1

Contents
Preface .................................................................................................................................. 2
Chapter One - Notes and Note Values ..............................................................................................3
Chapter Two - Stave, Bar Lines and Time Signatures .............................................................................7
Chapter Three - Notes on Stave and Clefs ....................................................................................... 12
Chapter Four - Rests and More on Note Values .................................................................................. 18
Chapter Five - The Major Scale .................................................................................................... 22
Chapter Six - The Chromatic Scale ................................................................................................ 25
2
Preface
Welcome to this theory book! I want to tell you now that this won’t be like any other theory book that you have ever
read. This theory book is going to be more relaxed and more fun. I believe that learning is much better when it feels
good and so, that is the feeling that we are going to try and create.
When you start learning from this book you may find some things that you don’t fully understand. My advice for when
this happens is to not worry about it. Music theory is a vast and complex topic and some things will take time to
fully understand. Basically, in the beginning i will give you knowledge on a need to know basis; this way you won’t
get overloaded.
Let’s push on and get into the fun of learning music!

3
In this; the first lesson, we are going to look at notes and time values. Let’s first take a look at notes.
Notes are a little tricky because, in music, the term ‘note’ has a few different meanings.
.
This type of note is known as a whole note.
Chapter One - Notes and Note Values

So let’s take a closer look at this. In music, the term ‘note’ can mean: A tone of definite pitch.
When you hit a key on a piano, you hear a tone of definite pitch -
Therefore, the tone that you hear can be called a ‘note’. Ok, that’s
one example.
Let’s look at another. The term ‘note’ can mean: The symbol for such a tone, indicating pitch by its position on the
staff and duration by its shape.
Think about the piano again. When you hit a key you hear a pitch. For
every pitch on a piano there is a musical symbol. These symbols are
also called ‘notes’. Below is an example of the symbol for one type
of note - The Whole Note:
Example:
Example:
The definition of a musical note:
A. A tone of definite pitch.
B. A symbol for such a tone, indicating pitch by its position on the staff and
duration by its shape.
C. A key of an instrument, such as a piano.
4
Let’s look at some other types of notes.
So, we’ve looked at two meanings for the term ‘note’. Let’s now look at another. The third definition for the term
‘note’ is: The key of an instrument, such as a piano.
A note can be the name of an actual physical key on an instrument. I’ll demonstrate this with the following diagram
of a piano keyboard.
.
This type of note is known as an eighth note.
.
This type of note is known as a quarter note.
- This type of note is known as a half note.
The keys of a piano keyboard can also be called notes. Above, the arrow is pointing to the note ‘C’.
C
.
This type of note is known as a sixteenth note.
5
.
. . . .
- -
. . . . . . . .
Whole note
Half note
Quarter note
Eighth note
S i x t e e n t h
note
................
O.k. We’ve pretty much covered enough on notes for now. Let’s have a look at note values. Below is a table that
shows you each of the note types you have learnt so far and how they relate to one another.
From the table above you can see that a whole note holds for the same amount of time as two half notes, two half
notes hold for the same amount of time as four quarter notes, four quarter notes hold for the same amount of time
as eight eighth notes and eight eighth notes hold for the same amount of time as sixteen sixteenth notes.
6
Test your Knowledge
Exercise 1 - What are these notes called?
.
Name ....................
-
Name ....................
. Name ....................
.
Name ....................
Exercise 2 - Complete the following sentences by adding the right number on each of the dotted lines.
(As an example, the answer to the first one is given.)

