16, 2014 Lecture 8, Page 16

Demodulation of DSB-SC Signals

Both modulator and demodulator use a multiplier by carrier signal.

◮ Modulator uses bandpass filter

◮ Demodulator uses lowpass filter

The carrier used by the demodulator must be in phase with the transmitter

carrier (taking into account transmission delay).

Such a receiver is called synchronous, coherent, homodyne.

e2(t) = x(t) * sin(2*pi*fc*t)

0.5

−0.5

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

0.1

0.05

−0.05

−0.1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

EE 179, April 16, 2014 Lecture 8, Page 17

Demodulation of DSB-SC Signals (cont.)

The phase of the carrier in the received signal must be extracted.

Suppose that the signal is not ideal (frequency is shifted):

r(t) = Ac m(t − t0 ) cos (ωc + ∆ω)(t − t0 )

= Ac m(t − t0 ) cos (ωc + ∆ω)t − θd

where θd = (ωc + ∆ω)t0 .

The receiver has a local oscillator that must be adjusted to stay in phase

with the received signal.

A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) that is controlled by a phase-locked

loop (PLL) is commonly used.

If the goal is cheap receivers, then we can eliminate the PLL by

transmitting the carrier signal along with the modulated message.

ϕAM (t) = A cos ωc t + m(t) cos ωc t = (A + m(t)) cos ωc t

The tone A cos ωc t contains the desired carrier in correct phase.

EE 179, April 16, 2014 Lecture 8, Page 18

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