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Oromiya National Regional State

Water, Minerals and Energy Bureau

Environmental and Social


Impact Assessment of Bule-
Hora Town Water Supply and
Sanitation Project

(First Draft)

July 2012, Addis


Ababa, Ethiopia

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Dr. Hailu Worku Development Consultant


Contents .............................................................................................................................. Page
Executive Summary.......................................................................................................................... 4
Introduction............................................................................................................................... 4
Methodology ............................................................................................................................. 4
Project Description.................................................................................................................. 10
Legal And Regulatory Frameworks ......................................................................................... 10
Baseline Conditions ................................................................................................................ 12
Identification Of Environmental And Socio-Economic Impacts ................................................. 18
Environmental And Social Management Plan (Esmp) .............................................................. 20
Conclusions And Recommendations ....................................................................................... 21
1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Background ........................................................................................................................ 1
1.2 Objectives ........................................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Scope Of The Work ............................................................................................................ 3
1.4 Specific Tasks..................................................................................................................... 3
1.5 Work Plan ........................................................................................................................... 4
1.6 Work Schedule ................................................................................................................... 5
1.7 Team Composition .............................................................................................................. 6
2 Methodology And Tools ......................................................................................................... 7
2.1 Scoping Method .................................................................................................................. 7
2.2 Baseline Investigations ....................................................................................................... 7
2.2.1 Bio-Physical Environmental Investigation Methodology ........................................... 8
2.2.2 Socio-Economic Investigation ................................................................................. 9
2.3 Environmental And Social Impact Identification, Prediction And Evaluation Methods ......... 11
2.3.1 Environmental And Socio-Economic Impact Assessment Methods ....................... 11
2.3.3 Evaluation Of Impact Significance ........................................................................ 13
2.4 Environmental And Social Management Plans .................................................................. 14
3 Description Of The Water Supply And Sanitation Project .................................................. 16
3.1 Existing Water Supply And Sanitation ............................................................................... 16
3.1.1 Existing Water Supply Situation ............................................................................ 16
3.1.2 Existing Sanitation System ................................................................................... 20
3.2 Proposed Future Water Supply And Sanitation System ..................................................... 22
3.2.1 Future Water Supply System ................................................................................ 22
3.2.2 Proposed Sanitation Facilities .............................................................................. 31
4 Legal And Administrative Framework ................................................................................. 34
4.1 Statutory Requirements & Legal Framework ..................................................................... 34
4.1.1 National Legislation .............................................................................................. 34
4.1.2 International Guidelines ........................................................................................ 37
4.1.3 Analysis Of The Ethiopian And International Environmental Legal And Regulatory
Frameworks .................................................................................................................. 43
4.2 Institutional And Administrative Framework ....................................................................... 45
4.2.1 Environmental Agency ......................................................................................... 46
4.2.2 Proponent ............................................................................................................ 48
4.2.3 Consultant............................................................................................................ 49
4.2.4 Interested And Affected Parties (Iaps) .................................................................. 50
4.2.5 Licensing Agency ................................................................................................. 50
5 Baseline Condition ............................................................................................................... 52
5.1 Bio-Physical Environmental Characteristics ................................................................... 52
5.1.1 Location And Area ......................................................................................... 52
5.1.2 Topography.................................................................................................... 52
5.1.3 Climate .......................................................................................................... 52
5.1.4 Geology ......................................................................................................... 52
5.1.5 Soil ................................................................................................................ 54
5.1.6 Surface Water Bodies .................................................................................... 54
5.1.7 Groundwater .............................................................................................. 5554
5.1.8 Flora And Fauna ............................................................................................ 55
5.1.7 Trend Analysis Of The Bio-Physical Environment Without This Project ................. 57
5.2 Socio-Economic Characteristics ........................................................................................ 57
5.2.1 Population And Demographic Characteristics ....................................................... 57

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5.2.2 Social Services .................................................................................................... 58
5.2.3 Urban Infrastructures ........................................................................................ 6059
5.2.4 Economic Activities .......................................................................................... 6261
5.2.5 Institutional Structure And Human Resource .................................................... 6362
5.2.6 Socio-Economic Trend Analysis ....................................................................... 6463
6 Description Of The Public Consultation Process ............................................................ 6665
7 Identification, Prediction And Evaluation Of Environmental And Social Impacts Of The
Proposed Activities .......................................................................................................... 6867
7.1 Identification Of Environmental And Social Impacts ....................................................... 6867
7.1.1 Construction Phase Environmental And Social Impacts .................................... 6867
7.1.2 Operation Phase Environmental And Social Impacts ........................................ 6867
7.1.3 Maintenance And Decommissioning Phase Environmental And Social Impacts 7170
7.2 Environmental And Socio-Economic Impact Prediction And Evaluation ......................... 7473
8 Environmental And Social Management Plan ................................................................. 8079
8.1 Mitigation Measure/Mitigation Plan ................................................................................ 8180
8.2 Compensation For Loss Of Property And Other Incomes .............................................. 8382
8.3 Social And Community Plan .......................................................................................... 8382
8.4 Monitoring Plans ........................................................................................................... 8382
8.5 Auditing Plans ............................................................................................................... 8483
8.6 Capacity Building Measures And Training ..................................................................... 8483
9 Conclusion And Recommendations ................................................................................ 9291
10 References ........................................................................................................................ 9493
11 Annexes ............................................................................................................................ 9695
Annex 1: Checklist For Document Review ........................................................................... 9695
Annex 2: Questionnaire Checklist For Identification Of Environmental And Social Impacts Of
The Water Supply And Sanitation Project, To Be Used For Fgd, Field Observation And
Interview ................................................................................................................... 9796
Annex 3: Environmental Guidelines For Contractors ....................................................... 103102
Annex 4: List Of Individuals/Institutions Contacted. ......................................................... 109108

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Executive summary Commented [u1]: Executive summary shall be a summary
of about two pages not over 20 pages

Introduction

The Ethiopian government provides multifaceted support to WSS Projects in line with its
efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Such projects like many other similar
projects, may have undesired consequences on the biophysical environment and the
community. It is thus important to identify the nature of such undesired consequences so
that any significant adverse impacts on the environment and the community are known early
and special mitigation measure are built into the design and Implementation of the project
and appropriate management procedures are put in place. It is within the context of this
background that the OBWME engaged Dr. Hailu Worku Development Consultant to conduct
a comprehensive Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) for the Bule Hora
Town Water Supply and Sanitation project based on the already conducted feasibility studies
and in the context of the current socio-economic situation of the town.

The purpose of the ESIA study, as clearly explained in the ToR, is, therefore, to identify,
assess and mitigate the potential adverse and localized environmental and social impacts of
urban water supply and sanitation project of Bule-Hora town, and to recommend appropriate
environmental and social management measures to be implemented during construction,
operation and maintenance of the project.

Methodology

The environmental and social impact assessment processes incorporates a number of key
steps: document review, field data collection, data analysis and presentation, impact
identification, prediction and evaluation and development of Environmental Management
Plan.

The common method of data collection and analysis include the following points:
 Document Review and Secondary data collection
 Focus Group Discussion
 Key Informant Interview
 Field Visit and Observation

Scoping method

The first step in the ESIA was to review the previous documents with respect to the
proposed project activities and the natural, regulatory (legal) and socio-economic
environments in which these activities would occur. Scoping seeks to identify at an early
stage, from among all of the project's possible impacts and all the alternatives that could be
addressed, those that constitute the key and significant issues.
The scoping exercise consists of the following.
 Collection and review of the existing documents relevant to the proposed
development project (project design documentation; feasibility study conducted on
the project; similar project implemented elsewhere through literature review);
 Collection and review of environmental and socio-economic data relevant to the
proposed development project;
 Review of relevant legislative requirements, national and international environmental
standards and guidelines pertinent to the project;
 Consultation with project stakeholders and other potentially interested and affected
parties.

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Baseline Investigations

This is essentially characterizing the existing baseline environmental and socio-economic


conditions prior to the commencement of the activities of the proposed project. However, the
baseline investigation started late and most of the project activities have began during our
field visit. This work includes establishing the prevailing condition for a range of physical
media such as air, water, soil, and the flora and fauna; and socio-economic parameters
such as demography, land use, economic activity and service provision. The prevailing
conditions relating to the above are established on the basis of available data, results from
the previous studies and carrying out field work to validate existing data and also collect
biophysical and socio-economic data to fill the gaps that were identified in the review of the
previous studies. Baseline data established through such work included the physical and
biological environment and socio-economic condition.

Description of the environmental baseline conditions includes the establishment of both the
present and future state of the environment in the absence of the project by considering only
the changes resulting from natural events and other human activities.

In order to identify any potential impact and potential change to the natural and socio-
economic environments, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of the nature of the
existing environments and characterize them prior to commencement of the proposed
activities. This translates to essentially characterizing the existing baseline environmental
and socio-economic conditions including establishing the prevailing conditions for a range of
media such as:

 Natural environment media, for example, such as air, water, soil and ground water,
flora and fauna and ecosystem services provided by these media.
 Socio-economic media, for example, demographics, economic activity and service
provision
Generally, the synthesis of the environmental and socio-economic data of the project
area has been undertaken through accomplishing the following main tasks.
 Conducting a detailed review of all secondary data sources.
 Significant data acquisition surveys and studies has been carried out in the
envisaged project area. These information and data has been assembled, reviewed
and analyzed to provide an environmental and socio-economic baseline.
 Production of an updated stakeholder list detailing persons/organizations and groups
with an interest in the project
 Meeting with local community representatives and local authorities to compile new
and revised socio-economic baseline information on the project area.

The consultant has, therefore, gathered, collated and reviewed all available relevant
information to determine the environmental sensitivity and socio-economic condition of the
project area. Identification of the project’s adverse and beneficial impacts has been informed
by baseline data collected, the consultative process and consultant’s experience of similar
projects. The following information has been determined to understand and document the
history of the site and surrounding areas as it pertains to physical, biological and socio-
economic conditions.

Public consultations has been carried out at household, community and institutional levels. It
has been conducted with the purpose of obtaining direct information from the household
heads that would benefit from or would be affected by the implementation of the project. To
this end some household heads has been interviewed from the project area. A household

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demographic and socio-economic survey has been conducted to obtain baseline information
on various issues including health, preference of persons facing displacement and opinion
about the projects. The socio-economic baseline study has identifed what the potential
impacts of the project using primary and secondary data. The social profile of the affected
communities has been mapped using statistics on demographics and health. The economic
baseline study has involved data on employment figures, remuneration, type of employment
sectors, contribution to GDP, those directly and indirectly involved in the site operations
(formal and informal). Utilizing the social profile prepared in the socio-economic baseline
study a preliminary assessment of the real and potential effects of the proposed projects on
the stakeholders has been undertaken. At this stage probable conflicts as well as measures
to manage these during the public participation process are prepared.

The second public consultation has been undertaken in the form of Focus Group
Discussions (FGDs). Focus group discussions have been held with various categories of
people. The aims of these discussions were:
 To obtain the views of various categories of vulnerable groups within the study area,
to discuss the project's associated impacts and benefits on those groups, and to
ascertain those groups' expectations regarding project benefits;
 To hear suggestions for mitigating any anticipated adverse impacts and increasing
anticipated benefits of the project; and
 To obtain the opinion of these groups about potential socio-economic impacts of the
proposed project.

The third public consultation has been undertaken in the form of series of stakeholder
analyses with various government offices and the project management.

Public consultation and participation aims to assure the quality, comprehensiveness and
effectiveness of the EIA, as well as to ensure that the views of the public are adequately
taken into consideration in the decision-making process.
The purpose of discussions that has been held with government representatives at the town
level has been to:
 Determine government stakeholder reactions to the project;
 Obtain stakeholder views about potential project impacts on various economic,
social, and environmental issues;
 Develop strategies to minimize potential social and environmental impacts in
conjunction with government stakeholders; and
 Ensure government participation in the design of impact mitigation measures.

Meetings has also been held with local non-government organizations (NGOs) and
community based organizations (CBOs) operating specifically within the project area.

The goal of these consultations has been to obtain their views on the positive and negative
socioeconomic impacts that may arise from the proposed project; and to obtain their
suggestions on potential mitigation measures for these impacts. The consultations involved
oral presentations about the projects, and detailed discussions on the stakeholders' opinions
and queries with reference to the project.

Finally, trend analysis has also been conducted using social and economic indicators.

Environmental and Socio-economic Impact Assessment Methods

The process of identification of the major impacts brings together all the results of the above
activities so that the potentially significant environmental and socio-economic impacts, both

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adverse and beneficial, are taken into account and clearly spelt out. All the proposed
activities of the project during their different phases such as construction, operation,
maintenance and decommissioning are considered individually to help in identifying the
impacts and their causes or sources. Through such steps, the activities involved in the
development of the projects and the possible interaction of each activity with the
environmental and socio-economic receptors are assessed using a simple matrix where the
results of the assessment are entered in the matrix for an activity considered to have an
influence on a particular receptor. Inputs from the earlier feasibility study, the data obtained
through surveys and field work and similar projects elsewhere are used to establish these
possible interactions.

The prediction and evaluation of impact is generally based on the available environmental
baseline of the proposed project data. The credibility of an environmental impact
assessment relies on the degree of estimation of the nature and magnitude of change in the
environmental components that may result from the proposed project activities. Information
about predicted changes is needed for assigning impact significance, prescribing mitigation
measures, and designing and developing environmental management plans and monitoring
programs. The more accurate the prediction, the more reliable the study work undertaken
has been in prescribing specific measures to eliminate or minimize the adverse impacts of
the project. The methodology used in prediction of the degree of environmental change is
qualitative.

In the prediction and evaluation stage, estimates of the magnitude of impact over each of the
impact variables identified during different phases of the projects’ lifecycle were made.
Although there are some particular models which can be applied to predict changes in a
given environmental components most of the predictions are made based on expert
judgment.

The determination has been based on information and available data related to the project.
Significance determination has identified and achieved procedural (how significant
determinations are made) and substantive (outcomes from the significant determination)
objective. Significance determination procedures concentrate on matters critical and relevant
to decision-making consistent with regulatory requirements and public concerns.

Evaluation of Impact Significance

The impact assessments for both the social and bio-physical environment will entail the use
of instruments that measure the nature, magnitude, extent, duration, likelihood, probability, in
order to quantify the risk in terms of significance of the impact. Both qualitative and
quantitative methods have been used to assess the impacts where applicable. While there is
no statutory definition of what constitutes a significant impact, it is clear that the preliminary
purpose of identifying significant impacts is to inform decision-makers such that an informed
and robust consent decision can be made.

Potential Impacts can be:


 Direct – impacts that result from the direct interaction between a project activity and
the receiving environment (e.g. dust generation which affects air quality).
 Indirect – impacts that result from other (non-project) activities but which are
facilitated as a result of the project (e.g. in-migration of job-seekers, which places
additional demands on natural resources) or impacts that occur as a result of
subsequent interaction of direct project impacts within the environment (e.g. reduced
water supply that affects crop production and subsequently impacts on subsistence-
based livelihoods).

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 Cumulative – impacts that act together with current or future potential impacts of
other activities or proposed activities in the area / region that affect the same
resources and / or receptors (e.g. combined effects of waste water discharges from
more than one project into the same water resource, which may be acceptable
individually, but cumulatively result in a reduction in water quality and functionality).

In assessing the level of impact that an activity may cause, four key elements has been
considered.
 Spatial Scale (local or regional, National, global)
 Duration (short term, medium term and long term)
 Intensity (low, moderate, severe)
 Probability (the likelihood that an activity will occur)

The criteria for the evaluation and ranking of impacts are defined as follows:
i. Spatial Scale: Site specific (restricted to the site) Local (the site and surrounds),
Regional (Surrounding districts).
ii. Duration: Short-term (up to 1 year), medium-term (1 year to 2 years), long-tern (life
cycle of the project) or permanent.
iii. Intensity: The effects of the impact have been quantified as low, medium-low,
medium-high or high.
iv. Probability of occurrence: Improbable (unlikely), probable, highly probable or definite
(certain).

Based on a synthesis of the information contained in (i) to (iv) above, and taking mitigation
measures into account, an evaluation of the significance of the impact is undertaken in terms
of the following significance criteria:
 No significance -requires no further investigation and no mitigation or management;
 Low Significance -an impact which has little importance and is not sufficient to
warrant further reduction if this involves unreasonable cost.
 Medium Significance -an impact which should be mitigated, if possible, to reduce it to
acceptable levels;
 High significance -an impact which requires extensive mitigation and management to
reduce impacts to acceptable levels.
Negative impacts with high significance that cannot be mitigated would typically be a cause
of key concern in the decision-making process.

Environmental and Social Management Plans

Environmental management plan is the key to ensure that the environmental quality of the
project area does not deteriorate due to the implementation of the proposed development
project and is generally used as the basis for establishing the environmental behavior that
the proposed project requires during its various stages. The environmental management
plan for the proposed project consists of a set of mitigation, monitoring, auditing and
institutional measures to be taken during the construction, operation and maintenance
phases to eliminate the adverse environmental and social impacts identified and predicted,
offset them, or reduce them to acceptable levels. The plan will also include the actions
needed to implement these measures. The aim of the environmental and social
management plan (ESMP) is, therefore, to ensure that any activities undertaken on the site
are executed in an environmentally sensitive manner to ensure sustainable development in
the long term. The ESMP will outline measures to be implemented in order to minimise
adverse environmental degradation associated with the proposed project activities and will
serve as the framework for the Monitoring Plan to ensure that the identified potential risks
are ameliorated. The ESMP has been structured to ensure that the following are addressed:

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 Mitigation Measures which includes identification of all potential impacts and
mitigation strategies, performance criteria, and reporting procedures. It also
includes how to enhance positive impacts and minimize the potential negative
impacts associated with the proposed developments.
 Creation of a Monitoring Plan to determine the efficacy of mitigation measures in
order to introduce corrective actions where necessary and to provide the basis
upon which to undertake future audits. Ongoing inspections and maintenance
ensure that any identified problems are addressed and that the end-use design is
properly implemented. Monitoring parameters has been determined based upon
the receiving environment, the issues identified during the site visit and
recommendations made by the specialists during their assessments. The
monitoring program should be objective-orientated to ensure that the correct data
is collected.
 List of responsibilities and timing of actions/interventions.
 Estimation of costs for various mitigation, monitoring, auditing and institutional
measures were performed based on the current market prices and
understanding of the issues.
 A compensation program with measures to restore the environment, a
monitoring program to complement and verify environmental behavior of the
project, and a training program to adequately meet human resource needs.
 Institutional Capacity Building
o Training of employees is of much importance in environmental management.
Personnel dealing with the implementation of environmental management
strategies should remain up to date with the environmental management
processes. Employees in charge of environmental control should attend
suitable training courses in order to acquire adequate knowledge concerning
environmental issues and the impacts associated with various activities of
the project.
o The EIA should identify, plan, monitor, and record training needs for
personnel whose work place may likely have a significant adverse impact
upon the environment or social conditions. The project should recognize the
need that employees at each relevant function and level are aware of the
project’s environmental and social policy, potential impacts of their activities,
and roles and responsibilities in achieving conformance with the policy and
procedures. This will be achieved through normal training process.
Employees training should include awareness and competency with respect
to environmental and social impacts, that could potentially arise from their
activities; necessity of conforming to requirements of the ESIA and EMP, in
order to avoid or reduce those impacts, and roles and responsibilities to
achieve that conformity, including with regard to change management and
emergency response.
o The training program should be identified and developed on environmental
management and other relevant areas such as health and safety. The
training should be organized and conducted prior to the start of project
operation phase.
o Costs for standard environmental awareness and safety training courses will
be indicated.

To sum up, the ESMPs covers all aspects of the construction, operation, and
decommissioning phases related to the project. to ensure that specific activities relative to
the project phase are identified and correctly mitigated ensuring compliance with all relevant
legislation and standards. An important aspect of the ESMP is the designation of appropriate
roles and responsibilities throughout the project phases for each identified risk. Mitigation

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measures should be made binding on those responsible to execute each of the identified
activities. Environmental management plan is, therefore, the key to ensure that the
environmental quality of the project area does not deteriorate due to the implementation of
the proposed development project. Environmental management plan is generally used as
the basis for establishing the environmental behaviour that the proposed project requires
during its various stages including the decommissioning phase.

Project Description

The water supply and sanitation project of Bule Hora town consists of provision of Water
Supply, Solid Waste Management, Liquid Waste Management and Storm water
Management infrastructures which involve different activities and processes at different
phases of the project.

Legal and regulatory frameworks

WSS projects and its utilization have, in general, environmental and social impacts. These
impacts result from the construction and operation. National governments issue policies and
legislation that help to avoid, reduce and/or otherwise control (regulate) the negative effects
of such possible impacts and thereby protect the society and the environment. Projects that
need foreign finance should also consider the limits that financing bodies, like the World
Bank, the European Development Bank etc, impose on the environmental impact of such
projects. These must be compared and the most stringent guidelines that are appropriate for
a particular project should be considered as the guide to any Environmental and social
assessment (ESIA).

The government of Ethiopia has put in place specific policies, legislations and institutional
arrangements to govern and regulate the environmental management system of the country.
The Environmental Protection Authority of Ethiopia (EPA) at federal level, the Regional
Environmental Authorities, and the Ministry of Water and Energy are the principal statutory
bodies responsible for insuring compliance, by project promoters, with policies, regulations,
and guidelines on the protection of the environment..

The proposed Project is subject to several policies and programs aimed at development and
environmental protection. This necessitates the complete understanding of the policies,
legislations and institutional frameworks of the country and similar international best
practices formulated as international standards and guideline.

As part of the detailed ESIA Study process, review of most relevant policies, legislation and
regulation relevant to the proposed project, has been made. National and international
environmental standards, regulations and guidelines that can provide a framework for the
current ESIA Study process and be used to benchmark measurement and evaluation of the
significance of environmental aspects of the project were also identified, reviewed and
presented.

National Regulatory Frameworks

The basis of the policies, laws and regulations relating to the environment are the explicit
provisions of the Constitution of the Federal democratic republic of Ethiopia in which issues
and concerns related to the environment are spelt out in at least three articles.
The National Policy and Strategy on environmental management and protection, adopted in
1997, provided the basic framework for environmental protection and conservation. Other
national policies and strategies that are relevant to the environment were subsequently
adopted in the different sectors such as agriculture, industry and the environment, water

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resources and energy. One important policy goal, relating to the current study, is ensuring
the benefits from the exploitation of non-renewable resources are extended as far into the
future as can be managed, and minimize the negative impacts of their exploitation on the
use and management of other natural resources and the environment.

National Environmental Protection laws were passed to help achieve the objectives set in
the constitution and the corresponding policies and strategies. These laws established
environmental protection organs both at the Federal and regional levels and empowered
them to act as guardians of the natural environment and enhance sustainable socio-
economic development. Other major laws, that have particular relevance to the current
study, include the Environmental impact assessment proclamation, Environmental pollution
control proclamation, and Solid Waste Management Proclamation. The Environmental
impact assessment is a means employed to predict and manage the environmental impacts
that a proposed development activity might produce and thus help to bring about intended
development with the minimum adverse impact on the environment.
Environmental impact assessment guideline

The legal basis of an EIA study for WSSP is defined in the “Environmental Impact
Assessment Guideline for Water Supply and Sanitation, December 2003”. Major projects
like WSS should undergo the Environmental assessment process to get approval.

There are also other national policies and guideline that are relevant to impact assessment
of the WSSP which are fully reviewed in the main report and employed in the present
assessment work. The various laws, policies and strategies mentioned above point to the
need to conduct EIA assessment in order to safeguard the environment and concerned
inhabitants from any possible negative impacts that may emanate from the development
project.

Regulatory Requirements of International Financial Institutions

The environmental and social requirements of the key International Financial Institutions
(IFI) such as African Development Bank, World Bank and European Investment Bank are
also included in this review. These are included not only because these institutions might be
involved in the financing of this project; but also for the purpose of including the standards
and guidelines applicable to this project that are not provided in the national standards. The
national standards are either not complete or general, lacking standards on specific
parameters that are relevant to the current project. They also provide guidelines on
procedures for carrying out ESIA.

Furthermore, International Environmental Conventions and Protocols Signed or signed and


ratified by Ethiopia are included in this review. Some of these conventions have been ratified
by Ethiopia and their provisions have become an integral part of the national laws. Such
conventions include Convention on Biological Diversity, and the United Nations Convention
to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and many more.

International standards and guidelines, relevant to the proposed projects assessed are also
included for the purpose of the following main reasons:
 identify regulatory requirements of international financial institutions
 compare the country’s standards with internationally accepted values and use them
in the cases where there are gaps and limitations in the national standards
 Identify and consider examples of Good International Industry Practice (GIIP) on
pollution prevention and industrial sustainability
In consideration of the above, a number of international standards, guidelines and
procedures have been reviewed and employed in the present ESIA study.

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Baseline conditions

Bio-Physical Environmental Characteristics

Borena zone, which is located at the southern part of the Oromiya National Regional State,
is the second largest zone next to Bale zone. This zone has an area of 63028 km 2 and
divided in to ten woredas. Bule Hora Werda is one of these ten weredas in Borena Zone
and Bule Hora town is the Capital of Bule Hora Woreda. Bule Hora town the biggest town in
Borena zone of Oromiya region, is located at 5º 57'45"north latitude and 38º 16'42"east
longitude with land area of about 1730 hectares. This town is found on the main asphalt road
that connects Ethiopia with Kenya at a distance of 467 km from Addis Ababa. Physically
Bule-Hora town is bounded in North by Abayi, in the South by Bule Kanya, in the East by
Ogo, and in the West by Bule Chameri Kebeles. On the other hand, Bule-Hora town is
located at South of Gerba town, North of Finchawa town, West of Kilenso town, and East of
Burji town. For administrative purpose, Bule-Hora is divided in to three Kebeles.

Bule-Hora town is located in plateau nature of landform whose altitude ranges from 1830 to
1950 masl. The highest elevation in the town is found on the southern side, mainly around
Bule-Hora general Hospital with elevation of 1950 masl followed by the area near St. Marry
Church where its elevation is about 1940 masl. Therefore, it is possible to say that the
elevation of the town increases as one moves from northern to southern corner of the town
along main (asphalt) road but decreases towards west. Bule-Hora town also has different
slopes ranging from 0 to 12 percent. The moderately steep slope is found in the eastern part
of the town near St. Marry church and also in the northeast and south-eastern parts. In these
parts, the slope ranges from about 7% to 12% or more. On the other hand, the western part
of the town is more of flat except a few pocket areas. In this side, generally the slope ranges
from 0 to 6%.

Bule-Hora has a subtropical temperature which is traditionally known as Weyna Dega (Bada-
dare). The town also has two rainy seasons in a year. The main rainy season in the area is
from March to May while the second rainy season, although not as strong as the first one, is
from July to November. From these two rainy seasons, the area receives about 250-400 mm
of rain per annum. The monthly average minimum and maximum temperature is 18 - 320c,
respectively. The maximum temperature occurs in Mach and the minimum in December and
January. During the rainy seasons, the prevailing wind is commonly east-west. The south-
easterly moist air currents from Indian Ocean are the sources of rainfall in the town.

In Bule-Hora town, most of the land area is covered by red soil derived from basaltic rocks
/Nitosol/ while some 20% of the total area of the town is covered with black cotton soil
/Vertisol/. This type of soil is formed and found in the eastern and northwestern part of the
town. It swells when weather is wet, shrinks and cracks during dry season. Sandy soil is also
locally prevalent. The existing types of soil in the town are suitable for construction purposes.

Thick flood basaltic layer which is described as the lower part of Jimma Volcanics is
underlying Bule-Hora town and its surroundings. Agewise it is categorized as Late Eocene to
Late Oligocene Era (Mengesha Tefera etal. 1993). Observation along the sides of stream
channels, road cuts, hillsides and in the plain area where top soils are washed away shows
that these basalt outcrops are found to be highly weathered and fractured. Colluminarly
jointed basalt resulting from fast rate of cooling is observed along the road sides. The
lithologic log of one water well drilled for the town water supply in February 2008 by Royal
Borehole Drillers shows that the top soil is underlain by basalt rock having different degree of
weathering and fracturing. The lithologic log of this well shows that up to 4.6m of the well is
top soil (clay soil), 4.6-23.0m is weathered basalt, 23.0-55.2m is fractured basalt, 55.2-69.0m

~ 12 ~
is boulder basalt, and 69.0-82.2m is vesicular basalt. This lithologic type forms an excellent
groundwater aquifer.

Different types of tree species are present both as natural indigenous trees and plantation.
Eucalyptus is is the dominant planted tree species and serve as fire wood. ‘Bisana’ ‘Tid’ and
‘wanza’ are used as fuel wood house construction and shade trees. Moreover, kashimir
(Abuker) and coffee are the two most important trees that have social and economic values.
They are sparsely found at certain pockets of the town and the surrounding. Naturally
growing plants and trees are limited as more land and tree is needed for house construction
in the town. . Hence, at present, the town is covered with manmade vegetations. Eucalyptus
tree, which covers the southwestern and northwestern part of the town, stands first in terms
of area coverage in the town and followed by ‘Tid’, ‘Wanza’, and ‘Bisana’. As far as wild
animals are concerned, Bule-Hora woreda Agricultural office disclosed that there is no wild
life in the town and its surroundings except some birds and few lower animals. But, a
number of domesticated animals like cattle, equines, poultry, sheep and goat are
predominantly found.

Although the analysis of the change in LU/LC types of the project area has not been
performed, the trend in the bio-physical environment of the study area as indicated by focus
group discussion and key informant interviews shows that Human-mediated conversion of
one type of LU/LC into another is very significant. These include:
 decrease in forested land,
 increase in areas covered with scattered trees,
 dramatic increase in cropland and in the area of grazing land,
 increase in urbanized land and increased pollution
 enhanced erosion and soil degradation
 Depletion of surface water resources.

Socio-Economic Characteristics

The population of this town is found to be one of the fastest growing populations in the
country. According to the 1994 census the population of Bule-Hora town was about 12,718
of which 6,533 and 6.185 are males and females, respectively. But, 8 years later (2002/3),
the population of Bule - Hora grew at an alarming rate and reached 26,981 of which 11,281
and 15,300 male and female respectively, according to sources from the town’s municipality.
The 2007 census, shows that the population of the town was increased by 6447 and
reached 33,428 where the male and female population constitutes 14,188 and 19240
respectively. Projection from the 2007 base population shows that the present (2012)
population of Bule-Hora town is more than 42,000.

Concerning male-female ratio, Bule-Hora town exhibits ascending and higher proportion of
females. For instance, in the 2002/3, male-female ratio of the town was 73%. In 2007, the
ratio has increased to 78% (that means there are 78 males for 100 females). From this, it
can be concluded that there are more females than males in Bule-Hora town.

With regard to ethnic composition, Oromo ethnic group constitutes the largest proportion
(72%) followed by Burji (13%), Ahmara (8%), Gurage (3%), and the others (4%). 42.42% of
the dwellers of Bule-Hora town are appeared to be Orthodox Christians while 29.6% are
Muslims, 26.56% are protestant, 4% are ‘waqeffata’Waqeffata’, and 0.23% is follower of
other religions.

The population composition of Bule-Hora town is dominated by young population which


could be attributed to high fertility rate and high rural-urban migration. Therefore, with

~ 13 ~
present population growth rate the doubling time of the town will be short. In 2007, the
municipality of the town disclosed that 43% of the population is young, 54% are adult, and
the remaining 3% are old aged. Based on this, it can be said that that most of the
populations in Bule-Hora town (54%) are economically active and can help themselves while
about 46% of the town’s residents are dependent on these economically active social class.

The town is also going under escalating number of households from time to time. About
6,729 households were registered in the town in 2002/3. Two years later (2004/5) the
number grew to 7,626. Sources from the municipality also confirmed that total household
number in the town reached 8,363 in 2007. Out of these, 769 of them are female-headed
households whereas 7,594 of them are assumed to be male-headed households.

The residents of Bule-Hora town are engaged in various occupations. The significant
number of the dwellers (19%) engage in private business. 14% of them are government
employers and 13% are agricultural workers,. 4% of the population of the town are daily
laborers and and 2% are livestock raisers. As the town is capital of Bule-Hora district and
near to Moyale town, the activities that attract most households are trading and hotel
services. That is why the significant number of households in the town is engaging in
drawing much of their livelihoods from small trading and hotel services.

Generally speaking, the majority of the households in Bule-Hora town earn low income per
month. To give an overview of the situation of income received by households, income is
categorized in to 6 categories. Nearly 15% of the households earn 301 - 500 Birr per month.
About 29 % earn in the range of 501 – 800 Birr per month while 21 % of the households earn
in the range of 801 – 1,000 Birr per month. 8% earn 2,001 – 3,000 and and 5% more than
3,000 Birr per month.

A total of 15 schools are rendering service in the town; 5 are KGs, 6 are primary schools (1-
8), 1 higher school (9-10), and 1 preparatory school (11-12). 1 teacher training college and 1
vocational training institution are constructed by government in Bule-Hora town. Information
from town’s educational office shows that about 10,229 students are attending their
education in all these 15 schools. Out of these 864 are in Kindergarten, 6009 are in primary,
2571 are in secondary, 225 are in preparatory, 318 are in vocational, and 242 are in
college. Very recently, a University (Bule-Hora University) was established and started the
teaching-learning process from this academic year (2012).

Health service is another social facility that fosters the development of human capital.
Source form town’s health office shows that different types of disease occur at different
times and affect the residents of Bule-Hora town. Among ten top diseases, Pneumonia,
Intestinal parasites, and Rheumatism, Skin disease, Tonsil tar, stands from 1st to 5th ,
respectively in their occurrence and magnitude of damage they cause. In order to combat
these diseases, 1 health center and 1 hospital are constructed by government and rendering
service to the population of Bule-Hora town and its surrounding at present. The existing
hospital serves not only the town’s population but also the large number of rural population
of the woreda and beyond. In addition to these two health institutions, one clinic owned by by
private entrepreneur is serving the residents. Moreover, two drug vendors, which are
privately owned are providing different types of medicines for the populations of Bule-Hora
town and the surrounding population. According to the woreda health office, the following are
the major causes for health problems.
 Lack of safe and adequate water supply
 Poor personal and environmental sanitation
 Shortage of senior health professionals
 Poor organization of management system

~ 14 ~
 Lack of infrastructure
 Prevalence of HIV/AIDS especially among urban people

According to Bule-Hora town’s municipality the total housing stock at present is about 6,700
of which 79.4% are residential 19.3% commercial and the remaining 1.3% are for
administrative, services, industries, and religious purposes. Information from the municipality
indicated that on average about 6.5 persons are residing in a single house in the town.

Recreational areas are very important in provide leasure time for the residents of the town.
However, there are no recreation centers in Bule-Hora town apart from the football field near
the high school.

