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Nowadays, in order to achieve effective learning outcomes, teacher need to have

strategies in their teaching. It is really important as a guidelines to achieve goals and

objective of teaching and learning process. There are no two teachers are alike, and any
teacher with classroom teaching experience will agree that their style of teaching is uniquely
their own. An effective teaching style engages students in the learning process and helps
them develop critical thinking skills. Traditional teaching styles have evolved with the advent
of differentiated instruction, prompting teachers to adjust their styles toward students’
learning needs in this 21st century of classroom.

There are many strategies of teaching that can used by teacher. Teaching strategy is
refer to the methods used to help students learn the desired course contents and be able to
develop achievable goals in the future. It is a long term plan of action designed. According to
pedagogy of teaching, Effective teachers use an array of teaching strategies because there
is no single, universal approach that suits all situations. Different strategies is used in
different combinations with different groupings of students will improve learning outcomes.
Thus, it will able to change passive teaching methods to active teaching methods.

In this part, we will focus only on four teaching strategies which are easy and most
widely used by teacher. The first strategy is lecture. Lecture is a traditional method of
teaching. Although the usefulness of other teaching strategies is being widely examined
today, the lecture still remains an important way to communicate information. The purpose of
lecturing is to stimulate learner’s interest and help in clarification of difficult parts of topics.
There are five types of lectures which are traditional oral essay, participatory lecture, lecture
with uncompleted handouts, feedback lecture and mediated lecture. The advantages of the
lecture approach are that it provides a way to communicate a large amount of information to
many listeners, maximizes instructor control and is non-threatening to students. While, the
disadvantages are that lecturing minimizes feedback from students, assumes an unrealistic
level of student understanding and comprehension, and often disengages students from the
learning process causing information to be quickly forgotten. The lecture can be puts
learners in the passive role. Thus, teacher should be smart and strategy in lecturing to make
it active teaching method.

Next, the discussion is the best strategy of teaching. There are a variety of ways to
stimulate discussion. For example, some teacher begin a lesson with a whole group
discussion to refresh students’ memories, list critical points or emerging issues, or generate
a set of questions stemming from the assigned reading. These strategies can be used to
help focus large and small group discussions. The purpose of this strategy are to learn
problem solving method and give student opportunity to apply principles, concepts and
theories. However, this method also will give disadvantages when it will takes a lot of time.
Thus, teacher should be able to handle and limit it by carefully plans the learning experience
while, the students must comprehend the assigned reading and show up for class on time,
ready to learn.

Questioning also one of the strategy of teaching. The purpose teacher should ask
questions is to promote student high order thinking skills, places them in active roles and be
motivated. By the way, teacher also can use questions to check the student level of
understanding about the topic that being taught. To have successful of this strategy, teacher
must ask the questions to the whole class to engage them to think and answer not only
pointed at one student. There are many types of questions which are factual questions,
probing questions, MCQs, open-ended questions, discussion- stimulating questions,
questions that guide problem solving and rhetorical question. Thus, teacher should have
techniques in use questioning strategy and become supportive teacher when promote

Lastly, the cooperative learning. It is a systematic pedagogical strategy that

encourages a small groups to work together toward achieving shared learning goal. It is
really essential to have careful planning and preparation when integrating cooperative
learning strategies into a course. Teacher must know how to form groups, ensure positive
interdependence, maintain individual accountability, resolve group conflict, develop
appropriate assignments and grading criteria, and manage active learning environments are
critical to the achievement of a successful cooperative learning experience. The advantages
of this strategy are to enhances social skills among students, promotes learning styles and
encourages member of the group learn to function as a team.

In order to make the students more understand about the implementation and the
assessment of the upper secondary science, we decided to make two demonstrations about
the teaching strategy. The first demonstration illustrates effective teaching strategies while
the second demonstration illustrates an ineffective teaching strategy. To begin with, the first
part of the presentation discusses the theoretical about teaching strategy and assessment.
After that, the first demonstration started to illustrate an effective teaching strategy. The four
strategies that discusses above are all implemented in the demonstration. Besides, an
effective teacher also should be able to relate topic with the previous lesson that the student
learns. Thus it will give more understanding to the students. For example in the first teaching
demonstration, the teacher relates the topic which is the physical and chemical change with
the lower secondary topic which is matter. Then, the teacher use such as the discussion,
questions, to probe an effective and active learning. For the second teaching demonstration,
the teacher tries to illustrate ineffective ways of teaching. For example inappropriate attitude
of the teacher can lead to ineffective teaching. The attitudes illustrated such as being late to
class, the teacher can’t control the emotional with the students and the teacher using the
phone in the class for personal. Even though the teacher using the lecture to teach, but then
the slides is lengthy and boring, the teacher also just read thoroughly the slides without any
explanation and does not highlight the important points, and this lead the students have
difficulty in understanding the topics.

In order to know that our strategy of teaching is effective, teacher use an assessment
to get accurate learning outcomes. Assessment is the process of gathering data. More
specifically, assessment is the ways of the instructors gather data about their teaching and
their students’ learning. Once these data are gathered, the student’s performance can be
evaluated. Assessment can be divided into two types which are the formative and
summative assessment.

Formative assessment provides feedback and information during the instructional

process, while learning is taking place. Formative assessment also measures about the
student progress and it also can assess the progress of an instructor. A primary focus of
formative assessment is to identify areas that may need improvement. These assessments
typically are not graded and act as a gauge to students’ learning progress and to determine
teaching effectiveness by implementing appropriate methods and activities through the
class. There are several ways of conducting the formative assessment in classes such as
observations during in-class activities, non-verbal feedback during lecture, homework
exercises as review for exams and class discussions, reflections journals, question and
answer sessions in the class.

Meanwhile, summative assessment takes place after the learning has been
completed and provides information and feedback that sums up the teaching and learning
process. Typically, no more formal learning is taking place at this stage. Summative
assessments typically are given to students at the end of a set point during or at the end of
the semester to assess what has been learned and how well it was learned. Grades are
usually an outcome of summative assessment. An example of summative assessment is the
final examination. In this presentation, we evaluate the students by observation in the class
activity. The demonstration of an effective teaching strategy was carried out and several
activities such as group discussion and question & answer are conducted to test the
understanding of the students. Based on the activity, the instructor can evaluate the
understanding the students and hence can improve the teaching strategy for the next

In conclusion, every teacher must decide which strategies that suitable and effective
to be implement in their teaching style. Teachers should find the right combination of
teaching strategy to have an effective learning outcomes. Then, teacher need to use an
assessment to evaluate student level of understanding and determined whether teaching
strategy is suitable or not.