- .
A lasts as long as 2 s.
.
.
A lasts as long as . . . . s.
.
-
A lasts as long as . . . . s.
-
.
A lasts as long as . . . . s.
. .
A lasts as long as . . . . s.
7
Chapter Two - Stave, Bar Lines and Time Signatures
Now that we have covered notes and note values, we are going to look at stave, bar lines and time signatures.
For a start, let’s take a brief look at stave. Stave, otherwise known as staff, is a set of five horizontal lines on which
note symbols are placed to indicate pitch and time. You may have seen stave before, it looks like this:

Pretty simple really!
Let’s take a closer look at what we can do with stave. Stave can be broken up into segments using bar lines - these
segments are called bars or measures . A bar or measure is a unit of time that represents a regular grouping of
beats; the type of beat grouping is indicated by a time signature. Now, that all sounds very complex and confusing,
but rest assured, you will understand what i mean by the end of the lesson. For now, let’s look at some stave that
has been broken into measures.
Take note that in the above diagram we have also added the double bar line - it is two lines one thin and one thick.
The double bar line indicates the end of a piece of music.
This is a double bar line.
Double bar lines indicate the
end of a piece of music.
Bar lines look like this - a
single line.
8
Now that we have had a brief look at stave and bar lines, we will move onto time signatures. Hopefully, with a little
bit of luck, all that we have covered so far will make sense to you.
You will normally find time signatures on the stave at the start of a piece of music. The time signature is a symbol
used to specify how many beats are in each bar and which note value constitutes a beat. Sounds tricky, but believe
me - it’s not. Times signatures are written as one number over another as the following four four time signature
demonstrates:

4
4
Now, in a time signature, the top number designates the number of beats in a measure. So, taking the four four ex-
ample above:

Right, let’s draw that. For now, the following symbol will represent a beat : = One Beat
4 - This number tells you that there are four beats per measure in the music that follows the time signature.
4
4
4
Beats per
measure:
9
O.k. That’s the top number covered - now to go over the bottom number. The bottom number designates note value
to the beat. Let’s look at the four four example in the following diagram to see how it doe’s this:
4
4 - We read the bottom number as a fraction of the whole. In this example, the bottom number represents a 1/4
(a quarter). Therefore, this time signature tells us that there is one quarter note to a beat in the music that follows
it.
If we put it all together, we can say - the four four time signature tells us that there are four beats per measure and
that there is one quarter note to every beat. Let’s go back to our stave diagram and add this new information in to
see what it looks like.
Now that we have looked at the example of a four four time signature, we are going to move on and try two other
time signatures; two four and three four.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
4
4
4
10
2 - The top number tells us that there are 2 beats per bar.
4 -
Knowing this, four measures of quarter notes in two four time would look like this:
O.k. We’re racing through them now. Let’s look at the three four time signature.
3 - The top number tells us that there are 3 beats per bar.
4 -
Once again we will look at four measures; this time with three four time signature and quarter notes:
. . .
3
4
. . . . . . . . .
We will leave this area of music notation now, but come back to it in another chaper. Right now, we move on to
notes on stave.
. .
2
4
. . . . . .
Let’s look at two four. If we analyse the two four time signature as we did for four four, we end up with the follow-
ing:
The bottom number represents a 1/4 (a quarter). Therefore, this time signature tells us that there is one
quarter note to a beat in the music that follows it.
The bottom number represents a 1/4 (a quarter). Therefore, this time signature tells us that there is one quarter note to
a beat in the music that follows it.
11
Test your Knowledge
Exercise 1 - What are these lines called? ..................
. .
2
4
. . . . . .
Exercise 2 - What is this pair of lines called? ..................
Exercise 3 - At the beginning of a piece of music you will usually find two numbers: for example, , , and
What are these called? ..................
Exercise 4 - In directions such as , and , What does the top number tell you?