Roads are among major urban infrastructures that enhance human communication and
trade within and outside of a given area. High quality roads are manifestation of
development of a given town. In this regard, roads of Bule-Hora town are in poor condition.
The town has about 287kms of road. Out these, only 2.9% is asphalted and about 11.1%
graveled. The remaining 86% is mud road. Bule-Hora town has four road outlets that leads
to different towns/cities. These are; Bule- Hora to Finchawa (asphalted), Bule-Hora to Burjji
(graveled road), Bule-Hora to Garba town (asphalted), and Bule-Hora to Kileenso (both
graveled and mud road). With regard to means of transportation, the major means of human
transportation in Bule-Hora town are bajajas. These give transportation service within the
town along the main (asphalt) road. They are confined to this road because of the poor
condition of roads in other parts of the town. The growing number of population and the
existing number of bajajs seems to be not compatible. Bule-Hora town also has
transportation connection with a number of neighboring towns/cities via road transportation
that could foster its economic, social, and political advantages. For these purpose, about 30
small cars (mini buses), 45 medium cars, and 1 big bus are giving road transportation daily
to different directions such as to Killensso Rasa, Gerba, Killensso, Ebala, Soda, Dawa,
Finchawa, Fashaka and Murie, shashamene, Yavello, Moyale, Shakisso, and Burji..
However, some of this road transport will be interrupted during rainy season.

A wide range of environmental problems are created in the town due to different factors such
as inadequate sanitation particularly household waste collection and disposal system. There
is no organized waste management program in Bule-Hora town. Solid wastes from
residential houses, hotels /bars/ and different services, and trash from coffee processing
industry are the common problems. WHO recommended 1 vehicle per 15, 000 and 1
container per 1800 urban population. However, having more than this population, Bule-Hora
town failed to fulfill these conditions to properly manage solid waste and safeguard its
environmental sanitation. There is a solid waste disposal area in the eastern part of the
town, which by itself is not advisable site for waste disposal. This is because it is inclined
towards wind direction and is near to the residential areas. Neither the municipality nor the
water supply service office has any vacuum tanker for dislodging of latrines when get full.
Because of this, it is common to observe a considerable amount of wastes especially on the
main road and residential areas. Furthermore, the town is ill-equipped with sewerage
systems and this in turn has aggravated hygienic problem in the town. Human excreta is the
major problem in the town due to low level of usage of toilets on the part of the communities
either because of lack of awareness or weak awareness creation training on the side of the
concerned bodies. Domestic activities such as washing and cleaning in the town are
constrained ether by shortage of water or lack of awareness. Liquid and solid waste
materials spoil the playgrounds for the children in most cases. To control mainly the problem
of human excreta, which is one of polluting agents, using latrine is the most advisable
technique. However, in case of Bule-Hora town, most households use small wells which will
become full when rained causing overflowing of both solid and liquid wastes. Even in big
hotels, the latrine facilities are poorly developed.

~ 15 ~
In general, the significant proportion of Bule-Hora town residents (88%) use dry pit latrine
while 6 percent uses open fields.

In Bule-Hora town, the major sources of energy for food processing at a household level
include fire wood, kerosene, animal dug, charcoal, and electricity. Information obtained from
the town administrations show that the majority (44%) of households in the town depend on
firewood and charcoal to cook their food and for any other household duties. Nearly 38%
use electricity for the same purpose while 10% of households use kerosene, animal dung,
and charcoal. The remaining 8% appeared to use the combination of the aforementioned
energy sources. The reason why most Bule-Hora town dwellers do not use electricity as
source of energy is lack of enough income, power shortage and interruption and lack of lack
of integration between line office and the municipality.

At present, the town is being supplied with water from four water wells surrounding the town
constructed by different organizations since 1974 EC. Out of these four water sources, three
of them are functioning well while one of them is nonfunctional because of its low production.
At this time, the three wells are supplying 188,287m 3 of water per year to the town’s
dwellers. But, this amount is not sufficient to satisfy the demand of fast growing population.
As it is well known, about 30 liters of water per day is recommended for an individual. Based
on this, 1,200,000 lit/day is needed for 40,000 people of the town. However, based on this
exiting situation of water distribution of Bule-Hora town, a person gets 12 liter of water/day.
With regard to mode of water use, 25 percent use public fountains, 69 percent yard
tap/shared connection, and 6 percent of the household uses house connection. Around 1426
water pipe customers are available in the town. Those who use public fountain spend not
less than 15 minutes as an average waiting time for their turn. Distance to and away from
water resources is also another issue to be considered while investigating accessibility to
safe drinking water. In this line, in Bule-Hora town, 56 percent of the households are in the
range of 100 to 300 meters away from the public fountains, 34 percent are at a distance
ranging from 500 to 1000, while the remaining 10 percent are at a distance less than 100
meters away from the public fountain. In addition to the piped water, the town’s population
also collect and use water from different sources such as rain water and elas. The present
sources and the very old distribution system could not support the current water demand of
the town. There is no Transmission pipe line layout drawing available.

Like other urban areas in Ethiopia, the development of indusial sector is at its infant stage in
Bule-Hora town. The town is characterized by the development of medium and small scale
industries in the recent time. As a whole, about 103 manufacturing industries are operating
in the town out which 39 and 64 are medium and small scale industries, respectively. Of
course, being constrained by lack of water, shortage of electric supply, and internal road
network problem, most of the available medium scale industries are not producing using
their full capacity. The most important small scale industries operating in this town include
grain mills, wood and metal works, and bakeries. In terms of number of small scale
industries, grain mills and wood and metal work industries stand first and second in the town,
respectively. The low level of industrial sector development in this town is attributed to
different factors. Among these, lack of proper zoning and planned spatial distribution of the
factories, lack of specialization (less competitiveness and absence of micro and small scale
industries to feed the medium and small scale industries), intermittent electric power and
insufficient water supply, absence of financial facilities (bank, insurance), and shortage of
spare parts and raw materials are the major bottlenecks. Despite their low level of
development, these industries have created job opportunities for a significant number of
populations of the town.

~ 16 ~
In most cases, in their economic activities, the Bule-Hora town population depends upon
trading. The trade sector is very strong and absorbs many labor forces in Bule-Hora town.
The significance of this sector is due to the proximity of the town to Addis Ababa and other
centers such as Awassa, Yabello and Moyale. In 2008, Bule-Hora town hosted about 13
wholesalers, 281 retailers, and 350 service providing establishments. The existing
wholesalers are engaged in the distribution of prepared wearing cloths, beverages, and oil.
Kiosks, butchery, bakery, Pharmacy, and etc are among the notable retailers in the town.
Contractors, public transports, tej houses, hotels and bars, and Barbary are also the
common service rendering establishments in Bule-Hora town. Among the existing service
providing establishments, most of them have no licenses to run legally their business.

Agriculture is an economic activity that encompasses crop and animal production. It is


mainly the dominant economic activity of rural people. But, in developing countries like
Ethiopia, people from urban areas also engage in such activities as a means of additional
income and source of food. Likewise, most people in Bule-Hora town engage in different
types of agricultural activities on their backyards and nearby rural areas . areas.
Predominantly, food crops, vegetable plantation and livestock rearing activities are taking
place at large by households inside and in peripheral parts of the town. Although the town
has huge potential for urban agriculture because of its geographical location, availability of
agricultural land and labor force, the community failed to extract more benefits from the
sector to the desired level mainly because of, among other, absence of agricultural land
zoning practices, market places to sale and display vegetable products, and shortage of
water for vegetable plantation and animal watering. Urban and rural agricultural production is
very much dependent on rain water.

Based on towns’ status, investment advantage, population and other criteria, Oromiya Work
and Urban development Bureau has ranked towns in the region as 1 st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th.
Those towns ranked 2nd also further sub-divided in to 3 categories namely 2nd A, 2nd B, and
2nd C. Depending upon this requirement, Bule-Hora town is categorized under 2nd sub-
category (2nd B). This category has accommodated about 45 employees including the
Mayor. The manpower is sub-categorized in to four main sections; finance and
administration, revenue, social affairs and technical and land administration. Pertaining to
the educational status of the employees, most of them have completed grade 12 and above.
The Mayor of the town indicated that there is a shortage critical manpower required to run
the business of the town efficiently.

The current population of Bule-Hora town has increased sharply compared to the 1994. The
cultivated land and production of cereals have continued to grow. Conversely, sharp decline
has been noticed with forest cover.
The health service has shown improvement from time to time. Enrolment rate of students
has shown an increasing trend. A sharp increase has been noticed in the enrolment of
students in the technical schools.

Power supply, by and large, is limited to the town. Revenue collected by the Town has
increased. The number of banks has increased from 1 to 3. Road construction has been
slow.

According to the report of the municipality, unemployment has been the main problem in
recent years. It has been difficult to get specific and more information as data is not collected
continuously over time.

By and large, agriculture is the main economic base of the surrounding rural Kebeles. The
sectors’ productivity is low and mainly at subsistence level. This sector depends on back

~ 17 ~
ward and traditional production technologies. The following are among the major causes for
the prevailing state of affairs in the agricultural sector:,
 Grazing land and farming land are not demarcated.
 Land and soil have been degraded.
 There is interruption of rainfall which cause delay in planting time.

The problems of social conditions include


 High population growth
 Lack of employment opportunity
 Lack of access to transportation and communication

Furthermore, the rural infrastructure such as rural roads, schools, health institutions,
electricity, potable water and other services are limited. The rural people are travelling long
distances to get services.

Taking altogether, the data described in this chapter forms a baseline against which any
modification of the natural environment and social conditions in the future could be
compared.

Identification of Environmental and socio-economic Impacts

The environmental impacts produced by the project are functions of the existing condition
documented in the baseline study, the activities undertaken to realize the project and its
operation. As the project has two major components, namely, Water supply and Sanitation,
the identification of the environmental impacts will be made individually for each of the
components. Furthermore, as the realization of each component will have several sequential
stages or phases, the environmental impacts of the activities of each stage will be
indentified and evaluated individually. For each phase the impact on the physical
environment, the biological environment, socio-economic conditions and others are
documented separately. The results of the identification exercises are summarized and
presented in a matrix form with a tick (√) indicating that the identified impact affects the
corresponding receptor. The activities or processes during the different phases of any of the
project components have impact on the physical and biological environment and the socio-
economic conditions. The effect of some of the identified impacts may be transitory (time
bound and reversible) while others may have long term impact on the same receptors. The
receptors of the impact in the physical environment are air, surface water, ground water,
soil, landscape. The receptors in the biological environment are Flora and fauna. The socio-
economic parameters affected by the activities of the project include population,
employment, dislocation, resettlement, land utilization, and economic development. Other
parameters considered include noise, odor, contamination, ground vibration, safety, traffic.
For ease of reference the summaries of the activities of each stage of the project
components and the associated impacts resulting thereof and/or the receptors affected as a
result of these activities are presented in table 7.1.

Impact Identification brings together project characteristics and baseline environmental and
socio-economic characteristics with the aim of ensuring that all potentially significant
environmental impacts (adverse and beneficial) are identified and taken into account in the
ESIA process. In this study simple questionnaire checklist (Annex 1 and 2) and simple
matrices (Table 7.1) were used to identify and summarize Environmental and Socio-
economic impacts during the Water Supply and Sanitation project construction, operation,
maintenance and decommissioning phases.

Environmental and Socio-economic Impact Prediction and Evaluation

~ 18 ~
The prediction and evaluation of the various impacts produced by the activities of the project
are mainly based on the available environmental baseline data; the characteristics of the
different impacts identified earlier, a measure of the magnitude of the expected impact on
the various environmental components and the applicable regulatory guidelines and/or
accepted standards of best practice. The estimation of the nature and magnitude of the
changes in the environmental components will be required for assigning significance,
prescribing mitigation measures and developing environmental management plans and
monitoring programs. The prediction of the extent of environmental changes may be
qualitative or quantitative.

Prediction provides estimates of the magnitude (or extent) of the impact for each of the
identified impact variables. Prediction of changes in a given environmental component are
mainly based on expert judgment (no particular model is employed). Any uncertainties
arising from the predictions can be minimized through the implementation of the impact
management and monitoring plan.

Evaluation of the effect of the predicted changes and assignment of significance level of the
impacts will seek to achieve objectives related to how the significance determinations are
made (procedural objectives) and the outcomes resulting from the significant determination
(substantive objectives). Significance determination procedures emphasize the matters that
are relevant and critical to decision-making consistent with regulatory requirements and
public concerns.

In assessing the level of impact that an activity may cause, four key elements will be
considered as criteria for the evaluation and ranking of impacts.
a) Spatial Scale (local or regional, National, global): Site specific (restricted to the site)
Local (the site and surrounds), Regional (Surrounding districts).
b) Duration (short term, medium term and long term) : Short-term (up to 1 year),
medium-term (1 year to 2 years), long-tern (life cycle of the project) or permanent
c) Intensity (low, moderate, severe): the effects of the impact will be quantified as low,
medium-low, medium-high or high, and the rationale for this is discussed in the
written evaluation of the impact.
d) Probability (the likelihood that an activity will occur): Improbable (unlikely), probable,
highly probable or definite (certain).

Based on a synthesis of the information contained in (a) to (d) above, and taking mitigation
measures into account, an evaluation of the significance of the impact is undertaken in terms
of the following significance criteria:
 No significance -requires no further investigation and no mitigation or management;
 Low Significance -an impact which has little importance and is not sufficient to
warrant further reduction if this involves unreasonable cost.
 Medium Significance -an impact which should be mitigated, if possible, to reduce it to
acceptable levels;
 High significance -an impact which requires extensive mitigation and management to
reduce impacts to acceptable levels.
 Negative impacts with high significance that cannot be mitigated would typically be a
cause of key concern in the decision-making process.

The presentation of the predictions and evaluations of the environmental and socio-
economic impacts (or changes) follows the basic format employed for the identification of the
possible impacts. Accordingly, the prediction of changes caused by the project activities and
the evaluation of their significance are presented for each component of the project and the

~ 19 ~
different phases or stages in the implementation of each component. The level of
significance using the above measures is provided for each phase of the project component
in relation to the impacts on the various receptors and the parameters that are changed by
the activities of the particular phase. The results of the predicted changes and the measure
of their corresponding significance are presented in matrix form for each of the activities of
the different phases of the components of the project

Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP)

The aim of the environmental and social management plan (ESMP) is to ensure that any
project activities undertaken are executed in an environmentally sensitive manner to ensure
sustainable development in the long term. The ESMP include mitigation program with
actions to minimize negative environmental impacts during project construction, operation,
maintenance and exit, a compensation program with measures to restore the environment,
a monitoring program to complement and verify environmental behavior of the project, and
a training program to adequately meet human resource needs.

The ESMP has outlined measures to be implemented in order to minimise adverse


environmental degradation associated with the proposed project activities and will serve as
the framework for the Monitoring Plan to ensure that the potential risks identified are
ameliorated. The ESMP will be structured to ensure that the following are addressed:
 Identification of feasible mitigation measures for all potential impacts; minimize the
potential negative impacts associated with the proposed developments and maximize
positive impacts
 Creation of a performance monitoring Plan to determine the efficacy of mitigation
measures in order to introduce corrective actions where necessary and to provide the
basis upon which to undertake future audits.
 Develop management actions, responsibilities and timing of actions/interventions,
reporting procedures.
 Capacity building measures

The ESMPs has been divided into project phases i.e. construction; operational, maintenance
and decommissioning, to ensure that specific activities relative to the project phase are
identified and correctly mitigated ensuring compliance with all relevant legislation and
standards. An important aspect of the ESMP is the designation of appropriate roles and
responsibilities throughout the project phases for each identified risk. Mitigation measures
should be made binding on those responsible to execute each of the identified activities.

An ESMP and its proper implementation are key instruments employed to ensure that the
environmental quality of the project area does not deteriorate due to the implementation of
the proposed development project. Environmental management plan lays down the basis
for establishing the environmental behavior and performance that the proposed project
needs to meet during its various stages of implementation including the decommissioning
phase.

The ESMP for the proposed project, therefore, consists of a set of mitigation, monitoring,
auditing and institutional measures to be taken during the various project phases including
the skills and resource necessary for the implementation of the plans to eliminate the
adverse environmental and social impacts identified and predicted in the previous stages,
offset them, or reduce them to acceptable levels. The plan also provides the institutional
arrangement necessary for the proper implementation of the plan and includes the actions
needed to implement these measures and an estimate of the associated costs.

~ 20 ~
The ESMP identifies feasible and cost-effective measures that will reduce potentially
significant adverse environmental impacts to acceptable level. The plan also includes
compensatory measures if mitigation measures are not feasible, cost effective, or sufficient.

The overall results of these assessments of the changes and their significance may be
summarized as follows.

 There are no major identified changes with significant impact that are not irreversible
or cannot be mitigated through conscious and principled project implementation and
operational procedures and standards that confirms to the national standards,
guidelines and accepted international standards and best practices.
 The vast majority of the changes are of the types that have low impact, limited in their
spatial and temporal extent and with adverse effects that are reversible.
 The major changes with adverse effects on the physical and biological environment
and the socio-economic conditions occur during the construction and operation
phases of the Project.
 The sources of the major risks to the physical, biological and socio-economic
environment during the operation phase are water pollution and its health impacts.
The adverse impact of these can be reduced to acceptable levels by enforcing
compliance with the relevant standards and guidelines, both national and
international. As the sources of pollution and disposable wastes have been indicated,
compliance to the regulatory conditions can be achieved through good design of the
various processes, implementing appropriate mitigation measures, such as treatment
of wastes, continuous monitoring and strict enforcement of the legal provisions.
 The major adverse socio-economic impacts are land acquisition and damage to
household infrastructure and stress that will result on the social services to the
community due to the expected increase of population of the locality. Both of these
impacts are manageable as the vast majority of the people in the affected community
have positive feelings towards the proposed project and are also willing to resettle
provided they get adequate compensation.

Conclusions and Recommendations

The present ESIA study is carried out to assess the feasibility of the Projects from
environmental and social perspectives. All previous study documents related to the project
have been reviewed. The existing environmental and socio-economic situation in the area
has been investigated to fill gaps observed in the earlier studies. On the basis of primary and
secondary data assembled, the environmental impacts (positive and negative) that the
proposed project would produce on the physical, biological and social environment have
been assessed. In addition, appropriate and adequate mitigation measures have been
proposed and an environmental management plan is drawn up to avoid, minimize/reduce,
remedy and/or compensate any adverse environmental and social impacts that may result
from the implementation of the project.

In general, the assessment results indicate that environmental and social impacts during the
different phases will not pose any adverse impacts so far as the suggested mitigation
measures are implemented.

After a careful review of the existing studies with respect to the chosen technology and
design and with respect to the existing and generated environmental baseline data, the
consultant comes to the conclusion that it is possible to mitigate most of the environmental
and socio economic impacts which emerge due to the implementation of the proposed
projects at the mitigation cost included in the feasibility study and at about 150,000 birr per

~ 21 ~
annum running cost. Therefore, this project will be environmentally and socio economically
feasible provided:
 All mitigation measures, monitoring plan, auditing framework are strictly followed.
 The project proponent adopts stringent code of conduct for environmental protection

Finally, comparing the overall negative impact of the project with the current water supply
and Sanitation need of the town, it is recommended that the project be implemented as it
has positive spin-off effect that could possibly improve the lives of many of the town
residents. Furthermore, implementation of this WSS project is in line with and supports the
government effort in achieving Millennium development goals.

~ 22 ~
1 Introduction

The Ethiopian government provides multifaceted support to WSS Projects in line with its Commented [u2]: There shall be acronyms for such words
efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Such projects like many other similar
projects, may have undesired consequences on the biophysical environment and the
community. It is thus important to identify the nature of such undesired consequences so
that any significant adverse impacts on the environment and the community are known early
and special mitigation measure are built into the design and Implementation of the project
and appropriate management procedures are put in place. It is within the context of this
background that the OBWMEB engaged Dr. Hailu Worku Development Consultant to
conduct a comprehensive Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) for the Bule
Hora Town Water Supply and Sanitation project based on the already conducted feasibility
studies and in the context of the current socio-economic situation of the town.

1.1 Background

Bule Hora town is located in Borena zone, Oromia National Regional State, along Ethio-
Kenya main road at a distance of 476 km from to the south of Addis Ababa. Astronomically it
is located at 5º 57'45" north latitude and 38º16'42"east longitude. Before the establishment
of the present Bule-Hora town, the area was inhibited by Gujii Oromo known by the name
Kukku who waswho was engaged in agricultural activities like farming and rearing of
animals. Because of the dominantly existence of Ejerssa (Olive) trees, the nearby people
and the merchants used to call the area Ejerssa Kukku. The name was used until the early
1900s E.C.

Because of the southward expansion of central government and Orthodox Christianity, it was
in 1914 that the name Ejersa Kukku was changed to Hagre Marriam. The introductions of St.
Marry Church to Ejersa Kukku was the immediate factors for changing of the original name.
Because the town is serving as center of Bule Hora district, the town has renamed Bule-
Hora since 1997E.C.

Bule-Hora is the largest town in the Borena zone with a population size of more than 40,000
in 2012. It has got the first master plan In 1959 as Hagere Marriam town got the first master
plan In 1959. The current master plan of the town is that of 2000 EC prepared by the Oromia
Bureau of Works and Urban Development. Presently the planned land area of Bule Hora Commented [u3]: Urban Plan Institute?
town is about 1730 heha. With the growth of the private sector in the economical activity of
the town, there is a high demand for basic services among which water is the prime
necessity.

The source of Bule-Hora water supply is from the four boreholes in the near western part of
the town with aggregate capacity of about 18 liters per second. Currently about 1400
households are connected to the piped water out of the total households of about nearly
11000. The rest of the people are served by public tap which was constructed at 22 places in
different part of the town. Currently, about 140,000 m 3 of water per year is available for
about 40,000 people which is below 10 liters per person per day. The distribution of water is
uneven and there is no water distribution around expansion areas. In dry season even the
inner parts of the town stay for about one to two weeks without water service. This shows
that the town suffers from chronic shortage of potable water.

The town has no waste management system there are no waste bins in the town or garbage
collecting truck. There is no allocated site for solid waste disposal. As a result, residents
dispose sullage either on open fields or in pits dug at the back yard of their residential
compound. As there are no specific places in the town for waste disposal, some of the

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residents have allocated a corner in their vicinity to dispose and burn solid wastes while
others dump the waste elsewhere. Bule-Hora town does not have a sewerage system. Pit
latrines are most commonly used. Furthermore, the town does not possess any storm water
drainage facilities.

To respond to this chronic situation the Oromia Bureau of Water, Mines and Energy has
commissioned SABA Engineering PLC in association with ARMA Engineering PLC to
conduct a feasibility study for new water source and new water supply and Sanitation
infrastructures which requires ESIA study.

Assessing the social and environmental impacts of the water supply and Sanitation project to
be implemented in Bule Hora Town becomeTown become essential and hence to identify
the potential social and environmental impacts of the project on the target beneficiaries, the
OBWME has taken the initiative to recruit consultants to carry out the assignment and invited
eligible individual consultants to submit both Technical and Financial Proposals to provide
the services on 15th of April 2011. Dr. Hailu Worku Development consultant has won the bid
and entered into agreement with the OBWME on 24 of May 2012 to conduct the
Environmental and Social Impact Assessment.

1.2 Objectives
The Development Objective of the Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Project is to increase
access to sustainable water supply and sanitation services. Accordingly, the Bule Hora WSS
project is designed to:
 Produce more water for all customers and extend the distribution network to
unserved areas. The project aims to increase water availability through source
development, treatment expansion, and network extension, and service connections;
and improve the operational efficiency of the participating water utilities by reducing
non-revenue water; improving financial and customer management; catchments
protection; and instilling awareness of water conservation in its customers.
 Construct public sanitation facilities, finance priority elements of municipal sanitation
plans, and promote improved hygiene and sanitation practices. The project will
increase access to improved sanitation facilities, mainly for low income urban
residents. In so doing, the project will also provide improved drainage and reduce un-
controlled and unhealthy sewage flows.

The purpose of the ESIA study, as clearly explained in the ToR, is to identify, assess and
mitigate the potential adverse and localized environmental and social impacts of urban water
supply and sanitation projcctproject of Bule-Hora town, and to recommend appropriate
environmental and social management measures to be implemented during construction,
operation and maintenance of the project.

In preparing the ESIA report, the consultant has applied Ethiopia's environmental
procedures in conjunction with International Conventions and the World Bank's safeguard
policies. The consultant has reviewed the World Bank's safeguard policies to determine
which policies are triggered by the project and recommend appropriate mitigation measures
in compliance with these safeguard policies as well as with national environmental legislation
for the project.

The ESIA report has assessed the particular environmental and social management
requirements of the project and recommended appropriate Environmental and Social
Management Plans.

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1.3 Scope of the Work

The general scope of this assignment is conducting ESIA for Water Supply and Sanitation
Project in accordance with the ESMF and World Bank safe guard policies and procedures
using generally acceptable and recognized assessment techniques and evaluation methods,
standards and practices. The assessment has mainly focused on identifying the likely social,
physical, and environmental impacts and preparing Environmental management plan to
ensure that the relevant environmental and social impacts, particularly localized adverse
impacts, are properly identified, assessed and mitigated and the responsible institutions in
the town are strengthened as necessary to ensure that it has sufficient environmental and
social management capacity to manage the new as well as future investments.

1.4 Specific Tasks

The specific tasks of the assignment are the following:

1. Developing sound methodology for the impact assessment


2. Project Description
 Describe the project activities in detail and assess alternative project designs and
make appropriate recommendations. Where changes in the project design (such as
the re-sitting or re-routing of a sub-project facility) may allow elimination of one or
more identified impacts, these changes (and generally any project alternative) will be
discussed;
3. Review legal and regulatory frameworks
 Review Ethiopia's relevant environmental policies, legislation and procedures in
conjunction with the Bank's Safeguard Policies. Where there are gaps, propose
measures to fill these gaps in the context of the planned investments to ensure the
towns projects are implemented in compliance with the safeguard policies that might
be triggered by the proposed investments
 Review related Conventions and Protocols to which Ethiopia is a signatory.
4. Bio-physical and Socio-economic Baseline Investigation
 To describe the biophysical and socio-economic environment and highlight issues
that need to be taken into account during project preparation and implementation.
The baseline assessment has addressed:
 Physical and bio-physical environment (climate, topography, geology, hydrology,
surface water, soils, erosion sensitivity, flora, fauna, including the identification of any
protected or endangered species at the sub-project site(s)
 Land use at the sub-project site(s) and in its (their) vicinity,
 Human environment: description of neighboring communities (population size,
population structure and demography, socio-political organization, livelihoods, access
to public services),
5. Identification, prediction and evaluation of environmental and socio-economic
impacts
 Assess the potential adverse localized environmental and social impacts due to the
planned investments, and make appropriate recommendations. To the extent
necessary, the consultant has used the environmental and social screening form
included in the ESMF to determine potential adverse and localized environmental
and social impacts of planned investments with respect to
 Special extent,
 Duration in time,
 Probability of occurrence,
 Magnitude and
propose appropriate mitigation and monitoring measures.

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The combination of these parameters has been summarized in an 'all-encompassing
measure of "significance" which will be the impact, assessment and prioritization of
mitigation;
 Identify interested parties (beneficiaries, neighboring communities, communities
potentially affected by the sub-project, downstream water users, Iocal authorities,
regional authorities) and carry out public consultations and incorporate the results
into the ESIA report. All public consultation meeting undertaken by the consultant has
been documented.
6. Development of Environmental and social management Plan
 the consultant has prepared an Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP)
to ensure efficient implementation of the planned investments, The ESMP for the
town hasl included the following elements:
 Description of the proposed mitigation measures; recommend appropriate
environmental mitigation measures to be implemented during construction,
operation and maintenance, and reviewed, the Environmental Guidelines for
Contractors for the UWSSP included in the ESMF and indication which institution
will be responsible for implementing the mitigation measures;
 Cost estimates related to the implementation and monitoring of mitigation
measures;
 Description of the proposed monitoring measures and indication of which
institution will be responsible for monitoring the implementation of the mitigation
measures
 Timing and frequency of the monitoring activities
 Capacity building and training measures and related cost estimates:
management capacity, as well as the capacity to implement the proposed
mitigation and monitoring measures, and make appropriate recommendations;
including potential capacity building and training needs, and their costs.
 Asses the capacity of the town to manage and dispose of additional liquid and solid
waste that might be generated by the planned investments and propose mitigation
and monitoring measures that should be incorporated into the planned investments.
The consultant has also assessed the potential adverse health impacts due to
increased water supplies in the towns and makes appropriate recommendations to
be implemented.

1.5 Work Plan

After declared winner, the consultant meet with the clients representatives and finalized the
proposed approach to the project and on financial issues and modes of payment which led
to the signing of the contract. One week after signing of the contract, an inception meeting
was held which was aimed at sharing existing information between the parties in order to
gain insight into the existing environmental conditions of the project area. Shortly after
contract award, the consultant has prepared a list of data requirements for the project. This
has included a request for copies of information on standard operating procedures, relevant
maps, technical information as well as discussions with the client. This inception meeting
has provided an opportunity for everyone involved to meet to discuss the project and launch
a positive working relationship. At the meeting the consultant has collected the relevant
information and made necessary clarification discussions regarding the data and process to
be followed.

The meeting has also given the consultant an opportunity to discuss and confirm the
following:
 The detail with respect to the project scope
 Consolidate the way in which the key stages of the project are to be orchestrated

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 Define key lines of communication and verification
 Project related information (maps, studies, etc.)
 Arrangements for site visits
 Programme details
 Flow of information requirements
 Project management issues

The result of the inception meeting and document review was submitted as inception report
a week after signing of the contract.

After reaching an agreement on the inception report, a two week baseline study has involved
detailed desktop study, field Investigation and public participation to fill the data gap. During
this stage the consultant has compiled project description and baseline information which
formed part of the final report.

A three week period has been allocated for the development of ESMPs including
Identification of potential impacts, prediction and evaluation of impacts, mitigation measures,
monitoring procedures, performance indicators and estimated costs of mitigation measures.

The draft report has been compiled and one hard copy and one electronic copy of the draft
report have been provided to the client for comment within one week of completion of the
ESMPs.

Validation workshop will be conducted with all stakeholders. The final report will include the
comments obtained from the validation workshop and will be completed two weeks after
receipt of comments on the draft report from all stakeholders. Two bound copies, one
unbound copy and one electronic copy of the final report shall be presented. The digital copy
of the report shall include all relevant electronic data.

1.6 Work Schedule

The following work plan (Table 1.1) is prepared to indicate the time requirement for each
step of the ESIA Preparation Project. The activities are captioned as the detailed tasks were
elaborated in the previous sections.

Table 1.1 Work Schedule


Activity Month-1 Month-2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1.Document Review and Inception Report
2. Baseline Study
2.1 Field Investigation
2.2 Public Participation/consultation
3.Impact Assessment and development of EMPs
3.1 Impact Identification, Prediction and Evaluation
3.2 Developing Environmental Management Plan
4.Preparation of Report
4.1.Submision of the first Draft
4.2 Validation Workshop
4.3 Finalization and Submission of Final Report

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1.7 Team composition

A key success factor of any project is the selection of the appropriate people for the
execution of Client-approved methodology and work plan. The consultant has develop terms
of reference (ToR) for each specialist who is required to undertake an assessment to ensure
that each investigation is executed in accordance with best environmental management
practice. The project team members and their expertise are shown in Table 1.2.

Table 1.2 Team Composition and Task Assignments

Name of Staff Area of Expertise Position Assigned


Dr. Hailu Worku Environmentalist Lead Consultant
Dr. Ketema Abebe Sociologist Consultant

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2 Methodology and Tools

The environmental and social impact assessment processes incorporates a number of key
steps: document review, field data collection, data analysis and presentation, impact
identification, prediction and evaluation and development of Environmental Management
Plan.

The common method of data collection and analysis include the following points:
 Document Review and Secondary data collection
 Focus Group Discussion
 Key Informant Interview
 Field Visit and Observation

2.1 Scoping method

The first step in the ESIA was to review the previous documents with respect to the
proposed project activities and the natural, regulatory (legal) and socio-economic
environments in which these activities would occur. Scoping seeks to identify at an early
stage, from among all of the project's possible impacts and all the alternatives that could be
addressed, those that constitute the key and significant issues.
The scoping exercise consists of the following.
 Collection and review of the existing documents relevant to the proposed
development project (project design documentation; feasibility study conducted on
the project; similar project implemented elsewhere through literature review);
 Collection and review of environmental and socio-economic data relevant to the
proposed development project;
 Review of relevant legislative requirements, national and international environmental
standards and guidelines pertinent to the project;
 Consultation with project stakeholders and other potentially interested and affected
parties.

Description of the project/development action including a clarification of the purpose and


rationale of the project, and an understanding of its various characteristics including the
stages of development, location and processes shall be performed through document review
during the scoping process. The scoping assists in the identification of gaps in the
environmental and socio-economic information that need to be addressed. This in turn lead
to the formulation of data requirement for an informed impact assessment in the subsequent
ESIA process.

2.2 Baseline Investigations

This is essentially characterizing the existing baseline environmental and socio-economic


conditions prior to the commencement of the activities of the proposed project. However, the
baseline investigation started late and most of the project activities have began during our
field visit. This work includes establishing the prevailing condition for a range of physical
media such as air, water, soil, and the flora and fauna; and socio-economic parameters
such as demography, land use, economic activity and service provision. The prevailing
conditions relating to the above are established on the basis of available data, results from
the previous studies and carrying out field work to validate existing data and also collect
biophysical and socio-economic data to fill the gaps that were identified in the review of the
previous studies. Baseline data established through such work included the physical and
biological environment and socio-economic condition.

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Description of the environmental baseline conditions includes the establishment of both the
present and future state of the environment in the absence of the project by considering only
the changes resulting from natural events and other human activities.

In order to identify any potential impact and potential change to the natural and socio-
economic environments, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of the nature of the
existing environments and characterize them prior to commencement of the proposed
activities. This translates to essentially characterizing the existing baseline environmental
and socio-economic conditions including establishing the prevailing conditions for a range of
media such as:

 Natural environment media, for example, such as air, water, soil and ground water,
flora and fauna and ecosystem services provided by these media.
 Socio-economic media, for example, demographics, economic activity and service
provision
Generally, the synthesis of the environmental and socio-economic data of the project
area has been undertaken through accomplishing the following main tasks.
 Conducting a detailed review of all secondary data sources.
 Significant data acquisition surveys and studies has been carried out in the
envisaged project area. These information and data has been assembled, reviewed
and analyzed to provide an environmental and socio-economic baseline.
 Production of an updated stakeholder list detailing persons/organizations and groups
with an interest in the project
 Meeting with local community representatives and local authorities to compile new
and revised socio-economic baseline information on the project area.

The consultant has, therefore, gathered, collated and reviewed all available relevant
information to determine the environmental sensitivity and socio-economic condition of the
project area. Identification of the project’s adverse and beneficial impacts has been informed
by baseline data collected, the consultative process and consultant’s experience of similar
projects. The following information has been determined to understand and document the
history of the site and surrounding areas as it pertains to physical, biological and socio-
economic conditions.

2.2.1 Bio-Physical environmental investigation methodology

In order to fulfil the study objectives, the methodologies to be employed during the bio-
physical environmental investigation study can be broadly categorized as secondary and
primary data collection and analysis.

Secondary data collection: Prior to field work all data/information pertaining to the study has
been gathered, reviewed and analyzed. The main data source to be used are topographic
maps, master/structure/development plans, local development plans, hydrogelogical maps,
meteorological information, etc and reports acquired from governmental and non-
governmental organizations. Project feasibility studies has also been considered.

Primary data collection: Various types of surveys and field investigations has been planned,
and conducted to identify, and describe the various physical environmental parameters such
as topographic condition, climate, hydrogeology, soil, flora, fauna, etc.

The study area geological, hydrological and topographic maps has been consulted to
determine terrain, aspect, drainage lines and rivers as well as infrastructure developments
such as roads. Hydrocensus of the area has also been conducted to assess

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groundwater/springs utilization. The information required to generate this database includes:
site information; borehole information (coordinates, depth, casing, borehole depth, yield,
pump type, frequency of use, water level, etc.); spring information (coordinates, estimated
yield, frequency of flow, storage and pipelines); water application of boreholes (irrigation,
domestic and other uses.

Assessment and identification of all sources of environmental problems from the proposed
activities during the construction and operational phase has been made. Assessment of
potential contamination has been made through a site geo-hydrological model detailing the
general site setting, ground condition, nature and extent of any potential contamination
and potential migration pathways. Potential receptors to any contamination shall be
identified to the extent possible, based on information gathered from the desk study and field
investigations. Remediation objectives for contaminated and deteriorated water resources
has been indicated.

The methodologies followed for bio-physical investigation


 Review of the existing documents and experiences, previous studies policy issues
and water resources and potential catchment areas,
 Primary and secondary data collection through interview, questionnaires and site
observation,
 Interview and questions regarding water installation experiences and any notable
problems in the past,
 Review the international experiences.
 Interview and structured questions to assess the views of the local/indigenous
community,
 Field visit and site observation on the possible water resource areas,
 Community and/or focus group discussion,
 Study the different alternatives which can disfavor the breeding of disease causing
organisms like mosquito,
 Review/study of the international approaches/experiences which can be
regarded/taken as best practices by international recognizing organizations and
appropriate to the local area,
 Assessing both the community within and down catchment area and include in all
issues like community discussion, interview and questionnaires.
 Detail assessment if any known disease causing organism present in the past,
 Interview and questionnaires to check the experiences of the indigenous community
in water management,
 Thorough and series of focused group discussions:
 to get their understandings about water draining
 to draw lessons how to resolve social conflicts and
 to draw local experiences in water management and distribution.
 Searching local/national, regional and international experiences which comply with
water management.
Finally trend analysis has been made using biophysical environmental quality indicators.

2.2.2 Socio-economic investigation

The socio-economic investigation has been carried out after an initial review of the previous
studies on the planned projects. The review has identified the major issues and filled the
gaps in terms of updating the socio-economic data that covers the project area.
Furthermore, public consultation covering all segments of the population, particularly
individual households has been conducted. Socio-economic investigation has been
undertaken with two objectives: a) updating socio-economic data of the area in which the

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project is located, b) carrying out public consultation at various levels to identify the possible
impacts and mitigation measures.

The Socio-economic analysis has been undertaken utilising the following methodology:
 Desktop analysis: requires a review of all documentation related to the project. A
multi-layered approach has been followed, with each team member completing
specific sub-tasks: historical data review, socio-economic data review (census),
institutional data review, map sourcing;
 Field visit and focus group meetings: where the consultants hasconsultants have
prepared a background document and preliminary focus groups has been
organisedorganized to discuss the foreseen impacts of the project. The methodology
that has been used is scenario planning, which was used to evaluate the present
situation and the foreseen impacts by the affected community;
 Social survey: profiling institutions, small scale business, quantitative household
surveys, participatory rural appraisal and community mapping;
 Economic review: where qualitative information with quantitative economic
projections has been studied. This has provided one of the bases for the final report;
 Final assessment: final report has been compiled and provided the social profile of
the area, a presentation and analysis of the data collected, conclusions derived from
the combined phases, employment creation and discriminating components, the
identification of potential cumulative social impacts and provided mitigation measures
to reduce negative impacts.

Public consultations has been carried out at household, community and institutional levels. It
has been conducted with the purpose of obtaining direct information from the household
heads that would benefit from or would be affected by the implementation of the project. To
this end some household heads has been interviewed from the project area. A household
demographic and socio-economic survey has been conducted to obtain baseline information
on various issues including health, preference of persons facing displacement and opinion
about the projects. The socio-economic baseline study has identifed what the potential
impacts of the project using primary and secondary data. The social profile of the affected
communities has been mapped using statistics on demographics and health. The economic
baseline study has involved data on employment figures, remuneration, type of employment
sectors, contribution to GDP, those directly and indirectly involved in the site operations
(formal and informal). Utilizing the social profile prepared in the socio-economic baseline
study a preliminary assessment of the real and potential effects of the proposed projects on
the stakeholders has been undertaken. At this stage probable conflicts as well as measures
to manage these during the public participation process are prepared.

The second public consultation has been undertaken in the form of Focus Group
Discussions (FGDs). Focus group discussions has been held with various categories of
people. The aims of these discussions were:
 To obtain the views of various categories of vulnerable groups within the study area,
to discuss the project's associated impacts and benefits on those groups, and to
ascertain those groups' expectations regarding project benefits;
 To hear suggestions for mitigating any anticipated adverse impacts and increasing
anticipated benefits of the project; and
 To obtain the opinion of these groups about potential socio-economic impacts of the
proposed project.

The third public consultation has been undertaken in the form of series of stakeholder
analyses with various government offices and the project management.

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Public consultation and participation aims to assure the quality, comprehensiveness and
effectiveness of the EIA, as well as to ensure that the views of the public are adequately
taken into consideration in the decision-making process.
The purpose of discussions that has been held with government representatives at the town
level has been to:
 Determine government stakeholder reactions to the project;
 Obtain stakeholder views about potential project impacts on various economic,
social, and environmental issues;
 Develop strategies to minimize potential social and environmental impacts in
conjunction with government stakeholders; and
 Ensure government participation in the design of impact mitigation measures.

Meetings has also been held with local non-government organizations (NGOs) and
community based organizations (CBOs) operating specifically within the project area.

The goal of these consultations has been to obtain their views on the positive and negative
socioeconomic impacts that may arise from the proposed project; and to obtain their
suggestions on potential mitigation measures for these impacts. The consultations involved
oral presentations about the projects, and detailed discussions on the stakeholders' opinions
and queries with reference to the project.

Finally, trend analysis has also been conducted using social and economic indicators.

2.3 Environmental and Social Impact Identification, Prediction and Evaluation Formatted: Font: 12 pt
Methods Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Hanging: 0.31"

2.3.1 Environmental and Socio-economic Impact Assessment Methods Formatted: Font: 12 pt


Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Hanging: 0.56"
The process of identification of the major impacts brings together all the results of the above
activities so that the potentially significant environmental and socio-economic impacts, both
adverse and beneficial, are taken into account and clearly spelt out. All the proposed
activities of the project during their different phases such as construction, operation,
maintenance and decommissioning are considered individually to help in identifying the
impacts and their causes or sources. Through such steps, the activities involved in the
development of the projects and the possible interaction of each activity with the
environmental and socio-economic receptors are assessed using a simple matrix where the
results of the assessment are entered in the matrix for an activity considered to have an
influence on a particular receptor. Inputs from the earlier feasibility study, the data obtained
through surveys and field work and similar projects elsewhere are used to establish these
possible interactions.

The prediction and evaluation of impact is generally based on the available environmental
baseline of the proposed project data. The credibility of an environmental impact
assessment relies on the degree of estimation of the nature and magnitude of change in the
environmental components that may result from the proposed project activities. Information
about predicted changes is needed for assigning impact significance, prescribing mitigation
measures, and designing and developing environmental management plans and monitoring
programs. The more accurate the prediction, the more reliable the study work undertaken
has been in prescribing specific measures to eliminate or minimize the adverse impacts of
the project. The methodology used in prediction of the degree of environmental change is
qualitative.

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In the prediction and evaluation stage, estimates of the magnitude of impact over each of the
impact variables identified during different phases of the projects’ lifecycle were made.
Although there are some particular models which can be applied to predict changes in a
given environmental components most of the predictions are made based on expert
judgment.

The determination has been based on information and available data related to the project.
Significance determination has identified and achieved procedural (how significant
determinations are made) and substantive (outcomes from the significant determination)
objective. Significance determination procedures concentrate on matters critical and relevant
to decision-making consistent with regulatory requirements and public concerns.

The consultant has carried out an environmental scoping exercise covering the physical,
biological, socio-economic and cultural environments of the proposed project scope. In order
to effectively carry out this task, the consultant has utilized an impact assessment process
based on inter alia: the level of significance and magnitude of impacts; temporal and spatial
extent; probability of occurrence; the extent to which the impacts could be reversed;
cumulative impacts; and residual impact after mitigation. Attention has been given to but not
limited to:
 Impacts on the flora and fauna
 Impacts on the drainage and water resources
 Impacts on landscape and visual amenity
 Impacts on recreation
 Impacts on land use
 Impacts on protected areas, as well as other relevant natural and critical habitats
 Impacts on cultural property
 Impacts on property, settlements and community facilities
 Health and safety aspects
 Induced development resulting from improved access

Identification of key impacts brings together the previous steps with the aim of ensuring that
all potentially significant environmental impacts (adverse and beneficial) are identified and
taken into account in the process. To identify the project environmental and social impacts,
all proposed activities during the construction, operation and site closing and
decommissioning phases of the projects has been considered. In addition, concerns and
issues raised by members of the community and/or project stakeholders during consultation
has been included in the process. Through such steps, the activities involved in the
development of the projects and the possible interaction of each activity with the
environmental and socio-economic receptors has been assessed using a simple matrix
where a tick mark () is indicated in the matrix for an activity considered to have an influence
on a receptor. To achieve this, several key inputs has been used including project design
documentation, feasibility study conducted on the project and similar projects implemented
elsewhere. Following identification of all project activities, legal, environmental and socio-
economic receptors has been identified. The key input for the identification of receptors has
included the legislative review, the environmental baseline, the socio-economic baseline and
stakeholder consultation.

All key issues that has been raised by members of the community or by a stakeholder group
during the consultation program has been recorded and included as environmental and
socio-economic impact regardless of the scientific, commercial or factual validity of the
claim. In this way it is assured that the ESIA process has addressed every community and/or
stakeholder concern.

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2.3.3 Evaluation of Impact Significance
The impact assessments for both the social and bio-physical environment will entail the use
of instruments that measure the nature, magnitude, extent, duration, likelihood, probability, in
order to quantify the risk in terms of significance of the impact. Both qualitative and
quantitative methods have been used to assess the impacts where applicable. While there is
no statutory definition of what constitutes a significant impact, it is clear that the preliminary
purpose of identifying significant impacts is to inform decision-makers such that an informed
and robust consent decision can be made.

Potential Impacts can be:


 Direct – impacts that result from the direct interaction between a project activity and
the receiving environment (e.g. dust generation which affects air quality).
 Indirect – impacts that result from other (non-project) activities but which are
facilitated as a result of the project (e.g. in-migration of job-seekers, which places
additional demands on natural resources) or impacts that occur as a result of
subsequent interaction of direct project impacts within the environment (e.g. reduced
water supply that affects crop production and subsequently impacts on subsistence-
based livelihoods).
 Cumulative – impacts that act together with current or future potential impacts of
other activities or proposed activities in the area / region that affect the same
resources and / or receptors (e.g. combined effects of waste water discharges from
more than one project into the same water resource, which may be acceptable
individually, but cumulatively result in a reduction in water quality and functionality).

In assessing the level of impact that an activity may cause, four key elements has been
considered.
 Spatial Scale (local or regional, National, global)
 Duration (short term, medium term and long term)
 Intensity (low, moderate, severe)
 Probability (the likelihood that an activity will occur)

The criteria for the evaluation and ranking of impacts are defined as follows:
v.i. Spatial Scale: Site specific (restricted to the site) Local (the site and surrounds), Formatted: Outline numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style:
Regional (Surrounding districts). i, ii, iii, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Right + Aligned at: 0.38"
+ Tab after: 0.5" + Indent at: 0.5"
vi.ii. Duration: Short-term (up to 1 year), medium-term (1 year to 2 years), long-tern (life
cycle of the project) or permanent.
vii.iii. Intensity: The effects of the impact has been quantified as low, medium-low, medium-
high or high.
viii.iv. Probability of occurrence: Improbable (unlikely), probable, highly probable or definite
(certain).

Based on a synthesis of the information contained in (i) to (iv) above, and taking mitigation
measures into account, an evaluation of the significance of the impact is undertaken in terms
of the following significance criteria:
 No significance -requires no further investigation and no mitigation or management;
 Low Significance -an impact which has little importance and is not sufficient to
warrant further reduction if this involves unreasonable cost.
 Medium Significance -an impact which should be mitigated, if possible, to reduce it to
acceptable levels;

~ 13 ~
 High significance -an impact which requires extensive mitigation and management to
reduce impacts to acceptable levels.
Negative impacts with high significance that cannot be mitigated would typically be a cause
of key concern in the decision-making process.

2.4 Environmental and Social Management Plans

Environmental management plan is the key to ensure that the environmental quality of the
project area does not deteriorate due to the implementation of the proposed development
project and is generally used as the basis for establishing the environmental behavior that
the proposed project requires during its various stages. The environmental management
plan for the proposed project consists of a set of mitigation, monitoring, auditing and
institutional measures to be taken during the construction, operation and maintenance
phases to eliminate the adverse environmental and social impacts identified and predicted,
offset them, or reduce them to acceptable levels. The plan will also include the actions
needed to implement these measures. The aim of the environmental and social
management plan (ESMP) is, therefore, to ensure that any activities undertaken on the site
are executed in an environmentally sensitive manner to ensure sustainable development in
the long term. The ESMP will outline measures to be implemented in order to minimise
adverse environmental degradation associated with the proposed project activities and will
serve as the framework for the Monitoring Plan to ensure that the identified potential risks
are ameliorated. The ESMP has been structured to ensure that the following are addressed:
 Mitigation Measures which includes identification of all potential impacts and
mitigation strategies, performance criteria, and reporting procedures. It also
includes how to enhance positive impacts and minimize the potential negative
impacts associated with the proposed developments.
 Creation of a Monitoring Plan to determine the efficacy of mitigation measures in
order to introduce corrective actions where necessary and to provide the basis
upon which to undertake future audits. Ongoing inspections and maintenance
ensure that any identified problems are addressed and that the end-use design is
properly implemented. Monitoring parameters has been determined based upon
the receiving environment, the issues identified during the site visit and
recommendations made by the specialists during their assessments. The
monitoring program should be objective-orientated to ensure that the correct data
is collected.
 List of responsibilities and timing of actions/interventions.
 Estimation of costs for various mitigation, monitoring, auditing and institutional
measures were performed based on the current market prices and
understanding of the issues.
 A compensation program with measures to restore the environment, a
monitoring program to complement and verify environmental behavior of the
project, and a training program to adequately meet human resource needs.
 Institutional Capacity Building
o Training of employees is of much importance in environmental management.
Personnel dealing with the implementation of environmental management
strategies should remain up to date with the environmental management
processes. Employees in charge of environmental control should attend
suitable training courses in order to acquire adequate knowledge concerning
environmental issues and the impacts associated with various activities of
the project.
o The EIA should identify, plan, monitor, and record training needs for
personnel whose work place may likely have a significant adverse impact
upon the environment or social conditions. The project should recognize the

~ 14 ~
need that employees at each relevant function and level are aware of the
project’s environmental and social policy, potential impacts of their activities,
and roles and responsibilities in achieving conformance with the policy and
procedures. This will be achieved through normal training process.
Employees training should include awareness and competency with respect
to environmental and social impacts, that could potentially arise from their
activities; necessity of conforming to requirements of the ESIA and EMP, in
order to avoid or reduce those impacts, and roles and responsibilities to
achieve that conformity, including with regard to change management and
emergency response.
o The training program should be identified and developed on environmental
management and other relevant areas such as health and safety. The
training should be organized and conducted prior to the start of project
operation phase.
o Costs for standard environmental awareness and safety training courses will
be indicated.

To sum up, the ESMPs covers all aspects of the construction, operation, and
decommissioning phases related to the project. to ensure that specific activities relative to
the project phase are identified and correctly mitigated ensuring compliance with all relevant
legislation and standards. An important aspect of the ESMP is the designation of appropriate
roles and responsibilities throughout the project phases for each identified risk. Mitigation
measures should be made binding on those responsible to execute each of the identified
activities. Environmental management plan is, therefore, the key to ensure that the
environmental quality of the project area does not deteriorate due to the implementation of
the proposed development project. Environmental management plan is generally used as
the basis for establishing the environmental behaviour that the proposed project requires
during its various stages including the decommissioning phase.

~ 15 ~
3 Description of the Water Supply and Sanitation Project

3.1 Existing Water Supply and Sanitation

3.1.1 Existing Water Supply Situation

Presently, Bule-Hora gets its water supply from four boreholes in the western part of the
town (Fig.3.1 and Table 3.1). Presently there are four boreholes. Water from one Borehole is
pumped to 100 m3 masonry reservoir located at 1952 masl in the Hospital Compound
(Fig.3.2). The water from the other Borehole is pumped to another masonry reservoir with 75
m3 that is located in the town. The new borehole drilled in 2000 EC, is connected to the
system under the immediate improvement program.

Table 3.1 Existing Borehole Characteristics

Geographic Location Year of Casing Casing Well Pump S.W.L Yield Draw Remark
Borehole
Easting Construction type size depth position (m) l/sec down
No. Northing Elevation
(m)
Well 1 1974 EC steel 6" 84m 80m 4.5
1990 EC PVC 6" 59m 54 1.8 Closed
Well 2 622665 415502 1988 down
recently
1994 EC PVC 6" 62m 4
Well 3 622323 414774 1835
Well 4 621974 413842 1814 2000 EC PVC 8" 82.2 74 38 6.28 2

Currently water is abstracted from the three of the four drilled wells at different rates. The
first well drilled for water supply of the town some thirty years ago is found in the town near
the main asphalt road (Fig.3.1). This well is pumped at the rate of about 4.5 liters per second
presently.

The physico-chemical analysis of water from the fourth well (W4), indicates that the water is
chemically within the allowable range of WHO guidelines and hence potable. Because the
first well is in the town, the pollution risk from urban wastes and latrines is so high that care
must be taken as far as water quality control is concerned.

As the source of Bule-Hora town water supply is from borehole no treatment facility has
been required apart from disinfection. The water is disinfected at the elevated 100 m 3
reservoir using calcium hypochlorite solution with the drip method.

The distribution pipes are GS and the size varies from 3" to 2". The 3" Gs pipe covers only 4
km length. The others 2 ½" and 2" of distribution Gs pipes cover only the central part of the
town. The total distribution line length in the town is estimated to be about 15km. The
existing distribution network does not cover the new developed areas. Areas in the town
above the elevation of the reservoir are also not getting water supply, New customers away
from the existing distribution are not connected. The existing distribution system do not
follow the town master plan.

The system has bulk water meter at the source and the water supply office keeps records of
water production and sale. Table 3.2 indicates the amount of water produced and consumed
in m3 .The water production and consumption of Bule-Hora water supply system shows
increasing trend.

~ 16 ~
Fig.3.1 Source of Water Supply for Bule Hora Town: location of the existing boreholes with
respect to the town (a), photograph showing the location of Bore hole No.3 (b) and No. 4 (c)

~ 17 ~
Fig. 3.2 Masonry reservoir in the hospital compound

The annual water consumption of a water supply system depends on the capacity of the
source, performance of the system in regard to efficiency of operation and maintenance and
demand from the consumers. In this regard water consumption for the Bule-Hora town could
be concluded that it is dependent on the water availability and performance of the system.
The Non-revenue Water is less than 12 percent for most of the years, but this low figure
seems unreasonable for such an old system.

Table 3.2 Water Production, consumption and Non-Revenue water in m3 for Eight
Successive Years

Years E.C Production m3 /year Consumption m3 Non-Revenue Water


/year M3 %
1996 99102.8 87677.75 11425.05 11.53
1997 108117.37 95962.1 12155.27 11.24
1998 128717 119501.81 9215.19 7.20
1999 143036.2 131346.02 11690.18 8.2
2000 147385.65 140023 7362.65 5.0
2001 147827.77 135210.73 12617.04 8.53
2002 147248 144,943 2305 1.57
2003 188287.13 180538.51 7748.62 4.12

The total existing customers at the end of 2004 EFY are 1426. The connection record of
Bule-Hora town water supply service indicates an increasing trend. From this situation it
could be deduced that had the water source been adequate and distribution line laid in all
localities, the number of customers would have increased more than the current number of
customers.

The number of public water points is 22. Out of these 9 public taps are constructed with
masonry and have six faucets (Fig. 3.3) each, 4 of them are constructed with concrete and
have 4 faucets each and 7 of them are temporary stand pipes with one or two faucets.
Some of the water points were constructed in 1974 EC, while the others were constructed
from 1994 to 2000 EC.

~ 18 ~
Fig. 3.3 One of the functional masonry built water points in the town center.

The water tariff for the town is set at progressive rate for water consumed (Table 3.3). The
structure for volume or consumption is a mixed system, which is composed of uniform tariff
rate for public fountain and blocked tariff with progressive rate tied to consumption for
service connection.

Table 3.3: Existing Tariff Structure and Associated tariff rate


Consumption Block (m3/Month) Tariff (birr/m3)
1-3 3.50
4-6 4.20
7-10 5.00
11-15 6.00
16-20 7.20
>20 8.60
Public fountain 3.00

The financial performance of the water supply service as seen from the records of income
and expenditure is in good performance that the utility has some reserve from the water sale
after expenditure.

Income and expenditure of the Bule-Hora town water supply system for eight consecutive
years are summarized in Table 3.4.

Table 3.4: Income and Expenditure for the Years 2001 -2006

Year E.C Income/yr Expenditure/yr Formatted Table


(ETB) (ETB)
1996 420,667.23 318,928.80
1997 349,858.95 354,647.58

~ 19 ~
1998 435,803.30 352,914.85
1999 637,367.00 373,701.52
2000 866,269.62 758,887.21
2001 814,247.05 709,215.60
2002 903,762.02 853,585.78
2003 1,393,211.38 1,181,260
2004 (3 quarters only) 1,317,399.34 9,907,212.44

The Bule-Hora WSS is administered under the Town Water Board. It is responsible for
properly operating, maintaining and managing the water supply system of the town. The
existing organizational structure of the WSSSE are is presented in Fig.3.4.

TWSSSE Water Board


Town Water Board

TWSSSE General Manager

Secretary
Team Leader, Customer
Service Team Leader, Planning &
Budgeting

Team leader, Team Leader, Team Leader, HR Adm.


Finance Techniques & Logistics

Necessary Staff Necessary Staff Necessary Staff

Fig 3.4 Existing Organizational Structure of the Bule-Hora WSSE

3.1.2 Existing Sanitation System

The town has no solid waste management system. There are no waste bins in the town or
garbage collecting truck. There is no allocated site for solid waste disposal. As a result,
residents dispose waste either on open fields or in pits dug at the back yard of their
residential compound to dispose and burn solid wastes while others dump the waste in any
available open spaces (Fig. 3.5).

Bule-Hora town does not have a sewerage system. Pit latrines provide the main latrine
facility in the town and are most commonly used. In the town, there are no public toilets and
public shower that provide service. There is no, vacuum tanker for dislodging toilets when
get full. Since there is no vacuum truck in the town, pit latrines are not emptied. Hence, all
the households are obliged to dig another pit when the one in service became full. Storm
water drainage is also unavailable except along the side of the main road that leads to
Moyale.

~ 20 ~
Fig. 3.5 Solid waste disposed in open field is seen as a threat to human health and the water
supply sources.

~ 21 ~
3.2 Proposed Future Water Supply and Sanitation System

The water supply and sanitation project of Bule Hora town consists of provision of Water
Supply, Solid Waste Management, Liquid Waste Management and Storm water
Management infrastructures.

3.2.1 Future water Supply System

The water supply system for the town is designed to satisfy the demand in two development
stages. Stage I targets expected development of the town by the year 2026 and Stage II
targets year 2036.To predict the future water supply system, it is necessary to make it is
customary to make population, supply and demand projections.

3.2.1.1 Population Projection

Based on the Central Statistical Authority (CSA) national census of 2007 the population of
the town was 37,076. Using this figure as the base population for future projections will give
the result shown in Fig.3.6 and Table 3.5 as indicated by the WSSP feasibility study.

Figure 3.6: Population projection with the three variant

Table 3.5: Projected Population of the Town with medium variant


Year Growth Rate Projected Population
2007 37,076
2009 4.6 38,822
2010 4.6 40,650
2015 4.4 50,654
2020 4.2 62,491
2025 4.0 76,326
2026 3.8 79,282
2030 3.8 92,298
2035 3.6 110,500
2036 3.6 114,550

~ 22 ~
In addition to the town population, the rural population along the transmission main 5 km left
and right of the transmission main has been considered and estimated at about 5,965 and
the projection is shown in Table 3.6

Table 3.6: Projected Population of Rural area along the transmission main

Year Growth Rate % Projected Population


2009 2.0 6,086
2010 2.0 6,209
2015 1.9 6,834
2020 1.7 7,455
2025 1.7 8,117
2026 1.7 8,256
2030 1.7 8,837
2035 1.7 9,621
2036 1.7 9,786

The design of the water supply scheme is anticipated to be in two horizons, Horizon I up to
the year 2026 and Horizon II for year 2036. Accordingly, the projected population for the two
horizons is as indicated in Table 3.7

Table 3.7: Projected Population.


Year Growth Rate Projected Population Formatted Table
Urban Rural Bule-Hora town Rural areas Formatted: Centered
2026 3.8, 1.7 79,282 8,256
2036 3.6, 1.7 114,550 9,786

3.2.1.2 Water Demand Projection

Domestic water demand includes water for drinking, for food preparation, for washing and
cleaning and miscellaneous domestic purposes. The amount of water used for domestic
purposes varies depending on the lifestyle, living standard, climate, mode of service and
above all on the affordability of the users. Water demand for each demand category is
summarized in Table 3.8.

Table 3.8: Summary of Projected Water Demand - Bule-Hora Town


Item Unit 2011 2026 2036
Total Population served No 52,281 97,538 134,336
Total Livestock LU 340 340 340
Total Domestic Demand m³/day 434 2,525 3,626
Total Non-Domestic Demand m³/day 420 1404 1749
Total Demand m³/day 824 3,929 5,375
None Revenue Water % 27% 20% 25%
Average Day Demand m³/day 1,045 4,715 6,719
l/s 12.1 54.6 77.8
Mean Per-capita Demand l/c/d 20 48 50
Abstraction and treatment loses (GW) % 3% 3% 3%
Total Water production (GW) m³/day 1,292 5,828 8,304
l/s 15.0 67.5 96.1

~ 23 ~
3.2.1.3 Future Water Sources and Designed Future Water Supply

3.2.1.3.1 Well field location

The existing water supply source for Bule-Hora town is groundwater. The existing source
coupled with small distribution network is totally inadequate to address the water demand of
the town. As there is no surface water which could be tapped to supply the township, the
future water supply also relies in groundwater source. In line with this, geophysical and geo-
morphological surveys have been carried and drilling of three test wells have been
recommended in three promising areas out of which two were already drilled during this
survey. It was anticipated that the wells in the identified well-field area are expected to
provide an average of 6.5l/s. With this average yield from one borehole it is estimated to
develop eight and five additional wells to supply the maximum demand for year 2026 and
year 2036, respectively. In this Chapter, the preliminarily identified water supply sources, the
conveyance collection and distribution system for the Bule-Hora town are to be analysed to
meet the maximum water demand of 5,658 m3/day and 8,063m3/day for Year 2026 and Year
2036, respectively.

In assessing sources of water supply in Bule-Hora town, a number of possible sources


surrounding the town within a radius of 20 km have been investigated. The recommended
areas for well development are Bule Chemeri, Chemeri Bacha and Cheri Gololcha which are
situated in the western part of the town (Fig.3.7). Based on the hydrogeological, geophysical
and the existing wells it was anticipated that productive wells with an estimated yield of 6.5l/s
could be developed. Accordingly, drilling of 8 boreholes (with estimated yield of 6.5l/s) in the
following wellfield areas has been recommended and the preliminary design has been done
based on the recommendation (Fig.3.8). Two test wells have been already drilled by Hydro
in 2002: the first one at Bule Chemeri/Bule Kagna (Well 5) with the yield of 8.4l/s the second
one at Chari Gololcha/ Chari Goroba (Well 7) with the yield of 11.8 l/s). The third one at
Chemeri Bacha is to be drilled soon (Fig.3.7).

It is anticipated that at Bule Chemeri wellfield six boreholes and at Chemeri Bacha wellfield
four boreholes with estimated average yield of 6.5 l/s shall be drilled to satisfy the Year
2026 demand and for Year 2035 additional four production boreholes shall be drilled (two at
Chemeri Bacha & two at Bule Chemeri wellfield) to satisfy the 2036 demand.

The distance between two consecutive boreholes is considered to be at lest 500 m in order
to minimize well interference.
The future water supply system should therefore consist of the following main elements:

Year 2025
 Ten 8 inch diameter Production boreholes. at the Chemeri Bacha and Bule Chemeri
wellfields, the existing two boreholes nearby Bule Chemeri wellfield, will continue to
be used.
 Collector pipe mains work for Chemeri Bacha Wellfield to collector reservoir (T-4)
located at geographical locations Northing 626,996m Easting 415,354m, with
disinfection unit,
 Collector pipe mains work for Bule Chemeri Wellfield to collector reservoir (T-5)
located at geographical locations Northing 622,421m, Easting 413,376m, elevation
1870masl, with disinfection unit,
 Transmission mains from T-4 to the Hawassa Road Service Reservoir (HRSR)
located at Northing 626,440m Easting 416,717m, elevation 1951masl,

~ 24 ~
Figure 3.7 Potential Wellfield Site (a) ,), Chemeri Bacha well field (b) Cheri Gololcha well
field and the location of the test well (c) and Bule Chemeri well field and the location of the
test well (d).

 Transmission mains from T-5 to the Moyale Road Service Reservoir (MRSR) located
at Northing 619,333m Easting 415,592m, elevation 2014masl,
 Two public fountains and cattle trough for the inhabitants near by the wellfield.
 A distribution system which will distribute water according to demands through house
connections, yard connections and public fountains.
 Ancillary buildings for the proper operation and maintenance of the system.

~ 25 ~
Year 2035

Four additional production boreholes at Chemeri Bacha & Bule Chemeri wellfields shall be
drilled and cased with 8 inch casing.

Since the system is newelynewly installed, the anticipated losses in 2026 and 2036
expressed as a percentage of the water demand are 20% and 25%, respectively.

Fig.3.8 Proposed Wells and Design of Collection Pipeline Layout and reservoir locations

3.2.1.3.2 Treatment Requirement

The physico-chemical constituents of the existing borehole nearby Bule Chemeri wellfield
indicated that the water is suitable for human consumption and domestic uses. Thus, except
for chlorination at the collector reservoirs located in the two wellfield area, further treatment
is not required. For disinfection Calcium Hypochlorite powder with commercial strength of
60-7% shall be used. Commented [u4]: range

The Calcium Hypochlorite powder is mixed with water in a mixing tank where impurities and
un-dissolved chemicals settle at the bottom and the clear solution is transferred to a solution
tank through a plastic pipe. From the solution tank with a chemical feed pump (hypo
chlorinator) the solution is fed into the collection reservoirs. The mixing tank and the clear
solution tank shall be made of plastic material. For Year 2026, one of each tank is assumed
to be adequate while for Year 2036 additional tank of each with hypo chlorinator shall be
provided. The chlorination room shall be designed to accommodate the two design period
demands. The capacity of the mixing tank and the clear solution tank is estimated at 200
liters each for the two design periods. To the mixing tank a mechanical stirrer is provided to
properly mix the Calcium Hypochlorite compound with water and to allow impurities to settle
for sometime. This ensures that clogging material will not be taken into the clear solution
tank and create a problem for the hypo chlorinator.

~ 26 ~
To maintain residual chlorine concentration of 0.5 mg/1 at the extreme points in the
distribution system, a dosing rate of 1.5 mg/1 is estimated to be adequate, but this should be
regularly monitored. In case of failure of the hypochlorinator, gravity fed system with a plastic
hose that could drip into the clear water reservoir shall also be provided.

3.2.1.3.3 Pumping Stations, Collector Systems and Transmission Mains

The piping system from the wellfields has two parts, the first part is rising main from the
boreholes to the collecting system that conveys water to the collector reservoirs (T4 and T5)
located at Bule Chemeri and Chemeri Bacha wellfields (Fig.3.9). The geographical locations
of the collector reservoirs are at, Northing 626,996m Easting 415,354m, and elevation
1890masl, and Northing 622,421m, Easting 413,376m, elevation 1870masl (Fig.3.9). From
the collecting reservoirs the water is pumped to the service reservoirs (T1 and T3) located
nearby the main road and are named as Hawassa Road and Moyale Road Service
Reservoirs (HRSR & MRSR) (Fig. 3.8). The reservoirs are at geographical locations
Northing 626,440m Easting 416,717m, elevation 1951masl, and Northing 619,333m Easting
415,592m, elevation 2014masl, respectively. The required maximum day flow from T-4 to T-
1 and from T-5 to T-3 for Year 2026 and 2036 are 61.8 1/s and 91.3 1/s, respectively. For
these parts of the rising mains, DN 200 DCI pipe is proposed for the design demand of the
Year 2026 and 2036.

3.2.1.3.4 Reservoirs

The water from the wellfield collector reservoirs (T-4 & T-5) will be pumped to the two
service reservoirs located nearby the main road to Moyale and Hawassa (Fig.3.10). The
water from the collector reservoir for Chemeri Bacha wellfield (T-4) will be pumped to the
HRSR that is located at geographic location of Northing 626,443 m and Easting 416,717 m,
elevation of 1,951masl having 500m3 capacity, 12 meter diameter and 5.3 meters height.
The water from the collector reservoir from Bule Chemeri wellfield (T-5) will be pumped to
the MRSR that is located at geographic location of Northing 619,330 m and Easting
415,593m, elevation of 2,014masl having a capacity of 1000m3, 16metess diameter and 5.7
meters height. Additional reservoir nearby the existing 100m 3 masonry reservoir located in
the hospital compound has been also proposed to serve as break pressure tank and service
reservoir; for ease of identification, this reservoir has been also named as Hospital Break
Pressure Tank (HBPT). The capacity of the reservoirs is 500 m 3 with 12 meters diameter
and 5.3 meters height. Bule-Hora town shall, therefore, be served by four reservoirs one
reservoir used as break pressure tank.