.........................................................
And what does the bottom number tell you? ..................
So what is the full meaning of ? ..................
And what is the full meaning of ? ..................
2
4
3
4
4
4
2
4
3
4
4
4
2
4
3
4
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Chapter Three - Notes on Stave and Clefs
O.k. Good to see that you are still with us. Right now we are going to get on with notes on stave. A little tricky, but
nothing that you can’t handle.
Think back to chapter two. In that chapter we covered stave, bar lines and time signatures and established that stave
is a set of five horizontal lines on which note symbols are placed to indicate pitch and time. Let’s take a closer look
at how notes can be placed on stave.
Firstly, we need to look at notes to understand thier construction. Notes consist of a either a head, stem or tail or
all of the affore mentioned items, depending on the type of note:
.
The eighth note consists of a head, a stem and a tail.
.
The quarter note consists of a head and a stem.
-
The half note consists of a head and a stem.
.
The whole note is just a head.
.
The sixteenth note consists of a head, a stem and
two tails.
Easy so far - yes. Let’s move on.
13
Notes are placed on the stave with the head of the note sitting either evenly on the line or evenly between two lines
as the following diagram illustrates:
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
The stems of the notes below the middle stave line point up. The stems of the notes above the middle stave line
point down. Notes sitting on the middle stave line may point either up or down - it comes down to personal prefer-
ence there.
It’s all good and fine putting notes onto stave, but they really don’t mean anything until you add a clef to the stave.
Let’s have a quick look at clefs. A clef is a symbol used in musical notation that assigns notes to lines and spaces on
the musical stave. A clef can be thought of as assigning a certain note to a specific line on the stave; adjacent spaces
are assigned the notes that follow logically. The four main clefs are listed below:
The treble clef
The treble clef is probably the most widely-used clef, followed by the bass clef.
It assigns the note G to the second line from the bottom of the stave.
/
The bass clef
The bass clef assigns the note F to the second line from the top
of the stave.
,
14
So, you now know what clefs look like - i’m going to show you how they work. Let’s start with the treble clef. When
we use a treble clef, the second stave line from the bottom represents the note G:
Now, there are seven notes in the musical alphabet. They are: A, B, C, D, E, F and G. If we place them in order around
the G note on the above stave, we get the following:

The alto clef
The alto clef uses assigns the note C to the middle line of the stave.
The tenor clef
The tenor clef assigns the note C to the second line from the top of the stave.
p.
.
A
.
F
.
G
.
F
.
E
.
D
.
C
.
B
.
E
/
.
G
/
These are the notes in the treble clef.
p.
15
Now that we have established how clefs work using the treble clef, I shall illustate the remaining menioned clefs
below:
.
G
.
E
.
F
.
E
.
D
.
C
.
B
.
A
.
p.
D
.
B
.
G
.
A
.
G
.
F
.
E
.
D
.
C
.
F
p.
.
C
.
A
.
B
.
A
.
G
.
F
.
E
.
D
.
G
,
The
Bass
Clef
The
Alto
Clef
The
Tenor
Clef
All very good - let’s move on to something else.
16
Test your Knowledge
What is this symbol called and what does it mean?
...............................................................
/
What is this symbol called and what does it mean?
...............................................................
,
What is this symbol called and what does it mean?
...............................................................
What is this symbol called and what does it mean?
...............................................................
p.
p.
Exercise 1
Exercise 2
Exercise 3
Exercise 4
17
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
p.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
p.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
/
Note name .......................................................................................
Note name .......................................................................................
Note name .......................................................................................
Note name .......................................................................................
Name the following notes:
Exercise 5
Exercise 6
Exercise 7
Exercise 8
18
................
Chapter Four - Rests and More on Note Values
Earlier in the book we looked at note values. We are going to return to that topic and have a closer look. Below is a
revision of what you already know.
Now, when we last put notes into measures back in chapter two, we used only quarter notes. Now we will have a
look at how we can place other notes on stave. Below are stave diagrams that demonstrate how each type of note
fits into measures of four four, two four and three four time signatures.
.
- - . . . . ........
4
4
................
.
. . . .
- -
. . . . . . . .
You can see in the above diagram that in four four, one whole note constitutes a bar, as do two half notes, four quarter
notes, eight eighth notes or sixteen sixteenth notes. Let’s look at some other time signatures.
Whole note
Half note
Quarter note
Eighth note
Sixteenth note
19
In two four, one half note constitutes a bar, as do two quarter notes, four eighth notes, or eight sixteenth notes as
you can see in the diagram below.
In three four, one dotted half note constitutes a bar, as does three quarter notes, six eighth notes, or twelve sixteenth
notes.
Adding a dot to a note means that you add half the notes value to itself. Let’s look at an example:
Now that we have looked at note values in different time signatures, I would like to move onto rests.
A rest is a section of silence. Every note value has an equivelent rest value as shown in the table on the next page.
. . . . . . . . ............
3
4
- .
-
=
- .
+
. . . . . .
2
4
........ -
And this can be seen in the four bars of three four below:
20
Notes: Whole note Half note Quarter note Eighth note Sixteenth note
Rests: Whole note Half note Quarter note Eighth note Sixteenth note
.
-
.
9 =
\
0
0
. .
21
Test your knowledge
Exercise 1 - Add One note at each of the places marked to make the bar complete.
- + + .
3
4
. + . . +
2
4
- +
- . + . + . . +
4
4
. + .
. + . - . . . + . . + -
4
4
+
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Exercise 2 - Please write the note equvalent of the following rests.
9 =
\
0
0
Note ...............................................................................................................
22
Chapter Five - The Major Scale
The major scale consists of a pattern of whole and half steps. A good way to explain the major scale is to use sol-
mization. Solmization uses syllables to sound out the notes in the major scale. You may know it, it goes:

And it matches the major scale. Let’s use the example of the C major scale:
Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti Do
C D E F G A B C
These syllables follow the whole step, half step pattern. This is demonstrated below:
Note the pattern; whole, whole, half, whole, whole, whole, half. Every major scale follows this pattern. Let’s look
at the keys of a piano to better understand this concept.
Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti Do
23
C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E
H H H H H H H H
H = Half step
The following diagram shows you where all of the half steps are on the piano keyboard. All other steps movements
on the keyboard are whole steps.
H = Half step
Just to make things clear, I want to show you the C major scale on the piano keyboard:
Notice the step movement: Whole, whole, half, whole, whole, whole, half. In a whole step you miss out a key (eg
The first whole step above is C to D with a black key in between). In a half step you don’t miss a key (eg E to F).
W = Whole step
C D E F G A B C
H H W W W W W
24
Test your knowledge
Do ... ... ... Sol ... ... ...
C D E F G A B C
Exercise 1 - Write the correct answers into the spaces in the following diagram.
C D E F G A B C
Step movement ............................
Exercise 2 - Using a W for whole step and a H for half step, write the correct step movement for the C major scale
below.
25
Chapter Six - The Chromatic Scale
The chromatic scale is based around the seven notes of the musical alphabet (A, B, C, D, E, F and G), however, it
contains a few extra musical notes. In its entirety it runs as follows:
You have probably noticed that some of the notes in the chromatic scale have two note names. These notes are called
accidentals. They can either be sharp notes, in which case we we use the symbol #, or flat notes, in which case we
use the symbol b. This can be more easily seen on the keyboard diagram below:
On the piano keyboard, the black keys are the sharp/flat notes. The note name that you use depends upon the key
that you are playing in. That is a little clomplex. For now, just realize that these notes can either be flat or sharp.
A#/Bb
A B C
C#/Db
D
D#/Eb
E F
F#/Gb
G
G#/Ab
C D E F G A B C D E F G A B
A#/Bb
C#/Db D#/Eb G#/Ab
F#/Gb
C D
26
Knowing what you know now, things get alittle more interesting. We looked at the C major scale earlier. It is an easy
scale to write and learn because it contains no sharps or flats. We will look at some other major scales now.
If you follow the W, W, H, W, W, W, H pattern on the piano keyboard, you can make any major scale that you want.
For example, the D major scale:
D E G A B D
F
#
C
#
Major scales can be written on stave. Accidentals are placed on the stave directly before the note that they affect.
The D major scale
/
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
#
#
27
G A B D
F
#
Below is the G major scale on stave.
The G major scale
/
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
#
Let’s take a look at another major scale - The G major scale.
C E G F
28
Test your knowledge
Exercise 1 - In this scale of C major, two notes a semi-tone apart are marked by . Mark the other two notes
which are a semi-tone apart in the same way.
/
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Exercise 2 - Add accidentals before any notes that need them to make the scales below. Then add a above
each pair of notes making a semitone.
The D major scale
/
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
29
The G major scale
/
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
/
,
The C
major
scale
The D
major
scale
Exercise 2 - Add the notes needed to make the scales in each different clef below.
30
p.
p.
The G
major
scale
The D
major
scale