3.2.1.3.5 Distribution System

The distribution network of the town has been analysed for two different year 2026 and year
2036 demand horizons. The peak hourly demand requirements are used as a basic
parameter for sizing the pipelines. The service area elevation ranges from 1,700 to 2,000
m.a.s.l. The existing reservoir is located at an elevation of 1945. Thus, the distribution
network will be fed by gravity flow from the reservoirs mentioned above. The distribution
network in Bule-Hora town consists of a combination of both looped and branched lines. In
both systems the pipelines have a DN50mm diameter as the smallest pipe size. Public
fountains and private lines will be connected to the network. The layout of the distribution
network is indicated on Figure 3.8. In this figure major and secondary distribution lines are
shown. The water distribution in the town is expected to be through house connections, yard
connections and public fountains. To increase the service coverage 33 additional public
fountains and 6 cattle troughs are needed for the town and the nearby rural villages.

~ 27 ~
Fig.3.9 Location of Collector reservoir (T5) at Bule Chemeri area (a) at Cheri Gololcha area
(T4) (b).

~ 28 ~
Fig. 3.10 Bule Hora Water Supply Reservoirs; a) Hawassa Road Reservoir; b) Reservoir
along Moyale Road; c) Reservoir in Hospital Compound and d) Old Masonry reservoir in
Hospital Compound.

3.2.1.3.6 Auxiliary Buildings

Auxiliary buildings required for the ground water based water supply system are generator
house, operator and guard house, store, workshop and control rooms. Thus, about 500m 2
area of auxiliary buildings that accommodate, guard house at the reservoir site and eight
control room and four generator houses will be constructed at the borehole site for the year
2026 design horizon. For the Year 2036 additional four control rooms and two guard houses
will be constructed.

Access road with an estimated length of 10 km to the boreholes and the booster pumping
station with the construction of two culvert bridges, about four ford bridges is under
construction during the present field visit (Fig.11).

3.2.1.3.7 Power Supply

Six diesel standby generators with the necessary control and cable extension system were
recommended to supply power to the boreholes pumping system. The power requirement for
the wellfield submersible pumps, illumination is presented in Table 3.9.

~ 29 ~
Table 3.9: Power Requirement (kVA)
Stand-by Gen-
15 KVA, set
Power point Transmission Transformer Power Quantity
Qunt
Name Length, km KVA (No) (KVA) No.
Chemeri-
Bacha & Bule Well Field submersible
Chemeri pumps 10.0 24 8 24 4
PUMP1 T-4 85 1 85 1
PUMP2 T-5 105 1 105 1
Total 10.0 109 9 109 6

Fig.3.11 Access roads to the boreholes under construction

3.2.1.3.8 Cost Estimate

The capital cost required for source development, water abstraction, transmission reservoirs,
distribution network, public fountain and auxiliary buildings to implement the project for year
2026 design period has been computed to be----------. In order to mitigate anticipated social
problem such as land ownership, payment for land ownership compensation is considered.
The operation and maintenance costs associated with the implementation of year 2026,
have been computed to be-------------.

~ 30 ~
3.2.2 Proposed Sanitation Facilities

Solid Waste Collection, Treatment, Transportation and Disposal

It has been reported that the town is devoid of a solid waste collection and disposal system.
As a result, all solid wastes generated by the households are dumped in any open field or
drainage ditches available which in turn causes nuisance to the community. For collection of
refuse from densely populated areas, communal bins that can serve a group of households
should be provided at appropriate places. For households in low-density areas, each
housing unit should have a covered bin that is emptied once a week into a truck, which will
transport it to the final disposal site. The running cost for disposing of collected refuse to a
final disposal site can be included into the taxes such as tax for ownership of a housing unit
and land. Most of the domestic solid wastes in the town under consideration are ashes that
are biodegradable, but recently the use of plastic bags is becoming common. This material is
not biodegradable. Hence, reuse and recycling of such material may be the best option. In
view of this, plastic materials should be collected separately. The collection bins for plastic
bags can be marked with colour that is different from the bins used for collecting other
refuses. The transportation of collected refuse can be carried out with vehicles or animal
drawn carriages depending on the availability of funds.

The solid wastes generated in commercial areas are mainly vegetables and grasses. As the
town is devoid of any type of collecting and disposing system, solid wastes in commercial
area are dumped in open fields and drainage ditches. This problem is clearly observed in the
open market area and in an open area nearby housing units.

The health center has a conventional incinerator, where the solid waste generated by the
center is burnt. The ash from the incinerator is dumped in an open pit located inside the
health center compound.

Most of the solid waste generated in schools are scraped paper but this material can be
recycled or burnt in the compound. Burning of this material is done in a simple pit, which are
dug inside the school compound.

In Bule-Hora town there is one abattoir in which about 61 cattle, 36 goats and sheep are
slaughtered per day. The waste water is directed into an open pit where it is left for
digestion. The pit is poorly constructed and it is a good place for breeding of mosquitoes and
flies. The abattoir has no solid waste collecting and disposal system. All the solid waste that
is generated is dumped into an open area inside the abattoir compound.

In Bule-Hora there is no industry except the small privately owned workshops and garages.
Therefore, no treatment facility is considered under this Project. However, there is a
possibility of development of industry associated with livestock farming and coffee
processing in the future. It is therefore very necessary to encourage the industry owners to
install their own waste management system. For disposal of all solid wastes of the town
sanitary landfill was proposed. Disposed of wastes can be covered with soil manually or
using earth moving machinery if this is available.

Toilet Facilities

The existing excreta disposal in Bule-Hora town is very poor. Most of the excreta disposal
facilities comprise pit latrines that are poorly constructed, offensive and are over-filled due to
lack of sufficient vacuum truck to desludge when a latrine is full. In the town there is no
communal latrine for commercial areas, such as the open market area. The health center

~ 31 ~
has dry pit latrine which is in good condition. The latrines in some schools are in a poor
condition. Because of this, the overall sanitation of the town is poor and sanitation
associated diseases are prevalent. To mitigate the problem, the following excreta disposal
guidelines were proposed by the feasibility study.

Ventilation Improved Pit Latrines (VIP)


This latrines are superior to conventional pit latrines in that offensive smell is substantially
reduced and breeding of flies is discouraged. This latrine is proposed for individual
households. Where there is enough space for two latrines in a compound, two pits are
constructed and used alternatively. Under such circumstances, the super-structure of the
VIP latrine can be of a removable type so that it is relocated to the next pit when one is full. It
can also be constructed as a permanent structure if a pit-emptying system such as vacuum
tanker is made available. To facilitate desludging with a vacuum tanker, water must be
added into the pit. The water added can be sullage from the kitchen, body washing or any
domestic wastewater. Otherwise it can be constructed as a temporary structure where the
waste is abandoned in the pit and the latrine is moved to a different location. This alternative
is particularly applicable in rural areas only where space is not a problem. If a vacuum tanker
is hard to obtain, a Ventilation Improved Double Pit latrine (VIDP) is proposed. This type of a
VIP latrine has two pits in which one pit is used at a time until it is full. When the pit is full, it
is left to compost for at least two years while using the other. For better composting, ash and
biodegradable material can be added into the pit through the access manhole and the
access manhole is sealed properly. The composted sludge can be used for soil conditioning.

Pour-flush Toilets
Pour-flush pit latrine is a further improvement of the VIP latrine as odours are totally
prevented to escape by a water seal and flies are also totally prevented from entering by the
same. This type of a latrine requires small amount of water (1-3 liter per flush) for flushing as
compared to a conventional cistern-flush toilet (10-20 liter per flush). Because of the small
amount of water needed, this latrine does not require an in-house level of water supply.
Hence, a pour-flush pit latrine is proposed for households with yard tap connection and for
those households who are relatively close to a public fountain and who can transport water
for this purpose. The excreta can be carried through a pipe system to a soakage pit if the soil
condition is suitable, otherwise to a septic tank. For households with adequate plot size in
their compound, two pits that can be used alternatively are recommended. In the two pit
system, one pit is used until it is full and left to compost for about two years. The compost
sludge is removed manually and can be used as organic fertilizer. Pour-flush toilets can be
upgraded to a small-bore sewerage system when the water supply service is upgraded and
the economic situation of the inhabitants has improved.

Septic Tanks
A septic tank is a watertight settling tank to which wastes are carried by water flushing down
a short sewer. The settlement process in the septic tank separates the solid matter from the
liquid. The septic tanks are generally constructed in double-compartments and the separated
solid matter accumulates in the first compartment where it is digested. The effluent from the
second compartment can be discharged into a soakage pit or drain-field if the soil permits
and the accumulated sludge should be removed periodically. If the soil is not suitable for a
soakage pit or drain-field, the effluent can be connected to small-bore sewerage system.
Septic tanks are proposed for housing units with an in-house/yard water supply services, for
a group of households with pour-flush toilets and for hotels and institutions.

Communal Latrines
This type of latrines is proposed for densely populated areas where individual latrines cannot
be used due to space problem and for market areas where there are large number of users

~ 32 ~
during market days. It is also proposed for an area where the municipality plans to build a
public shower and cloth washing place. Under such conditions the service should be
provided with payment. For better sanitation, this type of a latrine should be of the pour-flush
type or of the low-volume cistern flush toilet type. If the latrine is for communal use in a
densely populated area, shower and cloth washing basin should be provided. This would
possibly enhance better utilization of the system. The excreta from the communal latrines
can be discharged through a pipe system to a septic tank where the solids are separated
and digested and where the liquid part flows to a soakage pit if the soil condition is suitable.
If the soil does not permit soakage, the liquid part can be connected to soakaway mound or
to a small-bore system where it is conveyed for further treatment. The digested sludge can
be collected by using a vacuum tanker and disposed of into a sludge drying pond where it is
further digested.

Collection and Treatment of Excreta and Sullage

Bule-Hora town is devoid of any system used to collect and dispose of excreta and sullage
to the final disposal site. As a result, most of the existing pit latrines are full and are a
potential health hazard to the community. To mitigate this problem, some sort of collection
and disposal system is found mandatory. The possible system proposed is a vacuum tanker
that can desludge and transport the waste to the final disposal site. The municipality can
best handle this type of facility and the benefiting community can be charged for the service.
The treatment facilities proposed for the town is composting, soak away mound and sludge
pond. The sludge ponds are recommended to receive dislodged wastes from latrines and
septic tanks for further treatment. Two ponds are proposed where one pond only shall be
used until it is full and the other pond is utilized when the first pond is left for digestion and to
dry-up. The treated sludge can then be disposed of at a landfill or used as agricultural
organic fertilizer for soil conditioning. For the Bule-Hora area, soil conditioning with digested
sludge can better be applied for a forestation programme for the nearby hilly areas.

Storm Water Drains

At Bule-Hora there is no storm water drainage facility apart the drainage along the main
road. This drainage facility is most often filled with household and street refuse and hence
will cause flooding during the rainy season. The other feeder roads have no appropriate
drainage facilities as a result of which gullies are formed following the rainy season. To
mitigate the problem, the following remedial methods are recommended. The drainage
ditches should be cleaned before the rainy season, through community participation. Solid
waste collection bins should be provided at appropriate places so that solid waste will not be
dumped into drainage ditches. Furthermore,, the community through the community
association must be informed not to dump wastes into the drainage ditches. Besides,
drainage ditches along the roads and allies within the town should be provided. Collected
refuse from streets and drainage ditches should be dumped at the landfill site.

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4 Legal and Administrative Framework

4.1 Statutory Requirements & Legal Framework

Our assessment is guided by the requirements and objectives contained within Ethiopian
and international laws and best management practises. The purpose of complying with these
regulations and procedures is to avoid detrimental environmental and social impacts, or
where it cannot be avoided, ensure mitigation and management of impacts to acceptable
levels, and to optimise positive environmental and social impacts.

WSS projects and its utilization have, in general, environmental and social impacts. These
impacts result from the construction and operation. National governments issue policies and
legislation that help to avoid, reduce and/or otherwise control (regulate) the negative effects
of such possible impacts and thereby protect the society and the environment. Projects that
need foreign finance should also consider the limits that financing bodies, like the World
Bank, the European Development Bank etc, impose on the environmental impact of such
projects. These must be compared and the most stringent guidelines that are appropriate for
a particular project should be considered as the guide to any Environmental and social
assessment (ESIA).

The government of Ethiopia has put in place specific policies, legislations and institutional
arrangements to govern and regulate the environmental management system of the country.
The Environmental Protection Authority of Ethiopia (EPA) at federal level, the Regional
Environmental Authorities, and the Ministry of Water and Energy are the principal statutory
bodies responsible for insuring compliance, by project promoters, with policies, regulations,
and guidelines on the protection of the environment.

The proposed Project is subject to several policies and programs aimed at development and
environmental protection. This necessitates the complete understanding of the policies,
legislations and institutional frameworks of the country and similar international best
practices formulated as international standards and guideline.

As part of the detailed ESIA Study process, review of most relevant policies, legislation and
regulation relevant to the proposed project, has been made. National and international
environmental standards, regulations and guidelines that can provide a framework for the
current ESIA Study process and be used to benchmark measurement and evaluation of the
significance of environmental aspects of the project were also identified, reviewed and
presented.

Relevant National Legislations and international laws relevant to this assessment are
reviewed and presented briefly as follows:

4.1.1 National Legislation

The basis of the policies, laws and regulations relating to the environment are the explicit
provisions of the Constitution of the Federal democratic republic of Ethiopia in which issues
and concerns related to the environment are spelt out in at least three articles.

The National Policy and Strategy on environmental management and protection, adopted in
1997, provided the basic framework for environmental protection and conservation. Other
national policies and strategies that are relevant to the environment were subsequently
adopted in the different sectors such as agriculture, industry and the environment, water
resources and energy. One important policy goal, relating to the current study, is ensuring

~ 34 ~
the benefits from the exploitation of non-renewable resources are extended as far into the
future as can be managed, and minimize the negative impacts of their exploitation on the
use and management of other natural resources and the environment.

National Environmental Protection laws were passed to help achieve the objectives set in
the constitution and the corresponding policies and strategies. These laws established
environmental protection organs both at the Federal and regional levels and empowered
them to act as guardians of the natural environment and enhance sustainable socio-
economic development. Other major laws, that have particular relevance to the current
study, include the Environmental impact assessment proclamation, Environmental pollution
control proclamation, and Solid Waste Management Proclamation. The Environmental
impact assessment is a means employed to predict and manage the environmental impacts
that a proposed development activity might produce and thus help to bring about intended
development with the minimum adverse impact on the environment.
Environmental impact assessment guideline

The legal basis of an EIA study for WSSP is defined in the “Environmental Impact
Assessment Guideline for Water Supply and Sanitation, December 2003”. Major projects in
WSS, should undergo the Environmental assessment process to get approval. There are
also other national policies and guideline that are relevant to impact assessment of the
WSSP which are fully reviewed in the main report and employed in the present assessment
work. The various laws, policies and strategies mentioned above point to the need to
conduct EIA assessment in order to safeguard the environment and concerned inhabitants
from any possible negative impacts that may emanate from the development project.

Table 4.1: Ethiopian Legislation pertaining to the Present Task


Law/Decree Objective Application to UWSS Project
The Constitution of the Federal Provides a coherent and integrated framework Participation
Democratic Republic of addressing environmental management issues Compensation
Ethiopia, 1994 (Articles 43, 44 as well as the foundation for environmental Clean and healthy environment for
and 92): regulation and policy in Ethiopia. residents
The 1994 Constitution of Ethiopia under Articles
43, 44 and 92 proclaims the following:
In Article 43, the Right to Development, where
peoples' right to:
 improved living standards and to
sustainable development,
 participate in national development and,
in particular, be consulted with respect to
policies and
 projects affecting their community, and
 the enhancement of their capacities for
development and to meet their basic
needs, are boldly recognized.
In article 44, Environmental Rights, all citizens
are entitled to:
 Live in a clean and healthy environment,
and
 Compensation, including relocation with
adequate state assistance.
In article 92, Environmental Objectives, it is
declared that,
 Government shall endeavor to ensure that
all Ethiopians live in a clean and healthy
environment
 The design and implementation of
programs and projects of development
shall not damage or destroy the
environment.
 Peoples have the right to full consultation
and to the expression of views in the
planning and implementation of
environmental policies and projects that

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Law/Decree Objective Application to UWSS Project
affect them directly.
 Government and citizens shall have a
duty to protect the environment.
The Environmental Policy of To improve and enhance the health and quality of
Ethiopia (1997) life of all citizens and to promote sustainable
social and economic development through the
sound management and use of natural, human-
made and cultural resources and the
environment as a whole so as to meet the needs
of the present generation without compromising
the ability of future generations to meet their own
needs.
Proclamation on Establishment To establish a system that fosters coordinated
of environmental protection but differentiated responsibilities among
organs (Proclamation No. environmental protection agencies at federal and
295/2002) regional levels so as to foster sustainable use of
environmental resources, thereby avoiding
possible conflicts of interests and duplication of
efforts.
Solid Waste Management To promote community participation in order to
Proclamation 513/2007 prevent the adverse effects and to enhance the
benefits resulting from solid waste. It emphasizes
that community participation can be ensured
when solid waste management action plans are
designed and implemented at the lowest
administrative units of urban administration.
Important issues included in this proclamation are
solid waste management planning, inter-regional
movement of solid waste, management of
household solid wastes, disposal of construction
debris and demolition wastes and auditing
existing solid waste disposal sites.
Urban administrations shall create enabling
conditions to promote investment on the
provision of solid waste management services.
Any person shall obtain a permit from the
concerned body of an urban administration prior
to his engagement in the collection,
transportation, use or disposal of solid waste.
In management of municipal waste all urban
administration shall ensure the collection,
transportation, and as appropriate, recycling,
treatment or safe disposal of municipal waste
through the institution of an integrated waste
management system
Environmental Pollution Control The law aims to eliminate or, when not possible,
Proclamation (Proclamation No. to mitigate pollution as an undesirable
300/2002) consequence of social and economic
development activities. The Proclamation
consists of a number of articles on different
issues such as; pollution control, management of
hazardous wastes, chemicals and radioactive
substances, pollution control for municipal waste
management, environmental standards, rights
and duties of environmental inspectors and
penalties.
Environmental Impact to facilitate the implementation of the
Assessment Proclamation environmental rights and objectives provided by
(Proclamation No.299/2002) the Constitution and the maximization of their
socio-economic benefits by predicting and
managing the environmental effects which a
proposed development activity or public
instruments might entail prior to their
implementation.
Environmental Impact Intends to guide developers, competent agencies Accordingly, published guideline
Assessment Technical and and other stakeholders in carrying out EIAs. The (2002) categorizes Projects related
Procedural Guideline guidelines make provision for screening, scoping, with water and sanitation as follows:
identification and evaluation of impacts, the Categorized in schedule 1:
development of environmental management and  Construction of dams,
monitoring plans, consideration of alternatives, impounding reservoirs with a
EIA report structure and information surface area of 100 hectares
requirements, etc. The procedural guideline or more;

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Law/Decree Objective Application to UWSS Project
details the required procedures for conducting an  Ground water development
EIA, the permit requirements, the stages and greater than 4 000 m3/day;
procedures involved in EIA process, and the  Canalization and flood-relief
roles and responsibilities of parties involved in work (large scale)" ;
the EIA process. It also includes the categories of  Drainage plans in towns close
projects (schedule of activities) concerning the to water bodies;
requirement of EIA and list of project types under  Projects that cause the
each category. resettlement of more than 100
The technical guideline specifies tolls particularly families.
standards and guidelines that may be considered Categorized in schedule 2:
when engaging in the EIA process and detail key  Rural water supply and
issues for environmental assessment in specific sanitation:
development sectors. The guideline provides the  Sewerage system:
categories, the relevant requirements for an EIA  Electricity transmission lines.
and lists of project types under each category. In
accordance with this guideline, projects are
categorized into three schedules:
Schedule 1: Projects which may have adverse
and significant environmental impacts therefore
require a full Environmental Impact Assessment.
Schedule 2: Projects whose type, scale or other
relevant characteristics have potential to cause
some significant environmental impacts but not
likely to warrant a full EIA study.
Schedule 3: Projects which would have no
impact and do not require an EIA.
Water Resources Policy To enhance and promote all national efforts
towards the efficient, equitable and optimum
utilization of available Water Resources of
Ethiopia for socio economic development on
sustainable basis. The policy incorporates
environmental conservation and protection
requirements and environmental impact
assessment as an integral parts of water
resources planning and project development
Ethiopian Water Resources This proclamation provides legal requirements for
Management Proclamation Ethiopian water resources management,
(Proclamation No. 197/2000) protection and utilization. The aim of the
proclamation was to ensure that water resources
of the country are protected and utilized for the
highest social and economic benefits, to follow up
and supervise that they are duly conserved,
ensure that harmful effects of water use are
prevented, and that the management of water
resources is carried out properly.
National Health Policy and Emphasizes that health policy cannot be
Strategy considered in isolation from policies addressing
population dynamics, food availability, acceptable
living conditions and other requisites essential for
health improvement and shall therefore develop
effective intersectorality for a comprehensive
betterment of life.
Public Health Proclamation The objective of this proclamation is to promote
(Proclamation No.200/2000) the health of the society and to create healthy
environment for the future generation thereby
enabling it assume its responsibility. Provisions in
this proclamation which relates to the present
task include water quality control, waste handling
and disposal, availability of toilet facilities, control
of bathing places and pools and disposal of dead
bodies all of which affect water supply and
sanitation projects.

4.1.2 International Guidelines

The following provides a summary of the environmental and social requirements of the key
International Financial Institutions (IFI) which may be involved in this project, such as African
Development Bank and the World Bank.

~ 37 ~
The environmental and social requirements of the key International Financial Institutions
(IFI) such as African Development Bank, World Bank and European Investment Bank are
also included in this review. These are included not only because these institutions might be
involved in the financing of this project; but also for the purpose of including the standards
and guidelines applicable to this project that are not provided in the national standards. The
national standards are either not complete or general, lacking standards on specific
parameters that are relevant to the current project. They also provide guidelines on
procedures for carrying out ESIA.

Furthermore, International Environmental Conventions and Protocols Signed or signed and


ratified by Ethiopia are included in this review. Some of these conventions have been ratified
by Ethiopia and their provisions have become an integral part of the national laws. Such
conventions include Convention on Biological Diversity, and the United Nations Convention
to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and many more.

International standards and guidelines, relevant to the proposed projects assessed are also
included for the purpose of the following main reasons:
 identify regulatory requirements of international financial institutions
 compare the country’s standards with internationally accepted values and use them
in the cases where there are gaps and limitations in the national standards
 Identify and consider examples of Good International Industry Practice (GIIP) on
pollution prevention and industrial sustainability
In consideration of the above, a number of international standards, guidelines and
procedures have been reviewed and employed in the present ESIA study.

4.1.2.1 African Development Bank

The African Development Bank (ADB) has adopted an Environmental Policy and
Environmental Assessment Guideline in 1990 and 1992 respectively. The Bank has also
issued an Environmental and Social Assessment Procedures (ESAP) in 2004. The main
purpose of this policy is to improve decision-making and results of projects in order to ensure
that Bank-financed projects, plans and programs are environmentally and socially
sustainable as well as in line with Bank’s policies and guidelines.

4.1.2.2 World Bank Safeguard policies

The World Bank Operational Policies (OP) Bank Procedures (BP) and Good Practices (GP)
were developed to Address Environmental and Social Safeguard Issues in Bank-Supported
Projects. Among the Ops/BPs, the following are relevant to this project.
Table 4.2: World Bank Safeguard Policies and their application to the UWSS Project

Policy Objectives Applicability to the UWSS Project

OP/BP 4.01 The objective of the policy is to ensure that Bank- Because the UWSS project is likely to have
Environmental financed projects are environmentally sound and Environmental and Social Impacts, ESIA is
Assessment sustainable, and that decision-making is improved required. The Borrower is responsible for carrying
(EA) through appropriate analysis of actions and of their out the ESIA.
likely environmental impacts. This policy is triggered
if a project is likely to have potentially (adverse)
environmental risks and impacts on its area of
influence. OP 4.01 covers impacts on the natural
environment (air, water and land); human health and
safety; physical cultural resources; and trans-
boundary and global environmental concerns.

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Policy Objectives Applicability to the UWSS Project

OP/BP 4.04 This policy recognizes that the conservation of This policy is triggered because the project will
Natural Habitats natural habitats is essential to safeguard their cause significant conversion (loss) or degradation
unique biodiversity and to maintain environmental of natural habitats either directly through
services and products for human society and for construction or indirectly through human activities
long-term sustainable development. The Bank induced by the project.
therefore supports the protection, management, and Because of this the project will carry out ESIA to
restoration of natural habitats in its project financing, determine adverse environmental impacts on
as well as policy dialogue and economic and sector natural habitats with a mitigation measures
work. The Bank supports, and expects borrowers to consistent with the requirements of OP 4.04.
apply, a precautionary approach to natural resource
management to ensure opportunities for
environmentally sustainable development. Natural
habitats are land and water areas where most of the
original native plant and animal species are still
present. Natural habitats comprise many types of
terrestrial, freshwater, coastal, and marine
ecosystems. They include areas lightly modified by
human activities, but retaining their ecological
functions and most native species.
OP/BP4.09 Pest The objective of this policy is to (i) promote the use The policy is triggered if: (i) procurement of
Management of biological or environmental control and reduce pesticides or pesticide application equipment is
reliance on synthetic chemical pesticides; and (ii) envisaged (either directly through the project, or
strengthen the capacity of the country's regulatory indirectly through on-lending, co-financing, or
framework and institutions to promote and support government counterpart funding); (ii) the project
safe, effective and environmentally sound pest may affect pest management in a way that harm
management. More specifically, the policy aims to could be done, even though the project is not
(a) Ascertain that pest management activities in envisaged to procure pesticides. This includes
Bank-financed operations are based on integrated projects that may (i) lead to substantially
approaches and seek to reduce reliance on increased pesticide use and subsequent increase
synthetic chemical pesticides (Integrated Pest in health and environmental risk; (ii) maintain or
Management (TPM) in agricultural projects and expand present pest management practices that
Integrated Vector Management (IVM) in public are unsustainable. not based on an IPM
health projects. (b) Ensure that health and approach, and/or pose significant health or
environmental hazards associated with pest environmental risks.
management especially the use of pesticides are Because the UWSS does not include any pest
minimized and can be properly managed by the management activities, this policy is not
user. (c) As necessary. support policy reform and applicable to this project.
institutional capacity development to (i) enhance
implementation of TPM-based pest management
and (ii) regulate and monitor the distribution and use
of pesticides.
OP/BP 4.10 The objective of this policy is to (i) ensure that the The policy is triggered when the project affects
Indigenous development process fosters full respect for the the indigenous peoples. This project does not
Peoples dignity, human rights, and cultural uniqueness of entail any adverse impacts on Indigenous
indigenous peoples; (ii) ensure that adverse effects People.
during the development process are avoided, or if
not feasible, ensure that these are minimized,
mitigated or compensated; and (iii) ensure that
indigenous peoples receive culturally appropriate
and gendr and intergenerationally inclusive social
and economic benefits.
OP/BP 4.11 The objective of this policy is to assist countries to This policy applies to all projects requiring
Physical Cultural avoid or mitigate adverse impacts of development Category A or B Environmental Assessment
Resources projects on physical cultural resources. For under OP 4.01 projects located in, or in the
purposes of this policy, “physical cultural resources” vicinity of. recognized cultural heritage sites, and
are defined as movable or immovable objects, sites, projects designed to support the management or
structures, groups of structures, natural features and conservation of physical cultural resources.
landscapes that have archaeological, Any Physical cultural resources will be addressed
paleontological, historical, architectural, religious, through the environmental and social
aesthetic, or other cultural significance. Physical management plan. In addition, the Environmental
cultural resources may be located in urban or rural Guidelines for Contractors include a provision for
settings, and may be above ground, underground, or handling chance finds.
underwater. The cultural interest may be at the local,
provincial or national level, or within the international
community. The cultural interest may be at the local,
provincial or national level, or within the international
community.
OP/BP 4.12 The objective of this policy is to (i) avoid or minimize This policy covers not only physical relocation,
Involuntary involuntary resettlement where feasible, exploring all but any loss of land or other assets resulting in:
Resettlement viable alternative project designs; (ii) assist (i) relocation or loss of shelter; (ii) loss of assets
displaced persons in improving their former living or access to assets; (iii) loss of income sources

~ 39 ~
Policy Objectives Applicability to the UWSS Project

standards, income earning capacity, and production or means of livelihood, whether or not the
levels, or at least in restoring them; (iii) encourage affected people must move to another location.
community participation in planning and This policy also applies to the involuntary
implementing resettlement; and (iv) provide restriction of access to legally designated parks
assistance to affected people regardless of the and protected areas resulting in adverse impacts
legality of land tenure. on the livelihoods of the displaced persons.
This policy is triggered because the project
causes some resettlement which can be
addressed through RAP or ARAP.
OP/BP 4.36 The objective of this policy is to assist borrowers to This policy is triggered whenever any Bank-
Forests harness the potential of forests to reduce poverty in financed investment project (i) has the potential
a sustainable manner, integrate forests effectively to have impacts on the health and quality of
into sustainable economic development and protect forests or the rights and welfare of people and
the vital local and global environmental services and their level of dependence upon or interaction with
values of forests. Where forest restoration and forests; or (ii) aims to bring about changes in the
plantation development are necessary to meet these management, protection or utilization of natural
objectives, the Bank assists borrowers with forest forests or plantations.
restoration activities that maintain or enhance The UWSS project does not have any significant
biodiversity and ecosystem functionality. The Bank adverse impacts on forest in the sense of OP
assists borrowers with the establishment of 4.36.
environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial and
economically viable forest plantations to help meet
growing demands for forest goods and services.
OP/BP 4.37 The objectives of this policy are as follows: For new This policy is triggered when the Bank finances:
Safety of Dams dams, to ensure that experienced and competent (i) a project involving construction of a large dam
professionals design and supervise construction; the (15 m or higher) or a high hazard dam; and (ii) a
borrower adopts and implements darn safety project which is dependent on an existing dam,
measures for the dam and associated works, For For small dams, generic dam safety measures
existing dams, to ensure that any dam that can designed by qualified engineers are usually
influence the performance of the project is identified, adequate.
a dam safety assessment is carried out. and No dams will be built under this UWSS project.
necessary additional dam safety measures and
remedial work are implemented,

OP/BP 7.50The objective of this policy is to ensure that Bank- This policy is triggered if (a) any river. canal, lake
Projects onfinanced projects affecting international waterways or similar body of water that forms a boundary
International would not affect: (i) relations between the Bank and between, or any river or body of surface water
Waterways its borrowers and between states t whether that flows through two or more states, whether
members of the Bank or not); and (ii) the efficient Bank members or not: (b) any tributary or other
utilization and body of surface water that is a component of any
protection of international waterways, The policy waterway described under (a); and (c) any bay,
applies to the following types of projects: (a) gulf strait, or channel bounded by two or more
Hydroelectric, irrigation, flood control, navigation, states, or if within one state recognized as a
drainage. water and sewerage, industrial and similar necessary channel of communication between
projects that involve the use or potential pollution of the open sea and other states, and any river
international waterways: and (b) Detailed design and flowing into such waters.
engineering studies of projects under (a) above, Since the UWSS project has nothing to do with
include those carried out by the Bank as executing international waterways, this Bank Policy is not
agency or in any other capacity, applicable to this project.
OP/BP 7.60 The objective of this policy is to ensure that projects This policy will be triggered if the proposed
Projects in in disputed areas are dealt with at the earliest project will be in a "disputed area", Questions to
Disputed Areas possible stage: (a) so as not to affect relations be answered include: Is the borrower involved in
between the Bank and its member countries; (b) so any disputes over an area with any of its
as not to affect relations between the borrower and neighbors. Is the project situated ill a disputed
neighboring countries: and (c) so as not to prejudice area? Could any component financed or likely to
the position of either the Bank or the countries be financed as part of the project situated in a
concerned, disputed area"
As the project area is not a disputed area, this
policy is not applicable.

~ 40 ~
Only four of the World Bank policies have been triggered by the UWSS Project: OP 4.01
(Environmental Assessment), OP 4.04 (Natural Habitats), OP 4.12 (Involuntary
Resettlement) and OP 4.11 (Management of Cultural Property).

Project Categorization per World Bank's OP 4.01


All projects proposed for World Bank financing are to be screened. The screening process
used by the World Bank classifies proposed projects into one of four categories, depending
on the type, location, sensitivity, and scale of the project and the nature and magnitude of its
potential environmental impacts.

Category A: A proposed project is classified as Category A if it is likely to have significant


adverse environmental impacts that are sensitive, diverse, or unprecedented. These impacts
may affect an area broader than the sites or facilities subject to physical works

Category B: A proposed project is classified as Category B if its potential adverse


environmental impacts on human populations or environmentally important areas-including
wetlands, forests, grasslands, and other natural habitats-are less adverse than those of
Category A projects. These impacts are site-specific; few if any of them are irreversible; and
in most cases mitigatory measures can be designed more readily than for Category A
projects.

Category C: A proposed project is classified as Category C if it is likely to have minimal or no


adverse environmental impacts. Beyond screening, no further EA action is required for a
Category C project

Category FI: A proposed project is classified as Category FI if it involves investment of Bank


funds through a financial intermediary, in subprojects that may result in adverse
environmental impacts.

The "parent project" of UWSS Project has been classified by the World Bank as
environmental category B.

4.1.2.3 International Environmental Conventions and Protocols

There are a number of international treaties and agreements on a range of environmental


and natural resource issues signed or signed and ratified by Ethiopia. It is required that
these treaties and agreements be considered in environmental analyses, where relevant and
feasible, with a view to minimizing possible adverse impacts on global environmental quality.
The major ones relevant to the present task are summarized in Table 3.

Table 4.3: International Environmental Conventions and Protocols signed or signed and
ratified by Ethiopia and relevant to the present task
Conventions and Objectives Applicability to UWSS Project
Protocols
Convention on The Convention on Biological Diversity has three
Biological Diversity goals: (i) the conservation of biodiversity; (ii) the
sustainable use of the components of biodiversity; and
(iii) the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits
arising from the use of genetic resources. The
Convention was ratified by Ethiopia by Proclamation
98/94, on May 31, 1994.
The United Nations The objective of the Convention is to combat
Convention to desertification and mitigate the effects of droughts in
Combat countries experiencing serious drought and/or
Desertification desertification, particularly in Africa. Ethiopia has
(UNCCD) ratified the Convention by Proclamation No. 80/1997.
The Vienna The basic objective of the Convention is to combat the
Convention for the negative impact on the environment and human

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Conventions and Objectives Applicability to UWSS Project
Protocols
Protection of the beings resulting from ozone depleting substances by
Ozone Layer reducing the amounts released and eventually
banning their commercial use through internationally
agreed measures. The Montreal Protocol entered into
force in 1989 to facilitate the implementation of the
Convention.
United Nations This convention takes into account the fact that
Framework climate change has transboundary impacts. The basic
Convention on objective of this Convention is to provide for agreed
Climate Change limits regarding the release of greenhouse gases into
(UNFCCC) the atmosphere and to prevent the occurrence or
minimizes the impact of climate change. Ethiopia has
ratified this Convention by Proclamation No. 97/1994
on May 2/1994.
The Basel The objective of the Basel Convention is to control and
Convention regulate the transboundary movement of hazardous
waste. The Bamako Convention of 1991 plays a
similar role at the level of the African continent.
Ethiopia has ratified the Convention by Proclamation
No. 192/2000. At present measures designed to
amend the Basel Protocol is in progress. In addition,
activities related to prior informed consent are being
carried out. Furthermore, to implement the Convention
within the country, draft policies and legislation have
been prepared and submitted to the government. The
Basel Convention was originally established to
address the global problem of uncontrolled movement
and dumping of hazardous wastes, including incidents
of illegal dumping in developing countries by
companies from developed countries. This was of
great concern as indiscriminately disposed, accidental
spillage or improper management of hazardous waste
can pose severe health problems, even death and can
poison water and land for decades. The Basel
convention is therefore a global agreement, ratified by
many member countries including Ethiopia, for
addressing the problems and challenges posed by
hazardous waste. Ethiopia is a party to a number of
Multilateral Environmental Agreements [MEA] such as
the Basel Convention on the Transboundary
Movement of Hazardous Wastes which addresses the
need to control the transboundary movement of
hazardous wastes and their disposal, setting out the
categorization of hazardous waste and the policies
between member countries and other Wastes.
The Bamako Convention is the convention on the ban
of the import into Africa and Control of Transboundary
Movements and Management of Hazardous wastes
within Africa, which was adopted by the members of
the African Union in 1991 and came into force in 1998.
The summary of legal and regulatory provisions
related to waste management systems are shown in
Table 3.1.

The Stockholm In the year 2002, Ethiopia fully accepted and ratified
Convention the Stockholm Convention designed to ban the use of
persistent organic pollutants (POPS). The
Environmental Protection Authority has the full
mandate to implement the Convention at the national
level. A project to develop an appropriate system for
the realization of the objectives of the Convention in
Ethiopia is in progress.
Stockholm Convention on POPs requires that member
countries phase out POPs and prevent their import or
export,

The Rotterdam This Convention relates to prior informed consent in


Convention the context of international trade in specific hazardous
chemicals and pesticides. The Environmental
Authority is the organ responsible for the domestic
implementation of this convention, which has been

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Conventions and Objectives Applicability to UWSS Project
Protocols
ratified by Ethiopia in 2003. The Environmental
Protection Authority is preparing a framework for its
implementation.
Rotterdam Convention on PIC sets out the procedure
for Prior Informed Consent which promotes and
enforces transparency in the importation of hazardous
chemicals.

International The objectives of the Convention are (i) to control


Convention on international trade in endangered species and (ii) to
Trade in ensure that international trade in non-endangered
Endangered species is carried out in a manner which ensures
Species, Fauna and stable markets and economic benefits for the
Flora exporting countries as well as to control and regulate
illegal trade in such non-endangered species, fossils
and/or their derivatives.
Ethiopia has ratified the Convention. The mandate to
implement the Convention at the Federal level is
bestowed upon the Ethiopian Wildlife Protection and
Development Organization.

4.1.3 Analysis of the Ethiopian and International Environmental Legal and Regulatory
Frameworks

Legal and Regulatory Framework Analysis shows that recent policies, proclamations and
conventions such as Environmental Protection Organs Establishment Proclamation
(Proclamation No. 295/2002), Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation
(Proclamation No. 299/2002), Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation (Proclamation
No. 300/2002), together with Environmental Policy of Ethiopia and international conventions
are important stepping-stones for the improvement of the environment. The National
Environmental Legal and Regulatory Framework appears as adequate and comprehensive.
It encompasses all activities (as shown above) required to effectively achieve environmental
management and protection.

Ethiopia has also taken important and encouraging measures towards implementing
environmental policies and strategies. The policy documents have fairly enshrined the
principles of sustainable development. There are no significant policy gaps for sustainable
development practices and environmental protection. However, in practice there are wide
gaps between the policy intentions and actual decision on the ground. Consequently, the
desired goal is far from being realized.
Both the policies and regulations set out at the national and regional level, respectively, can
be deemed as important stepping-stones for the improvement of the urban environment.
Nevertheless, both the policies and regulations have the following problems that can impair
their effective realization.

Firstly, the policies and regulations are too general and lack clear guidelines. They lack
specific guidelines, technical and operational standards. Secondly, the policies are sectoral
in nature without broad framework that would enable to examine cross-sectoral and
cumulative impacts of various activities. The absence of an institutional body that
coordinates or oversees cross-sectoral issues would lead to conflicts and loopholes thereby
creating apt conditions for incapable institutions and offenders to circumvent the rules and
regulations. Ethiopia’s environmental laws are many and varied. At least 25 Proclamations
have some important role in environmental management, administered by 14 different
ministries, statutory bodies or other agencies. Most of the laws are both old and ineffective in
the modern context of environmental management, or suffer from the lack of regulatory
enforcement through inadequate staffing, lack of technical resources and funding, and
through administrative failures. It is to be noted that regulations overlap between the sectoral

~ 43 ~
ministries for some tasks. Clarification and mutual adjustment could avoid redundancy. A
few loopholes remain when regulation remains very general. Thirdly, the institutional
framework that could help to enhance public participation is not yet established. Finally, the
policies lack legislative frameworks and strategies so as to ease their implementation. The
Environmental Policy of Ethiopia is 17 years old and the regulations to enact it are still being
formulated.

A number of interacting factors also contributed to the poor implementation of the policies
and strategies in Ethiopia. Some of these include:
 Skewedness towards quick economic achievement;
 Weak and unstable institutions at the Regional levels;
 Absence of Sectoral Environmental Units in the Federal Sectoral Institutions;
 Lack of adequate infrastructure and skilled human resource;
 Weak environmental legislations enforcement capacity ;
 Financial limitations;
 Absence of functional linkages among and between various state and non-state
actors;
 Lack of environmental awareness and limited integration of environmental issues in
formal education;
 Inadequate environmental information and lack of environmental information system
and networking;
 Absence of environmental accounting systems in the National Income Accounting of
the country or regions; and therefore inability to express degradation of
environmental capitals in monetary terms;
 Lack of awareness on environmental investment opportunities among the private
sectors;
 Poor capacity in identification and acquisition of appropriate technologies, absence of
research and development programs to solve local environmental problems and
environment
 Livelihood challenges, absence of dissemination of appropriate environmental
technologies and best practices; and
 Poor implementation of punitive and incentive measures enshrined in different
environmental instruments.

Comparison of World Bank and Ethiopian Project Environmental Categorization


It is interesting to observe that environmental screening is the cornerstone of both Ethiopian
legislation and World Bank policies pertaining to environmental assessment. Both screening
processes address the need for further enviromnental assessment and its level and scope.
The categorizations that result from the screening processes are slightly different in their
definition, but still are roughly equivalent. It is understood that, in general:

 "Schedule 1" and "Category A" are roughly equivalent; they both include projects with
potential for significant adverse impacts that warrant a full Environmental Impact
Assessment;
 Similarly, "Schedule 2" and "Category B" are more or less similar in their definitions;
both categories include projects with more benign impacts than those of Category A
or Schedule 1 projects. Under OP 4.01, category B projects require environmental
work at the appropriate level- be it an EMP, an EA or the implementation of mitigation
measures in the context of an environmental and social screening process as
outlined in this ESMF. This approach is not in contradiction with the Ethiopian
guidelines. However, the Ethiopian guidelines do not make provisions for the
screening of sub-projects of a smaller scale than those listed in Schedules 1 and 2,

~ 44 ~
and which may have negative localized impacts which will require mitigation.
 "Schedule 3" and "Category C" are also equivalent (no further environmental
assessent)

Gaps between Ethiopian Legislation and Bank Policies

Ethiopia has now a comprehensive framework for assessing and managing environmental
impacts of development projects. However, the Ethiopian framework does not provide clear
requirements or guidance on Public consultation and disclosure, Social impacts,
Environmental and social screening process for small-scale sub-projects that could have
negative localized impacts; and Standards applying to water quality for natural water
courses, or effluent discharges

Another issue is that while most of the responsibility for assessing, mitigating and monitoring
environmental impacts falls under regional environmental agencies, these either do not exist
or lack the capability to carry out the tasks assigned to them by Law. Otherwise, Ethiopian
requirements are generally consistent with World Bank policies.

Consultation and Disclosure Requirements

OP 4.01 requires that for all Category A and B projects, the borrower consults project-
affected groups and local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) about the project's
environmental and social aspects and takes their views into account. While public
consultation and disclosure are indeed addressed by various pieces of Ethiopian legislation
and guidelines, including the Constitution itself', they include no clear requirements nor
arrangements, but rather recommendations. While Ethiopian legislation is to-date less
stringent than Bank policies in this respect, Bank policies has applied in been public
consultation and disclosure aspects without violating Ethiopian law.
Social Impacts

The Constitution takes a human rights approach to the environment ("a clean and healthy
environment is a right of every Ethiopian"), which may be understood as encompassing both
biophysical and human/social aspects in the "environment". However, beyond these general
principles, the application laws (Proclamations) and the technical guidelines available
provide little guidance on the measure of social impacts and their assessment within the ElA
process. The following Bank policies will therefore guide the assessment and mitigation of
social impacts in the UWSS Project:

Environmental and social screening process for small-scale sub-projects

As mentioned earlier, Ethiopian guidelines do not make provisions for the screening of small-
scale sub-projects which could nevertheless have negative localized environmental and
social impacts requiring mitigation. Therefore, the provisions of OP 4.01 for screening,
assignment of environmental category, application of appropriate environmental mitigation
measures and/or preparation of separate ElA reports, review and clearance of screening
results and/or separate EIA reports, consultations, and monitoring are applied to the UWSS
project.

4.2 Institutional and Administrative framework

This section discusses the institutional and administrative framework that are established to
facilitate development and at the same time ensure environmental protection in the country.

~ 45 ~
The administrative arrangements and the major role players in implementing environmental
policies particularly an EIA process are the following:
o Competent agency
o Proponent
o Consultant
o Interested and affected parties (IAPs)
o Licensing Agency
The multitude of division of functions and variability of responsibilities inherent in the EA
process calls for the clear definition and spelling out of roles and tasks of different
stakeholders. Therefore, defining the roles and responsibilities of each party would enable to
harmonize the various interests and foster cooperation in a manner that averts duplication of
efforts and promote efficiency. Potentially, EA involves all members of society. For
convenience and, above all in recognition of the common but differentiated roles each may
manifest, the different actors are categorized in to the following five major groups:

4.2.1 Environmental Agency

An Environmental Agency is either EPA or Regional Environmental Body or sector ministries


or city administrations that are mandated by a proclamation provided for the establishment of
Environmental Protection Organs (Proc. no.295/2002) and Environmental Impact
Assessment Proclamation (Proc.no.299/2002) and other relevant laws to oversee and
facilitate the implementation or administration of EA.

An Environmental Agency has responsibility to make sure that:


o the necessary system that contains procedural and technical guidelines is prepared
and implemented,
o the public, especially affected communities are given meaningful opportunity in the
EA process,
o views, concerns and position of IAPs are taken into account during assessment,
reviewing, auditing and at all stages of decision making,
o all processes in EA administration is made in transparent, participatory and
accountable manner,
o the proponent’s right to appeal and understanding of the process is respected at all
times,
o incentives structures are prepared to encourage environmentally friendly practices,
o EA audits are conducted at various stages in EA process and at the corresponding
levels in the project cycle and a step wise approval is done.
o liaison with relevant licensing agencies is maintained.
o activities' schedules are continuously updated,
o appeals and grievance are entertained and decisions are communicated in good
time,
o proponents are provided with advice that help them best comply with EA
requirements,
o decisions are made without unnecessary delay and within the time frame stipulated
in the relevant laws and in a manner that improve effectiveness and efficiency,
o appropriate support is made available to build capacity and create awareness on EA,
etc.

EPA as a Federal Environmental Agency is responsible for:


o the establishment of a required system for EA of public and private sector projects,
as well as social and economic development policies, strategies, laws, and programs
of federal level functions;

~ 46 ~
o reviewing and pass decisions and follow-up its implementations of Environmental
Impact Study Reports of projects, as well as social and economic development
programs or plans where they are,
 Subjects to federal licensing, execution or supervision,
 likely to entail inter or transregional, and international impacts
o notifying its decision to the concerned licensing agency at or before the time
specified in the appropriate law or directives,
o auditing and regulating the implementation of the conditions attached to the decision,
o provide advice and technical support to the regional environmental agencies,
sectoral institutions and the proponents,
o making its decisions and the EA report available to the public,
o resolving all complaints and grievances in good faith and at the appropriate time,
o develop incentive or disincentive structures
o involve in EA awareness creation,

Federal Environmental Protection Authority

The Federal EPA is an independent organization accountable directly to the Office of the
Prime minster. The Authority has the following key functions:
o Prepare Environmental protection policy laws and ensure these are implemented
o Prepare directives, devise systems and ensure their implementation;
o Prepare environmental protection standards directives concerning soil, water, and
air;
o Enhance environmental awareness and training programs;
o Ensure the implementation of international treaties concerning the environment to
which Ethiopia is signatory
o Provide advice and technical support to the regions on environmental matters

Regional Environmental Agencies

In the Environmental Impact Assessment Process the regional environmental agencies or


their equivalent Competent Authority are responsible to:
o adopt and interpret federal level EA policies and systems or requirements in line with
their respective local realities,
o establish a system for EA of public and private projects, as well as social and
economic development policies, strategies, laws, or programs of regional level
functions;
o inform EPA about malpractices that affect the sustainability of the environment
regarding EA and cooperate with EPA in compliant investigations,
o administer, oversee, and pass major decisions regarding impact assessment of:
project subjects to licensing by regional agency
project subjects to execution by a regional agency
project likely to have regional impacts
o the biophysical and socio-economic baseline conditions are adequately and truly
described,
o during scoping major issues are well defined and explicitly indicated in the Term of
Reference (TOR),
o interested and especially the affected parties or their true representatives are
provided with all means and facilities (e.g. notice, assembly holes, reasonable time,
understandable language) that enable them to adequately air their views and
concerns,
o IAPs have agreed to and satisfied with the terms of compensations and the
appropriateness of the EMP,

~ 47 ~
o the environmental monitoring activities are undertaken in appropriate time with the
involvement of the IAPs and regular reporting is made in good faith and time to all
concerned,
o the proponent/consultant fulfill the local and regional legal and policy requirements
and obtain the necessary permits,
o the envisaged benefits to that communities and the regions are tangible,
o the monitoring plan are logical and allows the participation of relevant bodies in the
region,
o the strategy for impact communication and reporting was understandable and
appropriate at regional level stakeholders,
o the minutes of the consultation process reflects the true and unbiased accounts of
the opinions and interests of the IAPs at the local level.
o establish the necessary condition for the creation of awareness on EA,
o develop the necessary incentive and disincentive system, etc.
o Regional Environmental protection offices
o In all regions except Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa, responsibility of environmental
matters goes to Regional Land and Environmental protection bureau. However, all of
them have shared duties and responsibilities.
o follow up the implementation of national policy and laws;
o Prepare regional environmental protection and directives and upon approval follow
up and supervise their implementation
o regulate and follow up that any development shall conduct EIA prior to the project
implementation and review of the project EIA
o undertake environmental auditing of industries for the safe disposal and management
of liquid and toxic wastes
o Prepare appropriate standards to protect the environment that include soil, water and
air as well as the biological system in the city.

WSS at individual Urban Centers


In most of the cities of Ethiopia the Municipalities are responsible for WSS.

4.2.2 Proponent

A proponent is any person or organization that initiates a project, policy or program. The
proponent is responsible for complying with the requirements of the EIA process. The first
responsibility of the proponent, however, is to appoint an independent consultant who will act
on the proponent’s behalf in the EIA process. The proponent should ensure that the
consultant has:
o Expertise in environmental assessment and management.
o The ability to manage the required participation process
o The ability to produce reports that are readable, comprehensive and informative
o A good working knowledge of environmental impact assessment and management
policies, legislation, guidelines and standards.

The proponent may appoint an individual consultant or a multi-disciplinary group of


consultants. The proponent is responsible for all associated costs incurred when following
the EIA process. The proponent must ensure that adequate participation of the competent
agency and interested and affected parties has been carried out. The proponent is also
responsible for public consultation. On Completion of the EIA, it will be the proponent’s
responsibility to ensure that the conditions of approval are carried out (including monitoring
and auditing).

~ 48 ~
A proponent is required to:
o proactively integrate an environmental concerns into its social and economic
development project, program, policy, plan or strategic initiative as per the
requirements of relevant environmental laws and directives,
o ensure that positive effects are optimized and strive to promote conservation based
development and work with objectives of continuous improvement,
o initiate the EA process and create the necessary ground for undertaking EA,
o appoint an eligible independent consulting firm who shall seek to undertake EA ,
o Cover all expense associated with the Environmental Impact Assessment. This may
include the costs of:
 undertaking EA,
 public participation process,
 reviewing EIA report as the need arise,
 preparation and implementation of EMP, that include both mitigation and
monitoring measures and the associated institutional and human resources,
 closure plan as the case may be,
 Environmental Management System,
 contingency plan,
 reporting, environmental education, etc.
o submit to EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency an EIA report together
with the necessary documents requested both in an electronic and hard copies,
o observe the terms and conditions of authorization and work in partnership and
cooperation with all responsible and interested parties,
o provide the necessary reports for stepwise decisions required for approval of the
proposal,
o involve all interested and affected parties, and to that effect take all reasonable and
practical measures to notify the latter in good time,
o establish environmental units to monitor the environmental performance of the
project in a proactive manner to ensure sustainable development,
o consult relevant government institutions as the case may be,
o report on a regular bases about its environmental performance,
o establish database and network with all concerned parties, and respect local values
and interests,
o develop standardize environmental management system
o be familiar with the pertinent EA related stipulations, etc.

4.2.3 Consultant

A consultant is an individual or institution that has demonstrated the ability to undertake the
EA, and meets the requirements specified under the relevant law. The individual consultant
acts on behalf of the proponent in complying to the EIA process and is responsible for all
processes, plans and reports produced while following the EIA process and should have
adequate access to facilities for storing this information. The consultant should also ensure
that all of this information is made available to the competent Agency via the proponent. The
consultant must ensure that adequate participation of the Competent Agency and interested
and affected parties has been carried through his proponent.

The consultant that will be appointed to work on behalf of a proponent is expected to:
o Have the expertise in environmental impact assessment and management
commensurate with the nature of the proposed activity and legal requirements,
o A good working knowledge of environmental impact assessment and management
policies, legislation, guidelines and standards.

~ 49 ~
o Make available an interdisciplinary team, having solid technical skills and legal
know-how, and local knowledge,
o The ability to manage the required participation of interested and affected parties in
acceptable manner,
o have the facility to produce readable reports that are through and informative,
o declare and ensure at all times that he has no vested interest in the proposed activity
and observe all ethical values,
o familiarize his/herself with legal and technical requirements of all the concerned
bodies such as regional environmental agencies, sectoral agencies, local
administration, and an endorsed minutes of public consultation process by
appropriate local authority, as the verification of the truthfulness of all information
contained in the EIA-report as well as fairness of the process,
o provide additional detailed information related to the environmental impact study
report as may be requested,
o ensure that Interested and Affected Parties are provided with all means and facilities
(e.g. notice, assembly holes, reasonable time, understandable language, fair
representation, etc.) enabling them to adequately air their views and concerns,
o fulfill that they are legally registered and licensed to conduct the task,
o capable of presenting an authentic complete CV of experts to be employed for the
task,
o present a true, pragmatic, analytical, understandable, and impartial account of the
proposed activity, etc.

4.2.4 Interested and Affected Parties (IAPs)

Interested and Affected Parties (IAPs) are individuals or groups concerned with or affected
by the proposed activity or its consequences. These may include local communities,
customers and consumers, environmental interest groups and the general public.
Interested and affected parties are key to a successful EIA and are responsible for providing
input and comments at various stages in the EIA process. The input from interested and
affected parties should be sought during the scoping phase, in assessing and mitigating
impacts and in the review of the EIS. In accepting the responsibility to participate, IAPs
should ensure that their inputs and comments are provided within the specified (reasonable)
time limit set by the proponent and his/her consultant.
Interested and Affected Parties are expected to:
o provide comments at various stages of EA with reasonable time frame,
o work in partnership with Environmental Agencies and proponents,
o act and lobby in good faith, knowledge, reason and in a cooperative manner and use
all means and facilities to ensure fairness in EA administration,
o follow and monitor changes and inform the environmental and sectoral agencies and
local administration the occurrence of adverse incidence or any other grievance in
the course of implementation of a project or public instruments,
o advocate and uphold the principle and values of environmentally sustainable
development, etc.

4.2.5 Licensing Agency

Licensing Agency is any organ of government empowered by law to issue an investment


permit, trade or operating license or work permit or register business organization as a case
may be. Licensing agencies are required to:
o ensure that prior to issuing their respective licenses and permits to require
proponents to submit authorization, a letter of approval or Environmental Clearance
Certificate awarded by the appropriate Environmental Agency,

~ 50 ~
o ensure that environmental performance criteria are included in their respective
sectoral incentive or disincentive structure,
o ensure that renewal or additional permits issuance should also considers integration
of environmental concerns,
o to seek advice or opinion from the appropriate environmental agency, etc.

The key institutional and administrative arrangements related to this WSS project are the
following:
 Proponent: Oromia Bureau of Water, Mines and Energy
 Competent Autority: Oromia Bureau of Land Administration and Environmental
Protection
 Donor: The World Bank; and
 The consultant.

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5 Baseline Condition

5.1 Bio-Physical Environmental Characteristics

5.1.1 Location and Area

Borena zone, which is located at the southern part of the Oromiya National Regional State,
is the second largest zone next to Bale zone. This zone has an area of 63028 km2 and
divided in to ten woredas. Bule Hora Werda is one of these ten weredas in Borena Zone
and Bule Hora town is the Capital of Bule Hora Woreda. Bule Hora town the biggest town in
Borena zone of Oromiya region, is located at 5º 57'45"north latitude and 38º 16'42"east
longitude with land area of about 1730 hectares. This town is found on the main asphalt road
that connects Ethiopia with Kenya at a distance of 467 km from Addis Ababa. Physically
Bule-Hora town is bounded in North by Abayi, in the South by Bule Kanya, in the East by
Ogo, and in the West by Bule Chameri Kebeles. On the other hand, Bule-Hora town is
located at South of Gerba town, North of Finchawa town, West of Kilenso town, and East of
Burji town. For administrative purpose, Bule-Hora is divided in to three Kebeles.

5.1.2 Topography

Bule-Hora town is located in plateau nature of landform (Fig. 5.1) whose altitude ranges from
1830 to 1950 masl. The highest elevation in the town is found on the southern side, mainly
around Bule-Hora general Hospital with elevation of 1950 masl followed by the area near St.
Marry Church where its elevation is about 1940 masl. Therefore, it is possible to say that the
elevation of the town increases as one moves from northern to southern corner of the town
along main (asphalt) road but decreases towards west. Bule-Hora town also has different
slopes ranging from 0 to 12 percent. The moderately steep slope is found in the eastern part
of the town near St. Marry church and also in the northeast and south-eastern parts. In these
parts, the slope ranges from about 7% to 12% or more. On the other hand, the western part
of the town is more of flat except a few pocket areas. In this side, generally the slope ranges
from 0 to 6%.

5.1.3 Climate

Bule-Hora has a subtropical temperature which is traditionally known as Weyna Dega (Bada-
dare). The town also has two rainy seasons in a year. The main rainy season in the area is
from March to May while the second rainy season, although not as strong as the first one, is
from July to November. From these two rainy seasons, the area receives about 250-400 mm
of rain per annum. The monthly average minimum and maximum temperature is 18 - 320c,
respectively. The maximum temperature occurs in Mach and the minimum in December and
January. During the rainy seasons, the prevailing wind is commonly east-west. The south-
easterly moist air currents from Indian Ocean are the sources of rainfall in the town.

5.1.4 Geology

Thick flood basaltic layer which is described as the lower part of Jimma Volcanics is
underlying Bule-Hora town and its surroundings. Agewise it is categorized as Late Eocene to
Late Oligocene Era (Mengesha Tefera etal. 1993). Observation along the sides of stream
channels, road cuts, hillsides and in the plain area where top soils are washed away shows
that these basalt outcrops are found to be highly weathered and fractured. Colluminarly
jointed basalt resulting from fast rate of cooling is observed along the road sides. The
lithologic log of one water well drilled for the town water supply in February 2008 by Royal
Borehole Drillers shows that the top soil is underlain by basalt rock having different degree of

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weathering and fracturing. The lithologic log of this well shows that upto 4.6m of the well is
top soil (clay soil), 4.6-23.0m is weathered basalt, 23.0-55.2m is fractured basalt, 55.2-69.0m
is boulder basalt, and 69.0-82.2m is vesicular basalt. This lithologic type forms an excellent
groundwater aquifer.

Fig.5.1 Topography of Bule Hora Town: a) Northward view from the Hospital Compound; b)
Eastward view from Bule Kagna area

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5.1.5 Soil

In Bule-Hora town, most of the land area is covered by red soil derived from basaltic rocks
/Nitosol/ while some 20% of the total area of the town is covered with black cotton soil
/Vertisol/. This type of soil is formed and found in the eastern and northwestern part of the
town. It swells when weather is wet, shrinks and cracks during dry season. Sandy soil is also
locally prevalent. The existing types of soil in the town are suitable for construction purposes.
However, soil and land degradation is one of the major environmental problems in the
surroundings of Bule Hora town (Fig. 5.2) due to improper land utilization, deforestation and
WSS project related infrastructure development.

Fig. 5.2 Soil erosion enhanced because of road construction as a result of change made to
the natural water course.

5.1.6 Surface water bodies

All the drainage system around Bule Hora Town consists of only intermittent rivers. The rivers
are dry during most parts of the year and flows only when there is flood. There are no springs or
open water bodies except artificial dug wells constructed by the inhabitants in order to collect
flood and precipitation water during rainy season. There are also some natural places which can
impound water from floods. These are used for cattle watering and human consumption during
some season of the year (Fig. 5.3).

Bule-Hora town is situated on a relatively high ground and acts as a local surfacial water divide.
The area west of Bule-Hora town drains to the west whereas the area east of the town drains to

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the east. The area west of the town has a relatively large catchment area and river system that
are controlled by structures.

5.1.7 Groundwater
The occurrence of groundwater is the consequences of a combination of climatic, hydrologic,
geologic, topographic and soil forming factors that together form an integrated dynamic system.
These factors are interrelated in such a way that each provides some insight into the functioning
of the total system and thus serves as an indicator of local conditions of groundwater
occurrence. The permeability of crystalline and consolidated rocks is controlled by the
permeability of fractures such as joints, faults and fissures. The permeability or infiltration
capacity of the outcropping rocks of the area is expected to be high as they are highly
weathered and fractured. The area gets local recharge from precipitation which is bimodal. In
addition the study area is expected to get groundwater recharge from the western high land area
as the water levels of some hand-dug wells and boreholes are relatively high. Hence
considering the physiography, surfacial geology and topography of a drainage basin, together
with the vegetation and climatic condition the area is expected to have good potential for
groundwater resources.

Fig 5.3 Surface water impounding in some places during some season of the year.

5.1.8 Flora and Fauna

Different types of tree species are present both as natural indigenous trees (Fig. 5.4) and
plantation. Eucalyptus is is the dominant planted tree species and serve as fire wood.
‘Bisana’ ‘Tid’ and ‘wanza’ are used as fuelwood house construction and shade trees.
Moreover, kashimir (Abuker) and coffee are the two most important trees that have social
and economic values. They are sparsely found at certain pockets of the town and the
surrounding. Naturally growing plants and trees are limited as more land and tree is needed
for house construction in the town. . Hence, at present, the town is covered with manmade
vegetations. Eucalyptus tree, which covers the southwestern and northwestern part of the

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town, stands first in terms of area coverage in the town and followed by ‘Tid’, ‘Wanza’, and
‘Bisana’. As far as wild animals are concerned, Bule-Hora wored Agricultural office
disclosed that there is no wild life in the town and its surroundings except some birds and
few lower animals. But, a number of domesticated animals like cattle, equines, poultry,
sheep and goat are predominantly found.

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Fig. 5.4 Scattered trees and shrubs as a dominant vegetation type
5.1.7 Trend analysis of the Bio-Physical Environment without this project

Although the analysis of the change in LU/LC types of the project area has not been
performed, the trend in the bio-physical environment of the study area as indicated by focus
group discussion and key informant interviews shows that Human-mediated conversion of
one type of LU/LC into another is very significant. These include:
 decrease in forested land,
 increase in areas covered with scattered trees,
 dramatic increase in cropland and in the area of grazing land,
 increase in urbanized land and increased pollution
 enhanced erosion and soil degradation
 Depletion of surface water resources.

5.2 Socio-Economic Characteristics

5.2.1 Population and Demographic Characteristics

The population of this town is found to be one of the fastest growing populations in the
country. According to the 1994 census the population of Bule-Hora town was about 12,718
of which 6,533 and 6.185 are males and females, respectively. But, 8 years later (2002/3),
the population of Bule - Hora grew at an alarming rate and reached 26,981 of which 11,281
and 15,300 male and female respectively, according to sources from the town’s municipality.
The 2007 census, shows that the population of the town was increased by 6447 and
reached 33,428 where the male and female population constitutes 14,188 and 19240
respectively. Projection from the 2007 base population shows that the present (2012)
population of Bule-Hora town is more than 42,000.

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Concerning male-female ratio, Bule-Hora town exhibits ascending and higher proportion of
females. For instance, in the 2002/3, male-female ratio of the town was 73%. In 2007, the
ratio has increased to 78% (that means there are 78 males for 100 females). From this, it
can be concluded that there are more females than males in Bule-Hora town.

With regard to ethnic composition, Oromo ethnic group constitutes the largest proportion
(72%) followed by Burji (13%), Ahmara (8%), Gurage (3%), and the others (4%). 42.42% of
the dwellers of Bule-Hora town are appeared to be Orthodox Christians while 29.6% are
Muslims, 26.56% are protestant, 4% are ‘waqeffata’, and 0.23% is follower of other religions.

The population composition of Bule-Hora town is dominated by young population which


could be attributed to high fertility rate and high rural-urban migration. Therefore, with
present population growth rate the doubling time of the town will be short. In 2007, the
municipality of the town disclosed that 43% of the population is young, 54% are adult, and
the remaining 3% are old aged. Based on this, it can be said that that most of the
populations in Bule-Hora town (54%) are economically active and can help themselves while
about 46% of the town’s residents are dependent on these economically active social class.

The town is also going under escalating number of households from time to time. About
6,729 households were registered in the town in 2002/3. Two years later (2004/5) the
number grew to 7,626. Sources from the municipality also confirmed that total household
number in the town reached 8,363 in 2007. Out of these, 769 of them are female-headed
households whereas 7,594 of them are assumed to be male-headed households.

The residents of Bule-Hora town are engaged in various occupations. The significant
number of the dwellers (19%) engage in private business. 14% of them are government
employers and 13% are agricultural workers,. 4% of the population of the town are daily
laborers and and 2% are livestock raisers. As the town is capital of Bule-Hora district and
near to Moyale town, the activities that attract most households are trading and hotel
services. That is why the significant number of households in the town is engaging in
drawing much of their livelihoods from small trading and hotel services.

Generally speaking, the majority of the households in Bule-Hora town earn low income per
month. To give an overview of the situation of income received by households, income is
categorized in to 6 categories. Nearly 15% of the households earn 301 - 500 Birr per month.
About 29 % earn in the range of 501 – 800 Birr per month while 21 % of the households earn
in the range of 801 – 1,000 Birr per month. 8% earn 2,001 – 3,000 and and 5% more than
3,000 Birr per month.

5.2.2 Social Services

A total of 15 schools are rendering service in the town; 5 are KGs, 6 are primary schools (1-
8), 1 higher school (9-10), and 1 preparatory school (11-12). 1 teacher training college and 1
vocational training institution are constructed by government in Bule-Hora town. Information
from town’s educational office shows that about 10,229 students are attending their
education in all these 15 schools. Out of these 864 are in Kindergarten, 6009 are in primary,
2571 are in secondary, 225 are in preparatory, 318 are in vocational, and 242 are in
college. Very recently, a University (Bule-Hora University) was established and started the
teaching-learning process from this academic year (2012).

Health service is another social facility that fosters the development of human capital.
Source form town’s health office shows that different types of disease occur at different

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times and affect the residents of Bule-Hora town. Among ten top diseases, Pneumonia,
Intestinal parasites, and Rheumatism, Skin disease, Tonsil tar, stands from 1 st to 5th ,
respectively in their occurrence and magnitude of damage they cause. In order to combat
these diseases, 1 health center and 1 hospital are constructed by government and rendering
service to the population of Bule-Hora town and its surrounding at present. The existing
hospital serve not only the town’s population but also the large number of rural population of
the woreda and beyond. In addition to these two health institutions, one clinic owned by by
private entrepreneur is serving the residents. Moreover, two drug venders, which are
privately owned are providing different types of medicines for the populations of Bule-Hora
town and the surrounding population. According to theworeda health office, the following are
the major causes for health problems.
 Lack of safe and adequate water supply
 Poor personal and environmental sanitation
 Shortage of senior health professionals
 Poor organization of management system
 Lack of infrastructure
 Prevalence of HIV/AIDS especially among urban people

According to Bule-Hora town’s municipality the total housing stock at present is about 6,700
of which 79.4% are residential 19.3% commercial and the remaining 1.3% are for
administrative, services, industries, and religious purposes. Information from the municipality
indicated that on average about 6.5 persons are residing in a single house in the town.

Recreational areas are very important in provide leasure time for the residents of the town.
However, there are no recreation centers in Bule-Hora town apart from the football field near
the high school.