Contents
Preface .................................................................................................................................. 2 Chapter One - Notes and Note Values .............................................................................................. 3 Chapter Two - Stave, Bar Lines and Time Signatures ............................................................................. 7 Chapter Three - Notes on Stave and Clefs ....................................................................................... 12 Chapter Four - Rests and More on Note Values .................................................................................. 18 Chapter Five - The Major Scale .................................................................................................... 22 Chapter Six - The Chromatic Scale ................................................................................................ 25

1

this way you won’t get overloaded. When you start learning from this book you may find some things that you don’t fully understand. I believe that learning is much better when it feels good and so. that is the feeling that we are going to try and create. in the beginning i will give you knowledge on a need to know basis. My advice for when this happens is to not worry about it. Basically. Let’s push on and get into the fun of learning music! 2 .Preface Welcome to this theory book! I want to tell you now that this won’t be like any other theory book that you have ever read. Music theory is a vast and complex topic and some things will take time to fully understand. This theory book is going to be more relaxed and more fun.

For every pitch on a piano there is a musical symbol. you hear a tone of definite pitch Therefore. we are going to look at notes and time values. Let’s look at another. indicating pitch by its position on the staff and duration by its shape. the term ‘note’ has a few different meanings. The term ‘note’ can mean: The symbol for such a tone.Notes and Note Values In this. A key of an instrument. A symbol for such a tone. In music. indicating pitch by its position on the staff and duration by its shape. such as a piano. When you hit a key you hear a pitch. These symbols are also called ‘notes’. So let’s take a closer look at this.Chapter One . The definition of a musical note: A. Notes are a little tricky because. Ok. the tone that you hear can be called a ‘note’. 3 . Example: Think about the piano again. the first lesson. Below is an example of the symbol for one type of note . that’s one example. in music. A tone of definite pitch.The Whole Note:  This type of note is known as a whole note. C. B. the term ‘note’ can mean: A tone of definite pitch. Example: When you hit a key on a piano. Let’s first take a look at notes.

This type of note is known as an eighth note. A note can be the name of an actual physical key on an instrument.    This type of note is known as a half note. So. The third definition for the term ‘note’ is: The key of an instrument. C 4 . the arrow is pointing to the note ‘C’.  This type of note is known as a sixteenth note. This type of note is known as a quarter note. such as a piano. Let’s now look at another. I’ll demonstrate this with the following diagram of a piano keyboard. Above. The keys of a piano keyboard can also be called notes. we’ve looked at two meanings for the term ‘note’.Let’s look at some other types of notes.

5 .O. two half notes hold for the same amount of time as four quarter notes. Whole note Half note Quarter note Eighth note Sixteenth note                 From the table above you can see that a whole note holds for the same amount of time as two half notes. Let’s have a look at note values.k. Below is a table that shows you each of the note types you have learnt so far and how they relate to one another. four quarter notes hold for the same amount of time as eight eighth notes and eight eighth notes hold for the same amount of time as sixteen sixteenth notes. We’ve pretty much covered enough on notes for now.

... lasts as long as . 6 .What are these notes called?   Name ...... . .......   Name . .) A A A A A      lasts as long as 2  s. (As an example... ......... Name ... the answer to the first one is given...... ... . ..  s.  s........Test your Knowledge Exercise 1 .... lasts as long as .  s..... Name ........ .. lasts as long as .....  s. ... ..... Exercise 2 . lasts as long as .... .........Complete the following sentences by adding the right number on each of the dotted lines.

otherwise known as staff.Chapter Two . Double bar lines indicate the end of a piece of music. 7 .it is two lines one thin and one thick. The double bar line indicates the end of a piece of music. This is a double bar line.these segments are called bars or measures . Stave can be broken up into segments using bar lines . Now. You may have seen stave before. bar lines and time signatures. Bar lines look like this . For now. you will understand what i mean by the end of the lesson. it looks like this: Pretty simple really! Let’s take a closer look at what we can do with stave. Take note that in the above diagram we have also added the double bar line . let’s take a brief look at stave. is a set of five horizontal lines on which note symbols are placed to indicate pitch and time. we are going to look at stave. but rest assured.Stave.a single line. that all sounds very complex and confusing. the type of beat grouping is indicated by a time signature. For a start. let’s look at some stave that has been broken into measures. Stave. A bar or measure is a unit of time that represents a regular grouping of beats. Bar Lines and Time Signatures Now that we have covered notes and note values.

we will move onto time signatures. Hopefully.it’s not. The time signature is a symbol used to specify how many beats are in each bar and which note value constitutes a beat. So. the top number designates the number of beats in a measure. with a little bit of luck. Sounds tricky. all that we have covered so far will make sense to you. For now. but believe me . in a time signature. You will normally find time signatures on the stave at the start of a piece of music. the following symbol will represent a beat : = One Beat 4 4 Beats per measure: 8 . let’s draw that. Right. Times signatures are written as one number over another as the following four four time signature demonstrates: 4 4 Now. taking the four four example above: 44 This number tells you that there are four beats per measure in the music that follows the time signature.Now that we have had a brief look at stave and bar lines.

k.the four four time signature tells us that there are four beats per measure and that there is one quarter note to every beat. Therefore. two four and three four. That’s the top number covered . In this example. this time signature tells us that there is one quarter note to a beat in the music that follows it. 4 4 .O. Let’s go back to our stave diagram and add this new information in to see what it looks like. If we put it all together.We read the bottom number as a fraction of the whole. the bottom number represents a 1/4 4 4 4 4                 Now that we have looked at the example of a four four time signature. we are going to move on and try two other time signatures. we can say . Let’s look at the four four example in the following diagram to see how it doe’s this: (a quarter). The bottom number designates note value to the beat. 9 .now to go over the bottom number.

10 . Knowing this. but come back to it in another chaper.Let’s look at two four. Once again we will look at four measures. The bottom number represents a 1/4 (a quarter). The bottom number represents a 1/4 (a quarter). We’re racing through them now. this time signature tells us that there is one quarter note to a beat in the music that follows it. four measures of quarter notes in two four time would look like this: 2 4         O. we move on to notes on stave. Therefore. If we analyse the two four time signature as we did for four four. Right now. this time with three four time signature and quarter notes: 3 4             We will leave this area of music notation now. this time signature tells us that there is one quarter note to a beat in the music that follows it. 34- The top number tells us that there are 3 beats per bar. Let’s look at the three four time signature.k. we end up with the following: 24- The top number tells us that there are 2 beats per bar. Therefore.

........Test your Knowledge Exercise 1 ..... ..... and 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 .... What are these called? ......... and 4 .......................What is this pair of lines called? .........................In directions such as 2 ............... 3 .... What does the top number tell you? 4 4 .......What are these lines called? .......At the beginning of a piece of music you will usually find two numbers: for example.................. ........ Exercise 4 ......... ........ Exercise 3 ... 2 4         Exercise 2 .............. And what does the bottom number tell you? 2 ? 4 And what is the full meaning of 3 ? 4 So what is the full meaning of 11 ...