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Fig. 5.5: Social Infrastructure of Bule-Hora town: a) and b) Teachers’ Training College; c)-e)
Bule Hora University

5.2.3 Urban Infrastructures

Roads are among major urban infrastructures that enhance human communication and
trade within and outside of a given area. High quality roads are manifestation of
development of a given town. In this regard, roads of Bule-Hora town are in poor condition.
The town has about 287kms of road. Out these, only 2.9% is asphalted and about 11.1%
graveled. The remaining 86% is mud road. Bule-Hora town has four road outlets that leads
to different towns/cities. These are; Bule- Hora to Finchawa (asphalted), Bule-Hora to Burjji
(graveled road), Bule-Hora to Garba town (asphalted), and Bule-Hora to Kileenso (both
graveled and mud road). With regard to means of transportation, the major means of human
transportation in Bule-Hora town are bajajas. These give transportation service within the
town along the main (asphalt) road. They are confined to this road because of the poor
condition of roads in other parts of the town. The growing number of population and the
existing number of bajajs seems to be not compatible. Bule-Hora town also has
transportation connection with a number of neighboring towns/cities via road transportation
that could foster its economic, social, and political advantages. For these purpose, about 30
small cars (mini buses), 45 medium cars, and 1 big bus are giving road transportation daily
to different directions such as to Killensso Rasa, Gerba, Killensso, Ebala, Soda, Dawa,
Finchawa, Fashaka and Murie, shashamene, Yavello, Moyale, Shakisso, and Burji..
However, some of this road transport will be interrupted during rainy season.

A wide range of environmental problems are created in the town due to different factors such
as inadequate sanitation particularly household waste collection and disposal system. There
is no organized waste management program in Bule-Hora town. Solid wastes from

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residential houses, hotels /bars/ and different services, and trash from coffee processing
industry are the common problems. WHO recommended 1 vehicle per 15, 000 and 1
container per 1800 urban population. However, having more than this population, Bule-Hora
town failed to fulfill these conditions to properly manage solid waste and safeguard its
environmental sanitation. There is a solid waste disposal area in the eastern part of the
town, which by itself is not advisable site for waste disposal. This is because it is inclined
towards wind direction and is near to the residential areas. Neither the municipality nor the
water supply service office has any vacuum tanker for dislodging of latrines when get full.
Because of this, it is common to observe a considerable amount of wastes especially on the
main road and residential areas. Furthermore, the town is ill-equipped with sewerage
systems and this in turn has aggravated hygienic problem in the town. Human excreta is the
major problem in the town due to low level of usage of toilets on the part of the communities
either because of lack of awareness or weak awareness creation training on the side of the
concerned bodies. Domestic activities such as washing and cleaning in the town are
constrained ether by shortage of water or lack of awareness. Liquid and solid waste
materials spoil the playgrounds for the children in most cases. To control mainly the problem
of human excreta, which is one of polluting agents, using latrine is the most advisable
technique. However, in case of Bule-Hora town, most households use small wells which will
become full when rained causing overflowing of both solid and liquid wastes. Even in big
hotels, the latrine facilities are poorly developed.

In general, the significant proportion of Bule-Hora town residents (88%) use dry pit latrine
while 6 percent uses open fields.

In Bule-Hora town, the major sources of energy for food processing at a household level
include fire wood, kerosene, animal dug, charn, and electricity. Information obtained from the
town administrations show that the majority (44%) of households in the town depend on
firewood and charcoal to cook their food and for any other household duties. Nearly 38%
use electricity for the same purpose while 10% of households use kerosene, animal dung,
and charcoal. The remaining 8% appeared to use the combination of the aforementioned
energy sources. The reason why most Bule-Hora town dwellers do not use electricity as
source of energy is lack of enough income, power shortage and interruption and lack of lack
of integration between line office and the municipality.

At present, the town is being supplied with water from four water wells surrounding the town
constructed by different organizations since 1974 EC. Out of these four water sources, three
of them are functioning well while one of them is nonfunctional because of its low production.
At this time, the three wells are supplying 188,287m 3 of water per year to the town’s
dwellers. But, this amount is not sufficient to satisfy the demand of fast growing population.
As it is well known, about 30 liters of water per day is recommended for an individual. Based
on this, 1,200,000 lit/day is needed for 40,000 people of the town. However, based on this
exiting situation of water distribution of Bule-Hora town, a person gets 12 liter of water/day.
With regard to mode of water use, 25 percent use public fountains, 69 percent yard
tap/shared connection, and 6 percent of the household uses house connection. Around 1426
water pipe customers are available in the town. Those who use public fountain spend not
less than 15 minutes as an average waiting time for their turn. Distance to and away from
water resources is also another issue to be considered while investigating accessibility to
safe drinking water. In this line, in Bule-Hora town, 56 percent of the households are in the
range of 100 to 300 meters away from the public fountains, 34 percent are at a distance
ranging from 500 to 1000, while the remaining 10 percent are at a distance less than 100
meters away from the public fountain. In addition to the piped water, the town’s population
also collect and use water from different sources such as rain water and elas. The present

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sources and the very old distribution system could not support the current water demand of
the town. There is no Transmission pipe line layout drawing available.

Fig. 5.6 Solid waste dumped in any available open spaces threatening the water supply
situation

5.2.4 Economic Activities

Like other urban areas in Ethiopia, the development of indusial sector is at its infant stage in
Bule-Hora town. The town is characterized by the development of medium and small scale
industries in the recent time. As a whole, about 103 manufacturing industries are operating
in the town out which 39 and 64 are medium and small scale industries, respectively. Of
course, being constrained by lack of water, shortage of electric supply, and internal road
network problem, most of the available medium scale industries are not producing using
their full capacity. The most important small scale industries operating in this town include
grain mills, wood and metal works, and bakeries. In terms of number of small scale
industries, grain mills and wood and metal work industries stand first and second in the town,
respectively. The low level of industrial sector development in this town is attributed to
different factors. Among these, lack of proper zoning and planned spatial distribution of the
factories, lack of specialization (less competitiveness and absence of micro and small scale
industries to feed the medium and small scale industries), intermittent electric power and
insufficient water supply, absence of financial facilities (bank, insurance), and shortage of
spare parts and raw materials are the major bottlenecks. Despite their low level of
development, these industries have created job opportunities for a significant number of
populations of the town.

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In most cases, in their economic activities, the Bule-Hora town population depends upon
trading. The trade sector is very strong and absorb many labor forces in Bule-Hora town.
The significance of this sector is due to the proximity of the town to Addis Ababa and other
centers such as Awassa, Yabello and Moyale. In 2008, Bule-Hora town hosted about 13
wholesalers, 281 retailers, and 350 service providing establishments. The existing
wholesalers are engaged in the distribution of prepared wearing cloths, beverages, and oil.
Kiosks, butchery, bakery, Pharmacy, and etc are among the notable retailers in the town.
Contractors, public transports, tej houses, hotels and bars, and Barbary are also the
common service rendering establishments in Bule-Hora town. Among the existing service
providing establishments, most of them have no licenses to run legally their business.

Agriculture is an economic activity that encompasses crop and animal production. It is


mainly the dominant economic activity of rural people. But, in developing countries like
Ethiopia, people from urban areas also engage in such activities as a means of additional
income and source of food. Likewise, most people in Bule-Hora town engage in different
types of agricultural activities on their backyards and nearby rural areas . Predominantly,
food crops, vegetable plantation and livestock rearing activities are taking place at large by
households inside and in peripheral parts of the town. Although the town has huge potential
for urban agriculture because of its geographical location, availability of agricultural land and
labor force, the community failed to extract more benefits from the sector to the desired level
mainly because of, among other, absence of agricultural land zoning practices, market
places to sale and display vegetable products, and shortage of water for vegetable
plantation and animal watering. Urban and rural agricultural production is very much
dependent on rain water.

5.2.5 Institutional Structure and Human Resource

Based on towns’ status, investment advantage, population and other criteria, Oromiya Work
and Urban development Bureau has ranked towns in the region as 1 st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th.
Those towns ranked 2nd also further sub-divided in to 3 categories namely 2nd A, 2nd B, and
2nd C. Depending upon this requirement, Bule-Hora town is categorized under 2nd sub-
category (2nd B). This category has accommodated about 45 employees including the
Mayor. The manpower is sub-categorized in to four main sections; finance and
administration, revenue, social affairs and technical and land administration. Pertaining to
the educational status of the employees, most of them have completed grade 12 and above.
The Mayor of the town indicated that there is a shortage critical manpower required to run
the business of the town efficiently.

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Fig.5.7 Types of crops grown in the well fields

5.2.6 Socio-economic trend analysis

The current population of Bule-Hora town has increased sharply compared to the 1994. The
cultivated land and production of cereals have continued to grow. Conversely, sharp decline
has been noticed with forest cover.

The health service has shown improvement from time to time. Enrolment rate of students
has shown an increasing trend. A sharp increase has been noticed in the enrolment of
students in the technical schools.

Power supply, by and large, is limited to the town. Revenue collected by the Town has
increased. The number of banks has increased from 1 to 3. Road construction has been
slow.

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According to the report of the municipality, unemployment has been the main problem in
recent years. It has been difficult to get specific and more information as data is not collected
continuously over time.

By and large, agriculture is the main economic base of the surrounding rural Kebeles. The
sectors’ productivity is low and mainly at subsistence level. This sector depends on back
ward and traditional production technologies. The following are among the major causes for
the prevailing state of affairs in the agricultural sector:,
 Grazing land and farming land are not demarcated.
 Land and soil have been degraded.
 There is interruption of rainfall which cause delay in planting time.

The problems of social conditions include


 High population growth
 Lack of employment opportunity
 Lack of access to transportation and communication

Furthermore, the rural infrastructure such as rural roads, schools, health institutions,
electricity, potable water and other services are limited. The rural people are travelling long
distances to get services.

Taking altogether, the data described in this chapter forms a baseline against which any
modification of the natural environment and social conditions in the future could be
compared.

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6 Description of the Public Consultation Process

Development planning needs working through social structures to achieve the envisaged
development goals, i.e., participation of the major stakeholders and benefices are crucial for
the success of the plan implementation. The WSS project intervention is community demand
driven and the beneficiary community identifies and prioritizes problems to be intervened.
Participatory planning process has been put well on the ground, though the quality was
being affected in some cases due to limited participation. But all the interventions were done
through involvement of the beneficiary community. Communities are involved through
Project Steering Committee. Committee members are drawn from Town and Woreda
Officials, Interested and affected parties, religious leaders, elders, the young, women, and
community at large.

The public consultations were carried out at household, community and institutional levels.
The first public consultation was carried out in the form of informal household survey. It was
conducted with the purpose of obtaining direct information from the household heads that
would be affected by the implementation of the project. To this end, a total of 25 household
heads were interviewed from Bule Chemeri, Chemeri Bacha, Cheri Gololcha and Various
Kebeles of Bule-Hora Town that are found in the project area of the envisaged WSS Project.
Almost all of the respondents expect benefits including job opportunity, better access to
WSS, local development & money from compensation when the project is implemented. The
second form of public consultation was Focus Group Discussions held with community
members. The third form of consultation was carried out with various stakeholders
concerned with the planned WSSP, Woreda and Town Administrations, various government
sector offices and the Project management.

Based on discussions with key informants and different members of the community,
participation was inclusive (be it poor, rich, youth, women, etc) and voluntary, and it lied
ground for sustainability and implementation of similar other projects. However, in some
cases, respondents indicated that women’s participation was minimal.

According to information generated from FGD and key informant interview, the beneficiaries
of the project have participated in the consultative planning process during identification,
planning, prioritizing and implementation of the WSSP. The local communities were given
opportunities to identify their major problems and prioritize them. In FGDs held with
community members the perceived benefits were clearly indicated by the participants. The
first perceived benefit is employment opportunities for the local people. Furthermore, they
have noted that the implementation of the project would provide them better access to social
and economic infrastructures including road, electricity, and Water supply for them and their
cattle.

Participation was often arranged through representation by forming committee. However,


there is little evidence that the consensus was achieved. In some cases it seems that there
is a fatigue of participation because of the delay in the project implementation. There are
also some complaints of not participating in all phases of the projects from minor segments
of the community from almost all areas.

In general, however, the nature and extent of community participation in project


implementation is highly encouraging. Generally, it can be concluded that the town and
woreda administrations have achieved a very good level of success in this respect.

In the absence of an approved plan with all the necessary details, asking direct questions
related to potential adverse impacts could cause several difficulties with unintended

~ 66 ~
consequences, which may backfire on a project such as this. The most important one was
observed during our discussion in the field which warned us that we, the consultants,
becoming agents of unintended process that have triggered individual and communal
‘unrest’ that may have very serious damaging effects both on the biophysical components of
a site and also the psyche of the people concerned. The case of Chari Gololcha, where our
discussion with residents triggered disagreement among the local communities on where to
take the storm water that changed its natural course due to access road construction was a
very good case in picture. After this event, whenever we discussed the issues with local
residents and key informants, we carefully solicited ‘harmless’ information that is very helpful
in making inferences.

Fig.6.1 Discussion Participants in Chari Gololcha area

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7 Identification, Prediction and Evaluation of environmental and social impacts of
the proposed activities

7.1 Identification of environmental and Social Impacts

The environmental impacts produced by the project are functions of the existing condition
documented in the baseline study, the activities undertaken to realize the project and its
operation. As the project has two major components, namely, Water supply and Sanitation,
the identification of the environmental impacts will be made individually for each of the
components. Furthermore, as the realization of each component will have several sequential
stages or phases, the environmental impacts of the activities of each stage will be
indentified and evaluated individually. For each phase the impact on the physical
environment, the biological environment, socio-economic conditions and others are
documented separately. The results of the identification exercises are summarized and
presented in a matrix form with a tick (√) indicating that the identified impact affects the
corresponding receptor. The activities or processes during the different phases of any of the
project components have impact on the physical and biological environment and the socio-
economic conditions. The effect of some of the identified impacts may be transitory (time
bound and reversible) while others may have long term impact on the same receptors. The
receptors of the impact in the physical environment are air, surface water, ground water,
soil, landscape. The receptors in the biological environment are Flora and fauna. The socio-
economic parameters affected by the activities of the project include population,
employment, dislocation, resettlement, land utilization, and economic development. Other
parameters considered include noise, odor, contamination, ground vibration, safety, traffic.
For ease of reference the summaries of the activities of each stage of the project
components and the associated impacts resulting thereof and/or the receptors affected as a
result of these activities are presented in table 7.1.

Impact Identification brings together project characteristics and baseline environmental and
socio-economic characteristics with the aim of ensuring that all potentially significant
environmental impacts (adverse and beneficial) are identified and taken into account in the
ESIA process. In this study simple questionnaire checklist (Annex 1 and 2) and simple
matrices (Table 7.1) were used to identify and summarize Environmental and Socio-
economic impacts during the Water Supply and Sanitation project construction, operation,
maintenance and decommissioning phases.

7.1.1 Construction Phase Environmental and Social Impacts


Anticipated construction phase environmental and social impacts include:
 Landscape change due to construction of reservoirs, access roads, etc.
 Soil erosion and land degradation
 Clearing of vegetation
 Employment generation
 Impacts on public health due to increased dust
 Increased excavation waste
 Destruction of crops, trees and household infrastructure

7.1.2 Operation Phase Environmental and Social Impacts


Anticipated operation phase environmental and social impacts include:
1. Problems associated with water abstraction (excessive exploitation of ground
water resources) which lead to:

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 Quantitative depletion of groundwater resources and localised and extensive
lowering of the water table
 Long-term changes in groundwater quality
Quantitative depletion of groundwater resources and localised and extensive lowering of the
water table results from:
 increasing consumption of drinking water due to a growing population and an
improvement in the standard of the supply;
 more rearing of livestock;
 increasing demand for industrial water (for trade and industry);
 wasting of water and water losses from defective distribution systems;
 decline in precipitation in aquifer watersheds as result of deforestation;
Typical consequential impacts of water table lowering are:
 drying up of ecologically important wetlands;
 reduction in soil moisture content, with impacts on plant cover (change in the natural
and cultivated flora and with consequential effects on the fauna;
 total depletion of groundwater resources during sustained dry spells (drying up of
wells);
 drying up of springs and watercourses;
 soil settlement.
Long-term changes in groundwater quality may be caused, among others, by:
 mobilisation (leaching out) and subsequent spread of previously immobile pollutants;
 entry of pollutants due to the use of fertilizers and pesticides;
 deterioration in groundwater quality caused by seepage of untreated waste water
from open, unsealed roadside ditches, leaking sewers or poorly built cesspits, or by
seepage of pollutants and toxins from liquid industrial and commercial waste;

2. Treatment of raw water


In the course of treatment of raw water, adverse environmental impacts may arise as a result
of, the disposal of sludge and chemicals from stocks held (e.g. disposal of old stock) as well
as from excessively high doses of chemicals (e.g. chlorine).

3. Piped distribution,
The environmental impacts related to piped distribution lies is in the following:
a) Due to the poor technical standard of the urban water supply system and particularly
the poor technical standard of the distribution pipes (inferior materials and bad laying
as a result of mistaken low-cost policies), the incidence of defects is very high in
buried pipes. In industrialised countries, the average incidence is 0.2 to 0.3 defects
per km per year, whereas in other countries figures of up to 9.1 defects per km per
year have been found. Loss of excess water through fittings and mechanical losses
from dilapidated distribution pipes which has developed through a huge investment
are often many times greater than consumption.
b) Simply due to high water losses, it is often the case that the capacity of urban water
supply plants is exceeded well before they achieve their designed output to
consumers. It then becomes impossible to maintain a 24 hour supply and an
intermittent supply is introduced.
c) When the supply is interrupted at times (intermittent urban water supply), the
consequent lack of outward pressure allows contaminated water to make its way into
the distribution network through fractures in buried pipes, the contaminated water
coming for example from ditches carrying wastewater, leaking roadside channels
carrying wastewater, leaking sewage pipes, badly designed dumps for waste and
toxic materials, etc. This constitutes a risk to the state of health of the population.

~ 69 ~
d) Water may become foul due to stagnation in runs of pipe where the hydrodynamics of
the system are poor or in clean-water tanks in the distribution system through which
there is insufficient flow.
e) Contamination of the water in dilapidated distribution systems is often so bad that the
water, despite being heavily disinfected (e.g. by high chlorine dosage rates) at the
input to the distribution network, becomes so contaminated with organic matter on its
way from the input to the consumer that there is a permanent health risk.

4. Water pollution
Activities in the watershed area like agriculture, animal husbandry, effluent discharge on
water bodies and effluent infiltration in soils and groundwater where infiltration is used as a
disposal method, waste disposal, handling of sludge and other sanitation- related solid waste
plus accidents e.g. leakage from oil or chemical tanks, traffic accidents to tankers etc., and
damage to water pipelines may cause substantial pollution of water sources. In the case of
groundwater facilities it is relevant to protect a certain area to limit the risk of contaminating
the groundwater. Discharge of raw or poorly purified wastewater may contain considerable
amounts of infective bacteria, particles, and waste material.

5. Health impacts
Health impacts of water supply and sanitation system can be divided into positive and
negative impacts. Positive impacts can result from reduction in potential outbreaks of
epidemic infectious water-borne diseases such as dysenteria, cholera and others and better
domestic hygiene. Negative impacts resulting from increase in malaria due to risks of
development of standing water which forms the breeding ground of disease causing
organisms like mosquito if water gets impound, water logging if no draining techniques are
installed, health hazards associated with inappropriate siting of sanitation systems in relation
to water supply systems, health hazards associated with unreliable emptying services and
odor and sludge deposition.

6. Erosion
Soil erosion as a consequence of measures within water supply and wastewater
management is usually limited and local. In the vicinity of rural water points such as the
planned cattle trough and water points, the erosion may ensue as a consequence of the
strain on the vegetation cover due to grazing and trampling by animals and humans. Access
road can cause changes in the pattern of natural water flow with the ensuing erosion in
roads, road sides and trampled areas. This may be considerable in areas where the dry
seasons alternate with periods of substantial rainfall.

7. Employment generation,
 Gain of time, especially for women and girls that may be used for other productive
activities, and resulting gains in overall economic productivity
 Provision of employment for construction and operation.

8. User conflicts and other impacts for the community


Water supply and wastewater management can through the impounding of areas and
resource utilisation, create competition and conflicts as regards access to a limited locality or
resource. Conflicts due to use of areas may arise when interests and activities exclusively
binds or impounds areas, and when there is competition between private and public
interests. Land acquisition requirements for bore holes location, reservoirs, pipelines,
treatment works, cattle trough, water points and other structures, displacement of the
local/indigenous community within the catchment area, Long-term land requirements at
operation phase and associated physical displacement and impacts on livelihoods due to
loss of crops, fruit trees and household infrastructure are source of potential conflict.

~ 70 ~
Water supply projects can lead to an uncontrolled migration to the area by population groups
establishing themselves in the vicinity of water supply facilities and distribution networks. In
addition to the subsequent competition for water resources, the new settlements can cause
indirect environmental impacts through the activities of the immigrants, for instance
agriculture. Conflicts may arise between the immigrants and residents as the residents have
their access restricted to water and other natural resources.

9. Capacity
After the project implementation, the town water supply is made dependent on a more
sophisticated system that will require enhanced organization for maintenance, revenue
collection and generally management. At present, training and capacity building programs
don’t seem directed to address operational problems at implementation level. Capacity
building and training in the town, and resulting enhancement of organizational, financial and
technical capacities of the town is, therefore, crucial.

Another impact as far as capacity is concerned is the cost of the sanitation service will have
to be recovered, which may be detrimental to the poorest in the community

7.1.3 Maintenance and Decommissioning Phase Environmental and


Social Impacts
Anticipated maintenance phase environmental and social impacts include employment
generation for skilled workers to be engaged in maintenance work. No impacts were
foreseen during decommissioning phase.

~ 71 ~
Table 7.1: Simple Matrix used for identification and summarizing of Environmental and socio -economic Impacts during different phases of a project

Impacted Environmental Project Action


and Socio-economic
Components/ Receptors/
Construction Operation Maintenance Decommissioning
Phase Phase

and water Points

and water Points


Distribution Line

Water treatment
Treatment Plant

Treatment Plant
Transportation
Cattle through

Cattle through

collection and

Use of access
disposal Site

Waste Water

Waste Water
Operation of

Operation of

Operation of
Access road
Storm water

Storm water
Solid Waste

Solid Waste
distribution
abstraction
Reservoir

Drainage

Drainage
Latrine

Latrine
Water

Water

road
Well
Bio-Physical

1. Land and Soil


degradation
 Landscape Change X √ X X √ X X √ √ X √ X X X X X X X X X
 Soil erosion and X √ √ √ √ X X √ √ X X X X X X X √ X X
land degradation
2. Air Pollution
 Dust and X √ √ X √ √ √ √ √ X X X X X X X X √ X X
particulate matter
 odors X X X X X X X X X X √ √ X √ √ √ √ X X X
3. Water
 Depletion of water X X X X X X X X X √ X X X X X X X X X X
resource
 Change in ground X X X X X X X X X √ X X X X X X X X X X
water quality

 Water loses X X X X X X X X X X X √ X X X X X X X X
4. Flora
 loss of and damage √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X X X X X X X X X X X
to habitats and
plant species
Socio-economic

5. Pollution
 Pollution from √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X √ X X √ X X √ X X X
Solid waste
 Pollution from √ X X X X X X X X X √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X X X
Liquid waste
 Contamination and √ X X X X X X X X √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X X X
Pollution from
various other
sources
 Foul water X X X X X X X X X X X √ X X X X X X X X
 Noise and vibration √ √ X X √ X X √ √ √ √ X X √ X X √ √ X X
6. Health Impact
 Health X X X X X X X X X X √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X X
improvement due
to better hygiene
and sanitation,

~ 72 ~
 Reduction in water- X X X X X X X X X X √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X X
borne diseases
 Health hazards due X X X X X X X X X X √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X X X
to water-borne,
water washed,
water based, water
associated vector
born diseases,
7. Conflicts
 Long-term land √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X X
requirement for
bore holes
reservoirs,
pipelines,
treatment works,
cattle trough, water
points and other
structures and
displacement of
people
 Loss of crops, fruit √ √ √ √ √ √ X √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X √ √ X X
trees and
Household
Infrastructure and
impacts on
livelihoods
8. Employment
 Job creation √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X
 Gain of time X X X X X X X X X X X √ √ X X X X X X X
especially for
women
9. Capacity
 Opportunity for √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ X
training and
capacity building
 Increased water X X X X X X X X X X X √ √ √ X √ √ X X
cost
Note: X represents no impact and √ represents identified impacts

~ 73 ~
7.2 Environmental and Socio-economic Impact Prediction and Evaluation
The prediction and evaluation of the various impacts produced by the activities of the project are
mainly based on the available environmental baseline data; the characteristics of the different
impacts identified earlier, a measure of the magnitude of the expected impact on the various
environmental components and the applicable regulatory guidelines and/or accepted standards of
best practice. The estimation of the nature and magnitude of the changes in the environmental
components will be required for assigning significance, prescribing mitigation measures and
developing environmental management plans and monitoring programs. The prediction of the extent
of environmental changes may be qualitative or quantitative.

Prediction provides estimates of the magnitude (or extent) of the impact for each of the identified
impact variables. Prediction of changes in a given environmental component are mainly based on
expert judgment (no particular model is employed). Any uncertainties arising from the predictions
can be minimized through the implementation of the impact management and monitoring plan.

Evaluation of the effect of the predicted changes and assignment of significance level of the impacts
will seek to achieve objectives related to how the significance determinations are made (procedural
objectives) and the outcomes resulting from the significant determination (substantive objectives).
Significance determination procedures emphasize the matters that are relevant and critical to
decision-making consistent with regulatory requirements and public concerns.

In assessing the level of impact that an activity may cause, four key elements will be considered as
criteria for the evaluation and ranking of impacts.
e) Spatial Scale (local or regional, National, global) : Site specific (restricted to the site) Local
(the site and surrounds), Regional (Surrounding districts).
f) Duration (short term, medium term and long term) : Short-term (up to 1 year), medium-term
(1 year to 2 years), long-tern (life cycle of the project) or permanent
g) Intensity (low, moderate, severe): the effects of the impact will be quantified as low,
medium-low, medium-high or high, and the rationale for this is discussed in the written
evaluation of the impact.
h) Probability (the likelihood that an activity will occur): Improbable (unlikely), probable, highly
probable or definite (certain).

Based on a synthesis of the information contained in (a) to (d) above, and taking mitigation
measures into account, an evaluation of the significance of the impact is undertaken in terms of the
following significance criteria:
 No significance -requires no further investigation and no mitigation or management;
 Low Significance -an impact which has little importance and is not sufficient to warrant
further reduction if this involves unreasonable cost.
 Medium Significance -an impact which should be mitigated, if possible, to reduce it to
acceptable levels;
 High significance -an impact which requires extensive mitigation and management to reduce
impacts to acceptable levels.
 Negative impacts with high significance that cannot be mitigated would typically be a cause
of key concern in the decision-making process.

The presentation of the predictions and evaluations of the environmental and socio-economic
impacts (or changes) follows the basic format employed for the identification of the possible
impacts. Accordingly, the prediction of changes caused by the project activities and the evaluation
of their significance are presented for each component of the project and the different phases or
stages in the implementation of each component. The level of significance using the above

~ 74 ~
measures is provided for each phase of the project component in relation to the impacts on the
various receptors and the parameters that are changed by the activities of the particular phase. The
results of the predicted changes and the measure of their corresponding significance are presented
in matrix form for each of the activities of the different phases of the components of the project.

~ 75 ~
Table 7.2: Matrix Showing Prediction and Evaluation of Significance for environmental and socio economic Impacts during construction phase of the project
Impacts on Environmental and Socio-economic Receptors Adverse/ Significance Criteria Level of
beneficial Likelihood/ Spatial Duration Magnitude Reversibility Significance
Activity
probability of Extent
occurrence
1. Land and Soil degradation
 Landscape Change Adverse High Local Long Low Irreversible Low
 Soil erosion and land degradation Adverse High Local Short Low Reversible Low
2. Air Pollution
 Dust and particulate matter Adverse High Local Short Low Reversible Low
 odors X X X X X X X
3. Water
 Depletion of water resource X X X X X X X
Bio-Physical

 Change in ground water quality X X X X X X X


 Water loses X X X X X X X
4. Flora
 loss of and damage to habitats and plant species Adverse Low Local Short Low Reversible Low
5. Pollution
 Pollution from Solid waste X X X X X X X
 Pollution from Liquid waste X X X X X X X
 Contamination and Pollution from various other sources Adverse High Local Long Low Irreversible Low
 Foul water X X X X X X X
 Noise and vibration Adverse High Local Short Low Reversible Low
6. Health Impact
 Health improvement due to better hygiene and sanitation, X X X X X X X
 Reduction in water-borne diseases X X X X X X X
 Health hazards due to water-borne, water washed, water based, X X X X X X X
water associated vector born diseases,
7. Conflicts
 Long-term land requirement for bore holes reservoirs, pipelines, Adverse High Local Long Low Irreversible High
treatment works, cattle trough, water points and other structures and
displacement of people
 Loss of crops, fruit trees and Household Infrastructure and impacts Adverse High Local Short Low Irreversible Low
on livelihoods
Construction Phase

8. Employment
 Job creation
Socio-economic

Beneficial High Local Long High Irreversible High


 Gain of time especially for women X X X X X X X
9. Capacity
 Opportunity for training and capacity building Beneficial High Local Long High Irreversible High
 Increased water cost X X X X X X X

~ 76 ~
Table 7.3: Matrix Showing Prediction and Evaluation of Significance for environmental and socio economic Impacts during Operation phase of the project
Impacts on Environmental and Socio-economic Receptors Adverse/ Significance Criteria Level of
beneficial Likelihood/ Spatial Duration Magnitude Reversibility Significance
Activity probability Extent
of
occurrence
1. Land and Soil degradation
 Landscape Change
 Soil erosion and land degradation Adverse Low Local Long Low Reversible Low
2. Air Pollution
 Dust and particulate matter Adverse Low Local Long Low Reversible Low
 odors Adverse Low Local Long Low Reversible Low
3. Water
 Depletion of water resource Adverse High Local Long High Irreversible High
Bio-Physical

 Change in ground water quality Adverse Low Local Long Low Irreversible Low
 Water loses Adverse High Local Long High Reversible High
4. Flora
 loss of and damage to habitats and plant species X X X X X X X
5. Pollution
 Pollution from Solid waste Adverse High Local Long High Irreversible High
 Pollution from Liquid waste Adverse High Local Long High Irreversible High
 Contamination and Pollution from various other sources Adverse High Local Long High Irreversible High
 Foul water Adverse High Local Long Low Irreversible Low
 Noise and vibration Adverse Low Local Short Low Reversible Low
6. Health Impact
 Health improvement due to better hygiene and Beneficial High Local Long High Irreversible High
sanitation,
 Reduction in water-borne diseases Beneficial High Local Long High Irreversible High
 Health hazards due to water-borne, water washed, Adverse High Local Long High Irreversible High
water based, water associated vector born diseases,
7. Conflicts
 Long-term land requirement for bore holes reservoirs, Adverse High Local Long Low Irreversible High
pipelines, treatment works, cattle trough, water points
and other structures and displacement of people
 Loss of crops, fruit trees and Household Infrastructure X X X X X X X
and impacts on livelihoods
Operation Phase

8. Employment
Socio-economic

 Job creation Beneficial High Local Long High Irreversible High


 Gain of time especially for women Beneficial High Local Long High Irreversible High
9. Capacity
 Opportunity for training and capacity building Beneficial High Local Long High Irreversible High
 Increased water cost Adverse High Local Long High Irreversible High

~ 77 ~
Table 7.4: Matrix Showing Prediction and Evaluation of Significance for environmental and socio economic Impacts during Maintenance and Decommissioning phases of the project
Impacts on Environmental and Socio-economic Receptors Adverse/ Significance Criteria Level of
beneficial Likelihood/ Spatial Duration Magnitude Reversibility Significance
Activity
probability of Extent
occurrence
1. Land and Soil degradation
 Landscape Change X X X X X X X
 Soil erosion and land degradation X X X X X X X
2. Air Pollution
 Dust and particulate matter X X X X X X X
 odors X X X X X X X
3. Water
 Depletion of water resource X X X X X X X
Bio-Physical

 Change in ground water quality X X X X X X X


 Water loses X X X X X X X
4. Flora
 loss of and damage to habitats and plant species X X X X X X X
5. Pollution
 Pollution from Solid waste X X X X X X X
 Pollution from Liquid waste X X X X X X X
 Contamination and Pollution from various other sources X X X X X X X
 Foul water X X X X X X X
 Noise and vibration X X X X X X X
6. Health Impact
 Health improvement due to better hygiene and X X X X X X X
Maintenance and Decommissioning Phases

sanitation,
 Reduction in water-borne diseases X X X X X X X
 Health hazards due to water-borne, water washed, X X X X X X X
water based, water associated vector born diseases,
7. Conflicts
 Long-term land requirement for bore holes reservoirs, X X X X X X X
pipelines, treatment works, cattle trough, water points
and other structures and displacement of people
 Loss of crops, fruit trees and Household Infrastructure X X X X X X X
and impacts on livelihoods
8. Employment
Socio-economic

 Job creation Beneficial high Local Long High Irreversible High


 Gain of time especially for women X X X X X X X
9. Capacity X X X X X X X
 Opportunity for training and capacity building Beneficial high Local Long High Irreversible High
 Increased water cost

~ 78 ~
Significant negative impacts requiring mitigation and significant positive impact requiring
enhancement are identified and evaluated as follows:

Construction Phase Environmental and Social Impacts with high significance include:

 Long-term land requirement for bore holes reservoirs, pipelines, treatment works,
cattle trough, water points and other structures and displacement of people
 Job creation
 Opportunity for training and capacity building

Operation Phase Environmental and Social Impacts with high significance include:

 Depletion of water resource


 Water loses
 Pollution from Solid waste
 Pollution from Liquid waste
 Contamination and Pollution from various other sources
 Health improvement due to better hygiene and sanitation,
 Reduction in water-borne diseases
 Health hazards due to water-borne, water washed, water based, water associated
vector born diseases,
 Long-term land requirement for bore holes reservoirs, pipelines, treatment works,
cattle trough, water points and other structures and displacement of people
 Job creation
 Gain of time especially for women
 Opportunity for training and capacity building
 Increased water cost

Maintenance and Decommissioning Phases Impacts

 Job creation and opportunity for training and capacity building

~ 79 ~
8 Environmental and Social Management Plan

The aim of the environmental and social management plan (ESMP) is to ensure that any
project activities undertaken are executed in an environmentally sensitive manner to ensure
sustainable development in the long term. The ESMP include mitigation program with
actions to minimize negative environmental impacts during project construction, operation,
maintenance and exit, a compensation program with measures to restore the environment,
a monitoring program to complement and verify environmental behavior of the project, and
a training program to adequately meet human resource needs.