The whole note is just a head. Notes consist of a either a head. Firstly. 12 . Good to see that you are still with us. a stem and two tails.yes. we need to look at notes to understand thier construction. The quarter note consists of a head and a stem.Notes on Stave and Clefs O. a stem and a tail. Let’s move on.k. A little tricky. Think back to chapter two. Let’s take a closer look at how notes can be placed on stave. The half note consists of a head and a stem.Chapter Three . In that chapter we covered stave. Right now we are going to get on with notes on stave. The eighth note consists of a head. bar lines and time signatures and established that stave is a set of five horizontal lines on which note symbols are placed to indicate pitch and time. The sixteenth note consists of a head. but nothing that you can’t handle. stem or tail or all of the affore mentioned items. depending on the type of note:      Easy so far .

Notes sitting on the middle stave line may point either up or down . Let’s have a quick look at clefs.it comes down to personal preference there. A clef can be thought of as assigning a certain note to a specific line on the stave. It’s all good and fine putting notes onto stave. It assigns the note G to the second line from the bottom of the stave. but they really don’t mean anything until you add a clef to the stave. The stems of the notes above the middle stave line point down. A clef is a symbol used in musical notation that assigns notes to lines and spaces on the musical stave. The four main clefs are listed below:   13 The treble clef The treble clef is probably the most widely-used clef.Notes are placed on the stave with the head of the note sitting either evenly on the line or evenly between two lines as the following diagram illustrates:          The stems of the notes below the middle stave line point up. . The bass clef The bass clef assigns the note F to the second line from the top of the stave. followed by the bass clef. adjacent spaces are assigned the notes that follow logically.

there are seven notes in the musical alphabet.i’m going to show you how they work. F and G. When we use a treble clef. we get the following:           E F G These are the notes in the treble clef. you now know what clefs look like . B.  The alto clef The alto clef uses assigns the note C to the middle line of the stave. The tenor clef The tenor clef assigns the note C to the second line from the top of the stave. Let’s start with the treble clef. the second stave line from the bottom represents the note G:   G A B C D E F Now. So. D. E. They are: A. 14 . If we place them in order around the G note on the above stave. C.

I shall illustate the remaining menioned clefs below: The Bass Clef  The Alto Clef           F G A B C D E F G          G A B C D E F G A The Tenor Clef           D E F G A B C D E All very good . 15 .let’s move on to something else.Now that we have established how clefs work using the treble clef.

............................................................................................ 16 ..........Test your Knowledge Exercise 1 Exercise 2     What is this symbol called and what does it mean? .................................... What is this symbol called and what does it mean? ........................ Exercise 3 What is this symbol called and what does it mean? ....................................................... Exercise 4 What is this symbol called and what does it mean? ....................................

................... Exercise 7 Note name Exercise 8  ...............................................................Name the following notes: Exercise 5  Note name Exercise 6 Note name                     ......................................... Note name .....................          17 ....................................................          .........................................................................................................................................................

Whole note Half note Quarter note Eighth note Sixteenth note                 Now.Rests and More on Note Values Earlier in the book we looked at note values. four quarter notes. Below are stave diagrams that demonstrate how each type of note fits into measures of four four. when we last put notes into measures back in chapter two. Let’s look at some other time signatures.Chapter Four . eight eighth notes or sixteen sixteenth notes. 18 . as do two half notes. 4 4          You can see in the above diagram that in four four. we used only quarter notes. two four and three four time signatures. Now we will have a look at how we can place other notes on stave. one whole note constitutes a bar. Below is a revision of what you already know. We are going to return to that topic and have a closer look.

four eighth notes. Let’s look at an example:  3 4 =  +         And this can be seen in the four bars of three four below:     Now that we have looked at note values in different time signatures. as does three quarter notes. 19 . I would like to move onto rests. A rest is a section of silence. as do two quarter notes. or eight sixteenth notes as you can see in the diagram below. 2 4         In three four. Every note value has an equivelent rest value as shown in the table on the next page. one half note constitutes a bar. Adding a dot to a note means that you add half the notes value to itself.In two four. or twelve sixteenth notes. six eighth notes. one dotted half note constitutes a bar.