The ESMP has outlined measures to be implemented in order to minimise adverse


environmental degradation associated with the proposed project activities and will serve as
the framework for the Monitoring Plan to ensure that the potential risks identified are
ameliorated. The ESMP will be structured to ensure that the following are addressed:
 Identification of feasible mitigation measures for all potential impacts; minimize the
potential negative impacts associated with the proposed developments and maximize
positive impacts
 Creation of a performance monitoring Plan to determine the efficacy of mitigation
measures in order to introduce corrective actions where necessary and to provide the
basis upon which to undertake future audits.
 Develop management actions, responsibilities and timing of actions/interventions,
reporting procedures.
 Capacity building measures

The ESMPs has been divided into project phases i.e. construction; operational, maintenance
and decommissioning, to ensure that specific activities relative to the project phase are
identified and correctly mitigated ensuring compliance with all relevant legislation and
standards. An important aspect of the ESMP is the designation of appropriate roles and
responsibilities throughout the project phases for each identified risk. Mitigation measures
should be made binding on those responsible to execute each of the identified activities.

An ESMP and its proper implementation are key instruments employed to ensure that the
environmental quality of the project area does not deteriorate due to the implementation of
the proposed development project. Environmental management plan lays down the basis
for establishing the environmental behavior and performance that the proposed project
needs to meet during its various stages of implementation including the decommissioning
phase.

The ESMP for the proposed project, therefore, consists of a set of mitigation, monitoring,
auditing and institutional measures to be taken during the various project phases including
the skills and resource necessary for the implementation of the plans to eliminate the
adverse environmental and social impacts identified and predicted in the previous stages,
offset them, or reduce them to acceptable levels. The plan also provides the institutional
arrangement necessary for the proper implementation of the plan and includes the actions
needed to implement these measures and an estimate of the associated costs.

The ESMP identifies feasible and cost-effective measures that will reduce potentially
significant adverse environmental impacts to acceptable level. The plan also includes
compensatory measures if mitigation measures are not feasible, cost effective, or sufficient.
The essential elements of these plans are summarized below.

~ 80 ~
8.1 Mitigation Measure/Mitigation Plan

The mitigation plan covers all aspects of the construction, operation, maintenance and
decommissioning phases related to the project. The mitigation plan contains mitigation
commitments for the proposed project. It covers implementation of mitigation measures to
ensure the efficacy of the mitigation techniques. The mitigation needs to be implemented
right from the beginning and should continue till the end. Implementation of the
environmental and social mitigation measures is the most important task of ESMP.

Mitigation is the design and execution of measures and activities aimed at reducing the
significant impacts resulting from the implementation of the proposed project. Mitigation aims
at restoring one or more environmental components to pre-impact quality. In the event that
this is not possible, mitigation actions seeks to reduce the induced negative environmental
and social impacts to acceptable levels. Compensatory measures are also included in the
mitigation measures and plan to produce positive alternative effects to match identified
adverse effects; and are implemented only in areas where significant adverse impacts
cannot be mitigated.

Mitigation measures that need to be taken are specified mainly for the construction and
operation phases of the WSS project. The necessary measures are specified for the
protection of the air quality, water resources, soil, landscape, socio-economic conditions and
other conditions such as noise and vibrations. What follow are the main measures necessary
to protect the receptors of the impact induced by the activities of the project during the
different phases of the project. All the costs for mitigation are included in the construction
costs.

Air Quality

No mitigation measures are required during construction phase of the project as the impact
of the activities during this phase will not cause any significant negative impact on the air
quality. The measures necessary to maintain air quality during the construction phase are
essentially routine and regular actions that ensure that the dust does not rise above the
minimum levels set by the national and international standards. These actions include
routine watering of the exposed parts of the construction site and haul roads, minimizing
earth moving activities, fitting construction equipment with standard emission control devices
and using appropriate and secure cover on vehicles transporting materials that have the
potential of generating dust. The mitigation measures necessary during the operation phase
to protect air quality include the above measures plus capturing of gas from solid and liquid
waste disposal sites.

Water Resources

Mitigation measures against increased levels of suspended solids in the surface water and
prevention or minimization of seepage during the construction phase are necessary. The
main measures that are required during this phase are those that minimize run-off, prevent
seepage, safe storage of fuel, oil and other chemicals, proper handling and treatment of
domestic waste, good site management and continuously carrying out reinstatement and re-
vegetation of the affect areas. Through monthly monitoring of the water quality and ensuring
the above are implemented adverse impacts on the water quality can be prevented or
minimized to acceptable levels. Mitigation measure during operational phase to reduce the
impacts of groundwater lowering is creating a good data base on water abstracted and on
the recharge amount.

~ 81 ~
Soil

The measures required to safeguard the soil are the prevention or minimization of
contamination through the deposition of particulates and gaseous substances and erosion.
Mitigation measures recommended for the maintenance of air quality during the construction
phase are equally applicable for the protection of the soil. In addition, top soil removed
during construction should be stored separately for further use as appropriate.

Landscape

Disturbances to the landscape can occur at offsite areas that may be used for obtaining
construction materials during the construction phase of the project. Mitigation measures for
this include avoiding sensitive locations, strict operational control and restoration of the
disturbed areas. The measures necessary to preserve the landscape mainly depend on the
design and implementation of the WSS and associated activities to minimize changes to the
landscape. Mitigation measures will also include erosion control measures. Developing a
green belt zone around the project component site will enhance the maintenance of the
landscape.

Waste

Substantial solid waste is created during the construction phase of the project. As the
amount of waste generated during the construction phase will exceed the amount required
for backfilling, waste dumps site(s) will be required. Proper selection, design and
construction of the waste dump sites will avoid any potential instability and ensure the
possible utilization of the material for other restoration purposes.

Socio-economic conditions

Negative impacts on the socio-economic conditions within the area are expected to result
mainly from the influx of workforce during the construction phase of the project and people
attracted by the facility during the operation phase. This will create pressures on the
environment and public social services such as schools and health facilities. Careful
planning for the required amenities (housing, water supply, schools, community centers,
domestic fuels etc), continuous public health education for the workers and an efficient
waste management system are some of the mitigation measures that can be employed.
Accordingly, priority to local and displaced people in the recruitment of workers and training
young persons for gainful employment will contribute to the amelioration of some of the
negative impacts on the social and economic conditions of the project area and gain the
goodwill of the local people and other newly employed members of the workforce.

Mitigation measures for other Impacts

During the construction and operation phase, there will be other impacts that, if no mitigation
measures are taken, will have negative impacts on the environment, the workforce and the
community. These are mainly noise and ground vibrations, two impacts that cannot be
completely avoided. The measures required for the mitigation of these impacts include
selection of equipment that do not produce heavy noise that is in excess of the level set by
the national standard, use of appropriate protective gear by the personnel, limiting the hours
and scheduling noisy/vibratory equipment in such a way that the least disruption would
occur. Selection of any residential spaces and resettlement locations should take into
account the noise generated by activities. Other mitigation measures include use of sound
absorbing materials, setting up acoustic barriers, and damping and isolation of vibrations. All

~ 82 ~
noise control measures have to be designed to meet the limits set by the relevant Ethiopian
standards

Matrix used for mitigation measures and the implementation schedule is presented in the
table 8.1.

8.2 Compensation for loss of property and other incomes

During the present task the consultant did not come across any individual or a group that are
entitled for compensation. It is expected, however, expected that the project will provide
compensation for loss of annual crops, loss of perennial crops and other trees and loss of
buildings and structures. Persons displaced or otherwise affected by the loss of property and
production assets shall be compensated adequately. The amount of compensation should
be computed on the basis of the valuation of assets and loss of income. Identifying, as
clearly as possible, persons and /or households that are entitled to compensation and other
benefits and the types of asset for which they will be compensated, and distinguishing them
from those that are not entitled to any compensation is crucial. On the basis of national laws
and guidelines, eligibility criteria and an entitlement matrix should be drawn up to guide in
the determination of entitlements by persons affected by the implementation of the Project.
On the basis of elaborated methods and procedures computations should be made to arrive
at the compensation amount for the affected people.

8.3 Social and Community Plan

The members of the community who are not necessarily entitled to direct compensation are
also affected, directly or indirectly, by the activities of the project through increased hazards
to humans and livestock, pressures on the social services, and loss of access to natural
resources. Commensurate, but not direct, compensation can be provided to all members of
the community to mitigate such impacts. Development projects in such areas as clean
water supply points and cattle trough can be implemented so as to benefit the entire
community that live in the vicinity of the project area and even beyond. These costs are
included in the project feasibility study.

8.4 Monitoring Plans

The Monitoring Plan contains the monitoring commitments of the proposed project. The
success of environmental control and mitigation measures can only be understood by
proper monitoring of the state of the environmental parameters that may affected by the
impact produced by the activities of the project. A detail monitoring for different
environmental parameters has been carried out as per the EPA and international
standards. The monitoring plan covers all aspects of the construction and operation phases
and identifies the parameter to be monitored, the monitoring party or agency, schedule of
monitoring, frequency and reporting and the corresponding costs. The schedule for
monitoring plan/program should set up so that it will be simple to operate and provide data
that can be utilized by the project promoter. All monitoring report will be submitted to the
competent authority.

Ongoing inspections and maintenance ensure that any identified problems are addressed
and that the end-use design is properly implemented. Monitoring parameters will be
determined based upon the receiving environment, the issues identified during the site visit
and recommendations made by the specialists during their assessments. The monitoring

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program should be objective-orientated to ensure that the correct data is collected. Objective
orientated monitoring programs include, but are not limited to, the following:
 Background monitoring is essential to evaluate the impact of a specific
action/pollution source on the surrounding environment.
 Source monitoring of contamination to evaluate the impact thereof as well as to
evaluate the effectiveness of remedial actions.
 Impact monitoring to determine the possible impacts of contaminated environmental
receptor (eg. soil and groundwater) on sensitive ecosystems or other receptors.
These monitoring points are also installed as early warning systems for
contamination break-through at areas of concern.
The costs for monitoring are estimated to be about 65,000 birr per year.
Matrix used for Monitoring Plans and the implementation schedule is presented in the table
8.1.

8.5 Auditing Plans

Environmental auditing is an essential management tool to measure overall performance of


the environmental management processes. Auditing is an instrument that enables
measurement of the effectiveness of proposed measures, the environmental behavior of
the proposed project and action needed to adjust to environmental requirements.
Environmental auditing compares the actual performance records of the project by
evaluating such records and systems against a set of predetermined standards and
establishes compliance with the legislation and relevant regulations. An effective cycle of
audit planning, execution and implementation of the audit recommendation will be a major
contributor to continuous improvement. The environmental audit plan identifies the issues
for audit, defines the audit function, identifies the auditing party, sets the schedule and
reporting and estimates the cost of the auditing (a tabular summary of the general
environmental audit is given in table 8.1. The cost of auditing by independent consultant is
estimated to be about 130,000 birr every two years.

Environmental compliance audits have to be carried out during the construction and
operation of all project components. The audits shall be made twice per year during the
entire operation of the project by an independent environmental consultant.

After three years the audits shall be carried out by the environmental monitoring unit of the
project itself. Spot checks shall be carried out by an independent environmental consultant
every two years. The audit shall check the realization of the proposed mitigation measures
and the compliance of the relevant environmental standards.

8.6 Capacity building measures and training

The successful and effective implementation of the environmental management plans and
programs would require personnel with the necessary knowledge, skill and dedication.
These attributes of the required personnel can be developed through continuous training
and sharing of experiences. The project needs to identify, plan, monitor, and record training
needs for personnel with the recognition of the fact that the work of these personnel likely to
have a significant adverse impact upon the environment or social conditions. The basic
training must be provided before the commencement of operations of the project.

Personnel dealing with the implementation of environmental management strategies should


remain up to date with the environmental management processes. Employees in charge of
environmental control should attend suitable training courses in order to acquire adequate

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knowledge concerning environmental issues and the impacts associated with various
activities of the project.

The ESMP should identify, plan, monitor, and record training needs for personnel whose
work place may likely have a significant adverse impact upon the environment or social
conditions. The project should recognize the need that employees at each relevant function
and level are aware of the project’s environmental and social policy, potential impacts of
their activities, and roles and responsibilities in achieving conformance with the policy and
procedures. This will be achieved through normal training process. Employees training will
include awareness and competency with respect to environmental and social impacts, that
could potentially arise from their activities; necessity of conforming to requirements of the
ESIA and ESMP, in order to avoid or reduce those impacts, and roles and responsibilities to
achieve that conformity, including with regard to change management and emergency
response. Costs for standard environmental awareness and safety training courses have
been estimated to be 20,000 birr per year for two trainees.

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Table 8.1 Environmental and Social Impact Management Plan
Project Activity Potential Issues/ Impacts Mitigation Monitoring Auditing

Mitigation measures Mitigation Responsible Cost Tools/indicators schedule Responsible Cost Schedule Responsible Cost
schedule Party Party Party

Project Activity 1:  Waste material extracted  Application of Environmental  Construction  Contractors  Cost of  Visual  Construction  Town Water  Cost of  Every two  Independent  10,000
Construction and from the well or waste Guidelines for Construction phase under mitigations is inspection of and operation Board monitoring years consultants ETB
operation of new drilling cuttings and drilling Contractors (Annex 3) supervision by included in well site phases  Water testing (water every
wells to be drilled mud (boreholes)  Dispose of drilling cuttings implementing construction  Drilling works by the Federal testing): two
 Ground water extracted from drilled wells in agency contracts supervision Ministry of Birr 5,000 years
contamination at operation appropriate dumping area  Town Water  Contractor Water per year
phase by infiltration from  Drilling mud to be recycled in the Boards compliance with Resources during
the surface hole during drilling from a mud pit guidelines on operations
per usual drilling practice, drilling fluids and
 After completion of drilling, drilling mud
mud to be disposed of in  Distance
authorized landfills between wells
 Proper siting of the well to avoid and closest
infiltration of waste water, latrine
avoidance of low points,  Absence of
avoidance of sites with poor stagnant water
drainage, or prone to water  E. Coli lower
retention or floods; than WHO
 location of the well at a safe guideline
distance from: latrines, cattle  Report of
pens, refuse pits, soak pits, chlorination
trenches and sub-surface sewage  Site inspection
disposal, cesspools; sanitary land  Absence of
fill areas, and graves; stagnant water
 Fencing of the surroundings of the and general
well to avoid undesirable activities housekeeping at
around the well well site
 Drainage of the immediate
surroundings of the water well to
avoid infiltration of contaminated
water
 Construction of properly designed
and water tight well head and
proper sealing of pump to well
head
 Avoidance of any leak above-
ground at the well-head
 Well-head and its surroundings to
be cleaned and cleared during
operation.
 Ensure reliable operation and
maintenance of the well
 Periodic monitoring of human
activities near/at the well to
ensure they do not contribute to
contamination
 Plant shrubs and grasses to
prevent contamination of well
water

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Project Activity Potential Issues/ Impacts Mitigation Monitoring Auditing

Mitigation measures Mitigation Responsible Cost Tools/indicators schedule Responsible Cost Schedule Responsible Cost
schedule Party Party Party

Project Activity 2:  erosion and soil  Application of Environmental  Construction  Construction  Cost of  Compliance  Construction  Water Board Birr 5,000 Every two  Independent  10,000
Construction and degradation where there Guidelines for Construction and operation contractor mitigations with speed phase  Construction per year years consultants ETB
Operation (use) of is earthmoving Contractors phases included in limits Contractors every
Access Roads  Loss of flora and fauna construction  Numbers of two
(vegetation clearing) contract(s) traffic incidents years
 Pollution from dust and involving third
particulate matter parties or not -
reported
monthly
Project Activity 3:  Land needs: Long-term  Avoidance through resiting/  Construction  Construction  Cost of  Number of  Construction  Water Board Birr 5,000 Every two  Independent  10,000
Construction of Land acquisition rerouting of any impact on phases Contractors mitigations dwellings phase  Construction per year years consultants ETB
water supply requirements for bore inhabited dwellings or structures included in affected, Contractors every
systems holes location, reservoirs, used for commercial activities or construction  number of two
(Reservoir, pipelines, treatment other businesses contract(s) dwellings years
distribution line and works, cattle trough, water  Cash compensation of avoided
water points) points and other developments or crops affected  Cash
structures, displacement by project land requirements compensation
of the local/indigenous  Land replacement if land taken by actually paid
community within the the project is significant enough to  Land
catchment area, impacts affected users' livelihood replacement
on livelihoods due to loss  Monitoring of how affected people actually
of crops, fruit trees and restore their livelihood after being effected
household infrastructure compensated  Livelihood
 Landscape Change  Measures to reduce the extent of monitoring
 Soil erosion and land conflicts, e.g. training, information, through income
degradation and strengthening of institutions, survey
 Dust and particulate should be carefully considered
matter before implementation.
 loss of and damage to
habitats and plant species
 Excavation waste
 Noise and vibration
 Job creation

Project Activity 4:  Depletion of water  Proper water shed management  Operation Water Board  Cost of  List or  Operation  Water Board Birr 5,000 Every two  Independent  10,000
Operation of the resource to enhance water infilteration Phases mitigations communities Phase per year years consultants ETB
Water Supply  Change in ground water  Identification of water users ahead included in using water every
(water abstraction, quality of sub-project design construction downstream two
treatment and  Water loses  Consultation with groups of water contract(s)  Records of years
distribution)  Water shortage users during sub- project design consultation
 Contamination and  Involvement of local authorities at with
Pollution an adequate level and mediation neighbouring
 Foul water in view of reaching a formal users
 Health improvement due agreement, that may include  Records of
to better hygiene and  use of leak detectors on pipes consultation
sanitation, where the pressure is low, with local
 Reduction in water-borne quantitative determination of authorities
diseases water losses from intermittent  Records of
 Health hazards due to water supplies, execution of compensation
water-borne, water measurements by district payment or of
washed, water based, metering to determine water community

~ 87 ~
Project Activity Potential Issues/ Impacts Mitigation Monitoring Auditing

Mitigation measures Mitigation Responsible Cost Tools/indicators schedule Responsible Cost Schedule Responsible Cost
schedule Party Party Party

water associated vector losses in distribution districts only compensation


born diseases, sparsely equipped with gate effected
 Job creation valves and hydrants);  Access of
 Gain of time especially for  introduction of appropriate vulnerable
women measuring and monitoring people to water
 Opportunity for training systems and pipe network (survey of
and capacity building in improvements (e.g. installation of water users)
the town; essential gate valves) to allow a  Records of
 Increased water cost; constant watch to be kept on awareness
Water will have to be paid water consumption, water waste, and/or training
for, which may be illegal extraction of water, and sessions
detrimental to the poorest water losses by monitoring the
in the town supply being fed to distribution
districts and the pressure within
the districts and to check the
effectiveness of improvements to
the pipe network (reductions in
water losses, etc.);
 monitoring of the incidence of
defects in the distribution districts
in the urban water supply system;
 establishment of priorities for the
permanent upgrading of the
distribution system in the urban
water supply system (early
detection and repair of defects
and rehabilitation or replacement
of sections of the pipe network
where there is evidence of a high
incidence of defects etc.);
 improvement of the standard of
materials used and the standard
of the laying work in the
distribution system;
 introduction of a continuous water
supply (meaning adequate 24-
hour pressure in the pipe network)
once the distribution system has
been upgraded;
 monitoring of the bacteriological
quality of the water (e.g. for
excess chlorine) at the consumer
connections/stand pipes.
 Town water board to decide on
water tariffs, including (if needed)
specific rules applying to the
poorest
 Town water board to be provided
guidance on how to determine
water tariffs
 Collect and sent refuse to a single
treatment facility to be incinerated,

~ 88 ~
Project Activity Potential Issues/ Impacts Mitigation Monitoring Auditing

Mitigation measures Mitigation Responsible Cost Tools/indicators schedule Responsible Cost Schedule Responsible Cost
schedule Party Party Party

detoxified, chemically neutralized


or solidified. Sewage treatment
plants should also be
materialized.
 Implement periodic control of
water quality in the water wells
and at points of consumption
Project Activity 5:  Health impact due to  Selection and construction of  Construction  Municipality  Cost of  Constructed  Construction Municipality Birr 5,000 Every two  Independent  10,000
Construction of indiscriminate disposal of appropriate solid waste dumping phase and mitigations proper waste phase  Construction per year years consultants ETB
solid waste solid waste in the town site Construction included in dumping site at Contractors every
disposal site contractors construction appropriate two
contract(s) location years

Project Activity 6:  The generated waste is  Create appropriate waste  Operation  Municipality  Cost of  Clean Bule-  Operation  Municipality Birr 5,000 Every two  Independent  10,000
Operation of solid not collected, transported collection, transportation and phase mitigations Hora phase per year years consultants ETB
waste management and disposed disposal system. included in every
(Collection, construction two
Transportation and contract(s) years
disposal)

Project Activity 7:  Impact of latrines and  Avoidance of latrines where  Construction  Municipality  Cost of Construction Municipality Birr 5,000 Every two  Independent  10,000
Construction of other individual sanitation highest groundwater level is less phase and mitigations phase  Construction per year years consultants ETB
latrines systems on groundwater than 2 meters under the bottom of Construction included in Contractors every
in situations where water latrine pits or infiltration pits contractors construction two
level is shallow  Siting of latrines at more than 50 contract(s) years
meters distance of any
groundwater well, public or private

Project Activity 8:  Poor operation of the  Use of competing private  Operation  Municipality  Cost of Operation Municipality Birr 5,000 Every two  Independent  10,000
Operation of emptying services, with operators with trained personnel phase mitigations phase per year years consultants ETB
latrines associated health hazards charging an affordable price for included in every
adequate quality service construction two
 Control of discharges by emptying contract(s) years
operators with fines according to
Ethiopian law for any violation
Project Activity 9:  footprint of trenches and  Application of the general  Construction  Municipality  Cost of Construction Municipality Birr 5,000 Every two  Independent  10,000
Construction of staging areas Environmental Guidelines for phase and mitigations phase  Construction per year years consultants ETB
new sewerage  Land acquisition Construction Contractors Construction included in Contractors every
lines  Pollution problems contractors construction two
contract(s) years

Project Activity 10:  Spillage of waste water  Use of reliable contractors with  Operation  Municipality  Cost of  Operation  Municipality Birr 5,000 Every two  Independent  10,000
Operation of into the environment with trained personnel for any phase mitigations phase per year years consultants ETB
sewerage lines associated health hazards operation on operational sewer included in every
for workers and third lines construction two
parties  Personnel must use PPE contract(s) years
 Third parties kept away from work
site by proper signposting
 Vacuum trucks kept available for
any major intervention on
operational sewer lines

~ 89 ~
Project Activity Potential Issues/ Impacts Mitigation Monitoring Auditing

Mitigation measures Mitigation Responsible Cost Tools/indicators schedule Responsible Cost Schedule Responsible Cost
schedule Party Party Party

Project Activity 11:  Impact of effluent  Application of the general  Construction Municipality  Cost of  Measures of  Construction Municipality Birr 5,000 Every two  Independent  10,000
Construction of discharge on water bodies Environmental Guidelines for phase and mitigations water quality phase  Construction per year years consultants ETB
waste water Construction Contractors Construction included in parameters in Contractors every
treatment plant  Sensitivity analysis of the contractors construction the discharged two
receiving water body. contract(s) effluent as per years
 treatment level design based on Appendix 4 on
World Bank effluent discharge a six-monthly
guidelines basis
 Ecological
monitoring of
the receiving
water body
 Sewerage
system
operator
Project Activity 12:  Impact of effluent  Compliance with maximum  Operation  Sewerage  Birr 70,000    Municipality Birr 5,000 Every two  Independent  10,000
Operation of waste discharge on water bodies effluent discharge values phase system per year per year years consultants ETB
water treatment  Effluent analysis on a six-monthly operator every
plant basis  Municipality two
years

Project Activity 13:    Construction  Construction    Construction Municipality  Birr Every two  Independent  10,000
Construction and and contractors and  Construction 5,000 years consultants ETB
operation of Operation and Operation Contractors per year every
Stormwater Phases Municipality Phases two
drainage line years

~ 90 ~
The overall results of these assessments of the changes and their significance may be summarized
as follows.

 There are no major identified changes with significant impact that are not irreversible or
cannot be mitigated through conscious and principled project implementation and
operational procedures and standards that confirms to the national standards, guidelines
and accepted international standards and best practices.
 The vast majority of the changes are of the types that have low impact, limited in their spatial
and temporal extent and with adverse effects that are reversible.
 The major changes with adverse effects on the physical and biological environment and the
socio-economic conditions occur during the construction and operation phases of the
Project.
 The sources of the major risks to the physical, biological and socio-economic environment
during the operation phase are water pollution and its health impacts. The adverse impact of
these can be reduced to acceptable levels by enforcing compliance with the relevant
standards and guidelines, both national and international. As the sources of pollution and
disposable wastes have been indicated, compliance to the regulatory conditions can be
achieved through good design of the various processes, implementing appropriate mitigation
measures, such as treatment of wastes, continuous monitoring and strict enforcement of the
legal provisions.
 The major adverse socio-economic impacts are land acquisition and damage to household
infrastructure and stress that will result on the social services to the community due to the
expected increase of population of the locality. Both of these impacts are manageable as the
vast majority of the people in the affected community have positive feelings towards the
proposed project and are also willing to resettle provided they get adequate compensation.

~ 91 ~
9 Conclusion and Recommendations

The WSSP has been designed for Bule-Hora town for which water sources, reservoir
locations and distribution lines as well as sanitation systems have been proposed and
presently being partially implemented. Feasibility studies were carried out on the project
previously. The study results concluded that the projects are technically and economically
feasible. The present ESIA study is carried out to assess the feasibility of the projects from
environmental and social perspectives.

Accordingly, the existing environmental and socio-economic situation in the area has been
investigated to identify the data gaps, fill the observed gaps through baseline study which
involved primary and secondary data as well as public consultation methodologies. The land
use and land-cover type in the project area include scattered trees, cropland, grazing land,
urbanized area and degraded land. Both urban and rural areas are characterized by water
scarcity. The proposed sites for the establishment of the WSSP are open fields, some
agricultural, some grazing and some fallow land. There only few indigenous tree species
which could be potentially removed.

On the basis of primary and secondary data assembled, the environmental impacts (positive
and negative) that the proposed project would produce on the physical, biological and social
environment have been assessed. In addition, appropriate and adequate mitigation
measures have been proposed and an environmental management plan is drawn up to
avoid, minimize/reduce, remedy and/or compensate any adverse environmental and social
impacts that may result from the implementation of the project.

Possible positive and negative impacts resulting from the various activities of the project at
different phases have been identified. These include:

1) Construction Phase Environmental and Social Impacts such as:


 Landscape change due to construction of reservoirs, access roads, water,
distribution line, etc.
 Soil erosion and land degradation
 Clearing of vegetation
 Employment generation
 Impacts on public health due to increased dust
 Increased excavation waste
 Destruction of crops, trees and household infrastructure

2) Operation Phase Environmental and Social Impacts such as


 Quantitative depletion of groundwater resources and localised and extensive
lowering of the water table with consequential impacts of water table lowering in
drying up of ecologically important wetlands; reduction in soil moisture content, with
impacts on plant cover (change in the natural and cultivated flora and with
consequential effects on the fauna; total depletion of groundwater resources during
sustained dry spells (drying up of wells); drying up of springs and watercourses; and
soil settlement.
 Long-term changes in groundwater quality
 adverse environmental impacts due to treatment of raw water which may arise as a
result of the disposal of sludge and chemicals from stocks held (e.g. disposal of old
stock) and excessively high doses of chemicals (e.g. chlorine).
 adverse environmental impacts due to piped distribution,
 Water pollution

~ 92 ~
 Positive impacts can result from reduction in potential outbreaks of epidemic
infectious water-borne diseases such as dysenteria, cholera and others and better
domestic hygiene.
 Negative impacts resulting from increase in malaria due to risks of development of
standing water which forms the breeding ground of disease causing organisms like
mosquito if water gets impound, water logging if no draining techniques are installed,
health hazards associated with inappropriate siting of sanitation systems in relation to
water supply systems, health hazards associated with unreliable emptying services
and odor and sludge deposition.
 Soil erosion and land degradation as a result of planned cattle trough and water
points which ensue as a consequence of the strain on the vegetation cover due to
grazing and trampling by animals and humans.
 Employment generation during construction and operation phases and as a result of
gain of time, especially for women and girls that may be used for other productive
activities, and resulting gains in overall economic productivity.
 User conflicts and other impacts for the community
 Capacity building and training in the town, and resulting enhancement of
organizational, financial and technical capacities of the town.
 Envisaged increase in price of water.

3. Maintenance and decommissioning phase environmental and social impacts could result
in employment generation for skilled workers

The design in the feasibility study incorporate all processes and equipments to run the
system and the present ESIA study has proposed appropriate mitigation methods for
negative impacts and proposed measures to enhance positive impacts.

In general, the assessment results indicate that environmental and social impacts during the
different phases will not pose any adverse impacts so far as the suggested mitigation
measures are implemented.

After a careful review of the existing studies with respect to the chosen technology and
design and with respect to the existing and generated environmental baseline data, the
consultant comes to the conclusion that it is possible to mitigate most of the environmental
and socio economic impacts which emerge due to the implementation of the proposed
projects at about 150,000 birr per annum running cost. Therefore, this project will be
environmentally and socio economically feasible provided:
 All mitigation measures, monitoring plan, auditing framework are strictly followed.
 The project proponent adopts stringent code of conduct for environmental protection

Finally, comparing the overall negative impact of the project with the current water supply
and Sanitation need of the town, it is recommended that the project be implemented as it
has positive spin-off effect that could possibly improve the lives of many of the town
residents. Furthermore, implementation of this WSS project is in line with and supports the
government effort in achieving Millennium development goals.

~ 93 ~
10 References

A Decentralized and Integrated Sanitation Risk Control System in Addis Ababa:


principles, strategies and constraints (1997). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Addis Ababa city cleansing management agency 2011 Integrated solid waste management
plan
Addis Ababa Development and Integrated Project Office (AADIPO) (2002): Urban
Infrastructure Provision and Management Study. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Bahir Dar City Administration and Dream Light Solis Waste Management plc.
January, 2011 The new waste management approach in Bahir Dar
Cripps, K. 1992. Survey of the Point Sources of Industrial Pollution entering the port
waters of Suva. Ports Authority of Fiji, Suva, Fiji.
CSA (2008): Population and Housing census. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
CSA 2004. Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey 2004.
Government of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.
Draft Industrial Environmental Policy and Strategy,
Draft Industrial Pollution Prevention and Control Regulation,
Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation (Proclamation No. 299/2002),
Environmental policy of Ethiopia (1997)
Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation (Proclamation No. 300/2002),
Environmental Protection Organs Establishment Proclamation (Proclamation No. 295/2002),
EPA (Environmental Protection Authority), 1997. The Conservation Strategy of
Ethiopia, Vol. II and IV. Environmental Policy. Environmental Protection Authority,
Addis Ababa.
Feacham. R.G., Bradley, D.J., Garelick, H. and Mara, D.D. 1989. Sanitation and
Disease: Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management. John Wiley
and Sons, New York.
Feasibility study & Preliminary Deign Report of BULE- Hora Water supply and
sanitation project
Feasibility study &Draft Deign Report of Dire Dawa Solid Waste Management system
Leo Heijboer 2009: The Construction Of Sanitary Landfill Of Adama City, Oromyia
National Regional State
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa Water and Sewerage
Authority, Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Project, Environmental and Social
Management Framework (Draft), February, 2007, Addis Ababa
Master plan study
Metaferia Consulting Engineers (2006): Liquid waste management for Gondar City
Metaferia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Oromia National Reginal Government, Oromia Urban Planning Institute, An Over View
Of Bule-Hora Physical Features And Socio-Economic Activities and Master Plan,
2008.
Poyry 2011 Implementing PPPs For Municipal Solid Waste Management Services In
Addis Ababa City
Poyry 2011 PHASE II – Development of the new sanitary landfill in Sendafa
Poyry 2011 PHASE III – Sectoral evaluation and Solid Waste Management Strategy
Poyry 2011 Preliminary Environmental and Social Impact Assessment and Terms of
Reference for Detailed Environmental and Social Impact Assessment and
Environmental and Social Management Plan
Proc No. 455-2005 Expropriation of land holdings for Public
Solid waste management proclamation, 2007

~ 94 ~
The World Bank Operational Manual Bank Procedures Environmental Assessment BP 4.01
January 1999
The World Bank Operational Manuel Bank Procedures Environmental Assessment BP 4.01
Annex A January 1999
UNEP 2004 Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan, Training Manual,
Volume 4, ISWM Plan,Osaka/Shiga, Japan
UNEP 2004 Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management: A practical guide for
decision-makers and professionals on how to plan, design, and finance appropriate
and environmentally sound municipal wastewater discharge systems. Version 3
UV & P (2004): Comprehensive Study for development and step-by-step
implementation of Sustainable Waste Management in Addis Ababa.
Water Resource Management policy
የየየየ የየየየ የየየየየየየየ የየየየየ (የየየየ 2የየ3) የየየየየ የየየ (2003-2007) የየየየ
የየየየ የየየየ የየየ የየየየየ የየ.የ.የ.የ.የየ, የየየ የየየ

~ 95 ~
11 Annexes

Annex 1: Checklist for document review

Baseline Data

Water Supply
1. What are the sources of the present water supply? When was it constructed?
 Hand dug wells,
 protected springs,
 Boreholes,
 River
 Dam
 Water harvesting
2. What criteria were used to select the water project site?
 Who made the selection?
 Do you think this site is the right site for the project? Why or Why not?
 If not, where do you think it should be located?
3. Production capacity?
4. Reservoir number, location, capacity and year of construction?
5. Distribution line in Km?
6. How many Water points, where?
7. How many water meters?
 Residence
 Commerce
 Industry
 Etc
8. Water Tariff?
9. Consumption?
 Domestic
 Commercial
 Public & governmental organizations
 Industries, etc.
10. Reason for water deficit? Water surplus?
11. Major water supply problems
 Water loss? How much? Reason?
 Siltation? Why?
 Source depletion? When?
 Quality problem? Chemical? Bacteriological?
 Pressure?
 Distribution line problem?
12. Major initiatives in improving water supply?

Sanitation

1. Solid Waste
 Major waste types
 Where in the town is the major source of waste/Waste generation
 Waste collection method
 Waste transporting methods, vehicles, number, starting date
 Waste disposal site

2. Liquid Waste
 How is the liquid waste managed?
 Sewerage lines, length?
 Major problems?
 Public toilet, presence, number, distribution, adequency, where most used, polluting potential, etc.?
 Plan to construct more?