Notes: Whole note Half note Quarter note Eighth note Sixteenth note  Rests: Whole note  Half note  Quarter note  Eighth note  Sixteenth note 0 0 9 = \ 20 .

......... 0 Note 0 9 = \ ...........Please write the note equvalent of the following rests.....Add One note at each of the places marked  to make the bar complete...................................... 21 .Test your knowledge Exercise 1 ............................................ (a) 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 4                     (b) (c) (d)        Exercise 2 ........

whole. You may know it. half step pattern. Let’s use the example of the C major scale: Do C Re D Mi E Fa F Sol G La A Ti B Do C These syllables follow the whole step. Let’s look at the keys of a piano to better understand this concept. 22 . half. whole. Solmization uses syllables to sound out the notes in the major scale. Every major scale follows this pattern. A good way to explain the major scale is to use solmization.The Major Scale The major scale consists of a pattern of whole and half steps.Chapter Five . half. it goes: Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti Do And it matches the major scale. whole. whole. This is demonstrated below: Note the pattern. whole.

whole. whole.The following diagram shows you where all of the half steps are on the piano keyboard. H = Half step C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E H H H H H H H H Just to make things clear. In a whole step you miss out a key (eg The first whole step above is C to D with a black key in between). All other steps movements on the keyboard are whole steps. whole. I want to show you the C major scale on the piano keyboard: H = Half step W = Whole step C D E F G A B C WWH WWWH Notice the step movement: Whole. whole. half. In a half step you don’t miss a key (eg E to F). 23 . half.

..Using a W for whole step and a H for half step.. C Exercise 2 ..Write the correct answers into the spaces in the following diagram. F Sol G .. D ............... write the correct step movement for the C major scale below.Test your knowledge Exercise 1 . 24 ........... Do C ...... C D E F G A B C Step movement .. A ... E .. B ..

That is a little clomplex. D. The note name that you use depends upon the key that you are playing in. the black keys are the sharp/flat notes. F and G). These notes are called accidentals. 25 . B. in which case we we use the symbol #. This can be more easily seen on the keyboard diagram below: C#/Db D#/Eb F#/Gb G#/Ab A#/Bb C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D On the piano keyboard. E.The Chromatic Scale The chromatic scale is based around the seven notes of the musical alphabet (A. however.Chapter Six . or flat notes. C. just realize that these notes can either be flat or sharp. They can either be sharp notes. In its entirety it runs as follows: A#/Bb A C#/Db D#/Eb D E F F#/Gb G#/Ab B C G You have probably noticed that some of the notes in the chromatic scale have two note names. in which case we use the symbol b. For now. it contains a few extra musical notes.

things get alittle more interesting. H pattern on the piano keyboard. the D major scale: F # D E G A B C # D Major scales can be written on stave. W. It is an easy scale to write and learn because it contains no sharps or flats. Accidentals are placed on the stave directly before the note that they affect. W. We looked at the C major scale earlier. you can make any major scale that you want. H. If you follow the W. For example. The D major scale    #     #   26 . W. We will look at some other major scales now.Knowing what you know now. W.

Let’s take a look at another major scale .The G major scale. The G major scale        #   27 . F # G A B C D E F G Below is the G major scale on stave.

In this scale of C major.Test your knowledge Exercise 1 . above The D major scale          28 .Add accidentals before any notes that need them to make the scales below. Then add a each pair of notes making a semitone. two notes a semi-tone apart are marked by which are a semi-tone apart in the same way. . Mark the other two notes          Exercise 2 .

Add the notes needed to make the scales in each different clef below.The G major scale          Exercise 2 . The D major scale   The C major scale 29 .

The G major scale   The D major scale 30 .

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