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Annex 2: Questionnaire Checklist for identification of Environmental and Social Impacts of the Water
Supply and Sanitation project, to be used for FGD, Field Observation and Interview

Environmental Impact

Land
 Will the project cause landscape change? Yes No Not known
 Will the project cause disturbance to and erosion of topsoil and siltation created by earthmoving works
and heavy vehicle traffic at construction phase? Yes No Not known
 Are there cases of soil erosion in the watershed area that may adversely impact the project by reducing
the water quality, reduce the recharging of groundwater sources, cause siltation, etc.? If so, has the
project taken this into consideration and planned/suggested erosion prevention measures in the
watershed area? Yes No Not known (Describe sensitivity to erosion, subsidence and slide,
extent of erosion already taking place on site)
 Will the project cause Land degradation during the process of water supply lines’ installation, Yes No
Not known
 Can an area around water points suffer erosion due to strain on the vegetation cover caused by
trampling of humans and animals and increased grazing? Yes No Not known
 Are there areas of possible geologic or soil instability (prone to: soil erosion, landslide, subsidence,
earthquake etc)? Yes No Not known
 Are there areas that have risks of large scale increase in soil salinity? Yes No
Not known
 Are there areas prone to floods, poorly drained, low-lying, or in a depression or block run-off water. Yes
No Not known (Description of present drainage conditions on site (site
topography, infiltration capacity of soil), risks of water retention (site in a low point), feasibility of simple
drainage improvements to eliminate water retention problems).

Air and Climate


 Are there risks of air pollution, dust emission, particulate matter, odors, etc due to the project activities?
Yes No Not known

Water

1.1 Surface water


Describe the water course in the surroundings of the site:
 Nature (river, stream, spring, lake)
 Distance to site
 Downstream/upstream the site
 Is there disturbances to existing water flow regimes in rivers, streams and other natural channels. Yes
No Not known. Could they be maintained and/or re-established where
they are disrupted due to works being carried out. Yes No Not known
 Is there occurrence of standing water in holes, trenches, borrow areas, etc… ? Yes No
Not known. Could these be avoided or minimized? Yes No Not known
 Is there a possibility that, due to construction and operation of the WSSP, the river and lake ecology will
be adversely affected? Yes No Not known. Attention should be paid to
water quality and quantity; the nature, productivity and use of aquatic habitats, and potential variations
of these over time. Yes No Not known
 Will dams of such size be built that large areas containing settlements, agriculture, conservation-worthy
fauna and flora, beautiful and valuable landscapes, and cultural relics will be covered by water? Yes
No Not known
 Will inundation cause substantial changes to the water flow downstream? Yes No Not known

3.2 Ground water


 Is the project planned on the basis of adequate data on the volume and condition of the water
resources? Yes No Not known (Describe Type of aquifer (continuous, fracture),depth of aquifer,
seasonal fluctuations, Known quality problems).

 3.3 Water use
 Will the Project lead to excessive exploitation of water resources, e.g. the groundwater sources and
surface water sources? Yes No Not known
 Has for instance a hydrological mapping of the area which describes the capacity of the grou ndwater
aquifer and the depth of the groundwater table been implemented? Yes No Not known
 Is it certain that the extraction rate of surface and groundwater does not exceed the natural
replenishment of the resource? Yes No Not known

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 Is there a risk that extraction of groundwater may lead to the intrusion of pollutants from the nearby area
and thereby reduce the quality of water? Yes No Not known
 Is the project area especially vulnerable to the impacts of a lowered groundwater table? Yes No
Not known
 Will extraction of water from surface sources, for instance a river, cause a reduced water flow
downstream with impacts on the ecology and utilisation of the watercourse? Yes No Not known
 Will extraction from surface sources cause reduced recharging of the groundw ater in the area or in any
other manner substantially affect the hydrological cycle? Yes No Not known
 Are there existing or planned activities in the area/watershed area which may affect the water resources
and thereby alter the preconditions for the project? Yes No Not known
 Have the possibilities for reuse/re-circulation of water been investigated and assessed during the project
planning? Yes No Not known

 Flora and Fauna
 Will the project causes loss of flora and fauna due to vegetation clearing, noise and disturbance? Yes
No Not known

Environmentally sensitive areas/ vulnerable ecosystems or threatened species?


 Are there any environmentally sensitive areas or ecosystems which are especially vulnerable or
threatened species that could be adversely affected by the project? Yes No Not known
o Natural forests: Yes No Not known
o Revering Forest: Yes No Not known
o Surface water courses, natural springs: Yes No Not known
o Wetlands (lakes, rivers, swamp, seasonally inundated areas): Yes No Not known
o Area of high biodiversity: Yes No Not known
o Habitats of endangered/threatened or rare species for which protection is required under the GEO’s
national law/local law and/or international agreements. Yes No Not known

Protected areas
 Is the project (or parts of it) located within/adjacent to any protected areas designated by the
government (national park, national reserve, world heritage site etc.)? Yes No Not known
 If the project is outside of, but close to, any protected area, is it likely to adversely affect the ecology
within the protected areas (e.g. interference with the migration routes of mammals or birds, etc.) Yes
No Not known

Solid or Liquid Wastes


 Will the project generate solid or liquid wastes? (including human excreta/sewage, hospital waste,
Construction wastes) Yes No Not known
 If “Yes”, does the project include a plan for their adequate collection and disposal? Yes No Not
known

Contamination and Pollution Hazards

9.1 Water Pollution


 Will the project Impact the groundwater quality by chemicals contained in the drilling fluids or used oils,
etc? Yes No Not known
 Is there a possibility that the project will be a source of contamination and pollution (from latrines,
dumpsites, industrial discharges etc?) Yes No Not known
 Will the project Cause any construction-generated substance, including bitumen, oils, lubricants and
waste water used or produced during the execution of works? Could these be prevented from entering
into rivers, streams, irrigation channels and other natural water bodies/reservoirs . Yes No Not
known
 Will the wells be adequately secured so that these are not contaminated by people, animals, or activities
in the area? Yes No Not known
 Will periodic control of the water quality in the drinking water wells be implemented? Yes No Not
known
 Can the intended utilised groundwater source contain so much nitrate that it may be a health hazard?
Yes No Not known
 Is the groundwater acidic (low pH) thereby causing corrosion and destruction of water pumps? Yes No
Not known
 Are the intended utilised pumps dependent on grease for maintenance which may contaminate the
drinking water? Yes No Not known
 Will any use of chlorine as disinfectant be implemented cautiously? Yes No Not known

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 Will reduced water flow as a consequence of inundation or substantial extraction of water or dam
construction lead to reduced dilution of pollution in the river and thereby increase the pollution
concentration? Yes No Not known
 Will water extracted from surface sources be sufficiently purified in well-adapted purification units? Yes
No Not known
 Will discharge of wastewater take place in surface water? Yes No Not known
 Will activities within wastewater management and re-circulation of wastewater be based on thorough
assessment of the content of the wastewater, the recipient capacity to receive substances and, in the
case of discharges to soil, the soil's capacity to filter substances? Yes No Not known
 Will activities for discharge of wastewater to surface water sources be based on assessments of existing
pollution? Yes No Not known
 Is there a danger of contamination of groundwater sources from the surroundings, so that it may be
relevant to secure or protect a certain area around the sources to limit the risk of pollution? Yes No
Not known
 Will smell or noise from treatment processes for wastewater and sludge deposition be a problem for the
immediate environment? Yes No Not known

9.2 Noise, dust and vibration Pollution


 Will the project cause Noise, dust and vibration during Construction and Operation phases. Yes No
Not known
 Is there effect of dust on the environment resulting from earth moving, vibrating equipment, construction
related traffic on temporary or existing access roads, etc. Yes No Not known
 Will the project cause high noise levels emanating from machinery, vehicles and noisy construction
activities (e.g. excavation, blasting) and are these comply with Ethiopian standards and are generally
kept at a minimum for the safety, health and protection of workers within the vicinity of high noise levels
and nearby communities. Yes No Not known
 Will the operating noise level from the operation of equipment, machinery etc. exceed the allowable
noise limits? Yes No Not known
 Will the project result in emission of significant amounts of dust or hazardous fumes? Yes No Not
known
 Will the project result in emission of significant amounts of dust or hazardous fumes? Yes No Not
known

Overall Environmental impacts


 Do you think that the water project meet environmental requirements?
o If no, what specific environmental requirements were missed?
o If yes, would you tell us the environmental requirements that the water project fulfills?
 What are the positive effects of the water project on natural resources (flora, fauna, soil, water, air,
climate, etc)?
 Do you think that the positive environmental impacts of the water project are sustainable? If not, what do
you recommend to make the project environmentally sustainable?
 What are the negative effects of the project on natural resources (flora, fauna, soil, water, air, climate,
etc)? (check for land degradation, deforestation, etc because of concentration of people and livestock
around the water points)
 What do you recommend to overcome the adverse effects of the water project on the natural resources?

Socio Economic Impact

Employment
 Will the project lead to Employment? Yes No Not known
 Will the project require large number of staff and laborers? Yes No Not known

Land use land/or Land Acquisition and Resettlement


 Will the project causes land requirements during construction phase (staging areas. access roads,
storage areas, quarry sites) Yes No Not known
 Will the project require a large/long-term construction camp? Yes No Not known
 Will the project compensate for land acquired permanently for Project purposes, compensate for
inconveniences, damage of crops etc. Yes No Not known
 Will involuntary resettlement, land acquisition, relocation of property, or loss, denial or restriction of
access to land and other economic resources be caused by project implementation? Yes No
Not known

Loss of Crops, Fruit Trees and Household Infrastructure


 Will the project result in the permanent or temporary loss of crops, fruit trees and household infra -

~ 99 ~
structure (such as granaries, outside toilets and kitchens, livestock shed etc)? Yes No Not
known

Block of access and routes or disrupt normal operations in the general area
 Will the project interfere or block access, routes etc (for people, livestock and wildlife) or traffic routing
and flows? Yes No Not known

Degradation and/or depletion of resources


 Will the project require construction of access road? Is the location of temporary access roads is done in
consultation with the local community? Upon the completion of civil works, are all temporary access
roads will be ripped and rehabilitated?. Yes No Not known
 Will the operation involve use of considerable amounts of natural resources (construction materials,
water spillage, land, energy, etc.) or may lead to their depletion or degradation at points of source? Yes
No Not known
 Will the project cause formation of any trench, pit, excavation, hole or other hazardous feature?
 Are there impacts on the biophysical environment including protected areas and arable lands; local
communities and their settlements because of quarrying, earth borrowing, pi ling and building of
temporary construction camps and access roads? Could these be prevented and minimized. Could sites
be restored/rehabilitated to acceptable standards? Yes No Not known
 Will the quarries have to be rehabilitated? Yes No Not known

Historical, archaeological or Cultural Heritage Site or conservation worthy landscapes


 Could the WSSP facilities alter any cultural heritage site or require excavation near same? Yes No
Not known
 Will the project causes alteration or destruction of cultural her itage, places of objects of religious
importance, traditional (sacred, ritual area), graves, cemeteries, cultural sites of any kind, including
ancient heritage, relics or anything that might or believed to be of archeological or historical importance
during the execution of works? Yes No Not known
 Will the project affect water resources or other landscape elements of special importance to the scenic
value or affect the local population's sense of belonging to the area? Yes No Not known
 Is there a possibility that the WSSP will adversely affect the aesthetic attractiveness of the local
landscape? Yes No Not known

Public and Occupational Health


 Will the project contribute to an increase in malaria due to an increase in water supply? Yes No
Not known
 Is there a risk of urban water supply systems spreading diseases and causing epidemics due to
inadequate purification units, poor maintenance etc.? Yes No Not known
 Is the risk for spread of water-related diseases assessed before implementation of the project? Yes No
Not known
 Will adequate drainage of well areas be secured to prevent water stagnation? Yes No Not
known
 Will enough water be secured for the purposes of washing of hands and body, laundry, or other
washing? Yes No Not known
 Will wastewater be utilized for irrigation? If so, is the wastewater properly purified prior to such
utilization? Yes No Not known
 Is the risk for work-related accidents during the construction and operational phase reduced to a
minimum? Yes No Not known
 Are the project activities prone to hazards, risks and could result in accidents and injuries to workers
during construction or operation? Yes No Not known
 Could project activities result in accidents and injuries to third parties during construction or operation?
Yes No Not known

Water Use Conflict


 Describe the water use in the vicinity of the site
o Nature of water point
o Distance
o Downstream/upstream
o Type of usage
 Is there potential for conflict between users or other impacts for the community?; Yes No Not
known. If yes, how should this conflict be solved?
 Will the localization of wells and water pumps based on assessments of land tenure and ownership
rights. Yes No Not known
 Will adequate consideration be given to the population's wishes, any traditions, taboos and symbolic

~ 100 ~
values connected to water and sanitation? Yes No Not known
 Can the establishment of water supply for new activities in the area, for instance tourism, create conflicts
with the existing water supply system through competition as regards the same resource? Yes No
Not known
 Is there a risk that increased competition as regards water resources indirectly forces certain population
groups to move from the area to more vulnerable areas? Yes No Not known
 Can conflicts as regards area utilisation ensue due to wastewater trea tment ponds requiring relatively
large areas? Yes No Not known
 Can discharge of wastewater disturb other use of the water resource, for instance fishing, washing,
bathing etc.? Yes No Not known
 Will irrigation be introduced to an area where this previously has not been practiced? Yes No Not
known
 Is there a risk that the water supply may cause an inadvertent migration to the area which may cause
conflicts as regards the usage of water and other natural resources? Yes No Not known
 Is the project based on extensive migration to the area as part of a settlement project? Yes No
Not known
 Can an uncontrolled migration to the area be a consequence of the project? Yes No Not known
 Will measures to reduce social unrest and conflicts between the residents and the imm igrants be given
consideration in the project? Yes No Not known
 Will the project take adequate consideration to traditions, power structures etc. in the area? Yes No
Not known
 The construction of dams may force population groups to move from the area. Will the project ensure
that conditions are made for a relocation of settlements with the least possible conflicts? Yes No
Not known
 Will the project adequately consider the development of institutions, water user organizations and other
types of co-ordination between the local population (users: households, farmers, industry) and local and
central authorities to achieve an environmentally sound management of the water resources? Yes No
Not known
 Will the project cause conflicting water needs with local communities. Yes No Not known
 Did any conflict occur due to the establishment of the water project in the area? If yes, what is the
reason of the conflict? Who were the participants? Is the conflict resolved? If yes, how was the conflict
resolved? (actors involved in conflict resolution, the procedures used, the decisions made) Would you
tell us the costs of the conflict? (in terms of human life and/or loss of property) Do you think that the
conflict resolution bring sustainable peace in the area? If not, why? Wha t measures do you recommend
to realize long lasting peace in the area?

Participation
 Did your community participate in the process of water project development and implementation? If yes,
how did they participate? Did vulnerable social groups (e.g. poor, women, etc) participate? in the
development the water infrastructure? If yes, how did these groups participate? Was the participation
voluntary? To what extent the participation of the community members was useful to the success of the
project?
 Did the local community participate in the consultative planning process during in the identification,
planning, and implementation of the water project? How much the participation of the local community
was important in realizing the desired results? Do you think that the Water office could handle the
consultative process properly? Do you think that the office properly understood the consultative process
itself?
 Do you think that this participation will continue in the future?

Traditional Institutions
 Which traditional institutions and social organizations will be abandoned/ weakened due to the
implementation of the water project? Why?
 Which traditional institutions and social organizations will be strengthened due to the implementation of
the water project? Why?
 What are the key informal rules, norms, values are functional to use and manage the water system?
 What are the key formal rules functional to use and manage the water system?
 Do you think all members of the local community had equal benefit from the water system? If not, which
social group benefited more from the water system? Why? Which social group benefited less (or gained
no benefit) from the water system? Why?
 Which traditional institutions (rules, norms, values) and social organizations (e.g. clan, gadaa system)
were helpful to construct the water infrastructure? How were they helpful?
 Which traditional institutions (rules, norms, values) and social organizations were restrictive to construct
the water infrastructure? How were they restrictive?
 What measures were taken to overcome the restrictive effects of traditional institutions and social

~ 101 ~
organizations on the operation of water system in the area?
 Do you think that the local community is using the water system to the desired level? If not, why not? If
yes, do you think that the community will continue to use the water infrastructure to the extent desired in
the future? If not why not?
 In general, what are the contributions of the water project to the society at large? Do you think that
these benefits are sustainable in the future?

Overall socio-economic impacts


 What are the positive effects of the water project on human health (or safety) and animal health?
 What are the negative effects of the water project on human health (or safety) and animal health?
(check for human and livestock diseases due to pollutions
 What do you recommend to overcome the adverse effects of the water project on the human health and
animal health?
 Do you think that the positive social impacts of the water project are sustainable? If not, what do you
recommend to make the project socially sustainable?

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Annex 3: Environmental Guidelines for Contractors

Contractor(s) hired for civil works would be required to incorporate applicable environmental mitigation measures.
In addition, as applicable, contractors will also adhere to the following guidelines.

General:

1. These general environmental guidelines apply to any work to be undertaken under the Sustainable Tourism
Development Project (STDP). For certain work sites entailing specific environmental and/or social issues, a
specific Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, including an Environmental and Social Management Plan
(ESMP), has been prepared to address the above-mentioned specific issues in addition to these general
environmental guidelines.

In addition to these general Environmental Guidelines, the Contractor shall therefore comply with any specific
ESMP for the works he is responsible for. The Contractor shall be informed by the Client about such an ESMP for
certain work sites, and prepare his work strategy and plan to fully take into account relevant provisions of that
ESMP. If the Contractor fails to implement the approved ESMP after written instruction by the works supervisor to
fulfill his obligation within the requested time, the Client reserves the right to arrange for e xecution of the missing
action by a third party on account of the Contractor.

2. Notwithstanding the Contractor’s obligation under the above clause, the Contractor shall implement all
measures necessary to avoid undesirable adverse environmental and socia l impacts wherever possible, restore
work sites to acceptable standards, and abide by any environmental performance requirements specified in an
ESMP where such an ESMP applies.

3. These Environmental Guidelines, as well as any specific ESMP, apply to the Contractor. They also apply to
any sub-contractors present on Project work sites at the request of the Contractor with permission from the
Client.

General Environmental Protection Measures


4. In general, environmental protection measures to be taken at any work site shall include but not be limited to:

(a) Minimize the effect of dust on the environment resulting from earth mixing sites, vibrating equipment,
construction related traffic on temporary or existing access roads, etc. to ensure safety, healt h and the protection
of workers and communities living in the vicinity of work sites and access roads.

(b) Ensure that noise levels emanating from machinery, vehicles and noisy construction activities (e.g.
excavation, blasting) comply with Ethiopian standards and are generally kept at a minimum for the safety, health
and protection of workers within the vicinity of high noise levels and nearby communities.

(c) Ensure that existing water flow regimes in rivers, streams and other natural or irrigation chan nels are
maintained and/or re-established where they are disrupted due to works being carried out.

(d) Prevent any construction-generated substance, including bitumen, oils, lubricants and waste water used or
produced during the execution of works, from entering into rivers, streams, irrigation channels and other natural
water bodies/reservoirs.

(e) Avoid or minimize the occurrence of standing water in holes, trenches, borrow areas, etc…

(f) Prevent and minimize the impacts of quarrying, earth borrowing, piling and building of temporary construction
camps and access roads on the biophysical environment including protected areas and arable lands; local
communities and their settlements. Restore/rehabilitate all sites to acceptable standards.

(g) Upon discovery of graves, cemeteries, cultural sites of any kind, including ancient heritage, relics or anything
that might or believed to be of archeological or historical importance during the execution of works, immediately
report such findings to the Client so that the Ministry in charge of Culture may be expeditiously contacted for
fulfillment of the measures aimed at protecting such historical or archaeological resources.

In the event that the Contractor encounters chance finds during construction and/or re habilitation activities, he will
contact (a) the Regional Bureau of Culture and Tourism for chance finds encountered at the regional level; and
(b) the Authority of Research, Conservation and Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) for chance finds encountered at the
federal level. Should there be no Regional Bureau of Culture and Tourism, the Contractor will contact the ARCCH
in Addis Ababa directly.

~ 103 ~
(h) Prohibit construction workers from engaging in the exploitation of natural resources such as hunting, fishing,
and collection of forest products or any other activity that might have a negative impact on the social and
economic welfare of the local communities. Prohibit explicitly the transport of any bush meat in Contractor’s
vehicles.

(i) Prohibit the transport of firearms in Project-related vehicles.

(j) Prohibit the transport of third parties in Project-related vehicles.

(k) Implement soil erosion control measures in order to avoid surface run off and prevent siltation, etc.

(l) Ensure that garbage, sanitation and drinking water facilities are provided in construction workers camps.

(m) Ensure that, in as much as possible, local materials are used to avoid importation of foreign material and
long distance transportation.

(n) Ensure public safety, and meet Ethiopian traffic safety requirements for the operation of work to avoid
accidents.

(o) Ensure that any trench, pit, excavation, hole or other hazardous feature is appropriately demarcated and
signposted to prevent third-party intrusion and any safety hazard to third parties.

(p) Comply with Ethiopian speed limits, and for any traffic related with construction at STDP sites, comply with
the following speed limits unless Ethiopian speed limits are lower:
 Inhabited areas: 50 km/h
 Open road: 90 km/h.

(q) Ensure that, where unskilled daily-hired workforce is necessary, such workers are hired from neighboring
communities.

(r) Generally comply with any requirements of Ethiopian law and regulations.

5. Besides the regular inspection of the sites by the supervisor appointed by the Client for adherence to the
Contract conditions and specifications, the Client may appoint an environmental inspector to oversee the
compliance with these environmental conditions and any proposed mitigation measures. State or Regional
Environmental Authorities may carry out similar inspection duties. In all cases, as directed by the Client’s
supervisor, the Contractor shall comply with directives from such inspectors.

Drilling
6. The Contractor will make sure that any drilling fluid, drilling mud, mud additives, and any other chemicals used
for drilling at any STDP construction site complies with Ethiopian health and safety requirements. In general, only
bio-degradable materials will be used. The Contractor may be required to provide the detailed description of the
materials he intends to use for review and approval by the Client. Where chemicals are used, general
prescriptions of the World Bank’s safeguard policy OP 4.09 “Pest Management” shall be complied with.

7. Drilling fluids will be recycled or disposed of in compliance with Ethiopian regulations in an authorized disposal
site. If drilling fluids cannot be disposed of in a practical manner, and if land is available near the drilling site that
is free of any usage rights, the Contractor may be authorized to dispose of drilling fluids near the drilling site. In
this occurrence, the Contractor will be required to provide to the Client due evidence of their total absence of
potential environmental impacts, such as leachate tests certified by an agreed laboratory. In this case, drilling
fluids will be dried at site, mixed with earth and spread at site.

8. Any site affected by drilling work will be restored to its initial condition. This applies to drilling pads, access
roads, staging areas, etc… Topsoil will be stripped ahead of any earthmoving, stored near the construction site,
and replaced in its original location after the recontouring of the area affected by the works.

9. Where successive aquifers are intersected by the drilling works, and upon order by the work supervisor, the
Contractor may be required to take measures to isolate aquifers from contamination by each other.

10. The Contractor will take all measures to avoid bacteriological or chemical contamination of the intersected
aquifers by the drilling equipment. Similarly, the Contractor will take all measures to avoid bacteriological or
chemical contamination of the intersected aquifers from the surface by providing an adequately sealed well -head.

~ 104 ~
11. When greasing drilling equipment, the Contractor will avoid any soil contamination. In the event of a limited
hydrocarbon spill, the Contractor will recover spilled hydrocarbons and contaminated soils in sealed drums and
dispose of them in an authorized waste management facility.

12. Unless duly requested by the Contractor and authorized by the supervisor, no servicing of drilling equipment
or vehicles is permitted at the drilling site.

Pipelines
13. No trench shall be left open for more than 7 days, unless duly authorized by the supervisor upon Contractor’s
request. Trenches and other excavation works shall be demarcated and/or signposted to avoid third party
intrusion.

14. General conditions related with topsoil stripping, storage and restoration apply.

15. The Contractor will take measures to dispose of water used for pressure tests in a manner that does not
affect neighboring settlements.

Waste Management
16. All drums, containers, bags, etc. containing oil/fuel/surfacing materials and other hazardous chemi cals shall
be stored at construction sites on a sealed and/or bonded area in order to contain potential spillage. All waste
containers, litter and any other waste generated during the construction shall be collected and disposed off at
designated disposal sites in line with applicable Ethiopian government waste management laws/regulations.

17. All drainage and effluent from storage areas, workshops, housing quarters and generally from camp sites
shall be captured and treated before being discharged into th e drainage system in line with applicable
government water pollution control regulations.

18. Used oil from maintenance shall be collected, properly stored in sealed containers, and either disposed of
appropriately at designated sites or be re-cycled.

19. Entry of runoff into construction sites, staging areas, camp sites, shall be restricted by constructing diversion
channels or holding structures such as berms, drains, dams, etc. to reduce the potential of soil erosion and water
pollution.

20. Construction waste shall not be left in stockpiles along the road, but removed and reused or disposed of on a
daily basis.

21. Where temporary dump sites for clean excavated material are necessary, they shall be located in areas,
approved by the Client’s supervisor, where they will not result in supplemental erosion. Any compensation related
with the use of such sites shall be settled prior to their use.

22. Areas for temporary storage of hazardous materials such as contaminated liquid and solid materials shall b e
approved by the supervisor and appropriate local and/or relevant national or local authorities before the
commencement of work. Disposal of such waste shall be in existing, approved sites.

Quarries and Borrow Areas


23. The Contractor shall obtain appropriate licenses/permits from relevant authorities to operate quarries or
borrow areas. The location of quarries and borrow areas shall be subject to review and approval by relevant local
and national authorities.

24. New extraction sites:

a) Shall not be located less than 1km from settlement areas, archaeological areas, cultural sites – including
churches and cemeteries, wetlands or any other valued ecosystem component, or on high or steep ground.

b) Shall not be located in water bodies, or adjacent to them, as well as to springs, wells, well fields.

c) Shall not be located in or near forest reserves, natural habitats or national parks.

d) Shall be designed and operated in the perspective of an easy and effective rehabilitation. Areas with minimal
vegetation cover such as flat and bare ground, or areas covered with grass only or covered with shrubs less than
1.5m in height, are preferred.

e) Shall have clearly demarcated and marked boundaries to minimize vegetation clearing and safety hazards for
third parties.

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25. Vegetation clearing shall be restricted to the area required for safe operation of construction work. Vegetation
clearing shall not be done more than two months in advance of operations.

26. Stockpile areas shall be located in areas where trees or other natural obstacles can act as buffers to prevent
dust pollution, and generally at a distance from human settlements. Wind shall be taken into consideration when
siting stockpile areas. Perimeter drains shall be built around stockpile areas .

27. The Contractor shall deposit any excess material in accordance with the principles of these guidelines, and
any applicable ESMP, in areas approved by local authorities and/or the supervisor.

Rehabilitation of Work and Camp Sites


28. Topsoil shall be stripped, removed and stored for subsequent rehabilitation. Soils shall not be stripped when
they are wet. Topsoil shall not be stored in large or high heaps. Low mounds of no more than 1 to 2m high are
recommended.

29. Generally, rehabilitation of work and camp sites shall follow the following principles:
- To the extent practicable, reinstate natural drainage patterns where they have been altered or impaired.
- Remove toxic materials and dispose of them in designated sites. Backfill excavated areas with soils or
overburden that is free of foreign material that could pollute groundwater and soil.
- Ensure reshaped land is formed so as to be stable, adequately drained and suitable for the desired
long-term land use, and allow natural regeneration of vegetation.
- Minimize erosion by wind and water both during and after the process of reinstatement.
- Compacted surfaces shall be deep ripped to relieve compaction unless subsurface conditions dictate
otherwise.

Management of Water Needed for Construction Purposes


30. The Contractor shall at all costs avoid conflicting with water needs of local communities. To this effect,
any temporary water abstraction for construction needs from either ground or surface water shall be submitted to
the following community consultation process:
- Identification of water uses that may be affected by the planned water abstraction,
- Consultation with all identified groups of users about the planned water abstraction,
- In the event that a potential conflict is identified, report to the supervising authority.

This consultation process shall be documented by the Contractor (minutes of meeting) for review and eventual
authorization of the water withdrawal by the Client’s supervisor.

31. Abstraction of both surface and underground water shall only be done with the consultation of the local
community as mentioned and after obtaining a permit from the relevant authority.

32. Abstraction of water from wetlands is prohibited.

33. Temporary damming of streams and rivers is submitted to approval by the supervisor. It shall be done in such
a way as to avoid disrupting water supplies to communities downstream, and to maintain the ecological balance
of the river system.

34. No construction water containing spoils or site effluent, especially cement and oil, shall be allowed to flow into
natural water drainage courses. Similarly, wash water from washing out of equipment shall not be discharged into
water courses or road drains. Washing bays shall be sited accordingly. Unless site conditions are not favor able, it
will generally be infiltrated through soak pits or similar.

35. Site spoils and temporary stockpiles shall be located away from the drainage system, and surface run off
shall be directed away from stockpiles to prevent erosion.

Traffic Management and Community Safety


36. Location of temporary access roads shall be done in consultation with the local community and based on the
screening results, especially in important or sensitive environments. Temporary access roads shall not traverse
wetland areas or other ecologically sensitive areas. The construction of any access roads shall be submitted to a
prior consultation process with potentially affected communities that will have to be documented (minutes of
meetings) for supervisor’s review and approval.

37. Upon the completion of civil works, all temporary access roads shall be ripped and rehabilitated.

38. Measures shall be taken to suppress dust emissions generated by Project traffic.

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39. Maximum speed limits for any traffic related with construction at STDP sites shall be the following, unless
Ethiopian speed limits are locally lower:
- Inhabited areas: 50 km/h
- Open road: 90 km/h.

Salvaging and Disposal of Obsolete Components Found by Rehabilitation Works


40. Obsolete materials and construction elements such as electro-mechanical equipment, pipes, accessories
and demolished structures shall be salvaged and disposed of in a manner approved by the supervisor. The
Contractor has to agree with the supervisor which elements are to be surrendered to the Client’s premises, which
will be recycled or reused, and which will be disposed of at approved landfill sites.

41. Any asbestos cement material that might be uncovered when performing rehabilitation works will be
considered as as hazardous material and disposed of in an designated facility.

Compensation of Damage to Property


42. Compensation of land acquired permanently for Project purposes will be handled under Client responsibility
based on the provisions of the RPF. However, in the event that the Contractor, deliberately or accidentally,
damages property, he shall repair the property to the owner’s satisfaction and at his own cost. For each repair,
the Contractor shall obtain from the owner/user a certificate that the damage has been made g ood satisfactorily
in order to indemnify the Client from subsequent claims.

43. In any case where compensation for inconveniences, damage of crops etc. are claimed by the owner, the
Client has to be informed by the Contractor through the supervisor.

Contractor’s Health, Safety and Environment Management Plan (HSE-MP)


44. Within 6 weeks of signing the Contract, the Contractor shall prepare an HSE-MP to ensure the adequate
management of the health, safety, environmental and social aspects of the works, including implementation of
the requirements of these general conditions and any specific requirements of an ESMP for the works. The
Contractor’s EHS-MP will serve two main purposes:

45. The Contractor’s HSE-MP shall provide at least:


- a description of procedures and methods for complying with these general environmental management
conditions, and any specific conditions specified in an ESMP;
- a description of specific mitigation measures that will be implemented in order to minimize adverse
impacts;
- a description of all planned monitoring activities and the reporting thereof; and
- the internal organizational, management and reporting mechanisms put in place for such.

46. The Contractor’s HSE-MP will be reviewed and approved by the Client before start of the works. This review
should demonstrate if the Contractor’s HSE-MP covers all of the identified impacts, and has defined appropriate
measures to counteract any potential impacts.

HSE Reporting
47. The Contractor shall prepare bi-monthly progress reports to the Client on compliance with these general
conditions, the project ESMP if any, and his own HSE-MP. The Contractor’s reports will include information on:
- HSE management actions/measures taken, including approvals sought from local or national authori ties;
- Problems encountered in relation to HSE aspects (incidents, including delays, cost consequences, etc.
as a result thereof);
- Non-compliance with contract requirements on the part of the Contractor;
- Changes of assumptions, conditions, measures, designs and actual works in relation to HSE aspects;
and
- Observations, concerns raised and/or decisions taken with regard to HSE management during site
meetings.

48. The reporting of any significant HSE incidents shall be done as soon as practicable. Such incide nt reporting
shall therefore be done individually. The Contractor should keep his own records on health, safety and welfare of
persons, and damage to property. It is advisable to include such records, as well as copies of incident reports, as
appendixes to the bi-monthly reports. Details of HSE performance will be reported to the Client.

Training of Contractor’s Personnel


49. The Contractor shall provide sufficient training to his own personnel to ensure that they are all aware of the
relevant aspects of these general conditions, any project ESMP, and his own HSE-MP, and are able to fulfill their

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expected roles and functions. Specific training will be provided to those employees that have particular
responsibilities associated with the implementation of the HSE-MP. Training activities will be documented for
potential review by the Client.

50. Amongst other issues, training will include an awareness session for all employees on HIV -AIDS addressing
the following topics:
- What is HIV/AIDS?
- How is HIV/AIDS contracted?
- HIV/AIDS prevention.

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Annex 4: List of individuals/institutions contacted.

1. Bule Gobena – Mayor of the Town


2. Tadesse Halake –Municipal Manager
3. Ture Halake – Chairman of Kebele 01
4. Dereje Jabo – Chairman of Kebele 02
5. Dubaalee Mulugeta – Chairman Kebele 03
6. Kes Abera Bizuneh – Traditional Leader
7. Gobena Dube – Traditional Leader
8. Gujo Waji – Manager of Micro and Small Scale Enterprise Office
9. Lamii Alemayehu – Woreda Health Office Head
10. Demeke Mebrate – A/Manager and Planning and programming Head, Bule Hora Water Supply Service
Enterprise
11. Kumsa Alemu - Procurement and Finance Head, Bule Hora Water Supply Service Enterprise
12. Abdula Deyno – Resident Kebele 03
13. Hussien Melese - Resident Kerbela 03
14. Asnake Abdo Seid - Resident Kebele 03
15. Dinku Elema – Chari Gololcha
16. Desta Bartula – Chari Gololcha
17. Wario Boru – Chari Gololcha
18. Zeleke Guyo Joga – Chari Gololcha
19. Tamiru Guyo Joga – Chari Gololcha
20. Gutema Gimbar – Chari Gololcha
21. AdaneDhugo – Chari Gololcha
22. Simbire Ashoba – Chari Gololcha
23. Guyo Figa – Chari Gololcha
24. Sali Mekuria – Chari Gololcha
25. Ayele Ashoba – Chari Gololcha

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